Complete Coherent Control of a Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot-Cavity Polariton System
Dory, Constantin; MÃ¼ller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L; Kelaita, Yousif; Vuckovic, Jelena
2015-01-01
Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in excellent agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms.
Competition between loss channels in quantum-dot cavity systems: unconventional consequences
Vagov, A.; Glässl, M.; Croitoru, M. D.; Axt, V. M.; Kuhn, T.
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that in quantum-dot cavity systems, the interplay between acoustic phonons and photon losses introduces novel features and characteristic dependencies in the system dynamics. In particular, the combined action of both loss mechanisms strongly affects the transition from the weak to the strong coupling regime as well as the shape of Mollow-type spectra in untypical ways. For weak coupling, where the spectra degenerate to a single line, we predict that their wid...
Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær
2012-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons, described by a non-Markovian model, interacting with a coupled quantum dot-cavity system. The reduction of phonon-induced dephasing is obtained by placing the cavity-quantum dot system inside an infinite slab, assuming spherical electronic wavefunctions. Based on our calculations, we expect this to have important implications in single-photon sources, allowing the indistinguishability of the photons to be improved.
Phonon-mediated population inversion in a semiconductor quantum-dot cavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate pump-induced exciton inversion in a quantum-dot cavity system with continuous wave drive. Using a polaron-based master equation, we demonstrate excited-state populations above 0.9 for an InAs quantum dot at a phonon bath temperature of 4 K. In an exciton-driven system, the dominant mechanism is incoherent excitation from the phonon bath. For cavity driving, the mechanism is phonon-mediated switching between ground- and excited-state branches of the ladder of photon states, as quantum trajectory simulations clearly show. The exciton inversion as a function of detuning is found to be qualitatively different for exciton and cavity driving, primarily due to cavity filtering. The master equation approach allows us to include important radiative and non-radiative decay processes on the zero phonon line, provides a clear underlying dynamic in terms of photon and phonon scattering, and admits simple analytical approximations that help to explain the physics. (paper)
Influence of phonon reservoir on photon blockade in a driven quantum dot-cavity system
Gao, Bo; Zhu, Jia-pei; Li, Gao-xiang
2016-03-01
We theoretically investigate the influence of the phonon bath on photon blockade in a simultaneously driven dot-cavity system. An optimal condition for avoiding two-photon excitation of a cavity field is put forward which can be achieved by modulating the phase difference and the strengths of the driving fields. The second-order correlation function and the mean photon number of the cavity field are discussed. In the absence of phonon effect, the strong photon blockade in a moderate quantum dot (QD)-cavity coupling regime occurs, which can be attributed to the destructive quantum interference arisen from different transition paths induced by simultaneously driving the dressed QD-cavity system. The participation of acoustic-phonon reservoir produces new transition channels for the QD-cavity system, which leads to the damage of destructive interference. As a result, the photon blockade effect is hindered when taking the electron-phonon interaction into account. It is also found that the temperature of the phonon reservoir is disadvantageous for the generation of photon blockade.
Quantum nature of a strongly-coupled single quantum dot-cavity system
Hennessy, K; Badolato, A; Falt, S; Gerace, D; Gulde, S T; Hu, E L; Imamoglu, A; Winger, M
2006-01-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between a quantum emitter and a single radiation-field mode. When an atom is in strong coupling with a cavity mode1,2, it is possible to realize key quantum information processing (QIP) tasks, such as controlled coherent coupling and entanglement of distinguishable quantum systems. Realizing these tasks in the solid state is clearly desirable, and coupling semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) to monolithic optical cavities is a promising route to this end. However, validating the efficacy of QDs in QIP applications requires confirmation of the quantum nature of the QD-cavity system in the strong coupling regime. Here we find a confirmation by observing quantum correlations in photoluminescence (PL) from a photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity3-5 interacting with one, and only one, QD located precisely at the cavity electric field maximum. When off-resonance, photon emission from the cavity mode and QD excitons is anti-correlated at the level o...
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay $g^{(2)}(0)$ in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum in...
HUGHES, S; Yao, P.; Milde, F; Knorr, A; Dalacu, D.; Mnaymneh, K.; Sazonova, V.; Poole, P. J.; Aers, G. C.; Lapointe, J.; Cheriton, R.; Williams, R.L.
2011-01-01
We present a medium-dependent quantum optics approach to describe the influence of electron-acoustic phonon coupling on the emission spectra of a strongly coupled quantum-dot cavity system. Using a canonical Hamiltonian for light quantization and a photon Green function formalism, phonons are included to all orders through the dot polarizability function obtained within the independent Boson model. We derive simple user-friendly analytical expressions for the linear quantum ...
Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum in a quantum dot-cavity system
Gomez, Edgar A.; Hernandez-Rivero, J. D.; Vinck-Posada, Herbert
2015-01-01
We introduce the Green's functions technique as an alternative theory to the quantum regression theorem formalism for calculating the two-time correlation functions in open quantum systems. In particular, we investigate the potential of this theoretical approach by its application to compute the emission spectrum of a dissipative system composed by a single quantum dot inside of a semiconductor cavity. We also describe a simple algorithm based on the Green's functions technique for calculatin...
Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum in a quantum dot-cavity system
Gomez, Edgar A; Vinck-Posada, Herbert
2015-01-01
We introduce the Green's functions technique as an alternative theory to the quantum regression theorem formalism for calculating the two-time correlation functions in open quantum systems. In particular, we investigate the potential of this theoretical approach by its application to compute the emission spectrum of a dissipative system composed by a single quantum dot inside of a semiconductor cavity. We also describe a simple algorithm based on the Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum of the quantum dot as well as of the cavity which can easily be implemented in any numerical linear algebra package. We find that the Green's functions technique demonstrates a better accuracy and efficiency in the calculation of the emission spectrum and it allows to overcome the inherent theoretical difficulties associated to the direct application of the quantum regression theorem approach.
Two-photon emission in coupled biexciton quantum dot—cavity system: Phonon-assisted model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We theoretically analyze the steady state emission spectrum and transient temporal dynamics in a coupled biexciton quantum dot (QD)—cavity system. For steady state, a phonon-assisted biexciton—exciton cascade model under continuous wave (CW) excitation is presented to explain the asymmetric QD—cavity emission spectrum intensities (intensities of cavity, exciton, and biexciton emission peak) in off-resonance condition. Results demonstrate that the electron—phonon process is crucial to the asymmetry of emission spectrum intensity. Moreover the transient characteristics of the biexciton—exciton cascade system under pulse excitation show abundant nonlinear temporal dynamic behaviors, including complicated oscillations which are caused by the four-level structure of QD model. We also reveal that under off-resonance condition the cavity outputs are slightly reduced due to the electron—phonon interaction. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Sub-Poissonian photon emission in coupled double quantum dots–cavity system
Ye, Han; Peng, Yi-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yu-Min
2015-11-01
In this work, we theoretically analyze the few-photon emissions generated in a coupled double quantum dots (CDQDs)-single mode microcavity system, under continuous wave and pulse excitation. Compared with the uncoupled case, strong sub-Poissonian character is achieved in a CDQDs–cavity system at a certain laser frequency. Based on the proposed scheme, single photon generation can be obtained separately under QD–cavity resonant condition and off-resonant condition. For different cavity decay rates, we reveal that laser frequency detunings of minimum second-order autocorrelation function are discrete and can be divided into three regions. Moreover, the non-ideal situation where two QDs are not identical is discussed, indicating the robustness of the proposed scheme, which possesses sub-Poissonian character in a large QD difference variation range. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61372037 and 61401035), the Beijing Excellent Ph.D. Thesis Guidance Foundation, China (Grant No. 20131001301), and the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China (Grant No. IPOC2015ZC05).
Influence of a phonon bath in a quantum dot cavity QED system: Dependence of the shape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a systematic analysis on the role of the quantum dot (QD) shape in the influence of the phonon bath on the dynamics of a QD cavity QED system. The spectral functions of the phonon bath in three representative QD shapes: spherical, ellipsoidal, and disk, are calculated from the carrier wave functions subjected to the confinement potential provided by the corresponding shape. The obtained spectral functions are used to calculate three main effects brought by the phonon bath, i.e., the coupling renormalization, the off-resonance assisted feeding rate and the pure dephasing rate. It is found that the spectral function of a disk QD has the widest distribution, hence the phonon bath in a disk QD can lead to the smallest renormalization factor, the largest dephasing rate in the short time domains(? 2 ps), and the off-resonance assisted feeding can support the widest detuning. Except for the pure dephasing rate in the long time domains, all the influences brought by the phonon bath show serious shape dependence. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter
2014-01-01
We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g2(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission.
Transport Spectroscopy of a Spin-Coherent Dot-Cavity System
Rössler, C.; Oehri, D.; Zilberberg, O.; Blatter, G.; Karalic, M.; Pijnenburg, J.; Hofmann, A.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.
2015-10-01
Quantum engineering requires controllable artificial systems with quantum coherence exceeding the device size and operation time. This can be achieved with geometrically confined low-dimensional electronic structures embedded within ultraclean materials, with prominent examples being artificial atoms (quantum dots) and quantum corrals (electronic cavities). Combining the two structures, we implement a mesoscopic coupled dot-cavity system in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas, and obtain an extended spin-singlet state in the regime of strong dot-cavity coupling. Engineering such extended quantum states presents a viable route for nonlocal spin coupling that is applicable for quantum information processing.
Competition between pure dephasing and photon losses in the dynamics of a dot-cavity system
Vagov, A.; Glässl, M.; Croitoru, M. D.; Axt, V. M.; Kuhn, T.
2014-08-01
We demonstrate that in quantum-dot cavity systems, the interplay between acoustic phonons and photon losses introduces novel features and characteristic dependencies in the system dynamics. In particular, the combined action of both dephasing mechanisms strongly affects the transition from the weak- to the strong-coupling regime as well as the shape of the spectral triplet that represents the quantum-dot occupation in Fourier space. The width of the central peak in the triplet is expected to decrease with rising temperature, while the widths and heights of the side peaks depend nonmonotonically on the dot-cavity coupling.
Coupling and single-photon purity of a quantum dot-cavity system studied using hydrostatic pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, P. Y.; Wu, X. F.; Ding, K.; Dou, X. M.; Zha, G. W.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Zhu, H. J.; Jiang, D. S. [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, C. L. [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Sun, B. Q., E-mail: bqsun@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Information, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China)
2015-01-07
We propose an approach to tune the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD) to couple with a planar cavity using hydrostatic pressure without inducing temperature variation during the process of measurement. Based on this approach, we studied the influence of cavity mode on the single-photon purity of an InAs/GaAs QD. Our measurement demonstrates that the single-photon purity degrades when the QD emission resonates with the cavity mode. This negative influence of the planar cavity is mainly caused by the cavity feeding effect.
Phonon Mediated Off-Resonant Quantum Dot-Cavity Coupling
Majumdar, Arka; Gong, Yiyang; Kim, Erik D.; Vuckovic, Jelena
2010-01-01
A theoretical model for the phonon-mediated off-resonant coupling between a quantum dot and a cavity, under resonant excitation of the quantum dot, is presented. We show that the coupling is caused by electron-phonon interaction in the quantum dot and is enhanced by the cavity. We analyze recently observed resonant quantum dot spectroscopic data by our theoretical model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum dot (QD)–cavity system with deep confinement potential is usually studied by either non-resonant or quasi-resonant p-exciton pump (PEP) with the s-exciton pump (SEP) ignored. In this paper, we investigate the effect of an SEP on the emission properties of a QD–cavity system with deep confinement potential by comparing the different incoherent excitation schemes, including pumping with both s- and p-exciton pump and with PEP only. The investigation reveals that the steady-state properties such as photon statistical properties and emission spectra of the QD–cavity system are significantly affected. More importantly, after taking SEP into consideration, the lasing and self-quenching regime of the entire system will be reached at a much lower pump rate than that of the only PEP scheme. (paper)
HUGHES, S; Roy, C.
2011-01-01
We present a semiconductor master equation technique to study the input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport in a semiconductor waveguide-cavity system containing a single quantum dot. We use this approach to investigate the effects of photon propagation and anharmonic cavity-QED for various dot-cavity interaction strengths, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less tha...
Fast Two-Qubit Gates in Semiconductor Quantum Dots using a Photonic Microcavity
Solenov, Dmitry; Economou, Sophia E.; Reinecke, T. L.
2012-01-01
Implementations for quantum computing require fast single- and multi-qubit quantum gate operations. In the case of optically controlled quantum dot qubits theoretical designs for long-range two- or multi-qubit operations satisfying all the requirements in quantum computing are not yet available. We have developed a design for a fast, long-range two-qubit gate mediated by a photonic microcavity mode using excited states of the quantum dot-cavity system that addresses these ne...
Fundamental properties of devices for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær
2012-01-01
This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of the influence of the electronphonon interaction on semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamical systems, specifically a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We develop a theoretical description of the decay dynamics of the quantum dot interacting with the cavity and the phonons. It is shown that the presence of the phonon interaction, fundamentally changes the spontaneous emission decay behavior of the quantum dot. Especially in the regime where the quantum dotcavity spectral detuning is significantly larger than any linewidth of the system, the effect of the phonon interaction is very pronounced. A simple approximate analytical expression for the quantum dot decay rate is derived, which predicts a strong asymmetry with respect to the quantum dot-cavity detuning at low temperatures, and allows for a clear interpretation of the physics. Furthermore, a study of the indistinguishability of single photons emitted from the coupled quantum dot-cavity system is performed, with special emphasis on non-Markovian decoherence due to the phonon interaction. We show that common theoretical approaches fail to predict the degree of indistinguishability, on both a qualitative and quantitative level, for experimentally relevant parameters regimes. The important role of non-Markovian effects in the shorttime regime, where virtual processes dominate the decoherence of the quantum dot-cavity system, is emphasized. Importantly, our investigations lead to a maximum achievable degree of indistinguishability, a prediction which eludes common approaches.
Hughes, S
2011-01-01
The input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport through a semiconductor cavity system containing a single quantum dot is presented. The nonlinear quantum optics formalism uses a master equation approach and focuses on a waveguide-cavity system containing a semiconductor quantum dot; our general technique also applies to studying coherent reflection from a micropillar cavity. We investigate the effects of light propagation and show the need for quantized multiphoton effects for various dot-cavity systems, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less than 0.1, the commonly adopted weak excitation (single quantum) approximation breaks down---even in the weak coupling regime. As a measure of the photon correlations, we compute the Fano factor and the error associated with making a semiclassical approximation. We also investigate the role of electron--acoustic-phonon scattering and show that phonon-mediated scatt...
Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Hua, Ming; Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2012-10-22
Bell-state analysis (BSA) is essential in quantum communication, but it is impossible to distinguish unambiguously the four Bell states in the polarization degree of freedom (DOF) of two-photon systems with only linear optical elements, except for the case in which the BSA is assisted with hyperentangled states, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one DOF. Here, we propose a scheme to distinguish completely the 16 hyperentangled Bell states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode DOFs of two-photon systems, by using the giant nonlinear optics in quantum dot-cavity systems. This scheme can be applied to increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication based on hyperentanglement, such as entanglement swapping, teleportation, and superdense coding. We use hyperentanglement swapping as an example to show the application of this HBSA. PMID:23187229
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter
2013-01-01
We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods. An important finding is that short-time non-Markovian effects limit the maximal attainable indistinguishability. The results are explained using a polariton picture that yields valuable insight into the phonon-induced dephasing dynamics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara
We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasiresonantly pumped coupled quantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing the sample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning, and on spectral resonance we observe a three-fold improvement in the Hong–Ou–Mandel interference visibility, reaching values in excess of 80%. By comparison with our microscopic model, we are able to identify pure-dephasing and not time-jitter as the dominating source of imperfections in our system.
Quantum Games and Programmable Quantum Systems
Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sladkowski, Jan
2005-01-01
Attention to the very physical aspects of information characterizes the current research in quantum computation, quantum cryptography and quantum communication. In most of the cases quantum description of the system provides advantages over the classical approach. Game theory, the study of decision making in conflict situation has already been extended to the quantum domain. We would like to review the latest development in quantum game theory that is relevant to information...
Interference effects in the emission spectra of quantum dots in high-quality cavities
Keldysh, L. V.; Kulakovskii, V. D.; Reitzenstein, S.; Makhonin, M. N.; Forchel, A.
2007-01-01
We have investigated theoretically and experimentally the emission of (quantum dot-cavity) systems for different coupling strength and a wide range of exciton-photon mode detunings controlled by temperature variation in the range 10 45 K. Under close to resonance conditions, the radiation spectrum from the cavity emission becomes essentially dependent on the primary excitation path, which can be either via resonant quantum-dot exciton or via cavity mode. Particularly, in the case of nonresonant cavity mode excitation, the emission line becomes split into two asymmetric lines already in the weak coupling regime.
Dusek, M; Hendrych, M; Myska, R; Dusek, Miloslav; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin; Myska, Robert
1999-01-01
A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are ``refuelled'' from a shared provably secret key transferred through the quantum channel. Two identification protocols are devised. The first protocol can be applied when legitimate users have an unjammable public channel at their disposal. The deception probability is derived for the case of a noisy quantum channel. The second protocol employs unconditionally secure authentication of information sent over the public channel, and thus it can be applied even in the case when an adversary is allowed to modify public communications. An experimental realization of a quantum identification system is described.
Weiss, Ulrich
2008-01-01
Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danilov, Viatcheslav; /Oak Ridge; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab
2011-11-01
Many quantum integrable systems are obtained using an accelerator physics technique known as Ermakov (or normalized variables) transformation. This technique was used to create classical nonlinear integrable lattices for accelerators and nonlinear integrable plasma traps. Now, all classical results are carried over to a nonrelativistic quantum case. In this paper we have described an extension of the Ermakov-like transformation to the Schroedinger and Pauli equations. It is shown that these newly found transformations create a vast variety of time dependent quantum equations that can be solved in analytic functions, or, at least, can be reduced to time-independent ones.
Magmatic "Quantum-Like" Systems
Rosinger, Elemer E
2008-01-01
Quantum computation has suggested, among others, the consideration of "non-quantum" systems which in certain respects may behave "quantum-like". Here, what algebraically appears to be the most general possible known setup, namely, of {\\it magmas} is used in order to construct "quantum-like" systems. The resulting magmatic composition of systems has as a well known particular case the tensor products.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Micheli, Fiorenza de [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 440, Santiago (Chile)
2012-10-15
A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems-in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action-the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.
Equilibration of quantum chaotic systems
Zhuang, Quntao; Biao WU
2013-01-01
Quantum ergordic theorem for a large class of quantum systems was proved by von Neumann [Z. Phys. {\\bf 57}, 30 (1929)] and again by Reimann [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 101}, 190403 (2008)] in a more practical and well-defined form. However, it is not clear whether the theorem applies to quantum chaotic systems. With the rigorous proof still elusive, we illustrate and verify this theorem for quantum chaotic systems with examples. Our numerical results show that a quantum chaotic s...
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
2009-11-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
Yukalov, V I
2009-01-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
V.I. Yukalov; SORNETTE, D
2009-01-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans...
Talalaev, D.
2010-01-01
The Toda chains take a particular place in the theory of integrable systems, in contrast with the linear group structure for the Gaudin model this system is related to the corresponding Borel group and mediately to the geometry of flag varieties. The main goal of this paper is to reconstruct a "spectral curve" in a wider context of the generic Toda system. This appears to be an efficient way to find its quantization which is obtained here by the technique of quantum characte...
Weiss, Ulrich
2012-01-01
Starting from first principles, this book introduces the fundamental concepts and methods of dissipative quantum mechanics and explores related phenomena in condensed matter systems. Major experimental achievements in cooperation with theoretical advances have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Nowadays, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 and and 2008 as enlarged second and third editions - delves significantl
Weiss, U
1999-01-01
Recent advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems have brightened up the field and brought it into the focus of a general community in natural sciences. The fundamental concepts, methods and applications including the most recent developments, previously covered for the most part only in the original literature, are presented here in a comprehensive treatment to an audience who is reasonably familiar with quantum-statistical mechanics and has had rudimentary contacts with the path integral formulation.This book deals with the phenomena and theory of decoherence and dissipation in qu
Quantum Systems Bound by Gravity
Fil'Chenkov, Michael L.; Kopylov, Sergey V.; Laptev, Yuri P.
2009-01-01
Quantum systems contain charged particles around mini-holes called graviatoms. Electromagnetic and gravitational radiations for the graviatoms are calculated. Graviatoms with neutrino can form quantum macro-systems.
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum comput...
Quantum critical points in quantum impurity systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the soft-gap Anderson model, where an impurity couples to a non-trivial fermionic bath. In this case, zero-temperature phase transitions occur between two different phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. However, the quantum critical point cannot be described by non-interacting fermionic or bosonic excitations
Decoherence in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of the theory of open quantum systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups we study the transition from quantum to classical behaviour of the system of a harmonic oscillator interacting with an environment (in particular with a thermal bath) by discussing the evolution of the density matrix and Wigner function of the system. The two necessary conditions for a system to become classical - quantum decoherence and classical correlations - are discussed and the degree of quantum decoherence and the degree of classical correlations are estimated in order to analyze the classicality of the considered system. (author)
Stationary States of Dissipative Quantum Systems
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2011-01-01
In this Letter we consider stationary states of dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of dissipative quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of Hamiltonian quantum systems. Dissipative quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear harmonic oscillator are suggested. We discuss bifurcations of stationary states for dissipative quantum systems which are quantum analogs of classical dynamical bifurcations.
Equilibration of quantum chaotic systems.
Zhuang, Quntao; Wu, Biao
2013-12-01
The quantum ergordic theorem for a large class of quantum systems was proved by von Neumann [Z. Phys. 57, 30 (1929)] and again by Reimann [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190403 (2008)] in a more practical and well-defined form. However, it is not clear whether the theorem applies to quantum chaotic systems. With a rigorous proof still elusive, we illustrate and verify this theorem for quantum chaotic systems with examples. Our numerical results show that a quantum chaotic system with an initial low-entropy state will dynamically relax to a high-entropy state and reach equilibrium. The quantum equilibrium state reached after dynamical relaxation bears a remarkable resemblance to the classical microcanonical ensemble. However, the fluctuations around equilibrium are distinct: The quantum fluctuations are exponential while the classical fluctuations are Gaussian. PMID:24483425
Fault Tolerant Quantum Filtering and Fault Detection for Quantum Systems
Gao, Qing(MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan, Hubei, China); Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R
2015-01-01
This paper aims to determine the fault tolerant quantum filter and fault detection equation for a class of open quantum systems coupled to laser fields and subject to stochastic faults. In order to analyze open quantum systems where the system dynamics involve both classical and quantum random variables, a quantum-classical probability space model is developed. Using a reference probability approach, a fault tolerant quantum filter and a fault detection equation are simultan...
Scarring in open quantum systems.
Wisniacki, Diego; Carlo, Gabriel G
2008-04-01
We study scarring phenomena in open quantum systems. We show numerical evidence that individual resonance eigenstates of an open quantum system present localization around unstable short periodic orbits in a similar way as their closed counterparts. The structure of eigenfunctions around these classical objects is not destroyed by the opening. This is exposed in a paradigmatic system of quantum chaos, the cat map. PMID:18517679
Asymptotically open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)
The scalable quantum computation based on quantum dot systems
Zhang, Jian-Qi; Yu, Ya-Fei; Feng, Xun-Li; ZHANG, ZHI-MING
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for realizing the scalable quantum computation based on nonidentical quantum dots trapped in a single-mode waveguide. In this system, the quantum dots simultaneously interact with a large detuned waveguide and classical light fields. During the process, neither the waveguide mode nor the quantum dots are excited, while the sub-system composed of any two quantum dots can acquire phases conditional upon the states of these two quantum dots and the certain d...
Quantum Dynamics in Biological Systems
Shim, Sangwoo
2012-01-01
In the first part of this dissertation, recent efforts to understand quantum mechanical effects in biological systems are discussed. Especially, long-lived quantum coherences observed during the electronic energy transfer process in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex at physiological condition are studied extensively using theories of open quantum systems. In addition to the usual master equation based approaches, the effect of the protein structure is investigated in atomistic detail through t...
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
Roy, Sisir
2014-07-01
The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.
Open quantum systems recent developments
Joye, Alain; Pillet, Claude-Alain
2006-01-01
Understanding dissipative dynamics of open quantum systems remains a challenge in mathematical physics. This problem is relevant in various areas of fundamental and applied physics. From a mathematical point of view, it involves a large body of knowledge. Significant progress in the understanding of such systems has been made during the last decade. These books present in a self-contained way the mathematical theories involved in the modeling of such phenomena. They describe physically relevant models, develop their mathematical analysis and derive their physical implications. In Volume I the Hamiltonian description of quantum open systems is discussed. This includes an introduction to quantum statistical mechanics and its operator algebraic formulation, modular theory, spectral analysis and their applications to quantum dynamical systems. Volume II is dedicated to the Markovian formalism of classical and quantum open systems. A complete exposition of noise theory, Markov processes and stochastic differential...
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-03-31
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Entanglement in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups, we solve the master equation for two independent bosonic oscillators interacting with an environment in the asymptotic long-time regime. We give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix of the quantum states of the considered system for an arbitrary Gaussian input state. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems immersed in a common environment and evolving under a Markovian, completely positive dynamics become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that their non-local quantum correlations exist in the long-time regime. (author) Key words: quantum information theory, open systems, quantum entanglement, inseparable states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær
2013-01-01
Differences in the confinement of electrons and holes in quantum dots are shown to profoundly impact the magnitude of scattering with acoustic phonons. Using an extensive model that includes the non-Markovian nature of the phonon reservoir, we show how the effect may be addressed by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of a single quantum dot. We also investigate the implications for cavity QED, i.e., a coupled quantum dot-cavity system, and demonstrate that the phonon scattering may be strongly quenched. The quenching is explained by a balancing between the deformation potential interaction strengths and the carrier confinement and depends on the quantum dot shape. Numerical examples suggest a route towards engineering the phonon scattering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The overview of recent developments in the theory of quantum chaos is presented with the special emphasis on a number of unsolved problems and current apparent contradictions. The relation between dynamical quantum chaos and statistical random matrix theory is discussed. 97 refs
Quantum models of classical systems
Hájí?ek, P.
2015-07-01
Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties.
Pure Stationary States of Open Quantum Systems
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2003-01-01
Using Liouville space and superoperator formalism we consider pure stationary states of open and dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of open quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of closed quantum systems. Open quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear oscillator are suggested. We consider stationary states for the Lindblad equation. We discuss bifurcations of pure stationary states for open quantum systems which are quantum...
Three Terminal Quantum Dot System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Chandrasekar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the transmission rate for the three terminal quantum dot system is determined using Keldysh nonequilibrium Greenâ€™s function technique for interacting and non-interacting cases. The three terminal quantum dot systems consist of three leads and three quantum dots that are arranged in a triangular form. Each led is coupled with each dot. The lesser and retarded Greenâ€™s functions are used for the calculations of transmission rates and how the transmission rates vary for interacting and non-interacting system are studied is investigated.
Manipulation of single quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The founders of quantum theory assumed in thought experiments that they were manipulating isolated quantum systems obeying the counterintuitive laws which they had just discovered. Technological advances have recently turned these virtual experiments into real ones by making possible the actual control of isolated quantum particles. Many laboratories are realizing such experiments, in a research field at the frontier between physics and information science. Fundamentally, these studies explore the transition between the microscopic world ruled by quantum laws and our macroscopic environment which appears classical. Practically, physicists hope that these experiments will result in new technologies exploiting the strange quantum logic to compute, communicate or measure physical quantities better than was previously conceivable. In Paris, we perform such experiments by juggling with photons trapped between superconducting mirrors. I will give a simple description of these studies, compare them to similar ones performed on other systems and guess about possible applications. (author)
Efficient Simulation of Quantum Systems by Quantum Computers
Zalka, Christof
1996-01-01
We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantum mechanical many particle system can be implemented very efficiently on a quantum computer. The computational cost of such a simulation is comparable to the cost of a conventional simulation of the corresponding classical system. We then sketch how results of interest, like the energy spectrum of a system, can be obtained. We also indicate that ultimately the simulation of quantum field theory might be possible on large quantum ...
Quantum systems and symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained
Quantum chaos in nanoelectromechanical systems
Gusso, Andre; da Luz, M. G. E.; Rego, Luis G. C.
2005-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the electron-phonon coupling in suspended nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and investigate the resulting quantum chaotic behavior. The phonons are associated with the vibrational modes of a suspended rectangular dielectric plate, with free or clamped boundary conditions, whereas the electrons are confined to a large quantum dot (QD) on the plate's surface. The deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions are considered. By perfor...
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S.; Sadlier, Ronald J.
2014-01-01
Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communica...
Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, TU Delft, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)
2013-11-15
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H? optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
Vuglar, Shanon L.; Amini, Hadis
2014-12-01
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum {{H}? } optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs.
The scalable quantum computation based on quantum dot systems
Zhang, Jian-Qi; Feng, Xun-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Ming
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for realizing the scalable quantum computation based on the system of quantum dots trapped in a single-mode waveguide. In this system, the quantum dots simultaneously interact with a large detuned waveguide and classical light fields. During the process, neither the waveguide mode nor the quantum dots are excited, so the decoherence can be suppressed, while the system can acquire phases conditional upon the states of any two quantum dots. Therefore, it can be used to realize graph states, one qubit controlling multi-qubit phase $\\pi $ gate, and cluster states.
Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2011-09-15
We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.
Quantum Heat Engine With Multi-Level Quantum Systems
Quan, H. T.; Zhang, P; C. P. Sun
2005-01-01
By reformulating the first law of thermodynamics in the fashion of quantum-mechanical operators on the parameter manifold, we propose a universal class of quantum heat engines (QHE) using the multi-level quantum system as the working substance. We obtain a general expression of work for the thermodynamic cycle with two thermodynamic adiabatic processes, which are microscopically quantum adiabatic processes. We also classify the conditions for a 3-level QHE to extract positiv...
Quantum simulation of QFTs with discrete quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Classical simulation of quantum many-body systems is usually very inefficient with long running times and with high needs for memory (e.g., it is not even possible to store classically the arbitrary state of 50 qubits). One might overcome these difficulties by using other quantum systems, similar to the one we want to study, as quantum simulators. Most of the efforts in this direction has been concentrated on simulating discrete quantum systems (e.g. spin chains) with other discrete quantum systems that are relatively easy to prepare in labs (ion traps, atoms in optical lattices, etc.). In this talk I will treat a different problem: How can we simulate a continuous quantum system (e.g. a QFT) with a discrete one? I will in particular show how (and in which sense) one can use the Holstein-Primakoff transformation to store continuous quantum information in a discrete quantum system, and after the storage how one can model the time-evolution of the continuous quantum system with a quantum cellular automata action on the discrete system.
The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given
Quantum Annealing and Quantum Fluctuation Effect in Frustrated Ising Systems
Tanaka, Shu
2012-01-01
Quantum annealing method has been widely attracted attention in statistical physics and information science since it is expected to be a powerful method to obtain the best solution of optimization problem as well as simulated annealing. The quantum annealing method was incubated in quantum statistical physics. This is an alternative method of the simulated annealing which is well-adopted for many optimization problems. In the simulated annealing, we obtain a solution of optimization problem by decreasing temperature (thermal fluctuation) gradually. In the quantum annealing, in contrast, we decrease quantum field (quantum fluctuation) gradually and obtain a solution. In this paper we review how to implement quantum annealing and show some quantum fluctuation effects in frustrated Ising spin systems.
Quantum chaos in nanoelectromechanical systems
Gusso, A; Rego, L G C; Gusso, Andre; Rego, Luis G. C.
2005-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the electron-phonon coupling in suspended nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and investigate the resulting quantum chaotic behavior. The phonons are associated with the vibrational modes of a suspended rectangular dielectric plate, with free or clamped boundary conditions, whereas the electrons are confined to a large quantum dot (QD) on the plate's surface. The deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions are considered. By performing standard energy-level statistics we demonstrate that the spectral fluctuations exhibit the same distributions as those of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) or the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE), therefore evidencing the emergence of quantum chaos. That is verified for a large range of material and geometry parameters. In particular, the GUE statistics occurs only in the case of a circular QD. It represents an anomalous phenomenon, previously reported for just a small number of systems, since the problem is time-reversal invarian...
Dynamics of complex quantum systems
Akulin, Vladimir M
2014-01-01
This book gathers together a range of similar problems that can be encountered in different fields of modern quantum physics and that have common features with regard to multilevel quantum systems. The main motivation was to examine from a uniform standpoint various models and approaches that have been developed in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in various contexts. The book should help senior-level undergraduate, graduate students and researchers putting particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby taking advantage of well-established techniques used in adjacent fields. This second edition has been expanded to include substantial new material (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum Systems, and Coherence Protection). It is based on the authorâ€™s lectures at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, at the CNRS AimÃ© Cotton Laboratory, and on ...
Low Energy Quantum System Simulation
Cho, P; Cho, Peter; Berggren, Karl
2003-01-01
A numerical method for solving Schrodinger's equation based upon a Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion of the time evolution operator is presented herein. The technique manifestly preserves wavefunction norm, and it can be applied to problems in any number of spatial dimensions. We also identify a particular dimensionless ratio of potential to kinetic energies as a key coupling constant. This coupling establishes characteristic length and time scales for a large class of low energy quantum states, and it guides the choice of step sizes in numerical work. Using the BCH method in conjunction with an imaginary time rotation, we compute low energy eigenstates for several quantum systems coupled to non-trivial background potentials. The approach is subsequently applied to the study of 1D propagating wave packets and 2D bound state time development. Failures of classical expectations uncovered by simulations of these simple systems help develop quantum intuition. Finally, we investigate the response of a Super...
Entangled systems. New directions in quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entangled Systems is an introductory textbook for advanced students of physics, chemistry and computer science which covers an area of physics that has lately witnessed rapid expansion. The topics treated here include foundations of quantum theory, quantum information, quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum teleportation and hidden variables, thus providing not only a solid basis for the study of quantum theory as such, but also a profound foundation of knowledge from which readers can follow the rapid development of the topic or start out into a more specialized branch of research. Commented recommendations for further reading as well as end-of-chapter problems help the reader to access quickly the basic theoretical concepts of future key technologies. Only a basic prior knowledge of quantum theory and the necessary mathematical foundations is assumed, as introductory chapters are provided to present these to the readers. Thus, 'Entangled Systems' can be used both as a course book and for self-study purposes. From the contents: - The Mathematical Framework - Basic Concepts of Quantum Theory - The Simplest Quantum Systems: Qubits - Mixed State and Density Operator - Shannon's Entropy and Classical Information - The von Neumann Entropy and Quantum Information - Composite Systems - Entanglement - Correlations and Non-Local Measurements - There is no (Local-Realistic) Alternative to the Quantum Theory - Working with Entanglement - The Quantum Computer - General Measurements, POVM - The General Evolution of an Open Quantum System and Special Quantum Channels - Decoherence and Approaches to the Description of the Quantum Measurement Process - Two Implementations of Quantum Operations. (orig.)
On quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The parable of Schroedinger's cat may lead to several up-to date questions: how to treat open systems in quantum theory, how to treat thermodynamically irreversible processes in the quantum mechanics framework, how to explain, following the quantum theory, the existence, phenomenologically evident, of classical observables, what implies the predicted existence by the quantum theory of non localized macroscopic material object ?
Quantum Indeterminacy of Cosmic Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Craig J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-12-30
It is shown that quantum uncertainty of motion in systems controlled mainly by gravity generally grows with orbital timescale $H^{-1}$, and dominates classical motion for trajectories separated by distances less than $\\approx H^{-3/5}$ in Planck units. For example, the cosmological metric today becomes indeterminate at macroscopic separations, $H_0^{-3/5}\\approx 60$ meters. Estimates suggest that entangled non-localized quantum states of geometry and matter may significantly affect fluctuations during inflation, and connect the scale of dark energy to that of strong interactions.
On Entropy of Quantum Compound Systems
Watanabe, Noboru
2015-10-01
We review some notions for general quantum entropies. The entropy of the compound systems is discussed and a numerical computation of the quantum dynamical systems is carried for the noisy optical channel.
Quantum tomography and classical propagator for quadratic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical propagator for tomographic probability (which describes the quantum state instead of wave function or density matrix) is presented for quadratic quantum systems and its relation to the quantum propagator is considered. The new formalism of quantum mechanics, based on the probability representation of the state, is applied to particular quadratic systems - the harmonic oscillator, particle's free motion, problems of an ion in a Paul trap and in asymmetric Penning trap, and to the process of stimulated Raman scattering. The classical propagator for these systems is written in an explicit form. (author)
Quantum phase transitions in constrained Bose systems
Bonnes, Lars
2011-01-01
This doctoral thesis studies low dimensional quantum systems that can be realized in recent cold atom experiments. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the main emphasis is on the detailed study of the different quantum and thermal phases and their transitions using numerical methods, such as quantum Monte Carlo and the Tensor Network Renormalization Group. The first part of this work deals with a lattice Boson model subject to strong three-body losses. In a quantum-Zeno li...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Settnes, Mikkel; Nielsen, Per Kær
2013-01-01
We show that Auger processes involving wetting layer transitions mediate emission from a cavity that is detuned from a quantum dot by even tens of meV. The wetting layer thus acts as a reservoir, which by Coulomb scattering can supply or absorb the energy difference between emitter and cavity. We perform microscopic calculations of the effect treating the wetting layer as a non-Markovian reservoir interacting with the coupled quantum dot-cavity system through Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, cavity feeding has been observed in the asymmetric detuning range of -10 to +45 meV. We show that this asymmetry arises naturally from the quasiequilibrium properties of the wetting layer reservoir. Furthermore, we present numerical calculations of both photoluminescence spectra and photon correlations, demonstrating good qualitative agreement with experiments.
Settnes, Mikkel; Kaer, Per; Moelbjerg, Anders; Mork, Jesper
2013-08-01
We show that Auger processes involving wetting layer transitions mediate emission from a cavity that is detuned from a quantum dot by even tens of meV. The wetting layer thus acts as a reservoir, which by Coulomb scattering can supply or absorb the energy difference between emitter and cavity. We perform microscopic calculations of the effect treating the wetting layer as a non-Markovian reservoir interacting with the coupled quantum dot-cavity system through Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, cavity feeding has been observed in the asymmetric detuning range of -10 to +45??meV. We show that this asymmetry arises naturally from the quasiequilibrium properties of the wetting layer reservoir. Furthermore, we present numerical calculations of both photoluminescence spectra and photon correlations, demonstrating good qualitative agreement with experiments. PMID:23971611
QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL CORRELATIONS IN GAUSSIAN OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurelian ISAR
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum correlations (quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We solve the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for the time evolution of the considered system and describe the entanglement and discord in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression takes place for all temperatures of the environment, including zero temperature. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that it decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath. This is in contrast with the sudden death of entanglement. Before the suppression of the entanglement, the qualitative evolution of quantum discord is very similar to that of the entanglement. We describe also the time evolution of the degree of classical correlations and of quantum mutual information, which measures the total correlations of the quantum system.
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baecker, Arnd
2007-07-01
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
A Diffusion Equation for Quantum Adiabatic Systems
Jain, Sudhir R.
1998-01-01
For ergodic adiabatic quantum systems, we study the evolution of energy distribution as the system evolves in time. Starting from the von Neumann equation for the density operator, we obtain the quantum analogue of the Smoluchowski equation on coarse-graining over the energy spectrum. This result brings out the precise notion of quantum diffusion.
Quantum mechanics of damped systems
Chru?ci?ski, Dariusz
2003-01-01
We show that the quantization of a simple damped system leads to a self-adjoint Hamiltonian with a family of complex generalized eigenvalues. It turns out that they correspond to the poles of energy eigenvectors when continued to the complex energy plane. Therefore, the corresponding generalized eigenvectors may be interpreted as resonant states. We show that resonant states are responsible for the irreversible quantum dynamics of our simple model.
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1992-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continua...
Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.
Quantum chaos and level distribution law in a quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work consists in considering the links between the quantum system motion integrals and the law of its levels distribution. The relation between the properties of the quantum system energy levels distribution and its regularity or chaos is considered. It is shown, that the Wigner distribution may as an example of the quality indication of the system chaos. However, the deviation of the distribution law from the Wigner one is not obligatorily connected with the system regularity
Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems.
Zulkowski, Patrick R; DeWeese, Michael R
2015-09-01
The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing. PMID:26465432
Measurement theory for closed quantum systems
Wouters, Michiel
2015-07-01
We introduce the concept of a “classical observable” as an operator with vanishingly small quantum fluctuations on a set of density matrices. Their study provides a natural starting point to analyse the quantum measurement problem. In particular, it allows to identify Schrödinger cats and the associated projection operators intrinsically, without the need to invoke an environment. We discuss how our new approach relates to the open system analysis of quantum measurements and to thermalization studies in closed quantum systems.
Dynamical Universal Behavior in Quantum Chaotic Systems
Xiong, Hongwei; Biao WU
2010-01-01
We discover numerically that a moving wave packet in a quantum chaotic billiard will always evolve into a quantum state, whose density probability distribution is exponential. This exponential distribution is found to be universal for quantum chaotic systems with rigorous proof. In contrast, for the corresponding classical system, the distribution is Gaussian. We find that the quantum exponential distribution can smoothly change to the classical Gaussian distribution with co...
Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations
Optimal Control for Open Quantum Systems: Qubits and Quantum Gates
Roloff, Robert; Pötz, Walter
2009-01-01
This article provides a review of recent developments in the formulation and execution of optimal control strategies for the dynamics of quantum systems. A brief introduction to the concept of optimal control, the dynamics of of open quantum systems, and quantum information processing is followed by a presentation of recent developments regarding the two main tasks in this context: state-specific and state-independent optimal control. For the former, we present an extension of conventional theory (Pontryagin's principle) to quantum systems which undergo a non-Markovian time-evolution. Owing to its importance for the realization of quantum information processing, the main body of the review, however, is devoted to state-independent optimal control. Here, we address three different approaches: an approach which treats dissipative effects from the environment in lowest-order perturbation theory, a general method based on the time--evolution superoperator concept, as well as one based on the Kraus representation ...
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)
2014-07-15
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.
Maxwell's demons in multipartite quantum correlated systems
Braga, Helena C.; Rulli, Clodoaldo C.; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2014-10-01
We investigate the extraction of thermodynamic work by a Maxwell's demon in a multipartite quantum correlated system. We begin by adopting the standard model of a Maxwell's demon as a Turing machine, either in a classical or quantum setup depending on its ability to implement classical or quantum conditional dynamics. Then, for an n -partite system (A1,A2,⋯,An) , we introduce a protocol of work extraction that bounds the advantage of the quantum demon over its classical counterpart through the amount of multipartite quantum correlation present in the system, as measured by a thermal version of the global quantum discord. This result is illustrated for an arbitrary n -partite pure state of qubits with Schmidt decomposition, where it is shown that the thermal global quantum discord exactly quantifies the quantum advantage. Moreover, we also consider the work extraction via mixed multipartite states, where examples of tight upper bounds can be obtained.
Adiabatic quantum metrology with strongly correlated quantum optical systems
Ivanov, P. A.; Porras, D.
2013-08-01
We show that the quasiadiabatic evolution of a system governed by the Dicke Hamiltonian can be described in terms of a self-induced quantum many-body metrological protocol. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the ground state to a small symmetry-breaking perturbation at the quantum phase transition, which leads to the collapse of the wave function into one of two possible ground states. The scaling of the final-state properties with the number of atoms and with the intensity of the symmetry-breaking field can be interpreted in terms of the precession time of an effective quantum metrological protocol. We show that our ideas can be tested with spin-phonon interactions in trapped ion setups. Our work points to a classification of quantum phase transitions in terms of the capability of many-body quantum systems for parameter estimation.
Quantum Friction: Cooling Quantum Systems with Unitary Time Evolution
Bulgac, Aurel; Roche, Kenneth J; Wlaz?owski, Gabriel
2013-01-01
We introduce a type of quantum dissipation -- local quantum friction -- by adding to the Hamiltonian a local potential that breaks time-reversal invariance so as to cool the system. Unlike the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation, local quantum friction directly effects unitary evolution of the wavefunctions rather than the density matrix: it may thus be used to cool fermionic many-body systems with thousands of wavefunctions that must remain orthogonal. In addition to providing an efficient way to simulate quantum dissipation and non-equilibrium dynamics, local quantum friction coupled with adiabatic state preparation significantly speeds up many-body simulations, making the solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation significantly simpler than the solution of its stationary counterpart.
Classical equations for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that decohere, which means that there is negligible quantum interference between the individual histories in the set. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e., such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models
Measures of macroscopicity for quantum spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the notion of ‘macroscopicity’ in the case of quantum spin systems and provide two main results. Firstly, we motivate the quantum Fisher information as a measure of the macroscopicity of quantum states. Secondly, we make a comparison with the existing literature on this topic. We report on a hierarchy among the measures and we conclude that one should carefully distinguish between ‘macroscopic quantum states’ and ‘macroscopic superpositions’, which is a strict subclass of the former. (paper)
Quantum Transport from the Perspective of Quantum Open Systems
Cui, Ping; Li, Xin-Qi; Shao, Jiushu; Yan, Yijing
2005-01-01
By viewing the non-equilibrium transport setup as a quantum open system, we propose a reduced-density-matrix based quantum transport formalism. At the level of self-consistent Born approximation, it can precisely account for the correlation between tunneling and the system internal many-body interaction, leading to certain novel behavior such as the non-equilibrium Kondo effect. It also opens a new way to construct time-dependent density functional theory for transport throu...
Classical and quantum dissipative systems
Razavy, Mohsen
2006-01-01
This book discusses issues associated with the quantum mechanical formulation of dissipative systems. It begins with an introductory review of phenomenological damping forces, and the construction of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for the damped motion. It is shown, in addition to these methods, that classical dissipative forces can also be derived from solvable many-body problems. A detailed discussion of these derived forces and their dependence on dynamical variables is also presented. The second part of this book investigates the use of classical formulation in the quantization of dynamica
Joint system quantum descriptions arising from local quantumness
Cooney, Tom; Navascues, Miguel; Perez-Garcia, David; Villanueva, Ignacio
2012-01-01
Bipartite correlations generated by non-signalling physical systems that admit a finite-dimensional local quantum description cannot exceed the quantum limits, i.e., they can always be interpreted as distant measurements of a bipartite quantum state. Here we consider the effect of dropping the assumption of finite dimensionality. Remarkably, we find that the same result holds provided that we relax the tensor structure of space-like separated measurements to mere commutativity. We argue why an extension of this result to tensor representations seems unlikely.
Quantum speed limits in open system dynamics.
del Campo, A; Egusquiza, I L; Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F
2013-02-01
Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics, and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive, and trace preserving evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the role of the Hamiltonian being played by the adjoint of the generator of the dynamical semigroup. The utility of the new bound is exemplified in different scenarios, ranging from the estimation of the passage time to the determination of precision limits for quantum metrology in the presence of dephasing noise. PMID:23414008
Quantum Open System Theory: Bipartite Aspects
Yu, Ting; Eberly, J. H
2006-01-01
We demonstrate in straightforward calculations that even under ideally weak noise the relaxation of bipartite open quantum systems contains elements not previously encountered in quantum noise physics. While additivity of decay rates is known to be generic for decoherence of a single system, we demonstrate that it breaks down for bipartite coherence of even the simplest composite systems.
Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions
Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael
2010-01-01
In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...
The Quantum Mechanics of Closed Systems
Hartle, J B
1992-01-01
A pedagogical introduction is given to the quantum mechanics of closed systems, most generally the universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics aims at predicting the probabilities of alternative coarse-grained time histories of a closed system. Not every set of alternative coarse-grained histories that can be described may be consistently assigned probabilities because of quantum mechanical interference between individual histories of the set. In the quantum mechanics of closed systems, containing both observer and observed, probabilities are assigned to those sets of alternative histories for which there is negligible interference between individual histories as a consequence of the system's initial condition and dynamics. Such sets of histories are said to decohere. Typical mechanisms of decoherence that are widespread in our universe are illustrated. Copenhagen quantum mechanics is an approximation to the more general quantum framework of closed subsystems. It is appropriate when there is an approximately isola...
All-optical coherent control of energy transfer between a quantum dot and a cavity mode
Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik; Solomon, Glenn; Waks, Edo
2015-03-01
Here we demonstrated all-optical coherent control of energy transfer in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule at optical frequency. The photonic crystal molecule composes two photonic crystal cavities, supporting a pair of strongly coupled normal modes. One of the modes strongly couples with a quantum dot and the other induces a cavity enhanced a.c. stark shift to rapidly tune the quantum dot resonance on timescales much shorter than the vacuum Rabi period of the strongly coupled dot-cavity system. The quantum dot initially detunes from the cavity mode. By tuning the quantum dot onto resonance with the cavity mode on picosecond timescales, we achieved coherent transfer of energy between a quantum dot and the cavity mode through vacuum Rabi oscillation. We investigated the energy transfer as a function of stark laser power to confirm the coherence of the energy transfer process. We further demonstrated coherent control of light-matter states by implementing a Ramsey-type experiment. These results pave the path for achieving gigahertz controlled generation of quantum states of light and synthesis of photon wavefunctions using integrated semiconductor nano-photonics platform.
On the geometry of quantum constrained systems
Corichi, Alejandro
2008-01-01
The use of geometric methods has proved useful in the hamiltonian description of classical constrained systems. In this note we provide the first steps toward the description of the geometry of quantum constrained systems. We make use of the geometric formulation of quantum theory in which unitary transformations (including time evolution) can be seen, just as in the classical case, as finite canonical transformations on the quantum state space. We compare from this perspective the classical ...
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown. These nodes are spaced far enough from each other to minimized the electronic repulsion of the electrons, while still providing adequate enough attraction so as to bind the excess elections into orbitals. We have found that even with relativistic considerations these species are stably bound within the field. It was also found that performing the dimensional scaling calculations for systems within the confines of laser fields to be a much simpler and more cost-effective method than the supporting D=3 SCF method. The dimensional scaling method is general and can be extended to include relativistic corrections to describe the stability of simple molecular systems in super-intense laser fields. Chapter 3, we delineate the model, and aspects therein, of inelastic electron tunneling and map this model to the protein environment. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptors that sense molecules outside of a cell and activate signal transduction pathways inside the cell. Modeling how an agonist activates such a receptor is important for understanding a wide variety of physiological processes and it is of tremendous value for pharmacology and drug design. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been proposed as the mechanism by which olfactory GPCRs are activated by an encapsulated agonist. In this note we apply this notion to GPCRs within the mammalian nervous system using ab initio quantum chemical modeling. We found that non-endogenous agonists of the serotonin receptor share a singular IET spectral aspect both amongst each other and with the serotonin molecule: a peak that scales in intensity with the known agonist activities. We propose an experiential validation of this model by utilizing lysergic acid dimethylamide (DAM-57), an ergot derivative, and its isotopologues in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium. If validated our theory may provide new avenues for guided drug design and better in silico prediction of efficacies. Our final chapter, explores methods which may be explored to assist in the early instructio
Dynamics of a multipartite system undergoing matter-state-photon conversions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the entanglement dynamics of two initially entangled qubits coupled to independent photon reservoirs and undergoing continuous matter-state-photon population transitions. We represent the decay and replenishment of matter-based bit states via photons by time-dependent generalized conversion functions. For the specific case of a sinusoidal function, we show that sudden death events in qubit-qubit entanglement anti-correlate (correlate) exactly with sudden birth events in photon-photon entanglement for the symmetric (anti-symmetric) mode of quantum conversions. We show the invariance in dynamics of all possible bipartite concurrences for various configurations of qubit-reservoir systems and highlight its crucial role in identifying a global concurrence of the multipartite system. We study the coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system as a specific application of our approach, including an analysis of evolution of its Meyer-Wallach measure with time.
Quantum field theory of relic nonequilibrium systems
Underwood, Nicolas G
2014-01-01
In terms of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, we develop field-theoretical models of quantum nonequilibrium systems which could exist today as relics from the very early universe. We consider relic excited states generated by inflaton decay, as well as relic vacuum modes, for particle species that decoupled close to the Planck temperature. Simple estimates suggest that, at least in principle, quantum nonequilibrium could survive to the present day for some relic systems. The main focus of this paper is to describe the behaviour of such systems in terms of field theory, with the aim of understanding how relic quantum nonequilibrium might manifest experimentally. We show by explicit calculation that simple perturbative couplings will transfer quantum nonequilibrium from one field to another (for example from the inflaton field to its decay products). We also show that fields in a state of quantum nonequilibrium will generate anomalous spectra for standard energy measurements. Possibl...
Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems
Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"
2007-01-01
The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...
Geometric Phase in Open Quantum Systems
Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Subhashish
2006-01-01
Geometric phase of an open two-level quantum system with a squeezed, thermal environment is studied for various types of system-environment interactions, both non-dissipative and dissipative. In the former type, we consider quantum non-demolition interaction with a bath of harmonic oscillators as well as of that of two-level systems. In the latter type, we consider the system interacting with a bath of harmonic oscillators in the weak Born-Markov approximation, and further, a simplified Jaynes-Cummings model in a vacuum bath. Our results extend features of geometric phase in open systems reported in the literature to include effects due to squeezing. The Kraus operator representation is employed to connect the open-system effects to quantum noise processes familiar from quantum information theory. This study has some implications for a practical implementation of geometric quantum computation.
Quantum Transport from the Perspective of Quantum Open Systems
Cui, P; Shao, J; Yan, Y J; Cui, Ping; Li, Xin-Qi; Shao, Jiushu; Yan, YiJing
2005-01-01
By viewing the non-equilibrium transport setup as a quantum open system, we propose a reduced-density-matrix based quantum transport formalism. At the level of self-consistent Born approximation, it can precisely account for the correlation between tunneling and the system internal many-body interaction, leading to certain novel behavior such as the non-equilibrium Kondo effect. It also opens a new way to construct time-dependent density functional theory for transport through large-scale complex systems.
Coherent control of energy transfer in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule
Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik R.; Solomon, Glenn S.; Waks, Edo
2015-03-01
Vacuum Rabi oscillation is a damped oscillation in which energy can transfer between an atomic excitation and a photon when an atom is strongly coupled to a photonic cavity. This process is challenging to be coherently controlled due to the fact that interaction between the atom and the electromagnetic resonator needs to be modulated in a quick manner compared to vacuum Rabi frequency. This control has been achieved at microwave frequencies, but has remained challenging to be implemented in the optical domain. Here we demonstrated coherent control of energy transfer in a semiconductor quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule by manipulating the vacuum Rabi oscillation of the system. Instead of using a single photonic crystal cavity, we utilized a photonic crystal molecule consisting two coupled photonic crystal defect cavities to obtain both strong quantum dot-cavity coupling and cavityenhanced AC stark shift. In our system the AC stark shift modulates the coupling interaction between the quantum dot and the cavity by shifting the quantum dot resonance, on timescales (picosecond) shorter than the vacuum Rabi period. We demonstrated the ability to transfer excitation between a quantum dot and cavity, and performed coherent control of light-matter states. Our results provides an ultra-fast approach for probing and controlling light-matter interactions in an integrated nanophotonic device, and could pave the way for gigahertz rate synthesis of arbitrary quantum states of light at optical frequencies.
Chaos and Quantum Chaos in Nuclear Systems
Salasnich, Luca
1995-01-01
The presence of chaos and quantum chaos is shown in two different nuclear systems. We analyze the chaotic behaviour of the classical SU(2) Yang--Mills--Higgs system, and then we study quantum chaos in the nuclear shell model calculating the spectral statistics of $A=46$--$50$ atomic nuclei.
Hydrodynamics for quasi-free quantum systems
Maes, Christian; Spitzer, Wolfgang
1998-01-01
We consider quasi-free quantum systems and we derive the Euler equation using the so-called hydrodynamic limit. We use Wigner's well-known distribution function and discuss an extension to band distribution functions for particles in a periodic potential. We investigate the Bosonic system of hard rods and calculate fluctuations of the density. Keywords: Euler equation, quantum distribution function, hydrodynamic limit
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1993-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems
Akulin, Vladimir M
2006-01-01
A large number of modern problems in physics, chemistry, and quantum electronics require a consideration of population dynamics in complex multilevel quantum systems. The purpose of this book is to provide a systematic treatment of these questions and to present a number of exactly solvable problems. It considers the different dynamical problems frequently encountered in different areas of physics from the same perspective, based mainly on the fundamental ideas of group theory and on the idea of ensemble average. Also treated are concepts of complete quantum control and correction of decoherence induced errors that are complementary to the idea of ensemble average. "Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems" is aimed at senior-level undergraduate students in the areas of Atomic, Molecular, and Laser Physics, Physical Chemistry, Quantum Optics and Quantum Informatics. It should help them put particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby take advantage of the well-elabora...
Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron–electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes. (comment)
Dynamical systems where time is a quantum group and quantum ergodicity
Kozyrev, S. V.
2003-01-01
We define dynamical systems where time is a quantum group. We give the definition of quantum ergodicity for the introduced dynamical system with noncommutative (or quantum) time, and discuss the examples.
An Axiomatic System Suggested by Quantum Computation
LEPORINI, ROBERTO; BERTINI, CESARINO
2009-01-01
The theory of logical gates in quantum computation has suggested new forms of quantum logic, called quantum computational logics. The basic semantic idea is the following: the meaning of a sentence is identified with a quregister (a system of qubits in a pure state) or, more generally, with a mixture of quregisters (called qumix). Following an approach proposed by Domenech and Freytes, we apply residuated structures associated with fuzzy logic to develop certain aspects of information process...
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
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Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered
Non-perturbative description of quantum systems
Feranchuk, Ilya; Le, Van-Hoang; Ulyanenkov, Alexander
2015-01-01
This book introduces systematically the operator method for the solution of the Schrödinger equation. This method permits to describe the states of quantum systems in the entire range of parameters of Hamiltonian with a predefined accuracy. The operator method is unique compared with other non-perturbative methods due to its ability to deliver in zeroth approximation the uniformly suitable estimate for both ground and excited states of quantum system. The method has been generalized for the application to quantum statistics and quantum field theory. In this book, the numerous applications of operator method for various physical systems are demonstrated. Simple models are used to illustrate the basic principles of the method which are further used for the solution of complex problems of quantum theory for many-particle systems. The results obtained are supplemented by numerical calculations, presented as tables and figures.
Quantum chaos in generic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First I briefly review the basic elements of the stationary quantum chaos in Hamiltonian systems, the universality classes of energy spectra and eigenfunctions. Then I consider the problem of the generic systems whose classical dynamics and the phase portrait is of the mixed type, i.e. regular for certain initial conditions and irregular (chaotic) for other initial conditions. I present the Berry-Robnik picture, the Principle of Uniform Semiclassical Condensation (of the Wigner functions of the eigenstates), and the statistical description of the energy spectra in terms of E(k,L) statistics, which is shown to be valid in the semiclassical limit of sufficiently small effective Planck constant and is numerically firmly confirmed. Then I consider the spectral autocorrelation function and the form factor (its Fourier transform) in the same limit, and show its agreement with the numerical investigations in the regular and fully chaotic cases. I show the numerical evidence for the deviations from that prediction in mixed type systems at low energies, due to localization and tunneling effects. Here are also the important open theoretical questions that I address. (author)
Mixing and entropy increase in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper attempts to explain the key feature of deterministic chaotic classical systems and how they can be translated to quantum systems. To do so we develop the appropriate algebraic language for the non-specialist. 22 refs. (Author)
Classical approaches to quantum dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum dynamical systems are often investigated by classical or semi-classical approaches. Classical methods are applied when a full quantum mechanical treatment is not feasible. They allow to work in the framework of familiar classical concepts and to investigate the quantum-to-classical transition However, the limits of classical approaches to quantum dynamical systems are often not very well understood. In our contribution, we investigate the validity and the limits of the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method by comparing the dynamics of non-interacting classical particles under the evolution of the Liouville equation with the quantum dynamics in phase space under the quantum Liouville equation. Our results allow us to estimate in which setups quantum effects become non-negligible. We show that a modified classical trajectory Monte Carlo method becomes equivalent to the actual quantum dynamics in the limit that all forces are harmonic. This method allows us to study time-dependent processes in driven many particle quantum systems with harmonic interactions.
System Design for a Long-Line Quantum Repeater
van Meter, Rodney; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Munro, W. J.; Nemoto, Kae
2007-01-01
We present a new control algorithm and system design for a network of quantum repeaters, and outline the end-to-end protocol architecture. Such a network will create long-distance quantum states, supporting quantum key distribution as well as distributed quantum computation. Quantum repeaters improve the reduction of quantum-communication throughput with distance from exponential to polynomial. Because a quantum state cannot be copied, a quantum repeater is not a signal ampl...
Macroscopic quantum effects in nanomechanical systems
Werner, P
2003-01-01
We investigate quantum effects in the mechanical properties of elastic beams on the nanoscale. Transverse quantum and thermal fluctuations and the nonlinear excitation energies are calculated for beams compressed in longitudinal direction. Near the Euler instability, the system is described by a one dimensional Ginzburg-Landau model where the order parameter is the amplitude of the buckling mode. We show that in single wall carbon nanotubes the crossover from thermal activation to quantum tunnelling is accessible and discuss the possibility of observing macroscopic quantum coherence in nanobeams near the critical strain.
Spin in fractional quantum Hall system.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Výborný, Karel
2007-01-01
Ro?. 16, ?. 2 (2007), s. 87-165. ISSN 0003-3804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : fractional quantum Hall systems * quantum Hall ferromagnets * magnetic inhomegeneities Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.485, year: 2007
Quantum Dynamical Entropy of Spin Systems
Miyadera, Takayuki; Ohya, Masanori
2003-01-01
We investigate a quantum dynamical entropy of one-dimesional quantum spin systems. We show that the dynamical entropy is bounded from above by a quantity which is related with group velocity determined by the interaction and mean entropy of the state.
Sliding mode control of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a new robust control method for quantum systems with uncertainties involving sliding mode control (SMC). SMC is a widely used approach in classical control theory and industrial applications. We show that SMC is also a useful method for robust control of quantum systems. In this paper, we define two specific classes of sliding modes (i.e. eigenstates and state subspaces) and propose two novel methods combining unitary control and periodic projective measurements for the design of quantum SMC systems. Two examples including a two-level system and a three-level system are presented to demonstrate the proposed SMC method. One of the main features of the proposed method is that the designed control laws can guarantee the desired control performance in the presence of uncertainties in the system Hamiltonian. This SMC approach provides a useful control theoretic tool for robust quantum information processing with uncertainties.
Adiabatic quantum metrology with strongly correlated quantum optical systems
Ivanov, P. A.; Porras, D.
2013-01-01
We show that the quasi-adiabatic evolution of a system governed by the Dicke Hamiltonian can be described in terms of a self-induced quantum many-body metrological protocol. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the ground state to a small symmetry-breaking perturbation at the quantum phase transition, that leads to the collapse of the wavefunciton into one of two possible ground states. The scaling of the final state properties with the number of atoms and with the inten...
Avoiding irreversible dynamics in quantum systems
Karasik, Raisa Iosifovna
2009-10-01
Devices that exploit laws of quantum physics offer revolutionary advances in computation and communication. However, building such devices presents an enormous challenge, since it would require technologies that go far beyond current capabilities. One of the main obstacles to building a quantum computer and devices needed for quantum communication is decoherence or noise that originates from the interaction between a quantum system and its environment, and which leads to the destruction of the fragile quantum information. Encoding into decoherence-free subspaces (DFS) provides an important strategy for combating decoherence effects in quantum systems and constitutes the focus of my dissertation. The theory of DFS relies on the existence of certain symmetries in the decoherence process, which allow some states of a quantum system to be completely decoupled from the environment and thus to experience no decoherence. In this thesis I describe various approaches to DFS that are developed in the current literature. Although the general idea behind various approaches to DFS is the same, I show that different mathematical definitions of DFS actually have different physical meaning. I provide a rigorous definition of DFS for every approach, explaining its physical meaning and relation to other definitions. I also examine the theory of DFS for Markovian systems. These are systems for which the environment has no memory, i.e., any change in the environment affects the quantum system instantaneously. Examples of such systems include many systems in quantum optics that have been proposed for implementation of a quantum computer, such as atomic and molecular gases, trapped ions, and quantum dots. Here I develop a rigorous theory that provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of DFS. This theory allows us to identify a special new class of DFS that was not known before. Under particular circumstances, dynamics of a quantum system can connive together with the interactions between the system and its environment in a special way to reduce decoherence. This property is used to discover new DFS that rely on rather counterintuitive phenomenon, which I call an "incoherent generation of coherences." I also provide examples of physical systems that support such states. These DFS can be used to suppress & coherence, but may not be sufficient for performing full quantum computation. I also explore the possibility of physically generating the DFS that are useful for quantum computation. For quantum computation we need to preserve at least two quantum states to encode the quantum analogue of classical bits. Here I aim to generate DFS in a system composed from a large collection of atoms or molecules and I need to determine how one should position atoms or molecules in 3D space so that the overall system possesses a DFS with at least two states (i.e., non-trivial DFS). I show that for many Markovian systems, non-trivial DFS can exist only when particles are located in exactly the same position in space. This, of course, is not possible in the real world. For these systems, I also show that states in DFS are states with infinite lifetime. However, for all practical applications we just need long-lived states. Thus in reality, we do just need to bring quantum particles close together to generate an imperfect DFS, i.e. a collection of long-lived states. This can be achieved, for example, for atoms within a single molecule.
Quantum discord from system–environment correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an initially uncorrelated mixed separable bi-partite system, quantum correlations can emerge under the action of a local measurement or local noise [1]. We analyse this counter-intuitive phenomenon using quantum discord as a quantifier. We then relate changes in quantum discord to system–environment correlations between the system in a mixed state and some purifying environmental mode using the Koashi–Winter inequality. On this basis, we suggest an interpretation of discord as a byproduct of transferring entanglement and correlations around the different subsystems of a global pure state. (paper)
Kalaga, J. K.; Leo?ski, W.; Kowalewska-Kud?aszyk, A.
2014-12-01
A model of a nonlinear, damped kicked oscillator is discussed. For such a model intra-mode correlations described by mutual information parameter I[?] based on the Wehrl entropy are considered. Furthermore, the system's quantum evolution is compared to its classical counterpart. The mutual information parameter is discussed as a proposal for quantum chaos' witness.
Quantum statistics of charged particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The monograph covers a certain part of the hitherto available results on charged particle systems under the following headings: introduction, quantum statistics of many-particle systems, application of the Green's function to Coulomb systems, equilibrium properties in classical and quasiclassical approximation, quantum-statistical calculations of equilibrium properties, transport properties, and Green's function approach to optical properties. A subject index is included. 555 references, 63 figures, 10 tables
Classical and Quantum Discrete Dynamical Systems
Kornyak, Vladimir V
2013-01-01
We study deterministic and quantum dynamics from a constructive "finite" point of view, since the introduction of a continuum, or other actual infinities in physics poses serious conceptual and technical difficulties, without any need for these concepts to physics as an empirical science. For a consistent description of the symmetries of dynamical systems at different times and the symmetries of the various parts of such systems, we introduce discrete analogs of the gauge connections. Gauge structures are particularly important to describe the quantum behavior. We show that quantum behavior is the result of a fundamental inability to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in the process of evolution. Information is available only on invariant statements and values, relating to such objects. Using mathematical arguments of a general nature we can show that any quantum dynamics can be reduced to a sequence of permutations. Quantum interferences occur in the invariant subspaces of permutation representa...
Quantum Simulation for Open-System Dynamics
Wang, Dong-Sheng; de Oliveira, Marcos Cesar; Berry, Dominic; Sanders, Barry
2013-03-01
Simulations are essential for predicting and explaining properties of physical and mathematical systems yet so far have been restricted to classical and closed quantum systems. Although forays have been made into open-system quantum simulation, the strict algorithmic aspect has not been explored yet is necessary to account fully for resource consumption to deliver bounded-error answers to computational questions. An open-system quantum simulator would encompass classical and closed-system simulation and also solve outstanding problems concerning, e.g. dynamical phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems, establishing long-range order via dissipation, verifying the simulatability of open-system dynamics on a quantum Turing machine. We construct an efficient autonomous algorithm for designing an efficient quantum circuit to simulate many-body open-system dynamics described by a local Hamiltonian plus decoherence due to separate baths for each particle. The execution time and number of gates for the quantum simulator both scale polynomially with the system size. DSW funded by USARO. MCO funded by AITF and Brazilian agencies CNPq and FAPESP through Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia-Informacao Quantica (INCT-IQ). DWB funded by ARC Future Fellowship (FT100100761). BCS funded by AITF, CIFAR, NSERC and USARO.
Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot
Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Hauke, N.; Angele, J.; Stobbe, Søren; Kaniber, M.; Böhm, G.; Lodahl, Peter; Amann, M-C; Finley, J. J.
2009-01-01
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot - photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert-gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly ...
Extended objects in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A quantum field theoretical study of the properties of extended objects appearing in the quantum ordered state is carried out in the framework of boson theory. First the process of creation of the ordered state is studied, and then the creation of extended objects in quantum ordered states. It is found that the spontaneous creation of an ordered state is always caused by a symmetry rearrangement when the symmetry of the Heisenberg fields is global, and that in quantum electrodynamics the dynamic rearrangement of symmetry takes place even when no ordered state is created. The c-number field phi sup(f)(chi) constructed by the boson method becomes the soliton solution of the Euler equations when the Planck constant is ignored, implying that the soliton solution can be regarded as an extended object with quantum origin. Finally the relations between the basic symmetry of the theory and topological charge is analyzed. Although basic symmetry does not restrict the shape of extended objects appearing in the ordered state, it influences which object can be classified by topological quantum number. The condition for topological quantization of an extended object is expressed in terms of the asymptotic behaviour of the boson function
Ground states of quantum spin systems
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The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume
Coarse-grained quantum systems and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constrained Hamiltonian dynamics is exploited to provide the mathematical framework of a coarse-grained description of the quantum system of two interacting qubits and of nonlinear interacting oscillators. The coarse-graining is treated as an equivalence relation on the set of quantum states resulting in the emergence of the classical phase-space. The equivalence relation imposes constraints on the Hamiltonian dynamics of the quantum system. It is seen that the evolution of the coarse-grained system preserves constant and minimal quantum fluctuations of the fundamental observables. This leads to the emergence of typical classical properties, like the relation between symmetry and integrability, and in the case of oscillators in the macro-limit implies the emergence of the classical system.
Hamiltonian tomography: the quantum (system) measurement problem
Cole, Jared H.
2015-10-01
To harness the power of controllable quantum systems for information processing or quantum simulation, it is essential to be able to accurately characterise the system's Hamiltonian. Although in principle this requires determining less parameters than full quantum process tomography, a general and extendable method for reconstructing a general Hamiltonian has been elusive. In their recent paper, Wang et al (2015 New J. Phys. 17 093017) apply dynamical decoupling to the problem of Hamiltonian tomography and show how to reconstruct a general many-body Hamiltonian comprised of arbitrary interactions between qubits.
Thermal rectification in quantum graded mass systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show the existence of thermal rectification in the graded mass quantum chain of harmonic oscillators with self-consistent reservoirs. Our analytical study allows us to identify the ingredients leading to the effect. The presence of rectification in this effective, simple model (representing graded mass materials, systems that may be constructed in practice) indicates that rectification in graded mass quantum systems may be an ubiquitous phenomenon. Moreover, as the classical version of this model does not present rectification, our results show that, here, rectification is a direct result of the quantum statistics.
Electrons at the surface of quantum systems
Leiderer, Paul
1992-01-01
Electrons can be trapped at the surfaces and interfaces of the condensed phases of quantum matter (in particular hydrogen and helium), where they form classical two-dimensional Coulomb systems. Apart from studying the intrinsic properties of these nearly ideal systems, like the transition from an electron gas to a Wigner solid, one can use the electrons also as a sensitive probe to investigate the surface of quantum liquids and solids. The examples presented here include the surface of solid ...
Aberration-corrected quantum temporal imaging system
Zhu, Yunhui; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J
2013-01-01
We describe the design of a temporal imaging system that simultaneously reshapes the temporal profile and converts the frequency of a photonic wavepacket, while preserving its quantum state. A field lens, which imparts a temporal quadratic phase modulation, is used to correct for the residual phase caused by field curvature in the image, thus enabling temporal imaging for phase-sensitive quantum applications. We show how this system can be used for temporal imaging of time-b...
Thermal rectification in quantum graded mass systems
Pereira, Emmanuel
2010-01-01
We show the existence of thermal rectification in the graded mass quantum chain of harmonic oscillators with self-consistent reservoirs. Our analytical study allows us to identify the ingredients leading to the effect. The presence of rectification in this effective, simple model (representing graded mass materials, systems that may be constructed in practice) indicates that rectification in graded mass quantum systems may be an ubiquitous phenomenon. Moreover, as the classical version of thi...
Combinatorial Approach to Modeling Quantum Systems
Kornyak, Vladimir V.
2016-02-01
Using the fact that any linear representation of a group can be embedded into permutations, we propose a constructive description of quantum behavior that provides, in particular, a natural explanation of the appearance of complex numbers and unitarity in the formalism of the quantum mechanics. In our approach, the quantum behavior can be explained by the fundamental impossibility to trace the identity of the indistinguishable objects in their evolution. Any observation only provides information about the invariant relations between such objects. The trajectory of a quantum system is a sequence of unitary evolutions interspersed with observationsâ€”non-unitary projections. We suggest a scheme to construct combinatorial models of quantum evolution. The principle of selection of the most likely trajectories in such models via the large numbers approximation leads in the continuum limit to the principle of least action with the appropriate Lagrangians and deterministic evolution equations
Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics
Tian, Zehua; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This resul...
CIME School on Quantum Many Body Systems
Rivasseau, Vincent; Solovej, Jan Philip; Spencer, Thomas
2012-01-01
The book is based on the lectures given at the CIME school "Quantum many body systems" held in the summer of 2010. It provides a tutorial introduction to recent advances in the mathematics of interacting systems, written by four leading experts in the field: V. Rivasseau illustrates the applications of constructive Quantum Field Theory to 2D interacting electrons and their relation to quantum gravity; R. Seiringer describes a proof of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gross-Pitaevski limit and explains the effects of rotating traps and the emergence of lattices of quantized vortices; J.-P. Solovej gives an introduction to the theory of quantum Coulomb systems and to the functional analytic methods used to prove their thermodynamic stability; finally, T. Spencer explains the supersymmetric approach to Anderson localization and its relation to the theory of random matrices. All the lectures are characterized by their mathematical rigor combined with physical insights.
Universal simulation of Markovian open quantum systems
Sweke, Ryan; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Bernard, Denis; Petruccione, Francesco
2015-06-01
We consider the problem of constructing a "universal set" of Markovian processes, such that any Markovian open quantum system, described by a one-parameter semigroup of quantum channels, can be simulated through sequential simulations of processes from the universal set. In particular, for quantum systems of dimension d , we explicitly construct a universal set of semigroup generators, parametrized by d2-3 continuous parameters, and prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the dynamical simulation of a d -dimensional Markovian quantum system is the ability to implement (a) quantum channels from the semigroups generated by elements of the universal set of generators, and (b) unitary operations on the system. Furthermore, we provide an explicit algorithm for simulating the dynamics of a Markovian open quantum system using this universal set of generators, and show that it is efficient, with respect to this universal set, when the number of distinct Lindblad operators (representing physical dissipation processes) scales polynomially with respect to the number of subsystems.
Superconducting circuitry for quantum electromechanical systems
LaHaye, Matthew D.; Rouxinol, Francisco; Hao, Yu; Shim, Seung-Bo; Irish, Elinor K.
2015-05-01
Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and e orts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.
Robust observer for uncertain linear quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the theory of quantum dynamical filtering, one of the biggest issues is that the underlying system dynamics represented by a quantum stochastic differential equation must be known exactly in order that the corresponding filter provides an optimal performance; however, this assumption is generally unrealistic. Therefore, in this paper, we consider a class of linear quantum systems subjected to time-varying norm-bounded parametric uncertainties and then propose a robust observer such that the variance of the estimation error is guaranteed to be within a certain bound. Although in the linear case much of classical control theory can be applied to quantum systems, the quantum robust observer obtained in this paper does not have a classical analog due to the system's specific structure with respect to the uncertainties. Moreover, by considering a typical quantum control problem, we show that the proposed robust observer is fairly robust against a parametric uncertainty of the system even when the other estimators--the optimal Kalman filter and risk-sensitive observer--fail in the estimation
Quantum mechanics in general quantum systems (I): Exact solution
Wang, An Min
2006-01-01
Starting from our idea of combining the Feynman path integral spirit and the Dyson series kernel, we find an explicit and general form of time evolution operator that is a $c$-number function and a power series of perturbation including all order approximations in the unperturbed Hamiltonian representation. Based on it, we obtain an exact solution of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation in general quantum systems independent of time. Comparison of our exact solution with the existed...
Dicke model for quantum Hall systems
Hama, Y.; Fauzi, M. H.; Nemoto, K.; Hirayama, Y.; Ezawa, Z. F.
2016-02-01
In GaAs quantum Hall (QH) systems, electrons are coupled with nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, which is normally not strong enough to change the dynamics of electrons and nuclear spins. The dynamics of the QH systems, however, may drastically change when the nuclear spins interact with low-energy collective excitation modes of the electron spins. We theoretically investigate the nuclear-electron spin interaction in the QH systems as hybrid quantum systems driven by the hyperfine interaction. In particular, we study the interaction between the nuclear spins and the Nambu–Goldstone (NG) mode with the linear dispersion relation associated with the U(1) spin rotational symmetry breaking. We show that such an interaction is described as nuclear spins collectively coupled to the NG mode, and can be effectively described by the Dicke model. Based on the model we suggest that various collective spin phenomena realized in quantum optical systems can also emerge in the QH systems.
Quantum optical properties in plasmonic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ooi, C. H. Raymond [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-04-24
Plasmonic metallic particle (MP) can affect the optical properties of a quantum system (QS) in a remarkable way. We develop a general quantum nonlinear formalism with exact vectorial description for the scattered photons by the QS. The formalism enables us to study the variations of the dielectric function and photon spectrum of the QS with the particle distance between QS and MP, exciting laser direction, polarization and phase in the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the MP. The quantum formalism also serves as a powerful tool for studying the effects of these parameters on the nonclassical properties of the scattered photons. The plasmonic effect of nanoparticles has promising possibilities as it provides a new way for manipulating quantum optical properties of light in nanophotonic systems.
Ideal continuous measurement in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that in open quantum systems the so-called Zeno paradox is not valid. The equations of ideal continuous measurement for Markovian open systems are elaborated and applied to Pauli's simple open system the actual energy level of which is shown to be monitorable by continuous nondemolition measurement. (author)
Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics
Pepino, R. A.; Cooper, J.; Meiser, D.; Anderson, D. Z.; Holland, M J
2010-01-01
We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate atomic transport across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. Finally, we show t...
Pairing in the quantum Hall system
Ahn, Kang-Hun; Chang, K J
1997-01-01
We find an analogy between the single skyrmion state in the quantum Hall system and the BCS superconducting state and address that the quantum mechanical origin of the skyrmion is electronic pairing. The skyrmion phase is found to be unstable for magnetic fields above the critical field $B_{c}(T)$ at temperature $T$, which is well represented by the relation $B_c(T)/B_{c}(0) \\approx {[1-(T/T_c)^3]}^{1/2}$.
Quantum phase transitions in electronic systems
Kirkpatrick, T. R.; Belitz, D.
1997-01-01
Zero-temperature or quantum phase transitions in itinerant electronic systems both with and without quenched disordered are discussed. Phase transitions considered include, the ferromagnetic transition, the antiferromagnetic transition, the superconductor-metal transition, and various metal-insulator transitions. Emphasis is placed on how to determine the universal properties that characterize these quantum phase transitions. For the first three of the phase transitions list...
Bogolyubov kinetic equation for quantum dynamic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Weil representation of quantum-mechanic dynamic variables of the system is considered. At the very first stage of the problem solution the authors pass on to Weil symbols of the corresponding variables in the von Neuman equation. This gives the possibility of deriving opportune for investigation concrete systems of kinetic equations and permits to develop a consecutive approach to plotting of a closed kinetic equation for a case of a weak interaction of classical dynamic systems for a quantum case separating to the possible extent variables of the great and small systems in the equation
Scattering Theory for Open Quantum Systems
Behrndt, J.; Malamud, M. M.; Neidhardt, H.
2006-01-01
Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator $A_D$ in a Hilbert space $\\sH$ is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation $\\widetilde K$ of $A_D$ can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the ope...
Complex quantum systems analysis of large Coulomb systems
Siedentop, Heinz
2013-01-01
This volume is based on lectures given during the program Complex Quantum Systems held at the National University of Singapore's Institute for Mathematical Sciences from 17 February to 27 March 2010. It guides the reader through two introductory expositions on large Coulomb systems to five of the most important developments in the field: derivation of mean field equations, derivation of effective Hamiltonians, alternative high precision methods in quantum chemistry, modern many body methods originating from quantum information, and - the most complex - semirelativistic quantum electrodynamics.
Open quantum systems far from equilibrium
Schaller, Gernot
2014-01-01
This monograph provides graduate students and also professional researchers aiming to understand the dynamics of open quantum systems with a valuable and self-contained toolbox. Special focus is laid on the link between microscopic models and the resulting open-system dynamics. This includes how to derive the celebrated Lindblad master equation without applying the rotating wave approximation. As typical representatives for non-equilibrium configurations it treats systems coupled to multiple reservoirs (including the description of quantum transport), driven systems, and feedback-controlled quantum systems. Each method is illustrated with easy-to-follow examples from recent research. Exercises and short summaries at the end of every chapter enable the reader to approach the frontiers of current research quickly and make the book useful for quick reference.
Symmetric and asymmetric quantum channels in quantum communication systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Symmetric and asymmetric quantum channels which act on bipartite bosonic states are considered. The linear dissipative channel and the quantum teleportation channel are applied. The influences of the symmetric and asymmetric quantum channels on bipartite Gaussian states are investigated by means of the inseparability condition. Furthermore, quantum teleportation and quantum dense coding of continuous variables performed by means of two-mode squeezed-vacuum states under the influence of the noisy quantum channels are discussed
Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vourdas, A [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)
2004-03-01
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space are considered, and phase-space methods like the Heisenberg-Weyl group, symplectic transformations and Wigner and Weyl functions are discussed. A factorization of such systems in terms of smaller subsystems, based on the Chinese remainder theorem, is studied. The general formalism is applied to the case of angular momentum. In this context, SU(2) coherent states are used for analytic representations. Links between the theory of finite quantum systems and other fields of research are discussed.
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space are considered, and phase-space methods like the Heisenberg-Weyl group, symplectic transformations and Wigner and Weyl functions are discussed. A factorization of such systems in terms of smaller subsystems, based on the Chinese remainder theorem, is studied. The general formalism is applied to the case of angular momentum. In this context, SU(2) coherent states are used for analytic representations. Links between the theory of finite quantum systems and other fields of research are discussed
Scattering theory for open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behrndt, Jussi [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Malamud, Mark M. [Donetsk National University (Ukraine). Dept. of Mathematics; Neidhardt, Hagen [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)
2006-07-01
Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator A{sub D} in a Hilbert space H is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation K of A{sub D} can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system {l_brace}A{sub D},h{r_brace}, but since K is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family {l_brace}A({mu}){r_brace} of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy {mu}, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from scattering matrices of single Pseudo-Hamiltonians as in the first part of the paper. The general results are applied to a class of Sturm-Liouville operators arising in dissipative and quantum transmitting Schroedinger-Poisson systems. (orig.)
Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems
Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco; 10.1038/srep00885
2012-01-01
Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent "quantumness" still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two "quantum witnesses" to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems.
Recent advances in quantum integrable systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amico, L.; Belavin, A.; Buffenoir, E.; Castro Alvaredo, A.; Caudrelier, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Corrig, E.; Crampe, N.; Deguchi, T.; Dobrev, V.K.; Doikou, A.; Doyon, B.; Feher, L.; Fioravanti, D.; Gohmann, F.; Hallnas, M.; Jimbo, M.; Konno, N.C.H.; Korchemsky, G.; Kulish, P.; Lassalle, M.; Maillet, J.M.; McCoy, B.; Mintchev, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Quano, F.Y.Z.; Ragnisco, R.; Ravanini, F.; Rittenberg, V.; Rivasseau, V.; Rossi, M.; Satta, G.; Sedrakyan, T.; Shiraishi, J.; Suzuki, N.C.J.; Yamada, Y.; Zamolodchikov, A.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Posta, S.; Sedra, M.B.; Zuevskiy, A.; Gohmann, F
2005-07-01
This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies.
Recent advances in quantum integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies
Nonequilibrium Quantum Systems: Fluctuations and Interactions
Subasi, Yigit
We explore some aspects of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems. Two chapters are devoted to fluctuation theorems which were originally derived for classical systems. The main challenge in formulating them in quantum mechanics is the fact that fundamental quantities of interest, like work, are defined via the classical concept of a phase space trajectory. We utilize the decoherent histories conceptual framework, in which classical trajectories emerge in quantum mechanics as a result of coarse graining, and provide a first-principles analysis of the nonequilibrium work relation of Jarzynski and Crooks's fluctuation theorem for a quantum system interacting with a general environment based on the quantum Brownian motion (QBM) model. We indicate a parameter range at low temperatures where the theorems might fail in their original form. Fluctuation theorems of Jarzynski and Crooks for systems obeying classical Hamiltonian dynamics are derived under the assumption that the initial conditions are sampled from a canonical ensemble, even though the equilibrium state of an isolated system is typically associated with the microcanonical ensemble. We address this issue through an exact analysis of the classical Brownian motion model. We argue that a stronger form of ensemble equivalence than usually discussed in equilibrium statistical mechanics is required for these theorems to hold in the infinite environment limit irrespective of the ensemble used, and proceed to prove it for this model. An exact expression for the probability distribution of work is obtained for finite environments. Intuitively one expects a system to relax to an equilibrium state when brought into contact with a thermal environment. Yet it is important to have rigorous results that provide conditions for equilibration and characterize the equilibrium state. We consider the dynamics of open quantum systems using the Langevin and master equations and rigorously show that under fairly general conditions quantum systems interacting with a heat bath relax to the equilibrium state defined as the reduced thermal state of the system plus environment, even in the strong coupling regime. Our proof is valid to second-order in interaction strength for general systems and exact for the linear QBM model, for which we also show the equivalence of multi-time correlations. In the final chapter we give a sampling of our investigations into macroscopic quantum phenomena. We work out in detail a specific example of how and under what conditions the center of mass (CoM) coordinate of a macroscopic object emerges as the relevant degree of freedom. Interaction patterns are studied in terms of the couplings they induce between the CoM and relative coordinates of two macroscopic objects. We discuss the implications of these interaction patterns on macroscopic entanglement.
Quantum games in open systems using biophysical Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the necessary physical conditions to model an open quantum system as a quantum game. By applying the formalism of quantum operations on a particular system, we use Kraus operators as quantum strategies. The physical interpretation is a conflict among different configurations of the environment. The resolution of the conflict displays regimes of minimum loss of information
Quantum games in open systems using biophysical Hamiltonians
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faber, Jean [National Laboratory of Scientific Computing (LNCC), Av. Getulio Vargas 333, Quitandinha 25651-075, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: faber@lncc.br; Portugal, Renato [National Laboratory of Scientific Computing (LNCC), Av. Getulio Vargas 333, Quitandinha 25651-075, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: portugal@lncc.br; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lpr@adc.coppe.ufrj.br
2006-09-25
We analyze the necessary physical conditions to model an open quantum system as a quantum game. By applying the formalism of quantum operations on a particular system, we use Kraus operators as quantum strategies. The physical interpretation is a conflict among different configurations of the environment. The resolution of the conflict displays regimes of minimum loss of information.
Current in open quantum systems.
Gebauer, Ralph; Car, Roberto
2004-10-15
We show that a dissipative current component is present in the dynamics generated by a Liouville-master equation, in addition to the usual component associated with Hamiltonian evolution. The dissipative component originates from coarse graining in time, implicit in a master equation, and needs to be included to preserve current continuity. We derive an explicit expression for the dissipative current in the context of the Markov approximation. Finally, we illustrate our approach with a simple numerical example, in which a quantum particle is coupled to a harmonic phonon bath and dissipation is described by the Pauli master equation. PMID:15524960
Current in open quantum systems
Gebauer, R; Gebauer, Ralph; Car, Roberto
2004-01-01
We show that a dissipative current component is present in the dynamics generated by a Liouville-master equation, in addition to the usual component associated with Hamiltonian evolution. The dissipative component originates from coarse graining in time, implicit in a master equation, and needs to be included to preserve current continuity. We derive an explicit expression for the dissipative current in the context of the Markov approximation. Finally, we illustrate our approach with a simple numerical example, in which a quantum particle is coupled to a harmonic phonon bath and dissipation is described by the Pauli master equation.
On the velocity of moving relativistic unstable quantum systems
Urbanowski, K
2015-01-01
We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of moving freely relativistic quantum unstable systems can not be constant in time. We show that this effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: It is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not definite.
Relativistic quantum metrology in open system dynamics.
Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Yu, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au; Miao, Zibo, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Amini, Hadis, E-mail: nhamini@stanford.edu [Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Gough, John, E-mail: jug@aber.ac.uk [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, SY23 3BZ Wales (United Kingdom); Ugrinovskii, Valery, E-mail: v.ugrinovskii@gmail.com [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales at ADFA, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); James, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.james@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2014-06-15
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks
Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems
Anastopoulos, Charis; Savvidou, Ntina
2013-09-01
We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines 'classical' time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems.
Quantum Hall effect in semiconductor systems with quantum dots and antidots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The integer quantum Hall effect in systems of semiconductor quantum dots and antidots is studied theoretically as a factor of temperature. It is established that the conditions for carrier localization in quantum-dot systems favor the observation of the quantum Hall effect at higher temperatures than in quantum-well systems. The obtained numerical results show that the fundamental plateau corresponding to the transition between the ground and first excited Landau levels can be retained up to a temperature of T âˆ¼ 50 K, which is an order of magnitude higher than in the case of quantum wells. Implementation of the quantum Hall effect at such temperatures requires quantum-dot systems with controllable characteristics, including the optimal size and concentration and moderate geometrical and composition fluctuations. In addition, ordered arrangement is desirable, hence quantum antidots are preferable
Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines ‘classical’ time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems. -- Highlights: •Present a general methodology for deriving temporal probabilities in tunneling systems. •Treatment applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. •Derive a new expression for tunneling time. •Identify new time parameters relevant to tunneling. •Propose a resolution of the superluminality paradox in tunneling
Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anastopoulos, Charis, E-mail: anastop@physics.upatras.gr; Savvidou, Ntina, E-mail: ksavvidou@physics.upatras.gr
2013-09-15
We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines ‘classical’ time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems. -- Highlights: •Present a general methodology for deriving temporal probabilities in tunneling systems. •Treatment applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. •Derive a new expression for tunneling time. •Identify new time parameters relevant to tunneling. •Propose a resolution of the superluminality paradox in tunneling.
System Design for a Long-Line Quantum Repeater
Van Meter, Rodney; Munro, W J; Nemoto, Kae
2007-01-01
We present a new control algorithm and system design for a network of quantum repeaters, and outline the end-to-end protocol architecture. Such a network will create long-distance quantum states, supporting quantum key distribution as well as distributed quantum computation. Quantum repeaters improve the reduction of quantum-communication throughput with distance from exponential to polynomial. Because a quantum state cannot be copied, a quantum repeater is not a signal amplifier, but rather executes algorithms for quantum teleportation in conjunction with a specialized type of quantum error correction called purification to raise the fidelity of the quantum states. We introduce our banded purification scheme, which is especially effective when the fidelity of coupled qubits is low, improving the prospects for experimental realization of such systems. The resulting throughput is calculated via detailed simulations of a long line composed of shorter hops. Our algorithmic improvements increase throughput by a f...
Quantum frustrated and correlated electron systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Thalmeier
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Quantum phases and fluctuations in correlated electron systems with frustration and competing interactions are reviewed. In the localized moment case the S=1/2 J1 - J2 - model on a square lattice exhibits a rich phase diagram with magnetic as well as exotic hidden order phases due to the interplay of frustration and quantum fluctuations. Their signature in magnetocaloric quantities and the high field magnetization are surveyed. The possible quantum phase transitions are discussed and applied to layered vanadium oxides. In itinerant electron systems frustration is an emergent property caused by electron correlations. It leads to enhanced spin fluctuations in a very large region of momentum space and therefore may cause heavy fermion type low temperature anomalies as in the 3d spinel compound LiV2O4 . Competing on-site and inter-site electronic interactions in Kondo compounds are responsible for the quantum phase transition between nonmagnetic Kondo singlet phase and magnetic phase such as observed in many 4f compounds. They may be described by Kondo lattice and simplified Kondo necklace type models. Their quantum phase transitions are investigated by numerical exact diagonalization and analytical bond operator methods respectively.
Environment-assisted quantum transport in ordered systems
Kassal, Ivan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2012-01-01
Noise-assisted transport in quantum systems occurs when quantum time-evolution and decoherence conspire to produce a transport efficiency that is higher than what would be seen in either the purely quantum or purely classical cases. In disordered systems, it has been understood as the suppression of coherent quantum localisation through noise, which brings detuned quantum levels into resonance and thus facilitates transport. We report several new mechanisms of environment-as...
On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system
Khrennikov, Andrei
2004-01-01
It is proposed to define "quantumness" of a system (micro or macroscopic, physical, biological, social, political) by starting with understanding that quantum mechanics is a statistical theory. It says us only about probability distributions. The only possible criteria of quantum behaviour are statistical ones. Therefore I propose to consider any system which produces quantum statistics as quantum ("quantumlike"). A possible test is based on the interference of probabilities...
Study of Classical and Quantum Open Systems
Kong, Lee Chee
2010-01-01
This thesis covers various aspects of open systems in classical and quantum mechanics. In the first part, we deal with classical systems. The bath-of-oscillators formalism is used to describe an open system, and the phenomenological Langevin equation is recovered. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived from its corresponding Langevin equation. The Fokker-Planck equation for a particle in a periodic potential in the high-friction limit is solved using the continued-fraction me...
Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium
Kasztelan, Christian
2010-01-01
The main topic of this thesis is the study of many-body effects in strongly correlated one- or quasi one-dimensional condensed matter systems. These systems are characterized by strong quantum and thermal fluctuations, which make mean-field methods fail and demand for a fully numerical approach. Fortunately, a numerical method exist, which allows to treat unusually large one -dimensional system at very high precision. This method is the density-matrix renormalization group method (DMRG), in...
Lyapunov Control of Quantum Systems with Impulsive Control Fields
Wei Yang; Jitao Sun
2013-01-01
We investigate the Lyapunov control of finite-dimensional quantum systems with impulsive control fields, where the studied quantum systems are governed by the Schrödinger equation. By three different Lyapunov functions and the invariant principle of impulsive systems, we study the convergence of quantum systems with impulsive control fields and propose new results for the mentioned quantum systems in the form of sufficient conditions. Two numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the ...
Lithography system using quantum entangled photons
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Quantum field theory and multiparticle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The use of quantum field theory methods for the investigation of the physical characteristics of the MANY-BODY SYSTEMS is discussed. Mainly discussed is the method of second quantization and the method of the Green functions. Briefly discussed is the method of calculating the Green functions at finite temperatures. (Z.J.)
Quantum mechanics of a system with confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study is made of the quantum mechanical model of confinement. The spectrum of a system with permanently confined channel is investiogated. A closed analytical expression is obtained for the S-matrix describing the scattering on N levels in the confined channel. The influence of the confined channel on the resonant and Coulomb states in the scattering channel is considered
Wigner quantum systems (Lie superalgebraic approach)
Palev, T D
2002-01-01
We present three groups of examples of Wigner Quantum Systems related to the Lie superalgebras $osp(1/6n)$, $sl(1/3n)$ and $sl(n/3)$ and discuss shortly their physical features. In the case of $sl(1/3n)$ we indicate that the underlying geometry is noncommutative.
Field-emission current from quantum system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shpatakovskaya, G V, E-mail: shpagalya@yandex.r [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq.4, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2010-11-01
A universal semiclassical approach is developed to calculate an emission current from a quantum system (atom, ion, metal cluster, metal surface, graphene ribbon, etc.) in a stationary electric field. The same expression is in use for a spherical emitter (atom, negative ion, metal cluster) and a plane metal surface. It is shown the results agree with those of other methods.
System and method for making quantum dots
Bakr, Osman M.
2015-05-28
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.
Quantum mechanics classical results, modern systems, and visualized examples
Robinett, Richard W
2006-01-01
`Quantum Mechanics'' is a comprehensive introduction to quantum mechanics for advanced undergraduate students in physics. It provides the reader with a strong conceptual background in the subject, extensive experience with the necessary mathematical background, as well as numerous visualizations of quantum concepts and phenomena. - ;Quantum Mechanics: Classical Results, Modern Systems, and Visualized Examples is a comprehensive introduction to non-relativistic quantum mechanics for advanced undergraduate students in physics and related fields. It provides students with a strong conceptual background in the most important theoretical aspects of quantum mechanics, extensive experience with the mathematical tools required to solve problems, the opportunity to use quantum ideas to confront modern experimental. realizations of quantum systems, and numerous visualizations of quantum concepts and phenomena. Changes from the First Edition include many new discussions of modern quantum systems (such as Bose-Einstein c...
Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics
Pepino, R A; Meiser, D; Anderson, D Z; Holland, M J
2010-01-01
We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate atomic transport across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. Finally, we show that it is possible to demonstrate AND logic gate behavior in an optical lattice.
Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate the atomic transport of bosons across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. Finally, we show that it is possible to demonstrate and logic gate behavior in an optical lattice.
Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems.
Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt
2015-09-25
We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples, we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state and the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing. PMID:26451540
Resonant macroscopic quantum tunneling in SQUID systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detailed theoretical analysis of the resonant macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconducting quantum interference device systems is presented. Our approach allows us to include the effect of both temperature and sweeping rate of the external flux, and to study the phenomenon both in quasistationary and nonstationary conditions, which can be induced by a fast sweep of the external bias. Moreover we compare our theory with the experimental data of Rouse, Han, and Lukens [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1614 (1995)] referring to the quasistationary case, while other observable effects are predicted in the nonstationary case. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Scattering Theory for Open Quantum Systems
Behrndt, J; Neidhardt, H
2006-01-01
Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator $A_D$ in a Hilbert space $\\sH$ is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation $\\widetilde K$ of $A_D$ can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system $\\{A_D,\\sH\\}$, but since $\\widetilde K$ is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family $\\{A(\\mu)\\}$ of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy $\\mu$, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from sc...
Symmetry and stability of open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The presentation of the thesis involves an introduction and six chapters. Chapter 1 presents notions and results used in the other chpaters. Chapters 2-6 present our results which are focused on two notions: generalized observable and dynamic semigroup. These notions characterize a specific research domain (set up during the last 10 years) which is currently called quantum mechanics of open systems. The two notions (generalized observable and dynamic semigroup) are mathematically correlated. They belong to the set of completely positive linear applications among observable algebras. This fact, associated with that formulation of quantum mechanics according to which it is a special case of quantum mechanics namely, that for which the observable algebra is commutative, help to understand the similar essence of the results presented in chapter 2-6. Thus, the natural mathematical background has been achieved for our results; it is represented by that category whose objects are the observable algebras and whose morphisms are completely positive linear contractions generating unity within unity. These ideas are extensively presented in the introduction. The fact that the relations between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be rigorously treated as positive linear applications between classical observable algebras commutative and quantum observable algebras non-commutative, which are automatically fully positive, has been initially shown in our paper. (author)
Simple quantum systems in the momentum representation
Núñez-Yépez, H N; Martínez y Romero, R P; Salas-Brito, A L
2000-01-01
The momentum representation is seldom used in quantum mechanics courses. Some students are thence surprised by the change in viewpoint when, in doing advanced work, they have to use the momentum rather than the coordinate representation. In this work, we give an introduction to quantum mechanics in momentum space, where the Schrödinger equation becomes an integral equation. To this end we discuss standard problems, namely, the free particle, the quantum motion under a constant potential, a particle interacting with a potential step, and the motion of a particle under a harmonic potential. What is not so standard is that they are all conceived from momentum space and hence they, with the exception of the free particle, are not equivalent to the coordinate space ones with the same names. All the problems are solved within the momentum representation making no reference to the systems they correspond to in the coordinate representation.
Ion-cavity system for quantum networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: A single atom interacting with a single mode of a cavity allows us to probe the quantum interaction between light and matter. In the context of quantum networks, such a system can provide an interface between stationary and flying qubits, making it possible for single photons to transport quantum information between the network nodes. We study a single 40Ca+ ion trapped inside a high-finesse optical resonator. First, we demonstrate and characterize a single-photon source, in which a vacuum-stimulated Raman process transfers atomic population between two Zeeman states of the ion, creating a single photon in the cavity. We evaluate the photon statistics by measuring the second-order correlation function. Moreover, we obtain the photon temporal profile and investigate the dynamics of the process. Secondly, we perform Raman spectroscopy using the cavity. Residual motion of the ion introduces motional sidebands in the Raman spectrum and thus offers prospects for cavity-assisted cooling. (author)
Quantum-mechanical aspects of classically chaotic driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper treats atoms and molecules in laser fields as periodically driven quantum systems. The paper concludes by determining that stochastic excitation is possible in quantum systems with quasiperiodic driving. 17 refs
Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sainz, I. [Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Enrique Diaz de Leon, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico)]. E-mail: isa@culagos.udg.mx; Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410 Guadalajara, Jal. (Mexico)]. E-mail: klimov@cencar.udg.mx; Saavedra, C. [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)]. E-mail: csaaved@udec.cl
2006-02-20
We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found.
Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) â‰¡ trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO) systems, and its closely related solvation mode transformation of system-bath coupling Hamiltonian in general. The exact QDT of DBO systems is also used to clarify the validity of conventional QDT formulations that involve Markovian approximation. In Chapter 3, we develop three nonequivalent but all complete second-order QDT (CS-QDT) formulations. Two of them are of the conventional prescriptions in terms of time-local dissipation and memory kernel, respectively. The third one is called the correlated driving-dissipation equations of motion (CODDE). This novel CS-QDT combines the merits of the former two for its advantages in both the application and numerical implementation aspects. Also highlighted is the importance of correlated driving-dissipation effects on the dynamics of the reduced system. In Chapter 4, we construct an exact QDT formalism via the calculus on path integrals. The new theory aims at the efficient evaluation of non-Markovian dissipation beyond the weak system-bath interaction regime in the presence of time-dependent external field. By adopting exponential-like expansions for bath correlation function, hierarchical equations of motion formalism and continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism are established. The latter will soon be used together with the Dyson equation technique for an efficient evaluation of non-perturbative reduced density matrix dynamics. The interplay between system-bath interaction strength, non-Markovian property, and the required level of hierarchy is also studied with the aid of simple spin-boson systems, together with the three proposed schemes to truncate the infinite hierarchy. In Chapter 5, we develop a nonperturbative theory of electron transfer (ET) in Debye solvents. The resulting exact and analytical rate expression is constructed on the basis of the aforementioned continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism, together with the Dyson equation technique. Not only does it recover the celebrated Marcus' inversion and Kramers' turnover behaviors, the new theory also shows some distinct quantum solvation effects that can alter the ET mechanism. Moreover, the present theory predicts further for the ET reaction thermodynamics, such as equilibrium Gibbs free-energy and entropy, some interesting solvent-dependent features that are calling for experimental verification. In Chapter 6, we discuss the constructed QDTs, in terms of their unified mathematical structure that supports a linear dynamics space, and thus facilitates their applications to various physical problems. The involving details are exemplified with the CODDE form of QDT. As the linear space is concerned, we identify the Schrodinger versus Heisenberg picture and the forward versus backward propagation of the reduced, dissipative Liouville dynamics. For applications we discuss the reduced linear response theory and the optimal control problems, in which the correlated effects of non-Markovian dissipation and field driving are shown to be important. In Chapter 7, we turn to quantum transport, i.e., electric current through molecular or mesoscopic systems under finite applied voltage. By viewing the nonequilibrium transport setup as a quantum open system, we develop a reduced-density-matrix approach to quantum transport. The resulting current is explicitly expressed in terms of the molecular reduced density matrix by tracing out the degrees of freedom of the electrodes at finite bias and temperature. We propose a conditional quantum master equation theory, which is an extension of the conventional (or unconditional) QDT by tracing out the well-defined bath subsets individually, instead of the entire bath degrees of freedom. Both the current and the noise spectrum can be conveniently analyzed in terms of the conditional reduced density matrix dynamics. By far, the QDT (including the conditional one) has only been exploited in second-order form. A self-consistent Born approximation for the system-electrode coupling is further proposed to recover all existing nonlinear current-voltage behaviors including the nonequilibrium Kondo effect. Transport theory based on the exact QDT formalism will be developed in future. In Chapter 8, we study the quantum measurement of a qubit with a quantum-point-contact detector. On the basis of a unified quantum master equation (a form of QDT), we study the measurement-induced relaxation and dephasing of the qubit. Our treatment pays particular attention on the detailed-balance relation, which is a consequence of properly accounting for the energy exchange between the qubit and detector during the measurement process. We also derive a conditional quantum master equation for quantum measurement in general, and study the readout characteristics of the qubit measurement. Our theory is applicable to the quantum measurement at arbitrary voltage and temperature. A number of remarkable new features are found and highlighted in concern with their possible relevance to future experiments. In Chapter 9, we discuss the further development of QDT, aiming at an efficient evaluation of many-electron systems. This will be carried out by reducing the many-particle (Fermion or Boson) QDT to a single-particle one by exploring, e.g. the Wick's contraction theorem. It also results in a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for transport through complex large-scale (e.g. molecules) systems. Primary results of the TDDFT-QDT are reported. In Chapter 10, we summary the thesis, and comment and remark on the future work on both the theoretical and application aspects of QDT.
Mascarenhas, E; Cavalcanti, D; Cunha, M Terra; Santos, M França
2010-01-01
We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, essential for classical entanglement percolation.
Security of practical quantum key distribution systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Nitin
2015-02-24
This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.
Periodic thermodynamics of isolated quantum systems.
Lazarides, Achilleas; Das, Arnab; Moessner, Roderich
2014-04-18
The nature of the behavior of an isolated many-body quantum system periodically driven in time has been an open question since the beginning of quantum mechanics. After an initial transient period, such a system is known to synchronize with the driving; in contrast to the nondriven case, no fundamental principle has been proposed for constructing the resulting nonequilibrium state. Here, we analytically show that, for a class of integrable systems, the relevant ensemble is constructed by maximizing an appropriately defined entropy subject to constraints, which we explicitly identify. This result constitutes a generalization of the concepts of equilibrium statistical mechanics to a class of far-from-equilibrium systems, up to now mainly accessible using ad hoc methods. PMID:24785013
Security of practical quantum key distribution systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer
Chiral quantum mechanics (CQM) for antihydrogen systems
Van Hooydonk, G
2005-01-01
A first deception of QM on antiH already appears in one-center integrals for two-center systems (G. Van Hooydonk, physics/0511115). In reality, full QM is a theory for chiral systems but the QM establishment was wrong footed with a permutation of reference frames. With chiral quantum mechanics (CQM), the theoretical ban on natural antiH must be lifted as soon as possible.
Hybrid quantum systems of ions and atoms
Sias, Carlo
2014-01-01
In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.
The quantum human central neural system.
Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John
2015-01-01
In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere. PMID:25416114
Repeated Interaction Quantum Systems: Deterministic and Random
Joye, Alain
2008-01-01
This paper gives an overview of recent results concerning the long time dynamics of repeated interaction quantum systems in a deterministic and random framework. We describe the non equilibrium steady states (NESS) such systems display and we present, as a macroscopic consequence, a second law of thermodynamics these NESS give rise to. We also explain in some details the analysis of products of certain random matrices underlying this dynamical problem.
Repeated Interactions Quantum Systems:. Deterministic and Random
Joye, Alain
2008-08-01
This paper gives an overview of recent results concerning the long time dynamics of repeated interaction quantum systems in a deterministic and random framework. We describe the non equilibrium steady states (NESS) such systems display and we present, as a macroscopic consequence, a second law of thermodynamics these NESS give rise to. We also explain in some details the analysis of products of certain random matrices underlying this dynamical problem.
Quantum chaos and thermalization in gapped systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the onset of thermalization and quantum chaos in finite one-dimensional gapped systems of hard-core bosons. Integrability in these systems is broken by next-nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions, which also generate a superfluid to insulator transition. By employing full exact diagonalization, we study chaos indicators and few-body observables. We show that with increasing system size, chaotic behavior is seen over a broader range of parameters and, in particular, deeper into the insulating phase. Concomitantly, we observe that, as the system size increases, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis extends its range of validity inside the insulating phase and is accompanied by the thermalization of the system.
Irreversible processes in quantum mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although the information provided by the evolution of the density matrix of a quantum system is equivalent with the knowledge of all observables at a given time, it turns out ot be insufficient to answer certain questions in quantum optics or linear response theory where the commutator of certain observables at different space-time points is needed. In this doctoral thesis we prove the existence of density matrices for common probabilities at multiple times and discuss their properties and their characterization independent of a special representation. We start with a compilation of definitions and properties of classical common probabilities and correlation functions. In the second chapter we give the definition of a quantum mechanical Markov process and derive the properties of propagators, generators and conditional probabilities as well as their mutual relations. The third chapter is devoted to a treatment of quantum mechanical systems in thermal equilibrium for which the principle of detailed balance holds as a consequence of microreversibility. We work out the symmetry properties of the two-sided correlation functions which turn out to be analogous to those in classical processes. In the final chapter we use the Gaussian behavior of the stationary correlation function of an oscillator and determine a class of Markov processes which are characterized by dissipative Lionville operators. We succeed in obtaining the canonical representation in a purely algebraic way by means of similarity transformations. Starting from this representation it is particularly easy to calculate the propagator and the correlation function. (HJ) 891 HJ/HJ 892 MKO
Quantum information processing based on cavity QED with mesoscopic systems
Lukin, Mikhail; Fleischhauer, Michael; Imamoglu, Atac
2000-01-01
Introduction: Recent developments in quantum communication and computing [1-3] stimulated an intensive search for physical systems that can be used for coherent processing of quantum information. It is generally believed that quantum entanglement of distinguishable quantum bits (qubits) is at the heart of quantum information processing. Significant efforts have been directed towards the design of elementary logic gates, which perform certain unitary processes on pairs of qubits. These gates m...
Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems
Girolami, Davide
2014-01-01
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource...
Work exchange between quantum systems: the spin-oscillator model
Schröder, Heiko; Mahler, Günter
2009-01-01
With the development of quantum thermodynamics it has been shown that relaxation to thermal equilibrium and with it the concept of heat flux may emerge directly from quantum mechanics. This happens for a large class of quantum systems if embedded into another quantum environment. In this paper, we discuss the complementary question of the emergence of work flux from quantum mechanics. We introduce and discuss two different methods to assess the work source quality of a syste...
Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarasov, Vasily E. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2013-01-15
General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.
Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2013-01-01
General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schrödinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.
Mathematical Structure in Quantum Systems and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This volume contains most of the contributions presented at the Conference 'Mathematical Structures in Quantum Systems and applications', held at the Centro de Ciencias de Benasque 'Pedro Pascual', Benasque (Spain) from 8-14 July 2012. The aim of the Conference was to bring together physicists working on different applications of mathematical methods to quantum systems in order to enable the different communities to become acquainted with other approaches and techniques that could be used in their own fields of expertise. We concentrated on three main subjects: – the geometrical description of Quantum Mechanics; – the Casimir effect and its mathematical implications; – the Quantum Zeno Effect and Open system dynamics. Each of these topics had a set of general lectures, aimed at presenting a global view on the subject, and other more technical seminars. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to creating a wonderful scientific atmosphere during the Conference. We would especially like to thank the speakers and the authors of the papers contained in this volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and, of course, the referees for their generous work. Special thanks are also due to the staff of the Centro de Ciencias de Benasque 'Pedro Pascual' who made this successful meeting possible. On behalf of the organising committee and the authors we would also like to acknowledge the partial support provided by the ESF-CASIMIR network ('New Trends and Applications of the Casimir Effect'), the QUITEMAD research Project (“Quantum technologies at Madrid”, Ref. Comunidad de Madrid P2009/ESP-1594), the MICINN Project (MTM2011-16027-E) and the Government from Arag´on (DGA) (DGA, Department of Industry and Innovation and the European Social Fund, DGA-Grant 24/1) who made the Conference and this Proceedings volume possible.
Aberration-corrected quantum temporal imaging system
Zhu, Yunhui; Gauthier, Daniel J
2013-01-01
We describe the design of a temporal imaging system that simultaneously reshapes the temporal profile and converts the frequency of a photonic wavepacket, while preserving its quantum state. A field lens, which imparts a temporal quadratic phase modulation, is used to correct for the residual phase caused by field curvature in the image, thus enabling temporal imaging for phase-sensitive quantum applications. We show how this system can be used for temporal imaging of time-bin entangled photonic wavepackets and compare the field lens correction technique to systems based on a temporal telescope and far-field imaging. The field-lens approach removes the residual phase using four dispersive elements. The group delay dispersion (GDD) $D$ is constrained by the available bandwidth $\\Delta\
An E-payment system based on quantum group signature
Xiaojun, Wen
2010-12-01
Security and anonymity are essential to E-payment systems. However, existing E-payment systems will easily be broken into soon with the emergence of quantum computers. In this paper, we propose an E-payment system based on quantum group signature. In contrast to classical E-payment systems, our quantum E-payment system can protect not only the users' anonymity but also the inner structure of customer groups. Because of adopting the two techniques of quantum key distribution, a one-time pad and quantum group signature, unconditional security of our E-payment system is guaranteed.
Charge and momentum in quantum electromechanical systems
Bennett, Steven D.
We address theoretical questions in quantum nanoelectromechanical systems. These are systems where a mechanical oscillator is coupled to a conductor in which single electrons or the quantum coherence of electrons plays an important role. The interplay of quantum electronics with the motion of a relatively macroscopic object provides a way to probe both the mechanics and the electronics with extraordinary sensitivity. We address three problems based on monitoring either the electronic or mechanical component to measure quantum properties of the coupled system. First, we study the full charge transfer statistics and correlations in a tunnel junction coupled to a mechanical oscillator, viewing the current measured through the junction as a detector of the oscillator position. We find several surprising results that are not obtained in a study of only the average and variance of tunneled charge. Even when the oscillator is weakly coupled to the tunnel junction, it can lead to highly non-Gaussian tunneling statistics; moreover, non-Gaussian correlations between the oscillator motion and transferred charge show that the backaction of tunneling electrons on the oscillator cannot be fully described as coupling the oscillator to an effective thermal bath. Second, we use a general scattering approach to study the backaction of a quantum point contact position detector on a mechanical oscillator. Our results remain valid far from the tunneling limit, an important experimental regime and where previous calculations of backaction break down. We obtain the backaction damping and heating directly in terms of the scattering matrix, and find that not only the transmission but also the scattering phases play an important role. Finally, we study a quantum dot capacitively coupled to an oscillating cantilever. In this case, the damping of the mechanical oscillator is monitored to measure quantum electronic properties of the dot. For weak electromechanical coupling, we find an effective temperature-dependent level repulsion of Coulomb blockade peaks in the damping versus gate voltage, and show that this is a result of degenerate energy levels on the dot. We further consider the regime of strong coupling, where the cantilever motion strongly and nonlinearly affects the charge on the dot. In this regime, the lineshape asymmetry of Coulomb blockade peaks in the damping, also a result of degeneracy, is dramatically enhanced. These results are in excellent agreement with experimental observations.
Focus on coherent control of complex quantum systems
Whaley, Birgitta; Milburn, Gerard
2015-10-01
The rapid growth of quantum information sciences over the past few decades has fueled a corresponding rise in high profile applications in fields such as metrology, sensors, spintronics, and attosecond dynamics, in addition to quantum information processing. Realizing this potential of todayâ€™s quantum science and the novel technologies based on this requires a high degree of coherent control of quantum systems. While early efforts in systematizing methods for high fidelity quantum control focused on isolated or closed quantum systems, recent advances in experimental design, measurement and monitoring, have stimulated both need and interest in the control of complex or large scale quantum systems that may also be coupled to an interactive environment or reservoir. This focus issue brings together new theoretical and experimental work addressing the formulation and implementation of quantum control for a broad range of applications in quantum science and technology today.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lutsenko Y. V.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this article we give a generalization of Hartley's model for the measure of information. We propose a rate of emergence, which is applicable to systems obeying classical or quantum statistics. Quantum sys-tems that obey Fermi-Dirac statistics and Bose-Einstein condensate, as well as classical systems obey-ing the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics have been con-sidered. We found that the emergence parameter of quantum and classical systems differ as well as the emergence parameter of quantum systems of fermions and bosons. Consequently, the emergence parameter might be used to distinguish the classical system and quantum system, as well as quantum system of fermions and the quantum system of bosons
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)
2014-03-24
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states
Kleine, Adrian
2010-01-01
In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Compared to classical systems, quantum many-body systems possess an exponentially enlarged number of degrees of freedom, significantly complicating a simulation on a classical computer. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Pro...
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.
2014-03-01
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Construction of a quantum repeater based on a quantum dot in an optical microcavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate an efficient quantum repeater protocol based on quantum dots (QDs) and optical microcavity coupled systems. The proposed system can be used for long-distance quantum entanglement distribution, exploiting the interaction between single photons and QDs embedded in optical microcavities. We present the entanglement generation and entanglement swapping modules with QDs in microcavity systems and generalize it to quantum repeaters. The utilization of QDs and coupled cavities leads to a high success probability for the generation of entanglement. By using current and near future technology, entanglement with a high fidelity can be achieved and robust quantum communication over long-distance channels is feasible. (letters)
Nonequilibrium representative ensembles for isolated quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An isolated quantum system is considered, prepared in a nonequilibrium initial state. In order to uniquely define the system dynamics, one has to construct a representative statistical ensemble. From the principle of least action it follows that the role of the evolution generator is played by a grand Hamiltonian, but not merely by its energy part. A theorem is proved expressing the commutators of field operators with operator products through variational derivatives of these products. A consequence of this theorem is the equivalence of the variational equations for field operators with the Heisenberg equations for the latter. A finite quantum system cannot equilibrate in the strict sense. But it can tend to a quasi-stationary state characterized by ergodic averages and the appropriate representative ensemble depending on initial conditions. Microcanonical ensemble, arising in the eigenstate thermalization, is just a particular case of representative ensembles. Quasi-stationary representative ensembles are defined by the principle of minimal information. The latter also implies the minimization of an effective thermodynamic potential. -- Highlights: ? The evolution of a nonequilibrium isolated quantum system is considered. ? The grand Hamiltonian is shown to be the evolution generator. ? A theorem is proved connecting operator commutators with variational derivatives. ? Quasi-stationary states are described by representative ensembles. ? These ensembles, generally, depend on initial conditions.
Mixing properties of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We generalize the classical notion of topological mixing for automorphisms of C*-algebras in two ways. We show that for Galilean invariant Fermi systems the weaker form of mixing is satisfied. With some additional requirement on the range of the interaction we can also demonstrate the stronger mixing property. (Author)
PSPACE has 2-round quantum interactive proof systems
Watrous, J
1999-01-01
In this paper we consider quantum interactive proof systems, i.e., interactive proof systems in which the prover and verifier may perform quantum computations and exchange quantum messages. It is proved that every language in PSPACE has a quantum interactive proof system that requires only two rounds of communication between the prover and verifier, while having exponentially small (one-sided) probability of error. It follows that quantum interactive proof systems are strictly more powerful than classical interactive proof systems in the constant-round case unless the polynomial time hierarchy collapses to the second level.
On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.
On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems
Achuthan, P.; Narayanankutty, Karuppath
2009-07-01
The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.
Exchange fluctuation theorem for correlated quantum systems
Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Jennings, David; Hirono, Yuji; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio
2015-10-01
We extend the exchange fluctuation theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the nonequilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. In addition, a more abstract approach leads us to a "correlation fluctuation theorem". Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semiclassical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations. We also present a toy example of qubit-qudit heat exchange, and find that non-classical behaviour such as deterministic energy transfer and anomalous heat flow are reflected in our exchange fluctuation theorem.
The Quantum as an Emergent System
Groessing, Gerhard; Pascasio, Johannes Mesa; Schwabl, Herbert; 10.1088/1742-6596/361/1/012008
2012-01-01
Double slit interference is explained with the aid of what we call "21stcentury classical physics". We model a particle as an oscillator ("bouncer") in a thermal context, which is given by some assumed "zero-point" field of the vacuum. In this way, the quantum is understood as an emergent system, i.e., a steady-state system maintained by a constant throughput of (vacuum) energy. To account for the particle's thermal environment, we introduce a "path excitation field", which derives from the thermodynamics of the zero-point vacuum and which represents all possible paths a particle can take via thermal path fluctuations. The intensity distribution on a screen behind a double slit is calculated, as well as the corresponding trajectories and the probability density current. Further, particular features of the relative phase are shown to be responsible for nonlocal effects not only in ordinary quantum theory, but also in our classical approach.
Decoherence in infinite quantum systems
Hellmich, Mario
2009-01-01
Die Quantenmechanik gilt heute als unsere grundlegendste physikalische Theorie. Als solche beschrÃ¤nkt sie sich nicht nur auf ihre ursprÃ¼nglichen Anwendungsbereiche wie die Atomphysik, Elementarteilchenphysik und die Quantenfeldtheorie, sondern ihr Gegenstandsbereich sollte auch makroskopische Systeme einschlieÃŸen, die den Gesetzen der klassischen Physik gehorchen. Hier stÃ¶ÃŸt man jedoch auf ein fundamentales Problem: Wendet man die Gesetze der Quantenmechanik direkt auf die Objekte unserer All...
Formulation and Application of Quantum Monte Carlo Method to Fractional Quantum Hall Systems
Suzuki, Sei; Nakajima, Tatsuya
2003-01-01
Quantum Monte Carlo method is applied to fractional quantum Hall systems. The use of the linear programming method enables us to avoid the negative-sign problem in the Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The formulation of this method and the technique for avoiding the sign problem are described. Some numerical results on static physical quantities are also reported.
Controllability of multi-partite quantum systems and selective excitation of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the degrees of controllability of multi-partite quantum systems, as well as necessary and sufficient criteria for each case. The results are applied to the problem of simultaneous control of an ensemble of quantum dots with a single laser pulse. Finally, we apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate selective excitation of individual dots for a simultaneously controllable ensemble of quantum dots
Effective Equations of Motion for Quantum Systems
Bojowald, M.; A. Skirzewski
2006-01-01
In many situations, one can approximate the behavior of a quantum system, i.e. a wave function subject to a partial differential equation, by effective classical equations which are ordinary differential equations. A general method and geometrical picture is developed and shown to agree with effective action results, commonly derived through path integration, for perturbations around a harmonic oscillator ground state. The same methods are used to describe dynamical coherent states, which in ...
Quantum chromodynamic evolution of multiquark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new technique which extends the quantum chromodynamic evolution formalism in order to predict the short distance behavior of multiquark wavefunctions. In particular, predictions are given for the deuteron reduced form factor in the high momentum transfer region, and rigorous constraints on the short distance effective force between two baryons are predicted. These new techniques can be generalized in order to analyze the short distance behavior of multibaryon systems
Noise cancellation effect in quantum systems
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino
2004-01-01
We consider the time evolution of simple quantum systems under the influence of random fluctuations of the control parameters. We show that when the parameters fluctuate sufficiently fast, there is a cancellation effect of the noise. We propose that such an effect could be experimentally observed by performing a simple experiment with trapped ions. As a byproduct of our analysis, we provide an explanation of the robustness against random perturbations of adiabatic population...
Transient dynamics of open quantum systems
Kashuba, Oleksiy; Schoeller, Herbert
2013-01-01
We present a renormalization group (RG) method which allows for an analytical study of the transient dynamics of open quantum systems on all time scales. Whereas oscillation frequencies and decay rates of exponential time evolution follow from the fixed point positions, the long-time behavior of pre-exponential functions is related to the scaling behavior around the fixed points. We show that certain terms of the RG flow are only cut off by inverse time, which leads to a dif...
Classical and quantum chaos in atomic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atomic systems played a major role in the birth and growth of quantum mechanics. One central idea was to relate the well-known classical motion of the electron of a hydrogen atom--an ellipsis around the nucleus--to the experimentally observed quantization of the energy levels. This is the aim of the Bohr and Bohr-Sommerfeld models. These simple semiclassical models were unable to make any reliable prediction on the energy spectrum of the next simplest atom, helium. Because of the great success of quantum mechanics, the problem of correspondence between the classical and the quantal dynamics has not received much attention in the last 60 years. The fundamental question is (Gutzwiller, 1990). How can classical mechanics be understood as a limiting case within quantum mechanics? For systems with time-independent one-dimensional dynamics like the harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, the correspondence is well understood. The restriction to such simple cases creates the erroneous impression that the classical behavior of simple systems is entirely comprehensible and easily described. During the last 20 years it has been recognized that this in not true and that a complex behavior can be obtained from simple equations of motion. This usually happens when the motion is chaotic, that is, unpredictable on a long time scale although perfectly deterministic (Henon, 1983). A major problem is that of understanding how the regular or chaotic behavior of the classical system is manifest in its quantum properties, especially in the semiclassical limit. 53 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab
Quantum Statistical Mechanics for Nonextensive Systems II
Lenzi, E. K.; R. S. Mendes; Rajagopal, A. K.
1999-01-01
In this paper, the Green function theory of quantum many-particle systems recently presented is reworked within the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics with a new normalized $q$-expectation values. This reformulation introduces a renormalization of temperature of the earlier theory and a self-consistency condition. The linear response theory is also presented, along with its two-particle Green function version. Finally, a Boltzmann transport-like equation is also developed here.
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with RMT. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the level spacing, width distribution and ?3(L) statistic are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The usual super-radiant state is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and ?3(L) statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels
The quantum $H_3$ integrable system
García, Marcos A.G.(William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A.); Turbiner, Alexander V.
2010-01-01
The quantum $H_3$ integrable system is a 3D system with rational potential related to the non-crystallographic root system $H_3$. It is shown that the gauge-rotated $H_3$ Hamiltonian as well as one of the integrals, when written in terms of the invariants of the Coxeter group $H_3$, is in algebraic form: it has polynomial coefficients in front of derivatives. The Hamiltonian has infinitely-many finite-dimensional invariant subspaces in polynomials, they form the infinite flag with the charact...
Nonlocal realistic theories and continuous quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauber, Anna; Freyberger, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)
2009-07-01
Recently, a certain class of non-local, realistic theories (NLRT) has been formulated for two-particle systems with dichotomic observables and has been shown to be incompatible with quantum mechanics and with experimental data. The proof us es inequalities for correlation functions, as in the original Bell case. We study how to expand the formulation to systems with continuous variables and demonst rate how such systems can violate the predictions of the NLRT. Moreover, we analyze how violations of the NLRT-inequalities are related to violations of Bell-type inequalities.
Polyadic systems, representations and quantum groups
Duplij, Steven
2013-01-01
Polyadic systems and their representations are reviewed and a classification of general polyadic systems is presented. A new multiplace generalization of associativity preserving homomorphisms, a 'heteromorphism' which connects polyadic systems having unequal arities, is introduced via an explicit formula, together with related definitions for multiplace representations and multiactions. Concrete examples of matrix representations for some ternary groups are then reviewed. Ternary algebras and Hopf algebras are defined, and their properties are studied. At the end some ternary generalizations of quantum groups and the Yang-Baxter equation are presented.
Macroscopic models for quantum systems and computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aerts, Diederik [Center Leo Apostel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Krijgskundestraat 33, 1160 Brussels (Belgium); Czachor, Marek [Katedra Fizyki Teoretycznej i Metod Matematycznych, Politechnika Gdanska, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Dehaene, Jeroen [SISTA, Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), Faculty of Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Moor, Bart De [SISTA, Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), Faculty of Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); D' Hooghe, Bart [Center Leo Apostel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Krijgskundestraat 33, 1160 Brussels (Belgium)
2007-05-15
We present examples of macroscopic systems entailing a quantum mechanical structure. One of our examples has a structure which is isomorphic to the spin structure for a spin 1/2 and another system entails a structure isomorphic to the structure of two spin 1/2 in the entangled singlet state. We elaborate this system by showing that an arbitrary tensor product state representing two entangled qubits can be described in a complete way by a specific internal constraint between the ray or density states of the two qubits, which describes the behavior of the state of one of the spins if measurements are executed on the other spin. Since any n-qubit unitary operation can be decomposed into 2-qubit gates and unary operations, we argue that our representation of 2-qubit entanglement contributes to a better understanding of the role of n-qubit entanglement in quantum computation. We illustrate our approach on two 2-qubit algorithms proposed by Deutsch, respectively Arvind et al. One of the advantages of the 2-qubit case besides its relative simplicity is that it allows for a nice geometrical representation of entanglement, which contributes to a more intuitive grasp of what is going on in a 2-qubit quantum computation.
Time fractional development of quantum systems
Ertik, HÃ¼seyin; Demirhan, DoÇ§an; Åžirin, HÃ¼seyin; BÃ¼yÃ¼kkÄ±lÄ±Ã§, Fevzi
2010-08-01
In this study, the effect of time fractionalization on the development of quantum systems is taken under consideration by making use of fractional calculus. In this context, a Mittag-Leffler function is introduced as an important mathematical tool in the generalization of the evolution operator. In order to investigate the time fractional evolution of the quantum (nano) systems, time fractional forms of motion are obtained for a SchrÃ¶dinger equation and a Heisenberg equation. As an application of the concomitant formalism, the wave functions, energy eigenvalues, and probability densities of the potential well and harmonic oscillator are time fractionally obtained via the fractional derivative order Î±, which is a measure of the fractality of time. In the case Î± =1, where time becomes homogenous and continuous, traditional physical conclusions are recovered. Since energy and time are conjugate to each other, the fractional derivative order Î± is relevant to time. It is understood that the fractionalization of time gives rise to energy fluctuations of the quantum (nano) systems.
Time fractional development of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, the effect of time fractionalization on the development of quantum systems is taken under consideration by making use of fractional calculus. In this context, a Mittag-Leffler function is introduced as an important mathematical tool in the generalization of the evolution operator. In order to investigate the time fractional evolution of the quantum (nano) systems, time fractional forms of motion are obtained for a Schroedinger equation and a Heisenberg equation. As an application of the concomitant formalism, the wave functions, energy eigenvalues, and probability densities of the potential well and harmonic oscillator are time fractionally obtained via the fractional derivative order Î±, which is a measure of the fractality of time. In the case Î±=1, where time becomes homogenous and continuous, traditional physical conclusions are recovered. Since energy and time are conjugate to each other, the fractional derivative order Î± is relevant to time. It is understood that the fractionalization of time gives rise to energy fluctuations of the quantum (nano) systems.
Quantum coherence and correlations in cold atom systems
SzaÅ„kowski, Piotr
2015-01-01
Although the foundations of quantum and classical physics are much different, it is often difficult to pinpoint which features of a particular system are intrinsically "quantum". Perhapse, the most clear-cut distinction between "classical" and "quantum" can be made for systems composed of many particles when the properties of the ensemble are determined by the correlations between the constituents. The issue of grasping the nature of entanglement (i.e. quantum correlations) lies in its formal...
Statistical Thermodynamics of Polymer Quantum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo Chacón-Acosta
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional polymer quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. Depending on the dominance of the polymer length we can distinguish two regimes: vibrational and rotational. The first occur for small polymer length and here the standard oscillator in Schrödinger quantization is recovered at leading order. The second one, for large polymer length, features dominant polymer effects. In the case of the polymer particles in the box, a bounded and oscillating spectrum that presents a band structure and a Brillouin zone is found. The thermodynamical quantities calculated with these spectra have corrections with respect to standard ones and they depend on the polymer length. When the polymer length is small such corrections resemble those coming from the phenomenological generalized uncertainty relation approach based on the idea of the existence of a minimal length. For generic polymer length, thermodynamics of both systems present an anomalous peak in their heat capacity C_V. In the case of the polymer oscillators this peak separates the vibrational and rotational regimes, while in the ideal polymer gas it reflects the band structure which allows the existence of negative temperatures.
Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems
Laflorencie, Nicolas
2015-01-01
This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial informations can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated R\\'enyi entropies are now well recognized to contains key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the u...
Quantum Spin Systems after DLS1978
Nachtergaele, B
2006-01-01
In their 1978 paper, Dyson, Lieb, and Simon (DLS) proved the existence of Ne'el order at positive temperature for the spin-S Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the d-dimensional hypercubic lattice when either S >= 1 and d >= 3 or S=1/2 and d is sufficiently large. This was the first proof of spontaneous breaking of a continuous symmetry in a quantum model at finite temperature. Since then the ideas of DLS have been extended and adapted to a variety of other problems. In this paper will present an overview of the most important developments in the study of the Heisenberg model and related quantum lattice systems since 1978, including but not restricted to those directly related to the paper by DLS.
Quantum chaos in a fermion system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the growing realisation that the dynamics of a system with a few degrees of freedom is chaotic more as a rule than an exception, the relevance of quantum chaos in nuclear single-particle motion is now receiving closer scrutinisation. This on one hand is helping to gain a deeper understanding of dissipative processes in nuclear dynamics as well as revealing certain interesting features of a fermion system on the other. In the present talk, we would discuss the chaotic features of the single-particle motion in a di nucleus with a view to study the signatures of an effective underlying classical dynamics in the system. As the present day understanding of quantum chaos relies quite heavily on the existence of classical trajectories, it is rather interesting to study how far such considerations can be pushed for systems which do not have a obvious classical analogue such as the spin-orbit interaction in our system. This question has been further investigated for a relativistic fermion system, similar to the Bogoliubov bag. This model is particularly suited as spin, without a classical analogue, has its natural place in the Dirac equation. The results of this study have been presented in the talk. (author). 25 refs., 14 figs
Teaching the environment to control quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A nonequilibrium, generally time-dependent, environment whose form is deduced by optimal learning control is shown to provide a means for incoherent manipulation of quantum systems. Incoherent control by the environment (ICE) can serve to steer a system from an initial state to a target state, either mixed or in some cases pure, by exploiting dissipative dynamics. Implementing ICE with either incoherent radiation or a gas as the control is explicitly considered, and the environmental control is characterized by its distribution function. Simulated learning control experiments are performed with simple illustrations to find the shape of the optimal nonequilibrium distribution function that best affects the posed dynamical objectives
Geometric scaling in the quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transitions between neighbouring plateaux in the quantum Hall system are observed to follow 'anti-holomorphic' scaling with 'superuniversal' scaling exponents, showing that the system contains an emergent sub-modular discrete symmetry and a holomorphic structure at low energies. We identify a class of effective scaling models consistent with this data, which is parametrized by the complex structure of a torus with a special spin structure, in which only the number of fermions (c) remains undetermined. For c=2 this gives the superuniversal anti-holomorphic scaling potential previously inferred from data, with scaling exponent ??2.6, in reasonable agreement with available scaling data
Many-body Wigner quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present examples of many-body Wigner quantum systems. The position and the momentum operators RA and PA, A = 1, ..., n + 1, of the particles are noncanonical and are chosen so that Heisenberg and the Hamiltonian equations are identical. The spectrum of the energy with respect to the centre of mass is equidistant and has finite number of energy levels. The composite system is spread in a small volume around the centre of mass and within it the geometry is noncommutative. The underlying statistics is an exclusion statistics. (author). 23 refs
Parallel decoherence in composite quantum systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Dugi?i; J Jekni?-Dugi?
2012-08-01
For the standard quantum Brownian motion (QBM) model, we point out the occurrence of simultaneous (parallel), mutually irreducible and autonomous decoherence processes. Besides the standard Brownian particle, we show that there is at least another system undergoing the dynamics described by the QBM model. We do this by selecting the two mutually irreducible, global structures (decompositions into subsystems) of the composite system of the QBM model. The generalization of this observation is a new, challenging task in the foundations of the decoherence theory. We do not place our findings in any interpretational context.
Quantum Trajectory in Multi-Dimensional Non-Linear System
Kubotani, H
1999-01-01
We discuss quantum dynamics in multi-dimensional non-linear systems. It is well-known that wave function is localized in a single kicked rotor. However, coupling with other degrees of freedom breaks the localization. In order to clarify the difference in the quantum dynamics, we use rigid quantum trajectories, which is accompanied with the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of the quantum mechanics. The bundle of quantum trajectories are repulsive by the quantum potential and flow never to go across each other. We shows that, depending on the degrees of freedom, this same property appears differently.
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
Iqbal, Azhar
2009-01-01
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses well known criticism of quantum games.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constrained Hamiltonian dynamics is exploited to provide the mathematical framework of a coarse-grained description of the quantum system of nonlinear interacting oscillators. The coarse graining is treated as an equivalence relation on the set of quantum states resulting in the emergence of classical phase space. The equivalence relation imposes constraints on the Hamiltonian dynamics of the quantum system. It is seen that the evolution of the coarse-grained system preserves constant and minimal quantum fluctuations of the fundamental observables. This leads to the emergence of the corresponding classical system on a sufficiently large scale. (paper)
Propagation of Disturbances in Degenerate Quantum Systems
Chancellor, Nicholas
2011-01-01
Disturbances in gapless quantum many-body models are known to travel an unlimited distance throughout the system. Here, we explore this phenomenon in finite clusters with degenerate ground states. The specific model studied here is the one-dimensional J1-J2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian at and close to the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Both open and periodic boundary conditions are considered. Quenches are performed using a local magnetic field. The degenerate Majumdar-Ghosh ground state allows disturbances which carry quantum entanglement to propagate throughout the system, and thus dephase the entire system within the degenerate subspace. These disturbances can also carry polarization, but not energy, as all energy is stored locally. The local evolution of the part of the system where energy is stored drives the rest of the system through long-range entanglement. We also examine approximations for the ground state of this Hamiltonian in the strong field limit, and study how couplings away from the Majumdar-Ghosh point aff...
Description of an open quantum mechanical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model for the description of an open quantum mechanical many-particle system is formulated. It starts from the shell model and treats the continuous states by a coupled channels method. The mixing of the discrete shell model states via the continuum of decay channels results in the genuine decaying states of the system. These states are eigenstates of a non-Hermitean Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which give both the energies and the widths of the states. All correlations between two particles which are caused by the two-particle residual interaction, are taken into account including those via the continuum. In the formalism describing the open quantum mechanical system, the coupling between the system and its environment appears nonlinearly. If the resonance states start to overlap, a redistribution of the spectroscopic values ('trapping effect') takes place. As a result, the complexity of the system is reduced at high level density, structures in space and time are formed. This redistribution describes, on the one hand, the transition from the well-known nuclear properties at low level density to those at high level density and fits, on the other hand, into the concept of selforganization. (orig.)
Integrable quantum StÃ¤ckel systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The StÃ¤ckel separability of a Hamiltonian system is well known to ensure existence of a complete set of Poisson commuting integrals of motion quadratic in the momenta. We consider a class of StÃ¤ckel separable systems where the entries of the StÃ¤ckel matrix are monomials in the separation variables. We show that the only systems in this class for which the integrals of motion arising from the StÃ¤ckel construction keep commuting after quantization are, up to natural equivalence transformations, the so-called Benenti systems. Moreover, it turns out that the latter are the only quantum separable systems in the class under study.
Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems
Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup
2011-01-01
The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…
A toy model of a macroscopic quantum coherent system
Muñoz-Vega, R.; Flores-Godoy, J. J.; Fernández-Anaya, G.; Salinas-Hernández, E.
2013-03-01
This paper deals with macroscopic quantum coherence while using only basic quantum mechanics. A square double well is used to illustrate Leggett-Caldeira oscillations. The effect of thermal radiation on two-level systems is discussed. The concept of decoherence is introduced at an elementary level. Reference values are deduced for the energy, temperature and time scales involved in macroscopic quantum coherence.
A toy model of a macroscopic quantum coherent system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper deals with macroscopic quantum coherence while using only basic quantum mechanics. A square double well is used to illustrate Leggett–Caldeira oscillations. The effect of thermal radiation on two-level systems is discussed. The concept of decoherence is introduced at an elementary level. Reference values are deduced for the energy, temperature and time scales involved in macroscopic quantum coherence. (paper)
QUANTUM TUNNELLING AND MAGNETIZATION DYNAMICS IN LOW DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANDREA CORNIA
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum mechanics allows a system to overcome a classically-unsurmountable energy barrier through a mechanism called Quantum Tunnelling (QT. Although pertaining to the quantum domain, QT is the cause of important physical phenomena that can be detected at the macroscopic scale. Some of them have led to breakthrough applications in electronics (tunnel junctions and imaging (scanning tunnelling microscope.
Controlled Population Transfer in a Double Quantum Dot System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the potential for controlled population transfer between the ground states of two anharmonic coupled quantum dots. We propose a method based on the interaction of the quantum dot structure with external electromagnetic fields. The interaction of the quantum dot system with the electromagnetic fields is studied with the use of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We present numerical results for an asymmetric quantum dot structure
Controlled Population Transfer in a Double Quantum Dot System
Fountoulakis, Antonios; Terzis, Andreas F.; Paspalakis, Emmanuel
2007-12-01
We study the potential for controlled population transfer between the ground states of two anharmonic coupled quantum dots. We propose a method based on the interaction of the quantum dot structure with external electromagnetic fields. The interaction of the quantum dot system with the electromagnetic fields is studied with the use of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We present numerical results for an asymmetric quantum dot structure.
The transition to chaos conservative classical systems and quantum manifestations
Reichl, Linda E
2004-01-01
This book provides a thorough and comprehensive discussion of classical and quantum chaos theory for bounded systems and for scattering processes Specific discussions include â€¢ Noetherâ€™s theorem, integrability, KAM theory, and a definition of chaotic behavior â€¢ Area-preserving maps, quantum billiards, semiclassical quantization, chaotic scattering, scaling in classical and quantum dynamics, dynamic localization, dynamic tunneling, effects of chaos in periodically driven systems and stochastic systems â€¢ Random matrix theory and supersymmetry The book is divided into several parts Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the dynamics of nonlinear conservative classical systems Chapter 5 and several appendices give a thorough grounding in random matrix theory and supersymmetry techniques Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the manifestations of chaos in bounded quantum systems and open quantum systems respectively Chapter 8 focuses on the semiclassical description of quantum systems with underlying classical chaos, and Chapt...
Stability of Local Quantum Dissipative Systems
Cubitt, Toby S.; Lucia, Angelo; Michalakis, Spyridon; Perez-Garcia, David
2015-08-01
Open quantum systems weakly coupled to the environment are modeled by completely positive, trace preserving semigroups of linear maps. The generators of such evolutions are called Lindbladians. In the setting of quantum many-body systems on a lattice it is natural to consider Lindbladians that decompose into a sum of local interactions with decreasing strength with respect to the size of their support. For both practical and theoretical reasons, it is crucial to estimate the impact that perturbations in the generating Lindbladian, arising as noise or errors, can have on the evolution. These local perturbations are potentially unbounded, but constrained to respect the underlying lattice structure. We show that even for polynomially decaying errors in the Lindbladian, local observables and correlation functions are stable if the unperturbed Lindbladian has a unique fixed point and a mixing time that scales logarithmically with the system size. The proof relies on Lieb-Robinson bounds, which describe a finite group velocity for propagation of information in local systems. As a main example, we prove that classical Glauber dynamics is stable under local perturbations, including perturbations in the transition rates, which may not preserve detailed balance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corato, V [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione and INFM, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Rombetto, S [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione and INFM, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione and INFM, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' CNR, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' CNR, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' CNR, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)
2004-05-01
We present the experimental observation of the effects of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in a SQUID device, consisting of a rf SQUID coupled to a readout system based on a dc SQUID sensor. Data on the decay rate from the metastable flux states of a rf SQUID are reported, both in the classical and quantum regimes. The low dissipation level and the good insulation of the probe from external noise are encouraging in view of building a macroscopic quantum coherent system.
On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system
Khrenikov, A Yu
2004-01-01
We analyse the notion of macroscopic quantum system from the point of view of the statistical structure of quantum theory. We come to conclusion that the presence of interference of probabilities should be used the main characteristic of quantumness (in the opposition to N. Bohr who permanently emphasized the crucial role of quantum action). In the light of recent experiments with statistical ensembles of people who produced interference of probabilities for special pairs of questions (which can be considered as measurements on people) human being should be considered as a macroscopic quantum system. There is also discussed relation with experiments of A. Zeilinger on interference of probabilities for macromoleculas.
Quantum MIMO n-Systems and Conditions for Stability
Mansourbeigi, Seyed M H
2009-01-01
In this paper we present some conditions for the (strong) stabilizability of an n-D Quantum MIMO system P(X). It contains two parts. The first part is to introduce the n-D Quantum MIMO systems where the coefficients vary in the algebra of Q-meromorphic functions. Then we introduce some conditions for the stabilizability of these systems. The second part is to show that this Quantum system has the n-D system as its quantum limit and the results for the SISO,SIMO,MISO,MIMO are obtained again as special cases.
Orbifold Duality Symmetries and Quantum Hall systems
Skoulakis, Spyros; Thomas, Steven
1998-01-01
We consider the possible role that chiral orbifold conformal field theories may play in describing the edge state theories of quantum Hall systems. This is a generalization of work that already exists in the literature, where it has been shown that 1+1 chiral bosons living on a n-dimensional torus, and which couple to a U_1 gauge field, give rise to anomalous electric currents, the anomaly being related to the Hall conductivity. The well known $O(n,n;Z)$ duality group associ...
Superconducting system for adiabatic quantum computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Roscilde, T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (Canada); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E.Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E.Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)
2006-06-01
We study the Hamiltonian of a system of inductively coupled flux qubits, which has been theoretically proposed for adiabatic quantum computation to handle NP problems. We study the evolution of a basic structure consisting of three coupled rf-SQUIDs upon tuning the external flux bias, and we show that the adiabatic nature of the evolution is guaranteed by the presence of the single-SQUID gap. We further propose a scheme and the first realization of an experimental device suitable for verifying the theoretical results.
Scattering properties of an open quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the scattering properties of an open quantum system, in terms of the complex poles of the analytically continued energy Green's function. We use a model for which many dynamical properties can be expressed analytically. We first study particle wave scattering and compute the Wigner delay times. Then, using perturbation theory, we compute the photodetachment rate due to a weak time-periodic electric field. In addition, we show that the model we use qualitatively reproduces several features of the experimentally obtained photodetachment cross section of H- ions and gives interesting insight into the mechanism underlying the photodetachment of H- ions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Quantum Correlations in Two-Fermion Systems
Schliemann, John; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kus, Marek; Lewenstein, Maciej; Loss, Daniel
2000-01-01
We characterize and classify quantum correlations in two-fermion systems having 2K single-particle states. For pure states we introduce the Slater decomposition and rank (in analogy to Schmidt decomposition and rank); i.e., we decompose the state into a combination of elementary Slater determinants formed by pairs of mutually orthogonal single-particle states. Mixed states can be characterized by their Slater number which is the minimal Slater rank required to generate them. For K=2 we give a...
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M.; Eric Tai, M.; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. PMID:26632587
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
Quantum chaotic system as a model of decohering environment
Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N.
2008-01-01
As a model of decohering environment, we show that quantum chaotic system behave equivalently as many-body system. An approximate formula for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a system interacting with a quantum chaotic environment is derived. This theoretical formulation is substantiated by the numerical study of decoherence of two qubits interacting with a quantum chaotic environment modeled by a chaotic kicked top. Like the many-body model of environment...
Quantum Field Induced Orderings in Fully Frustrated Ising Spin Systems
Tanaka, Shu; Hirano, Masaki; Miyashita, Seiji
2010-01-01
We study ordering mechanisms which are induced by the quantum fluctuation in fully frustrated Ising spin systems. Since there are many degenerated states in frustrated systems, "order by thermal disorder" often takes place due to a kind of entropy effect. To consider "order by quantum disorder" in fully frustrated Ising spin systems, we apply transverse field as quantum fluctuation. There exists a ferromagnetic correlation in each sublattice. The sublattice correlation at zero temperature is ...
On quantum chaos, stochastic webs and localization in a quantum mechanical kick system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engel, U.M.
2007-07-01
In this study quantum chaos is discussed using the kicked harmonic oscillator as a model system. The kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by an exceptional scenario of weak chaos: In the case of resonance between the frequency of the harmonic oscillator and the frequency of the periodic forcing, stochastic webs in phase space are generated by the classical dynamics. For the quantum dynamics of this system it is shown that the resulting Husimi distributions in quantum phase space exhibit the same web-like structures as the classical webs. The quantum dynamics is characterized by diffusive energy growth - just as the classical dynamics in the channels of the webs. In the case of nonresonance, the classically diffusive dynamics is found to be quantum mechanically suppressed. This bounded energy growth, which corresponds to localization in quantum phase space, is explained analytically by mapping the system onto the Anderson model. In this way, within the context of quantum chaos, the kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by exhibiting its noteworthy geometrical and dynamical properties both classically and quantum mechanically, while at the same time there are also very distinct quantum deviations from classical properties, the most prominent example being quantum localization. (orig.)
On quantum chaos, stochastic webs and localization in a quantum mechanical kick system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study quantum chaos is discussed using the kicked harmonic oscillator as a model system. The kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by an exceptional scenario of weak chaos: In the case of resonance between the frequency of the harmonic oscillator and the frequency of the periodic forcing, stochastic webs in phase space are generated by the classical dynamics. For the quantum dynamics of this system it is shown that the resulting Husimi distributions in quantum phase space exhibit the same web-like structures as the classical webs. The quantum dynamics is characterized by diffusive energy growth - just as the classical dynamics in the channels of the webs. In the case of nonresonance, the classically diffusive dynamics is found to be quantum mechanically suppressed. This bounded energy growth, which corresponds to localization in quantum phase space, is explained analytically by mapping the system onto the Anderson model. In this way, within the context of quantum chaos, the kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by exhibiting its noteworthy geometrical and dynamical properties both classically and quantum mechanically, while at the same time there are also very distinct quantum deviations from classical properties, the most prominent example being quantum localization. (orig.)
Cavity-Enhanced Two-Photon Interference using Remote Quantum Dot Sources
Giesz, V; Grange, T; Antón, C; De Santis, L; Demory, J; Somaschi, N; Sagnes, I; Lemaître, A; Lanco, L; Auffeves, A; Senellart, P
2015-01-01
The generation of indistinguishable photons from a solid-state emitter like a semiconductor quantum dot is often limited by dephasing processes. It is known that accelerating the spontaneous emission of the quantum dot can greatly improve the indistinguishability of successively emitted photons. Here we show that cavity quantum electrodynamics can also efficiently improve the quantum interference between remote quantum dot sources. The quantum interference of photons emitted by two separate quantum dot-cavity devices is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Controlling the spontaneous emission on one source is shown to efficiently overcome the detrimental effect of pure dephasing on the other one. Our experimental observations and calculations demonstrate that cavity quantum electrodynamics is a powerful tool for the scalability of a quantum dot-based quantum network.
Unstable quantum systems and feynman integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
General properties of unstable quantum systems (as elementary particles, nuclei, etc.) are discussed. The basic criterion is formulated for existence of a solution to the inverse decay problem. Influence of repeated measurements on the decay law exponentially and the measured lifetime is discussed. An order of magnitude of this effect is estimated within a model describing the decay of charged kaons in a bubble chamber. These considerations can be used to justify physically the semigroup approximation for describing dynamics of unstable systems. Each such semigroup can be characterized by a so-called pseudo-Hamiltonian. Relations of the latter to the total Hamiltonian of the system are given. Rigorous approaches to the Feynman path integrals are given. The evolution operator corresponding to Schrodinger pseudo-Hamiltonian with a local complex potential can be expressed within some of these approaches. As an example, the multidimensional damped harmonic oscillator is discussed
Asymptotically open quantum systems; Asymptotisch offene Quantensysteme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Westrich, M.
2008-04-15
In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)
Emergent kinetic constraints in open quantum systems
Everest, B; Garrahan, J P; Lesanovsky, I
2016-01-01
Kinetically constrained spin systems play an important role in understanding key properties of the dynamics of slowly relaxing materials, such as glasses. So far kinetic constraints have been introduced in idealised models aiming to capture specific dynamical properties of these systems. However, recently it has been experimentally shown by [M. Valado et al., arXiv:1508.04384 (2015)] that manifest kinetic constraints indeed govern the evolution of strongly interacting gases of highly excited atoms in a noisy environment. Motivated by this development we address and discuss the question concerning the type of kinetically constrained dynamics which can generally emerge in quantum spin systems subject to strong noise. We discuss an experimentally-realizable case which displays collective behavior, timescale separation and dynamical reducibility.
Probability representation of kinetic equation for open quantum system
Man'ko, V I; Shchukin, E V
2003-01-01
The tomographic probability distribution is used to decribe the kinetic equations for open quantum systems. Damped oscillator is studied. Purity parameter evolution for different damping regime is considered.
Kinetic equations for a nonideal quantum system
Bornath, Th.; Kremp, D.; Kraeft, W. D.; Schlanges, M.
1996-10-01
In the framework of real-time Green's functions, the general kinetic equations are investigated in a first-order gradient expansion. Within this approximation, the problem of the reconstruction of the two-time correlation functions from the one-time Wigner function was solved. For the Wigner function, a cluster expansion is found in terms of a quasiparticle distribution function. In equilibrium, this expansion leads to the well-known generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck expression of the second virial coefficient. As a special case, the T-matrix approximation for the self-energy is investigated. The quantum kinetic equation derived thus has, besides the (Markovian) Boltzmann collision integral, additional terms due to the retardation expansion which reflect memory effects. Special interest is paid to the case that bound states exist in the system. It is shown that the bound state contribution, which can be introduced via a bilinear expansion of the two-particle T matrix, follows from the first-order retardation term in the general kinetic equation. The full Wigner function is now a sum of one function describing the unbound particles and another one for the bound state contribution. The latter two functions have to be determined from a coupled set of kinetic equations. In contrast to the quantum Boltzmann equation, energy and density of a nonideal system are conserved.
Orbifold Duality Symmetries and Quantum Hall systems
Skoulakis, S; Skoulakis, Spyros; Thomas, Steven
1999-01-01
We consider the possible role that chiral orbifold conformal field theories may play in describing the edge state theories of quantum Hall systems. This is a generalization of work that already exists in the literature, where it has been shown that 1+1 chiral bosons living on a n-dimensional torus, and which couple to a U_1 gauge field, give rise to anomalous electric currents, the anomaly being related to the Hall conductivity. The well known $O(n,n;Z)$ duality group associated with such toroidal conformal field theories transforms the edge states and Hall conductivities in a way which makes interesting connections between different theories, e.g. between systems exhibiting the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. In this paper we try to explore the extension of these constructions to the case where such bosons live on a n-dimensional orbifold. We give a general formalism for discussing the relevant quantities like the Hall conductance and their transformation under the duality groups present in orbif...
Sistemas cuánticos individuales / Individual Quantum Systems
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Jorge A., Campos.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available El Premio Nobel de Física 2012 fue otorgado a Serge Haroche y David J.Wineland por métodos experimentales innovadores que permiten la medición y manipulación de sistemas cuánticos individuales. La primera estudia fotones midiéndolos con átomos, y la segunda estudia iones que manipula con fotones. La [...] s aplicaciones tanto potenciales como ya materializadas para el manejo de sistemas cuánticos están en la vía de revolucionar no solamente la tecnología sino la forma en la que comprendemos el mundo microscópico. Abstract in english The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2012 was awarded to Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems". The former deals with photons and measures them with atoms and the latter deals with ions and manipu [...] lates them with photons. The potential and actual applications of handling quantum systems are on their way to revolutionize not only technology but the way we understand the microscopic world.
Simple quantum system as a source of coherent information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The set of the simplest quantum systems is analyzed from the viewpoint of the coherent information volume, available by application of the corresponding information channels. It is shown, the coherent information for simple quantum models may be calculated and used for evaluating the potential possibilities of the corresponding quantum channels as a source of physical information in the experiments, related to the effects of the quantum states coherence. The following physical models: the two-level atom in the laser radiation fields; the combination of the two-level subsystems in the multilevel atom (hydrogen); the system of the two-level atoms in the process of combined quantum-determined evolution and under the effect of the quantum measurement and quantum duplication transformants; as well as one or two level atoms in the process of radiation, are considered
Quantum field theory in stationary coordinate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum field theory is examined in stationary coordinate systems in Minkowski space. Preliminary to quantization of the scalar field, all of the possible stationary coordinate systems in flat spacetime are classified and explicitly constructed. Six distinct classes of such systems are found. Of these six, three have (identical) event horizons associated with them and five have Killing horizons. Two classes have distinct Killing and event horizons, with an intervening region analogous to the ergosphere in rotating black holes. Particular representatives of each class are selected for subsequent use in the quantum field theory. The scalar field is canonically quantized and a vacuum defined in each of the particular coordinate systems chosen. The vacuum states can be regarded as adapted to the six classes of stationary motions. There are only two vacuum states found, the Minkowski vacuum in those coordinate systems without event horizons and the Fulling vacuum in those with event horizons. The responses of monopole detectors traveling along stationary world lines are calculated in both the Minkowski and Fulling vacuums. The responses for each class of motions are distinct from those for every other class. A vacuum defined by the response of a detector must therefore not be equivalent in general to a vacuum defined by canonical quantization. Quantization of the scalar field within a rotating wedge is examined. It has not been possible to construct mode functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the wedge. The asymptotic form of the renormalized stress tensor near the surfaces had been calculated and is found to include momentum terms which represent a circulation of energy within the wedge
The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems
Bolivar, A. O.
2010-01-01
On the basis of the dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems, we can derive a non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett quantum master equation as well as a non-Markovian quantum Smoluchowski equation in phase space. On the one hand, we solve our Caldeira-Leggett equation for the case of a quantum Brownian particle in a gravitational field. On the other hand, we solve our quantum Smoluchowski equation for a harmonic oscillator. In both physical situations we come up with...
Work exchange between quantum systems: the spin-oscillator model
Schröder, Heiko
2009-01-01
With the development of quantum thermodynamics it has been shown that relaxation to thermal equilibrium and with it the concept of heat flux may emerge directly from quantum mechanics. This happens for a large class of quantum systems if embedded into another quantum environment. In this paper, we discuss the complementary question of the emergence of work flux from quantum mechanics. We introduce and discuss two different methods to assess the work source quality of a system, one based on the generalized factorization approximation, the other based on generalized definitions of work and heat. By means of those methods, we show that small quantum systems can, indeed, act as work reservoirs. We illustrate this behavior for a simple system consisting of a spin coupled to an oscillator and investigate the effects of two different interactions on the work source quality. One case will be shown to allow for a work source functionality of arbitrarily high quality.
Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Dan
2007-01-01
In the past decade there has been a trend towards studying ever smaller devices. Improved experimental techniques have made new experiments possible, one class of which is electron transport through molecules and artificially manufactured structures like quantum dots. In this type of systems...... the system onto the contact links leads to a strong enhancement of the off-resonance transport, and further that this behavior is non-monotonic. By considering both a single level model and short interacting chains we demonstrate that the off-resonance transport enhancement is stronger than the...... partitioning, particularly regarding the interaction. Finally we consider a spintronics model known as the ferromagnetic Anderson model with an applied magnetic field. The model uses spin-polarized leads and the magnetic field is applied to the transport level at an angle with the direction of polarization...
Capacities of linear quantum optical systems
Lupo, Cosmo; Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth
2012-01-01
A wide variety of communication channels employ the quantized electromagnetic field to convey information. Their communication capacity crucially depends on losses associated to spatial characteristics of the channel such as diffraction and antenna design. Here we focus on the communication via a finite pupil, showing that diffraction is formally described as a memory channel. By exploiting this equivalence we then compute the communication capacity of an optical refocusing system, modeled as a converging lens. Even though loss of information originates from the finite pupil of the lens, we show that the presence of the refocusing system can substantially enhance the communication capacity. We mainly concentrate on communication of classical information, the extension to quantum information being straightforward.
Quantum-assisted and Quantum-based Solutions in Wireless Systems
Imre, Sandor; Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2012-01-01
In wireless systems there is always a trade-off between reducing the transmit power and mitigating the resultant signal-degradation imposed by the transmit-power reduction with the aid of sophisticated receiver algorithms, when considering the total energy consumption. Quantum-assisted wireless communications exploits the extra computing power offered by quantum mechanics based architectures. This paper summarizes some recent results in quantum computing and the correspondin...
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.
A greedy algorithm for the identification of quantum systems
Maday, Yvon
2009-01-01
The control of quantum phenomena is a topic that has carried out many challenging problems. Among others, the Hamiltonian identification, i.e, the inverse problem associated with the unknown features of a quantum system is still an open issue. In this work, we present an algorithm that enables to design a set of selective laser fields that can be used, in a second stage, to identify unknown parameters of quantum systems.
Shrinked systems. Quantum physics on new paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This introducing textbook for students of higher semesters of physics, chemistry, and informatics treats a in latest time dynamically expanding field of physics. This book deals among others with the themes quantum information theory, quantum communications, quantum computing, teleportation, hidden parameters, which-way-marking, quantum measuring process, POVM, quantum channels and mediates by this not only a deepened understanding of quantum theory but also basic science, in order to follow the fast development of the field respectively to enter a special field of research. Commented recommendations for further literature as well as exercise problems help the reader to find quickly a founded approach to the theoretical foundations of future key technologies. The book can be made to a base of courses and seminars. Because the required basic knowledge in mathematics and quantum theory is presented in introductory chapters, the book is also suited for the self-study
System of classical nonlinear oscillators as a coarse-grained quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constrained Hamiltonian dynamics of a quantum system of nonlinear oscillators is used to provide the mathematical formulation of a coarse-grained description of the quantum system. It is seen that the evolution of the coarse-grained system preserves constant and minimal quantum fluctuations of the fundamental observables. This leads to the emergence of the corresponding classical system on a sufficiently large scale.
Investigating non-Markovian dynamics of quantum open systems
Chen, Yusui
Quantum open system coupled to a non-Markovian environment has recently attracted widespread interest for its important applications in quantum information processing and quantum dissipative systems. New phenomena induced by the non-Markovian environment have been discovered in variety of research areas ranging from quantum optics, quantum decoherence to condensed matter physics. However, the study of the non-Markovian quantum open system is known a difficult problem due to its technical complexity in deriving the fundamental equation of motion and elusive conceptual issues involving non-equilibrium dynamics for a strong coupled environment. The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce several new techniques of solving the quantum open systems including a systematic approach to dealing with non-Markovian master equations from a generic quantum-state diffusion (QSD) equation. In the first part of this thesis, we briefly introduce the non-Markovian quantum-state diffusion approach, and illustrate some pronounced non-Markovian quantum effects through numerical investigation on a cavity-QED model. Then we extend the non-Markovian QSD theory to an interesting model where the environment has a hierarchical structure, and find out the exact non-Markovian QSD equation of this model system. We observe the generation of quantum entanglement due to the interplay between the non-Markovian environment and the cavity. In the second part, we show an innovative method to obtain the exact non-Markovian master equations for a set of generic quantum open systems based on the corresponding non-Markovian QSD equations. Multiple-qubit systems and multilevel systems are discussed in details as two typical examples. Particularly, we derive the exact master equation for a model consisting of a three-level atom coupled to an optical cavity and controlled by an external laser field. Additionally, we discuss in more general context the mathematical similarity between the multiple-qubit systems and multilevel systems. Based on our systematic method, we also show how to solve different types of models. In the last part, we use Heisenberg equations of motion and quantum trajectory approach to obtain the exact master equation for a quantum harmonic oscillator chains coupled to two finite temperature environments. The derived exact non-Markovian master equation is useful for exploration of quantum transport and quantum coherence dynamics.
Mechanical Systems that are both Classical and Quantum
Margolus, Norman
2008-01-01
Quantum dynamics can be regarded as a generalization of classical finite-state dynamics. This is a familiar viewpoint for workers in quantum computation, which encompasses classical computation as a special case. Here this viewpoint is extended to mechanics, where classical dynamics has traditionally been viewed as a macroscopic approximation of quantum behavior, not as a special case. When a classical dynamics is recast as a special case of quantum dynamics, the quantum description can be interpreted classically. For example, sometimes extra information is added to the classical state in order to construct the quantum description. This extra information is then eliminated by representing it in a superposition as if it were unknown information about a classical statistical ensemble. This usage of superposition leads to the appearance of Fermions in the quantum description of classical lattice-gas dynamics and turns continuous-space descriptions of finite-state systems into illustrations of classical sampling ...
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
Schwager, Heike
2012-01-01
In this thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from several perspectives. We propose the realization of a quantum interface between a traveling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay and allows for high-fidelity write-in and read-out. We present a theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a self-assembled quantum dot. Moreover, we propose a ...
Towards the experimental realization of hybrid quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the main interests of quantum physics in this new millennium is the exploitation of quantum mechanical principles in technical applications. One approach here is to use entanglement and superpositions of states to realize powerful algorithms capable of solving challenging computational tasks on a much faster time scale than a classical computer ever could. To find the quantum analogue of a classical bit one needs a quantum mechanical two level system that can be used to store and process quantum information. Most of the current approaches to find such a 'qubit' have the intention to find a single system that is able to fulfill all desirable tasks. But actually most quantum systems are only favorable for very specific tasks (e.g storage, processing, data exchange,..), similar as it is in classical computing. For some qubits the main disadvantages is that their quantum state is very fragile. Those systems loose their 'quantum information' (that is the possibility to store superpositions of their states coherently) easily. They 'decohere' on a timescale that is much shorter then any more involving algorithm. Other systems can keep those superposition states for quite a while, but are so difficult to address that the number of operations that can be made is very limited. The task of a so called hybrid quantum system is now to combine the strengths of these different systems, using e.g. one for manipulation and an other system for storage. Similar to a processor/memory architecture in conventional computers these systems could use a kind of bus system to couple between them. The main task of this thesis was to make steps towards the realization of such a system using two different combinations of quantum systems. Both are planned to use superconducting qubits (transmons) as processor qubit and either atoms (ultra cold rubidium 87 ensembles) or solid state spin systems (Nitrogen Vacancies in diamonds - NV centers) as memory. (author)
Correlation Functions in Open Quantum-Classical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-Yu Hsieh
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum time correlation functions are often the principal objects of interest in experimental investigations of the dynamics of quantum systems. For instance, transport properties, such as diffusion and reaction rate coefficients, can be obtained by integrating these functions. The evaluation of such correlation functions entails sampling from quantum equilibrium density operators and quantum time evolution of operators. For condensed phase and complex systems, where quantum dynamics is difficult to carry out, approximations must often be made to compute these functions. We present a general scheme for the computation of correlation functions, which preserves the full quantum equilibrium structure of the system and approximates the time evolution with quantum-classical Liouville dynamics. Several aspects of the scheme are discussed, including a practical and general approach to sample the quantum equilibrium density, the properties of the quantum-classical Liouville equation in the context of correlation function computations, simulation schemes for the approximate dynamics and their interpretation and connections to other approximate quantum dynamical methods.
Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system
Maps for general open quantum systems and a theory of linear quantum error correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that quantum subdynamics of an open quantum system can always be described by a linear, Hermitian map irrespective of the form of the initial total system state. Since the theory of quantum error correction was developed based on the assumption of completely positive (CP) maps, we present a generalized theory of linear quantum error correction, which applies to any linear map describing the open system evolution. In the physically relevant setting of Hermitian maps, we show that the CP-map-based version of quantum error correction theory applies without modifications. However, we show that a more general scenario is also possible, where the recovery map is Hermitian but not CP. Since non-CP maps have nonpositive matrices in their range, we provide a geometric characterization of the positivity domain of general linear maps. In particular, we show that this domain is convex and that this implies a simple algorithm for finding its boundary.
Quantum Markovian kinetic equation for a spin system with breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
General form of the quantum dynamical semigroup equations in the representation of the multipole states is found for spin systems. Generalization of these equations for the case of spin systems with breaking is suggested. Conditions are obtained under which these equations can be derived from the quantum dynamical semigroup equations
Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems
Sun, Kai
2009-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…
Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms
Kaminaga, Yasuhito
1996-08-01
A general theory is presented of the classical and quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. It is shown that adding a total derivative to a Lagrangian does not materially affect either, (a) the canonical analysis of the system, or (b) its quantum mechanics.
Higher time derivatives in effective equations of canonical quantum systems
Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Nelson, Elliot
2012-01-01
Quantum-corrected equations of motion generically contain higher time derivatives, computed here in the setting of canonically quantized systems. The main example in which detailed derivations are presented is a general anharmonic oscillator, but conclusions can be drawn also for systems in quantum gravity and cosmology.
Quantum dissipative systems. 3. Definition and algebraic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the operator for description of evolution of quantum dissipative systems leads to the fact that the Jacobi identity is not satisfied. In order to describe quantum dissipative systems it is necessary to use anti-commutative non-Lie algebra
Dynamics of initially entangled open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linear maps of matrices describing the evolution of density matrices for a quantum system initially entangled with another are identified and found to be not always completely positive. They can even map a positive matrix to a matrix that is not positive, unless we restrict the domain on which the map acts. Nevertheless, their form is similar to that of completely positive maps. Only some minus signs are inserted in the operator-sum representation. Each map is the difference of two completely positive maps. The maps are first obtained as maps of mean values and then as maps of basis matrices. These forms also prove to be useful. An example for two entangled qubits is worked out in detail. The relation to earlier work is discussed
Spherical quantum chromodynamics of heavy quark systems
Sen-Gupta, K; Rajeev, S G
1993-01-01
We propose a model for Quantum Chromodynamics, obtained by ignoring the angular dependence of the gluon fields, which could qualitatively describe systems containing one heavy quark. This leads to a two dimensional gauge theory which has chiral symmetry and heavy quark symmetry. We show that in a light cone formalism, the Hamiltonian of this spherical QCD can be expressed entirely in terms of color singlet variables. Furthermore, in the large $N_c$ limit, it tends to a classical hadron theory. We derive an integral equation for the masses and wavefunctions of a heavy meson. This can be interpreted as a relativistic potential model. The integral equation is scale invariant, but renormalization of the coupling constant generates a scale. We compute the approximate beta function of the coupling constant, which has an ultraviolet stable fixed point at the origin.
Thermalization and pseudolocality in extended quantum systems
Doyon, Benjamin
2015-01-01
Recently, it was understood that extended concepts of locality played important roles in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by response functions. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states: clustering states connected to the infinite-temperature state by paths whose tangents are actions of pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to ...
Anions, quantum particles in planar systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Our purpose here is to present a general review of the non-relativistic quantum-mechanical description of excitations that do not obey neither the Fermi-Dirac nor the Bose-Einstein statistics; they rather fulfill an intermediate statistics, the we called 'any-statistics'. As we shall see, this is a peculiarity of (1+1) and (1+2) dimensions, due to the fact that, in two space dimensions, the spin is not quantised, once the rotation group is Abelian. The relevance of studying theories in (1+2) dimensions is justified by the evidence that, in condensed matter physics, there are examples of planar systems, for which everything goes as if the third spatial dimension is frozen. (author)
The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems does consist in quantizing the Brownian motion starting directly from its stochastic dynamics under the framework of both Langevin and Fokker–Planck equations, without alluding to any model Hamiltonian. On the ground of this non-Hamiltonian quantization method, we can derive a non-Markovian Caldeira–Leggett quantum master equation as well as a non-Markovian quantum Smoluchowski equation. The former is solved for the case of a quantum Brownian particle in a gravitational field whilst the latter for a harmonic oscillator. In both physical situations, we come up with the existence of a non-equilibrium thermal quantum force and investigate its classical limit at high temperatures as well as its quantum limit at zero temperature. Further, as a physical application of our quantum Smoluchowski equation, we take up the tunneling phenomenon of a non-inertial quantum Brownian particle over a potential barrier. Lastly, we wish to point out, corroborating conclusions reached in our previous paper [A. O. Bolivar, Ann. Phys. 326 (2011) 1354], that the theoretical predictions in the present article uphold the view that our non-Hamiltonian quantum mechanics is able to capture novel features inherent in quantum Brownian motion, thereby overcoming shortcomings underlying the Caldeira–Leggett Hamiltonian model. - Highlights: ? Non-Markovian classical Brownian motion. ? Dynamical quantization. ? Non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion. ? Classical limit.
An Open-System Quantum Simulator with Trapped Ions
Barreiro, Julio T; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Monz, Thomas; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Roos, Christian F; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer; 10.1038/nature09801
2011-01-01
The control of quantum systems is of fundamental scientific interest and promises powerful applications and technologies. Impressive progress has been achieved in isolating the systems from the environment and coherently controlling their dynamics, as demonstrated by the creation and manipulation of entanglement in various physical systems. However, for open quantum systems, engineering the dynamics of many particles by a controlled coupling to an environment remains largely unexplored. Here we report the first realization of a toolbox for simulating an open quantum system with up to five qubits. Using a quantum computing architecture with trapped ions, we combine multi-qubit gates with optical pumping to implement coherent operations and dissipative processes. We illustrate this engineering by the dissipative preparation of entangled states, the simulation of coherent many-body spin interactions and the quantum non-demolition measurement of multi-qubit observables. By adding controlled dissipation to coheren...
Experimental feedback control of quantum systems using weak measurements
Gillett, G G; Lanyon, B P; Almeida, M P; Barbieri, M; Pryde, G J; O'Brien, J L; Resch, K J; Bartlett, S D; White, A G
2009-01-01
A goal of the emerging field of quantum control is to develop methods for quantum technologies to function robustly in the presence of noise. Central issues are the fundamental limitations on the available information about quantum systems and the disturbance they suffer in the process of measurement. In the context of a simple quantum control scenario--the stabilization of non-orthogonal states of a qubit against dephasing--we experimentally explore the use of weak measurements in feedback control. We find that, despite the intrinsic difficultly of implementing them, weak measurements allow us to control the qubit better in practice than is even theoretically possible without them. Our work shows that these more general quantum measurements can play an important role for feedback control of quantum systems.
Quantum Non-Demolition Detection of Strongly Correlated Systems
Eckert, Kai; Rodriguez, Mirta; Lewenstein, Maciej; Polzik, Eugene S; Sanpera, Anna
2008-01-01
Preparation, manipulation, and detection of strongly correlated states of quantum many body systems are among the most important goals and challenges of modern physics. Ultracold atoms offer an unprecedented playground for realization of these goals. Here we show how strongly correlated states of ultracold atoms can be detected in a quantum non-demolition scheme, that is, in the fundamentally least destructive way permitted by quantum mechanics. In our method, spatially resolved components of atomic spins couple to quantum polarization degrees of freedom of light. In this way quantum correlations of matter are faithfully mapped on those of light; the latter can then be efficiently measured using homodyne detection. We illustrate the power of such spatially resolved quantum noise limited polarization measurement by applying it to detect various standard and "exotic" types of antiferromagnetic order in lattice systems and by indicating the feasibility of detection of superfluid order in Fermi liquids.
Quantum fluctuations in nonlinear optical systems
Zambrini, Roberta
2003-01-01
The subject of quantum structures in nonlinear optics is a quite recent interdisciplinary field. It deals with the quantum properties of electromagnetic radiation in self-organized spatial structures. Until the decade of 1980 the areas of quantum optics and self-organized patterns were investigated by two different communities: • Most of the literature about pattern formation was concerned with classical features of the phenomenon [Haken, Cross & Hohenberg]. The effects of fluc...
Quantum Smoluchowski equation for driven systems
Dillenschneider, Raoul; Lutz, Eric
2009-01-01
We consider a driven quantum harmonic oscillator strongly coupled to a heat bath. Starting from the exact quantum Langevin equation, we use a Green's function approach to determine the corresponding semiclassical equation for the Wigner phase space distribution. In the limit of high friction, we apply Brinkman's method to derive the quantum Smoluchowski equation for the probability distribution in position space. We further determine the range of validity of the equation and...
Dissipative Quantum Systems and the Heat Capacity Enigma
Dattagupta, S.; Kumar, Jishad; Sinha, S.; Sreeram, P. A.
2009-01-01
We present a detailed study of the quantum dissipative dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field. Our focus of attention is the effect of dissipation on the low- and high-temperature behavior of the specific heat at constant volume. After providing a brief overview of two distinct approaches to the statistical mechanics of dissipative quantum systems, viz., the ensemble approach of Gibbs and the quantum Brownian motion approach due to Einstein, we present exact anal...
Logic Column 13: Reasoning Formally about Quantum Systems: An Overview
Papanikolaou, Nick
2005-01-01
This article is intended as an introduction to the subject of quantum logic, and as a brief survey of the relevant literature. Also discussed here are logics for specification and analysis of quantum information systems, in particular, recent work by P. Mateus and A. Sernadas, and also by R. van der Meyden and M. Patra. Overall, our objective is to provide a high-level presentation of the logical aspects of quantum theory. Mateus' and Sernadas' EQPL logic is illustrated with...
Correlation approach to work extraction from finite quantum systems
Giorgi, Gian Luca; Campbell, Steve
2014-01-01
Reversible work extraction from identical quantum systems via collective operations was shown to be possible even without producing entanglement among the sub-parts. Here, we show that implementing such global operations necessarily imply the creation of quantum correlations, as measured by quantum discord. We also reanalyze the conditions under which global transformations outperform local gates as far as maximal work extraction is considered by deriving a necessary and suf...
Correlation approach to work extraction from finite quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reversible work extraction from identical quantum systems via collective operations was shown to be possible even without producing entanglement among the sub-parts. Here, we show that implementing such global operations necessarily imply the creation of quantum correlations, as measured by quantum discord. We also reanalyze the conditions under which global transformations outperform local gates as far as maximal work extraction is considered by deriving a necessary and sufficient condition that is based on classical correlations. (paper)
Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems
Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina
2011-01-01
Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.
Are quantum systems physical objects with physical properties ?
1999-01-01
Despite its power as the conceptual basis for a huge range of physical phenomena in atomic and subatomic physics, quantum mechanics still suffers from a lack of clarity regarding the physical meaning of its fundamental theoretical concepts such as those of quantum state and of quantum theoretical quantities or variables, dealt with by the known mathematical-theoretical rules. These concepts have generally been considered as not giving a direct description of physical systems, for they do not ...
The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke 'after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is inexperienced in such matters and needs to look at details. This book is addressed to graduate physics and chemistry students and was written thinking of students. However, I would recommend it also to young and mature physicists, even those who are already 'into' the subject. It is a comprehensive work, jointly written by five researchers. After a simple introduction to the subject, the book gradually provides deeper concepts, more advanced theory and finally an interesting introduction and explanation of recent experiments. For its multidisciplinary features, this work could not have been written by one single author. The collaborative effort is undoubtedly one of its most interesting qualities. I would definitely recommend it to anyone who wants to learn more on the geometric phase, a topic that is both beautiful and intriguing. (book review)
Quantum-based electronic devices and systems selected topics in electronics and systems, v.14
Dutta, Mitra
1998-01-01
This volume includes highlights of the theories and experimental findings that underlie essential phenomena occurring in quantum-based devices and systems as well as the principles of operation of selected novel quantum-based electronic devices and systems. A number of the emerging approaches to creating new types of quantum-based electronic devices and systems are also discussed.
Quantum Knots and Lattices, or a Blueprint for Quantum Systems that Do Rope Tricks
Lomonaco, Samuel J
2009-01-01
Using the cubic honeycomb (cubic tessellation) of Euclidean 3-space, we define a quantum system whose states, called quantum knots, represent a closed knotted piece of rope, i.e., represent the particular spatial configuration of a knot tied in a rope in 3-space. This quantum system, called a quantum knot system, is physically implementable in the same sense as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm is implementable. To define a quantum knot system, we replace the standard three Reidemeister knot moves with an equivalent set of three moves, called respectively wiggle, wag, and tug, so named because they mimic how a dog might wag its tail. We argue that these moves are in fact more "physics friendly" because, unlike the Reidemeister moves, they respect the differential geometry of 3-space, and moreover they can be transformed into infinitesimal moves. These three moves wiggle, wag, and tug generate a unitary group, called the lattice ambient group, which acts on the state space of the quantum system. The lattice a...
Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new ''analog'' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murg, Valentin
2008-04-07
This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new 'analog' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
The study of classical dynamical systems using quantum theory
Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.
2014-12-01
We have developed a method for complementing an arbitrary classical dynamical system to a quantum system using the Lorenz and Rössler systems as examples. The Schrödinger equation for the corresponding quantum statistical ensemble is described in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We consider both the original dynamical system in the coordinate space and the conjugate dynamical system corresponding to the momentum space. Such simultaneous consideration of mutually complementary coordinate and momentum frameworks provides a deeper understanding of the nature of chaotic behavior in dynamical systems. We have shown that the new formalism provides a significant simplification of the Lyapunov exponents calculations. From the point of view of quantum optics, the Lorenz and Rössler systems correspond to three modes of a quantized electromagnetic field in a medium with cubic nonlinearity. From the computational point of view, the new formalism provides a basis for the analysis of complex dynamical systems using quantum computers.
Density matrix of strongly coupled quantum dot - microcavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Any two-level quantum system can be used as a quantum bit (qubit) - the basic element of all devices and systems for quantum information and quantum computation. Recently it was proposed to study the strongly coupled system consisting of a two-level quantum dot and a monoenergetic photon gas in a microcavity-the strongly coupled quantum dot-microcavity (QD-MC) system for short, with the Jaynes-Cumming total Hamiltonian, for the application in the quantum information processing. Different approximations were applied in the theoretical study of this system. In this work, on the basis of the exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for this system without dissipation we derive the exact formulae for its density matrix. The realization of a qubit in this system is discussed. The solution of the system of rate equation for the strongly coupled QD-MC system in the presence of the interaction with the environment was also established in the first order approximation with respect to this interaction.
Density matrix of strongly coupled quantum dot - microcavity system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen Van Hop [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: hopnvdhsp@yahoo.com
2009-09-01
Any two-level quantum system can be used as a quantum bit (qubit) - the basic element of all devices and systems for quantum information and quantum computation. Recently it was proposed to study the strongly coupled system consisting of a two-level quantum dot and a monoenergetic photon gas in a microcavity-the strongly coupled quantum dot-microcavity (QD-MC) system for short, with the Jaynes-Cumming total Hamiltonian, for the application in the quantum information processing. Different approximations were applied in the theoretical study of this system. In this work, on the basis of the exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for this system without dissipation we derive the exact formulae for its density matrix. The realization of a qubit in this system is discussed. The solution of the system of rate equation for the strongly coupled QD-MC system in the presence of the interaction with the environment was also established in the first order approximation with respect to this interaction.
Sliding Mode Control of Two-Level Quantum Systems
Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a robust control method based on sliding mode design for two-level quantum systems with bounded uncertainties. An eigenstate of the two-level quantum system is identified as a sliding mode. The objective is to design a control law to steer the system's state into the sliding mode domain and then maintain it in that domain when bounded uncertainties exist in the system Hamiltonian. We propose a controller design method using the Lyapunov methodology and pe...
Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems
Gisin, Nicolas; Fasel, Sylvain; Kraus, Barbara; Zbinden, Hugo; Ribordy, Grégoire
2006-01-01
General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob’s system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today’s technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can be efficient, provided that enough additional privacy amplification is applied to th...
Barnes, George L
2013-01-01
Simulations are performed of a small quantum system interacting with a quantum environment. The system consists of various initial states of two harmonic oscillators coupled to give normal modes. The environment is "designed" by its level pattern to have a thermodynamic temperature. A random coupling causes the system and environment to become entangled in the course of time evolution. The approach to a Boltzmann distribution is observed, and effective fitted temperatures close to the designed temperature are obtained. All initial pure states of the system are driven to equilibrium at very similar rates, with quick loss of memory of the initial state. The time evolution of the von Neumann entropy is calculated as a measure of equilibration and of quantum coherence. It is argued, contrary to common understanding, that quantum interference and coherence are eliminated only with maximal entropy, which corresponds thermally to infinite temperature. Implications of our results for the notion of "classicalizing" be...
Quantum groups, orthogonal polynomials and applications to some dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first part is concerned with the introduction of quantum groups as an extension of Lie groups. In particular, we study the case of unitary enveloping algebras in dimension 2. We then connect the quantum group formalism to the construction of g CGC recurrent relations. In addition, we construct g-deformed Krawtchouck and Meixner orthogonal polynomials and list their respective main characteristics. The second part deals with some dynamical systems from a classical, a quantum and a gp-analogue point of view. We investigate the Coulomb Kepler system by using the canonical namical systems which contain as special cases some interesting systems for nuclear of atomic physics and for quantum chemistry, such as the Hartmann system, the ring-shaped oscillator, the Smarodinsky-Winternitz system, the Aharonov-Bohen system and the dyania of Dirac and Schroedinger. (author)
Quantum Anti-Zeno Effect in Artificial Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we study a quantum anti-Zeno effect (QAZE) purely induced by repetitive measurements for an artificial atom interacting with a structured bath. This bath can be artificially realized with coupled resonators in one dimension and possesses photonic band structure like Bloch electron in a periodic potential. In the presence of repetitive measurements, the pure QAZE is discovered as the observable decay is not negligible even for the atomic energy level spacing outside of the energy band of the artificial bath. If there were no measurements, the decay would not happen outside of the band. In this sense, the enhanced decay is completely induced by measurements through the relaxation channels provided by the bath. Besides, we also discuss the controversial golden rule decay rates originated from the van Hove's singularities and the effects of the counter-rotating terms. (general)
Inequalities detecting quantum entanglement for 2 x d systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a set of inequalities for detecting quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states. For 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems, the inequalities give rise to sufficient and necessary separability conditions for both pure and mixed states. For the case of d>3, these inequalities are necessary conditions for separability, which detect all entangled states that are not positive under partial transposition and even some entangled states with positive partial transposition. These inequalities are given by mean values of local observables and present an experimental way of detecting the quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states and even multiqubit pure states.
Control of quantum correlations in solid state systems
Berrada, K.
2015-11-01
The quantum correlations between two independent qubits immersed in an anisotropic and isotropic photonic band-gab (PBG) crystal have been studied without Born or Markovian approximation. We show that the amount of the entanglement and quantum discord between the qubits in the photonic crystal is greatly different from that of qubits in vacuum or that subjected to the usual non-Markovian reservoir. The results also show that, for PBG materials as environment, high values of quantum correlation trapping can be achieved and thus prevention of correlation sudden drop occurs, which seriously enhances the coherence and increase the amount of the correlations. Moreover, we show that the quantum correlations in the isotropic PBG are more easily preserved than that in the anisotropic PBG under the same condition. These features make the quantum systems in PBG materials as a good candidate for implementation of different schemes of quantum optics and information with high performance.
Quantum Signatures of Solar System Dynamics
Kholodenko, Arkady L
2007-01-01
Let w(i) be a period of rotation of the i-th planet around the Sun (or w(j;i) be a period of rotation of j-th satellite around the i-th planet). From empirical observations it is known that the sum of n(i)w(i)=0 (or the sum of n(j)w(j;i)=0) for some integers n(i)(or n(j)) (some of which allowed to be zero), different for different satellite systems. These conditions, known as ressonance conditions, make uses of theories such as KAM difficult to implement. To a high degree of accuracy these periods can be described in terms of the power law dependencies of the type w(i)=Ac^i (or w(j;i)= A(i)m^i) with A,c (respectively, A(i),m) being some known empirical constants. Such power law dependencies are known in literature as the Titius-Bode law of planetary/satellite motion. The resonances in Solar system are similar to those encountered in old quantum mechanics. Although not widely known nowadays, applications of methods of celestial mechanics to atomic physics were, in fact, highly successful. With such a success, ...
Quantum metrology in open systems: dissipative Cramér-Rao bound.
Alipour, S; Mehboudi, M; Rezakhani, A T
2014-03-28
Estimation of parameters is a pivotal task throughout science and technology. The quantum Cramér-Rao bound provides a fundamental limit of precision allowed to be achieved under quantum theory. For closed quantum systems, it has been shown how the estimation precision depends on the underlying dynamics. Here, we propose a general formulation for metrology scenarios in open quantum systems, aiming to relate the precision more directly to properties of the underlying dynamics. This feature may be employed to enhance an estimation precision, e.g., by quantum control techniques. Specifically, we derive a Cramér-Rao bound for a fairly large class of open system dynamics, which is governed by a (time-dependent) dynamical semigroup map. We illustrate the utility of this scenario through three examples. PMID:24724633
Quantum simulation of a frustrated Heisenberg spin system
Ma, Xiao-song; Naylor, William; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2010-01-01
Quantum simulators are capable of calculating properties of quantum systems unfeasible for classical computers. Here we report the analog quantum simulation of arbitrary Heisenberg-type interactions among four spin-1/2 particles. This spin-1/2 tetramer is the two-dimensional archetype system whose ground state belongs to the class of valence-bond states. Depending on the interaction strength, frustration within the system emerges such that the ground state evolves from a localized to a resonating valence-bond state. This spin-1/2 tetramer is created using the polarization states of four photons. We utilize the particular advantages of the precise single-particle addressability and a tunable measurement-induced interaction to obtain fundamental insights into entanglement dynamics among individual particles. We also directly extract ground-state energies and pair-wise quantum correlations, which enable our quantum simulator to investigate the frustration of entanglement. Remarkably, the pair-wise correlations a...
Shushin, A. I.
2010-01-01
The manifestation of measurements, randomly distributed in time, on the evolution of quantum systems are analyzed in detail. The set of randomly distributed measurements (RDM) is modeled within the renewal theory, in which the distribution is characterized by the probability density function (PDF) W(t) of times t between successive events (measurements). The evolution of the quantum system affected by the RDM is shown to be described by the density matrix satisfying the stochastic Liouville e...
Energy-time uncertainty for driven quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive a generalization of the energy-time uncertainty relation for driven quantum systems based on the Bures geometric distance in Hilbert space and the concept of quantum speed limit. This relation is valid for arbitrary driving protocol and arbitrary distance between initial and final state.
Scaling law and stability for a noisy quantum system
Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Parkins, Scott; Leonhardt, Rainer
2008-08-01
We show that a scaling law exists for the near-resonant dynamics of cold kicked atoms in the presence of a randomly fluctuating pulse amplitude. Analysis of a quasiclassical phase-space representation of the quantum system with noise allows a new scaling law to be deduced. The scaling law and associated stability are confirmed by comparison with quantum simulations and experimental data.
Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms
Kaminaga, Y
1995-01-01
A general theory is presented of quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. Within that general theory, n-th order and m-th order Lagrangians are shown to be quantum mechanically equivalent if their difference is a total derivative.
Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms
Kaminaga, Yasuhito
1995-01-01
A general theory is presented of quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. Within that general theory, $n$-th order and $m$-th order Lagrangians are shown to be quantum mechanically equivalent if their difference is a total derivative.
A note on quantum groups and integrable systems
Popolitov, Alexander
2015-01-01
Free-field formalism for quantum groups provides a special choice of coordinates on a quantum group. In these coordinates the construction of associated integrable system is especially simple. This choice also fits into general framework of cluster varieties -- natural changes of coordinates are cluster mutations.
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
Scardigli, Fabio(Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy)
2005-01-01
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this rule in the "quantum-like" language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed.
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this law in the 'quantum-like' language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
Scardigli, Fabio
2007-05-01
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this law in the "quantum-like" language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed.
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scardigli, Fabio [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2007-05-15
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this law in the 'quantum-like' language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed.
Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (–e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ? = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries
System-free quantum mechanical description of particle decay processes
Jaroszkiewicz, G
2006-01-01
Using the formalism of system-free quantum mechanics, we show how quantum mechanical particle decay probabilities can be discussed rigorously within a framework that conserves total probability, requiring neither non-Hermitian Hamiltonians nor the ad-hoc introduction of complex energies. We apply our formalism to single channel decays, the ammonium molecule, and neutral Kaon decay processes.
Pure Stationary States of non-Hamiltonian and Dissipative Quantum Systems
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2002-01-01
Using Liouville space and superoperator formalism we consider pure stationary states of open and dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of open quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of closed quantum systems. Open quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear oscillator are suggested. We consider stationary states for the Lindblad equation. We discuss bifurcations of pure stationary states for open quantum systems which are quantum...
The classical limit of non-integrable quantum systems, a route to quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical limit of non-integrable quantum systems is studied. We define non-integrable quantum systems as those, which have, as their classical limit, a non-integrable classical system. This quantum systems will be the candidates to be the models of quantum chaos. In order to obtain this limit, the self-induced decoherence approach and the corresponding classical limit are generalized from integrable to non-integrable systems. In this approach, the lost of information, usually conceived as the result of a coarse-graining or the trace of an environment, is produced by a particular choice of the algebra of observables and the systematic use of mean values, that project the unitary evolution onto an effective non-unitary one. By means of our method, we can obtain the classical limit of the quantum state of a non-integrable system, which turns out to be a set of unstable, potentially chaotic classical trajectories contained in the Wigner transformation of the quantum state
Quantum dynamics simulation of a small quantum system embedded in a classical environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors wish to consider quantum-dynamical processes that are not restricted to motion on a ground state Born-Oppenheimer surface, but may involve transitions between states. The authors interest is in such processes occurring in a complex environment that modulates the quantum process and interacts with it. In a system containing thousands degrees of freedom, the essential quantum behaviour is generally restricted to a small subsystem containing only a few degrees of freedom, while the environment can be treated classically. The challenge is threefold: 1) to treat the quantum subsystem correctly in a quantum-dynamical sense, 2) to treat the environment correctly in a classical dynamical sense, 3) to couple both systems in such a way that errors in the average or long-term behaviour are minimized. After an exposition of the theory, an insight into quantum-dynamical behaviour by using pictorial analogue, valid for a simple two-level system is given. Then, the authors give a short survey of applications related to collision processes involving quantum levels of one particle, and to proton transfer processes along hydrogen bonds in complex environments. Finally, they conclude with some general remarks on the validity of their approach. (N.T.)
Floquet states of many-body quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Periodic driving of a quantum many-body system could provide an access to a multitude of new-non-equilibrium states, essentially different from those a system exhibits at equilibrium. However, the field of ac-driven many-body quantum systems is a little-explored area, mainly for two reasons. First, until recently there were enough exciting problems to study at the equilibrium corner. Second, even under equilibrium conditions, a typical many-body system is a hard nut to crack due to the exponential growth of the number of system states with the number of quantum entities it contains. We discuss the possible directions to take in order to get insight into the evolution of ac-driven many-body quantum systems, outline the obstacles and possible means to overcome them. Our approach is based on the Floquet operator formalism and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods.
Floquet states of many-body quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denisov, Sergey; Seibert, Armin; Ponomarev, Alexey Vladimir; Haenggi, Peter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstr. 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)
2012-07-01
Periodic driving of a quantum many-body system could provide an access to a multitude of new-non-equilibrium states, essentially different from those a system exhibits at equilibrium. However, the field of ac-driven many-body quantum systems is a little-explored area, mainly for two reasons. First, until recently there were enough exciting problems to study at the equilibrium corner. Second, even under equilibrium conditions, a typical many-body system is a hard nut to crack due to the exponential growth of the number of system states with the number of quantum entities it contains. We discuss the possible directions to take in order to get insight into the evolution of ac-driven many-body quantum systems, outline the obstacles and possible means to overcome them. Our approach is based on the Floquet operator formalism and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods.
Tartakovskii, Alexander
2012-07-01
Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by Lithographic Techniques: III-V Semiconductors and Carbon: 15. Electrically controlling single spin coherence in semiconductor nanostructures Y. Dovzhenko, K. Wang, M. D. Schroer and J. R. Petta; 16. Theory of electron and nuclear spins in III-V semiconductor and carbon-based dots H. Ribeiro and G. Burkard; 17. Graphene quantum dots: transport experiments and local imaging S. Schnez, J. Guettinger, F. Molitor, C. Stampfer, M. Huefner, T. Ihn and K. Ensslin; Part VI. Single Dots for Future Telecommunications Applications: 18. Electrically operated entangled light sources based on quantum dots R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Bennett and A. J. Shields; 19. Deterministic single quantum dot cavities at telecommunication wavelengths D. Dalacu, K. Mnaymneh, J. Lapointe, G. C. Aers, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams and S. Hughes; Index.
Active optical clock based on four-level quantum system
Zhang, Tonggang; Yanfei WANG; Zang, Xiaorun; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao
2012-01-01
Active optical clock, a new conception of atomic clock, has been proposed recently. In this report, we propose a scheme of active optical clock based on four-level quantum system. The final accuracy and stability of two-level quantum system are limited by second-order Doppler shift of thermal atomic beam. To three-level quantum system, they are mainly limited by light shift of pumping laser field. These limitations can be avoided effectively by applying the scheme proposed here. Rubidium atom...
Hamiltonian of mean force for damped quantum systems
Hilt, Stefanie; Lutz, Eric
2011-01-01
We consider a quantum system linearly coupled to a reservoir of harmonic oscillators. For finite coupling strengths, the stationary distribution of the damped system is not of the Gibbs form, in contrast to standard thermodynamics. With the help of the quantum Hamiltonian of mean force, we quantify this deviation exactly for a harmonic oscillator and provide approximations in the limit of high and low temperatures, and weak and strong couplings. Moreover, in the semiclassical regime, we use the quantum Smoluchowski equation to obtain results valid for any potential. We, finally, give a physical interpretation of the deviation in terms of the initial system-reservoir coupling.
Entanglement generation in spatially separated systems using quantum walk
Chandrashekar, C M; Banerjee, Subhashish
2010-01-01
We present a novel scheme to generate entanglement between two spatially separated systems. The scheme makes use of spatial entanglement generated by a single-particle quantum walk which is used to entangle two spatially separated, not necessarily correlated, systems. This scheme can be used to entangle any two systems which can interact with the spatial modes entangled during the quantum walk evolution. A notable feature is that we can control the quantum walk dynamics and its ability to localize leads to a substantial control and improvement in the entanglement output.
Dynamical suppression of decoherence in two-state quantum systems
Viola, L; Viola, Lorenza; Lloyd, Seth
1998-01-01
The dynamics of a decohering two-level system driven by a suitable control Hamiltonian is studied. The control procedure is implemented as a sequence of radiofrequency pulses that repetitively flip the state of the system, a technique that can be termed quantum "bang-bang" control after its classical analog. Decoherence introduced by the system's interaction with a quantum environment is shown to be washed out completely in the limit of continuous flipping and greatly suppressed provided the interval between the pulses is made comparable to the correlation time of the environment. The model suggests a strategy to fight against decoherence that complements existing quantum error-correction techniques.
Multi-particle correlations in quaternionic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors investigated the outcomes of measurements on correlated, few-body quantum systems described by a quaternionic quantum mechanics that allows for regions of quaternionic curvature. It was found that a multi particles interferometry experiment using a correlated system of four nonrelativistic, spin-half particles has the potential to detect the presence of quaternionic curvature. Two-body systems, however, are shown to give predictions identical to those of standard quantum mechanics when relative angles are used in the construction of the operators corresponding to measurements of particle spin components. 15 refs
Decoherence as irreversible dynamical process in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: A framework for a general discussion in Heisenberg's representation of environmentally induced decoherence will be proposed. Example showing that classical properties do not have to be postulated as an independent ingredient will be given. It will be also shown that infinite open quantum systems in some case after decoherence behave like - simple classical dynamical systems; simples quantum mechanical systems representing one particle. (author)
Quantum Control of Infinite Dimensional Many-Body Systems
Bliss, Roger S.; Burgarth, Daniel
2013-01-01
A major challenge to the control of infinite dimensional quantum systems is the irreversibility which is often present in the system dynamics. Here we consider systems with discrete-spectrum Hamiltonians operating over a Schwartz space domain, and show that by utilizing the implications of the Quantum Recurrence Theorem this irreversibility may be overcome, in the case of individual states more generally, but also in certain specified cases over larger subsets of the Hilbert...
Quantum Measurement Problem and Systems Selfdescription in Operators Algebras Formalism
Mayburov, S.
2002-01-01
Quantum Measurement problem studied in Information Theory approach of systems selfdescription which exploits the information acquisition incompleteness for the arbitrary information system. The studied model of measuring system (MS) consist of measured state S environment E and observer $O$ processing input S signal. $O$ considered as the quantum object which interaction with S,E obeys to Schrodinger equation (SE). MS incomplete or restricted states for $O$ derived by the algebraic QM formali...
Entangled Quantum State Discrimination using Pseudo-Hermitian System
Ghatak, Ananya
2012-01-01
We demonstrate how to discriminate two non-orthogonal, entangled quantum state which are slightly different from each other by using pseudo-Hermitian system. The positive definite metric operator which makes the pseudo-Hermitian systems fully consistent quantum theory is used for such a state discrimination. We further show that non-orthogonal states can evolve through a suitably constructed pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian to orthogonal states. Such evolution ceases at exceptional points of the pseudo-Hermitian system.
Emergence of thermodynamic behavior within composite quantum systems
Mahler, Guenter; Gemmer, Jochen; Michel, Mathias
2005-01-01
Entanglement within a given device provides a potential resource for quantum information processing. Entanglement between system and environment leads to decoherence (thus suppressing non-classical features within the system) but also opens up a route to robust and universal control. The latter is related to thermodynamic equilibrium, a generic behavior of bi-partite quantum systems. Fingerprints of this equilibrium behavior (including relaxation and stability) show up alrea...
Quantum materials, lateral semiconductor nanostructures, hybrid systems and nanocrystals
Heitmann, Detlef
2010-01-01
Semiconductor nanostructures are ideal systems to tailor the physical properties via quantum effects, utilizing special growth techniques, self-assembling, wet chemical processes or lithographic tools in combination with tuneable external electric and magnetic fields. Such systems are called 'Quantum Materials'. The electronic, photonic, and phononic properties of these systems are governed by size quantization and discrete energy levels. The charging is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. The spin can be manipulated by the geometrical structure, external gates and by integrating hybrid ferrom
Certifying single-system steering for quantum-information processing
Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Lambert, Neill; Chiu, Ching-Yi; Nori, Franco
2015-12-01
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes how different ensembles of quantum states can be remotely prepared by measuring one particle of an entangled pair. Here, we investigate quantum steering for single quantum d -dimensional systems (qudits) and devise efficient conditions to certify the steerability therein, which we find are applicable both to single-system steering and EPR steering. In the single-system case our steering conditions enable the unambiguous ruling out of generic classical means of mimicking steering. Ruling out "false-steering" scenarios has implications for securing channels against both cloning-based individual attack and coherent attacks when implementing quantum key distribution using qudits. We also show that these steering conditions also have applications in quantum computation, in that they can serve as an efficient criterion for the evaluation of quantum logic gates of arbitrary size. Finally, we describe how the nonlocal EPR variant of these conditions also function as tools for identifying faithful one-way quantum computation, secure entanglement-based quantum communication, and genuine multipartite EPR steering.
Quasiprobability distributions in open quantum systems: Spin-qubit systems
Thapliyal, Kishore; Banerjee, Subhashish; Pathak, Anirban; Omkar, S.; Ravishankar, V.
2015-11-01
We study nonclassical features in a number of spin-qubit systems including single, two and three qubit states, as well as an N qubit Dicke model and a spin-1 system, of importance in the fields of quantum optics and information. This is done by analyzing the behavior of the well known Wigner, P, and Q quasiprobability distributions on them. We also discuss the not so well known F function and specify its relation to the Wigner function. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of quasiprobability distributions for spin-qubit systems under general open system effects, including both pure dephasing as well as dissipation. This makes it relevant from the perspective of experimental implementation.
A robust, scanning quantum system for nanoscale sensing and imaging
Maletinsky, P; Grinolds, M S; Hausmann, B; Lukin, M D; Walsworth, R -L; Loncar, M; Yacoby, A
2011-01-01
Controllable atomic-scale quantum systems hold great potential as sensitive tools for nanoscale imaging and metrology. Possible applications range from nanoscale electric and magnetic field sensing to single photon microscopy, quantum information processing, and bioimaging. At the heart of such schemes is the ability to scan and accurately position a robust sensor within a few nanometers of a sample of interest, while preserving the sensor's quantum coherence and readout fidelity. These combined requirements remain a challenge for all existing approaches that rely on direct grafting of individual solid state quantum systems or single molecules onto scanning-probe tips. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and room temperature operation of a robust and isolated atomic-scale quantum sensor for scanning probe microscopy. Specifically, we employ a high-purity, single-crystalline diamond nanopillar probe containing a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center. We illustrate the versatility and performance of our sc...
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino
2014-01-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms.
Holomorphic anomaly in the quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental and theoretical evidence which is accumulating in favor of the existence of a global sub-modular symmetry in the quantum Hall system is reviewed. The scaling data suggest that the zeros of the beta-function are effectively anti-holomorphic, and it is explained how this leads to a superuniversal scaling function. This motivates the first construction of a candidate beta-function which agrees with all scaling data, as well as the restrictions coming from both the perturbative and dilute instanton gas analysis of the non-linear sigma-model of planar charge transport. The key mathematical concept allowing global analysis of this non-holomorphic function is quasi-holomorphic automorphy, and a firm mathematical foundation is given which exhibits the intimate relationship with the holomorphic anomaly that appears in supersymmetric string- and field-theories in high energy physics. It is therefore natural to conjecture that quasi-holomorphy is simply a consequence of the well-known existence of an effective supersymmetry in the low-energy field theory of a disordered medium
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system.
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebjørn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pål; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekström, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernández, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hättig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenæs, Eirik; Høst, Stinne; Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansík, Branislav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; Jørgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnæs, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Sa?ek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Merás, Alfredo Sánchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Thøgersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Agren, Hans
2014-05-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller-Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629
The transfer dynamics of quantum correlation between systems and reservoirs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, we study the dynamics of quantum correlation (QC) in terms of quantum discord and its transfer for multiqubit systems in dissipative environments. At first, we investigate the dynamics of bipartite QC contained in a three-qubit system that are initially prepared in an extended W-like state with each qubit coupled to an independent reservoir. Subsequently, we study a realistic quantum network of several remote nodes each of which contains two qubits in contact with a common reservoir. For the simplest case of two nodes, we study the dynamics of QC and its transfer from the initially correlated system to the reservoirs and other degrees of freedom. In both models, we pay particular attention to the independent evolution and transfer of QC without the participation of entanglement when the systems of interest are initially prepared in unentangled states. We also observe the occurrence of sudden changes of quantum discord when the systems are initially in mixed states.
Quantum System under Periodic Perturbation Effect of Environment
Hotta, M; Matsumoto, S; Yoshimura, M; Matsumoto, Sh.
1996-01-01
In many physical situations the behavior of a quantum system is affected by interaction with a larger environment. We develop, using the method of influence functional, how to deduce the density matrix of the quantum system incorporating the effect of environment. After introducing characterization of the environment by spectral weight, we first devise schemes to approximate the spectral weight, and then a perturbation method in field theory models, in order to approximately describe the environment. All of these approximate models may be classified as extended Ohmic models of dissipation whose differences are in the high frequency part. The quantum system we deal with in the present work is a general class of harmonic oscillators with arbitrary time dependent frequency. The late time behavior of the system is well described by an approximation that employs a localized friction in the dissipative part of the correlation function appearing in the influence functional. The density matrix of the quantum system i...
Does an onlooker stop an evolving quantum system?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toschek, P E [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungius-Str.9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)
2007-10-15
The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of 'gedanken' experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory - thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: 1. The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, 2. the system's temporal evolution, and 3. the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed.An experiment designed to demonstrate this 'quantum Zeno effect' and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individualelectrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretation.
Does an onlooker stop an evolving quantum system?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of 'gedanken' experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory - thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: 1. The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, 2. the system's temporal evolution, and 3. the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed.An experiment designed to demonstrate this 'quantum Zeno effect' and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individualelectrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretation
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwager, Heike
2012-07-04
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with subwavelength interatomic distances that exhibits long rage interactions. What lies at the heart of all these approaches is the endeavour to include the coupling to the environment into the description of the physical system with the aim of harnessing dissipative processes. While decoherence masks or destroys quantum effects and is considered as the main adversary of any quantum information application, we turn the existence of the dissipative coupling of spin systems to the environment into a fruitful resource.
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with subwavelength interatomic distances that exhibits long rage interactions. What lies at the heart of all these approaches is the endeavour to include the coupling to the environment into the description of the physical system with the aim of harnessing dissipative processes. While decoherence masks or destroys quantum effects and is considered as the main adversary of any quantum information application, we turn the existence of the dissipative coupling of spin systems to the environment into a fruitful resource.
Quantum-Classical System: Simple Harmonic Oscillator
Sulistiono, Tri
1997-01-01
Problems concerning with application of quantum rules on classical phenomena have been widely studied, for which lifted up the idea about quantization and uncertainty principle. Energy quantization on classical example of simple harmonic oscillator has been reviewed in this paper.
Quantum dot systems: artificial atoms with tunable properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum dots - also called zero-dimensional electron systems or artificial atoms - are physical objects where the constituent electrons are confined in a small spatial region, leading to discrete eigenvalues for the energies of the confined electrons. Large quantum dots offer a dense energy spectrum comparable to that of metallic grains, whereas small quantum dots more closely resemble atoms in their electronic properties. Quantum dots can be linked to leads by tunnel barriers, hence permitting electrical transport measurements: Coulomb blockade and single-electron charging effects are observed due to the repulsive electron electron interaction on the quantum dot site. Usually fabricated by conventional semiconductor growth and processing technology, the advantage is that both simple and also more complex quantum dot systems can be designed to purpose, acting as model systems with in-situ tunable parameters such as the number of confined electrons in the quantum dot and the strength of the tunnel coupling to the leads, electrostatically controlled by the applied voltages to gate electrodes. With increasing the tunnel coupling to the leads, the virtual occupation of the quantum dot from the leads becomes more and more important -- the simple description of electrical transport by single-electron tunneling events breaks down. The basic physics is described by the Kondo physics based on the Anderson impurity model. A system consisting of strongly electrostatically coupled quantum dots with separate leads to each quantum dot represent another realization of the Anderson impurity model. Experiments to verify the analogy are presented. The experimental data embedded within this tutorial have been obtained with Alexander Huebel, Matthias Keller, Joerg Schmid, David Quirion, Armin Welker, Ulf Wilhelm, and Klaus von Klitzing. (author)
Measurement theory for closed quantum systems
Wouters, Michiel
2014-01-01
We introduce the concept of a "classical observable" as an operator with vanishingly small quantum fluctuations on a set of density matrices. It is shown how to construct them for a time evolved pure state. The study of classical observables provides a natural starting point to analyse the quantum measurement problem. In particular, it allows to identify Schr\\"odinger cats and the associated projection operators intrinsically, without the need to invoke an environment. We di...
Luminescence of a semiconductor quantum dot system
Baer, N.; Gies, C.; Wiersig, J.; Jahnke, F.
2006-04-01
A microscopic theory is used to study photoluminescence of semiconductor quantum dots under the influence of Coulomb and carrier-photon correlation effects beyond the Hartree-Fock level. We investigate the emission spectrum and the decay properties of the time-resolved luminescence from initially excited quantum dots. The influence of the correlations is included within a cluster expansion scheme up to the singlet-doublet level.
Closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems.
Chen, Chunlin; Wang, Lin-Cheng; Wang, Yuanlong
2013-01-01
For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA), and reinforcement learning (RL) methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H(?) control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention. PMID:23997680
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum discrete sine-Gordon model at roots of 1 is studied. It is shown that this model provides an example of an integrable quantum system in an integrable classical background. In particular, the spectrum of quantum integrals of motions in this model depends only on the values of integrals of motion of a background classical system. (orig.). With 1 fig
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and measurement of quantum system
Kladko, Konstantin
1999-01-01
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox is considered in a relation to a measurement of an arbitrary quantum system . It is shown that the EPR paradox always appears in a gedanken experiment with two successively joined measuring devices.
Steering a quantum system over a Schroedinger bridge
Beghi, A.; Ferrante, A; Pavon, M.
2001-01-01
A new approach to the steering problem for quantum systems relying on Nelson's stochastic mechanics and on the theory of Schroedinger bridges is presented. The method is illustrated by working out a simple Gaussian example.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for rovibrational states of molecular systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blume, D. [Max?Planck?Institut für Strömungsforschung, Bunsenstr.10, D?37073 Göttingen, Germany and Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lewerenz, M.; Whaley, K. B. [Max?Planck?Institut für Strömungsforschung, Bunsenstr.10, D?37073 Göttingen (Germany)
1997-12-01
We present applications to molecular problems of a recently developed quantum Monte Carlo algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 55, 3664 (1997)] for the calculation of excited state energies of multi?dimensional quantum systems, employing a projection operator imaginary time spectral evolution (POITSE). The extraction of vibrational energies is demonstrated on a double well potential and on two coupled harmonic oscillators, and on excited rotational states of a rotating harmonic oscillator. All energies extracted by the quantum Monte Carlo algorithm are in good agreement with exact results, showing that the new method is very promising for the calculation of tunneling splittings, and of vibrational and rotational excitations in real multi?dimensional molecular systems.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for rovibrational states of molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present applications to molecular problems of a recently developed quantum Monte Carlo algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 55, 3664 (1997)] for the calculation of excited state energies of multi?dimensional quantum systems, employing a projection operator imaginary time spectral evolution (POITSE). The extraction of vibrational energies is demonstrated on a double well potential and on two coupled harmonic oscillators, and on excited rotational states of a rotating harmonic oscillator. All energies extracted by the quantum Monte Carlo algorithm are in good agreement with exact results, showing that the new method is very promising for the calculation of tunneling splittings, and of vibrational and rotational excitations in real multi?dimensional molecular systems
Rate equations for quantum transport in multi-dot systems
Gurvitz, S A
1998-01-01
Starting with the many-body Schrödinger equation we derive new rate equations for resonant transport in quantum dots linked by ballistic channels with high density of states. It is shown that the current in such a system displays quantum coherence effects, even if the dots are away one from another. A comparative analysis of quantum coherence effects in coupled and separated dots is presented. The rate equations are extended for description of coherent and incoherent transport in arbitrary multi-dot systems. It is demonstrated that new rate equations constitute a generalization of the well-known optical Bloch equations.
Fidelity and entanglement fidelity for infinite-dimensional quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Instead of unitary freedom for finite-dimensional cases, bi-contractive freedom in the operator-sum representation for quantum channels of infinite-dimensional systems is established. Specifically, if the channel sends every pure state to a finite rank state, then the isometric freedom feature holds. Then, a method of computing entanglement fidelity and a relation between quantum fidelity and entanglement fidelity for infinite-dimensional systems are obtained. In addition, upper and lower bounds of the quantum fidelity, and their connection to the trace distance, are also provided. (paper)
Quantum speed limit in a qubit-spin-bath system
Hou, Lu; Shao, Bin; Wei, Yong-Bo; Zou, Jian
2015-12-01
We investigate the behavior of quantum speed limit (QSL) time for a typical non-Markovian system, a central spin coupled to a spin star configuration. We connect the QSL time with an external control and show that the effectiveness of the external magnetic field, as well as the coupling strength, is related to the fundamental bounds that affect the maximum speed at which a quantum system can evolve in its state space. We also demonstrate that a spin bath with larger size may shorten the QSL time, while the upper state population plays an important role for the acceleration of quantum evolution in the memory surrounding.
Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit
Photonic reagent control of dynamically homologous quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general objective of quantum control is the manipulation of atomic scale physical and chemical phenomena through the application of external control fields. These tailored fields, or photonic reagents, exhibit systematic properties analogous to those of ordinary laboratory reagents. This analogous behavior is explored further here by considering the controlled response of a family of homologous quantum systems to a single common photonic reagent. A level set of dynamically homologous quantum systems is defined as the family that produces the same value(s) for a target physical observable(s) when controlled by a common photonic reagent. This paper investigates the scope of homologous quantum system control using the level set exploration technique (L-SET). L-SET enables the identification of continuous families of dynamically homologous quantum systems. Each quantum system is specified by a point in a hypercube whose edges are labeled by Hamiltonian matrix elements. Numerical examples are presented with simple finite level systems to illustrate the L-SET concepts. Both connected and disconnected families of dynamically homologous systems are shown to exist
Relativistic quantum econophysics - new paradigms in complex systems modelling
Saptsin, Vladimir; Soloviev, Vladimir
2009-01-01
This work deals with the new, relativistic direction in quantum econophysics, within the bounds of which a change of the classical paradigms in mathematical modelling of socio-economic system is offered. Classical physics proceeds from the hypothesis that immediate values of all the physical quantities, characterizing system's state, exist and can be accurately measured in principle. Non-relativistic quantum mechanics does not reject the existence of the immediate values of ...
Integrable and superintegrable quantum systems in a magnetic field
Berube, J; Berube, Josee; Winternitz, Pavel
2004-01-01
Integrable quantum mechanical systems with magnetic fields are constructed in two-dimensional Euclidean space. The integral of motion is assumed to be a first or second order Hermitian operator. Contrary to the case of purely scalar potentials, quadratic integrability does not imply separation of variables in the Schroedinger equation. Moreover, quantum and classical integrable systems do not necessarily coincide: the Hamiltonian can depend on the Planck constant in a nontrivial manner.
Plausibility of quantum coherent states in biological systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salari, V [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, CNRS UMR7590 (France); Tuszynski, J [Department of Experimental Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rahnama, M [Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bernroider, G, E-mail: vahid.salari@impmc.upmc.fr [Department of Organismic Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg (Austria)
2011-07-08
In this paper we briefly discuss the necessity of using quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory applicable to some key functional aspects of biological systems. This is especially relevant to three important parts of a neuron in the human brain, namely the cell membrane, microtubules (MT) and ion channels. We argue that the recently published papers criticizing the use of quantum theory in these systems are not convincing.
Vertex Models and Quantum Spin Systems: a nonlocal approach
Evertz, H. G.; Marcu, M
1993-01-01
Within a general cluster framework, we discuss the loop-algorithm, a new type of cluster algorithm that reduces critical slowing down in vertex models and in quantum spin systems. We cover the example of the 6-vertex model in detail. For the F-model, we present numerical results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the loop algorithm. We discuss how to modify the original algorithm for some more complicated situations, especially for quantum spin systems in one and two dimensions.
Entanglement Generation in Spatially Separated Systems Using Quantum Walk
Goyal, Sandeep K.; C. M. Chandrashekar; Subhashish Banerjee
2012-01-01
We present a scheme for generating entanglement between two spatially separated systems from the spatial entanglement generated by the interference effect during the evolution of a single-particle quantum walk. Any two systems which can interact with the spatial modes entangled during the walk evolution can be entangled using this scheme. A notable feature is the ability to control the quantum walk dynamics and its localization at desired pair lattice sites irrespective of separation distance...
Thermal Rectification in the Nonequilibrium Quantum-Dot-System
Chen, T.; Wang, X. B.
2012-01-01
Quantum thermal transport in two-quantum-dot system with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DM interaction) has been studied. The sign of thermal rectification can be controlled through changing the energy splitting or the DM interaction strength. The anisotropic term in the system can also affect the sign of rectification. Compared with other proposals [Phys. Rev. B 80, 172301 (2009)], our model can offer larger rectification efficiency and show the potential application in designing the pol...
Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation with Higher-Dimensional Systems
Gottesman, D
1998-01-01
Instead of a quantum computer where the fundamental units are 2-dimensional qubits, we can consider a quantum computer made up of d-dimensional systems. There is a straightforward generalization of the class of stabilizer codes to d-dimensional systems, and I will discuss the theory of fault-tolerant computation using such codes. I prove that universal fault-tolerant computation is possible with any higher-dimensional stabilizer code for prime d.
Invisibility of quantum systems to tunneling of matter waves
Cordero, Sergio; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston
2009-01-01
We show that an appropriate choice of the potential parameters in one-dimensional quantum systems allows for unity transmission of the tunneling particle at all incident tunneling energies, except at controllable exceedingly small incident energies. The corresponding dwell time and the transmission amplitude are indistinguishable from those of a free particle in the unity-transmission regime. This implies the possibility of designing quantum systems that are invisible to tun...
Entangled Quantum State Discrimination using Pseudo-Hermitian System
Ghatak, Ananya; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad(Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India)
2012-01-01
We demonstrate how to discriminate two non-orthogonal, entangled quantum state which are slightly different from each other by using pseudo-Hermitian system. The positive definite metric operator which makes the pseudo-Hermitian systems fully consistent quantum theory is used for such a state discrimination. We further show that non-orthogonal states can evolve through a suitably constructed pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian to orthogonal states. Such evolution ceases at exceptional points of the ...
Quantum entropy of systems described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians
Sergi, Alessandro; Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G.
2015-01-01
We study the quantum entropy of systems that are described by general non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, including those which can model the effects of sinks or sources. We generalize the von Neumann entropy to the non-Hermitian case and find that one needs both the normalized and non-normalized density operators in order to properly describe irreversible processes. It turns out that such a generalization monitors the onset of disorder in quantum dissipative systems. We give arguments for why one ca...
Fourier's Law confirmed for a class of small quantum systems
Michel, M; Gemmer, J; Mahler, G; Michel, Mathias; Hartmann, Michael; Gemmer, Jochen; Mahler, Guenter
2003-01-01
Within the Lindblad formalism we consider an interacting spin chain coupled locally to heat baths. We investigate the dependence of the energy transport on the type of interaction in the system as well as on the overall interaction strength. For a large class of couplings we find a normal heat conduction and confirm Fourier's Law. In a fully quantum mechanical approach linear transport behavior appears to be generic even for small quantum systems.
Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)
Contexts, Systems and Modalities: A New Ontology for Quantum Mechanics
Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe
2015-09-01
In this article we present a possible way to make usual quantum mechanics fully compatible with physical realism, defined as the statement that the goal of physics is to study entities of the natural world, existing independently from any particular observer's perception, and obeying universal and intelligible rules. Rather than elaborating on the quantum formalism itself, we propose a new quantum ontology, where physical properties are attributed jointly to the system, and to the context in which it is embedded. In combination with a quantization principle, this non-classical definition of physical reality sheds new light on counter-intuitive features of quantum mechanics such as the origin of probabilities, non-locality, and the quantum-classical boundary.
Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems
Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)
2011-12-13
The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.
Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)
2011-12-13
The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.
Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rapcan, P. [Research Center for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Calsamiglia, J.; Munoz-Tapia, R. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Bagan, E. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Buzek, V. [Research Center for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, CZ-602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)
2011-09-15
Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system collapses into a postmeasurement state from which the same observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or can scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and we study the classical limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In addition to the case where all observers perform most informative measurements, we study the scenario where a finite number of observers estimates the state with equal fidelity, regardless of their position in the measurement sequence and the scenario where all observers use identical measurement apparatuses (up to a mutually unknown orientation) chosen so that a particular observer's estimation fidelity is maximized.
Smooth controllability of infinite-dimensional quantum-mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manipulation of infinite-dimensional quantum systems is important to controlling complex quantum dynamics with many practical physical and chemical backgrounds. In this paper, a general investigation is casted to the controllability problem of quantum systems evolving on infinite-dimensional manifolds. Recognizing that such problems are related with infinite-dimensional controllability algebras, we introduce an algebraic mathematical framework to describe quantum control systems possessing such controllability algebras. Then we present the concept of smooth controllability on infinite-dimensional manifolds, and draw the main result on approximate strong smooth controllability. This is a nontrivial extension of the existing controllability results based on the analysis over finite-dimensional vector spaces to analysis over infinite-dimensional manifolds. It also opens up many interesting problems for future studies
Manipulating quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces
Zhang, Ming
2010-01-01
In this paper, we explore how to constructively manipulate quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces. It is revealed that one can make full use of distinguished properties of Pauli operators to design control Hamiltonian based on the geometric parametrization of quantum states. It is demonstrated in this research that Bang-Bang controls, triangle-function controls and square-function control can be utilized to manipulate controllable qubits or encoded qubits on controllable subspace for both open quantum dynamical systems and uncontrollable closed quantum dynamical systems. Furthermore, we propose a new kind of time-energy performance index to trade-off time and energy resource cost, and comprehensively discuss how to design control magnitude to minimize a kind of time-energy performance. A comparison has been made among these three kind of optimal control. It is underlined in this research that the optimal time performance can be always expressed as J^{*} =\\lamda{\\cdot}t^{*}_{f} +E^{*} for...
Quantum Magnets and Matrix Lorenz Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for the evolution of the magnetization, in presence of an external torque, can be cast in the form of the Lorenz equations and, thus, can describe chaotic fluctuations. To study quantum effects, we describe the magnetization by matrices, that take values in a Lie algebra. The finite dimensionality of the representation encodes the quantum fluctuations, while the non-linear nature of the equations can describe chaotic fluctuations. We identify a criterion, for the appearance of such non-linear terms. This depends on whether an invariant, symmetric tensor of the algebra can vanish or not. This proposal is studied in detail for the fundamental representation of u(2) = u(1) × su(2). We find a knotted structure for the attractor, a bimodal distribution for the largest Lyapunov exponent and that the dynamics takes place within the Cartan subalgebra, that does not contain only the identity matrix, thereby can describe the quantum fluctuations
Quantum statistical gravity: time dilation due to local information in many-body quantum systems
Sels, Dries
2016-01-01
We propose a generic mechanism for the emergence of a gravitational potential that acts on all classical objects in a quantum system. Our conjecture is based on the analysis of mutual information in many-body quantum systems. Since measurements in quantum systems affect the surroundings through entanglement, a measurement at one position reduces the entropy in its neighbourhood. This reduction in entropy can be described by a local temperature, that is directly related to the gravitational potential. A crucial ingredient in our argument is that ideal classical mechanical motion occurs at constant probability. This definition is motivated by the analysis of entropic forces in classical systems, which can be formally rewritten in terms of a gravitational potential.
Symmetry in quantum system theory: Rules for quantum architecture design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate universality in the sense of controllability and observability, of multi-qubit systems in architectures of various symmetries of coupling type and topology. By determining the respective dynamic system Lie algebras, explicit reachability sets under symmetry constraints are provided. Thus for a given (possibly symmetric) experimental coupling architecture several decision problems can be solved in a unified way: (i) can a target Hamiltonian be simulated? (ii) can a target gate be synthesised? (iii) to which extent is the system observable by a given set of detection operators? and, as a special case of the latter, (iv) can an underlying system Hamiltonian be identified with a given set of detection operators? Finally, in turn, the absence of symmetry provides a convenient necessary condition for full controllability. Though often easier to assess than the well-established Lie-algebra rank condition, this is not sufficient unless the candidate dynamic simple Lie algebra can be pre-identified uniquely. Thus for architectures with various Ising and Heisenberg coupling types we give design rules sufficient to ensure full controllability. In view of follow-up studies, we relate the unification of necessary and sufficient conditions for universality to filtering simple Lie subalgebras of su(N) comprising classical and exceptional types.
Does an isolated many body quantum system relax?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Understanding non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems is crucial for many fundamental and applied physics problems ranging from de-coherence and equilibration to the development of future quantum technologies such as quantum computers, which are inherently non-equilibrium quantum systems. One of the biggest challenges in probing non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems is that there is no general approach to characterize the resulting quantum states. Using the full distribution functions of a quantum observable [1,2], and the full phase correlation functions allows us to study the relaxation dynamics in one-dimensional quantum systems and to characterize the underlying many body states. Interfering two isolated one-dimensional quantum gases we study how the coherence created between the two many body systems by the splitting process slowly dies by coupling to the many internal degrees of freedom available. Two distinct regimes are clearly visible: for short length scales the system is characterized by spin diffusion, for long length scales by spin decay [3]. The system approaches a pre-thermalized state [4], which is characterized by thermal like distribution functions but exhibits an effective temperature over five times lower than the kinetic temperature of the initial system. A detailed study of the correlation functions reveals that these thermal-like properties emerge locally in their final form and propagate through the system in a light-cone-like evolution [5]. Furthermore we demonstrate that the pre-thermalized state is connected to a Generalized Gibbs Ensemble and that its higher order correlation functions factorize. Finally we show two distinct ways for subsequent evolution away from the pre-thermalized state. One proceeds by further de-phasing, the other by higher order phonon scattering processes. In both cases the final state is indistinguishable from a thermally relaxed state. We conjecture that our experiments points to a universal way through which relaxation in isolated many body quantum systems proceeds if the low energy dynamics is dominated by long lived excitations. [1] A. Polkovnikov, et al. PNAS 103, 6125 (2006); V. Gritsev, et al., Nature Phys. 2, 705 (2006). [2] S. Hofferberth et al. Nature Physics 4, 489 (2008). [3] M. Kuhnert et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 110, 090405 (2013). [4] M. Gring et al., Science 337, 1318 (2012); D. Adu Smith et al. NJP 15, 075011 (2013). [5] T. Langen et al. Nature Physics 9, 640643 (2013). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Roeck, W., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: netocny@fzu.cz, E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Maes, C., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: netocny@fzu.cz, E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Schütz, M., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: netocny@fzu.cz, E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Neto?ný, K., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: netocny@fzu.cz, E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be [Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2015-02-15
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle.
De Roeck, W.; Maes, C.; Neto?ný, K.; Schütz, M.
2015-02-01
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle.
Quantum Effects in the Mechanical Properties of Suspended Nanomechanical Systems
Carr, S M; Wybourne, M N
2001-01-01
We explore the quantum aspects of an elastic bar supported at both ends and subject to compression. If strain rather than stress is held fixed, the system remains stable beyond the buckling instability, supporting two potential minima. The classical equilibrium transverse displacement is analogous to a Ginsburg-Landau order parameter, with strain playing the role of temperature. We calculate the quantum fluctuations about the classical value as a function of strain. Excitation energies and quantum fluctuation amplitudes are compared for silicon beams and carbon nanotubes.
Quantum information transfer between topological and spin qubit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this talk I introduce a method to coherently transfer quantum information, and to create entanglement, between topological qubits and conventional spin qubits. The transfer method uses gated control to transfer an electron (spin qubit) between a quantum dot and edge Majorana modes in adjacent topological superconductors. Because of the spin polarization of the Majorana modes, the electron transfer translates spin superposition states into superposition states of the Majorana system, and vice versa. Furthermore, I discuss how a topological superconductor can be used to facilitate long-distance quantum information transfer and entanglement between spatially separated spin qubits.
Time-resolved electron transport in quantum-dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis the time-resolved electron transport in quantum dot systems was studied. For this two different formalisms were presented: The nonequilibrium Green functions and the generalized quantum master equations. For both formalisms a propagation method for the numerical calculation of time-resolved expectation values, like the occupation and the electron current, was developed. For the demonstration of the propagation method two different question formulations were considered. On the one hand the stochastically driven resonant-level model was studied. On the other hand the pulse-induced transport through a double quantum dot was considered.
A LONE code for the sparse control of quantum systems
Ciaramella, G.; BorzÃ¬, A.
2016-03-01
In many applications with quantum spin systems, control functions with a sparse and pulse-shaped structure are often required. These controls can be obtained by solving quantum optimal control problems with L1-penalized cost functionals. In this paper, the MATLAB package LONE is presented aimed to solving L1-penalized optimal control problems governed by unitary-operator quantum spin models. This package implements a new strategy that includes a globalized semi-smooth Krylov-Newton scheme and a continuation procedure. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the ability of the LONE code in computing accurate sparse optimal control solutions.
Bohr-Heisenberg Reality and System-Free Quantum Mechanics
Jaroszkiewicz, G; Jaroszkiewicz, George; Eakins, Jon
2007-01-01
Motivated by Heisenberg's assertion that electron trajectories do not exist until they are observed, we present a new approach to quantum mechanics in which the concept of observer independent system under observation is eliminated. Instead, the focus is only on observers and apparatus, the former describing the latter in terms of labstates. These are quantum states over time-dependent Heisenberg nets, which are quantum registers of qubits representing information gateways accessible to the observers. We discuss the motivation for this approach and lay down the basic principles and mathematical notation.
Reversal of Thermal Rectification in Quantum Systems
Zhang, Lifa; Yan, Yonghong; Wu, Chang-Qin; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen
2009-01-01
We study thermal transport in anisotropic Heisenberg spin chains using the quantum master equation. It is found that thermal rectification changes sign when the external homogeneous magnetic field is varied. This reversal also occurs when the magnetic field becomes inhomogeneous. Moreover, we can tune the reversal of rectification by temperatures of the heat baths, the anisotropy and size of the spin chains.
Teleportation of general finite dimensional quantum systems
Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao-Ming
2000-01-01
Teleportation of finite dimensional quantum states by a non-local entangled state is studied. For a generally given entangled state, an explicit equation that governs the teleportation is presented. Detailed examples and the roles played by the dimensions of the Hilbert spaces related to the sender, receiver and the auxiliary space are discussed.
Atomic quantum systems in optical micro-structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We combine state-of-the-art technology in micro-optics with the quantum optical techniques of laser cooling, laser trapping, and quantum control to open a new gateway for quantum information processing and matter wave optics with atomic systems. We use micro-fabricated optical systems to create light fields that allow us to trap and guide neutral atoms as a result of the optical dipole force experienced by the atoms. The realization of arrays of laser traps that can serve as registers for atomic quantum bits and as integrated waveguide structures for atom optics and atom interferometry has been achieved. This approach opens the possibility to scale, parallelize, and miniaturize systems for quantum information processing and atom optics. Currently we investigate the production of quantum-degenerate systems in pure optical trapping geometries and the coherent manipulation (1-qubit rotations, Ramsey-oscillations, spin-echo experiments) of internal qubit states for atoms trapped in arrays of dipole traps (author)
Mostame, Sarah; Rebentrost, Patrick; Eisfeld, Alexander; Kerman, Andrew J.; Tsomokos, Dimitris I.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2012-10-01
Open quantum system approaches are widely used in the description of physical, chemical and biological systems. A famous example is electronic excitation transfer in the initial stage of photosynthesis, where harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center. This transport is affected by the motion of a structured vibrational environment, which makes simulations on a classical computer very demanding. Here we propose an analog quantum simulator of complex open system dynamics with a precisely engineered quantum environment. Our setup is based on superconducting circuits, a well established technology. As an example, we demonstrate that it is feasible to simulate exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic complex. Our approach allows for a controllable single-molecule simulation and the investigation of energy transfer pathways as well as non-Markovian noise-correlation effects.
Shushin, A. I.
2011-02-01
The manifestation of measurements, randomly distributed in time, on the evolution of quantum systems are analyzed in detail. The set of randomly distributed measurements (RDM) is modeled within the renewal theory, in which the distribution is characterized by the probability density function (PDF) W(t) of times t between successive events (measurements). The evolution of the quantum system affected by the RDM is shown to be described by the density matrix satisfying the stochastic Liouville equation. This equation is applied to the analysis of the RDM effect on the evolution of a two-level system for different types of RDM statistics, corresponding to different PDFs W(t). Obtained general results are illustrated as applied to the cases of the Poissonian (W(t) \\sim \\,e^{-w_r t}) and anomalous (W(t) ~ 1/t1 + Î±, Î± RDM statistics. In particular, specific features of the quantum and inverse Zeno effects, resulting from the RDM, are thoroughly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The manifestation of measurements, randomly distributed in time, on the evolution of quantum systems are analyzed in detail. The set of randomly distributed measurements (RDM) is modeled within the renewal theory, in which the distribution is characterized by the probability density function (PDF) W(t) of times t between successive events (measurements). The evolution of the quantum system affected by the RDM is shown to be described by the density matrix satisfying the stochastic Liouville equation. This equation is applied to the analysis of the RDM effect on the evolution of a two-level system for different types of RDM statistics, corresponding to different PDFs W(t). Obtained general results are illustrated as applied to the cases of the Poissonian (W(t)âˆ¼ e-wrt) and anomalous (W(t) âˆ¼ 1/t1+Î±, Î± â‰¤ 1) RDM statistics. In particular, specific features of the quantum and inverse Zeno effects, resulting from the RDM, are thoroughly discussed.
Superconducting quantum spin Hall systems with giant orbital g factors
Reinthaler, R. W.; Tkachov, G.; Hankiewicz, E. M.
2015-10-01
Topological aspects of superconductivity in quantum spin Hall systems (QSHSs) such as thin layers of three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) or two-dimensional TIs are the focus of current research. Here, we describe a superconducting quantum spin Hall effect (quantum spin Hall system in proximity to an s -wave superconductor and in orbital in-plane magnetic fields), which is protected against elastic backscattering by combined time-reversal and particle-hole symmetry. This effect is characterized by spin-polarized edge states, which can be manipulated in weak magnetic fields due to a giant effective orbital g factor, allowing the generation of spin currents. The phenomenon provides a solution to the outstanding challenge of detecting the spin polarization of the edge states. Here we propose the detection of the edge polarization in a three-terminal junction using unusual transport properties of the superconducting quantum Hall effect: a nonmonotonic excess current and a zero-bias conductance peak splitting.
Scalar material reference systems and loop quantum gravity
Giesel, K.; Thiemann, T.
2015-07-01
In the past, the possibility to employ (scalar) material reference systems in order to describe classical and quantum gravity directly in terms of gauge invariant (Dirac) observables has been emphasized frequently. This idea has been picked up more recently in loop quantum gravity with the aim to perform a reduced phase space quantization of the theory, thus possibly avoiding problems with the (Dirac) operator constraint quantization method for a constrained system. In this work, we review the models that have been studied on the classical and/or the quantum level and parametrize the space of theories considered so far. We then describe the quantum theory of a model that, to the best of our knowledge, has only been considered classically so far. This model could arguably be called the optimal one in this class of models considered as it displays the simplest possible true Hamiltonian, while at the same time reducing all constraints of general relativity.
Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.
Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-06-01
Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm. PMID:25167475
Computer simulation of mixed classical-quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We briefly review three important methods that are currently used in the simulation of mixed systems. Two of these techniques, path integral Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics and dynamical simulated annealing, have the limitation that they can only describe the structural properties in the ground state. The third so-called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) method can provide not only the static properties but also the real-time dynamics of a quantum particle at finite temperatures. 10 refs
Unitarity as preservation of entropy and entanglement in quantum systems
Hulpke, Florian; Poulsen, Uffe V.; Sanpera, Anna; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej
2004-01-01
The logical structure of Quantum Mechanics (QM) and its relation to other fundamental principles of Nature has been for decades a subject of intensive research. In particular, the question whether the dynamical axiom of QM can be derived from other principles has been often considered. In this contribution, we show that unitary evolutions arise as a consequences of demanding preservation of entropy in the evolution of a single pure quantum system, and preservation of entangl...
Spin Ensemble Density Functional Theory for Inhomogeneous Quantum Hall Systems
Lubin, M I; Johnson, M D
1997-01-01
We have developed an ensemble density functional theory which includes spin degrees of freedom for nonuniform quantum Hall systems. We have applied this theory using a local-spin-density approximation to study the edge reconstruction of parabolically confined quantum dots. For a Zeeman splitting below a certain critical value, the edge of completely polarized maximum density droplet reconstructs into a spin-unpolarized structure. For larger Zeeman splittings, the edge remains polarized and develops an exchange hole.
Nonlinear Transport through Coupled Double Quantum Dot Systems
Kotlyar, R
1997-01-01
We investigate sequential tunneling transport through a semiconductor double quantum dot structure by combining a simple microscopic quantum confinement model with a Mott-Hubbard type correlation model. We calculate nonperturbatively the evolution of the Coulomb blockade oscillations as a function of the interdot barrier conductance, obtaining good qualitative agreement with the experimental data over the whole tunneling regime from the weak-coupling individual dot to the strong-coupling coherent double-dot molecular system.
Strong exciton–photon coupling in semiconductor quantum dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An overview is given on strong coupling phenomena in semiconductor quantum dot systems by utilizing cavity-enhanced light–matter interaction. The basic theory on strong coupling, the quantum dot and cavity fabrication technologies are reviewed while mainly three approaches are highlighted, i.e., micropillar, photonic crystal and microdisc cavities. The first and recent strong coupling experiments and the impact for future work are discussed. (topical review)
Canonical Typicality of Energy Eigenstates of an Isolated Quantum System
Dymarsky, Anatoly
2015-01-01
Currently there are two main approaches to describe how quantum statistical physics emerges from an isolated quantum many-body system in a pure state: Canonical Typicality (CT) and Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH). These two approaches has different but overlapping areas of validity, phenomenology and set of physical outcomes. In this paper we discuss the relation between CT and ETH and propose a formulation of ETH in terms of the reduced density matrix. We provide strong numerical evidences for the proposal.
Far from equilibrium energy flow in quantum critical systems
Bhaseen, M J; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad
2013-01-01
We investigate far from equilibrium energy transport in strongly coupled quantum critical systems. Combining results from gauge-gravity duality, relativistic hydrodynamics, and quantum field theory, we argue that long-time energy transport occurs via a universal steady-state for any spatial dimensionality. This is described by a boosted thermal state. We determine the transport properties of this emergent steady state, including the average energy flow and its long-time fluctuations.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND STATIONARY STATES OF QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Thus, it is proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves
Quantum Coulomb systems : screening, recombination and van der Waals forces
Alastuey, Angel
2010-01-01
The study of quantum Coulomb systems at equilibrium is important for understanding properties of matter in many physical situations. Screening, recombination and van der Waals forces are basic phenomena which result from the interplay of Coulomb interactions, collective effects and quantum mechanics. Those phenomena are introduced in the first part of this lecture, through various physical examples. Their treatment within mean-field theories and phenomenological approaches is also exposed, wh...
Scaling law and stability for a noisy quantum system
Sadgrove, Mark; Parkins, Scott; Leonhardt, Rainer
2008-01-01
We show that a scaling law exists for the near resonant dynamics of cold kicked atoms in the presence of a randomly fluctuating pulse amplitude. Analysis of a quasi-classical phase-space representation of the quantum system with noise allows a new scaling law to be deduced. The scaling law and associated stability are confirmed by comparison with quantum simulations and experimental data.
Quantum mechanics of rapidly and periodically driven systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Malay Bandyopadhyay; Sushanta Dattagupta
2008-03-01
This review deals with the dynamics of quantum systems that are subject to high frequency external perturbations. Though the problem may look hopelessly time-dependent, and poised on the extreme opposite side of adiabaticity, there exists a `Kapitza Window' over which the dynamics can be treated in terms of effective time-independent Hamiltonians. The consequent results are important in the context of atomic traps as well as quantum optic properties of atoms in intense and high-frequency electromagnetic fields.
Quantum Dynamical Entropies and Complexity in Dynamical Systems
Cappellini, Valerio
2004-01-01
We analyze the behaviour of two quantum dynamical entropies in connection with the classical limit. Using strongly chaotic classical dynamical systems as models (Arnold Cat Maps and Sawtooth Maps), we also propose a discretization procedure that resembles quantization; even in this case, studies of quantum dynamical entropy production are carried out and the connection with the continuous limit is explored. In both case (quantization and discretization) the entropy productio...
Hierarchy of stochastic pure states for open quantum system dynamics
Süß, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.
2014-01-01
We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) to efficiently solve open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. From this hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) the exact reduced density operator is obtained as an ensemble average. We demonstrate the power of HOPS by applying it to the Spin-Boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein comp...
Quantum hydrodynamic modes in one-dimensional polaron system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamical relaxation process of one-dimensional polaron system weakly coupled with a thermal phonon field is theoretically investigated. In addition to the diffusion relaxation, we have found that there appears a new macroscopic quantum sound mode which stabilizes the wave packet of the quantum particle even under the random collision with the thermal phonon. This coherent sound mode is a new hydrodynamic mode obeying a macroscopic linear wave equation for the density of the particle, instead of wave function
Quantum Evolution Supergenerator of Superparamagnetic System in Discrete Orientation Model
Buslov, V. A.
2001-01-01
The supergenerator of superparamagnetic system quantum evolution is investigated in discrete orientation model (DOM). It is shown that the generator is J-self-adjoint one at the case of potential drift field agreed upon magnetic anisotropy of the sample investigated. Perturbation theory is used for spectral analysis. The qualitative dependence of resonance absorption spectrum on the relation between quantum and stochastic parameters is demonstrated.
Emergence of thermodynamic behavior within composite quantum systems
Mahler, G; Michel, M; Mahler, Guenter; Gemmer, Jochen; Michel, Mathias
2005-01-01
Entanglement within a given device provides a potential resource for quantum information processing. Entanglement between system and environment leads to decoherence (thus suppressing non-classical features within the system) but also opens up a route to robust and universal control. The latter is related to thermodynamic equilibrium, a generic behavior of bi-partite quantum systems. Fingerprints of this equilibrium behavior (including relaxation and stability) show up already far from the thermodynamic limit, where a complete solution of the underlying Schroedinger dynamics of the total system is still feasible.
Kamleitner, Ingo
2010-01-01
We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which ...
Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here, we set up a formalism that allows us to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices. (paper)
Method for adding nodes to a quantum key distribution system
Grice, Warren P
2015-02-24
An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.
Quantum state tomography and quantum logical operations in a three qubits NMR quadrupolar system
Araujo-Ferreira, A G; Soares-Pinto, D O; deAzevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Teles, J
2011-01-01
In this work, we present an implementation of quantum logic gates and algorithms in a three effective qubits system, represented by a (I = 7/2) NMR quadrupolar nuclei. To implement these protocols we have used the strong modulating pulses (SMP). The various stages of each implementation were verified by quantum state tomography (QST). It is presented here the results for the computational base states, Toffolli logic gates, and Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms. Also, we discuss the di?culties and advantages of implementing such protocols using the SMP technique in quadrupolar systems.
Quantum metrology in Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick critical systems
Salvatori, Giulio; Mandarino, Antonio; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2014-08-01
The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model describes critical systems with interaction beyond the first-neighbor approximation. Here we address quantum metrology in LMG systems and show how criticality may be exploited to improve precision. At first we focus on the characterization of LMG systems themselves, i.e., the estimation of anisotropy, and address the problem by considering the quantum Cramér-Rao bound. We evaluate the quantum Fisher information of small-size LMG chains made of N =2, 3, and 4 lattice sites and also analyze the same quantity in the thermodynamical limit. Our results show that criticality is indeed a resource and that the ultimate bounds to precision may be achieved by tuning the external field and measuring the total magnetization of the system. We then address the use of LMG systems as quantum thermometers and show that (i) precision is governed by the gap between the lowest energy levels of the systems and (ii) field-dependent level crossing is a metrological resource to extend the operating range of the quantum thermometer.
Quantum chaos and dissipation in nuclear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The order-to-chaos transition is studied within a schematic model which is defined by the sum of a regular hamiltonian H0 and a random part ?V with strength ? and V a member of the gaussian othogonal ensemble. In the non-chaotic regime (strengh ? 1=?/?? (spreading width ??=2??2/D) until equilibrium is reached, (2) the absence of recurrence for physically relevant times, and hence the occurrence of true dissipation also in large-amplitude collective motion and (3) the extreme sensitivity of the time evolution on small changes of H0. All these characteristics of quantum chaos are determined by the condition ?> or approx.2D or equivalently by ??/D> or approx.25. It is suggested to consider ??/? as the crucial parameter which determines quantum chaos in the same way as the Lyapunov exponent does for classical chaos. (orig.)
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Gerald
2008-11-03
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)
Quantum Energy Teleportation in Spin Chain Systems
Hotta, Masahiro
2008-01-01
We propose a protocol for quantum energy teleportation which transports energy in spin chains to distant sites only by local operations and classical communication. By utilizing ground-state entanglement and notion of negative energy density region, energy is teleported without breaking any physical laws including causality and local energy conservation. Because not excited physical entity but classical information is transported in the protocol, the dissipation rate of ener...
Conditions for Nondistortion Interrogation of Quantum System
Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Zhou, Xingxiang; Feldman, Marc J.; Guo, Guang-Can
2001-01-01
Under some physical considerations, we present a universal formulation to study the possibility of localizing a quantum object in a given region without disturbing its unknown internal state. When the interaction between the object and probe wave function takes place only once, we prove the necessary and sufficient condition that the object's presence can be detected in an initial state preserving way. Meanwhile, a conditioned optimal interrogation probability is obtained.
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS known for spin systems, and they approximate efficiently ground and thermal states of systems with short-range interaction. We give an explicit mapping between fPEPS and PEPS, allowing to extend previous simulation methods to fermions. In addition, we show that fPEPS naturally arise as exact ground states of certain fermionic Hamiltonians, and give an example that exhibits criticality while fulfilling the area law. Finally, we derive methods for the determination of ground and thermal states, as well as the time evolution, of interacting fermionic systems using generalized Hartree-Fock theory (gHFT). With the computational complexity scaling polynomially with the number of particles, this method can deal with large systems. As a benchmark we apply our methods to the translationally invariant Hubbard model with attractive interaction and find excellent agreement with known results. (orig.)
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraus, Christina V.
2009-11-02
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS known for spin systems, and they approximate efficiently ground and thermal states of systems with short-range interaction. We give an explicit mapping between fPEPS and PEPS, allowing to extend previous simulation methods to fermions. In addition, we show that fPEPS naturally arise as exact ground states of certain fermionic Hamiltonians, and give an example that exhibits criticality while fulfilling the area law. Finally, we derive methods for the determination of ground and thermal states, as well as the time evolution, of interacting fermionic systems using generalized Hartree-Fock theory (gHFT). With the computational complexity scaling polynomially with the number of particles, this method can deal with large systems. As a benchmark we apply our methods to the translationally invariant Hubbard model with attractive interaction and find excellent agreement with known results. (orig.)
Sliding Mode Control of Two-Level Quantum Systems
Dong, Daoyi
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a robust control method based on sliding mode design for two-level quantum systems with bounded uncertainties. An eigenstate of the two-level quantum system is identified as a sliding mode. The objective is to design a control law to steer the system's state into the sliding mode domain and then maintain it in that domain when bounded uncertainties exist in the system Hamiltonian. We propose a controller design method using the Lyapunov methodology and periodic projective measurements. In particular, we give conditions for designing such a control law, which can guarantee the desired robustness in the presence of the uncertainties. The sliding mode control method has potential applications to quantum information processing with uncertainties.
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
Dehesa, J S; Sánchez-Moreno, P S; Yáñez, R J
2010-01-01
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.
Universal response of quantum systems with chaotic dynamics.
Wisniacki, Diego A; Ares, Natalia; Vergini, Eduardo G
2010-06-25
The prediction of the response of a closed system to external perturbations is one of the central problems in quantum mechanics, and in this respect, the local density of states (LDOS) provides an in-depth description of such a response. The LDOS is the distribution of the overlaps squared connecting the set of eigenfunctions with the perturbed one. Here, we show that in the case of closed systems with classically chaotic dynamics, the LDOS is a Breit-Wigner distribution under very general perturbations of arbitrary high intensity. Consequently, we derive a semiclassical expression for the width of the LDOS which is shown to be very accurate for paradigmatic systems of quantum chaos. This Letter demonstrates the universal response of quantum systems with classically chaotic dynamics. PMID:20867383