Detuning effect in quantum dynamics of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum dynamics of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system with non-zero detuning in a phonon bath is investigated theoretically in terms of a perturbation treatment based on a unitary transformation and an operator displacement. The decoherence due to phonons as a function of the detuning between the cavity mode and exciton is obtained analytically. It is shown that the detuning has a significant impact on the quantum dot exciton lifetime. In realistic experimental conditions, the calculated exciton lifetimes are in good agreement with recent experimental observation (Hennessy et al 2007 Nature 445 896)
Quantum nature of a strongly-coupled single quantum dot-cavity system
Hennessy, K; Badolato, A.; Winger, M.; Gerace, D.; Atature, M.; Gulde, S.; Falt, S.; Hu, E. L.; Imamoglu, A
2006-01-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between a quantum emitter and a single radiation-field mode. When an atom is in strong coupling with a cavity mode1,2, it is possible to realize key quantum information processing (QIP) tasks, such as controlled coherent coupling and entanglement of distinguishable quantum systems. Realizing these tasks in the solid state is clearly desirable, and coupling semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) to monolith...
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay $g^{(2)}(0)$ in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum in...
Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum in a quantum dot-cavity system
Gomez, Edgar A; Vinck-Posada, Herbert
2015-01-01
We introduce the Green's functions technique as an alternative theory to the quantum regression theorem formalism for calculating the two-time correlation functions in open quantum systems. In particular, we investigate the potential of this theoretical approach by its application to compute the emission spectrum of a dissipative system composed by a single quantum dot inside of a semiconductor cavity. We also describe a simple algorithm based on the Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum of the quantum dot as well as of the cavity which can easily be implemented in any numerical linear algebra package. We find that the Green's functions technique demonstrates a better accuracy and efficiency in the calculation of the emission spectrum and it allows to overcome the inherent theoretical difficulties associated to the direct application of the quantum regression theorem approach.
Influence of a phonon bath in a quantum dot cavity QED system: Dependence of the shape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a systematic analysis on the role of the quantum dot (QD) shape in the influence of the phonon bath on the dynamics of a QD cavity QED system. The spectral functions of the phonon bath in three representative QD shapes: spherical, ellipsoidal, and disk, are calculated from the carrier wave functions subjected to the confinement potential provided by the corresponding shape. The obtained spectral functions are used to calculate three main effects brought by the phonon bath, i.e., the coupling renormalization, the off-resonance assisted feeding rate and the pure dephasing rate. It is found that the spectral function of a disk QD has the widest distribution, hence the phonon bath in a disk QD can lead to the smallest renormalization factor, the largest dephasing rate in the short time domains(? 2 ps), and the off-resonance assisted feeding can support the widest detuning. Except for the pure dephasing rate in the long time domains, all the influences brought by the phonon bath show serious shape dependence. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter
2014-01-01
We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g2(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission.
Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Hua, Ming; LI, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2013-01-01
Recently, experiments showed that the spatial-mode states of entangled photons are more robust than their polarization-mode states in quantum communications. Here we construct a complete and deterministic protocol for analyzing the spatial Bell states using the interaction between a photon and an electron spin in a charged quantum dot inside a one-side micropillar microcavity. A quantum nondemolition detector (QND) for checking the parity of a two-photon system can be constr...
Rabi oscillations in a quantum dot-cavity system coupled to a non-zero temperature phonon bath
Larson, J; Larson, Jonas; Moya-Cessa, Hector
2007-01-01
We study a quantum dot strongly coupled to a single high-finesse optical microcavity mode. We use a rotating wave approximation method, commonly used in ion-laser interactions, to obtain an analytic solution of this problem beyond the Born-Markov approximation. The decay of Rabi oscillations because of the electron-phonon coupling are studied at arbitrary temperature and analytical expressions for the collapse and revival times are presented. Analysis without the rotating wave approximation are presented and new structures and phenomena of the Rabi oscillations occur in this regime either due to level crossings of the energy eigenvalues or because of equidistant eigenenergies.
Phonon Mediated Off-Resonant Quantum Dot-Cavity Coupling
Majumdar, Arka; Gong, Yiyang; Kim, Erik D.; vuckovic, Jelena
2010-01-01
A theoretical model for the phonon-mediated off-resonant coupling between a quantum dot and a cavity, under resonant excitation of the quantum dot, is presented. We show that the coupling is caused by electron-phonon interaction in the quantum dot and is enhanced by the cavity. We analyze recently observed resonant quantum dot spectroscopic data by our theoretical model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum dot (QD)–cavity system with deep confinement potential is usually studied by either non-resonant or quasi-resonant p-exciton pump (PEP) with the s-exciton pump (SEP) ignored. In this paper, we investigate the effect of an SEP on the emission properties of a QD–cavity system with deep confinement potential by comparing the different incoherent excitation schemes, including pumping with both s- and p-exciton pump and with PEP only. The investigation reveals that the steady-state properties such as photon statistical properties and emission spectra of the QD–cavity system are significantly affected. More importantly, after taking SEP into consideration, the lasing and self-quenching regime of the entire system will be reached at a much lower pump rate than that of the only PEP scheme. (paper)
Birowosuto, M D; Matsuo, S; Taniyama, H; van Veldhoven, P J; Nötzel, R; Notomi, M; 10.1038/srep00321
2012-01-01
High-bit-rate nanocavity-based single photon sources in the 1,550-nm telecom band are challenges facing the development of fibre-based long-haul quantum communication networks. Here we report a very fast single photon source in the 1,550-nm telecom band, which is achieved by a large Purcell enhancement that results from the coupling of a single InAs quantum dot and an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. At a resonance, the spontaneous emission rate was enhanced by a factor of 5 resulting a record fast emission lifetime of 0.2 ns at 1,550 nm. We also demonstrate that this emission exhibits an enhanced anti-bunching dip. This is the first realization of nanocavity-enhanced single photon emitters in the 1,550-nm telecom band. This coupled quantum dot cavity system in the telecom band thus provides a bright high-bit-rate non-classical single photon source that offers appealing novel opportunities for the development of a long-haul quantum telecommunication system via optical fibres.
Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang; Sumikura, Hisashi; Matsuo, Shinji; Taniyama, Hideaki; van Veldhoven, Peter J; Nötzel, Richard; Notomi, Masaya
2012-01-01
High-bit-rate nanocavity-based single photon sources in the 1,550-nm telecom band are challenges facing the development of fibre-based long-haul quantum communication networks. Here we report a very fast single photon source in the 1,550-nm telecom band, which is achieved by a large Purcell enhancement that results from the coupling of a single InAs quantum dot and an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. At a resonance, the spontaneous emission rate was enhanced by a factor of 5 resulting a record fast emission lifetime of 0.2 ns at 1,550 nm. We also demonstrate that this emission exhibits an enhanced anti-bunching dip. This is the first realization of nanocavity-enhanced single photon emitters in the 1,550-nm telecom band. This coupled quantum dot cavity system in the telecom band thus provides a bright high-bit-rate non-classical single photon source that offers appealing novel opportunities for the development of a long-haul quantum telecommunication system via optical fibres. PMID:22432053
Fundamental properties of devices for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær
2012-01-01
This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of the influence of the electronphonon interaction on semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamical systems, specifically a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We develop a theoretical description of the decay dynamics of the quantum dot interacting with the cavity and the phonons. It is shown that the presence of the phonon interaction, fundamentally changes the spontaneous emission decay behavior of the quantum dot. Especially in the regime where the quantum dotcavity spectral detuning is significantly larger than any linewidth of the system, the effect of the phonon interaction is very pronounced. A simple approximate analytical expression for the quantum dot decay rate is derived, which predicts a strong asymmetry with respect to the quantum dot-cavity detuning at low temperatures, and allows for a clear interpretation of the physics. Furthermore, a study of the indistinguishability of single photons emitted from the coupled quantum dot-cavity system is performed, with special emphasis on non-Markovian decoherence due to the phonon interaction. We show that common theoretical approaches fail to predict the degree of indistinguishability, on both a qualitative and quantitative level, for experimentally relevant parameters regimes. The important role of non-Markovian effects in the shorttime regime, where virtual processes dominate the decoherence of the quantum dot-cavity system, is emphasized. Importantly, our investigations lead to a maximum achievable degree of indistinguishability, a prediction which eludes common approaches.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter
2013-01-01
We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods. An important finding is that short-time non-Markovian effects limit the maximal attainable indistinguishability. The results are explained using a polariton picture that yields valuable insight into the phonon-induced dephasing dynamics.
Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Hua, Ming; Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2012-10-22
Bell-state analysis (BSA) is essential in quantum communication, but it is impossible to distinguish unambiguously the four Bell states in the polarization degree of freedom (DOF) of two-photon systems with only linear optical elements, except for the case in which the BSA is assisted with hyperentangled states, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one DOF. Here, we propose a scheme to distinguish completely the 16 hyperentangled Bell states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode DOFs of two-photon systems, by using the giant nonlinear optics in quantum dot-cavity systems. This scheme can be applied to increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication based on hyperentanglement, such as entanglement swapping, teleportation, and superdense coding. We use hyperentanglement swapping as an example to show the application of this HBSA. PMID:23187229
Miguel-Sanchez, J; Togan, E; Volz, T; Imamoglu, A; Besga, B; Reichel, J; Esteve, J
2012-01-01
We demonstrate non-perturbative coupling between a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot and an external fiber-mirror based microcavity. Our results extend the previous realizations of tunable microcavities while ensuring spatial and spectral overlap between the cavity-mode and the emitter by simultaneously allowing for deterministic charge control of the quantum dots. Using resonant spectroscopy, we show that the coupled quantum dot cavity system is at the onset of strong coupling, with a cooperativity parameter of 2. Our results constitute a milestone towards the realization of a high efficiency solid-state spin-photon interface.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Unsleber, Sebastian; McCutcheon, Dara
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasi-resonantly pumped coupledquantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing thesample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning and, on spectral resonance, we observea threefold improvement in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility, reaching values in excess of 80%. Ourmeasurements off-resonance allow us to investigate varying Purcell enhancements, and to probe the dephasingenvironment at different temperatures and energy scales. By comparison with our microscopic model, we areable to identify pure dephasing and not time jitter as the dominating source of imperfections in our system.
Giant Rabi splitting in a metallic cluster–cavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We theoretically investigate the photoabsorption cross-section of a cluster of alkali atoms embedded in a single-mode quantum microcavity. We show that if the energy of the giant plasmonic resonance lies close to the energy of the cavity mode, the strong coupling between the plasmon and cavity photon can occur which is characterized by mode anticrossing and observation of the doublet structure in the photoabsorption spectrum. The characteristic values of the Rabi splitting are expected to be several orders of magnitude larger than those observed in single quantum dot–cavity systems. (paper)
Cahill, Reginald T
2002-01-01
So far proposed quantum computers use fragile and environmentally sensitive natural quantum systems. Here we explore the new notion that synthetic quantum systems suitable for quantum computation may be fabricated from smart nanostructures using topological excitations of a stochastic neural-type network that can mimic natural quantum systems. These developments are a technological application of process physics which is an information theory of reality in which space and qu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by the double-sided quantum-dot–cavity system, we construct a deterministic hybrid hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate, in which the spatial-mode and polarization states of a photon act as the two control qubits, whereas two stationary electron spins in quantum dots confined inside the optical microcavities serve as the two target qubits. In our scheme, the control qubits are easily manipulated with simple optical elements and the target qubits are suitable for storage and processing use. With our hybrid hyper-CNOT gates, we design a high-capacity direct transmission quantum communication network which requires neither the establishment of entanglement between remote locations nor the use of long-lived quantum memories. We discuss the feasibility and efficiency of our hybrid hyper-CNOT gate, concluding that it is feasible with current technology. (letter)
Pillet, Claude-Alain
2006-01-01
This notes are an expanded version of the lectures given by the author at the Grenoble "Open Quantum Systems" summer school in 2003. They provide a short introduction to quantum dynamical systems and their ergodic properties with particular emphasis on the quantum Koopman–von Neumann spectral theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A dispersive quantum system is a quantum system which is both isolated and non-time reversal invariant. This article presents precise definitions for those concepts and also a characterization of dispersive quantum systems within the class of completely positive Markovian quantum systems in finite dimension (through a homogeneous linear equation for the non Hamiltonian part of the system's Liouvillian). To set the framework, the basic features of quantum mechanics are reviewed focusing on time evolution and also on the theory of completely positive Markovian quantum systems, including Kossakowski-Lindblad's standard form for Liouvillians. After those general considerations, a simple two-dimensional example is presented and then applied to describe the neutrino oscillation, with the introduction of a new-dispersive parameter. (author)
Groessing, Gerhard
2004-01-01
An introduction to some basic ideas of the author's "quantum cybernetics" is given, which depicts waves and "particles" as mutually dependent system components, thus defining "organizationally closed systems" characterized by a fundamental circular causality. According to this, a new derivation of quantum theory's most fundamental equation, the Schroedinger equation, is presented. Finally, it is shown that quantum systems can be described by what Heinz von Foerster has calle...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We demonstrate non-perturbative coupling between a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot and an external fiber-mirror-based microcavity. Our results extend the previous realizations of tunable microcavities while ensuring spatial and spectral overlap between the cavity mode and the emitter by simultaneously allowing for deterministic charge control of the quantum dots. Using resonant spectroscopy, we show that the coupled quantum dot cavity system is at the onset of strong coupling, with a cooperativity parameter of C ? 2.0 ± 1.3. Our results constitute a milestone in the progress toward the realization of a high-efficiency solid-state spin–photon interface. (paper)
Quantum Games and Programmable Quantum Systems
Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sladkowski, Jan
2005-01-01
Attention to the very physical aspects of information characterizes the current research in quantum computation, quantum cryptography and quantum communication. In most of the cases quantum description of the system provides advantages over the classical approach. Game theory, the study of decision making in conflict situation has already been extended to the quantum domain. We would like to review the latest development in quantum game theory that is relevant to information...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær
2013-01-01
Differences in the confinement of electrons and holes in quantum dots are shown to profoundly impact the magnitude of scattering with acoustic phonons. Using an extensive model that includes the non-Markovian nature of the phonon reservoir, we show how the effect may be addressed by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of a single quantum dot. We also investigate the implications for cavity QED, i.e., a coupled quantum dot-cavity system, and demonstrate that the phonon scattering may be strongly quenched. The quenching is explained by a balancing between the deformation potential interaction strengths and the carrier confinement and depends on the quantum dot shape. Numerical examples suggest a route towards engineering the phonon scattering.
Quantum Games and Programmable Quantum Systems
Piotrowski, E W; Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sladkowski, Jan
2005-01-01
Attention to the very physical aspects of information characterizes the current research in quantum computation, quantum cryptography and quantum communication. In most of the cases quantum description of the system provides advantages over the classical approach. Game theory, the study of decision making in conflict situation has already been extended to the quantum domain. We would like to review the latest development in quantum game theory that is relevant to information processing. We will begin by illustrating the general idea of a quantum game and methods of gaining an advantage over "classical opponent". Then we review the most important game theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. On grounds of the discussed material, we reason about possible future development of quantum game theory and its impact on information processing and the emerging information society. The idea of quantum artificial intelligence is explained.
Weiss, Ulrich
2008-01-01
Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Micheli, Fiorenza de [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 440, Santiago (Chile)
2012-10-15
A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems-in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action-the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
2009-11-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
Yukalov, V I
2009-01-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
V.I. Yukalov; Sornette, D.
2009-01-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans...
Integrable quantum Stäckel systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B?aszak, Maciej, E-mail: blaszakm@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Doma?ski, Ziemowit, E-mail: ziemowit@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Sergyeyev, Artur, E-mail: Artur.Sergyeyev@math.slu.cz [Mathematical Institute, Silesian University in Opava, Na Rybní?ku 1, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Szablikowski, B?a?ej M., E-mail: bszablik@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland)
2013-11-15
The Stäckel separability of a Hamiltonian system is well known to ensure existence of a complete set of Poisson commuting integrals of motion quadratic in the momenta. We consider a class of Stäckel separable systems where the entries of the Stäckel matrix are monomials in the separation variables. We show that the only systems in this class for which the integrals of motion arising from the Stäckel construction keep commuting after quantization are, up to natural equivalence transformations, the so-called Benenti systems. Moreover, it turns out that the latter are the only quantum separable systems in the class under study.
Chowdhury, Asesh Roy
2004-01-01
NONLINEAR SYSTEMS AND CLASSICAL ISTIntroductionDefinition of IntegrabilityLax Pair TechniqueInverse Scattering TransformHamiltonian StructureCOORDINATE BETHE ANSATZIntroductionNonlinear Systems and the CBAFermionic SystemBoundary Condition in Bethe AnsatzHeisenberg Spin ChainSpin of the Bethe Ansatz StateOther Integrable ModelsYANG-BAXTER EQUATIONIntroductionGeneral DescriptionFactorized ScatteringBaxter's Star Triangle RelationVertex ModelsReflection Equation AlgebraCONTINUOUS INTEGRABLE SYSTEMSIntroductionQuantum Continuous Integrable SystemsConserved QuantitiesNonultralocal systems and the
Weiss, U
1999-01-01
Recent advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems have brightened up the field and brought it into the focus of a general community in natural sciences. The fundamental concepts, methods and applications including the most recent developments, previously covered for the most part only in the original literature, are presented here in a comprehensive treatment to an audience who is reasonably familiar with quantum-statistical mechanics and has had rudimentary contacts with the path integral formulation.This book deals with the phenomena and theory of decoherence and dissipation in qu
Quantum iterated function systems.
?ozi?ski, Artur; Zyczkowski, Karol; S?omczy?ski, Wojciech
2003-10-01
An iterated function system (IFS) is defined by specifying a set of functions in a classical phase space, which act randomly on an initial point. In an analogous way, we define a quantum IFS (QIFS), where functions act randomly with prescribed probabilities in the Hilbert space. In a more general setting, a QIFS consists of completely positive maps acting in the space of density operators. This formalism is designed to describe certain problems of nonunitary quantum dynamics. We present exemplary classical IFSs, the invariant measure of which exhibits fractal structure, and study properties of the corresponding QIFSs and their invariant states. PMID:14683005
Quantum Iterated Function Systems
Lozinski, Artur; Zyczkowski, Karol; Slomczynski, Wojciech
2002-01-01
Iterated functions system (IFS) is defined by specifying a set of functions in a classical phase space, which act randomly on an initial point. In an analogous way, we define a quantum iterated functions system (QIFS), where functions act randomly with prescribed probabilities in the Hilbert space. In a more general setting a QIFS consists of completely positive maps acting in the space of density operators. We present exemplary classical IFSs, the invariant measure of which...
Decoherence in quantum spin systems
De Raedt, H A
2003-01-01
Computer simulations of decoherence in quantum spin systems require the solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for interacting quantum spin systems over extended periods of time. We use exact diagonalization, Chebyshev polynomial technique, four Suzuki-formula algorithms, and the short-iterative-Lanczos method to solve a simple model for decoherence of a quantum spin system by an environment consisting of quantum spins, and compare advantages and limitations of different algorithms.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Settnes, Mikkel; Nielsen, Per Kær
2013-01-01
We show that Auger processes involving wetting layer transitions mediate emission from a cavity that is detuned from a quantum dot by even tens of meV. The wetting layer thus acts as a reservoir, which by Coulomb scattering can supply or absorb the energy difference between emitter and cavity. We perform microscopic calculations of the effect treating the wetting layer as a non-Markovian reservoir interacting with the coupled quantum dot-cavity system through Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, cavity feeding has been observed in the asymmetric detuning range of -10 to +45 meV. We show that this asymmetry arises naturally from the quasiequilibrium properties of the wetting layer reservoir. Furthermore, we present numerical calculations of both photoluminescence spectra and photon correlations, demonstrating good qualitative agreement with experiments.
Transitionless quantum driving in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We extend the concept of superadiabatic dynamics, or transitionless quantum driving, to quantum open systems whose evolution is governed by a master equation in the Lindblad form. We provide the general framework needed to determine the control strategy required to achieve superadiabaticity. We apply our formalism to two examples consisting of a two-level system coupled to environments with time-dependent bath operators. (paper)
Quantum systems as classical systems
Cassa, A
2001-01-01
A characteristical property of a classical physical theory is that the observables are real functions taking an exact outcome on every (pure) state; in a quantum theory, at the contrary, a given observable on a given state can take several values with only a predictable probability. However, even in the classical case, when an observer is intrinsically unable to distinguish between some distinct states he can convince himself that the measure of its ''observables'' can have several values in a random way with a statistical character. What kind of statistical theory is obtainable in this way? It is possible, for example, to obtain exactly the statistical previsions of quantum mechanics? Or, in other words, can a physical system showing a classical behaviour appear to be a quantum system to a confusing observer? We show that from a mathematical viewpoint it is not difficult to produce a theory with hidden variables having this property. We don't even try to justify in physical terms the artificial construction ...
Bahder, Thomas B
2004-01-01
A quantum positioning system (QPS) is proposed that can provide a user with all four of his space-time coordinates. The user must carry a corner cube reflector, a good clock, and have a two-way classical channel of communication with the origin of the reference frame. Four pairs of entangled photons (biphotons) are sent through four interferometers: three interferometers are used to determine the user's spatial position, and an additional interferometer is used to synchroniz...
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum comput...
Quantum algorithm in quantum network systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, the quantum computer (QC) using the nano-devices have significantly attracted attention, because a large-scale extention of the qubits could be easily realized in the nano-devices. However, some problems for the realization of the QC with nano-devices arise from the short decoherence time and the interaction of qubits only between nearest-neighbor qubits. Therefore, we try to design the optimal quantum circuit of the quantum Fourier transform in various network system by means of the genetic algorithm (GA)
Iqbal, A
2002-01-01
We find quantum mechanics playing a role in evolutionary dynamics described by the notion of an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS). An ESS being a refinement of Nash equilibrium concept is a stable strategy in an evolutionary game with replicator dynamic as the underlying process. We investigate ESSs in two and three player symmetric quantum games played by the proposed scheme of applying $^{\\prime}$identity$^{\\prime}$ and $^{\\prime}$Pauli spin-flip$^{\\prime}$ operators on an initial state with classical probabilities. The mixed Nash equilibrium (NE) we search for is not affected by a switchover between two forms of the game, one quantized and other classical, however it is an ESS when the game is played classically.We show no such mixed NE exists for two player games but there is a class of three player games where they do exist.Our results imply that an evolutionary approach originating with Darwin's idea of natural selection can be used even for quantum systems. It also indicates the possibility of genetic...
Scarring in open quantum systems.
Wisniacki, Diego; Carlo, Gabriel G
2008-04-01
We study scarring phenomena in open quantum systems. We show numerical evidence that individual resonance eigenstates of an open quantum system present localization around unstable short periodic orbits in a similar way as their closed counterparts. The structure of eigenfunctions around these classical objects is not destroyed by the opening. This is exposed in a paradigmatic system of quantum chaos, the cat map. PMID:18517679
Asymptotically open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)
Decoherence in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems we determine the degree of quantum decoherence of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a thermal bath. In the present paper we have studied QD with the Markovian equation of Lindblad in order to understand the quantum to classical transition for a system consisting of an one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in interaction with a thermal bath in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups. The role of QD became relevant in many interesting physical problems from field theory, atomic physics, quantum optics and quantum information processing, to which we can add material science, heavy ion collisions, quantum gravity and cosmology, condensed matter physics. Just to mention only a few of them: to understand the way in which QD enhances the quantum to classical transition of density fluctuations; to study systems of trapped and cold atoms (or ions) which may offer the possibility of engineering the environment, like trapped atoms inside cavities, relation between decoherence and other cavity QED effects (such as Casimir effect); on mesoscopic scale, decoherence in the context of Bose-Einstein condensation. In many cases physicists are interested in understanding the specific causes of QD just because they want to prevent decoherence from damaging quantum states and to protect the information stored in quantum states from the degrading effect of the interaction w the degrading effect of the interaction with the environment. Thus, decoherence is responsible for washing out the quantum interference effects which are desirable to be seen as signals in some experiments. QD has a negative influence on many areas relying upon quantum coherence effects, such as quantum computation and quantum control of atomic and molecular processes. The physics of information and computation is such a case, where decoherence is an obvious major obstacle in the implementation of information-processing hardware that takes advantage of the superposition principle. The study of classicality using QD leads to a deeper understanding of the quantum origins of the classical world. Much work has still to be done even to settle the interpretational questions, not to speak about answering them. Nevertheless, as a result of the progress made in the last two decades, the quantum to classical transition has become a subject of experimental investigations, while previously it was mostly a domain of philosophy. The issue of quantum to classical transition points to the necessity of a better understanding of open quantum systems. The Lindblad theory provides a selfconsistent treatment of damping as a general extension of quantum mechanics
Three Terminal Quantum Dot System
Chandrasekar, N.; Narra Sunil Kumar; Pavan, G.
2012-01-01
In this study, the transmission rate for the three terminal quantum dot system is determined using Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function technique for interacting and non-interacting cases. The three terminal quantum dot systems consist of three leads and three quantum dots that are arranged in a triangular form. Each led is coupled with each dot. The lesser and retarded Green’s functions are used for the calculations of transmission rates and how the transmission rates vary for inte...
Bahder, T B
2004-01-01
A quantum positioning system (QPS) is proposed that can provide a user with all four of his space-time coordinates. The user must carry a corner cube reflector, a good clock, and have a two-way classical channel of communication with the origin of the reference frame. Four pairs of entangled photons (biphotons) are sent through four interferometers: three interferometers are used to determine the user's spatial position, and an additional interferometer is used to synchronize the user's clock to coordinate time in the reference frame. The spatial positioning part of the QPS is similar to a classical time-of-arrival (TOA) system, however, a classical TOA system (such as GPS) must have synchronized clocks that keep coordinate time and therefore the clocks must have long-term stability, whereas in the QPS only a photon coincidence counter is needed and the clocks need only have short-term stability. Several scenarios are considered for a QPS: one is a terrestrial system and another is a space-based-system compos...
Scalable cavity quantum electrodynamics system for quantum computing
Aram, Mohammad Hasan; Khorasani, Sina
2015-01-01
We introduce a new scalable cavity quantum electrodynamics platform which can be used for quantum computing. This system is composed of coupled photonic crystal (PC) cavities which their modes lie on a Dirac cone in the whole super crystal band structure. Quantum information is stored in quantum dots that are positioned inside the cavities. We show if there is just one quantum dot in the system, energy as photon is exchanged between the quantum dot and the Dirac modes sinuso...
The scalable quantum computation based on quantum dot systems
Zhang, Jian-Qi; Yu, Ya-Fei; Feng, Xun-li; Zhang, Zhi-Ming
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for realizing the scalable quantum computation based on nonidentical quantum dots trapped in a single-mode waveguide. In this system, the quantum dots simultaneously interact with a large detuned waveguide and classical light fields. During the process, neither the waveguide mode nor the quantum dots are excited, while the sub-system composed of any two quantum dots can acquire phases conditional upon the states of these two quantum dots and the certain d...
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-03-31
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
Roy, Sisir
2014-07-01
The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.
Three Terminal Quantum Dot System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Chandrasekar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the transmission rate for the three terminal quantum dot system is determined using Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function technique for interacting and non-interacting cases. The three terminal quantum dot systems consist of three leads and three quantum dots that are arranged in a triangular form. Each led is coupled with each dot. The lesser and retarded Green’s functions are used for the calculations of transmission rates and how the transmission rates vary for interacting and non-interacting system are studied is investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The overview of recent developments in the theory of quantum chaos is presented with the special emphasis on a number of unsolved problems and current apparent contradictions. The relation between dynamical quantum chaos and statistical random matrix theory is discussed. 97 refs
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
Vuglar, Shanon L.; Amini, Hadis
2014-01-01
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H infinity optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their ou...
All-optical coherent control of energy transfer between a quantum dot and a cavity mode
Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik; Solomon, Glenn; Waks, Edo
2015-03-01
Here we demonstrated all-optical coherent control of energy transfer in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule at optical frequency. The photonic crystal molecule composes two photonic crystal cavities, supporting a pair of strongly coupled normal modes. One of the modes strongly couples with a quantum dot and the other induces a cavity enhanced a.c. stark shift to rapidly tune the quantum dot resonance on timescales much shorter than the vacuum Rabi period of the strongly coupled dot-cavity system. The quantum dot initially detunes from the cavity mode. By tuning the quantum dot onto resonance with the cavity mode on picosecond timescales, we achieved coherent transfer of energy between a quantum dot and the cavity mode through vacuum Rabi oscillation. We investigated the energy transfer as a function of stark laser power to confirm the coherence of the energy transfer process. We further demonstrated coherent control of light-matter states by implementing a Ramsey-type experiment. These results pave the path for achieving gigahertz controlled generation of quantum states of light and synthesis of photon wavefunctions using integrated semiconductor nano-photonics platform.
Set Stabilizability of Quantum Systems
ZHANG, Ming; Xi, Zairong; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong
2014-01-01
We explore set-stabilizability by constrained controls, and both controllability and stabilizability can be regarded as the special case of set-stabilizability. We not only clarify how to define an equilibrium point of Schr$\\ddot{o}$dinger Equations, but also establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for stabilizability of quantum systems. Unfortunately, it is revealed that the necessary conditions are quite strict for stabilizability of some concrete quantum systems...
Quantum Relativity: Physical Laws Must be Invariant Over Quantum Systems
Merriam, Paul
2005-01-01
Decoherence may not solve all of the measurement problems of quantum mechanics. It is proposed that a solution to these problems may be to allow that superpositions describe physically real systems in the following sense. Each quantum system "carries" around a local spacetime in whose terms other quantum systems may take on nonlocal states. Each quantum system forms a physically valid coordinate frame. The laws of physics should be formulated to be invariant under the group ...
Quantum systems and symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained
Simulation of open quantum systems
Mintert, Florian; Heller, Eric J.
2008-01-01
We present an approach for the semiclassical treatment of open quantum systems. An expansion into localized states allows restriction of a simulation to a fraction of the environment that is located within a predefined vicinity of the system. Adding and dropping environmental particles during the simulation yields an effective reduction of the size of the system that is being treated.
Asymptotic dynamics of quantum discord in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well known that quantum entanglement makes certain tasks in quantum information theory possible. However, there are also quantum tasks that display a quantum advantage without entanglement. Distinguishing classical and quantum correlations in quantum systems is therefore of both practical and fundamental importance. Realistic quantum systems are not closed, and therefore it is important to study the various correlations when the system loses its coherence due to interactions with the environment. In this paper, we study in detail the dynamics of different kinds of correlations, classical correlation, quantum discord and entanglement in open quantum systems, in particular, a two-qubit system evolving under Kossakowski-type quantum dynamical semigroups of completely positive maps. In such an environment, classical and quantum correlations can even persist asymptotically. By analytic and numerical analysis, we find that the quantum discord is larger than the classical correlation for asymptotic states. Furthermore, we show that the quantum discord is more resistant to the action of the environment than quantum entanglement, and it can persist even in the asymptotic long-time regime.
The stochastic limit of quantum spin systems
Accardi, L.; Kozyrev, S. V.
1999-01-01
The stochastic limit for the system of spins interacting with a boson field is investigated. In the finite volume an application of the stochastic golden rule shows that in the limit the dynamics of a quantum system is described by a quantum white noise equation that after taking of normal order is equivalent to quantum stochastic differential equation (QSDE). For the quantum Langevin equation the dynamics is well defined and is a quantum flow on the infinite lattice system.
Darboux Transformations of Bispectral Quantum Integrable Systems
Horozov, E; Horozov, Emil; Kasman, Alex
1998-01-01
We present an approach to higher dimensional Darboux transformations suitable for application to quantum integrable systems and based on the bispectral property of partial differential operators. Specifically, working with the algebro-geometric definition of quantum integrability, we utilize the bispectral duality of quantum Hamiltonian systems to construct non-trivial Darboux transformations between completely integrable quantum systems. As an application, we are able to construct new quantum integrable systems as the Darboux transforms of trivial examples (such as symmetric products of one dimensional systems) or by Darboux transformation of well-known bispectral systems such as quantum Calogero-Moser.
Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Entangled systems. New directions in quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entangled Systems is an introductory textbook for advanced students of physics, chemistry and computer science which covers an area of physics that has lately witnessed rapid expansion. The topics treated here include foundations of quantum theory, quantum information, quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum teleportation and hidden variables, thus providing not only a solid basis for the study of quantum theory as such, but also a profound foundation of knowledge from which readers can follow the rapid development of the topic or start out into a more specialized branch of research. Commented recommendations for further reading as well as end-of-chapter problems help the reader to access quickly the basic theoretical concepts of future key technologies. Only a basic prior knowledge of quantum theory and the necessary mathematical foundations is assumed, as introductory chapters are provided to present these to the readers. Thus, 'Entangled Systems' can be used both as a course book and for self-study purposes. From the contents: - The Mathematical Framework - Basic Concepts of Quantum Theory - The Simplest Quantum Systems: Qubits - Mixed State and Density Operator - Shannon's Entropy and Classical Information - The von Neumann Entropy and Quantum Information - Composite Systems - Entanglement - Correlations and Non-Local Measurements - There is no (Local-Realistic) Alternative to the Quantum Theory - Working with Entanglement - The Quantum Computer - Generatanglement - The Quantum Computer - General Measurements, POVM - The General Evolution of an Open Quantum System and Special Quantum Channels - Decoherence and Approaches to the Description of the Quantum Measurement Process - Two Implementations of Quantum Operations. (orig.)
Dynamics of complex quantum systems
Akulin, Vladimir M
2014-01-01
This book gathers together a range of similar problems that can be encountered in different fields of modern quantum physics and that have common features with regard to multilevel quantum systems. The main motivation was to examine from a uniform standpoint various models and approaches that have been developed in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in various contexts. The book should help senior-level undergraduate, graduate students and researchers putting particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby taking advantage of well-established techniques used in adjacent fields. This second edition has been expanded to include substantial new material (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum Systems, and Coherence Protection). It is based on the author’s lectures at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, at the CNRS Aimé Cotton Laboratory, and on ...
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
Vuglar, Shanon L.; Amini, Hadis
2014-12-01
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum {{H}? } optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs.
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H? optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)
Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2011-09-15
We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.
On Quantum Iterated Function Systems
Jadczyk, Arkadiusz
2003-01-01
Quantum Iterated Function System on a complex projective space is defined by a family of linear operators on a complex Hilbert space. The operators define both the maps and their probabilities by one algebraic formula. Examples with conformal maps (relativistic boosts) on the Bloch sphere are discussed.
Quantum gravity and spin systems
Beirl, W; Krishnan, B; Markum, H; Riedler, J; Beirl, W; Homolka, P; Krishnan, B; Markum, H; Riedler, J
1994-01-01
A new method for nonperturbative investigations of quantum gravity is presented in which the simplicial path integral is approximated by the partition function of a spin system. This facilitates analytical and numerical computations considerably. In two dimensions equivalence to an Ising model with ternary couplings is recovered. First simulations in four dimensions indicate strong similarities to the phase structure of original Regge theory.
Efficient Simulation of Quantum Systems by Quantum Computers
Zalka, Christof
1996-01-01
We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantum mechanical many particle system can be implemented very efficiently on a quantum computer. The computational cost of such a simulation is comparable to the cost of a conventional simulation of the corresponding classical system. We then sketch how results of interest, like the energy spectrum of a system, can be obtained. We also indicate that ultimately the simulation of quantum field theory might be possible...
Quantum Indeterminacy of Cosmic Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Craig J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-12-30
It is shown that quantum uncertainty of motion in systems controlled mainly by gravity generally grows with orbital timescale $H^{-1}$, and dominates classical motion for trajectories separated by distances less than $\\approx H^{-3/5}$ in Planck units. For example, the cosmological metric today becomes indeterminate at macroscopic separations, $H_0^{-3/5}\\approx 60$ meters. Estimates suggest that entangled non-localized quantum states of geometry and matter may significantly affect fluctuations during inflation, and connect the scale of dark energy to that of strong interactions.
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baecker, Arnd
2007-07-01
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Quantum Annealing and Quantum Fluctuation Effect in Frustrated Ising Systems
Tanaka, Shu
2012-01-01
Quantum annealing method has been widely attracted attention in statistical physics and information science since it is expected to be a powerful method to obtain the best solution of optimization problem as well as simulated annealing. The quantum annealing method was incubated in quantum statistical physics. This is an alternative method of the simulated annealing which is well-adopted for many optimization problems. In the simulated annealing, we obtain a solution of optimization problem by decreasing temperature (thermal fluctuation) gradually. In the quantum annealing, in contrast, we decrease quantum field (quantum fluctuation) gradually and obtain a solution. In this paper we review how to implement quantum annealing and show some quantum fluctuation effects in frustrated Ising spin systems.
Quantum tomography and classical propagator for quadratic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical propagator for tomographic probability (which describes the quantum state instead of wave function or density matrix) is presented for quadratic quantum systems and its relation to the quantum propagator is considered. The new formalism of quantum mechanics, based on the probability representation of the state, is applied to particular quadratic systems - the harmonic oscillator, particle's free motion, problems of an ion in a Paul trap and in asymmetric Penning trap, and to the process of stimulated Raman scattering. The classical propagator for these systems is written in an explicit form. (author)
Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.
Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens
2014-01-01
The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical. PMID:24811607
Quantum phase transitions in constrained Bose systems
Bonnes, Lars
2011-01-01
This doctoral thesis studies low dimensional quantum systems that can be realized in recent cold atom experiments. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the main emphasis is on the detailed study of the different quantum and thermal phases and their transitions using numerical methods, such as quantum Monte Carlo and the Tensor Network Renormalization Group. The first part of this work deals with a lattice Boson model subject to strong three-body losses. In a quantum-Zeno li...
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
Phonon-mediated coupling between quantum dots through an off-resonant microcavity
Majumdar, Arka; Rundquist, Armand; Kim, Erik; Vuckovic, Jelena
2011-01-01
We present experimental results showing phonon-mediated coupling between two quantum dots embedded inside a photonic crystal microcavity. With only one of the dots being spectrally close to the cavity, we observe both frequency up-conversion and down-conversion of the pump light via a $\\sim1.2$ THz phonon. We demonstrate this process for both weak and strong regimes of dot-cavity coupling, and provide a simple theoretical model explaining our observations.
Dissipation in composite quantum systems
Kurcz, Andreas; Beige, Almut; Del Giudice, Emilio; Vitiello, Giuseppe
2009-01-01
Dissipation in the form of spontaneous emission of photons from an optical cavity and from individually trapped atoms has been studied extensively in the framework of quantum optics. Up to now, theoretical predictions based on the dipole and the rotating wave approximation (RWA) are in very good agreement with experimental findings. However, current experiments aim at combining better and better cavities with relatively large numbers of tightly confined atoms within the same setup. Here we point out that the result might be a behaviour which is profoundly different from the behaviour of individual quantum systems and which cannot be described using the RWA. To show this, we predict a non-zero stationary-state cavity photon emission rate even in the absence of external driving. This rate and its dependence on the system parameters could be verified experimentally.
Entanglement in many-body quantum systems
Cirac, J Ignacio
2012-01-01
Short review on entanglement, as seen from a quantum information perspective, and some simple applications to many-body quantum systems. Special emphasis in area laws, cold atoms, and efficient descriptions using tensor network states.
Distinctive signature of indium gallium nitride quantum dot lasing in microdisk cavities.
Woolf, Alexander; Puchtler, Tim; Aharonovich, Igor; Zhu, Tongtong; Niu, Nan; Wang, Danqing; Oliver, Rachel; Hu, Evelyn L
2014-09-30
Low-threshold lasers realized within compact, high-quality optical cavities enable a variety of nanophotonics applications. Gallium nitride materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots and quantum wells offer an outstanding platform to study light-matter interactions and realize practical devices such as efficient light-emitting diodes and nanolasers. Despite progress in the growth and characterization of InGaN quantum dots, their advantages as the gain medium in low-threshold lasers have not been clearly demonstrated. This work seeks to better understand the reasons for these limitations by focusing on the simpler, limited-mode microdisk cavities, and by carrying out comparisons of lasing dynamics in those cavities using varying gain media including InGaN quantum wells, fragmented quantum wells, and a combination of fragmented quantum wells with quantum dots. For each gain medium, we use the distinctive, high-quality (Q ? 5,500) modes of the cavities, and the change in the highest-intensity mode as a function of pump power to better understand the dominant radiative processes. The variations of threshold power and lasing wavelength as a function of gain medium help us identify the possible limitations to lower-threshold lasing with quantum dot active medium. In addition, we have identified a distinctive lasing signature for quantum dot materials, which consistently lase at wavelengths shorter than the peak of the room temperature gain emission. These findings not only provide better understanding of lasing in nitride-based quantum dot cavity systems but also shed insight into the more fundamental issues of light-matter coupling in such systems. PMID:25197073
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)
2014-07-15
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.
Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions
Zipkes, Christoph; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael
2010-01-01
In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to ...
Quantum Boltzmann statistics in interacting systems
Accardi, Luigi; Kozyrev, Sergei
2001-01-01
Collective operators that describe interaction of generic quantum system with discrete spectrum with a quantum field are investigated. These operators, considered as operators in the entangled Fock space (space generated by action of collective creations on the vacuum) in the stochastic limit satisfy a particular kind of Quantum Boltzmann (or free) commutational relations. This clarifies a general phenomenon of arising of Quantum Boltzmann relations in interacting systems.
Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.
QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL CORRELATIONS IN GAUSSIAN OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurelian ISAR
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum correlations (quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We solve the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for the time evolution of the considered system and describe the entanglement and discord in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression takes place for all temperatures of the environment, including zero temperature. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that it decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath. This is in contrast with the sudden death of entanglement. Before the suppression of the entanglement, the qualitative evolution of quantum discord is very similar to that of the entanglement. We describe also the time evolution of the degree of classical correlations and of quantum mutual information, which measures the total correlations of the quantum system.
Enhanced autocompensating quantum cryptography system.
Bethune, Donald S; Navarro, Martha; Risk, William P
2002-03-20
We have improved the hardware and software of our autocompensating system for quantum key distribution by replacing bulk optical components at the end stations with fiber-optic equivalents and implementing software that synchronizes end-station activities, communicates basis choices, corrects errors, and performs privacy amplification over a local area network. The all-fiber-optic arrangement provides stable, efficient, and high-contrast routing of the photons. The low-bit error rate leads to high error-correction efficiency and minimizes data sacrifice during privacy amplification. Characterization measurements made on a number of commercial avalanche photodiodes are presented that highlight the need for improved devices tailored specifically for quantum information applications. A scheme for frequency shifting the photons returning from Alice's station to allow them to be distinguished from backscattered noise photons is also described. PMID:11921790
Could nanostructure be unspeakable quantum system?
Aristov, V V
2010-01-01
Heisenberg, Bohr and others were forced to renounce on the description of the objective reality as the aim of physics because of the paradoxical quantum phenomena observed on the atomic level. The contemporary quantum mechanics created on the base of their positivism point of view must divide the world into speakable apparatus which amplifies microscopic events to macroscopic consequences and unspeakable quantum system. Examination of the quantum phenomena corroborates the confidence expressed by creators of quantum theory that the renunciation of realism should not apply on our everyday macroscopic world. Nanostructures may be considered for the present as a boundary of realistic description for all phenomena including the quantum one.
Classical equations for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that decohere, which means that there is negligible quantum interference between the individual histories in the set. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e., such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models
Could nanostructure be unspeakable quantum system?
Aristov, V. V.; Nikulov, A. V.
2010-01-01
Heisenberg, Bohr and others were forced to renounce on the description of the objective reality as the aim of physics because of the paradoxical quantum phenomena observed on the atomic level. The contemporary quantum mechanics created on the base of their positivism point of view must divide the world into speakable apparatus which amplifies microscopic events to macroscopic consequences and unspeakable quantum system. Examination of the quantum phenomena corroborates the c...
Controlling open quantum systems using fast transitions
Poggi, P. M.; Lombardo, F. C.; Wisniacki, D. A.
2012-01-01
Unitary control and decoherence appear to be irreconcilable in quantum mechanics. When a quantum system interacts with an environment, control strategies usually fail due to decoherence. In this letter, we propose a time-optimal unitary control protocol suitable for quantum open systems. The method is based on succesive diabatic and sudden switch transitions in the avoided crossings of the energy spectra of closed systems. We show that the speed of this control protocol meet...
On Realization Theory of Quantum Linear Systems
Gough, John E.; Zhang, Guofeng
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the realization theory of quantum linear systems. It is shown that for a general quantum linear system its controllability and observability are equivalent and they can be checked by means of a simple matrix rank condition. Based on controllability and observability a specific realization is proposed for general quantum linear systems in which an uncontrollable and unobservable subspace is identified. When restricted to the passive case,...
Classical and quantum dissipative systems
Razavy, Mohsen
2006-01-01
This book discusses issues associated with the quantum mechanical formulation of dissipative systems. It begins with an introductory review of phenomenological damping forces, and the construction of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for the damped motion. It is shown, in addition to these methods, that classical dissipative forces can also be derived from solvable many-body problems. A detailed discussion of these derived forces and their dependence on dynamical variables is also presented. The second part of this book investigates the use of classical formulation in the quantization of dynamica
Quantum information and computing in multilevel systems
Muthukrishnan, Ashok
We have studied the extension of the new field of quantum computing to the multilevel domain, where the information is stored in a coherent superposition of more than two levels. Interference and entanglement, the hallmarks of quantum mechanics, are more strikingly present in a multilevel system, in the form of wave packets and decoherence. This thesis explores new tools and applications for multilevel quantum information processing in Rydberg atoms. The quantum equivalent of a classical bit is a qubit, a two-level system. Quantum computational logic involves conditional unitary transforms on two qubits, which are the quantum analogs of logic gates in classical computer science. The multilevel extension of a qubit is a qudit, a d-level quantum system. We present several programs for universal quantum logic involving qudits, and physically motivate the formalism with examples from quantum control. Wave packets arise from multilevel quantum interference, and they give an interesting new perspective on quantum information stored in a multilevel system. We show that an alternative realization of a qudit in a quantum system is a set of d wave-packet states that are physically separated in time. The wave-packet basis is connected to the energy-level basis by a Fourier transform, a key ingredient of quantum algorithms. We apply these ideas to Rydberg atoms, and show that an appropriate coupling between such atoms enables a conceptually simpler implementation of the quantum version of the Fast Fourier transform algorithm. Lastly we explore atomic angular momentum as a computational observable. Most of the states in the hydrogen atom are degenerate in energy but differ by discrete units of angular momentum. We show that using Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes, which possess orbital field angular momentum, these internal angular-momentum states in the atom can be entangled with its quantized center-of-mass angular momentum. We propose this entanglement as the building block for multilevel quantum computing using angular-momentum states.
Quantum fluctuations in quantum lattice systems with continuous symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss conditions for the absence of spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries in quantum lattice systems at T = 0. Our analysis is based on Pitaevskii and Stringari's idea that the uncertainty relation can be employed to show quantum fluctuations. For one-dimensional systems, it is shown that the ground state is invariant under a continuous transformation if a certain uniform susceptibility is finite. For the two- and three-dimensional systems, it is shown that truncated correlation functions cannot decay any more rapidly than |r|-d+1 whenever the continuous symmetry is spontaneously broken. Both of these phenomena occur owing to quantum fluctuations. Our theorems cover a wide class of quantum lattice systems having not-too-long-range interactions
Thermalization of isolated quantum systems
Khlebnikov, Sergei
2013-01-01
Understanding the evolution towards thermal equilibrium of an isolated quantum system is at the foundation of statistical mechanics and a subject of interest in such diverse areas as cold atom physics or the quantum mechanics of black hole formation. Since a pure state can never evolve into a thermal density matrix, the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH) has been put forward by Deutsch and Srednicki as a way to explain this apparent thermalization, similarly to what the ergodic theorem does in classical mechanics. In this paper this hypothesis is tested numerically. First, it is observed that thermalization happens in a subspace of states (the Krylov subspace) with dimension much smaller than that of the total Hilbert space. We check numerically the validity of ETH in such a subspace, for a system of hard core bosons on a two-dimensional lattice. We then discuss how well the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian projected on the Krylov subspace represent the true eigenstates. This discussion is aided by brin...
Quantum probabilities and entanglement for multimode quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum probabilities are defined for several important physical cases characterizing measurements with multimode quantum systems. These are the probabilities for operationally testable measurements, for operationally uncertain measurements, and for entangled composite events. The role of the prospect and state entanglement is emphasized. Numerical modeling is presented for a two-mode Bose-condensed system of trapped atoms. The interference factor is calculated by invoking the channel-state duality.
Past Quantum States of a Monitored System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, SØren; Julsgaard, Brian
2013-01-01
A density matrix ?(t) yields probabilistic information about the outcome of measurements on a quantum system. We introduce here the past quantum state, which, at time T, accounts for the state of a quantum system at earlier times t
Quantum Speed Limits in Open System Dynamics
del Campo, A.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Plenio, M. B.; Huelga, S. F.
2013-02-01
Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics, and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive, and trace preserving evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the role of the Hamiltonian being played by the adjoint of the generator of the dynamical semigroup. The utility of the new bound is exemplified in different scenarios, ranging from the estimation of the passage time to the determination of precision limits for quantum metrology in the presence of dephasing noise.
Entangled quantum systems in number theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mack, Ruediger; Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institute for Quantum Physics, Ulm University (Germany)
2009-07-01
There is an evident connection between quantum mechanics and number theory. Simply think of Shor's algorithm or quantum billards. In important function in number theory is the {zeta}-function of Riemann and a fundamental concept of quantum theory are entangled systems. We bring these two elements together and depict analytic continuation in mathematics in terms of a physical system. We present a method to evaluate the {zeta}-function by preparing an appropriate quantum system. We emphasize the point where entanglement comes to play a role.
Controlling quantum critical dynamics of isolated systems
Del Campo, A.; Sengupta, K
2014-01-01
Controlling the non adiabatic dynamics of isolated quantum systems driven through a critical point is of interest in a variety of fields ranging from quantum simulation to finite-time thermodynamics. We briefly review the different methods for designing protocols which minimize excitation (defect) production in a closed quantum critical system driven out of equilibrium. We chart out the role of specific driving schemes for this procedure, point out their experimental relevan...
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown. These nodes are spaced far enough from each other to minimized the electronic repulsion of the electrons, while still providing adequate enough attraction so as to bind the excess elections into orbitals. We have found that even with relativistic considerations these species are stably bound within the field. It was also found that performing the dimensional scaling calculations for systems within the confines of laser fields to be a much simpler and more cost-effective method than the supporting D=3 SCF method. The dimensional scaling method is general and can be extended to include relativistic corrections to describe the stability of simple molecular systems in super-intense laser fields. Chapter 3, we delineate the model, and aspects therein, of inelastic electron tunneling and map this model to the protein environment. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptors that sense molecules outside of a cell and activate signal transduction pathways inside the cell. Modeling how an agonist activates such a receptor is important for understanding a wide variety of physiological processes and it is of tremendous value for pharmacology and drug design. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been proposed as the mechanism by which olfactory GPCRs are activated by an encapsulated agonist. In this note we apply this notion to GPCRs within the mammalian nervous system using ab initio quantum chemical modeling. We found that non-endogenous agonists of the serotonin receptor share a singular IET spectral aspect both amongst each other and with the serotonin molecule: a peak that scales in intensity with the known agonist activities. We propose an experiential validation of this model by utilizing lysergic acid dimethylamide (DAM-57), an ergot derivative, and its isotopologues in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium. If validated our theory may provide new avenues for guided drug design and better in silico prediction of efficacies. Our final chapter, explores methods which may be explored to assist in the early instructio
Linear response theory for quantum open systems
Wei, J H; Yan, YiJing
2011-01-01
Basing on the theory of Feynman's influence functional and its hierarchical equations of motion, we develop a linear response theory for quantum open systems. Our theory provides an effective way to calculate dynamical observables of a quantum open system at its steady-state, which can be applied to various fields of non-equilibrium condensed matter physics.
Energy balance for a dissipative quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of random force in maintaining equilibrium in a dissipative quantum system is studied here. We compute the instantaneous power supplied by the fluctuating (random) force, which provides information about the work done by the random force on the quantum subsystem of interest. The quantum Langevin equation formalism is used here to verify that, at equilibrium, the work done by the fluctuating force balances the energy lost by the quantum subsystem to the heat bath. The quantum subsystem we choose to couple to the heat bath is the charged oscillator in a magnetic field. We perform the calculations using the Drude regularized spectral density of bath oscillators instead of using a strict ohmic spectral density that gives memoryless damping. We also discuss the energy balance for our dissipative quantum system and in this regard it is to be understood that the physical system is the charged magneto-oscillator coupled to the heat bath, not the uncoupled charged magneto-oscillator. (paper)
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum Stochastic Processes, Quantum Iterated Function Systems and Entropy
Baraviera, A.; Lardizabal, C. F.; Lopes, Artur O.; Cunha, M. Terra
2009-01-01
We describe some basic results for Quantum Stochastic Processes and present some new results about a certain class of processes which are associated to Quantum Iterated Function Systems (QIFS). We discuss questions related to the Markov property and we present a definition of entropy which is induced by a QIFS. This definition is a natural generalization of the Shannon-Kolmogorov entropy from Ergodic Theory. This definition is different from the one in the paper "A Thermodyn...
Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots
Ciftja, Orion
2013-11-01
Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron-electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes.
Quantum chaos in generic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First I briefly review the basic elements of the stationary quantum chaos in Hamiltonian systems, the universality classes of energy spectra and eigenfunctions. Then I consider the problem of the generic systems whose classical dynamics and the phase portrait is of the mixed type, i.e. regular for certain initial conditions and irregular (chaotic) for other initial conditions. I present the Berry-Robnik picture, the Principle of Uniform Semiclassical Condensation (of the Wigner functions of the eigenstates), and the statistical description of the energy spectra in terms of E(k,L) statistics, which is shown to be valid in the semiclassical limit of sufficiently small effective Planck constant and is numerically firmly confirmed. Then I consider the spectral autocorrelation function and the form factor (its Fourier transform) in the same limit, and show its agreement with the numerical investigations in the regular and fully chaotic cases. I show the numerical evidence for the deviations from that prediction in mixed type systems at low energies, due to localization and tunneling effects. Here are also the important open theoretical questions that I address. (author)
Non-perturbative description of quantum systems
Feranchuk, Ilya; Le, Van-Hoang; Ulyanenkov, Alexander
2015-01-01
This book introduces systematically the operator method for the solution of the Schrödinger equation. This method permits to describe the states of quantum systems in the entire range of parameters of Hamiltonian with a predefined accuracy. The operator method is unique compared with other non-perturbative methods due to its ability to deliver in zeroth approximation the uniformly suitable estimate for both ground and excited states of quantum system. The method has been generalized for the application to quantum statistics and quantum field theory. In this book, the numerous applications of operator method for various physical systems are demonstrated. Simple models are used to illustrate the basic principles of the method which are further used for the solution of complex problems of quantum theory for many-particle systems. The results obtained are supplemented by numerical calculations, presented as tables and figures.
Correcting Quantum Errors In Higher Spin Systems
Chau, HF
1996-01-01
I consider the theory of the quantum error correcting code (QECC), where each quantum particle has more than two possible eigenstates. In this higher spin system, I report an explicit QECC that is related to the symmetry group Z2 ?(N-1)?SN. This QECC, which generalizes Shor's simple majority vote code [Phys. Rev. A 52, 2493 (1995)], is able to correct errors arising from exactly one quantum particle. I also provide a simple encoding algorithm.
Minisuperspace as a Quantum Open System
Hu, B. L.; Paz, Juan Pablo; Sinha, Sukanya
1993-01-01
We trace the development of ideas on dissipative processes in chaotic cosmology and on minisuperspace quantum cosmology from the time Misner proposed them to current research. We show 1) how the effect of quantum processes like particle creation in the early universe can address the issues of the isotropy and homogeneity of the observed universe, 2) how viewing minisuperspace as a quantum open system can address the issue of the validity of such approximations customarily ad...
Dynamical systems where time is a quantum group and quantum ergodicity
Kozyrev, S V
2003-01-01
We define dynamical systems where time is a quantum group. We give the definition of quantum ergodicity for the introduced dynamical system with noncommutative (or quantum) time, and discuss the examples.
Sliding mode control of quantum systems
Dong, Daoyi; 10.1088/1367-2630/11/10/105033
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a new robust control method for quantum systems with uncertainties involving sliding mode control (SMC). Sliding mode control is a widely used approach in classical control theory and industrial applications. We show that SMC is also a useful method for robust control of quantum systems. In this paper, we define two specific classes of sliding modes (i.e., eigenstates and state subspaces) and propose two novel methods combining unitary control and periodic projective measurements for the design of quantum sliding mode control systems. Two examples including a two-level system and a three-level system are presented to demonstrate the proposed SMC method. One of main features of the proposed method is that the designed control laws can guarantee desired control performance in the presence of uncertainties in the system Hamiltonian. This sliding mode control approach provides a useful control theoretic tool for robust quantum information processing with uncertainties.
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered
Spin in fractional quantum Hall system.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Výborný, Karel
2007-01-01
Ro?. 16, ?. 2 (2007), s. 87-165. ISSN 0003-3804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : fractional quantum Hall systems * quantum Hall ferromagnets * magnetic inhomegeneities Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.485, year: 2007
Local Unitary Invariants for Multipartite Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an approach of constructing invariants under local unitary transformations for multipartite quantum systems. The invariants constructed in this way can be complement to that in [Science 340 (2013) 1205–1208]. Detailed examples are given to compute such invariant in detail. It is shown that these invariants can be used to detect the local unitary equivalence of degenerated quantum states. (general)
Quantum Dynamical Entropy of Spin Systems
Miyadera, Takayuki; Ohya, Masanori
2003-01-01
We investigate a quantum dynamical entropy of one-dimesional quantum spin systems. We show that the dynamical entropy is bounded from above by a quantity which is related with group velocity determined by the interaction and mean entropy of the state.
Controlling quantum critical dynamics of isolated systems
del Campo, A.; Sengupta, K.
2015-02-01
Controlling the non adiabatic dynamics of isolated quantum systems driven through a critical point is of interest in a variety of fields ranging from quantum simulation to finite-time thermodynamics. We briefly review the different methods for designing protocols which minimize excitation (defect) production in a closed quantum critical system driven out of equilibrium. We chart out the role of specific driving schemes for this procedure, point out their experimental relevance, and discuss their implementation in the context of ultracold atom and spin systems.
Fluctuation theorems in driven open quantum systems
Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter
2008-01-01
The characteristic function for the joint measurement of the changes of two commuting observables upon an external forcing of a quantum system is derived. In particular, the statistics of the internal energy, the exchanged heat and the work of a quantum system that {\\it weakly} couples to its environment is determined in terms of the energy changes of the system and the environment due to the action of a classical, external force on the system. If the system and environment initially are in a canonical equilibrium, the work performed on the system is shown to satisfy the Tasaki-Crooks theorem and the Jarzynski equality.
Quantum Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Systems
Geller, Michael R.
2001-01-01
A brief summary of the physics of low-dimensional quantum systems is given. The material should be accessible to advanced physics undergraduate students. References to recent review articles and books are provided when possible.
Exchange Fluctuation Theorem for correlated quantum systems
Jennings, David; Hirono, Yuji; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio
2012-01-01
We extend the Exchange Fluctuation Theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the non-equilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semi-classical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations.
Quantum Statistics of Interacting Dimer Spin Systems
Ruegg, C.; Normand, B.; Matsumoto, M.; Niedermayer, C.; Furrer, A.; Kramer, K W; Gudel, H.U.; Bourges, P.; Sidis, Y.; Mutka, H.
2005-01-01
The compound TlCuCl? represents a model system of dimerized quantum spins with strong interdimer interactions. We investigate the triplet dispersion as a function of temperature by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on single crystals. By comparison with a number of theoretical approaches we demonstrate that the description of Troyer, Tsunetsugu, and Würtz [Phys. Rev. B 50, 13 515 (1994)] provides an appropriate quantum statistical model for dimer spin systems at finite temperatures, wh...
Quantum Statistics of Interacting Dimer Spin Systems
Rüegg, C; Matsumoto, M; Niedermayer, C; Furrer, A; Krämer, K W; G"udel, H U; Bourges, P; Sidis, Y; Mutka, H; R\\"uegg, Ch.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Bourges, Ph.
2005-01-01
The compound TlCuCl3 represents a model system of dimerized quantum spins with strong interdimer interactions. We investigate the triplet dispersion as a function of temperature by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on single crystals. By comparison with a number of theoretical approaches we demonstrate that the description of Troyer, Tsunetsugu, and Wuertz [Phys. Rev. B 50, 13515 (1994)] provides an appropriate quantum statistical model for dimer spin systems at finite temperatures, where many-body correlations become particularly important.
Open Quantum Systems, Entropy and Chaos
Elze, Hans-Thomas
1997-01-01
Entropy generation in quantum sytems is tied to the existence of a nonclassical environment (heat bath or other) with which the system interacts. The continuous `measuring' of the open system by its environment induces decoherence of its wave function and entropy increase. Examples of nonrelativistic quantum Brownian motion and of interacting scalar fields illustrate these general concepts. It is shown that the Hartree-Fock approximation around the bare classical limit can l...
T-Systems and Y-Systems for Quantum Affinizations of Quantum Kac-Moody Algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomoki Nakanishi
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The T-systems and Y-systems are classes of algebraic relations originally associated with quantum affine algebras and Yangians. Recently the T-systems were generalized to quantum affinizations of a wide class of quantum Kac-Moody algebras by Hernandez. In this note we introduce the corresponding Y-systems and establish a relation between T and Y-systems. We also introduce the T and Y-systems associated with a class of cluster algebras, which include the former T and Y-systems of simply laced type as special cases.
Noise in quantum systems: facts and fantasies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We present a critical review of recent developments on quantum noise in a variety of mesoscopic conductors including ballistic, diffusive and tunnelling systems. We begin with a microscopic approach that describes quantum transport and fluctuations for correlated electrons at high external field taking the system beyond the linear response regime. We discuss two commonly believed results that (a) shot noise in diffusive systems is suppressed by '1/3' universally and (b) there is a 'crossover' of shot noise to thermal noise at finite temperature and applied field. Our analysis reveals contradictions based on fundamental physics and its logical implications. We examine another issue of measuring fractional charges in fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) experiments. It is believed that shot noise spectral density reveals the charge quantum of the current carriers as a Schottky phenomenon. Here again we analyse a number of unverified assumptions beyond the myth
Universal simulation of Markovian open quantum systems
Sweke, Ryan; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Bernard, Denis; Petruccione, Francesco
2015-06-01
We consider the problem of constructing a "universal set" of Markovian processes, such that any Markovian open quantum system, described by a one-parameter semigroup of quantum channels, can be simulated through sequential simulations of processes from the universal set. In particular, for quantum systems of dimension d , we explicitly construct a universal set of semigroup generators, parametrized by d2-3 continuous parameters, and prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the dynamical simulation of a d -dimensional Markovian quantum system is the ability to implement (a) quantum channels from the semigroups generated by elements of the universal set of generators, and (b) unitary operations on the system. Furthermore, we provide an explicit algorithm for simulating the dynamics of a Markovian open quantum system using this universal set of generators, and show that it is efficient, with respect to this universal set, when the number of distinct Lindblad operators (representing physical dissipation processes) scales polynomially with respect to the number of subsystems.
Superconducting circuitry for quantum electromechanical systems
LaHaye, Matthew D.; Rouxinol, Francisco; Hao, Yu; Shim, Seung-Bo; Irish, Elinor K.
2015-05-01
Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and e orts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.
Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics
Tian, Zehua; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This resul...
Kalaga, J. K.; Leo?ski, W.; Kowalewska-Kud?aszyk, A.
2014-12-01
A model of a nonlinear, damped kicked oscillator is discussed. For such a model intra-mode correlations described by mutual information parameter I[?] based on the Wehrl entropy are considered. Furthermore, the system's quantum evolution is compared to its classical counterpart. The mutual information parameter is discussed as a proposal for quantum chaos' witness.
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
Wang, W; Yi, X X
2009-01-01
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum system. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum systems. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on the quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of the quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Molecular controlled of quantum nano systems
Paltiel, Yossi
2014-03-01
A century ago quantum mechanics created a conceptual revolution whose fruits are now seen in almost any aspect of our day-to-day life. Lasers, transistors and other solid state and optical devices represent the core technology of current computers, memory devices and communication systems. However, all these examples do not exploit fully the quantum revolution as they do not take advantage of the coherent wave-like properties of the quantum wave function. Controlled coherent system and devices at ambient temperatures are challenging to realize. We are developing a novel nano tool box with control coupling between the quantum states and the environment. This tool box that combines nano particles with organic molecules enables the integration of quantum properties with classical existing devices at ambient temperatures. The nano particles generate the quantum states while the organic molecules control the coupling and therefore the energy, charge, spin, or quasi particle transfer between the layers. Coherent effects at ambient temperatures can be measured in the strong coupling regime. In the talk I will present our nano tool box and show studies of charge transfer, spin transfer and energy transfer in the hybrid layers as well as collective transfer phenomena. These enable the realization of room temperature operating quantum electro optical devices. For example I will present in details, our recent development of a new type of chiral molecules based magnetless universal memory exploiting selective spin transfer.
Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems
Sandvik, Anders W
2011-01-01
These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer implementations are then discussed in detail. Applications of the methods are illustrated by results for some of the most essential models in quantum magnetism, such as the S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in one and two dimensions, as well as extended models useful for studying quantum phase transitions between antiferromagnetic and magnetically disordered states.
Cavity-Enhanced Two-Photon Interference using Remote Quantum Dot Sources
Giesz, V; Grange, T; Antón, C; De Santis, L; Demory, J; Somaschi, N; Sagnes, I; Lemaître, A; Lanco, L; Auffeves, A; Senellart, P
2015-01-01
The generation of indistinguishable photons from a solid-state emitter like a semiconductor quantum dot is often limited by dephasing processes. It is known that accelerating the spontaneous emission of the quantum dot can greatly improve the indistinguishability of successively emitted photons. Here we show that cavity quantum electrodynamics can also efficiently improve the quantum interference between remote quantum dot sources. The quantum interference of photons emitted by two separate quantum dot-cavity devices is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Controlling the spontaneous emission on one source is shown to efficiently overcome the detrimental effect of pure dephasing on the other one. Our experimental observations and calculations demonstrate that cavity quantum electrodynamics is a powerful tool for the scalability of a quantum dot-based quantum network.
Modeling Disordered Quantum Systems with Dynamical Networks
Klesse, Rochus; Metzler, Marcus
1999-01-01
It is the purpose of the present article to show that so-called network models, originally designed to describe static properties of disordered electronic systems, can be easily generalized to quantum-{\\em dynamical} models, which then allow for an investigation of dynamical and spectral aspects. This concept is exemplified by the Chalker-Coddington model for the Quantum Hall effect and a three-dimensional generalization of it. We simulate phase coherent diffusion of wave pa...
Pairing in the quantum Hall system
Ahn, Kang-Hun; Chang, K. J.
1997-01-01
We find an analogy between the single skyrmion state in the quantum Hall system and the BCS superconducting state and address that the quantum mechanical origin of the skyrmion is electronic pairing. The skyrmion phase is found to be unstable for magnetic fields above the critical field $B_{c}(T)$ at temperature $T$, which is well represented by the relation $B_c(T)/B_{c}(0) \\approx {[1-(T/T_c)^3]}^{1/2}$.
Quantum field theory of relic nonequilibrium systems
Underwood, Nicolas G.; Valentini, Antony
2015-09-01
In terms of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, we develop field-theoretical models of quantum nonequilibrium systems which could exist today as relics from the very early Universe. We consider relic excited states generated by inflaton decay, as well as relic vacuum modes, for particle species that decoupled close to the Planck temperature. Simple estimates suggest that, at least in principle, quantum nonequilibrium could survive to the present day for some relic systems. The main focus of this paper is to describe the behavior of such systems in terms of field theory, with the aim of understanding how relic quantum nonequilibrium might manifest experimentally. We show by explicit calculation that simple perturbative couplings will transfer quantum nonequilibrium from one field to another (for example from the inflaton field to its decay products). We also show that fields in a state of quantum nonequilibrium will generate anomalous spectra for standard energy measurements. Possible connections to current astrophysical observations are briefly addressed.
Novel systems and methods for quantum communication, quantum computation, and quantum simulation
Gorshkov, Alexey Vyacheslavovich
Precise control over quantum systems can enable the realization of fascinating applications such as powerful computers, secure communication devices, and simulators that can elucidate the physics of complex condensed matter systems. However, the fragility of quantum effects makes it very difficult to harness the power of quantum mechanics. In this thesis, we present novel systems and tools for gaining fundamental insights into the complex quantum world and for bringing practical applications of quantum mechanics closer to reality. We first optimize and show equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage of photons in atomic ensembles. We describe experiments demonstrating the potential of our optimization algorithms for quantum communication and computation applications. Next, we combine the technique of photon storage with strong atom-atom interactions to propose a robust protocol for implementing the two-qubit photonic phase gate, which is an important ingredient in many quantum computation and communication tasks. In contrast to photon storage, many quantum computation and simulation applications require individual addressing of closely-spaced atoms, ions, quantum dots, or solid state defects. To meet this requirement, we propose a method for coherent optical far-field manipulation of quantum systems with a resolution that is not limited by the wavelength of radiation. While alkali atoms are currently the system of choice for photon storage and many other applications, we develop new methods for quantum information processing and quantum simulation with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices. We show how multiple qubits can be encoded in individual alkaline-earth atoms and harnessed for quantum computing and precision measurements applications. We also demonstrate that alkaline-earth atoms can be used to simulate highly symmetric systems exhibiting spin-orbital interactions and capable of providing valuable insights into strongly correlated physics of transition metal oxides, heavy fermion materials, and spin liquid phases. While ultracold atoms typically exhibit only short-range interactions, numerous exotic phenomena and practical applications require long-range interactions, which can be achieved with ultracold polar molecules. We demonstrate the possibility to engineer a repulsive interaction between polar molecules, which allows for the suppression of inelastic collisions, efficient evaporative cooling, and the creation of novel phases of polar molecules.
Recent advances in quantum integrable systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amico, L.; Belavin, A.; Buffenoir, E.; Castro Alvaredo, A.; Caudrelier, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Corrig, E.; Crampe, N.; Deguchi, T.; Dobrev, V.K.; Doikou, A.; Doyon, B.; Feher, L.; Fioravanti, D.; Gohmann, F.; Hallnas, M.; Jimbo, M.; Konno, N.C.H.; Korchemsky, G.; Kulish, P.; Lassalle, M.; Maillet, J.M.; McCoy, B.; Mintchev, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Quano, F.Y.Z.; Ragnisco, R.; Ravanini, F.; Rittenberg, V.; Rivasseau, V.; Rossi, M.; Satta, G.; Sedrakyan, T.; Shiraishi, J.; Suzuki, N.C.J.; Yamada, Y.; Zamolodchikov, A.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Posta, S.; Sedra, M.B.; Zuevskiy, A.; Gohmann, F
2005-07-01
This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies.
Recent advances in quantum integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies
Statistical thermodynamics of polymer quantum systems
Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A
2011-01-01
Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional {\\em polymer} quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. Depending on the...
Quantum Simulation of Tunneling in Small Systems
Sornborger, Andrew T
2012-01-01
A number of quantum algorithms have been performed on small quantum computers; these include Shor's prime factorization algorithm, error correction, Grover's search algorithm and a number of analog and digital quantum simulations. Because of the number of gates and qubits necessary, however, digital quantum particle simulations remain untested. A contributing factor to the system size required is the number of ancillary qubits needed to implement matrix exponentials of the potential operator. Here, we show that a set of tunneling problems may be investigated with no ancillary qubits and a cost of one single-qubit operator per time step for the potential evolution. We show that physically interesting simulations of tunneling using 2 qubits (i.e. on 4 lattice point grids) may be performed with 40 single and two-qubit gates. Approximately 70 to 140 gates are needed to see interesting tunneling dynamics in three-qubit (8 lattice point) simulations.
Quantum Dynamics of Nonlinear Cavity Systems
Nation, Paul D
2010-01-01
We investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. To begin, we carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprised of a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing a flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we make use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. This setup allows for quan...
On dynamical stochasticity in nonlinear quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of nonlinear quantum systems which are stochastic in the classical limit are investigated. By a concrete model example it is shown that for a quantum system in contrast to the corresponding classical one the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy is equal to zero and correlations are damping not by exponential but only but power-type law. It is pointed out in conclusion that the cause of power-type correlation decrease is power-type increase of THETA harmonics number in U with time (U is evolution operator) or in other words of a number of populated levels of the unperturbed system (one impact captures approximately 2 K levels of unperturbed system ). In view of this fact the THETA number of harmonics also grows by power-type law which leads to h=C and nonexponential correlation damping. As the indicated U property occurs prractically for all perturbations it is quite natural to expect that the other quantum systems, which are stochastical in the classical limit are to possess KS entropy equal to zero and power-type correlation decrease. This result indicates that direct generalization of Kolmogorov entropy notion for quantum systems seems to be not so important as in classical systems
Quantum dynamics of nonlinear cavity systems
Nation, Paul David
In this work we investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. We begin by carrying out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprising a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing an external flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we consider the use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. We will show that biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. As a fundamentally quantum mechanical device, this setup allows for investigations of quantum effects such as backreaction and analogue space-time fluctuations on the Hawking process. Finally, we investigate a quantum parametric amplifier with dynamical pump mode, viewed as a zero-dimensional model of Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole. The conditions are derived under which the spectrum of particles generated from vacuum fluctuations deviates from the thermal spectrum predicted for the conventional parametric amplifier. We find that significant deviation occurs once the pump mode (black hole) has released nearly half of its initial energy in the signal (Hawking radiation) and idler (in-falling particle) modes. As a model of black hole dynamics, this finding lends support to the view that late-time Hawking radiation contains information about the quantum state of the black hole and is entangled with the black hole's quantum gravitational degrees of freedom.
On the velocity of moving relativistic unstable quantum systems
Urbanowski, K
2015-01-01
We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of moving freely relativistic quantum unstable systems can not be constant in time. We show that this effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: It is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not definite.
Quantum entanglement in multiparticle systems of two-level atoms
Deb, Ram Narayan
2011-01-01
We propose the necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of quantum entanglement in arbitrary symmetric pure states of two-level atomic systems. We introduce a parameter to quantify quantum entanglement in such systems. We express the inherent quantum fluctuations of a composite system of two-level atoms as a sum of the quantum fluctuations of the individual constituent atoms and their correlation terms. This helps to separate out and study solely the quantum corre...
Quantum Statistics of Interacting Dimer Spin Systems
Rüegg, Ch.; Normand, B.; Matsumoto, M.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Furrer, A.; Krämer, K. W.; Güdel, H.-U.; Bourges, Ph.; Sidis, Y.; Mutka, H.
2005-12-01
The compound TlCuCl3 represents a model system of dimerized quantum spins with strong interdimer interactions. We investigate the triplet dispersion as a function of temperature by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on single crystals. By comparison with a number of theoretical approaches we demonstrate that the description of Troyer, Tsunetsugu, and Würtz [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO0163-1829 50, 13 515 (1994)10.1103/PhysRevB.50.13515] provides an appropriate quantum statistical model for dimer spin systems at finite temperatures, where many-body correlations become particularly important.
Quons in a Quantum Dissipative System
Lee, Taejin
2015-01-01
String theory proves to be an imperative tool to explore the critical behavior of the quantum dissipative system. We discuss the quantum particles moving in two dimensions, in the presence of a uniform magnetic field, subject to a periodic potential and a dissipative force, which are described by the dissipative Wannier-Azbel-Hofstadter (DWAH) model. Using string theory formulation of the model, we find that the elementary excitations of the system at the generic points of the off-critical regions, in the zero temperature limit are quons, which satisfy q-deformed statistics.
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Yu, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au; Miao, Zibo, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Amini, Hadis, E-mail: nhamini@stanford.edu [Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Gough, John, E-mail: jug@aber.ac.uk [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, SY23 3BZ Wales (United Kingdom); Ugrinovskii, Valery, E-mail: v.ugrinovskii@gmail.com [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales at ADFA, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); James, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.james@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2014-06-15
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.
Quantum Langevin equations for optomechanical systems
Barchielli, Alberto; Vacchini, Bassano
2015-08-01
We provide a fully quantum description of a mechanical oscillator in the presence of thermal environmental noise by means of a quantum Langevin formulation based on quantum stochastic calculus. The system dynamics is determined by symmetry requirements and equipartition at equilibrium, while the environment is described by quantum Bose fields in a suitable non-Fock representation which allows for the introduction of temperature. A generic spectral density of the environment can be described by introducing its state through a suitable P-representation. Including interaction of the mechanical oscillator with a cavity mode via radiation pressure we obtain a description of a simple optomechanical system in which, besides the Langevin equations for the system, one has the exact input–output relations for the quantum noises. The whole theory is valid at arbitrarily low temperature. This allows the exact calculation of the stationary value of the mean energy of the mechanical oscillator, as well as both homodyne and heterodyne spectra. The present analysis allows in particular to study possible cooling scenarios and to obtain the exact connection between observed spectra and fluctuation spectra of the position of the mechanical oscillator.
Geometric phase distributions for open quantum systems
Marzlin, K P; Sanders, B C
2004-01-01
We establish a general theory of geometric phase (GP) for open systems that includes the standard closed-system theory as a special case, and applies for mixed states, non-unitary and non-cyclic evolution, and quantum jump (or trajectory) analyses of particular classes of open-system GP analyses. Our theory resolves the ambiguity of the GP's dependence on decomposition of the density matrix by imposing reasonable physical constraints on the environment.
Dressed States Approach to Quantum Systems
Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Malbouisson, A.P.C.(Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, MCTI, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil)
2002-01-01
Using the non-perturbative method of {\\it dressed} states previously introduced in JPhysA, we study effects of the environment on a quantum mechanical system, in the case the environment is modeled by an ensemble of non interacting harmonic oscillators. This method allows to separate the whole system into the {\\it dressed} mechanical system and the {\\it dressed} environment, in terms of which an exact, non-perturbative approach is possible. When applied to the Brownian motio...
Study of Classical and Quantum Open Systems
Kong, Lee Chee
2010-01-01
This thesis covers various aspects of open systems in classical and quantum mechanics. In the first part, we deal with classical systems. The bath-of-oscillators formalism is used to describe an open system, and the phenomenological Langevin equation is recovered. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived from its corresponding Langevin equation. The Fokker-Planck equation for a particle in a periodic potential in the high-friction limit is solved using the continued-fraction me...
Josephson tunneling in bilayer quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Bose–Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (?e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ?=1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless. Our results explain recent experiments due to [L. Tiemann, Y. Yoon, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, W. Wegscheider, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 165120] and due to [Y. Yoon, L. Tiemann, S. Schmult, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 116802]. We predict also how the critical current changes as the sample is tilted in the magnetic field. -- Highlights: ? Composite bosons undergo Bose–Einstein condensation to form the bilayer quantum Hall state. ? A composite boson is a single electron bound to a flux quantum and carries one unit charge. ? Quantum coherence develops due to the condensation. ? Quantum coherence drives the supercurrent in each layer and the tunneling current. ? There exists the critical input current so that the tunneling current is coherent and dissipationless.
Long-range quantum discord in critical spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that quantum correlations as quantified by quantum discord can characterize quantum phase transitions by exhibiting nontrivial long-range decay as a function of distance in spin systems. This is rather different from the behavior of pairwise entanglement, which is typically short-ranged even in critical systems. In particular, we find a clear change in the decay rate of quantum discord as the system crosses a quantum critical point. We illustrate this phenomenon for first-order, second-order, and infinite-order quantum phase transitions, indicating that pairwise quantum discord is an appealing quantum correlation function for condensed matter systems. -- Highlights: ? Quantum discord may exhibit long-range decay in spin systems. ? Long-range behavior of discord occurs as the system crosses a critical point. ? Long-range behavior of discord is found for phase transitions of different orders. ? Discussion of discord as a function of distance is shown for several spin chains.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a unified framework of Lie-algebraic quantum systems theory. It provides a powerful yet straight-forward access to settle problems of controllability, observability, and the design of universal quantum hardware. A particular focus is on the symmetry principles of quantum simulation. They govern under which conditions and to which extent spin systems, fermionic systems, and bosonic systems can mutually simulate oneanother. Finally, we give an explorative outline of quantum dynamics under collective Hamiltonian controls meant to invite further research.
Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines ‘classical’ time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems. -- Highlights: •Present a general methodology for deriving temporal probabilities in tunneling systems. •Treatment applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. •Derive a new expression for tunneling time. •Identify new time parameters relevant to tunneling. •Propose a resolution of the superluminality paradox in tunneling
Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found
On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system
Khrennikov, Andrei
2004-01-01
It is proposed to define "quantumness" of a system (micro or macroscopic, physical, biological, social, political) by starting with understanding that quantum mechanics is a statistical theory. It says us only about probability distributions. The only possible criteria of quantum behaviour are statistical ones. Therefore I propose to consider any system which produces quantum statistics as quantum ("quantumlike"). A possible test is based on the interference of probabilities...
Theory of quantum control of spin-photon dynamics and spin decoherence in semiconductors
Yao, Wang
Single electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and single photon wavepacket propagating in an optical waveguide are investigated as carriers of quantum bit (qubit) for information processing. Cavity quantum electrodynamics of the coupled system composed of charged QD, microcavity and waveguide provides a quantum interface for the interplay of stationary spin qubits and flying photon qubits via cavity assisted optical control. This interface forms the basis for a wide range of essential functions of a quantum network, including transferring, swapping, and entangling qubits at distributed quantum nodes as well as a deterministic source and an efficient detector of a single photon wavepacket with arbitrarily specified shape. The cavity assisted optical process also made possible ultrafast initialization and QND readout of the spin qubit in QD. In addition, the strong optical nonlinearity of dot-cavity-waveguide coupled system enables phase gate and entanglement operation for flying single photon qubits in waveguides. The coherence of the electron spin is the wellspring of these quantum applications being investigated. At low temperature and strong magnetic field, the dominant cause of electron spin decoherence is the coupling with the interacting lattice nuclear spins. We present a quantum solution to the coupled dynamics of the electron with the nuclear spin bath. The decoherence is treated in terms of quantum entanglement of the electron with the nuclear pair-flip excitations driven by the various nuclear interactions. A novel nuclear interaction, mediated by virtue spin-flips of the single electron, plays an important role in single spin free-induction decay (FID). The spin echo not only refocuses the dephasing by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble dynamics but also eliminates the decoherence by electron-mediated nuclear interaction. Thus, the decoherence times for single spin FID and ensemble spin echo are significantly different. The quantum theory of decoherence also leads to a method of coherence recovery of the electron by disentanglement, realized through maneuvering the nuclear bath evolution by control of the electron spin-flip. The studies form the basis to outline the construction of a solid-state quantum network for scalable and distributed processing of quantum information.
Analytical approximate eigenvalues of bounded quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general systematic way of obtaining analytical approximate expressions for the eigenvalues of bounded quantum systems is proposed. The method is based on a nonlinear transformation of the perturbation parameter that leads to improved perturbation series. The bounded harmonic oscillator is discussed as an illustrative example. (author)
Alternative treatment of rotational quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The method of the Hill determinant proves to be useful in treating purely rotating quantum systems. The rotational Stark effect in symmetric-top molecules and the internal rotation in molecules are discussed as illustrative examples. The procedure can be used either to obtain the energy eigenvalues for a given model potential or to built it from experimental data. (orig.)
Quantum dissipation of a simple conservative system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model of quantum dissipative system is presented. Here dissipation of energy is demonstrated as based on the coupling of a free translational motion of a centre of mass to a harmonic oscillator. The two-dimensional arrangement of two coupled particles of different masses is considered.
Hidden supersymmetry in quantum bosonic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that some simple well-studied quantum mechanical systems without fermion (spin) degrees of freedom display, surprisingly, a hidden supersymmetry. The list includes the bound state Aharonov-Bohm, the Dirac delta and the Poeschl-Teller potential problems, in which the unbroken and broken N = 2 supersymmetry of linear and nonlinear (polynomial) forms is revealed
Quantum mechanics of a system with confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study is made of the quantum mechanical model of confinement. The spectrum of a system with permanently confined channel is investiogated. A closed analytical expression is obtained for the S-matrix describing the scattering on N levels in the confined channel. The influence of the confined channel on the resonant and Coulomb states in the scattering channel is considered
Quantum field theory and multiparticle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The use of quantum field theory methods for the investigation of the physical characteristics of the MANY-BODY SYSTEMS is discussed. Mainly discussed is the method of second quantization and the method of the Green functions. Briefly discussed is the method of calculating the Green functions at finite temperatures. (Z.J.)
An Operator-Based Exact Treatment of Open Quantum Systems
Nicolosi, S.
2005-01-01
"Quantum mechanics must be regarded as open systems. On one hand, this is due to the fact that, like in classical physics, any realistic system is subjected to a coupling to an uncontrollable environment which influences it in a non-negligible way. The theory of open quantum systems thus plays a major role in many applications of quantum physics since perfect isolation of quantum system is not possible and since a complete microscopic description or control of the environmen...
Overcoming erasure errors in quantum memories with multilevel systems
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Wen, Jianming; Li, Linshu; Jiang, Liang
2015-03-01
We propose the usage of highly efficient error correcting codes of multilevel systems to encode quantum memories that suffer from erasure errors and introduce efficient hardware to repetitively correct these errors. Our scheme makes use of quantum polynomial codes to encode a quantum memory and generalized one-bit teleportation circuits for multilevel systems to repetitively correct photon erasure errors and operation errors in a fault-tolerant manner. We compare our scheme with earlier known schemes to encode quantum memories that use quantum parity codes and surface codes respectively and discuss the application of our encoded quantum memories for one-way quantum repeaters and show that they achieve a superior performance.
Planar lightwave circuits for quantum cryptographic systems
Nambu, Y; Nakamura, K; Nambu, Yoshihiro; Hatanaka, Takaaki; Nakamura, Kazuo
2003-01-01
We propose a quantum cryptographic system based on a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) and report on optical interference experiments using PLC-based unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The interferometers exhibited high-visibility (>0.98) interference even when the polarisation in the optical fibre connecting the two MZIs was randomly modulated. The results demonstrate that a PLC-based setup is suitable for achieving a polarisation-insensitive phase-coding cryptographic system.
Hybrid Quantum Systems of Atoms and Ions
Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael
2015-09-01
In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.
Does an isolated quantum system relax?
B.; Rauer; Schweigler, T.; Langen, T.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2015-01-01
Statistical mechanics is one of the most comprehensive theories in physics. From a boiling pot of water to the complex dynamics of quantum many-body systems it provides a successful connection between the microscopic dynamics of atoms and molecules to the macroscopic properties of matter. However, statistical mechanics only describes the thermal equilibrium situation of a system, and there is no general framework to describe how equilibrium is reached or under which circumst...
Chiral quantum mechanics (CQM) for antihydrogen systems
Van Hooydonk, G
2005-01-01
A first deception of QM on antiH already appears in one-center integrals for two-center systems (G. Van Hooydonk, physics/0511115). In reality, full QM is a theory for chiral systems but the QM establishment was wrong footed with a permutation of reference frames. With chiral quantum mechanics (CQM), the theoretical ban on natural antiH must be lifted as soon as possible.
The quantum human central neural system.
Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John
2015-01-01
In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere. PMID:25416114
Control landscapes for open system quantum operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reliable realization of control operations is a key component of quantum information applications. In practice, meeting this goal is very demanding for open quantum systems. This paper investigates the landscape defined as the fidelity J between the desired and achieved quantum operations with an open system. The goal is to maximize J as a functional of the control variables. We specify the complete set of critical points of the landscape function in the so-called kinematic picture. An associated Hessian analysis of the landscape reveals that, upon the satisfaction of a particular controllability criterion, the critical topology is dependent on the particular environment, but no false traps (i.e. suboptimal solutions) exist. Thus, a gradient-type search algorithm should not be hindered in searching for the ultimate optimal solution with such controllable systems. Moreover, the maximal fidelity is proven to coincide with Uhlmann’s fidelity between the environmental initial states associated with the achieved and desired quantum operations, which provides a generalization of Uhlmann’s theorem in terms of Kraus maps. (paper)
Perfect eavesdropping on a quantum cryptography system
Gerhardt, Ilja; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Skaar, Johannes; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim
2010-01-01
The stated goal of quantum key distribution (QKD) is to grow a secret key securely between two parties with a minimum of additional assumptions. The number of assumptions has been continuously reduced, from requiring the validity of quantum mechanics in early QKD, to more general constraints on the laws of physics in device-independent QKD. Despite steady theoretical progress in dealing with known limitations of current technology, in practice the security of QKD relies not only on the quantum protocol but on the physical implementation. A variety of attacks have been conceived to exploit weaknesses of current systems. Here we demonstrate the first full field implementation of an eavesdropper attacking an established QKD connection. The eavesdropper obtains the complete 'secret' key, while none of the results measured by the legitimate parties indicate a breach in security. This confirms that non-idealities in physical implementations of QKD can be fully exploitable.
Symmetry and stability of open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The presentation of the thesis involves an introduction and six chapters. Chapter 1 presents notions and results used in the other chpaters. Chapters 2-6 present our results which are focused on two notions: generalized observable and dynamic semigroup. These notions characterize a specific research domain (set up during the last 10 years) which is currently called quantum mechanics of open systems. The two notions (generalized observable and dynamic semigroup) are mathematically correlated. They belong to the set of completely positive linear applications among observable algebras. This fact, associated with that formulation of quantum mechanics according to which it is a special case of quantum mechanics namely, that for which the observable algebra is commutative, help to understand the similar essence of the results presented in chapter 2-6. Thus, the natural mathematical background has been achieved for our results; it is represented by that category whose objects are the observable algebras and whose morphisms are completely positive linear contractions generating unity within unity. These ideas are extensively presented in the introduction. The fact that the relations between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be rigorously treated as positive linear applications between classical observable algebras commutative and quantum observable algebras non-commutative, which are automatically fully positive, has been initially shown in our paper. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lutsenko Y. V.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this article we give a generalization of Hartley's model for the measure of information. We propose a rate of emergence, which is applicable to systems obeying classical or quantum statistics. Quantum sys-tems that obey Fermi-Dirac statistics and Bose-Einstein condensate, as well as classical systems obey-ing the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics have been con-sidered. We found that the emergence parameter of quantum and classical systems differ as well as the emergence parameter of quantum systems of fermions and bosons. Consequently, the emergence parameter might be used to distinguish the classical system and quantum system, as well as quantum system of fermions and the quantum system of bosons
Intertwining Symmetry Algebras of Quantum Superintegrable Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan A. Calzada
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We present an algebraic study of a kind of quantum systems belonging to a family of superintegrable Hamiltonian systems in terms of shape-invariant intertwinig operators, that span pairs of Lie algebras like (su(n,so(2n or (su(p,q,so(2p,2q. The eigenstates of the associated Hamiltonian hierarchies belong to unitary representations of these algebras. It is shown that these intertwining operators, related with separable coordinates for the system, are very useful to determine eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonians in the hierarchy. An study of the corresponding superintegrable classical systems is also included for the sake of completness.
An exactly solvable system from quantum optics
Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz
2015-07-01
We investigate a generalisation of the Rabi system in the Bargmann-Fock representation. In this representation the eigenproblem of the considered quantum model is described by a system of two linear differential equations with one independent variable. The system has only one irregular singular point at infinity. We show how the quantisation of the model is related to asymptotic behaviour of solutions in a vicinity of this point. The explicit formulae for the spectrum and eigenfunctions of the model follow from an analysis of the Stokes phenomenon. An interpretation of the obtained results in terms of differential Galois group of the system is also given.
A strongly perturbed quantum system is a semiclassical system
Frasca, M
2006-01-01
We show that a strongly perturbed quantum system is just a semiclassical system being characterized by the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion for the propagator with the same expansion for the eigenvalues as for the WKB series. The series for a strong perturbation is proved to be dual to the standard weak perturbation theory.
A strongly perturbed quantum system is a semiclassical system
FRASCA, MARCO
2006-01-01
We show that a strongly perturbed quantum system, being a semiclassical system characterized by the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion for the propagator, has the same expansion for the eigenvalues as for the WKB series. The perturbation series is rederived by the duality principle in perturbation theory.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. I. Quantum registers and quantum gates
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2005-12-01
During recent years, quantum computations and the study of n-qubit quantum systems have attracted a lot of interest, both in theory and experiment. Apart from the promise of performing quantum computations, however, these investigations also revealed a great deal of difficulties which still need to be solved in practice. In quantum computing, unitary and non-unitary quantum operations act on a given set of qubits to form (entangled) states, in which the information is encoded by the overall system often referred to as quantum registers. To facilitate the simulation of such n-qubit quantum systems, we present the FEYNMAN program to provide all necessary tools in order to define and to deal with quantum registers and quantum operations. Although the present version of the program is restricted to unitary transformations, it equally supports—whenever possible—the representation of the quantum registers both, in terms of their state vectors and density matrices. In addition to the composition of two or more quantum registers, moreover, the program also supports their decomposition into various parts by applying the partial trace operation and the concept of the reduced density matrix. Using an interactive design within the framework of MAPLE, therefore, we expect the FEYNMAN program to be helpful not only for teaching the basic elements of quantum computing but also for studying their physical realization in the future. Program summaryTitle of program:FEYNMAN Catalogue number:ADWE Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Computers for which the program is designed:All computers with a license of the computer algebra system MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterlo Maple Inc.] Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:Linux, MS Windows XP Programming language used:MAPLE 9.5 (but should be compatible with 9.0 and 8.0, too) Memory and time required to execute with typical data:Storage and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits, n, in the quantum registers due to the exponential increase of the associated Hilbert space. In particular, complex algebraic operations may require large amounts of memory even for small qubit numbers. However, most of the standard commands (see Section 4 for simple examples) react promptly for up to five qubits on a normal single-processor machine ( ?1GHz with 512 MB memory) and use less than 10 MB memory. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8864 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 493 182 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem:During the last decade, quantum computing has been found to provide a revolutionary new form of computation. The algorithms by Shor [P.W. Shor, SIAM J. Sci. Statist. Comput. 26 (1997) 1484] and Grover [L.K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 325. [2
Quantum Algorithm for Obtaining the Energy Spectrum of Molecular Systems
Wang, Hefeng; Kais, Sabre; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Hoffmann, Mark R.
2009-01-01
Simulating a quantum system is more efficient on a quantum computer than on a classical computer. The time required for solving the Schr\\"odinger equation to obtain molecular energies has been demonstrated to scale polynomially with system size on a quantum computer, in contrast to the well-known result of exponential scaling on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm to obtain the energy spectrum of molecular systems based on the multi-configurat...
Irreversible processes in quantum mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although the information provided by the evolution of the density matrix of a quantum system is equivalent with the knowledge of all observables at a given time, it turns out ot be insufficient to answer certain questions in quantum optics or linear response theory where the commutator of certain observables at different space-time points is needed. In this doctoral thesis we prove the existence of density matrices for common probabilities at multiple times and discuss their properties and their characterization independent of a special representation. We start with a compilation of definitions and properties of classical common probabilities and correlation functions. In the second chapter we give the definition of a quantum mechanical Markov process and derive the properties of propagators, generators and conditional probabilities as well as their mutual relations. The third chapter is devoted to a treatment of quantum mechanical systems in thermal equilibrium for which the principle of detailed balance holds as a consequence of microreversibility. We work out the symmetry properties of the two-sided correlation functions which turn out to be analogous to those in classical processes. In the final chapter we use the Gaussian behavior of the stationary correlation function of an oscillator and determine a class of Markov processes which are characterized by dissipative Lionville operators. We succeed in obtaining the canonical representation in a purely algebraic way by means of similarity transformations. Starting from this representation it is particularly easy to calculate the propagator and the correlation function. (HJ) 891 HJ/HJ 892 MKO
Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.
Girolami, Davide
2014-10-24
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes. PMID:25379903
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.
2014-09-01
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer.
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer
Theory of classical and quantum frustration in quantum many-body systems
Giampaolo, S M; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-01-01
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. After introducing a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems, we derive for it an exact inequality in terms of a class of entanglement monotones. We then state sufficient conditions for the ground states of quantum spin systems to saturate the inequality and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems and establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.
Electron Dynamics in Finite Quantum Systems
McDonald, Christopher R.
The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) and multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) methods are employed to investigate nonperturbative multielectron dynamics in finite quantum systems. MCTDHF is a powerful tool that allows for the investigation of multielectron dynamics in strongly perturbed quantum systems. We have developed an MCTDHF code that is capable of treating problems involving three dimensional (3D) atoms and molecules exposed to strong laser fields. This code will allow for the theoretical treatment of multielectron phenomena in attosecond science that were previously inaccessible. These problems include complex ionization processes in pump-probe experiments on noble gas atoms, the nonlinear effects that have been observed in Ne atoms in the presence of an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and the molecular rearrangement of cations after ionization. An implementation of MCTDH that is optimized for two electrons, each moving in two dimensions (2D), is also presented. This implementation of MCTDH allows for the efficient treatment of 2D spin-free systems involving two electrons; however, it does not scale well to 3D or to systems containing more that two electrons. Both MCTDHF and MCTDH were used to treat 2D problems in nanophysics and attosecond science. MCTDHF is used to investigate plasmon dynamics and the quantum breathing mode for several electrons in finite lateral quantum dots. MCTDHF is also used to study the effects of manipulating the potential of a double lateral quantum dot containing two electrons; applications to quantum computing are discussed. MCTDH is used to examine a diatomic model molecular system exposed to a strong laser field; nonsequential double ionization and high harmonic generation are studied and new processes identified and explained. An implementation of MCTDHF is developed for nonuniform tensor product grids; this will allow for the full 3D implementation of MCTDHF and will provide a means to investigate a wide variety of problems that cannot be currently treated by any other method. Finally, the time it takes for an electron to tunnel from a bound state is investigated; a definition of the tunnel time is established and the Keldysh time is connected to the wavefunction dynamics.
Mixing properties of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We generalize the classical notion of topological mixing for automorphisms of C*-algebras in two ways. We show that for Galilean invariant Fermi systems the weaker form of mixing is satisfied. With some additional requirement on the range of the interaction we can also demonstrate the stronger mixing property. (Author)
Decoherence in infinite quantum systems
Hellmich, Mario
2009-01-01
Die Quantenmechanik gilt heute als unsere grundlegendste physikalische Theorie. Als solche beschränkt sie sich nicht nur auf ihre ursprünglichen Anwendungsbereiche wie die Atomphysik, Elementarteilchenphysik und die Quantenfeldtheorie, sondern ihr Gegenstandsbereich sollte auch makroskopische Systeme einschließen, die den Gesetzen der klassischen Physik gehorchen. Hier stößt man jedoch auf ein fundamentales Problem: Wendet man die Gesetze der Quantenmechanik direkt auf die Objekte unserer All...
Generalized conditional entropy in bipartite quantum systems
Gigena, N.; Rossignoli, R.
2013-01-01
We analyze, for a general concave entropic form, the associated conditional entropy of a quantum system A+B, obtained as a result of a local measurement on one of the systems (B). This quantity is a measure of the average mixedness of A after such measurement, and its minimum over all local measurements is shown to be the associated entanglement of formation between A and a purifying third system C. In the case of the von Neumann entropy, this minimum determines also the qua...
Orbits of hybrid systems as qualitative indicators of quantum dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamiltonian theory of hybrid quantum–classical systems is used to study dynamics of the classical subsystem coupled to different types of quantum systems. It is shown that the qualitative properties of orbits of the classical subsystem clearly indicate if the quantum subsystem does or does not have additional conserved observables.
Unifying structures in quantum integrable systems
Kundu, Anjan
1997-01-01
Basic concepts of quantum integrable systems (QIS) are presented stressing on the unifying structures underlying such diverse models. Variety of ultralocal and nonultralocal models is shown to be described by a few basic relations defining novel algebraic entries. Such properties can generate and classify integrable models systematically and also help to solve exactly their eigenvalue problem in an almost model-independent way. The unifying thread stretches also beyond the Q...
Quantum system characterization with limited resources
Oi, Daniel; Schirmer, Sophie
2012-01-01
The construction and operation of large scale quantum information devices presents a grand challenge. A major issue is the effective control of coherent evolution, which requires accurate knowledge of the system dynamics that may vary from device to device. We review strategies for obtaining such knowledge from minimal initial resources and in an efficient manner, and apply these to the problem of characterization of a qubit embedded into a larger state manifold, made tracta...
Quantum spin Hall systems and topological insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Topological insulators (quantum spin Hall systems) are insulating in the bulk but have gapless edge/surface states, which remain gapless even when nonmagnetic disorder or interaction is present. This robustness stems from the topological nature characterized by the Z2 topological number, and this offers us various kinds of new novel properties. We review prominent advances in theories and in experiments on topological insulators since their theoretical proposal in 2005. (paper)
Quantum chromodynamic evolution of multiquark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new technique which extends the quantum chromodynamic evolution formalism in order to predict the short distance behavior of multiquark wavefunctions. In particular, predictions are given for the deuteron reduced form factor in the high momentum transfer region, and rigorous constraints on the short distance effective force between two baryons are predicted. These new techniques can be generalized in order to analyze the short distance behavior of multibaryon systems
Compatibility of representations of quantum systems
Van Wesep, Robert A.
2006-01-01
There is a natural equivalence relation on representations of the states of a given quantum system in a Hilbert space, two representations being equivalent iff they are related by a unitary transformation. There are two equivalence classes, with members of opposite classes being related by a conjugate-unitary (anti-unitary) transformation. These two conjugacy classes are related in much the same way as are the two imaginary units of a complex field, and there is a priori no ...
Construction of a quantum repeater based on a quantum dot in an optical microcavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate an efficient quantum repeater protocol based on quantum dots (QDs) and optical microcavity coupled systems. The proposed system can be used for long-distance quantum entanglement distribution, exploiting the interaction between single photons and QDs embedded in optical microcavities. We present the entanglement generation and entanglement swapping modules with QDs in microcavity systems and generalize it to quantum repeaters. The utilization of QDs and coupled cavities leads to a high success probability for the generation of entanglement. By using current and near future technology, entanglement with a high fidelity can be achieved and robust quantum communication over long-distance channels is feasible. (letters)
On Invariant Subspace In Quantum Control Systems and Some Concepts of Integrable Quantum Systems
Jamio?kowski, Andrzej; Kamizawa, Takeo; Pastuszak, Grzegorz
2015-08-01
Trajectories of some dynamical systems can be analysed by algebraic methods. In this paper we discuss certain applications of the so-called Shemesh criterion and its generalisations to analysis of properties of quantum control systems. In particular, some Hamiltonians with non-degenerated spectrum are considered, and also the case of a Hamiltonian with m 1,..., m N degeneracies, where , is discussed.
Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.
2009-01-01
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots—photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light–matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot–cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot–cavity coupling simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape. This range is much larger than the typical linewidth of the high-Q cavity modes (100?eV) allowing us to explore and contrast regimes where the dots couple to the cavity or decay by spontaneous emission into the two-dimensional photonic bandgap. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the dot spontaneous emission rate can be tuned using a gate voltage, with Purcell factors>7. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot–cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime, and electrical control of zerodimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the highest-Q cavities (Q > 12 000). Vacuum Rabi splittings up to 120?eV are observed, larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton ( 6 40?eV) or cavity mode. These observations represent a voltage switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components.
Statistical Thermodynamics of Polymer Quantum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo Chacón-Acosta
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional polymer quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. Depending on the dominance of the polymer length we can distinguish two regimes: vibrational and rotational. The first occur for small polymer length and here the standard oscillator in Schrödinger quantization is recovered at leading order. The second one, for large polymer length, features dominant polymer effects. In the case of the polymer particles in the box, a bounded and oscillating spectrum that presents a band structure and a Brillouin zone is found. The thermodynamical quantities calculated with these spectra have corrections with respect to standard ones and they depend on the polymer length. When the polymer length is small such corrections resemble those coming from the phenomenological generalized uncertainty relation approach based on the idea of the existence of a minimal length. For generic polymer length, thermodynamics of both systems present an anomalous peak in their heat capacity C_V. In the case of the polymer oscillators this peak separates the vibrational and rotational regimes, while in the ideal polymer gas it reflects the band structure which allows the existence of negative temperatures.
Regular propagators of bilinear quantum systems
Boussaid, Nabile; Caponigro, Marco; Chambrion, Thomas
2014-01-01
This present analysis deals with the regularity of the solutions of bilinear control systems of the type $x'=(A+u(t)B)x$ where the state $x$ belongs to some complex infinite dimensional Hilbert space, the (possibly unbounded) linear operators $A$ and $B$ are skew-adjoint and the control $u$ is a real valued function. Such systems arise for instance in quantum control with the bilinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. Under some hypotheses on the commutator of the operators $A$ and ...
Effective operator formalism for open quantum systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reiter, Florentin; SØrensen, Anders SØndberg
2012-01-01
We present an effective operator formalism for open quantum systems. Employing perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination of excited states for a weakly driven system, we derive an effective master equation which reduces the evolution to the ground-state dynamics. The effective evolution involves a single effective Hamiltonian and one effective Lindblad operator for each naturally occurring decay process. Simple expressions are derived for the effective operators which can be directly applied to reach effective equations of motion for the ground states. We compare our method with the hitherto existing concepts for effective interactions and present physical examples for the application of our formalism, including dissipative state preparation by engineered decay processes.
Polynomial conservation laws of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The systems with the freedom degrees finite number, the potential energy whereof constitutes the exponents sum with purely imaginable or material indices, are considered. The problem on describing all the quantum conservation laws, presented in the form of the differential operators, polynomial relative to the differentiations and commutating with the Hamilton operator is also considered. It is proved in the common situation (without the assumption on the spectrum symmetry) that the complete integrability of the corresponding classic system follows from availability of the complete set of the independent conservation laws
Algebraic Approach to Interacting Quantum Systems
Batista, C D
2002-01-01
We present an algebraic framework for interacting extended quantum systems that enable us to study complex phenomena characterized by the coexistence and competition of various broken symmetry states. We show how to connect different (spin-particle-gauge) {\\it languages} by means of exact mappings (isomorphisms) that we name {\\it dictionaries}, and prove a fundamental theorem that establishes when two arbitrary languages can be connected. These mappings serve to unravel symmetries which are hidden in one representation and are manifest in another. In addition, we show that by changing the language of a given model, it is possible to link seemingly unrelated physical phenomena, leading to a notion of {\\it universality} or equivalence. By introducing the concept of {\\it hierarchical languages}, we determine the quantum phase diagram of lattice models (previously unsolved), and unveil hidden order parameters to explore new states of matter. Hierarchical languages constitute also an essential tool to provide a un...
Propagation of Disturbances in Degenerate Quantum Systems
Chancellor, Nicholas
2011-01-01
Disturbances in gapless quantum many-body models are known to travel an unlimited distance throughout the system. Here, we explore this phenomenon in finite clusters with degenerate ground states. The specific model studied here is the one-dimensional J1-J2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian at and close to the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Both open and periodic boundary conditions are considered. Quenches are performed using a local magnetic field. The degenerate Majumdar-Ghosh ground state allows disturbances which carry quantum entanglement to propagate throughout the system, and thus dephase the entire system within the degenerate subspace. These disturbances can also carry polarization, but not energy, as all energy is stored locally. The local evolution of the part of the system where energy is stored drives the rest of the system through long-range entanglement. We also examine approximations for the ground state of this Hamiltonian in the strong field limit, and study how couplings away from the Majumdar-Ghosh point aff...
Characterizing and Quantifying Frustration in Quantum Many-Body Systems
Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G; Monras, A.; Illuminati, F.
2011-01-01
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with e...
Some aspects of quantum entanglement for CAR systems
Moriya, Hajime
2001-01-01
We study quantum entanglement for CAR systems. Since the subsystems of disjoint regions are not independent for CAR systems, there are some distinct features of quantum entanglement which cannot be observed in tensor product systems. We show the failure of triangle inequality of von Neumann and the possible increase of entanglement degree under operations done in a local region for a bipartite CAR system.
Quantum simulation of the wavefunction to probe frustrated Heisenberg spin systems
Ma X.-S.; Dakic B.; Naylor W.; Zeilinger A.; Walther P.
2010-01-01
Quantum simulators are controllable quantum systems that can reproduce the dynamics of the system of interest, which are unfeasible for classical computers. Recent developments in quantum technology enable the precise control of individual quantum particles as required for studying complex quantum systems. Particularly, quantum simulators capable of simulating frustrated Heisenberg spin systems provide platforms for understanding exotic matter such as high-temperature superc...
The transition to chaos conservative classical systems and quantum manifestations
Reichl, Linda E
2004-01-01
This book provides a thorough and comprehensive discussion of classical and quantum chaos theory for bounded systems and for scattering processes Specific discussions include • Noether’s theorem, integrability, KAM theory, and a definition of chaotic behavior • Area-preserving maps, quantum billiards, semiclassical quantization, chaotic scattering, scaling in classical and quantum dynamics, dynamic localization, dynamic tunneling, effects of chaos in periodically driven systems and stochastic systems • Random matrix theory and supersymmetry The book is divided into several parts Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the dynamics of nonlinear conservative classical systems Chapter 5 and several appendices give a thorough grounding in random matrix theory and supersymmetry techniques Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the manifestations of chaos in bounded quantum systems and open quantum systems respectively Chapter 8 focuses on the semiclassical description of quantum systems with underlying classical chaos, and Chapt...
Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems
Oreshkov, Ognyan
2008-01-01
This thesis examines seven topics in the areas of deterministic open-quantum-system dynamics, quantum measurements, and quantum error correction (QEC). The first topic concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum operations. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be implemented as a sequence of weak (infinitesimal) measurements. The second topic is an application of this result to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and suf...
Nussinov, Zohar; Graf, Matthias J; Balatsky, Alexander V
2013-01-01
Many electronic systems exhibit striking features in their dynamical response over a prominent range of experimental parameters. While there are empirical suggestions of particular increasing length scales that accompany such transitions, this identification is not universal. To better understand such behavior in quantum systems, we extend a known mapping (earlier studied in stochastic, or supersymmetric, quantum mechanics) between finite temperature classical Fokker-Planck systems and related quantum systems at zero temperature to include general non-equilibrium dynamics. Unlike Feynman mappings or stochastic quantization methods (or holographic type dualities), the classical systems that we consider and their quantum duals reside in the same number of space-time dimensions. The upshot of our exact result is that a Wick rotation relates (i) dynamics in general finite temperature classical dissipative systems to (ii) zero temperature dynamics in the corresponding dual many-body quantum systems. Using this cor...
General quantum phase estimation and calibration of a timepiece in a quantum dot system
Dong, Ping
2007-01-01
We present a physical scheme for implementing quantum phase estimation via weakly coupled double quantum-dot molecules embedded in a microcavity. During the same process of implementation, we can also realize the calibration of a timepiece based on the estimated phase. We use the electron-hole pair states in coupled double quantum-dot molecules to encode quantum information, where the requirement that two quantum dots are exactly identical is not necessary. Our idea can also be generalized to other systems, such as atomic, trapped ion and linear optics system.
Complex flows in granular and quantum systems
Herrera, Mark Richard
In this thesis we investigate three problems involving complex flows in granular and quantum systems. (a) We first study the dynamics of granular particles in a split-bottom shear cell experiment. We utilize network theory to quantify the dynamics of the granular system at the mesoscopic scale. We find an apparent phase transition in the formation of a giant component of broken links as a function of applied shear. These results are compared to a numerical model where breakages are based on the amount of local stretching in the granular pile. (b) Moving to quantum mechanical systems, we study revival and echo phenomena in systems of anharmonically confined atoms, and find a novel phenomena we call the "pre-revival echo". We study the effect of size and symmetry of the perturbations on the various echoes and revivals, and form a perturbative model to describe the phenomena. We then model the effect of interactions using the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation and study interactions' effect on the revivals. (c) Lastly, we continue to study the effect of interactions on particles in weakly anharmonic traps. We numerically observe a "dynamical localization" phenomena in the presence of both anharmonicity and interactions. States may remain localized or become spread out in the potential depending on the strength and sign of the anharmonicity and interactions. We formulate a model for this phenomena in terms of a classical phase space.
Stability of Local Quantum Dissipative Systems
Cubitt, Toby S.; Lucia, Angelo; Michalakis, Spyridon; Perez-Garcia, David
2015-08-01
Open quantum systems weakly coupled to the environment are modeled by completely positive, trace preserving semigroups of linear maps. The generators of such evolutions are called Lindbladians. In the setting of quantum many-body systems on a lattice it is natural to consider Lindbladians that decompose into a sum of local interactions with decreasing strength with respect to the size of their support. For both practical and theoretical reasons, it is crucial to estimate the impact that perturbations in the generating Lindbladian, arising as noise or errors, can have on the evolution. These local perturbations are potentially unbounded, but constrained to respect the underlying lattice structure. We show that even for polynomially decaying errors in the Lindbladian, local observables and correlation functions are stable if the unperturbed Lindbladian has a unique fixed point and a mixing time that scales logarithmically with the system size. The proof relies on Lieb-Robinson bounds, which describe a finite group velocity for propagation of information in local systems. As a main example, we prove that classical Glauber dynamics is stable under local perturbations, including perturbations in the transition rates, which may not preserve detailed balance.
Quantum MIMO n-Systems and Conditions for Stability
Mansourbeigi, Seyed M H
2009-01-01
In this paper we present some conditions for the (strong) stabilizability of an n-D Quantum MIMO system P(X). It contains two parts. The first part is to introduce the n-D Quantum MIMO systems where the coefficients vary in the algebra of Q-meromorphic functions. Then we introduce some conditions for the stabilizability of these systems. The second part is to show that this Quantum system has the n-D system as its quantum limit and the results for the SISO,SIMO,MISO,MIMO are obtained again as special cases.
Degenerate integrability of quantum spin Calogero--Moser systems
Reshetikhin, N
2015-01-01
The main result of this note is the proof of degenerate quantum integrability of quantum spin Calogero--Moser systems and the description of the spectrum of quantum Hamiltonians in terms of the decomposition of tensor products of irreducible representations of corresponding Lie algebra.
A toy model of a macroscopic quantum coherent system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper deals with macroscopic quantum coherence while using only basic quantum mechanics. A square double well is used to illustrate Leggett–Caldeira oscillations. The effect of thermal radiation on two-level systems is discussed. The concept of decoherence is introduced at an elementary level. Reference values are deduced for the energy, temperature and time scales involved in macroscopic quantum coherence. (paper)
Superconvergent perturbation method for weak nonintegrable quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum canonical transformation is defined in comparison with classical case. The superconvergent perturbation method in quantum systems established by Scherer is briefly introduced in contrast with classical KAM theorem, and the relationship between this method and quantum canonical transformation is discussed. The physical implication of success and failure of this perturbation is studied with a simple example as an illustration
Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems
Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup
2011-01-01
The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…
Dissipative quantum systems and the heat capacity.
Dattagupta, S; Kumar, Jishad; Sinha, S; Sreeram, P A
2010-03-01
We present a detailed study of the quantum dissipative dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field. Our focus of attention is the effect of dissipation on the low- and high-temperature behaviors of the specific heat at constant volume. After providing a brief overview of two distinct approaches to the statistical mechanics of dissipative quantum systems, viz., the ensemble approach of Gibbs and the quantum Brownian motion approach due to Einstein, we present exact analyses of the specific heat. While the low-temperature expressions for the specific heat, based on the two approaches, are in conformity with power-law temperature dependence, predicted by the third law of thermodynamics, and the high-temperature expressions are in agreement with the classical equipartition theorem, there are surprising differences between the dependencies of the specific heat on different parameters in the theory, when calculations are done from these two distinct methods. In particular, we find puzzling influences of boundary confinement and the bath-induced spectral cutoff frequency. Further, when it comes to the issue of approach to equilibrium, based on the Einstein method, the way the asymptotic limit (t-->infinity) is taken seems to assume significance. PMID:20365726
A neural-network-like quantum information processing system
Perus, Mitja; Bischof, Horst
2003-01-01
The Hopfield neural networks and the holographic neural networks are models which were successfully simulated on conventional computers. Starting with these models, an analogous fundamental quantum information processing system is developed in this article. Neuro-quantum interaction can regulate the "collapse"-readout of quantum computation results. This paper is a comprehensive introduction into associative processing and memory-storage in quantum-physical framework.
Active optical clock based on four-level quantum system
Zhang, Tonggang; Yanfei WANG; Zang, Xiaorun; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao
2012-01-01
Active optical clock, a new conception of atomic clock, has been proposed recently. In this report, we propose a scheme of active optical clock based on four-level quantum system. The final accuracy and stability of two-level quantum system are limited by second-order Doppler shift of thermal atomic beam. To three-level quantum system, they are mainly limited by light shift of pumping laser field. These limitations can be avoided effectively by applying the scheme proposed h...
Sampling-based Learning Control for Quantum Systems with Uncertainties
Dong, Daoyi; Mabrok, Mohamed A.; Petersen, Ian R.; Qi, Bo; Chen, Chunlin; Rabitz, Herschel
2015-01-01
Robust control design for quantum systems has been recognized as a key task in the development of practical quantum technology. In this paper, we present a systematic numerical methodology of sampling-based learning control (SLC) for control design of quantum systems with uncertainties. The SLC method includes two steps of "training" and "testing". In the training step, an augmented system is constructed using artificial samples generated by sampling uncertainty parameters a...
Blockspin Cluster Algorithms for Quantum Spin Systems
Wiese, U J
1992-01-01
Cluster algorithms are developed for simulating quantum spin systems like the one- and two-dimensional Heisenberg ferro- and anti-ferromagnets. The corresponding two- and three-dimensional classical spin models with four-spin couplings are maped to blockspin models with two-blockspin interactions. Clusters of blockspins are updated collectively. The efficiency of the method is investigated in detail for one-dimensional spin chains. Then in most cases the new algorithms solve the problems of slowing down from which standard algorithms are suffering.
Spectra of nonlocally bound quantum systems
Sowa, A.
2011-06-01
We discuss a class of nonlinear and nonlocal models for the dynamics of a composite quantum system. The models in question depend on the following constituents: on two subsystem Hamiltonians (denoted by H and ?), an analytic function ( f), and a real parameter ( s). As demonstrated elsewhere before, the stationary states can be described in these models fairly explicitly. In this article, we build upon that result, and discuss the topological as well as statistical characteristics of the spectra. Here, we concentrate on the special case f = log. It turns out that an energy spectrum of the nonlocally bound system substantially differs from that of its components. Indeed, we show rigorously that, if H is the harmonic oscillator and ? is completely degenerate with one energy level, then the energy spectrum of the composite system has the topology of the Cantor set (for s > 2). In addition, we show that, if H is replaced by the logarithm of the harmonic oscillator, then the spectrum consists of finitely many intervals separated by gaps (for s sufficiently large). In the last case, the key analytic object is the series ? n - s . In particular, as an interesting offshoot, this structure furnishes a nontautological immersion of fundamental number-theoretic functions into the quantum formalism.
Asymptotically open quantum systems; Asymptotisch offene Quantensysteme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Westrich, M.
2008-04-15
In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)
Quantum Systems based upon Galois Fields: from Sub-quantum to Super-quantum Correlations
Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu
2013-01-01
In this talk we describe our recent work on discrete quantum theory based on Galois fields. In particular, we discuss how discrete quantum theory sheds new light on the foundations of quantum theory and we review an explicit model of super-quantum correlations we have constructed in this context. We also discuss the larger questions of the origins and foundations of quantum theory, as well as the relevance of super-quantum theory for the quantum theory of gravity.
Quantum Systems based upon Galois Fields: from Sub-quantum to Super-quantum Correlations
Chang, Lay Nam; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu
2014-01-01
In this talk we describe our recent work on discrete quantum theory based on Galois fields. In particular, we discuss how discrete quantum theory sheds new light on the foundations of quantum theory and we review an explicit model of super-quantum correlations we have constructed in this context. We also discuss the larger questions of the origins and foundations of quantum theory, as well as the relevance of super-quantum theory for the quantum theory of gravity.
Schroedinger-cat states and decoherence in quantum electromechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum-electromechanical systems are nanoscale mechanical resonators whose high-frequency oscillations are detected by an electronic transducer. Despite their macroscopic size and mechanical, ordinary-matter nature, these resonators can exhibit distinct quantum behavior that is of great interest and promise to an experimental exploration of questions in the foundations of quantum mechanics. After a brief introduction to quantum-electromechanical systems, I will sketch the feasibility and features of superposition states of macroscopically distinct positions in such systems. I will also show how these systems give rise to a new and hitherto hardly explored decoherence model and present some first results for this model
Characterizing and quantifying frustration in quantum many-body systems.
Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-12-23
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration. PMID:22243147
Sistemas cuánticos individuales / Individual Quantum Systems
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Jorge A., Campos.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available El Premio Nobel de Física 2012 fue otorgado a Serge Haroche y David J.Wineland por métodos experimentales innovadores que permiten la medición y manipulación de sistemas cuánticos individuales. La primera estudia fotones midiéndolos con átomos, y la segunda estudia iones que manipula con fotones. La [...] s aplicaciones tanto potenciales como ya materializadas para el manejo de sistemas cuánticos están en la vía de revolucionar no solamente la tecnología sino la forma en la que comprendemos el mundo microscópico. Abstract in english The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2012 was awarded to Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems". The former deals with photons and measures them with atoms and the latter deals with ions and manipu [...] lates them with photons. The potential and actual applications of handling quantum systems are on their way to revolutionize not only technology but the way we understand the microscopic world.
On the kinetic theory of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The contents of this thesis which deals with transport phenomena of specific gases, plasmas and fluids, can be separated into two distinct parts. In the first part a statistical way is suggested to estimate the neutrino mass. Herefore use is made of the fact that massive neutrinos possess a non-zero volume viscosity in contrast with massless neutrinos. The second part deals with kinetic theory of strongly condensed quantum systems of which examples in nature are: liquid Helium, heavy nuclei, electrons in a metal and the interior of stars. In degenerate systems fermions in general interact strongly so that ordinary kinetic theory is not directly applicable. For such cases Landau-Fermi-liquid theory, in which the strongly interacting particles are replaced by much weaker interacting quasiparticles, proved to be very useful. A method is developed in this theory to calculate transport coefficients. Applications of this method on liquid 3Helium yield surprisingly good agreement with experimental results for thermal conductivities. (Auth.)
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
Quantum simulation. Coherent imaging spectroscopy of a quantum many-body spin system.
Senko, C; Smith, J; Richerme, P; Lee, A; Campbell, W C; Monroe, C
2014-07-25
Quantum simulators, in which well-controlled quantum systems are used to reproduce the dynamics of less understood ones, have the potential to explore physics inaccessible to modeling with classical computers. However, checking the results of such simulations also becomes classically intractable as system sizes increase. Here, we introduce and implement a coherent imaging spectroscopic technique, akin to magnetic resonance imaging, to validate a quantum simulation. We use this method to determine the energy levels and interaction strengths of a fully connected quantum many-body system. Additionally, we directly measure the critical energy gap near a quantum phase transition. We expect this general technique to become a verification tool for quantum simulators once experiments advance beyond proof-of-principle demonstrations and exceed the resources of conventional computers. PMID:25061207
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.
Generalized topological covering systems on quantum events' structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zafiris, Elias [Department of Mathematics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Athens (Greece)
2006-02-10
Homologous operational localization processes are effectuated in terms of generalized topological covering systems on structures of physical events. We study localization systems of quantum events' structures by means of Gtothendieck topologies on the base category of Boolean events' algebras. We show that a quantum events algebra is represented by means of a Grothendieck sheaf-theoretic fibred structure, with respect to the global partial order of quantum events' fibres over the base category of local Boolean frames.
Generalized topological covering systems on quantum events' structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Homologous operational localization processes are effectuated in terms of generalized topological covering systems on structures of physical events. We study localization systems of quantum events' structures by means of Gtothendieck topologies on the base category of Boolean events' algebras. We show that a quantum events algebra is represented by means of a Grothendieck sheaf-theoretic fibred structure, with respect to the global partial order of quantum events' fibres over the base category of local Boolean frames
Optimal control of population transfer in Markovian open quantum systems
Cui, Wei; Xi, Zairong; Pan, Yu
2010-01-01
There has long been interest to control the transfer of population between specified quantum states. Recent work has optimized the control law for closed system population transfer by using a gradient ascent pulse engineer- ing algorithm [1]. Here, a spin-boson model consisting of two-level atoms which interact with the dissipative environment, is investigated. With opti- mal control, the quantum system can invert the populations of the quantum logic states. The temperature ...
Optimal dynamic discrimination of similar quantum systems
Li, Baiqing
2005-07-01
The techniques for identifying and separating similar molecules have always been very important to chemistry and other branches of science and engineering. Similar quantum systems share comparable Hamiltonians, so their eigenenergy levels, transition dipole moments, and therefore their ordinary observable properties are alike. Traditional analytical methods have mostly been restricted by working with the subtle differences in the physical and chemical properties of the similar species. Optimal Dynamic Discrimination (ODD) aims at magnifying the dissimilarity of the agents by actively controlling their quantum evolution, drawing on the extremely rich information embedded in their dynamics. ODD is developed based on the tremendous flexibility of Optimal Control Theory (OCT) and on the practical implementation of closed-loop learning control, which has become a more and more indispensable tool for controlling quantum processes. The ODD experimental paradigm is designed to combat a number of factors that are detrimental to the discrimination of similar molecules: laser pulse noise, signal detection errors, finite time resolution in the signals, and environmental decoherence effects. It utilizes either static signals or time series signal, the latter capable of providing more information. Simulations are performed in this dissertation progressing from the wave function to the density matrix formulation, in order to study the decoherence effects. Analysis of the results reveals the roles of the adverse factors, unravels the underlying mechanisms of ODD, and provides insights on laboratory implementation. ODD emphasizes the incorporation of algorithmic development and laboratory design, and seeks to bridge the gap between theoretical/computational chemistry and experimental chemistry, with the help from applied mathematics and computer science.
Quantum-based electronic devices and systems selected topics in electronics and systems, v.14
Dutta, Mitra
1998-01-01
This volume includes highlights of the theories and experimental findings that underlie essential phenomena occurring in quantum-based devices and systems as well as the principles of operation of selected novel quantum-based electronic devices and systems. A number of the emerging approaches to creating new types of quantum-based electronic devices and systems are also discussed.
An Operator-Based Exact Treatment of Open Quantum Systems
Nicolosi, S
2005-01-01
"Quantum mechanics must be regarded as open systems. On one hand, this is due to the fact that, like in classical physics, any realistic system is subjected to a coupling to an uncontrollable environment which influences it in a non-negligible way. The theory of open quantum systems thus plays a major role in many applications of quantum physics since perfect isolation of quantum system is not possible and since a complete microscopic description or control of the environment degrees of freedom is not feasible or only partially so" [1]. Practical considerations therefore force one to seek for a simpler, effectively probabilistic description in terms of an open system. There is a close physical and mathematical connection between the evolution of an open system, the state changes induced by quantum measurements, and the classical notion of a stochastic process. The paper provides a bibliographic review of this interrelations, it shows the mathematical equivalence between markovian master equation and generaliz...
On quantum chaos, stochastic webs and localization in a quantum mechanical kick system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study quantum chaos is discussed using the kicked harmonic oscillator as a model system. The kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by an exceptional scenario of weak chaos: In the case of resonance between the frequency of the harmonic oscillator and the frequency of the periodic forcing, stochastic webs in phase space are generated by the classical dynamics. For the quantum dynamics of this system it is shown that the resulting Husimi distributions in quantum phase space exhibit the same web-like structures as the classical webs. The quantum dynamics is characterized by diffusive energy growth - just as the classical dynamics in the channels of the webs. In the case of nonresonance, the classically diffusive dynamics is found to be quantum mechanically suppressed. This bounded energy growth, which corresponds to localization in quantum phase space, is explained analytically by mapping the system onto the Anderson model. In this way, within the context of quantum chaos, the kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by exhibiting its noteworthy geometrical and dynamical properties both classically and quantum mechanically, while at the same time there are also very distinct quantum deviations from classical properties, the most prominent example being quantum localization. (orig.)
Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system
Generalized conditional entropy in bipartite quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze, for a general concave entropic form, the associated conditional entropy of a quantum system A + B, obtained as a result of a local measurement on one of the systems (B). This quantity is a measure of the average mixedness of A after such measurement, and its minimum over all local measurements is shown to be the associated entanglement of formation between A and a purifying third system C. In the case of the von Neumann entropy, this minimum determines also the quantum discord. For classically correlated states and mixtures of a pure state with the maximally mixed state, we show that the minimizing measurement can be determined analytically and is universal, i.e., the same for all concave forms. While these properties no longer hold for general states, we also show that in the special case of the linear entropy, an explicit expression for the associated conditional entropy can be obtained, whose minimum among projective measurements in a general qudit–qubit state can be determined analytically, in terms of the largest eigenvalue of a simple 3 × 3 correlation matrix. Such minimum determines the maximum conditional purity of A, and the associated minimizing measurement is shown to be also universal in the vicinity of maximal mixedness. Results for X states, including typical reduced states of spin pairs in XY chains at weak and strong transverse fields, are also provided and indicate that the measurements minimizing the von Neumann and linear conditional entropies are typically coincident in these states, being determined essentially by the main correlation. They can differ, however, substantially from that minimizing the geometric discord. (paper)
Generalized conditional entropy in bipartite quantum systems
Gigena, N.; Rossignoli, R.
2014-01-01
We analyze, for a general concave entropic form, the associated conditional entropy of a quantum system A + B, obtained as a result of a local measurement on one of the systems (B). This quantity is a measure of the average mixedness of A after such measurement, and its minimum over all local measurements is shown to be the associated entanglement of formation between A and a purifying third system C. In the case of the von Neumann entropy, this minimum determines also the quantum discord. For classically correlated states and mixtures of a pure state with the maximally mixed state, we show that the minimizing measurement can be determined analytically and is universal, i.e., the same for all concave forms. While these properties no longer hold for general states, we also show that in the special case of the linear entropy, an explicit expression for the associated conditional entropy can be obtained, whose minimum among projective measurements in a general qudit-qubit state can be determined analytically, in terms of the largest eigenvalue of a simple 3 × 3 correlation matrix. Such minimum determines the maximum conditional purity of A, and the associated minimizing measurement is shown to be also universal in the vicinity of maximal mixedness. Results for X states, including typical reduced states of spin pairs in XY chains at weak and strong transverse fields, are also provided and indicate that the measurements minimizing the von Neumann and linear conditional entropies are typically coincident in these states, being determined essentially by the main correlation. They can differ, however, substantially from that minimizing the geometric discord.
Exploiting Quantum Parallelism to Simulate Quantum Random Many-Body Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an algorithm that exploits quantum parallelism to simulate randomness in a quantum system. In our scheme, all possible realizations of the random parameters are encoded quantum mechanically in a superposition state of an auxiliary system. We show how our algorithm allows for the efficient simulation of dynamics of quantum random spin chains with known numerical methods. We propose an experimental realization based on atoms in optical lattices in which disorder could be simulated in parallel and in a controlled way through the interaction with another atomic species
The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems does consist in quantizing the Brownian motion starting directly from its stochastic dynamics under the framework of both Langevin and Fokker–Planck equations, without alluding to any model Hamiltonian. On the ground of this non-Hamiltonian quantization method, we can derive a non-Markovian Caldeira–Leggett quantum master equation as well as a non-Markovian quantum Smoluchowski equation. The former is solved for the case of a quantum Brownian particle in a gravitational field whilst the latter for a harmonic oscillator. In both physical situations, we come up with the existence of a non-equilibrium thermal quantum force and investigate its classical limit at high temperatures as well as its quantum limit at zero temperature. Further, as a physical application of our quantum Smoluchowski equation, we take up the tunneling phenomenon of a non-inertial quantum Brownian particle over a potential barrier. Lastly, we wish to point out, corroborating conclusions reached in our previous paper [A. O. Bolivar, Ann. Phys. 326 (2011) 1354], that the theoretical predictions in the present article uphold the view that our non-Hamiltonian quantum mechanics is able to capture novel features inherent in quantum Brownian motion, thereby overcoming shortcomings underlying the Caldeira–Leggett Hamiltonian model. - Highlights: ? Non-Markovian classical Brownian motion. ? Dynamical quantization. ? Non-Markovian quantumation. ? Non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion. ? Classical limit.
Correlation Functions in Open Quantum-Classical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-Yu Hsieh
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum time correlation functions are often the principal objects of interest in experimental investigations of the dynamics of quantum systems. For instance, transport properties, such as diffusion and reaction rate coefficients, can be obtained by integrating these functions. The evaluation of such correlation functions entails sampling from quantum equilibrium density operators and quantum time evolution of operators. For condensed phase and complex systems, where quantum dynamics is difficult to carry out, approximations must often be made to compute these functions. We present a general scheme for the computation of correlation functions, which preserves the full quantum equilibrium structure of the system and approximates the time evolution with quantum-classical Liouville dynamics. Several aspects of the scheme are discussed, including a practical and general approach to sample the quantum equilibrium density, the properties of the quantum-classical Liouville equation in the context of correlation function computations, simulation schemes for the approximate dynamics and their interpretation and connections to other approximate quantum dynamical methods.
Uncertainty relations, quantum and thermal fluctuations in Lindblad theory of open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems we derive closed analytical expressions of the uncertainty relation for a particle moving in a harmonic oscillator potential. The particle is in arbitrarily squeezed initial state and interacts with an environment at finite temperature. We examine how the quantum and thermal fluctuations of the environment contribute to the uncertainty in the canonical variables of the systems and study their relative importance in the evolution of the system towards equilibrium with be aim of clarifying the meaning of quantum, classical and thermal dissipation of energy. We show that upon contact with the bath the system evolves from a quantum-dominated state to a thermal-dominated state in a time which is of the same order as the decoherence time calculated before in similar models in the context of a transition from quantum mechanics to classical mechanics. (authors)
Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology
Feverati, Giovanni
2011-01-01
Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. ...
The problems of mapping in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mapping from the state of Hamiltonian H(0) to that of H(?) = H(0) + ?(H-H(0)) is established by means of Wigner-Brillion perturbation formula. An iterative perturbation calculation can be carried out to find the stable points set and to show that under what condition the iterative calculation is divergent(non convergent). Avoided crossing point is really a singularity-point showed clearly in such procedure. The topological invariant subspace endowed by corresponding Hamiltonian H(0) is destroyed after such avoided crossing point. It is similar to the classical invariant tori destruction. A quantum KAM theorem can be established in this manner. Numerical results of certain schematic systems are given as illustration
Anions, quantum particles in planar systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Our purpose here is to present a general review of the non-relativistic quantum-mechanical description of excitations that do not obey neither the Fermi-Dirac nor the Bose-Einstein statistics; they rather fulfill an intermediate statistics, the we called 'any-statistics'. As we shall see, this is a peculiarity of (1+1) and (1+2) dimensions, due to the fact that, in two space dimensions, the spin is not quantised, once the rotation group is Abelian. The relevance of studying theories in (1+2) dimensions is justified by the evidence that, in condensed matter physics, there are examples of planar systems, for which everything goes as if the third spatial dimension is frozen. (author)
3.3 Gigahertz Clocked Quantum Key Distribution System
Gordon, Karen J.; Fernandez, Veronica; Collins, Robert J.; Rech, Ivan; Cova, Sergio D.; Townsend, Paul D.; Buller, Gerald S.
2006-01-01
A fibre-based quantum key distribution system operating up to a clock frequency of 3.3GHz is presented. The system demonstrates significantly increased key exchange rate potential and operates at a wavelength of 850nm.
Optimal signal detection in entanglement-assisted quantum communication systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minimization of error probability is considered in entanglement-assisted quantum communication systems. It is shown that although quantum state signals being sent are not symmetric at a sender side, the square root measurement becomes optimum when they are made symmetric at the receiver side. For communication systems of coherent signals, where a two-mode squeezed-vacuum state is used as an entanglement resource, the quantum entanglement greatly reduces the average probability of error. The relation to the quantum dense coding of continuous variables is also discussed
Quantum-assisted and Quantum-based Solutions in Wireless Systems
Imre, Sandor; Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2012-01-01
In wireless systems there is always a trade-off between reducing the transmit power and mitigating the resultant signal-degradation imposed by the transmit-power reduction with the aid of sophisticated receiver algorithms, when considering the total energy consumption. Quantum-assisted wireless communications exploits the extra computing power offered by quantum mechanics based architectures. This paper summarizes some recent results in quantum computing and the correspondin...
Dynamical invariants for quantum control of four-level systems
Güngördü, Utkan; Wan, Yidun; Fasihi, Mohammad Ali; Nakahara, Mikio
2012-01-01
We present a Lie-algebraic classification and detailed construction of the dynamical invariants, also known as Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants, of the four-level systems including two-qubit systems which are most relevant and sufficiently general for quantum control and computation. These invariants not only solve the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation of four-level systems exactly but also enable the control, and hence quantum computation based on which, of four-level system...
Optimal Control of Multi-Level Quantum Systems
Fisher, Robert
2010-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the control of quantum systems. Given a Hamiltonian model of a quantum system, we are interested in finding controls---typically shaped electromagnetic pulses---that steer the evolution of the system toward a desired target operation. For this we employ a numerical optimisation method known as the GRAPE algorithm. For particular experimental systems, we design control schemes that respect constraints of robustness and addressability, and are within the reach of t...
Quantum Non-Demolition Detection of Strongly Correlated Systems
Eckert, Kai; Rodriguez, Mirta; Lewenstein, Maciej; Polzik, Eugene S; Sanpera, Anna
2008-01-01
Preparation, manipulation, and detection of strongly correlated states of quantum many body systems are among the most important goals and challenges of modern physics. Ultracold atoms offer an unprecedented playground for realization of these goals. Here we show how strongly correlated states of ultracold atoms can be detected in a quantum non-demolition scheme, that is, in the fundamentally least destructive way permitted by quantum mechanics. In our method, spatially resolved components of atomic spins couple to quantum polarization degrees of freedom of light. In this way quantum correlations of matter are faithfully mapped on those of light; the latter can then be efficiently measured using homodyne detection. We illustrate the power of such spatially resolved quantum noise limited polarization measurement by applying it to detect various standard and "exotic" types of antiferromagnetic order in lattice systems and by indicating the feasibility of detection of superfluid order in Fermi liquids.
Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new ''analog'' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murg, Valentin
2008-04-07
This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new 'analog' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Quantum groups, orthogonal polynomials and applications to some dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first part is concerned with the introduction of quantum groups as an extension of Lie groups. In particular, we study the case of unitary enveloping algebras in dimension 2. We then connect the quantum group formalism to the construction of g CGC recurrent relations. In addition, we construct g-deformed Krawtchouck and Meixner orthogonal polynomials and list their respective main characteristics. The second part deals with some dynamical systems from a classical, a quantum and a gp-analogue point of view. We investigate the Coulomb Kepler system by using the canonical namical systems which contain as special cases some interesting systems for nuclear of atomic physics and for quantum chemistry, such as the Hartmann system, the ring-shaped oscillator, the Smarodinsky-Winternitz system, the Aharonov-Bohen system and the dyania of Dirac and Schroedinger. (author)
Quantum correlations in B and K meson systems
Banerjee, Subhashish; MacKenzie, Richard
2014-01-01
We study quantum correlations in meson-antimeson systems, as provided for example in meson factories used mainly to probe physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. We use a semigroup formalism to compute a trace-preserving density matrix for these systems, in spite of the fact that the particles are unstable. This is used to compute the time evolution of several measures of quantum correlations for three meson systems (KKbar, BdBdbar and BsBsbar). We find that the quantum correlations for these systems can be non-trivially different from their stable counterparts.
Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems
Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina
2011-01-01
Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.
Bohr-Heisenberg Reality and System-Free Quantum Mechanics
Jaroszkiewicz, George; Eakins, Jon
2006-01-01
Motivated by Heisenberg's assertion that electron trajectories do not exist until they are observed, we present a new approach to quantum mechanics in which the concept of observer independent system under observation is eliminated. Instead, the focus is only on observers and apparatus, the former describing the latter in terms of labstates. These are quantum states over time-dependent Heisenberg nets, which are quantum registers of qubits representing information gateways a...
Quantum Chaos in Physical Systems: from Super Conductors to Quarks
Bittner, Elmar; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer
2001-01-01
This article is the written version of a talk delivered at the Bexbach Colloquium of Science 2000 and starts with an introduction into quantum chaos and its relationship to classical chaos. The Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture is formulated and evaluated within random-matrix theory. Several examples of physical systems exhibiting quantum chaos ranging from nuclear to solid state physics are presented. The presentation concludes with recent research work on quantum chromody...
Dissipative Quantum Systems and the Heat Capacity Enigma
Dattagupta, 4. S.; Kumar, Jishad; Sinha, S.; Sreeram, P. A.
2009-01-01
We present a detailed study of the quantum dissipative dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field. Our focus of attention is the effect of dissipation on the low- and high-temperature behavior of the specific heat at constant volume. After providing a brief overview of two distinct approaches to the statistical mechanics of dissipative quantum systems, viz., the ensemble approach of Gibbs and the quantum Brownian motion approach due to Einstein, we present exact anal...
Separability and ground state factorization in quantum spin systems
Giampaolo, S. M.; Adesso, G.; Illuminati, F.
2009-01-01
We investigate the existence and the properties of fully separable (fully factorized) ground states in quantum spin systems. Exploiting techniques of quantum information and entanglement theory we extend a recently introduced method and construct a general, self-contained theory of ground state factorization in frustration free quantum spin models defined on lattices in any spatial dimension and for interactions of arbitrary range. We show that, quite generally, non exactly ...
Quantum corrections to the semiclassical quantization of a nonintegrable system
Salasnich, Luca; Robnik, Marko
1996-01-01
We study the semiclassical behaviour of a two--dimensional nonintegrable system. In particular we analyze the question of quantum corrections to the semiclassical quantization obtaining up to the second order of perturbation theory an explicit analytical formula for the energy levels, which is the usual semiclassical one plus quantum corrections. We compare the "exact" levels obtained numerically to the semiclassical levels studying also the effects of quantum corrections.
The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke 'after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is inexperienced in such matters and needs to look at details. This book is addressed to graduate physics and chemistry students and was written thinking of students. However, I would recommend it also to young and mature physicists, even those who are already 'into' the subject. It is a comprehensive work, jointly written by five researchers. After a simple introduction to the subject, the book gradually provides deeper concepts, more advanced theory and finally an interesting introduction and explanation of recent experiments. For its multidisciplinary features, this work could not have been written by one single author. The collaborative effort is undoubtedly one of its most interesting qualities. I would definitely recommend it to anyone who wants to learn more on the geometric phase, a topic that is both beautiful and intriguing. (book review)
Combinatorial approach to modeling quantum systems
Vladimir V. Kornyak
2015-01-01
Using the fact that any linear representation of a group can be embedded into permutations, we propose a constructive description of quantum behavior that provides, in particular, a natural explanation of appearance of complex numbers and unitarity in the formalism of quantum mechanics. In our approach, the quantum behavior can be explained by the fundamental impossibility to trace identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution. Any observation only provides inform...
Entangled Systems New Directions in Quantum Physics
Audretsch, Jürgen
2007-01-01
An introductory textbook for advanced students of physics, chemistry and computer science, covering an area of physics that has lately witnessed rapid expansion. The topics treated here include quantum information, quantum communication, quantum computing, teleportation and hidden parameters, thus imparting not only a well-founded understanding of quantum theory as such, but also a solid basis of knowledge from which readers can follow the rapid development of the topic or delve deeper into a more specialized branch of research. Commented recommendations for further reading as well as end-of-chapter problems help the reader to quickly access the theoretical basics of future key technologies
Time-optimal control of closed quantum systems
Huneault, Robert
2009-11-01
Recently there has been a lot of interest in the potential applications of performing computations on systems whose governing physical laws are quantum, rather than classical in nature. These quantum computers would have the ability to perform some calculations which would not be feasible for their classical counterparts. To date, however, a quantum computer large enough to perform useful calculations has yet to be built. Before this can be accomplished, a method must be developed to control the underlying quantum systems. This is a problem which can naturally be formulated in the language of control theory. This report outlines the basic control-theoretic approach to time-optimally controlling quantum systems evolving under the dynamics of the Schrodinger operator equation. It is found that under the assumption of non-singularity, the controls which produce time-optimal trajectories are bang-bang. With this in mind, a switching time algorithm is implemented to find optimal bang-bang controls.
Decoherence as irreversible dynamical process in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: A framework for a general discussion in Heisenberg's representation of environmentally induced decoherence will be proposed. Example showing that classical properties do not have to be postulated as an independent ingredient will be given. It will be also shown that infinite open quantum systems in some case after decoherence behave like - simple classical dynamical systems; simples quantum mechanical systems representing one particle. (author)
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems
Suomela, S.; Salmilehto, J.; Savenko, I. G.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Möttönen, M.
2014-01-01
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work var...
Quantum Measurement Problem and Systems Selfdescription in Operators Algebras Formalism
Mayburov, S.
2002-01-01
Quantum Measurement problem studied in Information Theory approach of systems selfdescription which exploits the information acquisition incompleteness for the arbitrary information system. The studied model of measuring system (MS) consist of measured state S environment E and observer $O$ processing input S signal. $O$ considered as the quantum object which interaction with S,E obeys to Schrodinger equation (SE). MS incomplete or restricted states for $O$ derived by t...
Measurements, quantum discord and parity in spin 1 systems
Rossignoli, R.; Matera, J. M.; Canosa, N.
2012-01-01
We consider the evaluation of the quantum discord and other related measures of quantum correlations in a system formed by a spin 1 and a complementary spin system. A characterization of general projective measurements in such system in terms of spin averages is thereby introduced, which allows to easily visualize their deviation from standard spin measurements. It is shown that the measurement optimizing these measures corresponds in general to a non-spin measurement. The i...
Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (–e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ? = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries
Cluster Monte Carlo Algorithms for Dissipative Quantum Systems
Werner, Philipp; Troyer, Matthias
2005-01-01
We review efficient Monte Carlo methods for simulating quantum systems which couple to a dissipative environment. A brief introduction of the Caldeira-Leggett model and the Monte Carlo method will be followed by a detailed discussion of cluster algorithms and the treatment of long-range interactions. Dissipative quantum spins and resistively shunted Josephson junctions will be considered.
Adiabatic Response of Quantum Systems Pinching a Gap Closure
Avron, J E
1998-01-01
A vanishing cause can lead to a large response in quantum systems which undergo cyclic deformations that pinch a point of level crossing. We call such behavior homeopathic. We illustrate this behavior by studying charge circulation in quantum models of necklaces of atoms driven by a running wave of small amplitude.
Recovering classical dynamics from coupled quantum systems through continuous measurement
Ghose, S; Deutsch, I H; Bhattacharya, T; Habib, S; Jacobs, K; Ghose, Shohini; Alsing, Paul M.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt
2003-01-01
We study the role of continuous measurement in the quantum to classical transition for a system with coupled internal (spin) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. Even when the measured motional degree of freedom can be treated classically, entanglement between spin and motion causes strong measurement backaction on the quantum spin subsystem so that classical trajectories are not recovered in this mixed quantum-classical regime. The measurement can extract localized quantum trajectories that behave classically only when the internal action also becomes large relative to h-bar.
Enhanced Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing in d -Level Systems
Campbell, Earl T.
2014-12-01
Error-correcting codes protect quantum information and form the basis of fault-tolerant quantum computing. Leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation require codes with an exceedingly rare property, a transversal non-Clifford gate. Codes with the desired property are presented for d -level qudit systems with prime d . The codes use n =d -1 qudits and can detect up to ˜d /3 errors. We quantify the performance of these codes for one approach to quantum computation known as magic-state distillation. Unlike prior work, we find performance is always enhanced by increasing d .
Quantum Markov processes and applications in many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is concerned with the investigation of quantum as well as classical Markov processes and their application in the field of strongly correlated many-body systems. A Markov process is a special kind of stochastic process, which is determined by an evolution that is independent of its history and only depends on the current state of the system. The application of Markov processes has a long history in the field of statistical mechanics and classical many-body theory. Not only are Markov processes used to describe the dynamics of stochastic systems, but they predominantly also serve as a practical method that allows for the computation of fundamental properties of complex many-body systems by means of probabilistic algorithms. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the properties of quantum Markov processes, i.e. Markov processes taking place in a quantum mechanical state space, and to gain a better insight into complex many-body systems by means thereof. Moreover, we formulate a novel quantum algorithm which allows for the computation of the thermal and ground states of quantum many-body systems. After a brief introduction to quantum Markov processes we turn to an investigation of their convergence properties. We find bounds on the convergence rate of the quantum process by generalizing geometric bounds found for classical processes. We generalize a distance measure that serves as the basis for our investigations, the chi-square divergence, to non-commuting probability spaces. This divergence allows for a convenient generalization of the detailed balance condition to quantum processes. We then devise the quantum algorithm that can be seen as the natural generalization of the ubiquitous Metropolis algorithm to simulate quantum many-body Hamiltonians. By this we intend to provide further evidence, that a quantum computer can serve as a fully-fledged quantum simulator, which is not only capable of describing the dynamical evolution of quantum systems, but also gives access to the computation of their static properties. After this, we turn to an investigation of classical non-equilibrium steady states with methods derived from quantum information theory. We construct a special class of matrix product states that exhibit correlations which can best be understood in terms of classical Markov processes. Finally, we investigate the transport properties of non-equilibrium steady states. The dynamical equations are constructed in such a manner that they allow for both stochastic as well as coherent transport in the same formal framework. It is therefore possible to compare different forms of transport within the same model. (author)
Barnes, George L
2013-01-01
Simulations are performed of a small quantum system interacting with a quantum environment. The system consists of various initial states of two harmonic oscillators coupled to give normal modes. The environment is "designed" by its level pattern to have a thermodynamic temperature. A random coupling causes the system and environment to become entangled in the course of time evolution. The approach to a Boltzmann distribution is observed, and effective fitted temperatures close to the designed temperature are obtained. All initial pure states of the system are driven to equilibrium at very similar rates, with quick loss of memory of the initial state. The time evolution of the von Neumann entropy is calculated as a measure of equilibration and of quantum coherence. It is argued, contrary to common understanding, that quantum interference and coherence are eliminated only with maximal entropy, which corresponds thermally to infinite temperature. Implications of our results for the notion of "classicalizing" be...
Towards photonic quantum simulation of ground states of frustrated Heisenberg spin systems
Xiao-song Ma; Borivoje Daki\\u0107; Sebastian Kropatschek; William Naylor; Yang-hao Chan; Zhe-xuan Gong; Lu-ming Duan; Anton Zeilinger; Philip Walther
2014-01-01
Photonic quantum simulators are promising candidates for providing insight into other small- to medium-sized quantum systems. Recent experiments have shown that photonic quantum systems have the advantage to exploit quantum interference for the quantum simulation of the ground state of Heisenberg spin systems. Here we experimentally characterize this quantum interference at a tuneable beam splitter and further investigate the measurement-induced interactions of a simulated four-spin system by...
Does an onlooker stop an evolving quantum system?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of 'gedanken' experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory - thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: 1. The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, 2. the system's temporal evolution, and 3. the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed.An experiment designed to demonstrate this 'quantum Zeno effect' and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individualelectrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretationogical interpretation
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system.
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebjørn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pål; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekström, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernández, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hättig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenæs, Eirik; Høst, Stinne; Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansík, Branislav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; Jørgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnæs, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Sa?ek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Merás, Alfredo Sánchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Thøgersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Agren, Hans
2014-05-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller-Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino
2014-01-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms.
Universal quantum gates for atomic systems assisted by Faraday rotation
Song, Guo-Zhu; Zhang, Mei
2015-08-01
Both cavity quantum electrodynamics and photons are promising candidates for quantum information processing. Here we present two efficient schemes for universal quantum gates, that is, Fredkin gates and \\sqrt{\\text{SWAP}} gates on atomic systems, assisted by Faraday rotation catalyzed by an auxiliary single photon. These gates are achieved by successfully reflecting an auxiliary single photon from an optical cavity with a single-trapped atom. They do not require additional qubits and they only need some linear-optical elements besides the nonlinear interaction between the flying photon and the atoms in the optical cavities. Moreover, these two universal quantum gates are robust. A high fidelity can be achieved in our schemes with current experimental technology. They may be very useful in quantum information processing in future, with the great progress on controlling atomic systems.
The classical limit of non-integrable quantum systems, a route to quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical limit of non-integrable quantum systems is studied. We define non-integrable quantum systems as those, which have, as their classical limit, a non-integrable classical system. This quantum systems will be the candidates to be the models of quantum chaos. In order to obtain this limit, the self-induced decoherence approach and the corresponding classical limit are generalized from integrable to non-integrable systems. In this approach, the lost of information, usually conceived as the result of a coarse-graining or the trace of an environment, is produced by a particular choice of the algebra of observables and the systematic use of mean values, that project the unitary evolution onto an effective non-unitary one. By means of our method, we can obtain the classical limit of the quantum state of a non-integrable system, which turns out to be a set of unstable, potentially chaotic classical trajectories contained in the Wigner transformation of the quantum state
Spectral Properties of Three Dimensional Layered Quantum Hall Systems
Metzler, Marcus
1998-01-01
We investigate the spectral statistics of a network model for a three dimensional layered quantum Hall system numerically. The scaling of the quantity $J_0={1/2}$ is used to determine the critical exponent $\
Quantum dot systems: artificial atoms with tunable properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum dots - also called zero-dimensional electron systems or artificial atoms - are physical objects where the constituent electrons are confined in a small spatial region, leading to discrete eigenvalues for the energies of the confined electrons. Large quantum dots offer a dense energy spectrum comparable to that of metallic grains, whereas small quantum dots more closely resemble atoms in their electronic properties. Quantum dots can be linked to leads by tunnel barriers, hence permitting electrical transport measurements: Coulomb blockade and single-electron charging effects are observed due to the repulsive electron electron interaction on the quantum dot site. Usually fabricated by conventional semiconductor growth and processing technology, the advantage is that both simple and also more complex quantum dot systems can be designed to purpose, acting as model systems with in-situ tunable parameters such as the number of confined electrons in the quantum dot and the strength of the tunnel coupling to the leads, electrostatically controlled by the applied voltages to gate electrodes. With increasing the tunnel coupling to the leads, the virtual occupation of the quantum dot from the leads becomes more and more important -- the simple description of electrical transport by single-electron tunneling events breaks down. The basic physics is described by the Kondo physics based on the Anderson impurity model. A system consisting of strongly electrostatically coupled quantum dots with separate leads to each quantum dot represent another realization of the Anderson impurity model. Experiments to verify the analogy are presented. The experimental data embedded within this tutorial have been obtained with Alexander Huebel, Matthias Keller, Joerg Schmid, David Quirion, Armin Welker, Ulf Wilhelm, and Klaus von Klitzing. (author)
Relative state measures of correlations in bipartite quantum systems
Rudolfsson, Pierre; Sjöqvist, Erik
2011-01-01
Everett's concept of relative state can be viewed as a map that contains information about correlations between measurement outcomes on two quantum systems. We demonstrate how geometric properties of the relative state map can be used to develop operationally well-defined measures of the total correlation in bipartite quantum systems of arbitrary state space dimension. These measures are invariant under local unitary transformations and non-increasing under local operations....
Plausibility of quantum coherent states in biological systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salari, V [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, CNRS UMR7590 (France); Tuszynski, J [Department of Experimental Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rahnama, M [Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bernroider, G, E-mail: vahid.salari@impmc.upmc.fr [Department of Organismic Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg (Austria)
2011-07-08
In this paper we briefly discuss the necessity of using quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory applicable to some key functional aspects of biological systems. This is especially relevant to three important parts of a neuron in the human brain, namely the cell membrane, microtubules (MT) and ion channels. We argue that the recently published papers criticizing the use of quantum theory in these systems are not convincing.
Invisibility of quantum systems to tunneling of matter waves
Cordero, Sergio; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston
2009-01-01
We show that an appropriate choice of the potential parameters in one-dimensional quantum systems allows for unity transmission of the tunneling particle at all incident tunneling energies, except at controllable exceedingly small incident energies. The corresponding dwell time and the transmission amplitude are indistinguishable from those of a free particle in the unity-transmission regime. This implies the possibility of designing quantum systems that are invisible to tun...
Bilayer Quantum Hall System as a Macroscopic Qubit
Inagaki, Takeshi
2001-01-01
In the bilayer quantum Hall system, a spontaneously charge imbalance state appears at the ground energy level. Gap in the collective excitation energy makes it stable against decoherence in macroscopic level. This state behaves as a spin 1/2 representation of SU(2) and can be controlled by applying the interlayer voltage. We suggest this system can be regarded as a macroscopic realization of a qubit for a quantum computer.
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
Dehesa, J. S.; Manzano, D.; Sánchez-Moreno, P. S.; Yáñez, R. J.
2010-01-01
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density...
Frustration, Entanglement, and Correlations in Quantum Many Body Systems
Marzolino U.; Giampaolo S.M.; Illuminati F.
2013-01-01
We derive an exact lower bound to a universal measure of frustration in degenerate ground states of quantum many-body systems. The bound results in the sum of two contributions: entanglement and classical correlations arising from local measurements. We show that average frustration properties are completely determined by the behavior of the maximally mixed ground state. We identify sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to saturate the bound, and for models with tw...
Integrable and superintegrable quantum systems in a magnetic field
Berube, J; Berube, Josee; Winternitz, Pavel
2004-01-01
Integrable quantum mechanical systems with magnetic fields are constructed in two-dimensional Euclidean space. The integral of motion is assumed to be a first or second order Hermitian operator. Contrary to the case of purely scalar potentials, quadratic integrability does not imply separation of variables in the Schroedinger equation. Moreover, quantum and classical integrable systems do not necessarily coincide: the Hamiltonian can depend on the Planck constant in a nontrivial manner.
Critical Scaling of Two-component Systems from Quantum Fluctuations
Mabiala, J.; Bonasera, A.; Zheng, H.; McIntosh, A. B.; Kohley, Z.; Cammarata, P.; Hagel, K.; Heilborn, L.; May, L. W.; Raphelt, A.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S. J.
2012-01-01
The thermodynamics of excited nuclear systems allows one to explore the second-order phase transition in a two-component quantum mixture. Temperatures and densities are derived from quantum fluctuations of fermions. The pressures are determined from the grand partition function of Fisher's model. Critical scaling of observables is found for systems which differ in neutron to proton concentrations thus constraining the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. The deriv...
Applications of Lie systems in Quantum Mechanics and Control Theory
Cariñena, José F.; Ramos, Arturo
2003-01-01
Some simple examples from quantum physics and control theory are used to illustrate the application of the theory of Lie systems. We will show, in particular, that for certain physical models both of the corresponding classical and quantum problems can be treated in a similar way, may be up to the replacement of the involved Lie group by a central extension of it. The geometric techniques developed for dealing with Lie systems are also used in problems of control theo...
Bayesian parameter inference from continuously monitored quantum systems
Gammelmark S.; Molmer K.
2012-01-01
We review the introduction of likelihood functions and Fisher information in classical estimation theory, and we show how they can be defined in a very similar manner within quantum measurement theory. We show that the stochastic master equations describing the dynamics of a quantum system subject to a definite set of measurements provides likelihood functions for unknown parameters in the system dynamics, and we show that the estimation error, given by the Fisher informatio...
Plausibility of Quantum Coherent States in Biological Systems
Salari, V; Rahnama, M; Bernroider, G
2010-01-01
In this paper we briefly discuss the necessity of using quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory applicable to some key functional aspects of biological systems. This is especially relevant to three important parts of a neuron in the human brain, namely the cell membrane, microtubules (MT) and ion channels. We argue that the recently published papers criticizing the use of quantum theory in these systems are not convincing.
Plausibility of quantum coherent states in biological systems
Salari, V.; Tuszynski, J.; Rahnama, M.; Bernroider, G.
2011-07-01
In this paper we briefly discuss the necessity of using quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory applicable to some key functional aspects of biological systems. This is especially relevant to three important parts of a neuron in the human brain, namely the cell membrane, microtubules (MT) and ion channels. We argue that the recently published papers criticizing the use of quantum theory in these systems are not convincing.
Quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium
Eisert, J; Friesdorf, M.; Gogolin, Christian
2015-01-01
How do closed quantum many-body systems driven out of equilibrium eventually achieve equilibration? And how do these systems thermalize, given that they comprise so many degrees of freedom? Progress in answering these—and related— questions has accelerated in recent years—a trend that can be partially attributed to success with experiments performing quantum simulations using ultracold atoms and trapped ions. Here we provide an overview of this progress, specifically in studies pr...
Fidelity and entanglement fidelity for infinite-dimensional quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Instead of unitary freedom for finite-dimensional cases, bi-contractive freedom in the operator-sum representation for quantum channels of infinite-dimensional systems is established. Specifically, if the channel sends every pure state to a finite rank state, then the isometric freedom feature holds. Then, a method of computing entanglement fidelity and a relation between quantum fidelity and entanglement fidelity for infinite-dimensional systems are obtained. In addition, upper and lower bounds of the quantum fidelity, and their connection to the trace distance, are also provided. (paper)
Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit
The algebraic Bethe ansatz and quantum integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Methods are considered for applying an algebra with bilinear commutation relations to the theory of quantum integrable systems. This survey describes most of the results obtained in this area over the last twenty years, mainly in connection with the computation of correlation functions of quantum integrable systems. Methods for constructing eigenfunctions of the quantum transfer matrix and computing inner products and correlation functions are presented in detail. An example of application of the general scheme to the model of the X X Z Heisenberg chain is considered.
Emergent quantum jumps in a nano-electro-mechanical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe a nano-electro-mechanical system that exhibits the 'retroactive' quantum jumps discovered by Mabuchi and Wiseman (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 4620). This system consists of a Cooper-pair box coupled to a nano-mechanical resonator, in which the latter is continuously monitored by a single-electron transistor or quantum point contact. Further, we show that these kinds of jumps, and the jumps that emerge in a continuous quantum non-demolition measurement, are one and the same phenomena. We also consider manipulating the jumps by applying feedback control to the Cooper-pair box. (fast track communication)
Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)
2011-12-13
The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.
Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems
Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)
2011-12-13
The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwager, Heike
2012-07-04
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with subwavelength interatomic distances that exhibits long rage interactions. What lies at the heart of all these approaches is the endeavour to include the coupling to the environment into the description of the physical system with the aim of harnessing dissipative processes. While decoherence masks or destroys quantum effects and is considered as the main adversary of any quantum information application, we turn the existence of the dissipative coupling of spin systems to the environment into a fruitful resource.
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with subwavelength interatomic distances that exhibits long rage interactions. What lies at the heart of all these approaches is the endeavour to include the coupling to the environment into the description of the physical system with the aim of harnessing dissipative processes. While decoherence masks or destroys quantum effects and is considered as the main adversary of any quantum information application, we turn the existence of the dissipative coupling of spin systems to the environment into a fruitful resource.
Quantum filter for a non-Markovian single qubit system
Xue, Shibei; James, Matthew R.; Shabani, Alireza; Ugrinovskii, Valery; Petersen, Ian R.
2015-01-01
In this paper, a quantum filter for estimating the states of a non-Markovian qubit system is presented in an augmented Markovian system framework including both the qubit system of interest and multi-ancillary systems for representing the internal modes of the non-Markovian environment. The colored noise generated by the multi-ancillary systems disturbs the qubit system via a direct interaction. The resulting non-Markovian dynamics of the qubit is determined by a memory kern...
Designer evolution of quantum systems by inverse engineering
Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Shore, Bruce W.
2015-09-01
We present a simple procedure—which we distinguish by the term designer evolution of quantum systems by inverse engineering (DEQSIE)—for designing the time-dependent Rabi frequencies and detunings needed to produce specified changes to two- and three-state quantum systems governed by the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. DEQSIE thereby provides a straightforward recipe for a ‘shortcut’ to any desired quantum-state evolution, whether or not it is adiabatic. Moreover, DEQSIE allows one to derive infinitely many exact analytic solutions for two- and three-state quantum systems. Numerical examples illustrate the pulses needed for specific purposes, e.g. complete population transfer or creation of maximal coherence.
A tunable macroscopic quantum system based on two fractional vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a tunable macroscopic quantum system based on two fractional vortices. Our analysis shows that two coupled fractional vortices pinned at two artificially created ? discontinuities of the Josephson phase in a long Josephson junction can reach the quantum regime where coherent quantum oscillations arise. For this purpose we map the dynamics of this system to that of a single particle in a double-well potential. By tuning the ? discontinuities with injector currents, we are able to control the parameters of the effective double-well potential as well as to prepare a desired state of the fractional vortex molecule. The values of the parameters derived from this model suggest that an experimental realization of this tunable macroscopic quantum system is possible with today's technology. (paper)
Manipulating quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces
Zhang, Ming
2010-01-01
In this paper, we explore how to constructively manipulate quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces. It is revealed that one can make full use of distinguished properties of Pauli operators to design control Hamiltonian based on the geometric parametrization of quantum states. It is demonstrated in this research that Bang-Bang controls, triangle-function controls and square-function control can be utilized to manipulate controllable qubits or encoded qubits on controllable subspace for both open quantum dynamical systems and uncontrollable closed quantum dynamical systems. Furthermore, we propose a new kind of time-energy performance index to trade-off time and energy resource cost, and comprehensively discuss how to design control magnitude to minimize a kind of time-energy performance. A comparison has been made among these three kind of optimal control. It is underlined in this research that the optimal time performance can be always expressed as J^{*} =\\lamda{\\cdot}t^{*}_{f} +E^{*} for...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum discrete sine-Gordon model at roots of 1 is studied. It is shown that this model provides an example of an integrable quantum system in an integrable classical background. In particular, the spectrum of quantum integrals of motions in this model depends only on the values of integrals of motion of a background classical system. (orig.). With 1 fig
Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information
Yamamoto, Naoki
2014-10-01
To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan [Sharif University of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-05-15
The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)
The entropy power inequality for quantum systems
Koenig, Robert
2012-01-01
When two independent analog signals, X and Y are added together giving Z=X+Y, the entropy of Z, H(Z), is not a simple function of the entropies H(X) and H(Y), but rather depends on the details of X and Y's distributions. Nevertheless, the entropy power inequality (EPI), which states that exp [2H(Z)] \\geq exp[2H(X) + exp[2H(Y)], gives a very tight restriction on the entropy of Z. This inequality has found many applications in information theory and statistics. The quantum analogue of adding two random variables is the combination of two independent bosonic modes at a beam splitter. The purpose of this work is to give a detailed outline of the proof of two separate generalizations of the entropy power inequality to the quantum regime. Our proofs are similar in spirit to standard classical proofs of the EPI, but some new quantities and ideas are needed in the quantum setting. Specifically, we find a new quantum de Bruijin identity relating entropy production under diffusion to a divergence-based quantum Fisher i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: (author)The developed approach allows one to construct a more realistic nonrelativistic quantum theory which includes 'fundamental environment' (FE) (physical vacuum's fluctuations) as a constituent part of a quantum system (QS). As a result of this, the problems of spontaneous transitions (including decay of the ground state) between energy levels of quantum system, the Lamb shift of energy levels, erp paradox and many other difficulties of standard quantum theory are solved more naturally. In this approach, we find a new feature of quantum systems. Unlike de-Broglie wave this peculiarity does not disappear with increase in mass of the system. In other words, a macroscopic system which till now has been considered exclusively classical has some quantum-field properties which at definite conditions can be quite observable and measurable. Moreover, it is proved that after the disintegration of macrosystem into parts its fragments are in the entanglement states, which is specified by nonpotential interaction and all this takes place due to fundamental environment. It especially concerns nonstationary systems, for example, biological systems in which elementary atom-molecular processes proceed continuously. Note that such conclusion becomes even more obvious, if to take into account the well known work of [1], where the idea of universal description for unified dynamics of micro and macroscopic systems in the form of the Fokker-Planck equation was for the firshe Fokker-Planck equation was for the first time suggested. Finally, in the limits of the developed approach the closed system 'QS + FE' in equilibrium is being described on extended space R3 x En , where En is compactified subspace
Ablayev, F. M.; Andrianov, S. N.; Moiseev, S. A.; Vasiliev, A.V.
2013-01-01
We propose an effective realization of the universal set of elementary quantum gates in solid state quantum computer based on macroscopic (or mesoscopic) resonance systems - multi-atomic coherent ensembles, squids or quantum dots in quantum electrodynamic cavity. We exploit an encoding of logical qubits by the pairs of the macroscopic two- or three-level atoms that is working in a Hilbert subspace of all states inherent to these atomic systems. In this subspace, logical sing...
Topological photonic systems: from integer to fractional quantum Hall states
Hafezi, Mohammad; Lukin, Mikhail; Demler, Eugene; Taylor, Jacob
2011-03-01
Topological properties of systems lead to remarkable robustness against disorder. The hallmark of such behavior is the quantized quantum Hall effect, where the electronic transport in two-dimensional systems is protected against scattering from impurities and the quantized Hall conductance is the manifestation of a topological invariance. Here we suggest an analogous approach to quantum Hall physics to create robust photonic devices. Specifically, we show how quantum Hall and quantum spin Hall Hamiltonians can be implemented with linear optics using coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) in two dimensions. Key features of quantum Hall systems could be observed via reflection spectroscopy, including the characteristic Hofstadter ``butterfly'' and edge state transport. Furthermore, the addition of an optical non- linearity to our proposed system leads to the possibility of implementing a fractional quantum Hall state of photons, where phenomenon such as non-abelian statistics may be observable. This research was partially supported by the U.S. Army Research Office MURI award W911NF0910406.
Method for adding nodes to a quantum key distribution system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grice, Warren P
2015-02-24
An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.
Quantum state reconstruction from dynamical systems theory
Goyeneche, D
2011-01-01
When an informationally incomplete set of observables is considered there are several solutions to the quantum state reconstruction problem using von Neumann measurements. The set of solutions are known as Pauli partners, which are not easy to find even numerically. We present, in a self-contained paper, a new way to find this solutions using the physical imposition operator. We show that every Pauli partner is an attractive fixed point of this operator, which means that we can find complete sets of Pauli partners very efficiently. As a particular case, we found numerically 24 mutually unbiased bases in dimension N=23 in less than 30 seconds in a standard PC. We hope that the algorithm presented can be adapted to construct MU Constellations, SIC-POVMs, Equiangular Tight Frames and Quantum t-Designs, which could open new possibilities to find numerical solutions to these open problems related with quantum information theory.
Deterministic constant-temperature dynamics for dissipative quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel method is introduced in order to treat the dissipative dynamics of quantum systems interacting with a bath of classical degrees of freedom. The method is based upon an extension of the Nose-Hoover chain (constant temperature) dynamics to quantum-classical systems. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic numerical calculations on the relaxation dynamics of the spin-boson model show that the quantum-classical Nose-Hoover chain dynamics represents the thermal noise of the bath in an accurate and simple way. Numerical comparisons, both with the constant-energy calculation and with the quantum-classical Brownian motion treatment of the bath, show that the quantum-classical Nose-Hoover chain dynamics can be used to introduce dissipation in the evolution of a quantum subsystem even with just one degree of freedom for the bath. The algorithm can be computationally advantageous in modelling, within computer simulation, the dynamics of a quantum subsystem interacting with complex molecular environments. (fast track communication)
Kepler-16 Circumbinary System Validates Quantum Celestial Mechanics
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Potter F.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We report the application of quantum celestial mechanics (QCM to the Kepler-16 circumbinary system which has a single planet orbiting binary stars with the important system parameters known to within one percent. Other gravitationally bound systems such as the Solar System of planets and the Jovian satellite systems have large uncertainties in their total angular momentum. Therefore, Kepler-16 allows us for the ?rst time to determine whether the QCM predicted angular momentum per mass quantization isvalid.
Complete Positivity and Thermodynamics in a Driven Open Quantum System
Argentieri, Giuseppe; Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Pezzutto, Marco
2015-06-01
While it is well known that complete positivity guarantees the fulfilment of the second law of thermodynamics, its possible violations have never been proposed as a check of the complete positivity of a given open quantum dynamics. We hereby consider an open quantum micro-circuit, effectively describable as a two-level open quantum system, whose asymptotic current might be experimentally accessible. This latter could indeed be used to discriminate between its possible non-completely positive Redfield dynamics and a completely positive one obtained by standard weak-coupling limit techniques, at the same time verifying the fate of the second law of thermodynamics in such a context.
Time-resolved electron transport in quantum-dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis the time-resolved electron transport in quantum dot systems was studied. For this two different formalisms were presented: The nonequilibrium Green functions and the generalized quantum master equations. For both formalisms a propagation method for the numerical calculation of time-resolved expectation values, like the occupation and the electron current, was developed. For the demonstration of the propagation method two different question formulations were considered. On the one hand the stochastically driven resonant-level model was studied. On the other hand the pulse-induced transport through a double quantum dot was considered.
Universal behavior beyond multifractality in quantum many-body systems.
Luitz, David J; Alet, Fabien; Laflorencie, Nicolas
2014-02-01
How many states of a configuration space contribute to a wave function? Attempts to answer this ubiquitous question have a long history in physics and are keys to understanding, e.g., localization phenomena. Beyond single-particle physics, a quantitative study of the ground state complexity for interacting many-body quantum systems is notoriously difficult, mainly due to the exponential growth of the configuration (Hilbert) space with the number of particles. Here we develop quantum Monte Carlo schemes to overcome this issue, focusing on Shannon-Rényi entropies of ground states of large quantum many-body systems. Our simulations reveal a generic multifractal behavior while the very nature of quantum phases of matter and associated transitions is captured by universal subleading terms in these entropies. PMID:24580627
Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.
Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-06-01
Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm. PMID:25167475
Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems
Shu, Wenchong
Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have consistently solved the control dynamics of open quantum systems using this stochastic QSD approach. By implementing the QSD equation, our numerical results have revealed that how the control efficacy depends on the designed time points and shapes of the applied control pulses, and the environment memory time scale.
Modeling a quantum Hall system via elliptic equations
Sowa, Artur
2008-01-01
Quantum Hall systems are a suitable theme for a case study in the general area of nanotechnology. In particular, it is a good framework for considering such general problems as nanosystem modeling, and nanosystem-specific signal processing. It has been demonstrated in my recent work--A. Sowa, Fractional quantization of Hall resistance as a consequence of mesoscopic feedback, Russ. J. Math. Phys., Vol. 15, No.1 (2008), 122-127--how to construct a simple model of a quantum Hall system. Briefly speaking, this is achieved by complementing the Schroedinger dynamics with a special type of nonlinear feedback loop. This result stems from a novel systematic approach to describing quantum Hall systems. In particular, our analysis of such systems implicitly involves the notion of quantum entanglement. In this article we undertake to modify the original model of a quantum Hall system by substituting the dynamics based on the Dirac operator. This leads to a model that consists of a system of three nonlinearly coupled firs...
Entanglement dynamics in quantum many-body systems
Ho, Wen Wei
2015-01-01
We study entanglement growth in quantum many-body systems and propose a method to experimentally measure it. We show that entanglement growth is related to the spreading of local operators. In ergodic systems, linear spreading of operators results in a universal, linear in time growth of entanglement for initial product states, in contrast to the logarithmic growth of entanglement in many-body localized (MBL) systems. Furthermore, we show that entanglement growth is directly related to the decay of the Loschmidt echo in a composite system comprised of many copies of the original system, subject to a perturbation that reconnects different parts of the system. Exponential decay of the Loschmidt echo, characteristic of ergodic systems, implies linear growth of entanglement. Our proposal to experimentally measure entanglement growth uses a quantum switch (two-level system) which controls connections in the composite system. By measuring only the switch's dynamics, the growth of the R\\'enyi entropies can be extrac...
Semiclassics for quantum systems with internal degrees of freedom
Glaser, Rainer
2004-01-01
We study semiclassical properties of quantum systems with internal degrees of freedom. While translational degrees of freedom are described as coordinates on the cotangent bundle of a configuration manifold, the internal ones find their classical description on more general symplectic manifolds, such as coadjoint orbits of compact Lie groups or Kaehler manifolds. The quantum space for the translational degrees of freedom, square integrable functions on the configuration space, has to ...
Implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm in a scalable system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm in the scalable system of trapped atomic ion quantum bits. Any one of four possible states of a two-qubit memory is marked, and following a single query of the search space, the marked element is successfully recovered with an average probability of 60(2)%. This exceeds the performance of any possible classical search algorithm, which can only succeed with a maximum average probability of 50%
A term-rewriting system for computer quantum algebra
Hudson, J. J.
2008-01-01
Existing computer algebra packages do not fully support quantum mechanics calculations in Dirac's notation. I present the foundation for building such support: a mathematical system for the symbolic manipulation of expressions used in the invariant formalism of quantum mechanics. I first describe the essential mathematical features of the Hilbert-space invariant formalism. This is followed by a formal characterisation of all possible algebraic expressions in this formalism. ...
Far from equilibrium energy flow in quantum critical systems
Bhaseen, M J; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad
2013-01-01
We investigate far from equilibrium energy transport in strongly coupled quantum critical systems. Combining results from gauge-gravity duality, relativistic hydrodynamics, and quantum field theory, we argue that long-time energy transport occurs via a universal steady-state for any spatial dimensionality. This is described by a boosted thermal state. We determine the transport properties of this emergent steady state, including the average energy flow and its long-time fluctuations.
Integrable Systems on Open Chains with Quantum Supersymmetry
Links, J. R.; Gould, M. D.
It is demonstrated how one may derive quantum supersymmetric integrable models on an open chain corresponding to (affinizable) irreducible representations of a quantum superalgebra. A new procedure for constructing the transfer matrix is obtained and an expression for the Hamiltonian is given. Applications to Uq(gl(m|n)) invariant systems are discussed in detail. As examples, the q-analogues of several known integrable correlated electron models are presented.
The Signals and Systems Approach to Quantum Computation
Gadiyar, H G; Padma, R; Sharatchandra, H S
2003-01-01
In this note we point out the fact that the proper conceptual setting of quantum computation is the theory of Linear Time Invariant systems. To convince readers of the utility of the approach, we introduce a new model of computation based on the orthogonal group. This makes the link to traditional electronics engineering clear. We conjecture that the speed up achieved in quantum computation is at the cost of increased circuit complexity.
Fermi Edge Singularity in Quantum Hall Systems far from Equilibrium
Chernii, Iurii; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Sukhorukov, Eugene V.
2013-01-01
In this paper we study the non-equilibrium one dimensional physics with the example of quantum Hall edge channel at integer filling factor Coulomb interacting with an artificial impurity. Electrons in an integer quantum Hall system effectively behave as free fermions, thus the interaction with a charged impurity normally leads to the orthogonality catastrophe and the Fermi edge singularity (FES). Unlike in 3D materials where the FES is commonly observed, the artificial impur...
Quantum Hall effect in bilayer system with array of antidots
Pagnossin, I. R.; Gusev, G. M.; Sotomayor, N. M.; Seabra, A. C.; Quivy, A. A.; Lamas, T. E.; Portal, J. C.
2007-04-01
We have studied the Quantum Hall effect in a bilayer system modulated by gate-controlled antidot lattice potential. The Hall resistance shows plateaus which are quantized to anomalous multiplies of h/e2. We suggest that this complex behavior is due to the nature of the edge-states in double quantum well (DQW) structures coupled to an array of antidots: these plateaus may be originated from the coexistence of normal and counter-rotating edge-states in different layers.
Generation of cluster states in optomechanical quantum systems
Houhou, O.; Aissaoui, H.; A. Ferraro
2015-01-01
We consider an optomechanical quantum system composed of a single cavity mode interacting with N mechanical resonators. We propose a scheme for generating continuous-variable graph states of arbitrary size and shape, including the so-called cluster states for universal quantum computation. The main feature of this scheme is that, differently from previous approaches, the graph states are hosted in the mechanical degrees of freedom rather than in the radiative ones. Specifica...
Quantum discord in bipartite systems based on projection measurements
M. Mahdian; Marahem, F.
2013-01-01
We propose a method to detect an exact quantum discord for some general bipartite quantum systems analytically. Here we show that for some density matrices, after the orthogonal projective measurement the state of the matrix will be diagonal and classic. So we can obtain the maximum amount of classical information in this case. Consequently, for these density matrices instead of using the positive operator valued measures (POVMs), projective operators can be used. Also we ob...
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND STATIONARY STATES OF QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Thus, it is proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves
Symmetries of quantum systems: a partial inner product space approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We first give a quick survey of the realization of symmetries of quantum systems in the various formalisms of quantum mechanics: traditional (Hilbert space), algebraic (C*-algebras), rigged Hilbert spaces, *-algebras of unbounded operators, partial *-algebras of closable operators. Then we describe in some detail the concept of partial inner product spaces (PIP-spaces) and operators on them. Finally, we examine various classes of operators on PIP-spaces that allow a correct realization of symmetries
Self-assembled quantum dots in a nanowire system for quantum photonics
Heiss, M.; Fontana, Y.; Gustafsson, A.; Wüst, G.; Magen, C.; O'Regan, D. D.; Luo, J. W.; Ketterer, B.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Kuhlmann, A. V.; Houel, J.; Russo-Averchi, E.; Morante, J. R.; Cantoni, M.; Marzari, N.; Arbiol, J.; Zunger, A.; Warburton, R. J.; Fontcuberta I Morral, A.
2013-05-01
Quantum dots embedded within nanowires represent one of the most promising technologies for applications in quantum photonics. Whereas the top-down fabrication of such structures remains a technological challenge, their bottom-up fabrication through self-assembly is a potentially more powerful strategy. However, present approaches often yield quantum dots with large optical linewidths, making reproducibility of their physical properties difficult. We present a versatile quantum-dot-in-nanowire system that reproducibly self-assembles in core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires. The quantum dots form at the apex of a GaAs/AlGaAs interface, are highly stable, and can be positioned with nanometre precision relative to the nanowire centre. Unusually, their emission is blue-shifted relative to the lowest energy continuum states of the GaAs core. Large-scale electronic structure calculations show that the origin of the optical transitions lies in quantum confinement due to Al-rich barriers. By emitting in the red and self-assembling on silicon substrates, these quantum dots could therefore become building blocks for solid-state lighting devices and third-generation solar cells.
Teleportation of general finite dimensional quantum systems
Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao-Ming
2000-01-01
Teleportation of finite dimensional quantum states by a non-local entangled state is studied. For a generally given entangled state, an explicit equation that governs the teleportation is presented. Detailed examples and the roles played by the dimensions of the Hilbert spaces related to the sender, receiver and the auxiliary space are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle
Vladimirov, Igor G.
2015-01-01
This paper is concerned with variational methods for nonlinear open quantum systems with Markovian dynamics governed by Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic differential equations. The latter are driven by quantum Wiener processes of the external boson fields and are specified by the system Hamiltonian and system-field coupling operators. We consider the system response to perturbations of these energy operators and introduce a transverse Hamiltonian which encodes the pro...
Multi-scale analysis for random quantum systems with interaction
Chulaevsky, Victor
2014-01-01
The study of quantum disorder has generated considerable research activity in mathematics and physics over past 40 years. While single-particle models have been extensively studied at a rigorous mathematical level, little was known about systems of several interacting particles, let alone systems with positive spatial particle density. Creating a consistent theory of disorder in multi-particle quantum systems is an important and challenging problem that largely remains open. Multi-scale Analysis for Random Quantum Systems with Interaction presents the progress that had been recently achieved in this area. The main focus of the book is on a rigorous derivation of the multi-particle localization in a strong random external potential field. To make the presentation accessible to a wider audience, the authors restrict attention to a relatively simple tight-binding Anderson model on a cubic lattice Zd. This book includes the following cutting-edge features: * an introduction to the state-of-the-art single-...
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
Dehesa, J S; Sánchez-Moreno, P S; Yáñez, R J
2010-01-01
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.
Universal response of quantum systems with chaotic dynamics.
Wisniacki, Diego A; Ares, Natalia; Vergini, Eduardo G
2010-06-25
The prediction of the response of a closed system to external perturbations is one of the central problems in quantum mechanics, and in this respect, the local density of states (LDOS) provides an in-depth description of such a response. The LDOS is the distribution of the overlaps squared connecting the set of eigenfunctions with the perturbed one. Here, we show that in the case of closed systems with classically chaotic dynamics, the LDOS is a Breit-Wigner distribution under very general perturbations of arbitrary high intensity. Consequently, we derive a semiclassical expression for the width of the LDOS which is shown to be very accurate for paradigmatic systems of quantum chaos. This Letter demonstrates the universal response of quantum systems with classically chaotic dynamics. PMID:20867383
Work, heat and entropy production in bipartite quantum systems
Hossein-Nejad, Hoda; O’Reilly, Edward J.; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra
2015-07-01
In bipartite quantum systems commutation relations between the Hamiltonian of each subsystem and the interaction impose fundamental constraints on the dynamics of each partition. Here we investigate work, heat and entropy production in bipartite systems characterized by particular commutators between their local Hamiltonians and the interaction operator. We consider the formalism of (Weimer et al 2008 Europhys. Lett. 83 30008), in which heat (work) is identified with energy changes that (do not) alter the local von Neumann entropy, as observed in an effective local measurement basis. We demonstrate the consequences of the commutation relations on the work and heat fluxes into each partition, and extend the formalism to open quantum systems where one, or both, partitions are subject to a Markovian thermal bath. We also discuss the relation between heat and entropy in bipartite quantum systems out of thermal equilibrium, and reconcile the aforementioned approach with the second law of thermodynamics.
Work extraction and thermodynamics for individual quantum systems.
Skrzypczyk, Paul; Short, Anthony J; Popescu, Sandu
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a 'weight' that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and gives a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used to construct a quantum Carnot engine. PMID:24969511
Sliding Mode Control of Two-Level Quantum Systems
Dong, Daoyi
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a robust control method based on sliding mode design for two-level quantum systems with bounded uncertainties. An eigenstate of the two-level quantum system is identified as a sliding mode. The objective is to design a control law to steer the system's state into the sliding mode domain and then maintain it in that domain when bounded uncertainties exist in the system Hamiltonian. We propose a controller design method using the Lyapunov methodology and periodic projective measurements. In particular, we give conditions for designing such a control law, which can guarantee the desired robustness in the presence of the uncertainties. The sliding mode control method has potential applications to quantum information processing with uncertainties.
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems
Suomela, S.; Salmilehto, J.; Savenko, I. G.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Möttönen, M.
2015-02-01
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions.
Statistical mechanics of time-periodic quantum systems
Wustmann, Waltraut
2010-01-01
The asymptotic state of a quantum system, which is in contact with a heat bath, is strongly disturbed by a time-periodic driving in comparison to a time-independent system. In this thesis an extensive picture of the asymptotic state of time-periodic quantum systems is drawn by relating it to the structure of the corresponding classical phase space. To this end the occupation probabilities of the Floquet states are analyzed with respect to their semiclassical property of being either regular o...
Tunable supercurrent in a triangular triple quantum dot system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The supercurrent in a triangular triple quantum dot system is investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the sign of the supercurrent can be changed from positive to negative with increasing the strength of spin-flip scattering, resulting in the ?-junction transition. The supercurrent and the ?-junction transition are also modulated by tuning the system parameters such as the gate voltage and the interdot coupling. The tunable ?-junction transition is explained in terms of the current carrying density of states. These results provide the ways of manipulating the supercurrent in a triple quantum dot system.
Quantum state tomography for strongly coupled nuclear spin systems
Vind, Fatemeh Anvari; Souza, A. M.; Sarthour, R. S.; Oliveira, I. S.
2014-12-01
We perform quantum state tomography (QST) in a three-qubit system consisting of strongly coupled nuclear spins, known in the NMR literature as A B X systems. We find that the number of experiments necessary to perform QST in such systems can be reduced with respect to those containing three qubits weakly coupled, which reduces the experimental effort required for the complete density-matrix reconstruction. To test the procedure we implement the full protocol for quantum teleportation. The tomographic results demonstrate that the density matrix can be reconstructed with fewer operations and high fidelity.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity in quantum many-body systems: a quantum dynamical microscope
Del Campo, Adolfo
2014-03-01
The evolution of a quantum system induced by a shortcut to adiabaticity mimics the adiabatic dynamics without the requirement of slow driving. Engineering it involves diagonalizing the instantaneous Hamiltonian of the system and results in the need of auxiliary non-local interactions for matter-waves. Here experimentally realizable driving protocols are found for a large class of single-particle, many-body, and non-linear systems without demanding the spectral properties as an input. The method is applied to the expansion of a trapped ultracold gas which spatially scales up the size of the cloud while conserving the quantum correlations of the initial many-body state. This shortcut to adiabatic expansions acts as a quantum dynamical microscope.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Open quantum system approaches are widely used in the description of physical, chemical and biological systems. A famous example is electronic excitation transfer in the initial stage of photosynthesis, where harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center. This transport is affected by the motion of a structured vibrational environment, which makes simulations on a classical computer very demanding. Here we propose an analog quantum simulator of complex open system dynamics with a precisely engineered quantum environment. Our setup is based on superconducting circuits, a well established technology. As an example, we demonstrate that it is feasible to simulate exciton transport in the Fenna–Matthews–Olson photosynthetic complex. Our approach allows for a controllable single-molecule simulation and the investigation of energy transfer pathways as well as non-Markovian noise-correlation effects. (paper)
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Gerald
2008-11-03
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)
Multi-time correlations in relaxing quantum dynamical systems
Andries, J; De Cock, M; Fannes, M
2000-01-01
In this paper, we consider the long time asymptotics of multi-time correlation functions for quantum dynamical systems that are sufficiently random to relax to a ``reference state''. In particular, the evolution of such systems must have a continuous spectrum. Special attention is paid to general dynamical clustering conditions and their consequences for the structure of fluctuations of temporal averages.
Thermal rectification in the nonequilibrium quantum-dots-system
Chen, Tian; Wang, Xiang-Bin
2015-08-01
We study thermal rectification of a two-quantum-dots system with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and coupling to two bosonic reservoirs. Compared with other proposals (Zhang et al., 2009 [9]), our model can offer larger rectification efficiency through different modulations in small size systems (N=2).
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND EMERGENCE PARAMETER OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available It was established that the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Bose-Einstein and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution can be described by a single equation, which follows from Einstein's equations for systems with central symmetry. Emergence parameter of classical and quantum systems composed by the rays of gravitational waves interacting with gravitational field of the universe has been computed
Stochastic pure state representation for open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the usual master equation formalism of Markovian open quantum systems is completely equivalent to a certain state vector formalism. The state vector of the system satisfies a given frictional Schroedinger equation except for random instant transitions of discrete nature. Hasse's frictional Hamiltonian is recovered for the damped harmonic oscillator. (author)
Kamleitner, Ingo
2010-01-01
We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which ...
Quantum state tomography and quantum logical operations in a three qubits NMR quadrupolar system
Araujo-Ferreira, A G; Soares-Pinto, D O; deAzevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Teles, J
2011-01-01
In this work, we present an implementation of quantum logic gates and algorithms in a three effective qubits system, represented by a (I = 7/2) NMR quadrupolar nuclei. To implement these protocols we have used the strong modulating pulses (SMP). The various stages of each implementation were verified by quantum state tomography (QST). It is presented here the results for the computational base states, Toffolli logic gates, and Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms. Also, we discuss the di?culties and advantages of implementing such protocols using the SMP technique in quadrupolar systems.
Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.
Dudziak, Martin Joseph
Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain, by virtue of mathematical and computational models that may be transferred from the macroscopic domain to the microscopic. A consequence of this multi-faceted thesis is that there may be mature analytical tools and techniques that have heretofore not been adequately recognized for their value to quantum physics. These may include adaptations of neural networks, cellular automata, chaotic attractors, and parallel processing systems. Conceptual and practical architectures are presented for the development of software and hardware environments to employ massively parallel computing for the modeling of large populations of dynamic processes.
Decoherence and Recoherence in Model Quantum Systems
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung
2008-01-01
We discuss the various manifestations of quantum decoherence in the forms of dephasing, entanglement with the environment, and revelation of "which-path" information. As a specific example, we consider an electron interference experiment. The coupling of the coherent electrons to the quantized electromagnetic field illustrates all of these versions of decoherence. This decoherence has two equivalent interpretations, in terms of photon emission or in terms of Aharonov-Bohm phase fluctuations. We consider the case when the coherent electrons are coupled to photons in a squeezed vacuum state. The time-averaged result is increased decoherence. However, if only electrons which are emitted during selected periods are counted, the decoherence can be suppressed below the level for the photon vacuum. This is the phenomenon of recoherence. This effect is closely related to the quantum violations of the weak energy condition, and is restricted by similar inequalities. We give some estimates of the magnitude of the recoh...
Fluorescence from a quantum dot and metallic nanosphere hybrid system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present energy absorption and interference in a quantum dot-metallic nanosphere system embedded on a dielectric substrate. A control field is applied to induce dipole moments in the nanosphere and the quantum dot, and a probe field is applied to monitor absorption. Dipole moments in the quantum dot or the metal nanosphere are induced, both by the external fields and by each other's dipole fields. Thus, in addition to direct polarization, the metal nanosphere and the quantum dot will sense one another via the dipole-dipole interaction. The density matrix method was used to show that the absorption spectrum can be split from one peak to two peaks by the control field, and this can also be done by placing the metal sphere close to the quantum dot. When the two are extremely close together, a self-interaction in the quantum dot produces an asymmetry in the absorption peaks. In addition, the fluorescence efficiency can be quenched by the addition of a metal nanosphere. This hybrid system could be used to create ultra-fast switching and sensing nanodevices
Quantum Algorithm for Obtaining the Energy Spectrum of Molecular Systems
Wang, Hefeng; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Hoffmann, Mark R; 10.1039/b804804e
2009-01-01
Simulating a quantum system is more efficient on a quantum computer than on a classical computer. The time required for solving the Schr\\"odinger equation to obtain molecular energies has been demonstrated to scale polynomially with system size on a quantum computer, in contrast to the well-known result of exponential scaling on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm to obtain the energy spectrum of molecular systems based on the multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) wave function. By using a MCSCF wave function as the initial guess, the excited states are accessible; Entire potential energy surfaces of molecules can be studied more efficiently than if the simpler Hartree-Fock guess was employed. We show that a small increase of the MCSCF space can dramatically increase the success probability of the quantum algorithm, even in regions of the potential energy surface that are far from the equilibrium geometry. For the treatment of larger systems, a multi-reference con...
Optimized control of multistate quantum systems by composite pulse sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Genov, G. T.; Vitanov, N. V. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 Boulevard, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Torosov, B. T. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 Boulevard, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2011-12-15
We introduce a technique for derivation of high-fidelity composite pulse sequences for two types of multistate quantum systems: systems with the SU(2) and Morris-Shore dynamic symmetries. For the former type, we use the Majorana decomposition to reduce the dynamics to an effective two-state system, which allows us to find the propagator analytically and use the pool of available composite pulses for two-state systems. For the latter type of multistate systems, we use the Morris-Shore decomposition, which reduces the multistate dynamics to a set of two-state systems. We present examples which demonstrate that the multistate composite sequences open a variety of possibilities for coherent control of quantum systems with multiple states.
Optimized control of multistate quantum systems by composite pulse sequences
Genov, G. T.; Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.
2011-12-01
We introduce a technique for derivation of high-fidelity composite pulse sequences for two types of multistate quantum systems: systems with the SU(2) and Morris-Shore dynamic symmetries. For the former type, we use the Majorana decomposition to reduce the dynamics to an effective two-state system, which allows us to find the propagator analytically and use the pool of available composite pulses for two-state systems. For the latter type of multistate systems, we use the Morris-Shore decomposition, which reduces the multistate dynamics to a set of two-state systems. We present examples which demonstrate that the multistate composite sequences open a variety of possibilities for coherent control of quantum systems with multiple states.
Optimized control of multistate quantum systems by composite pulse sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a technique for derivation of high-fidelity composite pulse sequences for two types of multistate quantum systems: systems with the SU(2) and Morris-Shore dynamic symmetries. For the former type, we use the Majorana decomposition to reduce the dynamics to an effective two-state system, which allows us to find the propagator analytically and use the pool of available composite pulses for two-state systems. For the latter type of multistate systems, we use the Morris-Shore decomposition, which reduces the multistate dynamics to a set of two-state systems. We present examples which demonstrate that the multistate composite sequences open a variety of possibilities for coherent control of quantum systems with multiple states.
A geometric Hamiltonian description of composite quantum systems and quantum entanglement
Pastorello, Davide
2015-05-01
Finite-dimensional Quantum Mechanics can be geometrically formulated as a proper classical-like Hamiltonian theory in a projective Hilbert space. The description of composite quantum systems within the geometric Hamiltonian framework is discussed in this paper. As summarized in the first part of this work, in the Hamiltonian formulation the phase space of a quantum system is the Kähler manifold given by the complex projective space P(H) of the Hilbert space H of the considered quantum theory. However the phase space of a bipartite system must be P(H1 ? H2) and not simply P(H1) × P(H2) as suggested by the analogy with Classical Mechanics. A part of this paper is devoted to manage this problem. In the second part of the work, a definition of quantum entanglement and a proposal of entanglement measure are given in terms of a geometrical point of view (a rather studied topic in recent literature). Finally two known separability criteria are implemented in the Hamiltonian formalism.
RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region
Hidden symmetries enhance quantum transport in Light Harvesting systems
Zech, Tobias; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas
2012-01-01
For more than 50 years we have known that photosynthetic systems harvest solar energy with almost unit {\\it quantum efficiency}. However, recent experimental evidence of {\\it quantum coherence} during the excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic organisms challenges our understanding of this fundamental biological function. Currently, and despite numerous efforts, the causal connection between coherence and efficiency is still a matter of debate. We show, through the study of extensive simulations of quantum coherent transport on networks, that three dimensional structures characterized by centro-symmetric Hamiltonians are statistically more efficient than random arrangements. Moreover, we demonstrate that the experimental data available for the electronic Hamiltonians of the Fenna-Mathew-Olson (FMO) complex of sulfur bacteria and of the crypophyte PC645 complex of marine algae are consistent with this strong correlation of centro-symmetry with quantum efficiency. These results show that what appears to b...
Thermodynamics of quantum dissipative many-body systems
Cuccoli, A; Tognetti, V; Vaia, R
1999-01-01
We consider quantum nonlinear many-body systems with dissipation described within the Caldeira-Leggett model, i.e., by a nonlocal action in the path integral for the density matrix. Approximate classical-like formulas for thermodynamic quantities are derived for the case of many degrees of freedom, with general kinetic and dissipative quadratic forms. The underlying scheme is the pure-quantum self-consistent harmonic approximation (PQSCHA), equivalent to the variational approach by the Feynman-Jensen inequality with a suitable quadratic nonlocal trial action. A low-coupling approximation permits to get manageable PQSCHA expressions for quantum thermal averages with a classical Boltzmann factor involving an effective potential and an inner Gaussian average that describes the fluctuations originating from the interplay of quanticity and dissipation. The application of the PQSCHA to a quantum phi4-chain with Drude-like dissipation shows nontrivial effects of dissipation, depending upon its strength and bandwidth...
Time evolution of open quantum many-body systems
Overbeck, Vincent R
2015-01-01
We establish a generic method to analyze the time evolution of open quantum many-body systems. Our approach is based on a variational integration of the quantum master equation describing the dynamics and naturally connects to a variational principle for its nonequilibrium steady state. We successfully apply our variational method to study dissipative Rydberg gases, finding excellent quantitative agreement with small-scale simulations of the full quantum master equation. We observe that correlations related to non-Markovian behavior play a significant role during the relaxation dynamics towards the steady state. We further quantify this non-Markovianity and find it to be closely connected to an information-theoretical measure of quantum and classical correlations.
The Kitaev–Feynman clock for open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that Kitaev's construction of Feynman's clock, in which the time-evolution of a closed quantum system is encoded as a ground state problem, can be extended to open quantum systems. In our formalism, the ground states of an ensemble of non-Hermitian Kitaev–Feynman clock Hamiltonians yield stochastic trajectories, which unravel the evolution of a Lindblad master equation. In this way, one can use the Kitaev–Feynman clock not only to simulate the evolution of a quantum system, but also its interaction with an environment such as a heat bath or measuring apparatus. A simple numerical example of a two-level atom undergoing spontaneous emission is presented and analyzed. (paper)
Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Feng-yang, E-mail: zhangfy@mail.dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Bao [Beijing Computational Science Research Center (CSRC), Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Zi-hong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Song-lin [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, He-shan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2014-07-15
We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale.
Measurements, quantum discord, and parity in spin-1 systems
Rossignoli, R.; Matera, J. M.; Canosa, N.
2012-08-01
We consider the evaluation of the quantum discord and other related measures of quantum correlations in a system formed by a spin-1 and a complementary spin system. A characterization of general projective measurements in such system in terms of spin averages is thereby introduced, which allows one to easily visualize their deviation from standard spin measurements. It is shown that the measurement optimizing these measures corresponds in general to a nonspin measurement. The important case of states that commute with the total Sz spin-parity is discussed in detail, and the general stationary measurements for such states (parity preserving measurements) are identified. Numerical and analytical results for the quantum discord, the geometric discord, and the one way information deficit in the relevant case of a mixture of two aligned spin-1 states are also presented.
Quantum walks on a circle with optomechanical systems
Moqadam, Jalil Khatibi; Portugal, Renato; de Oliveira, Marcos Cesar
2015-07-01
We propose an implementation of a quantum walk on a circle in an optomechanical system by encoding the walker on the phase space of a radiation field and the coin on a two-level state of a mechanical resonator. The dynamics of the system is obtained by applying Suzuki-Trotter decomposition. We numerically show that the system displays typical behaviors of quantum walks, namely the probability distribution evolves ballistically and the standard deviation of the phase distribution is linearly proportional to the number of steps. We also analyze the effects of decoherence by using the phase-damping channel on the coin space, showing the possibility to implement the quantum walk with present-day technology.
Maximum Fisher information in mixed state quantum systems
Luati, A
2004-01-01
We deal with the maximization of classical Fisher information in a quantum system depending on an unknown parameter. This problem has been raised by physicists, who defined [Helstrom (1967) Phys. Lett. A 25 101-102] a quantum counterpart of classical Fisher information, which has been found to constitute an upper bound for classical information itself [Braunstein and Caves (1994) Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 3439-3443]. It has then become of relevant interest among statisticians, who investigated the relations between classical and quantum information and derived a condition for equality in the particular case of two-dimensional pure state systems [Barndorff-Nielsen and Gill (2000) J. Phys. A 33 4481-4490]. In this paper we show that this condition holds even in the more general setting of two-dimensional mixed state systems. We also derive the expression of the maximum Fisher information achievable and its relation with that attainable in pure states.
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraus, Christina V.
2009-11-02
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS known for spin systems, and they approximate efficiently ground and thermal states of systems with short-range interaction. We give an explicit mapping between fPEPS and PEPS, allowing to extend previous simulation methods to fermions. In addition, we show that fPEPS naturally arise as exact ground states of certain fermionic Hamiltonians, and give an example that exhibits criticality while fulfilling the area law. Finally, we derive methods for the determination of ground and thermal states, as well as the time evolution, of interacting fermionic systems using generalized Hartree-Fock theory (gHFT). With the computational complexity scaling polynomially with the number of particles, this method can deal with large systems. As a benchmark we apply our methods to the translationally invariant Hubbard model with attractive interaction and find excellent agreement with known results. (orig.)
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS known for spin systems, and they approximate efficiently ground and thermal states of systems with short-range interaction. We give an explicit mapping between fPEPS and PEPS, allowing to extend previous simulation methods to fermions. In addition, we show that fPEPS naturally arise as exact ground states of certain fermionic Hamiltonians, and give an example that exhibits criticality while fulfilling the area law. Finally, we derive methods for the determination of ground and thermal states, as well as the time evolution, of interacting fermionic systems using generalized Hartree-Fock theory (gHFT). With the computational complexity scaling polynomially with the number of particles, this method can deal with large systems. As a benchmark we apply our methods to the translationally invariant Hubbard model with attractive interaction and find excellent agreement with known results. (orig.)
Tucci, Robert R.
2009-01-01
We describe an algorithm for using a quantum computer to calculate mean values of observables and the partition function of a quantum system. Our algorithm includes two sub-algorithms. The first sub-algorithm is for calculating, with polynomial efficiency, certain diagonal matrix elements of an observable. This sub-algorithm is performed on a quantum computer, using quantum phase estimation and tomography. The second sub-algorithm is for sampling a probability distribution. ...
Petersen, Ian R.
2015-01-01
This paper considers the problem of constructing a direct coupled quantum observer network for a single qubit quantum system. The proposed observer consists of a network of quantum harmonic oscillators and it is shown that the observer network output converges to a consensus in a time averaged sense in which each component of the observer estimates a specified output of the quantum plant. An example and simulations are included.
Correlations of neutral kaons - an open quantum system approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: I will present the quantum mechanical model of decaying particles based on the open quantum system approach. I will discuss the decay of a single neutral kaon. In our model the time evolution of the density matrix describing such a kaon is given by the appropriate Lindblad equation. The corresponding Lindblad operators are constructed explicitly in two cases - when we assume CP-invariance and without this assumption. The complete positivity of the time evolution is proved by the explicit construction of the corresponding Krauss operators. We use this results to calculate the correlation function in neutral kaon system. (author)
Shot noise in chaotic systems: "classical" to quantum crossover
Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor; Larkin, Anatoly
1999-01-01
This paper is devoted to study of the classical-to-quantum crossover of the shot noise value in chaotic systems. This crossover is determined by the ratio of the particle dwell time in the system, $\\tau_d$, to the characteristic time for diffraction $t_E \\simeq \\lambda^{-1} |\\ln \\hbar|$, where $\\lambda$ is the Lyapunov exponent. The shot noise vanishes in the limit $t_E \\gg \\tau_d $, while reaches its universal quantum value in the opposite limit. Thus, the Lyapunov exponent...
Bayesian parameter inference from continuously monitored quantum systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, SØren; MØlmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
We review the introduction of likelihood functions and Fisher information in classical estimation theory, and we show how they can be defined in a very similar manner within quantum measurement theory. We show that the stochastic master equations describing the dynamics of a quantum system subject to a definite set of measurements provides likelihood functions for unknown parameters in the system dynamics, and we show that the estimation error, given by the Fisher information, can be identified by stochastic master equation simulations. For large parameter spaces we describe and illustrate the efficient use of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling of the likelihood function.
Critical Scaling of Two-component Systems from Quantum Fluctuations
Mabiala, J; Zheng, H; McIntosh, A B; Kohley, Z; Cammarata, P; Hagel, K; Heilborn, L; May, L W; Raphelt, A; Zarrella, A; Yennello, S J
2012-01-01
The thermodynamics of excited nuclear systems allows one to explore the second-order phase transition in a two-component quantum mixture. Temperatures and densities are derived from quantum fluctuations of fermions. The pressures are determined from the grand partition function of Fisher's model. Critical scaling of observables is found for systems which differ in neutron to proton concentrations thus constraining the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. The derived critical exponent {\\beta}= 0.35 \\pm 0.01, belongs to the liquid-gas universality class. The critical compressibility factor Pc /{\\rho}c Tc increases with increasing neutron number.
Classical representation of a quantum system at equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Complete text of publication follows. A quantum system at equilibrium is represented by a corresponding classical system, chosen to reproduce the thermodynamic and structural properties. The objective is to develop a means for exploiting strong coupling classical methods (e.g., MD, integral equations, DFT) to describe quantum systems. The classical system has an effective temperature, local chemical potential, and pair interaction that are defined by requiring equivalence of the grand potential and its functional derivatives with respect to the external and pair potentials for the classical and quantum systems. Practical inversion of this mapping for the classical properties is effected via the hypernetted chain approximation, leading to representations as functionals of the quantum pair correlation function (similar in spirit to the approach of Dharma-wardana and Perrot). The parameters of the classical system are determined such that ideal gas, weak coupling RPA, and strong coupling pair limits are preserved. The potential advantages of this approach are discussed. Research supported by NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science Award DE-FG02-07ER54946, and by US DOE Grant DE-SC0002139.
Functional methods and mappings of dissipative quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the first part of this work we extract the algebraic structure behind the method of the influence functional in the context of dissipative quantum mechanics. Special emphasis was put on the transition from a quantum mechanical description to a classical one, since it allows a deeper understanding of the measurement-process. This is tightly connected with the transition from a microscopic to a macroscopic world where the former one is described by the rules of quantum mechanics whereas the latter follows the rules of classical mechanics. In addition we show how the results of the influence functional method can be interpreted as a stochastical process, which in turn allows an easy comparison with the well known time development of a quantum mechanical system by use of the Schroedinger equation. In the following we examine the tight-binding approximation of models of which their hamiltionian shows discrete eigenstates in position space and where transitions between those states are suppressed so that propagation either is described by tunneling or by thermal activation. In the framework of dissipative quantum mechanics this leads to a tremendous simplification of the effective description of the system since instead of looking at the full history of all paths in the path integral description, we only have to look at all possible jump times and the possible corresponding set of weights for the jump direction, which is much easier to handle both analytically and numerically. In addition we deal with the mapping and the connection of dissipative quantum mechanical models with ones in quantum field theory and in particular models in statistical field theory. As an example we mention conformal invariance in two dimensions which always becomes relevant if a statistical system only has local interaction and is invariant under scaling. (orig.)
From Quantum Spectra to Classical Orbits: the Circular Billiards Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHANG Ye-bing
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The semi-classical method has become a necessary instrument to study the classical movement of the particle. Periodic orbit theory is repidly becoming one of most useful semi-classical tools which can be used to make direct connections between the quantized energy eigenvalues of a bound state and the classical motions for the corresponding point particle. We use a quantum spectral function which contain rich information of classical orbits in well. We study the correspondence between quantum spectra and classical orbits in the circular Two-dimensional billiard systems have provided easily visualization examples relevant for both types of analyses. As a simple example of the application to a billiard or infinite well system of Periodic orbit theory, we compute the Fourier transform (p(L of the quantum mechanical energy level density of two-dimensional circular billiard system The resulting peaks in plots of |p(L|2 versus L are compared to lengths of the classical trajectories in these geometries. The locations of peaks in p(L agree with the lengths of classical orbits perfectly, which testifies the correspondence of quantum mechanics and classical mechanics. This examples show evidently that semi-classical methods provides a brdge between quantum and classical mechanics.
Thermodynamic Phase Diagram of the Quantum Hall Skyrmion System
Moon, K.; MULLEN, K
1999-01-01
We numerically study the interacting quantum Hall skyrmion system based on the Chern-Simons action. By noticing that the action is invariant under global spin rotations in the spin space with respect to the magnetic field direction, we obtain the low-energy effective action for a many skyrmion system. Performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we establish the thermodynamic phase diagram for a many skyrmion system.
Fermionic quantum systems: controllability and the parity superselection rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study controllability and simulability of fermionic quantum systems which observe the parity superselection rule. Superselection rules describe the existence of non-trivial symmetries (e.g., the parity operator) that commute with all physical observables. We present examples of fermionic sytems such as quasifree and translation-invariant ones and develop readily applicable conditions for the controllability of fermionic systems by studying their symmetries. As an application, we discuss under which conditions fermionic and spin systems can simulate each other.
Liquid Crystal Phases of Quantum Hall Systems
Fradkin, Eduardo; Kivelson, Steven A.
1998-01-01
Mean-field calculations for the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a large magnetic field with a partially filled Landau level with index $N\\geq 2$ consistently yield ``stripe-ordered'' charge-density wave ground-states, for much the same reason that frustrated phase separation leads to stripe ordered states in doped Mott insulators. We have studied the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations about such a state and show that they can lead to a set of electronic liqui...
Factorization and Entanglement in Quantum Systems
Eakins, Jon; Jaroszkiewicz, George
2002-01-01
We discuss the question of entanglement versus separability of pure quantum states in direct product Hilbert spaces and the relevance of this issue to physics. Different types of separability may be possible, depending on the particular factorization or split of the Hilbert space. A given orthonormal basis set for a Hilbert space is defined to be of type (p,q) if p elements of the basis are entangled and q are separable, relative to a given bi-partite factorization of that s...
Quantum transport through the system of parallel quantum dots with Majorana bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the tunneling transport properties through a system of parallel quantum dots which are coupled to Majorana bound states (MBSs). The conductance and spectral function are computed using the retarded Green's function method based on the equation of motion. The conductance of the system is 2e2/h at zero Fermi energy and is robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The dependence of the Fermi energy on the spectral function is different for the first dot (dot1) than for the second dot (dot2) with fixed dot2-MBSs coupling. The influence of the Majorana bound states on the spectral function was studied for the series and parallel configurations of the system. It was found that when the configuration is in series, the Majorana bound states play an important role, resulting in a spectral function with three peaks. However, the spectral function shows two peaks when the system is in a parallel configuration. The zero Fermi energy spectral function is always 1/2 not only in series but also in the parallel configuration and robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The phase diagram of the Fermi energy versus the quantum dot energy levels was also investigated
Barnes, George L.; Kellman, Michael E.
2013-12-01
Simulations are performed of a small quantum system interacting with a quantum environment. The system consists of various initial states of two harmonic oscillators coupled to give normal modes. The environment is "designed" by its level pattern to have a thermodynamic temperature. A random coupling causes the system and environment to become entangled in the course of time evolution. The approach to a Boltzmann distribution is observed, and effective fitted temperatures close to the designed temperature are obtained. All initial pure states of the system are driven to equilibrium at very similar rates, with quick loss of memory of the initial state. The time evolution of the von Neumann entropy is calculated as a measure of equilibration and of quantum coherence. It is pointed out using spatial density distribution plots that quantum interference is eliminated only with maximal entropy, which corresponds thermally to infinite temperature. Implications of our results for the notion of "classicalizing" behavior in the approach to thermal equilibrium are briefly considered.
Large quantum systems: a mathematical and numerical perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is devoted to the mathematical study of variational models for large quantum systems. The mathematical methods are that of nonlinear analysis, calculus of variations, partial differential equations, spectral theory, and numerical analysis. The first part contains some results on finite systems. We study several approximations of the N-body Schroedinger equation for electrons in an atom or a molecule, and then the so-called Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov model for a system of fermions interacting via the gravitational force. In a second part, we propose a new method allowing to prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit of Coulomb quantum systems. Then, we construct two Hartree-Fock-type models for infinite systems. The first is a relativistic theory deduced from Quantum Electrodynamics, allowing to describe the behavior of electrons, coupled to that of Dirac's vacuum which can become polarized. The second model describes a nonrelativistic quantum crystal in the presence of a charged defect. A new numerical method is also proposed. The last part of the thesis is devoted to spectral pollution, a phenomenon which is observed when trying to approximate eigenvalues in a gap of the essential spectrum of a self-adjoint operator, for instance for periodic Schroedinger operators or Dirac operators. (author)
Theoretical discussion for quantum computation in biological systems
Baer, Wolfgang
2010-04-01
Analysis of the brain as a physical system, that has the capacity of generating a display of every day observed experiences and contains some knowledge of the physical reality which stimulates those experiences, suggests the brain executes a self-measurement process described by quantum theory. Assuming physical reality is a universe of interacting self-measurement loops, we present a model of space as a field of cells executing such self-measurement activities. Empty space is the observable associated with the measurement of this field when the mass and charge density defining the material aspect of the cells satisfy the least action principle. Content is the observable associated with the measurement of the quantum wave function ? interpreted as mass-charge displacements. The illusion of space and its content incorporated into cognitive biological systems is evidence of self-measurement activity that can be associated with quantum operations.
Natural Light Harvesting Systems: Unraveling the quantum puzzles
Thilagam, A
2013-01-01
In natural light harvesting systems, the sequential quantum events of photon absorption by specialized biological antenna complexes, charge separation, exciton formation and energy transfer to localized reaction centers culminates in the conversion of solar to chemical energy. A notable feature in these processes is the exceptionally high efficiencies (> 95 %) at which excitation is transferred from the illuminated protein complex site to the reaction centers. Such high exciton propagation rates within a system of interwoven biomolecular network structures, is yet to be replicated in artificial light harvesting complexes. A clue to unraveling the quantum puzzles of nature may lie in the observation of long lived coherences lasting several picoseconds in the electronic spectra of photosynthetic complexes, even in noisy environmental baths. A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been devoted to unlocking the links between quantum processes and information protocols, in the hope of finding answers...
Quantum teleportation of dynamics and effective interactions between remote systems.
Muschik, Christine A; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S; Cirac, Ignacio J
2013-07-12
Most protocols for quantum information processing consist of a series of quantum gates, which are applied sequentially. In contrast, interactions between matter and fields, for example, as well as measurements such as homodyne detection of light are typically continuous in time. We show how the ability to perform quantum operations continuously and deterministically can be leveraged for inducing nonlocal dynamics between two separate parties. We introduce a scheme for the engineering of an interaction between two remote systems and present a protocol that induces a dynamics in one of the parties that is controlled by the other one. Both schemes apply to continuous variable systems, run continuously in time, and are based on real-time feedback. PMID:23889374
Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination
Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim
2010-10-01
The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to communicate a private, secret key, which is protected from eavesdropping by the laws of physics. So-called quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of single photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote-controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to tracelessly acquire the full secret key; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built from off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes to detect single photons. We believe that our findings are crucial for strengthening the security of practical QKD, by identifying and patching technological deficiencies.
TRIQS: A Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems
Parcollet, Olivier; Ayral, Thomas; Hafermann, Hartmut; Krivenko, Igor; Messio, Laura; Seth, Priyanka
2015-01-01
We present the TRIQS library, a Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems. It is an open-source, computational physics library providing a framework for the quick development of applications in the field of many-body quantum physics, and in particular, strongly-correlated electronic systems. It supplies components to develop codes in a modern, concise and efficient way: e.g. Green's function containers, a generic Monte Carlo class, and simple interfaces to HDF5. TRIQS is a C++/Python library that can be used from either language. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPLv3). State-of-the-art applications based on the library, such as modern quantum many-body solvers and interfaces between density-functional-theory codes and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) codes are distributed along with it.
Quantum Discord in Two-Qubit System Constructed from the Yang—Baxter Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum correlations among parts of a composite quantum system are a fundamental resource for several applications in quantum information. In general, quantum discord can measure quantum correlations. In that way, we investigate the quantum discord of the two-qubit system constructed from the Yang—Baxter Equation. The density matrix of this system is generated through the unitary Yang—Baxter matrix R. The analytical expression and numerical result of quantum discord and geometric measure of quantum discord are obtained for the Yang—Baxter system. These results show that quantum discord and geometric measure of quantum discord are only connect with the parameter ?, which is the important spectral parameter in Yang—Baxter equation. (general)
Classical representation of a quantum system at equilibrium: Theory
Dufty, James; Dutta, Sandipan
2013-03-01
A quantum system at equilibrium is represented by a corresponding classical system, chosen to reproduce thermodynamic and structural properties. The motivation is to allow application of classical strong-coupling theories and molecular dynamics simulation to quantum systems at strong coupling. The correspondence is made at the level of the grand-canonical ensembles for the two systems. An effective temperature, local chemical potential, and pair potential are introduced to define the corresponding classical system. These are determined formally by requiring the equivalence of the grand potentials and their functional derivatives. Practical inversions of these formal definitions are indicated via the integral equations for densities and pair correlation functions of classical liquid theory. Application to the ideal Fermi gas is demonstrated, and the weak-coupling form for the pair potential is given. In a companion paper two applications are described: the thermodynamics and structure of uniform jellium over a range of temperatures and densities and the shell structure of harmonically bound charges.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have combined the idea of renormalization group and quantum-information theory. We have shown how the entanglement or concurrence evolve as the size of the system becomes large, i.e., the finite size scaling is obtained. Moreover, we introduce how the renormalization-group approach can be implemented to obtain the quantum-information properties of a many-body system. We have obtained the concurrence as a measure of entanglement, its derivatives and their scaling behavior versus the size of system for the one-dimensional Ising model in transverse field. We have found that the derivative of concurrence between two blocks each containing half of the system size diverges at the critical point with the exponent, which is directly associated with the divergence of the correlation length
An Extension of Histogram Monte Carlo Methods to Quantum Systems
Oquendo, W F
2004-01-01
In this work we propose how to extend Histogram Monte Carlo methods to quantum systems in the World Line Quantum Monte Carlo formulation (WLQMC). Such extension is achieved by defining a density of states, g(k_1, k_2), over the classical system (in d+1 dimensions) equivalent to the quantum one (in d dimensions). The two quantities, k_1 and k_2, take into account that spatial and temporal dimensions in WLQMC are weighted by the temperature in different ways. With this extension, we can use a single simulation at fixed temperature, for instance, to compute quantum averages at other temperatures. The density of states g(k_1, k_2) can be computed by any histogram method. To illustrate the procedure we extend the Single Histogram Method (SHM) to investigate a canonical ensemble of one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillators in equilibrium with a heat bath at fixed temperature, and we compute averages of the potential, the kinetic and the total energy operators. Our results are precise and exact on broad temperatu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we study Spectral Decomposition Theorem (Lasota and Mackey, 1985) and translate it to quantum language by means of the Wigner transform. We obtain a Quantum Version of Spectral Decomposition Theorem (QSDT) which enables us to achieve three distinct goals: First, to rank Quantum Ergodic Hierarchy levels (Castagnino and Lombardi, 2009, Gomez and Castagnino, 2014). Second, to analyze the classical limit in quantum ergodic systems and quantum mixing systems. And third, and maybe most important feature, to find a relevant and simple connection between the first three levels of Quantum Ergodic Hierarchy (ergodic, exact and mixing) and quantum spectrum. Finally, we illustrate the physical relevance of QSDT applying it to two examples: Microwave billiards (Stockmann, 1999, Stoffregen et al. 1995) and a phenomenological Gamow model type (Laura and Castagnino, 1998, Omnès, 1994)
Topos-Based Logic for Quantum Systems and Bi-Heyting Algebras
Doering, Andreas
2012-01-01
To each quantum system, described by a von Neumann algebra of physical quantities, we associate a complete bi-Heyting algebra. The elements of this algebra represent contextualised propositions about the values of the physical quantities of the quantum system.
Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations
Local distinguishability of quantum states in infinite-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate local distinguishability of quantum states by use of convex analysis of joint numerical range of operators on a Hilbert space. We show that any two orthogonal pure states are distinguishable by local operations and classical communications, even for infinite-dimensional systems. An estimate of the local discrimination probability is also given for some families of more than two pure states
Macroscopic quantum tunneling in a system with dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study of the fine structure of the high-frequency current-voltage characteristics of a squId in the temperature range from 4.2--0.5 0K has been carried out. The dependence found cannot be explained within the framework of existing ideas. It is concluded that dissipation increases the probability of macroscopic quantum tunneling in the system
The Thermodynamic Limit of Quantum Coulomb Systems. Part II. Applications
Hainzl, Christian; Solovej, Jan Philip
2008-01-01
In a previous paper, we have developed a general theory of thermodynamic limits. We apply it here to three different Coulomb quantum systems, for which we prove the convergence of the free energy per unit volume. The first system is the crystal for which the nuclei are classical particles arranged periodically in space and only the electrons are quantum particles. We recover and generalize a previous result of Fefferman. In the second example, both the nuclei and the electrons are quantum particles, submitted to a periodic magnetic field. We thereby extend a seminal result of Lieb and Lebowitz. Finally, in our last example we take again classical nuclei but optimize their position. To our knowledge such a system was never treated before. The verification of the assumptions introduced in the previous paper uses several tools which have been introduced before in the study of large quantum systems. In particular, an electrostatic inequality of Graf and Schenker is one main ingredient of our new approach.
Existence of the thermodynamic limit for disordered quantum Coulomb systems
Blanc, Xavier
2012-01-01
Following a recent method introduced by C. Hainzl, J.P. Solovej and the second author of this article, we prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit for a system made of quantum electrons, and classical nuclei whose positions and charges are randomly perturbed in an ergodic fashion. All the particles interact through Coulomb forces.
Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations.
Induced gauge fields in a nongauged quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that non-Abelian gauge fields arise in a nongauged quantum system in the adiabatic approximation by working out a model of N-dimensional rotational symmetry. The induced gauge fields are symmetric under N-dimensional rotations accompanied by compensating gauge transformations of the group SO(N)
Quantum quenches in integrable systems: Constraints from factorisation
Schuricht, Dirk
2015-01-01
We consider quantum quenches in integrable systems where complete factorisation of scattering, transmission and particle creation processes is assumed at all times. We show that under this assumption, the simultaneous transmission and creation of particles is impossible in generic interacting theories.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Quantum Systems. A review for Scholarpedia
Strocchi, F.
2012-01-01
The mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum systems is briefly reviewed, rectifying part of the standard wisdom on logical and mathematical grounds. The crucial role of the localization properties of the time evolution for the conclusion of the Goldstone theorem is emphasized.
Symmetry-breaking skyrmion states in fractional quantum Hall systems
Ahn, Kang-Hun; Chang, K. J.
1996-01-01
We calculate in an analyical fashion the energies and net spins of skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall systems, based on the suggestion that skyrmion states are spontaneously $L_Z$ and $S_Z$ symmetry-breaking states. The quasihole-skyrmion state with a charge $-e/3$ around $\
Quantum limitations for spin measurements on systems of arbitrary spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The existence of additive conserved quantities implies, as well known, an unavoidable error in the measurement of those observables which do not commute with the conserved quantities. We introduce a formal procedure to derive a lower bound for the error in the case of a measurement of a spin component for a quantum system of arbitrary spin. (author)
Doubochinski, Danil
2007-01-01
Einstein, De Broglie and others hoped that the schism between classical and quantum physics might one day be overcome by a theory taking into account the essential nonlinearity of elementary physical processes. However, neither their attempts, nor subsequent ones were able to supply a unifying principle that could serve as a starting-point for a coherent understanding of both microphysical and macroscopic phenomena. In the late 1960s the phenomenon of amplitude quantization, or Macroscopic Quantum Effect (MQE), was discovered in a class of nonlinear oscillating systems in which two or more subsystems are coupled to each other by interactions having a specific phase-dependent character -- so-called argumental interactions. Experimental and theoretical studies of the MQE, carried out up to the present time, suggest the possibility of a new conceptual framework for physics, which would provide a bridge between classical and quantum physics, replacing the Newtonian notion of "force" by a new conception of physica...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum correlations play vital roles in the quantum features in quantum information processing tasks. Among the measures of quantum correlations, quantum discord (QD) and entanglement of formation (EOF) are two significant ones. Recent research has shown that there exists a relation between QD and EOF, which makes QD more significant in quantum information theory. However, until now, there exists no general method of characterizing quantum discord in high-dimensional quantum systems. In this paper, we have proposed a general method for calculating quantum discord in arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum systems in terms of Hurwitz's theory. Applications including the Werner state, the spin-1 XXZ model thermal equilibrium state, the Horodecki state, and the separable-bound-free entanglement state are investigated. We present the method of obtaining the EOF of arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum states via purification, and the relationship between QD and EOF. (general)
Investigation of quantum and classical correlations in a quantum dot system under decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we investigate quantitatively the thermal classical and quantum correlations in an isolated quantum dot system (QDS) including the effects of different parameters. We show that the quantum discord (QD) is more resistant against the temperature effect and might be finite even for higher temperatures in the asymptotic limit. Decoherence in a QDS caused by interaction with its environment is another interesting issue in the quantum information field. Assuming Markovian dynamics for the time evolution, we present noise models for the QDS by using Kraus operators for several noisy channels; in particular bit flip, bit-phase flip, phase flip, and depolarizing channels. By analytical and numerical analyses, we investigate the dynamics of different kinds of correlations, namely, the mutual information, the classical correlation, the entanglement of formation (EOF), and the QD in different channels. The sudden change in behavior in the decay rates of correlations and their immunity against certain decoherences are shown. We explore a symmetry among these channels and provide the decoherence areas for which both classical and quantum correlations remain affected in the QDS. (paper)
On the quantum dynamics of non-commutative systems
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
F. S., Bemfica; H. O., Girotti.
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This is a review paper concerned with the global consistency of the quantum dynamics of non-commutative systems. Our point of departure is the theory of constrained systems, since it provides a unified description of the classical and quantum dynamics for the models under investigation. We then elab [...] orate on recently reported results concerned with the sufficient conditions for the existence of the Born series and unitarity and turn, afterwards, into analyzing the functional quantization of non-commutative systems. The compatibility between the operator and the functional approaches is established in full generality. The intricacies arising in connection with the explicit computation of path integrals, for the systems under scrutiny, is illustrated by presenting the detailed calculation of the Feynman kernel for the non-commutative two dimensional harmonic oscillator.
Superintegrability and higher order integrals for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We refine a method for finding a canonical form of symmetry operators of arbitrary order for the Schroedinger eigenvalue equation H? ? (?2 + V)? = E? on any 2D Riemannian manifold, real or complex, that admits a separation of variables in some orthogonal coordinate system. The flat space equations with potentials V = ?(x + iy)k-1/(x - iy)k+1 in Cartesian coordinates, and V = ?r2 + ?/r2cos 2k? + ?/r2sin 2k? (the Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz system) in polar coordinates, have each been shown to be classically superintegrable for all rational numbers k. We apply the canonical operator method to give a constructive proof that each of these systems is also quantum superintegrable for all rational k. We develop the classical analog of the quantum canonical form for a symmetry. It is clear that our methods will generalize to other Hamiltonian systems.
Fidelity spectrum and phase transitions of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum fidelity between two density matrices F(?1,?2) is usually defined as the trace of the operator F=?(?(?1)?2?(?1)). We study the logarithmic spectrum of this operator, which we denote by the fidelity spectrum, in the cases of the XX spin chain in a magnetic field, a magnetic impurity inserted in a conventional superconductor, and a bulk superconductor at finite temperature. When the density matrices are equal, ?1=?2, the fidelity spectrum reduces to the entanglement spectrum. We find that the fidelity spectrum can be a useful tool in giving a detailed characterization of the different phases of many-body quantum systems.
Frustration, entanglement, and factorization in quantum spin systems
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2009-01-01
We investigate the separability properties of quantum ground states in frustrated spin systems. We prove that the existence of fully factorized ground states is compatible with increasing degrees of frustration up to a critical threshold above which only entangled ground states are permitted. The separability threshold identifies a frustration-driven transition between classical-like and entanglement-dominated regimes. We determine the critical degree of frustration and the form of the exact factorized ground-state solutions in various classes of non exactly solvable frustrated quantum spin models with finite-range as well as infinite-range interactions.
Quantum chaos and fluctuations in isolated nuclear-spin systems.
Ludlow, J A; Sushkov, O P
2007-01-01
Using numerical simulations we investigate dynamical quantum chaos in isolated nuclear spin systems. We determine the structure of quantum states, investigate the validity of the Curie law for magnetic susceptibility and find the spectrum of magnetic noise. The spectrum is the same for positive and negative temperatures. The study is motivated by recent interest in condensed-matter experiments for searches of fundamental parity- and time-reversal-invariance violations. In these experiments nuclear spins are cooled down to microkelvin temperatures and are completely decoupled from their surroundings. A limitation on statistical sensitivity of the experiments arises from the magnetic noise. PMID:17358232
Quantum chaos and fluctuations in isolated nuclear spin systems
Ludlow, J A
2006-01-01
Using numerical simulations we investigate dynamical quantum chaos in isolated nuclear spin systems. We determine the structure of quantum states, investigate the validity of the Curie law for magnetic susceptibility and find the spectrum of magnetic noise. The spectrum is the same for positive and negative temperatures. The study is motivated by recent interest in condensed-matter experiments for searches of fundamental parity- and time-reversal-invariance violations. In these experiments nuclear spins are cooled down to microkelvin temperatures and are completely decoupled from their surroundings. A limitation on statistical sensitivity of the experiments arises from the magnetic noise.
Security evaluation of a commercial quantum key distribution system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) systems theoretically guarantee secure communication based on fundamental physical laws. First commercial products have become available during the last years. Practical implementations often deviate from their theoretical models which potentially opens security loopholes. We experimentally tested security aspects of a commercial QKD system. Here we present measurements of the mean photon number and parasitic modulations. Within the measurement error we find no discrepancy from the theoretically expected values
Novel finite temperature conductivity in quantum Hall systems
Mandal, S S; Ravishankar, V; Mandal, Sudhansu S
1995-01-01
We study quantum Hall systems (mainly the integer case) at finite temperatures and show that there is a novel temperature dependence even for a pure system, thanks to the `anomalous' nature of generators of translation. The deviation of Hall conductivity from its zero temperature value is controlled by a parameter T_0 =\\pi \\rho /m^\\ast N which is sample specific and hence the universality of quantization is lost at finite temperatures.
Perturbation theory for mechano-quantum systems with degenerated states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have obtained equations to estimate perturbation corrections to the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of an arbitrary quantum system when the levels of the order zero system are degenerated. These equations are applied to a plane dipolar rotor in a uniform electric field. As a particular case we compute the second order spread for level n = 1 and the fourth order spread for level n = 2. (author)
ULTRASONIC RESPONSE TO TWO AND FOUR LEVEL QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Granato, A.; Hultman, K.; Huang, K.-F.
1985-01-01
The theory already available for the ultrasonic response to a quantum twolevel system for amorphous materials is discussed and adapted to two and four level systems in crystals. It is given in a simple physical way which helps make clear the distinction between resonance and relaxation. Resonance and no relaxation occurs for small enough static strain, while for large enough strain, the opposite is true. For a TLS, relaxation occurs by a direct process, with a rate linear in temperature in th...
Quantum four-body system in D dimensions
GU, XIAO-YAN; Ma, Zhong-qi; Sun, Jian-Qiang
2003-01-01
By the method of generalized spherical harmonic polynomials, the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for a four-body system in $D$-dimensional space is reduced to the generalized radial equations where only six internal variables are involved. The problem on separating the rotational degrees of freedom from the internal ones for a quantum $N$-body system in $D$ dimensions is generally discussed.
Simulation of stochastic quantum systems using polynomial chaos expansions
Young, Kevin C.; Grace, Matthew D.
2012-01-01
We present an approach to the simulation of quantum systems driven by classical stochastic processes that is based on the polynomial chaos expansion, a well-known technique in the field of uncertainty quantification. The polynomial chaos expansion represents the system density matrix as a series of orthogonal polynomials in the principle components of the stochastic process and yields a sparsely coupled hierarchy of linear differential equations. We provide practical heurist...
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range. PMID:18518481
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems
Giampaolo, S. M.; Adesso, G.; Illuminati, F.
2008-01-01
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows to determine rigorously existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally non-exactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interact...
Probing Quantum Frustrated Systems via Factorization of the Ground State
Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2009-01-01
The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvabl...
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems
Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F
2008-01-01
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows to determine rigorously existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally non-exactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Kinetic Theory of the Quantum Field Systems With Unstable Vacuum
Smolyansky, S. A.; Skokov, V. V.; Prozorkevich, A. V.
2003-01-01
The description of quantum field systems with meta-stable vacuum is motivated by studies of many physical problems (the decay of disoriented chiral condensate, the resonant decay of CP-odd meta-stable states, self-consistent model of QGP pre-equilibrium evolution, the phase transition problem in the systems with broken symmetry etc). A non-perturbative approach based on the kinetic description within the framework of the quasi-particle representation was proposed here. We re...
New Applications of Quantum Algebraically Integrable Systems in Fluid Dynamics
de Monvel, Anne Boutet; Yermolayeva, Oksana
2013-01-01
The rational quantum algebraically integrable systems are non-trivial generalizations of Laplacian operators to the case of elliptic operators with variable coefficients. We study corresponding extensions of Laplacian growth connected with algebraically integrable systems, describing viscous free-boundary flows in non-homogenous media. We introduce a class of planar flows related with application of Adler-Moser polynomials and construct solutions for higher-dimensional cases, where the conformal mapping technique is unavailable.
Optimal discrimination of multiple quantum systems: controllability analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical study is presented concerning the ability to dynamically discriminate between members of a set of different (but possibly similar) quantum systems. This discrimination is analysed in terms of independently and simultaneously steering about the wavefunction of each component system to a target state of interest using a tailored control (i.e. laser) field. Controllability criteria are revealed and their applicability is demonstrated in simple cases. Discussion is also presented in some uncontrollable cases
Novel Finite Temperature Conductivity in Quantum Hall Systems
Mandal, Sudhansu S; Ramaswamy, S.; Ravishankar, V.
1995-01-01
We study quantum Hall systems (mainly the integer case) at finite temperatures and show that there is a novel temperature dependence even for a pure system, thanks to the `anomalous' nature of generators of translation. The deviation of Hall conductivity from its zero temperature value is controlled by a parameter $T_0 =\\pi \\rho /m^\\ast N$ which is sample specific and hence the universality of quantization is lost at finite temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We establish an intriguing connection between quantum phase transitions and bifurcations in the reduced fidelity between two different reduced density matrices for quantum lattice many-body systems with symmetry-breaking order. Our finding is based on the observation that in the conventional Landau–Ginzburg–Wilson paradigm a quantum system undergoing a phase transition is characterized in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking that is captured by a local-order parameter, which in turn results in an essential change of the reduced density matrix in the symmetry-broken phase. Two quantum systems on an infinite lattice in one spatial dimension, i.e. a quantum Ising model in a transverse magnetic field and a quantum spin-1/2 XYX model in an external magnetic field, are considered in the context of the tensor network algorithm based on the matrix product state representation. (paper)
Radiative corrections and quantum gates in molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a method for quantum information processing using molecules coupled to an external laser field. This utilizes molecular interactions, control of the external field, and an effective energy shift of the doubly excited state of two coupled molecules. Such a level shift has been seen in the two-photon resonance experiments recently reported by Hettich et al. Here we show that this can be explained in terms of the QED Lamb shift. We quantify the performance of the proposed quantum logic gates in the presence of dissipative mechanisms. The unitary transformations required for performing one- and two-qubit operations can be implemented with present day molecular technology. The proposed techniques can also be applied to coupled quantum dot and biomolecular systems
Separability and ground state factorization in quantum spin systems
Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F
2009-01-01
We investigate the existence and the properties of fully separable (fully factorized) ground states in quantum spin systems. Exploiting techniques of quantum information and entanglement theory we extend a recently introduced method and construct a general, self-contained theory of ground state factorization in frustration-free quantum spin models defined on lattices in any spatial dimension and for interactions of arbitrary range. We show that, quite generally, non exactly solvable models in external field admit exact, fully factorized ground state solutions. Unentangled ground states occur at finite values of the Hamiltonian parameters satisfying well defined balancing conditions between external fields and interaction strengths. These conditions are analytically determined together with the type of magnetic orderings compatible with factorization and the corresponding values of the fundamental observables such as energy and magnetization. The method is applied to a series of examples of increasing complexi...
Energy flow in quantum critical systems far from equilibrium
Bhaseen, M. J.; Doyon, Benjamin; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad
2015-06-01
Characterizing the behaviour of strongly coupled quantum systems out of equilibrium is a cardinal challenge for both theory and experiment. With diverse applications ranging from the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma to transport in novel states of quantum matter, establishing universal results and organizing principles out of equilibrium is crucial. We present a universal description of energy transport between quantum critical heat baths in arbitrary dimension. The current-carrying non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) is a Lorentz-boosted thermal state. In the context of gauge/gravity duality this reveals an intimate correspondence between far-from-equilibrium transport and black hole uniqueness theorems. We provide analytical expressions for the energy current and the generating function of energy current fluctuations, together with predictions for experiment.
Ground-state geometric quantum computation in superconducting systems
Solinas, P; Möttönen, M
2010-01-01
We propose a way to implement geometric quantum computation based on a Hamiltonian which has a doubly degenerate ground state. Thus the system, which is steered adiabatically, remains in the instantaneous ground-state eigenspace during the evolution regardless of dissipation. The proposed physical implementation relies on a superconducting circuit composed of three SQUIDs and two superconducting islands with the charge states encoding the logical states. We obtain a universal set of single-qubit gates and implement a non-trivial two-qubit gate exploiting the mutual inductance between two neighboring circuits, allowing us to realize a fully geometric ground-state quantum computation. The introduced paradigm for the implementation of geometric quantum computation is expected support intrinsic robustness against environmental effects.
Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems
Oreshkov, Ognyan
2008-01-01
This thesis examines seven topics in the areas of deterministic open-quantum-system dynamics, quantum measurements, and quantum error correction (QEC). The first topic concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum operations. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be implemented as a sequence of weak (infinitesimal) measurements. The second topic is an application of this result to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and sufficient differential conditions for entanglement monotones are derived and are used to find a new entanglement monotone for three-qubit states. The third topic is a study of the performance of different master equations for the description of non-Markovian dynamics. The system studied is a qubit coupled to a spin bath via the Ising interaction. The fourth topic investigates continuous QEC in the presence of non-Markovian noise. It is shown that due to the existence of a Zeno regime in non-Markovian dynamics, the performance of continuous Q...
Towards universal quantum computation in continuous-variable systems
Milne, Darran F.
In this thesis we explore the possibility of creating continuous variable quantum systems that are capable of supporting universal quantum computation. We begin by examining the measurement-based model, which employs sequences of measurements on highly entangled resource states, known as a cluster states. We suggest a method for the construction of Gaussian cluster states based on ensembles of atoms and quantum non-demolition interactions. We then go on to expand our model to allow for the inclusion of light modes as part of the cluster. This yields a new class of states, the composite cluster states. This leads us to propose a new architecture for the measurement-based model that uses these composite clusters to increase resource efficiency and reduce computational errors. The second part of this thesis concerns topological quantum computation. In states exhibiting topological degrees of freedom, quantum information can be stored as a non-local property of the physical system and manipulated by braiding quasiparticles known as anyons. Here we show how these ideas can be extended to continuous variables. We establish a continuous variable analogue of the Kitaev toric code, show that excitations correspond to continuous versions of Abelian anyons and investigate their behaviour under the condition of finite squeezing of the resource state. Finally, we expand our continuous variable topological model to include non-abelian excitations by constructing superpositions of CV toric code anyons. We derive the fusion and braiding behaviour of these non-abelian excitations and find that they correspond to a CV analog of Ising anyons. Using these resources, we go on to suggest a computational scheme that encodes qubits within the fusion spaces of the CV Ising anyons and derive one- and two-qubit quantum gates operations that are implemented in a topological manner.
Quantum and classical dynamics in biologically inspired systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum biology is an emerging field in which traditional believes and paradigms are under examination. Typically, quantum effects are witnessed inside quantum optics or atomic physics laboratories in systems which are kept under control and isolated from any noise source by means of very advanced technology. Biological systems exhibit opposite characteristics: They are usually constituted of macromolecules continuously exposed to a warm and wet environment, well beyond our control; but at the same time, they operate far away from equilibrium. Recently, the experimental observation of excitonic coherence in photosynthetic complexes has con firmed that, in non-equilibrium scenarios, quantum phenomena can survive even in presence of a noisy environment. The challenge faced by the ongoing research is twofold: On one side, considering biological molecules as effective nanomachines, one has to address questions of principle regarding their design and functioning; on the other side, one has to investigate real systems which are experimentally accessible and identify such features in these concrete scenarios. The present thesis contributes to both of these aspects. In Part I, we demonstrate how entanglement can be persistently generated even under unfavorable environmental conditions. The physical mechanism is modeled after the idea of conformational changes, and it relies on the interplay of classical oscillations of large structures with the quantum dynamics of a few interacting degrees of freedom. In a similar context, we show that the transfer of an excitation through a linear chain of sites can be enhanced when the inter-site distances oscillate periodically. This enhancement is present even in comparison with the static con figuration which is optimal in the classical case and, therefore, it constitutes a clear signature of the underlying quantum dynamics. In Part II of this thesis, we study the radical pair mechanism from the perspective of quantum control and entanglement. According to one of the main hypotheses, radical pair reactions constitute the underlying physical mechanism to explain the ability of certain species of birds to orient in the geomagnetic field. In fact, the chemical equilibrium of radical pair reactions is strongly affected by an external magnetic fi eld through its influence on the dynamical evolution of two electron spins. We characterize the entanglement between these two electron spins, and apply simple quantum control protocols to modify the dependence of the chemical yield on the magnetic field. When the chemical reaction happens in solution, the classical diffusion of the reaction partners in the solvent has to be taken into account. To control this stochastic motion, we propose to link the radicals via a photoswitchable molecule which allows us to modify the separation of the radicals and, consequently, the reaction kinetics. An immediate application to chemical magnetometry is also discussed. (auth
a Quantum Transmitting SCHRÖDINGER-POISSON System
Baro, M.; Kaiser, H.-Chr.; Neidhardt, H.; Rehberg, J.
We study a stationary Schrödinger-Poisson system on a bounded interval of the real axis. The Schrödinger operator is defined on the bounded domain with transparent boundary conditions. This allows us to model a non-zero current through the boundary of the interval. We prove that the system always admits a solution and give explicit a priori estimates for the solutions.
On a Quantum System with Memory
Löffelholz, J.
We consider the integro-differential equation for the classical trajectory of an oscillator coupled to another one. On the quantum level the elimination of the coordinate A of the unvisible oscillator leads to an effective path integral (X, , ) for the associated imaginary time stochastic process t , (-,) x(t). We prove reflection positivity of the measure d? F . d, where d governes the free oscillator x and F is the counterpart of Feynman's influence functional. Finally, realizing the Hamiltonian semigroup exp(-tH), t 0, in the physical Hilbert space = L2(X, , ?), where +, we try to understand what is memory.Translated AbstractÜber ein Quantensystem mit GedächtnisWir untersuchen die Integro-Differentialgleichung für die klassische Trajektorie eines Oszillators, welcher an einen zweiten gekoppelt ist. Was passiert in der Quantenmechanik, wenn man die Koordinate des unsichtbaren Oszillators eliminiert? In imaginärer Zeit erhalten wir ein effektives Funktionalintegral (X, , ?) für den assoziierten stochastischen Prozeß t (-,) x(t). Formal gilt d? F . d. Hierbei beschreibt das Maß d die Dynamik des freien Oszillators x und F entspricht dem Feynmanschen Einflußfunktional. Wir zeigen, daß d? reflexionspositiv ist und realisieren die Halbgruppe exp(-tH), t 0, in = L2(X, +, ?). Dabei versuchen wir zu verstehen, wie in der Quantentheorie Gedächtnis entsteht.
Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications
Ren, Ting
2010-01-01
In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems.rn rnIn the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stöber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2 - 24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the ...
Quantum coupled non-linear Schroedinger system with different masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, the author has considered a one-dimensional quantum system with different masses m and M, which does not appear integrable in general. However, the author has found an exact two-body wave function and, due to the extension of the integrable system to a more general system, it was concluded that the rapidity or quasi-momentum in the integrable system should be regarded as a modification of velocity rather than that of momentum. The author has also considered the three-body wave function and argued its integrable condition
Quantum Coupled Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger System with Different Masses
Matsutani, Shigeki
1997-01-01
In this letter, I have considered one-dimensional quantum system with different masses $m$ and $M$, which does not appear integrable in general. However I have found an exact two-body wave function and due to the extension of the integrable system to more general system, it was concluded that the rapidity or quasi-momentum in the integrable system should be regarded as a modification of velocity rather than that of momentum. I have also considered the three-body wave functio...
Quantum coupled non-linear Schroedinger system with different masses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsutani, S. [Sairengi, Niihama, Ehime (Japan)
1998-05-01
In this paper, the author has considered a one-dimensional quantum system with different masses m and M, which does not appear integrable in general. However, the author has found an exact two-body wave function and, due to the extension of the integrable system to a more general system, it was concluded that the rapidity or quasi-momentum in the integrable system should be regarded as a modification of velocity rather than that of momentum. The author has also considered the three-body wave function and argued its integrable condition.
Quantum Coupled Nonlinear Schrödinger System with Different Masses
Matsutani, S
1997-01-01
In this letter, I have considered one-dimensional quantum system with different masses $m$ and $M$, which does not appear integrable in general. However I have found an exact two-body wave function and due to the extension of the integrable system to more general system, it was concluded that the rapidity or quasi-momentum in the integrable system should be regarded as a modification of velocity rather than that of momentum. I have also considered the three-body wave function and argued its integrable condition.
MEMS-Based Optical Beam Steering System for Quantum Information Processing in 2D Atomic Systems
Knoernschild, Caleb; Kim, Changsoon; Liu, Bin; Lu, Felix P.; Kim, Jungsang.
2007-01-01
In order to provide scalability to quantum information processors utilizing trapped atoms or ions as quantum bits (qubits), the capability to address multiple individual qubits in a large array is needed. Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology can be used to create a flexible and scalable optical system to direct the necessary laser beams to multiple qubit locations. We developed beam steering optics using controllable MEMS mirrors that enable one laser beam to ad...
Absorbing boundary conditions for dynamical many-body quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In numerical studies of the dynamics of unbound quantum mechanical systems, absorbing boundary conditions are frequently applied. Although this certainly provides a useful tool in facilitating the description of the system, its applications to systems consisting of more than one particle are problematic. This is due to the fact that all information about the system is lost upon the absorption of one particle; a formalism based solely on the Schroedinger equation is not able to describe the remainder of the system as particles are lost. Here we demonstrate how the dynamics of a quantum system with a given number of identical fermions may be described in a manner which allows for particle loss. A consistent formalism which incorporates the evolution of sub-systems with a reduced number of particles is constructed through the Lindblad equation. Specifically, the transition from an N-particle system to an (N - 1)-particle system due to a complex absorbing potential is achieved by relating the Lindblad operators to annihilation operators. The method allows for a straight forward interpretation of how many constituent particles have left the system after interaction. We illustrate the formalism using one-dimensional two-particle model problems.
Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems
Oreshkov, Ognyan
This thesis examines seven topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems. The first one concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum measurements. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be decomposed into a sequence of weak measurements which allows us to think of measurements as resulting form continuous stochastic processes. The second topic concerns an application of the decomposition into weak measurements to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and sufficient differential conditions for entanglement monotones are derived, and are used to find a new entanglement monotone for three-qubit states. The third topic examines the performance of different master equations for the description of non-Markovian dynamics. The system studied is a qubit coupled to a spin bath via the Ising interaction. The fourth topic studies continuous quantum error-correction in the case of non-Markovian decoherence. It is shown that due to the existence of a Zeno regime in non-Markovian dynamics, the performance of continuous quantum error correction may exhibit a quadratic improvement if the time resolution of the error-correcting operations is sufficiently high. The fifth topic concerns conditions for correctability of subsystem codes in the case of continuous decoherence. The obtained conditions on the Lindbladian and the system-environment Hamiltonian can be thought of as generalizations of the previously known conditions for noiseless subsystems to the case where the subsystem is time-dependent. The sixth topic examines the robustness of quantum error-correcting codes against initialization errors. It is shown that operator codes are robust against imperfect initialization without the need for restriction of the standard error-correction conditions. For this purpose, a new measure of fidelity for encoded information is introduced and its properties are discussed. The last topic concerns holonomic quantum computation and stabilizer codes. A fault-tolerant scheme for holonomic computations is presented, demonstrating the scalability of the holonomic method. The scheme opens the possibility for combining the benefits of error correction with the inherent resilience of the holonomic approach.
Optimal control for generating quantum gates in open dissipative systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulte-Herbrueggen, T; Spoerl, A; Glaser, S J [Department of Chemistry, Technical University Munich, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Khaneja, N, E-mail: tosh@ch.tum.de [Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2011-08-14
Optimal control methods for implementing quantum modules with least amount of relaxative loss are devised to give best approximations to unitary gates under relaxation. The potential gain by optimal control fully exploiting known relaxation parameters against time-optimal control (the alternative for unknown relaxation parameters) is explored and exemplified in numerical and in algebraic terms: for instance, relaxation-based optimal control is the method of choice to govern quantum systems within subspaces of weak relaxation whenever the drift Hamiltonian would otherwise drive the system through fast decaying modes. In a standard model system generalizing ideal decoherence-free subspaces to more realistic scenarios, opengrape-derived controls realize a CNOT with fidelities beyond 95% instead of at most 15% for a standard Trotter expansion. As additional benefit their control fields are orders of magnitude lower in power than bang-bang decouplings.
Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems
Nation, P D
2015-01-01
We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterat...
Gauge nonlocality in planar quantum-coherent systems
Moulopoulos, K
2014-01-01
It is shown that a system with quantum coherence can be nontrivially affected by adjacent magnetic or adjacent time-varying electric field regions, with this proximity (or remote) influence having a gauge origin. This is implicit (although overlooked) in numerous works on extended systems with inhomogeneous magnetic fields (with either conventional or Dirac materials) but is generally plagued with an apparent gauge ambiguity. The origin of this annoying feature is explained and it is shown how it can be theoretically removed, leading to macroscopic quantizations (quantized Dirac monopoles, integral quantum Hall effect, quantized magnetoelectric phenomena in topological insulators). Apart however from serving as a theoretical probe of macroscopic quantizations, there are cases (experimental conditions, clarified here) when this "gauge nonlocality" does not really suffer from any ambiguity: an apparently innocent gauge transformation corresponds to real change in physics of a companion system in higher dimensio...
The Role of Quantum Vacuum Forces in Microelectromechanical Systems
MacLay, G J
2006-01-01
The presence of boundary surfaces in the vacuum alters the ground state of the quantized electromagnetic field and can lead to the appearance of vacuum forces. In the last decade, landmark measurements of the vacuum stress between conducting uncharged parallel plates (Casimir force) have been made. Recently the first micromachined MEMS (microelectromechanical system) device was fabricated that utilizes the Casimir force between parallel plates. The force dependence allows the device to serve as a highly sensitive position sensor. The are many other examples of quantum vacuum forces and effects besides the well known parallel plate Casimir force. Here we discuss potential roles of quantum vacuum forces and effects in MEMS systems and other systems. With the growing capability in nanofabrication, some of the roles may be actualized in the future. Because of the computational complexity, no theoretical results are yet available for a number of potentially interesting geometries and we can only speculate.
Optimal Control for Generating Quantum Gates in Open Dissipative Systems
Schulte-Herbrueggen, T; Khaneja, N; Glaser, S J
2006-01-01
Optimal control methods for implementing quantum modules with least amount of dissipation are devised to give best approximations to unitary gates under explicit relaxation. They are the methods of choice to govern quantum systems within decoherence-poor subspaces whenever the drift Hamiltonian would otherwise sweep the system through decoherence-rich states of the embedding larger Liouville space. Superoperator GRAPE derived controls outperform Trotter-type approaches significantly: in a standard model system encoding two logical qubits by four physical ones, one obtains a CNOT with fidelities beyond 95 % instead of at most 15 % in the Trotter limit with the additional benefit of the former requiring control fields orders of magnitude lower than the latter.
Quantum simulations of materials and biological systems
Treutlein, Herbert
2012-01-01
This book details applications of DFT methods to large materials and biological systems, such optical and electronic properties of nanoparticles, X-ray structure refinement of proteins, the catalytic process of enzymes and photochemistry of phytochromes.
Quantum chaos and conductivity in disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The hopping conductivity in a disordered system which is composed of small (semi-) metallic granules is presented. Due to the irregular shape of each granule, the level statistics of a free electron in granule is expressed by a random matrix, and a formula for the temperature-dependent conductivity (TDC) is obtained for such a disordered system. This TDC shows an apparent metal-insulator transition and is in good agreement with experimental results for disordered carbons
Quantum chaos and conductivity in disordered systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, A.; Matsutani, S. [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)
2001-05-01
The hopping conductivity in a disordered system which is composed of small (semi-) metallic granules is presented. Due to the irregular shape of each granule, the level statistics of a free electron in granule is expressed by a random matrix, and a formula for the temperature-dependent conductivity (TDC) is obtained for such a disordered system. This TDC shows an apparent metal-insulator transition and is in good agreement with experimental results for disordered carbons.
Classical and quantum higher order superintegrable systems from coalgebra symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The N-dimensional generalization of Bertrand spaces as families of maximally superintegrable (M.S.) systems on spaces with a nonconstant curvature is analyzed. Considering the classification of two-dimensional radial systems admitting three constants of motion at most quadratic in momenta, we will be able to generate a new class of spherically symmetric M.S. systems by using a technique based on coalgebra. The three-dimensional realization of these systems provides the entire classification of classical spherically symmetric M.S. systems admitting periodic trajectories. We show that in dimension N > 2, these systems (classical and quantum) admit, in general, higher order constants of motion and turn out to be exactly solvable. Furthermore, it is possible to obtain non-radial M.S. systems by introducing the projection of the original radial system to a suitable lower dimensional space. (paper)
Xiao-song Ma; Borivoje Dakic; Sebastian Kropatsche; William Naylor; Yang-hao Chan; Zhe-xuan Gong; Lu-ming Duan; Anton Zeilinger; Philip Walther
2013-01-01
Photonic quantum simulators are promising candidates for providing insight into other small- to medium-sized quantum systems. The available photonic quantum technology is reaching the state where significant advantages arise for the quantum simulation of interesting questions in Heisenberg spin systems. Here we experimentally simulate such spin systems with single photons and linear optics. The effective Heisenberg-type interactions among individual single photons are realiz...
Quantum non-demolition measurement of a superconducting two-level system
Lupascu, A.; Saito, S.; Picot, T.; Groot, P.C.; Harmans, C. J. P. M; Mooij, J.E.
2006-01-01
In quantum mechanics, the process of measurement is a subtle interplay between extraction of information and disturbance of the state of the quantum system. A quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement minimizes this disturbance by using a particular system - detector interaction which preserves the eigenstates of a suitable operator of the quantum system. This leads to an ideal projective measurement. We present experiments in which we perform two consecutive measurements on ...
Arvesons entanglement measure in finite dimensional quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sokoli, Florian; Alber, Gernot [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Theoretical Quantum Physics Group
2012-07-01
The problem of understanding entanglement is crucial for quantum information theory and applications. However, entanglement is poorly understood at least for multipartite and mixed quantum states. In 2008, the mathematician William Arveson proposed a powerful and elegant way of quantifying entanglement which applies to arbitrary N-partite quantum states and reduces to the so called ''projective norm'' of density operators in finite dimensional systems. However, in general its computation is difficult. We propose a new technique which can be interpreted as a generalized Schmidt decomposition for multipartite systems. With its help the computation of the projective norm of a large class of quantum states can be reduced to the determination of eigenvalues. These so called gsd-states are characterized by having support on certain subspaces of the underlying Hilbert space. In particular, mixed states are included and this class of states is stable under mixing. We derive a formula for the quantification of the amount of entanglement for multipartite states that arise by tracing out arbitrary subsystems of a special type of gsd-states.
Arvesons entanglement measure in finite dimensional quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of understanding entanglement is crucial for quantum information theory and applications. However, entanglement is poorly understood at least for multipartite and mixed quantum states. In 2008, the mathematician William Arveson proposed a powerful and elegant way of quantifying entanglement which applies to arbitrary N-partite quantum states and reduces to the so called ''projective norm'' of density operators in finite dimensional systems. However, in general its computation is difficult. We propose a new technique which can be interpreted as a generalized Schmidt decomposition for multipartite systems. With its help the computation of the projective norm of a large class of quantum states can be reduced to the determination of eigenvalues. These so called gsd-states are characterized by having support on certain subspaces of the underlying Hilbert space. In particular, mixed states are included and this class of states is stable under mixing. We derive a formula for the quantification of the amount of entanglement for multipartite states that arise by tracing out arbitrary subsystems of a special type of gsd-states.
Information-Theoretic Analyses of Two-Level Quantum Systems
Slater, P B
2000-01-01
We observe that the 3 x 3 quantum (Helstrom) information matrix (H) for thethree-dimensional convex set of two-level quantum systems is equal to 1/4 ofthe classical (Fisher) information matrix for a certain family of multinomial(in particular, quadrinomial) probability distributions. Implications for stateestimation and universal coding (data compression) of this quantum-classicalrelation are examined. We also compute the Fisher information matrices based onthe optimal sets of measurements recently devised by Vidal et al(quant-ph/9812068) for N = 2,...,7 copies of the two-level systems. We findthat these matrices are bounded above by (N-1) H, while N H is the theoreticalbound provided by the quantum Cramer-Rao theorem. Additionally, the slightlysmaller matrices (N-1.01) H are not dominating near the pure states, so the bounds (N-1) H areclearly quite tight there. We find for N = 2,...,6 that the trace of theproduct of the inverse of H and the Fisher information matrix for optimalminimal measurements of N copi...
Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack
Huang, Jing-Zheng; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2013-06-01
The security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution are based on the assumptions that the eavesdropper can neither act on the local oscillator nor control Bob's beam splitter. These assumptions may be invalid in practice due to potential imperfections in the implementations of such protocols. In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting the local oscillator in a public channel and propose a wavelength attack which allows the eavesdropper to control the intensity transmission of Bob's beam splitter by switching the wavelength of the input light. Specifically we target continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems that use the heterodyne detection protocol using either direct or reverse reconciliation. Our attack is proved to be feasible and renders all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure, even if they have monitored the intensity of the local oscillator. To prevent our attack on commercial systems, a simple wavelength filter should be randomly added before performing monitoring detection.
Quantum diffusion dynamics in nonlinear systems: a modified kicked-rotor model.
Gong, Jiangbin; Wang, Jiao
2007-09-01
Using a simple method analogous to a quantum rephasing technique, a simple modification to a paradigm of classical and quantum chaos is proposed. The interesting quantum maps thus obtained display remarkably rich quantum dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the destruction of dynamical localization without breaking periodicity, unbounded quantum anomalous diffusion in integrable systems, and transient dynamical localization. Experimental realizations of this work are also discussed. PMID:17930333
OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS DYNAMICS WITHIN AND BEYOND THE JAYNES-CUMMINGS MODEL
BINA, MATTEO
2010-01-01
The object of this PhD Thesis is light and matter quantum interaction including studies on cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics (CQED and cQED), quantum information theory and entanglement dynamics in open systems. In recent years both theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to study problems regarding the transfer of quantum correlations, quantum memories, entanglement protection against decoherence and new regimes accessible in cQED. One of the fundamental model und...
Correlations and Equilibration in Relativistic Quantum Systems
Cassing, W.; Juchem, S.
2003-01-01
In this article we study the time evolution of an interacting field theoretical system, i.e. \\phi^4-field theory in 2+1 space-time dimensions, on the basis of the Kadanoff-Baym equations for a spatially homogeneous system including the self-consistent tadpole and sunset self-energies. We find that equilibration is achieved only by inclusion of the sunset self-energy. Simultaneously, the time evolution of the scalar particle spectral function is studied for various initial st...
Quantum cloning machines and their implementation in physical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the basic theory of approximate quantum cloning for discrete variables and some schemes for implementing quantum cloning machines. Several types of approximate quantum clones and their expansive quantum clones are introduced. As for the implementation of quantum cloning machines, we review some design methods and recent experimental results. (topical review - quantum information)
The thermodynamic cost of driving quantum systems by their boundaries.
Barra, Felipe
2015-01-01
The laws of thermodynamics put limits to the efficiencies of thermal machines. Analogues of these laws are now established for quantum engines weakly and passively coupled to the environment providing a framework to find improvements to their performance. Systems whose interaction with the environment is actively controlled do not fall in that framework. Here we consider systems actively and locally coupled to the environment, evolving with a so-called boundary-driven Lindblad equation. Starting from a unitary description of the system plus the environment we simultaneously obtain the Lindblad equation and the appropriate expressions for heat, work and entropy-production of the system extending the framework for the analysis of new, and some already proposed, quantum heat engines. We illustrate our findings in spin 1/2 chains and explain why an XX chain coupled in this way to a single heat bath relaxes to thermodynamic-equilibrium while and XY chain does not. Additionally, we show that an XX chain coupled to a left and a right heat baths behaves as a quantum engine, a heater or refrigerator depending on the parameters, with efficiencies bounded by Carnot efficiencies. PMID:26445899