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1

Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons, described by a non-Markovian model, interacting with a coupled quantum dot-cavity system. The reduction of phonon-induced dephasing is obtained by placing the cavity-quantum dot system inside an infinite slab, assuming spherical electronic wavefunctions. Based on our calculations, we expect this to have important implications in single-photon sources, allowing the indistinguishability of the photons to be improved.

Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær

2012-01-01

2

Coherent excitation of a strongly coupled quantum dot - cavity system

We have studied the coherent excitation of a strongly coupled QD/photonic crystal cavity system. Time-resolved reflectivity measurements show the vacuum Rabi oscillation of the dot in the cavity. Next, we considered the resonant driving of a cavity-detuned dot, which efficiently populates the cavity mode. This cavity-controlled read-out channel allows high-resolution single quantum dot spectroscopy. Autocorrelation measurements on the cavity mode show antibunching and suggest the use of the resonantly driven QD/cavity system as an on-demand source of single photons with potentially near-unity indistinguishability.

Englund, Dirk; Faraon, Andrei; Toishi, Mitsuru; Stoltz, Nick; Petroff, Pierre; Vuckovic, Jelena

2009-01-01

3

Nondestructive entangled-state analyzers could save the physical entanglement resource and boost the efficiency of quantum information processing (QIP). However, up to now, there is no much progress in the nondestructive analysis of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. In this paper, a nondestructive photonic polarization GHZ-state analyzer, based on the interaction between circularly polarized light and quantum-dot cavity systems, is proposed. We can distinguish the GHZ states deterministically in theory, and the states are not destroyed because no single-photon detectors are required. Our scheme can be extended to -photon GHZ states analysis directly and can be used to achieve QIP with less resource.

Zhao, Rui-Tong; Liang, Rui-Sheng; Wang, Fa-Qiang

2014-12-01

4

Entangled photons from a strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity system

A quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal has been recently proposed as a source of entangled photon pairs [R. Johne et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 240404 (2008)]. The biexction decay via intermediate polariton states can be used to overcome the natural splitting between the exciton states coupled to the horizontally and vertically polarized light modes, so that high degrees of entanglement can be expected. We investigate theoretically the features of realistic dot-cavity systems, including the effect of the different oscillator strength of excitons resonances coupled to the different polarizations of light. We show that in this case, an independent adjustment of the cavity resonances is needed in order to keep a high entanglement degree. We also consider the case when the biexciton-exciton transition is also strongly coupled to a cavity mode. We show that a very fast emission rate can be achieved allowing the repetition rates in the THz range. Such fast emission should however be paid for by a very...

Johne, Robert; Malpuech, Guillaume

2008-01-01

5

Quantum nature of a strongly-coupled single quantum dot-cavity system

Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between a quantum emitter and a single radiation-field mode. When an atom is in strong coupling with a cavity mode1,2, it is possible to realize key quantum information processing (QIP) tasks, such as controlled coherent coupling and entanglement of distinguishable quantum systems. Realizing these tasks in the solid state is clearly desirable, and coupling semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) to monolithic optical cavities is a promising route to this end. However, validating the efficacy of QDs in QIP applications requires confirmation of the quantum nature of the QD-cavity system in the strong coupling regime. Here we find a confirmation by observing quantum correlations in photoluminescence (PL) from a photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity3-5 interacting with one, and only one, QD located precisely at the cavity electric field maximum. When off-resonance, photon emission from the cavity mode and QD excitons is anti-correlated at the level o...

Hennessy, K; Badolato, A; Falt, S; Gerace, D; Gulde, S T; Hu, E L; Imamoglu, A; Winger, M

2006-01-01

6

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate the influence of electron-phonon interactions on the dynamical properties of a quantum-dot-cavity QED system. We show that non-Markovian effects in the phonon reservoir lead to strong changes in the dynamics, arising from photon-assisted dephasing processes, not present in Markovian treatments. A pronounced consequence is the emergence of a phonon induced spectral asymmetry when detuning the cavity from the quantum-dot resonance. The asymmetry can only be explained when considering the polaritonic quasiparticle nature of the quantum-dot-cavity system. Furthermore, a temperature induced reduction of the light-matter coupling strength is found to be relevant in interpreting experimental data, especially in the strong coupling regime.

Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland

2010-01-01

7

Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum in a quantum dot-cavity system

We introduce the Green's functions technique as an alternative theory to the quantum regression theorem formalism for calculating the two-time correlation functions in open quantum systems. In particular, we investigate the potential of this theoretical approach by its application to compute the emission spectrum of a dissipative system composed by a single quantum dot inside of a semiconductor cavity. We also describe a simple algorithm based on the Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum of the quantum dot as well as of the cavity which can easily be implemented in any numerical linear algebra package. We find that the Green's functions technique demonstrates a better accuracy and efficiency in the calculation of the emission spectrum and it allows to overcome the inherent theoretical difficulties associated to the direct application of the quantum regression theorem approach.

Gomez, Edgar A; Vinck-Posada, Herbert

2015-01-01

8

Origin of the optical emission within the cavity mode of coupled quantum dot-cavity systems.

The origin of the emission within the optical mode of a coupled quantum dot-micropillar system is investigated. Time-resolved photoluminescence is performed on a large number of deterministically coupled devices in a wide range of temperature and detuning. The emission within the cavity mode is found to exhibit the same dynamics as the spectrally closest quantum dot state. Our observations indicate that fast dephasing of the quantum dot state is responsible for the emission within the cavity mode. An explanation for recent photon correlation measurements reported on similar systems is proposed. PMID:19659240

Suffczy?ski, J; Dousse, A; Gauthron, K; Lemaître, A; Sagnes, I; Lanco, L; Bloch, J; Voisin, P; Senellart, P

2009-07-10

9

Two-photon emission in coupled biexciton quantum dot—cavity system: Phonon-assisted model

We theoretically analyze the steady state emission spectrum and transient temporal dynamics in a coupled biexciton quantum dot (QD)—cavity system. For steady state, a phonon-assisted biexciton—exciton cascade model under continuous wave (CW) excitation is presented to explain the asymmetric QD—cavity emission spectrum intensities (intensities of cavity, exciton, and biexciton emission peak) in off-resonance condition. Results demonstrate that the electron—phonon process is crucial to the asymmetry of emission spectrum intensity. Moreover the transient characteristics of the biexciton—exciton cascade system under pulse excitation show abundant nonlinear temporal dynamic behaviors, including complicated oscillations which are caused by the four-level structure of QD model. We also reveal that under off-resonance condition the cavity outputs are slightly reduced due to the electron—phonon interaction.

Peng, Yi-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Min; Wu, Tie-Sheng; Zhang, Wen

2014-12-01

10

Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g2(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission.

Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter

2014-01-01

11

Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs using a quantum-dot cavity system

We present a scheme to realize a deterministic solid state source of time-bin entangled photon pairs using cavity-assisted stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) in a single quantum dot. The quantum dot is embedded inside a semiconductor cavity, and the interaction of a coherent superposition of two temporally separated input pulses and the cavity mode leads to a two-photon Raman transition, which produces a time-bin entangled photon pair through the biexciton-exciton cascade. We show that the entanglement of the generated state can be measured using triple coincidence detection, and the degree of entanglement is quantified as the visibility of the interference. We also discuss the effect of pure dephasing on entanglement of the generated photon pair. Pronounced interference visibility values of greater than $1/\\sqrt{2}$ are demonstrated in triple coincidence measurement using experimentally achievable parameters, thus demonstrating that the generated photons are suitable for applications with Bell's ine...

Pathak, P K

2010-01-01

12

Rabi oscillations in a quantum dot-cavity system coupled to a nonzero temperature phonon bath

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study a quantum dot strongly coupled to a single high-finesse optical microcavity mode. We use a rotating wave approximation (RWA) method, commonly used in ion-laser interactions, together with the Lamb-Dicke approximation to obtain an analytic solution of this problem. The decay of Rabi oscillations because of the electron-phonon coupling is studied at arbitrary temperature and analytical expressions for the collapse and revival times are presented. Analyses without the RWA are presented as means of investigating the energy spectrum

13

Quantum Dot Cavity-QED in the Presence of Strong Electron-Phonon Interactions

A quantum dot strongly coupled to a single high finesse optical microcavity mode constitutes a new fundamental system for quantum optics. Here, the effect of exciton-phonon interactions on reversible quantum-dot cavity coupling is analysed without making Born-Markov approximation. The analysis is based on techniques that have been used to study the ``spin boson'' Hamiltonian. Observability of vacuum-Rabi splitting depends on the strength and the frequency dependence of the spectral density function characterizing the interactions with phonons, both of which can be influenced by phonon confinement.

Wilson-Rae, I

2001-01-01

14

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two electron-spin qubits in the quantum-dot (QD)-microcavity system in the large-detuning limit and subjected to two different noise sources: electron-spin dephasing and relaxation. We show that when one of the two dots is prepared initially in the excited state, the created entanglement exhibits oscillatory behavior at the beginning of evolution and then completely disappears over time. For two QDs that are initially in either the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell states or the Werner states, their entanglement evolution exhibits the same behavior in the presence of pure dephasing, but is completely different under the relaxation process. We also show that the interdot interaction induced by a single-mode cavity field does not contribute to the dynamics of entanglement for these Bell states and Werner states.

15

We present a quantum optics formalism to study intensity power broadening of a semiconductor quantum dot interacting with an acoustic phonon bath and a high $Q$ microcavity. Power broadening is investigated using a time-convolutionless master equation in the polaron frame which allows for a nonperturbative treatment of the interaction of the quantum dot with the phonon reservoir. We calculate the full non-Lorentzian photoluminescence (PL) lineshapes and numerically extract the intensity linewidths of the quantum dot exciton and the cavity mode as a function of pump rate and temperature. For increasing field strengths, multiphonon and multiphoton effects are found to be important, even for phonon bath temperatures as low as 4 K. We show that the interaction of the quantum dot with the phonon reservoir introduces pronounced features in the power broadened PL lineshape, enabling one to observe clear signatures of electron-phonon scattering. The PL lineshapes from cavity pumping and exciton pumping are found to b...

Roy, Chiranjeeb

2011-01-01

16

Coupling and single-photon purity of a quantum dot-cavity system studied using hydrostatic pressure

We propose an approach to tune the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD) to couple with a planar cavity using hydrostatic pressure without inducing temperature variation during the process of measurement. Based on this approach, we studied the influence of cavity mode on the single-photon purity of an InAs/GaAs QD. Our measurement demonstrates that the single-photon purity degrades when the QD emission resonates with the cavity mode. This negative influence of the planar cavity is mainly caused by the cavity feeding effect.

Zhou, P. Y.; Wu, X. F.; Ding, K.; Dou, X. M.; Zha, G. W.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Zhu, H. J.; Jiang, D. S.; Zhao, C. L.; Sun, B. Q.

2015-01-01

17

Phonon Mediated Off-Resonant Quantum Dot-Cavity Coupling

A theoretical model for the phonon-mediated off-resonant coupling between a quantum dot and a cavity, under resonant excitation of the quantum dot, is presented. We show that the coupling is caused by electron-phonon interaction in the quantum dot and is enhanced by the cavity. We analyze recently observed resonant quantum dot spectroscopic data by our theoretical model.

Majumdar, Arka; Kim, Erik D; Vuckovic, Jelena

2010-01-01

18

The quantum dot (QD)–cavity system with deep confinement potential is usually studied by either non-resonant or quasi-resonant p-exciton pump (PEP) with the s-exciton pump (SEP) ignored. In this paper, we investigate the effect of an SEP on the emission properties of a QD–cavity system with deep confinement potential by comparing the different incoherent excitation schemes, including pumping with both s- and p-exciton pump and with PEP only. The investigation reveals that the steady-state properties such as photon statistical properties and emission spectra of the QD–cavity system are significantly affected. More importantly, after taking SEP into consideration, the lasing and self-quenching regime of the entire system will be reached at a much lower pump rate than that of the only PEP scheme.

Guan, Huan; Yao, Peijun; Lu, Yonghua; Yu, Wenhai; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai

2015-01-01

19

Cavity quantum-electrodynamics experiments using an atom coupled to a single radiation-field mode have played a central role in testing foundations of quantum mechanics, thus motivating solid-state implementations using single quantum dots coupled to monolithic nano-cavities. In stark contrast to their atom based counterparts, the latter experiments revealed strong cavity emission, even when the quantum dot is far off resonance. Here we present experimental and theoretical r...

Winger, Martin; Volz, Thomas; Tarel, Guillaume; Portolan, Stefano; Badolato, Antonio; Hennessy, Kevin; Hu, Evelyn; Beveratos, Alexios; Finley, Jonathan; Savona, Vincenzo; Imamoglu, Atac

2009-01-01

20

High-bit-rate nanocavity-based single photon sources in the 1,550-nm telecom band are challenges facing the development of fibre-based long-haul quantum communication networks. Here we report a very fast single photon source in the 1,550-nm telecom band, which is achieved by a large Purcell enhancement that results from the coupling of a single InAs quantum dot and an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. At a resonance, the spontaneous emission rate was enhanced by a factor of 5 resulting a record fast emission lifetime of 0.2 ns at 1,550 nm. We also demonstrate that this emission exhibits an enhanced anti-bunching dip. This is the first realization of nanocavity-enhanced single photon emitters in the 1,550-nm telecom band. This coupled quantum dot cavity system in the telecom band thus provides a bright high-bit-rate non-classical single photon source that offers appealing novel opportunities for the development of a long-haul quantum telecommunication system via optical fibres.

Birowosuto, M D; Matsuo, S; Taniyama, H; van Veldhoven, P J; Nötzel, R; Notomi, M; 10.1038/srep00321

2012-01-01

21

Fundamental properties of devices for quantum information technology

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of the influence of the electronphonon interaction on semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamical systems, specifically a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We develop a theoretical description of the decay dynamics of the quantum dot interacting with the cavity and the phonons. It is shown that the presence of the phonon interaction, fundamentally changes the spontaneous emission decay behavior of the quantum dot. Especially in the regime where the quantum dotcavity spectral detuning is significantly larger than any linewidth of the system, the effect of the phonon interaction is very pronounced. A simple approximate analytical expression for the quantum dot decay rate is derived, which predicts a strong asymmetry with respect to the quantum dot-cavity detuning at low temperatures, and allows for a clear interpretation of the physics. Furthermore, a study of the indistinguishability of single photons emitted from the coupled quantum dot-cavity system is performed, with special emphasis on non-Markovian decoherence due to the phonon interaction. We show that common theoretical approaches fail to predict the degree of indistinguishability, on both a qualitative and quantitative level, for experimentally relevant parameters regimes. The important role of non-Markovian effects in the shorttime regime, where virtual processes dominate the decoherence of the quantum dot-cavity system, is emphasized. Importantly, our investigations lead to a maximum achievable degree of indistinguishability, a prediction which eludes common approaches.

Nielsen, Per Kær

2012-01-01

22

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods. An important finding is that short-time non-Markovian effects limit the maximal attainable indistinguishability. The results are explained using a polariton picture that yields valuable insight into the phonon-induced dephasing dynamics.

Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter

2013-01-01

23

We demonstrate non-perturbative coupling between a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot and an external fiber-mirror based microcavity. Our results extend the previous realizations of tunable microcavities while ensuring spatial and spectral overlap between the cavity-mode and the emitter by simultaneously allowing for deterministic charge control of the quantum dots. Using resonant spectroscopy, we show that the coupled quantum dot cavity system is at the onset of strong coupling, with a cooperativity parameter of 2. Our results constitute a milestone towards the realization of a high efficiency solid-state spin-photon interface.

Miguel-Sanchez, J; Togan, E; Volz, T; Imamoglu, A; Besga, B; Reichel, J; Esteve, J

2012-01-01

24

So far proposed quantum computers use fragile and environmentally sensitive natural quantum systems. Here we explore the new notion that synthetic quantum systems suitable for quantum computation may be fabricated from smart nanostructures using topological excitations of a stochastic neural-type network that can mimic natural quantum systems. These developments are a technological application of process physics which is an information theory of reality in which space and qu...

Cahill, Reginald T.

2002-01-01

25

Giant Rabi splitting in a metallic cluster–cavity system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We theoretically investigate the photoabsorption cross-section of a cluster of alkali atoms embedded in a single-mode quantum microcavity. We show that if the energy of the giant plasmonic resonance lies close to the energy of the cavity mode, the strong coupling between the plasmon and cavity photon can occur which is characterized by mode anticrossing and observation of the doublet structure in the photoabsorption spectrum. The characteristic values of the Rabi splitting are expected to be several orders of magnitude larger than those observed in single quantum dot–cavity systems. (paper)

26

Pump-probe scheme for electron-photon dynamics in hybrid conductor-cavity systems

Recent experiments on nanoscale conductors coupled to microwave cavities showed the prospect of transport investigations of electron-photon interplay in the deep quantum regime. Here we propose a pump-probe scheme to investigate the transient dynamics of individual electron-photon excitations in a double-quantum-dot-cavity system. Excitations pumped into the system decay via charge tunneling at the double dot, probed in real time. We investigate theoretically the short-time charge-transfer statistics at the dot for periodic pumping and show that this gives access to vacuum Rabi oscillations as well as excitation dynamics in the presence of double-dot dephasing and relaxation.

van den Berg, T. L.; Bergenfeldt, C.; Samuelsson, P.

2014-08-01

27

Correlated photon-pair emission from pumped-pulsed quantum dots embedded in a microcavity

We theoretically investigate the optical response of a quantum dot, embedded in a microcavity and incoherently excited by pulsed pumping. The exciton and biexciton transition are off-resonantly coupled with the left- and right-polarized mode of the cavity, while the two-photon resonance condition is fulfilled. Rich behaviours are shown to occur in the time dependence of the second-order correlation functions which refer to counter-polarized photons. The corresponding time-averaged quantities, which are accessible to experiments, confirm that such a dot-cavity system behaves as a good emitter of single, polarization-correlated photon pairs.

Perea, J I; Tejedor, C

2005-01-01

28

This notes are an expanded version of the lectures given by the author at the Grenoble "Open Quantum Systems" summer school in 2003. They provide a short introduction to quantum dynamical systems and their ergodic properties with particular emphasis on the quantum Koopman–von Neumann spectral theory.

Pillet, Claude-alain

2006-01-01

29

The aim of quantum system identification is to estimate the ingredients inside a black box, in which some quantum-mechanical unitary process takes place, by just looking at its input-output behavior. Here we establish a basic and general framework for quantum system identification, that allows us to classify how much knowledge about the quantum system is attainable, in principle, from a given experimental setup. Prior knowledge on some elements of the black box helps the system identification. We present an example in which a Bell measurement is more efficient to identify the system. When the topology of the system is known, the framework enables us to establish a general criterion for the estimability of the coupling constants in its Hamiltonian.

Burgarth, Daniel

2011-01-01

30

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We generalize the classical notion of a K-system to a non-commutative dynamical system by requiring that an invariantly defined memory loss be 100%. We give some examples of quantum K-systems and show that they cannot contain any quasi-periodic subsystem. 13 refs. (Author)

31

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Differences in the confinement of electrons and holes in quantum dots are shown to profoundly impact the magnitude of scattering with acoustic phonons. Using an extensive model that includes the non-Markovian nature of the phonon reservoir, we show how the effect may be addressed by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of a single quantum dot. We also investigate the implications for cavity QED, i.e., a coupled quantum dot-cavity system, and demonstrate that the phonon scattering may be strongly quenched. The quenching is explained by a balancing between the deformation potential interaction strengths and the carrier confinement and depends on the quantum dot shape. Numerical examples suggest a route towards engineering the phonon scattering.

Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær

2013-01-01

32

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems—in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action—the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.

33

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems-in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action-the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.

Micheli, Fiorenza de [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 440, Santiago (Chile)

2012-10-15

34

The Toda chains take a particular place in the theory of integrable systems, in contrast with the linear group structure for the Gaudin model this system is related to the corresponding Borel group and mediately to the geometry of flag varieties. The main goal of this paper is to reconstruct a "spectral curve" in a wider context of the generic Toda system. This appears to be an efficient way to find its quantization which is obtained here by the technique of quantum characte...

Talalaev, D.

2010-01-01

35

Quantum Computation in Quantum-Hall Systems

We describe a quantum information processor (quantum computer) based on the hyperfine interactions between the conduction electrons and nuclear spins embedded in a two-dimensional electron system in the quantum-Hall regime. Nuclear spins can be controlled individually by electromagnetic pulses. Their interactions, which are of the spin-exchange type, can be possibly switched on and off pair-wise dynamically, for nearest neighbors, by controlling impurities. We also propose t...

Privman, V.; Vagner, I. D.; Kventsel, G.

1997-01-01

36

Scheme of thinking quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

37

Quantum Computation in Quantum-Hall Systems

We describe a quantum information processor (quantum computer) based on the hyperfine interactions between the conduction electrons and nuclear spins embedded in a two-dimensional electron system in the quantum-Hall regime. Nuclear spins can be controlled individually by electromagnetic pulses. Their interactions, which are of the spin-exchange RKKY type, can be effectively switched on and off pair-wise dynamically, for nearest neighbors, by controlling impurities. We also propose the way to feed in the initial data and explore possibilities for reading off the final results. Owing to rapid advances in the experimental facilities, the proposed quantum-computer realization will likely be experimentally accessible in near future.

Privman, V; Kventsel, G

1998-01-01

38

Integrable quantum Stäckel systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Stäckel separability of a Hamiltonian system is well known to ensure existence of a complete set of Poisson commuting integrals of motion quadratic in the momenta. We consider a class of Stäckel separable systems where the entries of the Stäckel matrix are monomials in the separation variables. We show that the only systems in this class for which the integrals of motion arising from the Stäckel construction keep commuting after quantization are, up to natural equivalence transformations, the so-called Benenti systems. Moreover, it turns out that the latter are the only quantum separable systems in the class under study.

39

Integrable quantum Stäckel systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Stäckel separability of a Hamiltonian system is well known to ensure existence of a complete set of Poisson commuting integrals of motion quadratic in the momenta. We consider a class of Stäckel separable systems where the entries of the Stäckel matrix are monomials in the separation variables. We show that the only systems in this class for which the integrals of motion arising from the Stäckel construction keep commuting after quantization are, up to natural equivalence transformations, the so-called Benenti systems. Moreover, it turns out that the latter are the only quantum separable systems in the class under study.

B?aszak, Maciej, E-mail: blaszakm@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Doma?ski, Ziemowit, E-mail: ziemowit@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Sergyeyev, Artur, E-mail: Artur.Sergyeyev@math.slu.cz [Mathematical Institute, Silesian University in Opava, Na Rybní?ku 1, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Szablikowski, B?a?ej M., E-mail: bszablik@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland)

2013-11-15

40

Starting from first principles, this book introduces the fundamental concepts and methods of dissipative quantum mechanics and explores related phenomena in condensed matter systems. Major experimental achievements in cooperation with theoretical advances have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Nowadays, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 and and 2008 as enlarged second and third editions - delves significantl

Weiss, Ulrich

2012-01-01

41

Recent advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems have brightened up the field and brought it into the focus of a general community in natural sciences. The fundamental concepts, methods and applications including the most recent developments, previously covered for the most part only in the original literature, are presented here in a comprehensive treatment to an audience who is reasonably familiar with quantum-statistical mechanics and has had rudimentary contacts with the path integral formulation.This book deals with the phenomena and theory of decoherence and dissipation in qu

Weiss, U

1999-01-01

42

Scarring in open quantum systems

We study scarring phenomena in open quantum systems. We show numerical evidence that individual resonance eigenstates of an open quantum system present localization around unstable short periodic orbits in a similar way as their closed counterparts. The structure of eigenfunctions around these classical objects is not destroyed by the opening. This is exposed in a paradigmatic system of quantum chaos, the cat map.

Wisniacki, Diego

2007-01-01

43

Quantum circuits for strongly correlated quantum systems

In recent years, we have witnessed an explosion of experimental tools by which quantum systems can be manipulated in a controlled and coherent way. One of the most important goals now is to build quantum simulators, which would open up the possibility of exciting experiments probing various theories in regimes that are not achievable under normal lab circumstances. Here we present a novel approach to gain detailed control on the quantum simulation of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems by constructing the explicit quantum circuits that diagonalize their dynamics. We show that the exact quantum circuits underlying some of the most relevant many-body Hamiltonians only need a finite amount of local gates. As a particularly simple instance, the full dynamics of a one-dimensional Quantum Ising model in a transverse field with four spins is shown to be reproduced using a quantum circuit of only six local gates. This opens up the possibility of experimentally producing strongly correlated states, their tim...

Verstraete, Frank; Latorre, Jose I

2008-01-01

44

Stationary States of Dissipative Quantum Systems

In this Letter we consider stationary states of dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of dissipative quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of Hamiltonian quantum systems. Dissipative quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear harmonic oscillator are suggested. We discuss bifurcations of stationary states for dissipative quantum systems which are quantum analogs of classical dynamical bifurcations.

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2011-01-01

45

Quantum Critical Points in Quantum Impurity Systems

The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the soft-gap Anderson model, where an impurity couples to a non-trivial fermionic bath. In this case, zero temperature phase transitions occur between two different phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. However, the quantum critical point cannot be described by non-interacting fermion...

Lee, H. -j; Bulla, R.

2004-01-01

46

Quantum information science as an approach to complex quantum systems

What makes quantum information science a science? These notes explore the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems. We discuss how to quantify complexity in quantum systems, and argue that there are two qualitatively different types of complex quantum system. We also explore ways of understanding complex quantum dynamics by quantifying the strength of a quantum dynamical operation as a physical resource. This...

Nielsen, Michael A.

2002-01-01

47

The faithful exchange of quantum information will soon become one of the challenges of the emerging quantum information technology. One of the possible solutions is to transfer a superposition through a chain of properly coupled spins. Such a system is called a quantum wire. We discuss the transfer in a quantum wire \\cite{christ,niko1,niko2}, when the process of thermalization of the state takes place together with the free evolution. We investigate which encoding scheme is ...

Wiesniak, Marcin

2007-01-01

48

Synthesis of linear quantum stochastic systems via quantum feedback networks

Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of coherent feedback control, the feedback control of a quantum system with another quantum system, has raised the important problem of how to synthesize a class of quantum systems, called the class of linear quantum stochastic systems, from basic quantum optical components and devices in a systematic way. The synthesis theory sought in this case can be naturally viewed as a quantum analogue of linear electrical network synt...

Nurdin, H. I.

2009-01-01

49

Asymptotically open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)

50

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We show that Auger processes involving wetting layer transitions mediate emission from a cavity that is detuned from a quantum dot by even tens of meV. The wetting layer thus acts as a reservoir, which by Coulomb scattering can supply or absorb the energy difference between emitter and cavity. We perform microscopic calculations of the effect treating the wetting layer as a non-Markovian reservoir interacting with the coupled quantum dot-cavity system through Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, cavity feeding has been observed in the asymmetric detuning range of -10 to +45 meV. We show that this asymmetry arises naturally from the quasiequilibrium properties of the wetting layer reservoir. Furthermore, we present numerical calculations of both photoluminescence spectra and photon correlations, demonstrating good qualitative agreement with experiments.

Settnes, Mikkel; Nielsen, Per Kær

2013-01-01

51

Three Terminal Quantum Dot System

In this study, the transmission rate for the three terminal quantum dot system is determined using Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function technique for interacting and non-interacting cases. The three terminal quantum dot systems consist of three leads and three quantum dots that are arranged in a triangular form. Each led is coupled with each dot. The lesser and retarded Green’s functions are used for the calculations of transmission rates and how the transmission rates vary for ...

Chandrasekar, N.; Narra Sunil Kumar; Pavan, G.

2012-01-01

52

Quantum Dynamics in Biological Systems

In the first part of this dissertation, recent efforts to understand quantum mechanical effects in biological systems are discussed. Especially, long-lived quantum coherences observed during the electronic energy transfer process in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex at physiological condition are studied extensively using theories of open quantum systems. In addition to the usual master equation based approaches, the effect of the protein structure is investigated in atomistic detail through t...

Shim, Sangwoo

2012-01-01

53

A quantum positioning system (QPS) is proposed that can provide a user with all four of his space-time coordinates. The user must carry a corner cube reflector, a good clock, and have a two-way classical channel of communication with the origin of the reference frame. Four pairs of entangled photons (biphotons) are sent through four interferometers: three interferometers are used to determine the user's spatial position, and an additional interferometer is used to synchronize the user's clock to coordinate time in the reference frame. The spatial positioning part of the QPS is similar to a classical time-of-arrival (TOA) system, however, a classical TOA system (such as GPS) must have synchronized clocks that keep coordinate time and therefore the clocks must have long-term stability, whereas in the QPS only a photon coincidence counter is needed and the clocks need only have short-term stability. Several scenarios are considered for a QPS: one is a terrestrial system and another is a space-based-system compos...

Bahder, T B

2004-01-01

54

Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

Roy, Sisir

2014-07-01

55

Dynamics of a multipartite system undergoing matter-state-photon conversions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examine the entanglement dynamics of two initially entangled qubits coupled to independent photon reservoirs and undergoing continuous matter-state-photon population transitions. We represent the decay and replenishment of matter-based bit states via photons by time-dependent generalized conversion functions. For the specific case of a sinusoidal function, we show that sudden death events in qubit-qubit entanglement anti-correlate (correlate) exactly with sudden birth events in photon-photon entanglement for the symmetric (anti-symmetric) mode of quantum conversions. We show the invariance in dynamics of all possible bipartite concurrences for various configurations of qubit-reservoir systems and highlight its crucial role in identifying a global concurrence of the multipartite system. We study the coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system as a specific application of our approach, including an analysis of evolution of its Meyer-Wallach measure with time.

Thilagam, A [Department of Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)], E-mail: thilaphys@gmail.com

2009-08-21

56

Dynamics of a multipartite system undergoing matter-state-photon conversions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examine the entanglement dynamics of two initially entangled qubits coupled to independent photon reservoirs and undergoing continuous matter-state-photon population transitions. We represent the decay and replenishment of matter-based bit states via photons by time-dependent generalized conversion functions. For the specific case of a sinusoidal function, we show that sudden death events in qubit-qubit entanglement anti-correlate (correlate) exactly with sudden birth events in photon-photon entanglement for the symmetric (anti-symmetric) mode of quantum conversions. We show the invariance in dynamics of all possible bipartite concurrences for various configurations of qubit-reservoir systems and highlight its crucial role in identifying a global concurrence of the multipartite system. We study the coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system as a specific application of our approach, including an analysis of evolution of its Meyer-Wallach measure with time.

57

Pure Stationary States of Open Quantum Systems

Using Liouville space and superoperator formalism we consider pure stationary states of open and dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of open quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of closed quantum systems. Open quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear oscillator are suggested. We consider stationary states for the Lindblad equation. We discuss bifurcations of pure stationary states for open quantum systems which are quantum...

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2003-01-01

58

Three Terminal Quantum Dot System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the transmission rate for the three terminal quantum dot system is determined using Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function technique for interacting and non-interacting cases. The three terminal quantum dot systems consist of three leads and three quantum dots that are arranged in a triangular form. Each led is coupled with each dot. The lesser and retarded Green’s functions are used for the calculations of transmission rates and how the transmission rates vary for interacting and non-interacting system are studied is investigated.

N. Chandrasekar

2012-01-01

59

Dissipation in quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantum dynamics of a mechanical subsystem interacting with a thermal bath is studied. A new approach to dissipated quantum mechanics is proposed which is based on the thermodynamic treatment of the energy balance. Simple application of the theory to ideal gases is considered and equations for the evolution of the main average quantities are derived. (author)

60

Dissipation in quantum systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantum dynamics of a mechanical subsystem interacting with a thermal bath is studied. A new approach to dissipated quantum mechanics is proposed which is based on the thermodynamic treatment of the energy balance. Simple application of the theory to ideal gases is considered and equations for the evolution of the main average quantities are derived. (author)

Tsekov, R. [Dept. of Phys. Chem., Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria)

1995-11-07

61

Quantum dissipation in unbounded systems.

In recent years trajectory based methodologies have become increasingly popular for evaluating the time evolution of quantum systems. A revival of the de Broglie--Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics has spawned several such techniques for examining quantum dynamics from a hydrodynamic perspective. Using techniques similar to those found in computational fluid dynamics one can construct the wave function of a quantum system at any time from the trajectories of a discrete ensemble of hydrodynamic fluid elements (Bohm particles) which evolve according to nonclassical equations of motion. Until very recently these schemes have been limited to conservative systems. In this paper, we present our methodology for including the effects of a thermal environment into the hydrodynamic formulation of quantum dynamics. We derive hydrodynamic equations of motion from the Caldeira-Leggett master equation for the reduced density matrix and give a brief overview of our computational scheme that incorporates an adaptive Lagrangian mesh. Our applications focus upon the dissipative dynamics of open unbounded quantum systems. Using both the Wigner phase space representation and the linear entropy, we probe the breakdown of the Markov approximation of the bath dynamics at low temperatures. We suggest a criteria for rationalizing the validity of the Markov approximation in open unbound systems and discuss decoherence, energy relaxation, and quantum/classical correspondence in the context of the Bohmian paths. PMID:11863623

Maddox, Jeremy B; Bittner, Eric R

2002-02-01

62

Manipulation of single quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The founders of quantum theory assumed in thought experiments that they were manipulating isolated quantum systems obeying the counterintuitive laws which they had just discovered. Technological advances have recently turned these virtual experiments into real ones by making possible the actual control of isolated quantum particles. Many laboratories are realizing such experiments, in a research field at the frontier between physics and information science. Fundamentally, these studies explore the transition between the microscopic world ruled by quantum laws and our macroscopic environment which appears classical. Practically, physicists hope that these experiments will result in new technologies exploiting the strange quantum logic to compute, communicate or measure physical quantities better than was previously conceivable. In Paris, we perform such experiments by juggling with photons trapped between superconducting mirrors. I will give a simple description of these studies, compare them to similar ones performed on other systems and guess about possible applications. (author)

63

Quantum Systems and Resolvent Algebras

This survey article is concerned with the modeling of the kinematical structure of quantum systems in an algebraic framework which eliminates certain conceptual and computational difficulties of the conventional approaches. Relying on the Heisenberg picture it is based on the resolvents of the basic canonically conjugate operators and covers finite and infinite quantum systems. The resulting C*-algebras, the resolvent algebras, have many desirable properties. On one hand the...

Buchholz, Detlev; Grundling, Hendrik

2013-01-01

64

Entanglement of quantum dissipative systems

The von Neumann entropy of various quantum dissipative models is calculated in order to discuss the entanglement properties of these systems. First, integrable quantum dissipative models are discussed, i.e., the quantum Brownian motion and the quantum harmonic oscillator. In case of the free particle, the related entanglement of formation shows no non-analyticity. In case of the dissipative harmonic oscillator, there is a non-analyticity at the transition of underdamped to overdamped oscillations. We argue that this might be a general property of dissipative systems. We show that similar features arise in the dissipative two level system and study different regimes using sub-Ohmic, Ohmic and and super-Ohmic baths, within a scaling approach.

Stauber, T

2005-01-01

65

Quantum systems and symmetric spaces

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained

66

Quantum-tomography of entangled photon pairs by quantum-dot cascade decay

We compute the concurrence of the polarization-entangled photon pairs generated by the biexciton cascade decay of a semiconductor quantum dot. We show how a cavity-induced increase of the photon rate emission reduces the detrimental effect of the dot dephasing and of the excitonic fine structure. However, strong dot-cavity couplings and finite detection efficiencies are shown to reduce the relevance of the desired cascade decay with respect to that of competing processes. Th...

Troiani, F.; Perea, J. I.; Tejedor, C.

2006-01-01

67

Quantum Teleportation in One-Dimensional Quantum Dots System

We present a model of quantum teleportation protocol based on one-dimensional quantum dots system. Three quantum dots with three electrons are used to perform teleportation, the unknown qubit is encoded using one electron spin on quantum dot A, the other two dots B and C are coupled to form a mixed space-spin entangled state. By choosing the Hamiltonian for the mixed space-spin entangled system, we can filter the space (spin) entanglement to obtain pure spin (space) entangle...

Wang, Hefeng; Kais, Sabre

2006-01-01

68

Identifiability of Open Quantum Systems

We provide a general framework for the identification of open quantum systems. By looking at the input-output behavior, we try to identify the system inside a black box in which some Markovian time-evolution takes place. Due to the generally irreversible nature of the dynamics, it is difficult to assure full controllability over the system. Still, we show that the system is identifiable up to similarity under a certain rank condition. The framework also covers situations rel...

Burgarth, Daniel; Yuasa, Kazuya

2014-01-01

69

Computation in Sofic Quantum Dynamical Systems

We analyze how measured quantum dynamical systems store and process information, introducing sofic quantum dynamical systems. Using recently introduced information-theoretic measures for quantum processes, we quantify their information storage and processing in terms of entropy rate and excess entropy, giving closed-form expressions where possible. To illustrate the impact of measurement on information storage in quantum processes, we analyze two spin-1 sofic quantum systems that differ only in how they are measured.

Wiesner, Karoline

2007-01-01

70

Spin-polarized quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extension of de Boer's quantum theorem of corresponding states, applicable beyond the usual thermodynamic properties, is realizable when Hall-Post-Stenschke lower-bound energies are matched with the experimental internal energies of the condensed phase of spin-polarized quantum systems and rare-gas atoms. Through it is found evidence that both forms of spin-polarized deuterium have bound ground states, that spin-polarized helium has an internal energy of -2.10K per atom and that the minimum number of atoms required in a cluster so that it behaves like the bulk system ranges from 6 to 19. (orig.)

71

Entangled systems. New directions in quantum physics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Entangled Systems is an introductory textbook for advanced students of physics, chemistry and computer science which covers an area of physics that has lately witnessed rapid expansion. The topics treated here include foundations of quantum theory, quantum information, quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum teleportation and hidden variables, thus providing not only a solid basis for the study of quantum theory as such, but also a profound foundation of knowledge from which readers can follow the rapid development of the topic or start out into a more specialized branch of research. Commented recommendations for further reading as well as end-of-chapter problems help the reader to access quickly the basic theoretical concepts of future key technologies. Only a basic prior knowledge of quantum theory and the necessary mathematical foundations is assumed, as introductory chapters are provided to present these to the readers. Thus, 'Entangled Systems' can be used both as a course book and for self-study purposes. From the contents: - The Mathematical Framework - Basic Concepts of Quantum Theory - The Simplest Quantum Systems: Qubits - Mixed State and Density Operator - Shannon's Entropy and Classical Information - The von Neumann Entropy and Quantum Information - Composite Systems - Entanglement - Correlations and Non-Local Measurements - There is no (Local-Realistic) Alternative to the Quantum Theory - Working with Entanglement - The Quantum Computer - Generatanglement - The Quantum Computer - General Measurements, POVM - The General Evolution of an Open Quantum System and Special Quantum Channels - Decoherence and Approaches to the Description of the Quantum Measurement Process - Two Implementations of Quantum Operations. (orig.)

72

Quantum dynamics in open quantum-classical systems.

Often quantum systems are not isolated and interactions with their environments must be taken into account. In such open quantum systems these environmental interactions can lead to decoherence and dissipation, which have a marked influence on the properties of the quantum system. In many instances the environment is well-approximated by classical mechanics, so that one is led to consider the dynamics of open quantum-classical systems. Since a full quantum dynamical description of large many-body systems is not currently feasible, mixed quantum-classical methods can provide accurate and computationally tractable ways to follow the dynamics of both the system and its environment. This review focuses on quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, one of several quantum-classical descriptions, and discusses the problems that arise when one attempts to combine quantum and classical mechanics, coherence and decoherence in quantum-classical systems, nonadiabatic dynamics, surface-hopping and mean-field theories and their relation to quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, as well as methods for simulating the dynamics. PMID:25634784

Kapral, Raymond

2015-02-25

73

Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems

Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum {{H}? } optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs.

Vuglar, Shanon L.; Amini, Hadis

2014-12-01

74

Dynamics of complex quantum systems

This book gathers together a range of similar problems that can be encountered in different fields of modern quantum physics and that have common features with regard to multilevel quantum systems. The main motivation was to examine from a uniform standpoint various models and approaches that have been developed in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in various contexts. The book should help senior-level undergraduate, graduate students and researchers putting particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby taking advantage of well-established techniques used in adjacent fields. This second edition has been expanded to include substantial new material (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum Systems, and Coherence Protection). It is based on the author’s lectures at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, at the CNRS Aimé Cotton Laboratory, and on ...

Akulin, Vladimir M

2014-01-01

75

Quantum chaos in nanoelectromechanical systems

We present a theoretical study of the electron-phonon coupling in suspended nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and investigate the resulting quantum chaotic behavior. The phonons are associated with the vibrational modes of a suspended rectangular dielectric plate, with free or clamped boundary conditions, whereas the electrons are confined to a large quantum dot (QD) on the plate's surface. The deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions are considered. By performing standard energy-level statistics we demonstrate that the spectral fluctuations exhibit the same distributions as those of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) or the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE), therefore evidencing the emergence of quantum chaos. That is verified for a large range of material and geometry parameters. In particular, the GUE statistics occurs only in the case of a circular QD. It represents an anomalous phenomenon, previously reported for just a small number of systems, since the problem is time-reversal invarian...

Gusso, A; Rego, L G C; Gusso, Andre; Rego, Luis G. C.

2005-01-01

76

Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.

77

Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.

Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

2011-09-15

78

Control of Quantum Systems Despite Feedback Delay

Feedback control (based on the quantum continuous measurement) of quantum systems inevitably suffers from estimation delays. In this paper we give a delay-dependent stability criterion for a wide class of nonlinear stochastic systems including quantum spin systems. We utilize a semi-algebraic problem approach to incorporate the structure of density matrices. To show the effectiveness of the result, we derive a globally stabilizing control law for a quantum spin-1/2 systems i...

Kashima, Kenji; Yamamoto, Naoki

2007-01-01

79

Nonequilibrium work equalities in isolated quantum systems

We briefly introduce the quantum Jarzynski and Bochkov—Kuzovlev equalities in isolated quantum Hamiltonian systems, including their origin, their derivations using a quantum Feynman—Kac formula, the quantum Crooks equality, the evolution equations governing the characteristic functions of the probability density functions for the quantum work, and recent experimental verifications. Some results are given here for the first time. We particularly emphasize the formally structural consistence between these quantum equalities and their classical counterparts, which are useful for understanding the existing equalities and pursuing new fluctuation relations in other complex quantum systems.

Liu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhong-Can

2014-07-01

80

The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems

It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given.

Beltukov, Y. M.; Greshnov, A. A.

2014-12-01

81

Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)

82

Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)

Baecker, Arnd

2007-07-01

83

Quantum tomography and classical propagator for quadratic quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical propagator for tomographic probability (which describes the quantum state instead of wave function or density matrix) is presented for quadratic quantum systems and its relation to the quantum propagator is considered. The new formalism of quantum mechanics, based on the probability representation of the state, is applied to particular quadratic systems - the harmonic oscillator, particle's free motion, problems of an ion in a Paul trap and in asymmetric Penning trap, and to the process of stimulated Raman scattering. The classical propagator for these systems is written in an explicit form. (author)

84

Applications of Feedback Control in Quantum Systems

We give an introduction to feedback control in quantum systems, as well as an overview of the variety of applications which have been explored to date. This introductory review is aimed primarily at control theorists unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, but should also be useful to quantum physicists interested in applications of feedback control. We explain how feedback in quantum systems differs from that in traditional classical systems, and how in certain cases the results...

Jacobs, Kurt

2006-01-01

85

Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

2006-01-01

86

Nonlinear resonance in quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perturbation theory as well as the quasiclassical method for calculationg the quasienergy spectrum are applied to the problem of a nonlinear quantum oscillator with a resonant force. The results are employed for describing intermode resonances in autonomous systems. It is shown that quantum effects lead to strong restrictions on the existence of stochastic layers and Arnold diffusion. Magnetic mirrors, accelerators and the Solar system are considered as examples. The decay of an excited mode in molecules and nonlinear chains is considered. The limits of transition to a stochastic regime of motion in molecules are estimated. Some of the theoretical results are employed for describing collisionless dissociation of molecules in the field of an intense resonance mave

87

Quantum Information Processing in Disordered and Complex Quantum Systems

We investigate quantum information processing and manipulations in disordered systems of ultracold atoms and trapped ions. First, we demonstrate generation of entanglement and local realization of quantum gates in a quantum spin glass system. Entanglement in such systems attains significantly high values, after quenched averaging, and has a stable positive value for arbitrary times. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ion chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be modeled by neural network Hamiltonians. In such systems, we find the characteristic time of persistence of quenched averaged entanglement, and also find the time of its revival.

De, A S; Ahufinger, V; Briegel, H J; Sanpera, A; Lewenstein, M; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej

2005-01-01

88

Detecting quantum correlations in separable systems

Quantum correlations in composite and separable quantum systems are characterized by non-vanishing quantum discord. We demonstrate the necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of hermitian witness operators for quantum discord, bypassing the problem of non-convexity of the set of all classical states. We propose an example of a linear witness which can detect quantum correlations in large classes of separable bipartite systems. Decomposition of the witness in terms of a small number of locally measurable operators as shown here, paves the way for experimental detection of quantum correlations beyond entanglement.

Adhikari, S; Chakraborty, I

2012-01-01

89

Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.

Holevo, Alexander S.

2012-07-01

90

Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)

2014-07-15

91

Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium

92

QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL CORRELATIONS IN GAUSSIAN OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum correlations (quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We solve the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for the time evolution of the considered system and describe the entanglement and discord in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression takes place for all temperatures of the environment, including zero temperature. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that it decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath. This is in contrast with the sudden death of entanglement. Before the suppression of the entanglement, the qualitative evolution of quantum discord is very similar to that of the entanglement. We describe also the time evolution of the degree of classical correlations and of quantum mutual information, which measures the total correlations of the quantum system.

Aurelian ISAR

2015-01-01

93

Quantum chaotic attractor in a dissipative system

A dissipative quantum system is treated here by coupling it with a heat bath of harmonic oscillators. Through quantum Langevin equations and Ehrenfest's theorem, we establish explicitly the quantum Duffing equations with a double-well potential chosen. A quantum noise term appears the only driving force in dynamics. Numerical studies show that the chaotic attractor exists in this system while chaos is certainly forbidden in the classical counterpart.

Liu, W V; Schieve, William C.

1997-01-01

94

Quantum Teleportation in One-Dimensional Quantum Dots System

We present a model of quantum teleportation protocol based on one-dimensional quantum dots system. Three quantum dots with three electrons are used to perform teleportation, the unknown qubit is encoded using one electron spin on quantum dot A, the other two dots B and C are coupled to form a mixed space-spin entangled state. By choosing the Hamiltonian for the mixed space-spin entangled system, we can filter the space (spin) entanglement to obtain pure spin (space) entanglement and after a Bell measurement, the unknown qubit is transfered to quantum dot B. Selecting an appropriate Hamiltonian for the quantum gate allows the spin-based information to be transformed into a charge-based information. The possibility of generalizing this model to N-electrons is discussed.

Wang, H; Wang, Hefeng; Kais, Sabre

2006-01-01

95

Could nanostructure be unspeakable quantum system?

Heisenberg, Bohr and others were forced to renounce on the description of the objective reality as the aim of physics because of the paradoxical quantum phenomena observed on the atomic level. The contemporary quantum mechanics created on the base of their positivism point of view must divide the world into speakable apparatus which amplifies microscopic events to macroscopic consequences and unspeakable quantum system. Examination of the quantum phenomena corroborates the confidence expressed by creators of quantum theory that the renunciation of realism should not apply on our everyday macroscopic world. Nanostructures may be considered for the present as a boundary of realistic description for all phenomena including the quantum one.

Aristov, V V

2010-01-01

96

Global quantum discord in multipartite systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.

Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

2011-10-15

97

Minisuperspace as a Quantum Open System

We trace the development of ideas on dissipative processes in chaotic cosmology and on minisuperspace quantum cosmology from the time Misner proposed them to current research. We show 1) how the effect of quantum processes like particle creation in the early universe can address the issues of the isotropy and homogeneity of the observed universe, 2) how viewing minisuperspace as a quantum open system can address the issue of the validity of such approximations customarily adopted in quantum cosmology, and 3) how invoking statistical processes like decoherence and correlation when considered together can help to establish a theory of quantum fields in curved spacetime as the semiclassical limit of quantum gravity.

Hu, B L; Sinha, S; Paz, Juan Pablo; Sinha, Sukanya

1993-01-01

98

Entanglement and dephasing of quantum dissipative systems

The von Neumann entropy of various quantum dissipative models is calculated in order to discuss the entanglement properties of these systems. First, integrable quantum dissipative models are discussed, i.e., the quantum Brownian motion and the quantum harmonic oscillator. In case of the free particle, the related entanglement of formation shows no non-analyticity. In case of the dissipative harmonic oscillator, there is a non-analyticity at the transition of underdamped to o...

Stauber, T.; Guinea, F.

2005-01-01

99

Classical and quantum dissipative systems

This book discusses issues associated with the quantum mechanical formulation of dissipative systems. It begins with an introductory review of phenomenological damping forces, and the construction of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for the damped motion. It is shown, in addition to these methods, that classical dissipative forces can also be derived from solvable many-body problems. A detailed discussion of these derived forces and their dependence on dynamical variables is also presented. The second part of this book investigates the use of classical formulation in the quantization of dynamica

Razavy, Mohsen

2006-01-01

100

Quantum Friction: Cooling Quantum Systems with Unitary Time Evolution

We introduce a type of quantum dissipation -- local quantum friction -- by adding to the Hamiltonian a local potential that breaks time-reversal invariance so as to cool the system. Unlike the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation, local quantum friction directly effects unitary evolution of the wavefunctions rather than the density matrix: it may thus be used to cool fermionic many-body systems with thousands of wavefunctions that must remain orthogonal. In addition to providing an efficient way to simulate quantum dissipation and non-equilibrium dynamics, local quantum friction coupled with adiabatic state preparation significantly speeds up many-body simulations, making the solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation significantly simpler than the solution of its stationary counterpart.

Bulgac, Aurel; Roche, Kenneth J; Wlaz?owski, Gabriel

2013-01-01

101

Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. III. Quantum operations

During the last decade, several quantum information protocols, such as quantum key distribution, teleportation or quantum computation, have attracted a lot of interest. Despite the recent success and research efforts in quantum information processing, however, we are just at the beginning of understanding the role of entanglement and the behavior of quantum systems in noisy environments, i.e. for nonideal implementations. Therefore, in order to facilitate the investigation of entanglement and decoherence in n-qubit quantum registers, here we present a revised version of the FEYNMAN program for working with quantum operations and their associated (Jamio?kowski) dual states. Based on the implementation of several popular decoherence models, we provide tools especially for the quantitative analysis of quantum operations. Apart from the implementation of different noise models, the current program extension may help investigate the fragility of many quantum states, one of the main obstacles in realizing quantum information protocols today. Program summaryTitle of program: Feynman Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v3_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Operating systems: Any system that supports MAPLE; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, SuSe Linux 10 Program language used:MAPLE 10 Typical time and memory requirements: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ?10 seconds of processor time (on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz or equivalent) and 5-20 MB of memory. Especially when working with symbolic expressions, however, the memory and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits in the quantum registers, owing to the exponential dimension growth of the associated Hilbert space. For example, complex (symbolic) noise models (with several Kraus operators) for multi-qubit systems often result in very large symbolic expressions that dramatically slow down the evaluation of measures or other quantities. In these cases, MAPLE's assume facility sometimes helps to reduce the complexity of symbolic expressions, but often only numerical evaluation is possible. Since the complexity of the FEYNMAN commands is very different, no general scaling law for the CPU time and memory usage can be given. No. of bytes in distributed program including test data, etc.: 799 265 No. of lines in distributed program including test data, etc.: 18 589 Distribution format: tar.gz Reasons for new version: While the previous program versions were designed mainly to create and manipulate the state of quantum registers, the present extension aims to support quantum operations as the essential ingredient for studying the effects of noisy environments. Does this version supersede the previous version: Yes Nature of the physical problem: Today, entanglement is identified as the essential resource in virtually all aspects of quantum information theory. In most practical implementations of quantum information protocols, however, decoherence typically limits the lifetime of entanglement. It is therefore necessary and highly desirable to understand the evolution of entanglement in noisy environments. Method of solution: Using the computer algebra system MAPLE, we have developed a set of procedures that support the definition and manipulation of n-qubit quantum registers as well as (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations that act on the quantum registers. The provided hierarchy of commands can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems in ideal and nonideal quantum circuits.

Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

2007-05-01

102

Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements

The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 179 (2008) 647 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decade, the field of quantum information science has largely contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics, and has provided also new and efficient protocols that are used on quantum entanglement. To further analyze the amount and transfer of entanglement in n-qubit quantum protocols, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be handled efficiently. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we developed a set of procedures in order to support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations and measurements that act upon the quantum registers. All commands are organized in a hierarchical order and can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: Until the present, the FEYNMAN program supported the basic data structures and operations of n-qubit quantum registers [1], a good number of separability and entanglement measures [2], quantum operations (noisy channels) [3] as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions [4]. With the current extension, we here add all necessary features to simulate quantum measurements, including the projective measurements in various single-qubit and the two-qubit Bell basis, and POVM measurements. Together with the previously implemented functionality, this greatly enhances the possibilities of analyzing quantum information protocols in which measurements play a central role, e.g., one-way computation. Running time: Most commands require ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz RAM or newer, if they work with quantum registers with five or less qubits. Moreover, about 5-20 MB of working memory is typically n

Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

2010-02-01

103

Thermalization of isolated quantum systems

Understanding the evolution towards thermal equilibrium of an isolated quantum system is at the foundation of statistical mechanics and a subject of interest in such diverse areas as cold atom physics or the quantum mechanics of black hole formation. Since a pure state can never evolve into a thermal density matrix, the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH) has been put forward by Deutsch and Srednicki as a way to explain this apparent thermalization, similarly to what the ergodic theorem does in classical mechanics. In this paper this hypothesis is tested numerically. First, it is observed that thermalization happens in a subspace of states (the Krylov subspace) with dimension much smaller than that of the total Hilbert space. We check numerically the validity of ETH in such a subspace, for a system of hard core bosons on a two-dimensional lattice. We then discuss how well the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian projected on the Krylov subspace represent the true eigenstates. This discussion is aided by brin...

Khlebnikov, Sergei

2013-01-01

104

Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...

Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

2010-01-01

105

Criticality and entanglement in random quantum systems

We review studies of entanglement entropy in systems with quenched randomness, concentrating on universal behavior at strongly random quantum critical points. The disorder-averaged entanglement entropy provides insight into the quantum criticality of these systems and an understanding of their relationship to non-random ("pure") quantum criticality. The entanglement near many such critical points in one dimension shows a logarithmic divergence in subsystem size, similar to t...

Refael, Gil; Moore, Joel E.

2009-01-01

106

Statistical Thermodynamics of Polymer Quantum Systems

Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the...

Guillermo Chacón-Acosta; Elisa Manrique; Leonardo Dagdug; Morales-te?cotl, Hugo A.

2011-01-01

107

Quantum ratchets in dissipative chaotic systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of quantum trajectories, we study a quantum chaotic dissipative ratchet appearing for particles in a pulsed asymmetric potential in the presence of a dissipative environment. The system is characterized by directed transport emerging from a quantum strange attractor. This model exhibits, in the limit of small effective Planck constant, a transition from quantum to classical behavior, in agreement with the correspondence principle. We also discuss parameter values suitable for the implementation of the quantum ratchet effect with cold atoms in optical lattices

108

Quantum field theory of relic nonequilibrium systems

In terms of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, we develop field-theoretical models of quantum nonequilibrium systems which could exist today as relics from the very early universe. We consider relic excited states generated by inflaton decay, as well as relic vacuum modes, for particle species that decoupled close to the Planck temperature. Simple estimates suggest that, at least in principle, quantum nonequilibrium could survive to the present day for some relic systems. The main focus of this paper is to describe the behaviour of such systems in terms of field theory, with the aim of understanding how relic quantum nonequilibrium might manifest experimentally. We show by explicit calculation that simple perturbative couplings will transfer quantum nonequilibrium from one field to another (for example from the inflaton field to its decay products). We also show that fields in a state of quantum nonequilibrium will generate anomalous spectra for standard energy measurements. Possibl...

Underwood, Nicolas G

2014-01-01

109

Quantum chaos in open systems a quantum state diffusion analysis

Except for the universe, all quantum systems are open, and according to quantum state diffusion theory, many systems localize to wave packets in the neighborhood of phase space points. This is due to decoherence from the interaction with the environment, and makes the quasiclassical limit of such systems both more realistic and simpler in many respects than the more familiar quasiclassical limit for closed systems. A linearized version of this theory leads to the correct classical dynamics in the macroscopic limit, even for nonlinear and chaotic systems. We apply the theory to the forced, damped Duffing oscillator, comparing the numerical results of the full and linearized equations, and argue that this can be used to make explicit calculations in the decoherent histories formalism of quantum mechanics.

Brun, T A; Schack, R; Brun, Todd A; Percival, Ian C; Schack, Rudiger

1995-01-01

110

Quantum criticality in a double quantum-dot system

We discuss the realization of the quantum-critical non-Fermi liquid state, originally discovered within the two-impurity Kondo model, in double quantum-dot systems. Contrary to the common belief, the corresponding fixed point is robust against particle-hole and various other asymmetries, and is only unstable to charge transfer between the two dots. We propose an experimental set-up where such charge transfer processes are suppressed, allowing a controlled approach to the quantum critical state. We also discuss transport and scaling properties in the vicinity of the critical point.

Zaránd, G; Simon, P; Vojta, M; Zarand, Gergely; Chung, Chung-Hou; Simon, Pascal; Vojta, Matthias

2006-01-01

111

Quantum criticality in a double-quantum-dot system.

We discuss the realization of the quantum-critical non-Fermi-liquid state, originally discovered within the two-impurity Kondo model, in double-quantum-dot systems. Contrary to common belief, the corresponding fixed point is robust against particle-hole and various other asymmetries and is unstable only to charge transfer between the two dots. We propose an experimental setup where such charge transfer processes are suppressed, allowing a controlled approach to the quantum-critical state. We also discuss transport and scaling properties in the vicinity of the critical point. PMID:17155422

Zaránd, Gergely; Chung, Chung-Hou; Simon, Pascal; Vojta, Matthias

2006-10-20

112

Joint system quantum descriptions arising from local quantumness

Bipartite correlations generated by non-signalling physical systems that admit a finite-dimensional local quantum description cannot exceed the quantum limits, i.e., they can always be interpreted as distant measurements of a bipartite quantum state. Here we consider the effect of dropping the assumption of finite dimensionality. Remarkably, we find that the same result holds provided that we relax the tensor structure of space-like separated measurements to mere commutativity. We argue why an extension of this result to tensor representations seems unlikely.

Cooney, Tom; Navascues, Miguel; Perez-Garcia, David; Villanueva, Ignacio

2012-01-01

113

Quantum criticality in a double quantum-dot system

We discuss the realization of the quantum-critical non-Fermi liquid state, originally discovered within the two-impurity Kondo model, in double quantum-dot systems. Contrary to the common belief, the corresponding fixed point is robust against particle-hole and various other asymmetries, and is only unstable to charge transfer between the two dots. We propose an experimental set-up where such charge transfer processes are suppressed, allowing a controlled approach to the qua...

Zarand, Gergely; Chung, Chung-hou; Simon, Pascal; Vojta, Matthias

2006-01-01

114

Quantum-tomography of entangled photon pairs by quantum-dot cascade decay

We compute the concurrence of the polarization-entangled photon pairs generated by the biexciton cascade decay of a semiconductor quantum dot. We show how a cavity-induced increase of the photon rate emission reduces the detrimental effect of the dot dephasing and of the excitonic fine structure. However, strong dot-cavity couplings and finite detection efficiencies are shown to reduce the relevance of the desired cascade decay with respect to that of competing processes. This affects the merits of the entangled photon-pair source, beyond what estimated by the quantum-tomography.

Troiani, F; Tejedor, C

2006-01-01

115

Observation of quantum stochastic synchronization in a dissipative quantum system

We report the observation of quantum stochastic synchronization (QSS) in a dissipative quantum system—a moderately damped current-biased Josephson junction. We show that when the junction is biased subcritically by a combination of a constant current and a small sinusoidal modulation signal, forced phase synchronization between the otherwise random, incoherent quantum tunneling and the signal may arise as a consequence of the interplay between quantum fluctuation and the weak periodic drive. It is found that optimal synchronization occurs at a signal frequency fQSS that is comparable to the quantum tunneling rate. We also find a phenomenon called "modulation induced suppression of quantum noise": for signal frequency well below fQSS, the power spectral density of escape time distribution of the junction could be reduced substantially from the floor level of the unmodulated system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the application of a small signal with proper phase can suppress the average tunneling rate and enhance the stability of the metastable system. Our experimental results agree well with the numerical calculations without the use of adjustable parameters.

Xue, G. M.; Gong, Ming; Xu, H. K.; Liu, W. Y.; Deng, H.; Tian, Ye; Yu, H. F.; Yu, Yang; Zheng, D. N.; Zhao, S. P.; Han, Siyuan

2014-12-01

116

Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron–electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes. (comment)

117

Quantum transport from the perspective of quantum open systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By viewing the non-equilibrium transport setup as a quantum open system, we propose a reduced-density-matrix based quantum transport formalism. At the level of self-consistent Born approximation, it can precisely account for the correlation between tunneling and the system internal many-body interaction, leading to certain novel behavior such as the non-equilibrium Kondo effect. It also opens a new way to construct time-dependent density functional theory for transport through large-scale complex systems

118

Quantum phase transitions in electronic systems

Quantum phase transitions occur at zero temperature when some non-thermal control-parameter like pressure or chemical composition is changed. They are driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations. In this review we first give a pedagogical introduction to quantum phase transitions and quantum critical behavior emphasizing similarities with and differences to classical thermal phase transitions. We then illustrate the general concepts by discussing a few examples of quantum phase transitions occurring in electronic systems. The ferromagnetic transition of itinerant electrons shows a very rich behavior since the magnetization couples to additional electronic soft modes which generates an effective long-range interaction between the spin fluctuations. We then consider the influence of rare regions on quantum phase transitions in systems with quenched disorder, taking the antiferromagnetic transitions of itinerant electrons as a primary example. Finally we discuss some aspects of the metal-insulator transit...

Vojta, T

1999-01-01

119

Non-perturbative description of quantum systems

This book introduces systematically the operator method for the solution of the Schrödinger equation. This method permits to describe the states of quantum systems in the entire range of parameters of Hamiltonian with a predefined accuracy. The operator method is unique compared with other non-perturbative methods due to its ability to deliver in zeroth approximation the uniformly suitable estimate for both ground and excited states of quantum system. The method has been generalized for the application to quantum statistics and quantum field theory. In this book, the numerous applications of operator method for various physical systems are demonstrated. Simple models are used to illustrate the basic principles of the method which are further used for the solution of complex problems of quantum theory for many-particle systems. The results obtained are supplemented by numerical calculations, presented as tables and figures.

Feranchuk, Ilya; Le, Van-Hoang; Ulyanenkov, Alexander

2015-01-01

120

Minisuperspace as a Quantum Open System

We trace the development of ideas on dissipative processes in chaotic cosmology and on minisuperspace quantum cosmology from the time Misner proposed them to current research. We show 1) how the effect of quantum processes like particle creation in the early universe can address the issues of the isotropy and homogeneity of the observed universe, 2) how viewing minisuperspace as a quantum open system can address the issue of the validity of such approximations customarily ad...

Hu, B. L.; Paz, Juan Pablo; Sinha, Sukanya

1993-01-01

121

Quantum field theory of relic nonequilibrium systems

In terms of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, we develop field-theoretical models of quantum nonequilibrium systems which could exist today as relics from the very early universe. We consider relic excited states generated by inflaton decay, as well as relic vacuum modes, for particle species that decoupled close to the Planck temperature. Simple estimates suggest that, at least in principle, quantum nonequilibrium could survive to the present day...

Underwood, Nicolas G.; Valentini, Antony

2014-01-01

122

Electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum dot systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in quantum dot exciton systems in which the exciton behaves as a two-level system is investigated theoretically. It is shown that due to strong exciton-phonon coupling EIT can occur in such a quantum dot system and ultraslow light can propagate. The nonlinear optical absorption and Kerr coefficient based on EIT are also calculated. The numerical results show that giant nonlinear optical effects can be obtained while the frequency of the signal field differs only by an amount of LO phonon frequency from the exciton frequency in quantum dot systems

123

Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered

124

Sliding mode control of quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a new robust control method for quantum systems with uncertainties involving sliding mode control (SMC). SMC is a widely used approach in classical control theory and industrial applications. We show that SMC is also a useful method for robust control of quantum systems. In this paper, we define two specific classes of sliding modes (i.e. eigenstates and state subspaces) and propose two novel methods combining unitary control and periodic projective measurements for the design of quantum SMC systems. Two examples including a two-level system and a three-level system are presented to demonstrate the proposed SMC method. One of the main features of the proposed method is that the designed control laws can guarantee the desired control performance in the presence of uncertainties in the system Hamiltonian. This SMC approach provides a useful control theoretic tool for robust quantum information processing with uncertainties.

125

Sliding mode control of quantum systems

This paper proposes a new robust control method for quantum systems with uncertainties involving sliding mode control (SMC). Sliding mode control is a widely used approach in classical control theory and industrial applications. We show that SMC is also a useful method for robust control of quantum systems. In this paper, we define two specific classes of sliding modes (i.e., eigenstates and state subspaces) and propose two novel methods combining unitary control and periodic projective measurements for the design of quantum sliding mode control systems. Two examples including a two-level system and a three-level system are presented to demonstrate the proposed SMC method. One of main features of the proposed method is that the designed control laws can guarantee desired control performance in the presence of uncertainties in the system Hamiltonian. This sliding mode control approach provides a useful control theoretic tool for robust quantum information processing with uncertainties.

Dong, Daoyi; 10.1088/1367-2630/11/10/105033

2009-01-01

126

Quantum Information with Continuous Variable systems

This thesis deals with the study of quantum communication protocols with Continuous Variable (CV) systems. Continuous Variable systems are those described by canonical conjugated coordinates x and p endowed with infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces, thus involving a complex mathematical structure. A special class of CV states, are the so-called Gaussian states. With them, it has been possible to implement certain quantum tasks as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography and quantum computation with fantastic experimental success. The importance of Gaussian states is two-fold; firstly, its structural mathematical description makes them much more amenable than any other CV system. Secondly, its production, manipulation and detection with current optical technology can be done with a very high degree of accuracy and control. Nevertheless, it is known that in spite of their exceptional role within the space of all Continuous Variable states, in fact, Gaussian states are not always the best candidates to perform...

Rodó, Carles

2010-01-01

127

Macroscopic discription of quantum system time evolution

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evolution of a quantum system in which the given sum of the observables is measured in the time period (t0, t) is considered. It is shown that if the given sum of the observables is macroscopically total (i. e. it admits continuous measurement) then the expected values of these observables comply with the closed system of integral equations. In this case quantum state of the system is described by the Gibbs density

128

Impedance measurement technique for quantum systems

The impedance measurement technique consists in that the phase-dependent (parametric) inductance of the system is probed by the classical tank circuit via measuring the voltage. The notion of the parametric inductance for the impedance measurement technique is revisited for the case when a quantum system is probed. Measurement of the quantum state of the system of superconducting circuits (qubits) is studied theoretically. It is shown that the result of the measurement is de...

Shevchenko, S. N.

2007-01-01

129

Galilei invariant technique for quantum system description

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Problems with quantum systems models, violating Galilei invariance are examined. The method for arbitrary non-relativistic quantum system Galilei invariant wave function construction, applying a modified basis where center-of-mass excitations have been removed before Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization, is developed. For identical fermion system, the Galilei invariant wave function can be obtained while applying conventional antisymmetrization methods of wave functions, dependent on single particle spatial variables.

Kamuntavi?ius, Gintautas P. [Department of Physics, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, Kaunas 44404 (Lithuania)

2014-04-15

130

Strong decoherence in quantum systems undergoing collisions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decoherence problem in systems with continuous variables is discussed. It is shown that in quantum systems with momentum transfers in the Markovian approximation all pure states strongly decohere making quantum information processing much more complex than in the qubit case. The time scale of the effect is calculated. -- Highlights: ? Master equation in the Markovian limit for an environment representing dust particles is discussed. ? It is shown that such a dynamics leads to the strong decoherence in the system. ? Exact solutions for the free Hamiltonian and quantum harmonic oscillator are provided. ? Time scale of the decoherence phenomenon is calculated in both cases.

131

Universal signature of non-quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that 'non-quantum systems', with anomalous statistical properties, would carry a distinctive experimental signature. Such systems can exist in deterministic hidden-variables theories (such as the pilot-wave theory of de Broglie and Bohm). The signature consists of non-additive expectations for non-commuting observables, breaking the sinusoidal modulation of quantum probabilities for two-state systems (Malus' law). This effect is independent of the quantum state (pure or mixed), or of the details of the hidden-variables model. Experiments are proposed, testing polarisation probabilities for single photons

132

Macroscopic quantum tunneling in nanoelectromechanical systems

The experimental observation of quantum phenomena in mechanical degrees of freedom is difficult, as the systems become linear towards low energies and the quantum limit, and thus reside in the correspondence limit. Here we investigate how to access quantum phenomena in flexural nanomechanical systems which are strongly deflected by a voltage. Near a metastable point, one can achieve a significant nonlinearity in the electromechanical potential at the scale of zero point energy. The system could then escape from the metastable state via macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT). We consider two model systems suspended atop a voltage gate, namely, a graphene sheet, and a carbon nanotube. We find that the experimental demonstration of the phenomenon is currently possible but demanding, since the MQT crossover temperatures fall in the milli-Kelvin range. A carbon nanotube is suggested as the most promising system.

Sillanpaa, Mika A; Heikkila, Tero T; Hakonen, Pertti J

2011-01-01

133

Limit of classical chaos in quantum systems

The nonlocal effect of quantum mechanics upon the classical chaos around the separatrix in a Hamiltonian system is investigated by extending the definition of the Melnikov function in the semiclassical approximation. It is shown that the quantum correction of the Melnikov function is related to the quantum fluctuation of the energy on the stable and unstable manifolds. This correction is a constant shift of the center of oscillation of the classical Melnikov function from zero. Because of this shift, the effect of quantum mechanics suppresses the classical chaos around the separatrix. Physical estimates are made of the magnitude of the quantum effect for a double-well oscillator system. As examples, the case of electron for the molecular scale and the proton for the nuclear scale, is treated, and the ammonia molecules NH3, ND3, and NT3 are considered.

Petrosky, T. Y.; Schieve, W. C.

1985-06-01

134

Fluctuation theorems in driven open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characteristic function for the joint measurement of the changes of two or more commuting observables upon an external forcing of a quantum system is derived. In particular, the statistics of the internal energy, the exchanged heat and the work of a quantum system that weakly couples to its environment are determined in terms of the energy changes of the system and the environment due to the action of a classical, external force on the system. If the system and the environment initially are in a canonical equilibrium, the work performed on the system is shown to satisfy the Tasaki–Crooks theorem and the Jarzynski equality

135

Fluctuation theorems in driven open quantum systems

The characteristic function for the joint measurement of the changes of two commuting observables upon an external forcing of a quantum system is derived. In particular, the statistics of the internal energy, the exchanged heat and the work of a quantum system that {\\it weakly} couples to its environment is determined in terms of the energy changes of the system and the environment due to the action of a classical, external force on the system. If the system and environment initially are in a canonical equilibrium, the work performed on the system is shown to satisfy the Tasaki-Crooks theorem and the Jarzynski equality.

Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

2008-01-01

136

Stabilization of classic and quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the mechanism of quantum whirligig can be successfully used for stabilization of classical systems. In particular, the conditions for stabilization of charged particles and radiation fluxes in plasma are found.

137

Quantum Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Systems

A brief summary of the physics of low-dimensional quantum systems is given. The material should be accessible to advanced physics undergraduate students. References to recent review articles and books are provided when possible.

Geller, Michael R.

2001-01-01

138

Effective quantum spin systems with ion traps

We show that the physical system consisting of trapped ions interacting with lasers may undergo a rich variety of quantum phase transitions. By changing the laser intensities and polarizations the dynamics of the internal states of the ions can be controlled, in such a way that an Ising or Heisenberg-like interaction is induced between effective spins. Our scheme allows us to build an analogue quantum simulator of spin systems with trapped ions, and observe and analyze quantum phase transitions with unprecedent opportunities for the measurement and manipulation of spins.

Porras, D

2004-01-01

139

Energy Transport in Closed Quantum Systems

We examine energy transport in an ensemble of closed quantum systems driven by stochastic perturbations. One can show that the probability and energy fluxes can be described in terms of quantum advection modes (QAM) associated with the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. These QAM play the role of Landauer channels in a system with discrete energy spectrum and the eigenfunctions that cannot be described as plane waves. In order to determine the type of correlations ...

Levin, G. A.; Jones, W. A.; Walczak, K.; Yerkes, K. L.

2012-01-01

140

Sliding mode control of quantum systems

This paper proposes a new robust control method for quantum systems with uncertainties involving sliding mode control (SMC). Sliding mode control is a widely used approach in classical control theory and industrial applications. We show that SMC is also a useful method for robust control of quantum systems. In this paper, we define two specific classes of sliding modes (i.e., eigenstates and state subspaces) and propose two novel methods combining unitary control and periodi...

Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R.

2009-01-01

141

Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems

These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer impl...

Sandvik, Anders W.

2011-01-01

142

Quantum effects in optomechanical systems

The search for experimental demonstrations of the quantum behavior of macroscopic mechanical resonators is a fastly growing field of investigation and recent results suggest that the generation of quantum states of resonators with a mass at the microgram scale is within reach. In this chapter we give an overview of two important topics within this research field: cooling to the motional ground state, and the generation of entanglement involving mechanical, optical and atomic...

Genes, C.; Mari, A.; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.

2009-01-01

143

An Application of Quantum Finite Automata to Interactive Proof Systems

Quantum finite automata have been studied intensively since their introduction in late 1990s as a natural model of a quantum computer with finite-dimensional quantum memory space. This paper seeks their direct application to interactive proof systems in which a mighty quantum prover communicates with a quantum-automaton verifier through a common communication cell. Our quantum interactive proof systems are juxtaposed to Dwork-Stockmeyer's classical interactive proof systems ...

Nishimura, Harumichi; Yamakami, Tomoyuki

2004-01-01

144

Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems

Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent "quantumness" still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two "quantum witnesses" to efficiently veri...

Li, Che-ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-nan; Chen, Guang-yin; Nori, Franco

2012-01-01

145

T-Systems and Y-Systems for Quantum Affinizations of Quantum Kac-Moody Algebras

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The T-systems and Y-systems are classes of algebraic relations originally associated with quantum affine algebras and Yangians. Recently the T-systems were generalized to quantum affinizations of a wide class of quantum Kac-Moody algebras by Hernandez. In this note we introduce the corresponding Y-systems and establish a relation between T and Y-systems. We also introduce the T and Y-systems associated with a class of cluster algebras, which include the former T and Y-systems of simply laced type as special cases.

Tomoki Nakanishi

2009-12-01

146

Entanglement and dephasing of quantum dissipative systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The von Neumann entropy of various quantum dissipative models is calculated in order to discuss the entanglement properties of these systems. First, integrable quantum dissipative models are discussed, i.e., the quantum Brownian motion and the quantum harmonic oscillator. In the case of the free particle, the related entanglement of formation shows no nonanalyticity. In the case of the dissipative harmonic oscillator, there is a nonanalyticity at the transition of underdamped to overdamped oscillations. We argue that this might be a general property of dissipative systems. We show that similar features arise in the dissipative two-level system and study different regimes using sub-Ohmic, Ohmic, and super-Ohmic baths, within a scaling approach

147

Entanglement and dephasing of quantum dissipative systems

The von Neumann entropy of various quantum dissipative models is calculated in order to discuss the entanglement properties of these systems. First, integrable quantum dissipative models are discussed, i.e., the quantum Brownian motion and the quantum harmonic oscillator. In the case of the free particle, the related entanglement of formation shows no nonanalyticity. In the case of the dissipative harmonic oscillator, there is a nonanalyticity at the transition of underdamped to overdamped oscillations. We argue that this might be a general property of dissipative systems. We show that similar features arise in the dissipative two-level system and study different regimes using sub-Ohmic, Ohmic, and super-Ohmic baths, within a scaling approach.

Stauber, T.; Guinea, F.

2006-04-01

148

CIME School on Quantum Many Body Systems

The book is based on the lectures given at the CIME school "Quantum many body systems" held in the summer of 2010. It provides a tutorial introduction to recent advances in the mathematics of interacting systems, written by four leading experts in the field: V. Rivasseau illustrates the applications of constructive Quantum Field Theory to 2D interacting electrons and their relation to quantum gravity; R. Seiringer describes a proof of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gross-Pitaevski limit and explains the effects of rotating traps and the emergence of lattices of quantized vortices; J.-P. Solovej gives an introduction to the theory of quantum Coulomb systems and to the functional analytic methods used to prove their thermodynamic stability; finally, T. Spencer explains the supersymmetric approach to Anderson localization and its relation to the theory of random matrices. All the lectures are characterized by their mathematical rigor combined with physical insights.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Solovej, Jan Philip; Spencer, Thomas

2012-01-01

149

Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL

2014-01-01

150

Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This resul...

Tian, Zehua; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang

2015-01-01

151

Complex quantum systems analysis of large Coulomb systems

This volume is based on lectures given during the program Complex Quantum Systems held at the National University of Singapore's Institute for Mathematical Sciences from 17 February to 27 March 2010. It guides the reader through two introductory expositions on large Coulomb systems to five of the most important developments in the field: derivation of mean field equations, derivation of effective Hamiltonians, alternative high precision methods in quantum chemistry, modern many body methods originating from quantum information, and - the most complex - semirelativistic quantum electrodynamics.

Siedentop, Heinz

2013-01-01

152

Carrier Spin Polarization in Quantum Confined System

In this dissertation, systematic studies of magneto-photoluminescence of manganese-doped lead salt (Mn doped lead sulfide and lead selenide) quantum dots and core/shell quantum dots will be presented. It was observed that large carrier spin polarization can be obtained in manganese doped IV-VI lead salt quantum dots upon excitation by circularly polarized light; and a clear dependence of spin polarization on the sizes of quantum dots and thickness of core/shell quantum dots was observed as well. The quantum dots in this study were synthesized by solution-phase chemical method. The sizes of the quantum dots could be controlled by the growth temperature (50 to 150) and growth time (1min to 24hr). The doping concentrations in the compounds Pb1-xMn xS (or Pb1-xMnxSe) ranging from x = 0 to 8% can be adjusted by varying synthesis conditions as well. Studies on size dependence (from 3 to 10 nm), temperature dependence (from 7K to 50K), magnetic field dependence (from 0 to 7T), and laser power dependence (from 1mW to 20mW) of photoluminescence intensities and peak positions were systematically carried out. The spin-polarization, which was directly calculated from magneto-luminescence measurements, was studied as a function of quantum dot sizes, temperatures and magnetic fields. It was observed that, depending on the sizes and growth conditions (growth temperature and time), the spin polarization, as large as 40% at 7K in a 7T magnetic field, could be tuned in magnitude. Core/shell structured quantum dots with Mn2+ ions doped in the inner core or outer shell were also studied. The spin polarization was observed in core/shell system to decrease as thickness of the shell increases. We believe the wave function overlap between carriers and dopants can be tuned by quantum confinement and therefore the magnitude of exchange interactions can be tuned via varying the sizes of quantum dots or the shell thickness of core/shell quantum dots. There are a couple of measurements that showed inversion of spin polarization but the reproducibility is low. Further studies are needed to verify the possibility of reversing the sign of spin polarization through quantum confinement, i.e., varying the sizes of quantum dots or the shell thickness of core/shell quantum dots.

Long, Gen

153

Cluster formation in quantum critical systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of magnetic clusters has been verified in both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic quantum critical systems. We review some of the strongest evidence for strongly doped quantum critical systems (Ce(Ru0.24Fe0.76)2Ge2) and we discuss the implications for the response of the system when cluster formation is combined with finite size effects. In particular, we discuss the change of universality class that is observed close to the order-disorder transition. We detail the conditions under which clustering effects will play a significant role also in the response of stoichiometric systems and their experimental signature.

154

Quantum Mechanics in AF C*-SYSTEMS

Motivated from the chemical potential theory, we study quantum statistical thermodynamics in AF C*-systems generalizing usual one-dimensional quantum lattice systems. Our systems are C*-algebras { A} which have a localization \\{{ A}{[i, j]}\\} of finite-dimensional subalgebras indexed by finite intervals of Z and an automorphism ? acting as a right shift on the localization. Model examples are supplied from derived towers (string algebras) for type II1 factor-subfactor pairs. Given a (?-invariant) interaction and a specific tracial state, we formulate the Gibbs conditions and the variational principle for (?-invariant) states on { A}, and investigate the relationship among these conditions and the KMS condition for the time evolution generated by the interaction. Special attention is paid to C*-systems of gauge invariance (typical model in the chemical potential theory) and to C*-systems considered as quantum random walks on discrete groups. The CNT-dynamical entropy for the shift automorphism ? is also discussed.

Hiai, Fumio; Petz, Dénes

155

Open quantum systems far from equilibrium

This monograph provides graduate students and also professional researchers aiming to understand the dynamics of open quantum systems with a valuable and self-contained toolbox. Special focus is laid on the link between microscopic models and the resulting open-system dynamics. This includes how to derive the celebrated Lindblad master equation without applying the rotating wave approximation. As typical representatives for non-equilibrium configurations it treats systems coupled to multiple reservoirs (including the description of quantum transport), driven systems, and feedback-controlled quantum systems. Each method is illustrated with easy-to-follow examples from recent research. Exercises and short summaries at the end of every chapter enable the reader to approach the frontiers of current research quickly and make the book useful for quick reference.

Schaller, Gernot

2014-01-01

156

Quantum system lifetimes and measurement perturbations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recently proposed description of quantum system decay in terms of repeated measurement perturbations is modified. The possibility of retarded reductions to a unique quantum state, due to ineffective localization of the decay products at initial time measurements, is simply taken into account. The exponential decay law is verified again. A modified equation giving the observed lifetime in terms of unperturbed quantum decay law, measurement frequency and reduction law is derived. It predicts deviations of the observed lifetime from the umperturbed one, together with a dependence on experimental procedures. The influence of different model unperturbed decay laws and reduction laws on this effect is studied

157

Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems

These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer implementations are then discussed in detail. Applications of the methods are illustrated by results for some of the most essential models in quantum magnetism, such as the S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in one and two dimensions, as well as extended models useful for studying quantum phase transitions between antiferromagnetic and magnetically disordered states.

Sandvik, Anders W

2011-01-01

158

Synchro-thermalization of composite quantum system

We study the thermalization of a composite quantum system consisting of several subsystems, where only a small one of the subsystem contacts with a heat bath in equilibrium, while the rest of the composite system is contact free. We show that the whole composite system still can be thermalized after a relaxation time long enough, if the energy level structure of the composite system is connected, which means any two energy levels of the composite system can be connected by d...

Li, Sheng-wen; Xu, D. Z.; Liu, X. F.; Sun, C. P.

2014-01-01

159

Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics

We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate atomic transport across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. ...

Pepino, R. A.; Cooper, J.; Meiser, D.; Anderson, D. Z.; Holland, M. J.

2010-01-01

160

Nonequilibrium quantum criticality in open electronic systems

A theory is presented of quantum criticality in open (coupled to reservoirs) itinerant electron magnets, with nonequilibrium drive provided by current flow across the system. Both departures from equilibrium at conventional (equilibrium) quantum critical points and the physics of phase transitions induced by the nonequilibrium drive are treated. Nonequilibrium-induced phase transitions are found to have the same leading critical behavior as conventional thermal phase transit...

Mitra, Aditi; Takei, So; Kim, Yong Baek; Millis, A. J.

2006-01-01

161

PSPACE has 2-round quantum interactive proof systems

In this paper we consider quantum interactive proof systems, i.e., interactive proof systems in which the prover and verifier may perform quantum computations and exchange quantum messages. It is proved that every language in PSPACE has a quantum interactive proof system that requires only two rounds of communication between the prover and verifier, while having exponentially small (one-sided) probability of error. It follows that quantum interactive proof systems are strict...

Watrous, John

1999-01-01

162

Dynamical regimes of dissipative quantum systems

We reveal several distinct regimes of the relaxation dynamics of a small quantum system coupled to an environment within the plane of the dissipation strength and the reservoir temperature. This is achieved by discriminating between coherent dynamics with damped oscillatory behavior on all time scales, partially coherent behavior being nonmonotonic at intermediate times but monotonic at large ones, and purely monotonic incoherent decay. Surprisingly, elevated temperature can render the system "more coherent" by inducing a transition from the partially coherent to the coherent regime. This provides a refined view on the relaxation dynamics of open quantum systems.

Kennes, D. M.; Kashuba, O.; Meden, V.

2013-12-01

163

Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos

In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is—to say the least—fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many-body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.

García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Wisniacki, Diego A.

2015-01-01

164

Geometric quenches in quantum integrable systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the generic problem of suddenly changing the geometry of an integrable, one-dimensional many-body quantum system. We show how the physics of an initial quantum state released into a bigger system can be completely described within the framework of the algebraic Bethe ansatz, by providing an exact decomposition of the initial state into the eigenstate basis of the system after such a geometric quench. Our results, applicable to a large class of models including the Lieb–Liniger gas and Heisenberg spin chains, thus offer a reliable framework for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values and correlations in this nonequilibrium situation. (letter)

165

Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

166

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the influence of environmental decoherence on the dynamics of a coupled qubit system and quantum correlation. We analyse the relationship between concurrence and the degree of initial entanglement or the purity of initial quantum state, and also their relationship with quantum discord. The results show that the decrease of the purity of an initial quantum state can induce the attenuation of concurrence or quantum discord, but the attenuation of quantum discord is obviously slower than the concurrence's, correspondingly the survival time of quantum discord is longer. Further investigation reveals that the robustness of quantum discord and concurrence relies on the entanglement degree of the initial quantum state. The higher the degree of entanglement, the more robust the quantum discord is than concurrence. And the reverse is equally true. Birth and death happen to quantum discord periodically and a newborn quantum discord comes into being under a certain condition, so does the concurrence

167

Recent advances in quantum integrable systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies.

Amico, L.; Belavin, A.; Buffenoir, E.; Castro Alvaredo, A.; Caudrelier, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Corrig, E.; Crampe, N.; Deguchi, T.; Dobrev, V.K.; Doikou, A.; Doyon, B.; Feher, L.; Fioravanti, D.; Gohmann, F.; Hallnas, M.; Jimbo, M.; Konno, N.C.H.; Korchemsky, G.; Kulish, P.; Lassalle, M.; Maillet, J.M.; McCoy, B.; Mintchev, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Quano, F.Y.Z.; Ragnisco, R.; Ravanini, F.; Rittenberg, V.; Rivasseau, V.; Rossi, M.; Satta, G.; Sedrakyan, T.; Shiraishi, J.; Suzuki, N.C.J.; Yamada, Y.; Zamolodchikov, A.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Posta, S.; Sedra, M.B.; Zuevskiy, A.; Gohmann, F

2005-07-01

168

Recent advances in quantum integrable systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies

169

Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems

Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent "quantumness" still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two "quantum witnesses" to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems.

Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco; 10.1038/srep00885

2012-01-01

170

Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems

Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent ``quantumness'' still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two ``quantum witnesses'' to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems.

Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

2012-11-01

171

Quantum Dynamics of Nonlinear Cavity Systems

We investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. To begin, we carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprised of a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing a flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we make use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. This setup allows for quan...

Nation, Paul D

2010-01-01

172

Quantum dynamics of nonlinear cavity systems

In this work we investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. We begin by carrying out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprising a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing an external flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we consider the use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. We will show that biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. As a fundamentally quantum mechanical device, this setup allows for investigations of quantum effects such as backreaction and analogue space-time fluctuations on the Hawking process. Finally, we investigate a quantum parametric amplifier with dynamical pump mode, viewed as a zero-dimensional model of Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole. The conditions are derived under which the spectrum of particles generated from vacuum fluctuations deviates from the thermal spectrum predicted for the conventional parametric amplifier. We find that significant deviation occurs once the pump mode (black hole) has released nearly half of its initial energy in the signal (Hawking radiation) and idler (in-falling particle) modes. As a model of black hole dynamics, this finding lends support to the view that late-time Hawking radiation contains information about the quantum state of the black hole and is entangled with the black hole's quantum gravitational degrees of freedom.

Nation, Paul David

173

Quantum games in open systems using biophysical Hamiltonians

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze the necessary physical conditions to model an open quantum system as a quantum game. By applying the formalism of quantum operations on a particular system, we use Kraus operators as quantum strategies. The physical interpretation is a conflict among different configurations of the environment. The resolution of the conflict displays regimes of minimum loss of information

174

Geometric magnetism in open quantum systems

An isolated classical chaotic system, when driven by the slow change of several parameters, responds with two reaction forces: geometric friction and geometric magnetism. By using the theory of quantum fluctuation relations we show that this holds true also for open quantum systems, and provide explicit expressions for those forces in this case. This extends the concept of Berry curvature to the realm of open quantum systems. We illustrate our findings by calculating the geometric magnetism of a charged harmonic oscillator transported along a path in physical space in presence of a magnetic field and a thermal environment. We find that in this case the geometric magnetism is unaffected by the presence of the heat bath.

Campisi, Michele; Hänggi, Peter

2012-01-01

175

Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks

176

Constraint algebra for interacting quantum systems

We consider relativistic constrained systems interacting with external fields. We provide physical arguments to support the idea that the quantum constraint algebra should be the same as in the free quantum case. For systems with ordering ambiguities this principle is essential to obtain a unique quantization. This is shown explicitly in the case of a relativistic spinning particle, where our assumption about the constraint algebra plus invariance under general coordinate transformations leads to a unique S-matrix. On leave from Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Università di Pavia and INFN, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.

Fubini, S.; Roncadelli, M.

1988-04-01

177

Relativistic quantum metrology in open system dynamics.

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187

Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang

2015-01-01

178

Macroscopicity and stability of quantum spin systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success of quantum mechanics as a theory of microscopic systems (i.e., at an atomic scale) and the classical appearance of the macroscopic world raises the questions about the transition between quantum and classical physics and the validity of quantum mechanics on macroscopic scales. In this thesis, I present a specific notion of 'macroscopic quantum states' (macro-states) as those class of states that is capable to demonstrate the validity of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. The 'macroscopicity' is measured by the so-called quantum Fisher information. Next, I compare this measure to other proposals in the literature and discuss whether one can use optimal covariant cloning devices to generate a macros-state. The second part of my thesis is dedicated to the stability of macro-states under the influence of single-particle noise channels. I propose a Schroedinger-cat-like state that is much more stable than 'typical' macroscopic superpositions. The study is accomplished by the investigations on tensor networks, in particular on the representation of linear operators as so-called Matrix Product Operators, which allow in some instances an efficient treatment of given problems. (author)

179

Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187

Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang

2015-01-01

180

Equilibration of quasi-isolated quantum systems

The evolution of a quasi-isolated finite quantum system from a nonequilibrium initial state is considered. The condition of quasi-isolation allows for the description of the system dynamics on the general basis, without specifying the system details and for arbitrary initial conditions. The influence of surrounding results in (at least partial) equilibration and decoherence. The resulting equilibrium state bears information on initial conditions and is characterized by a rep...

Yukalov, V. I.

2012-01-01

181

Quantum & Classical Eigenfunctions in Calogero & Sutherland Systems

An interesting observation was reported by Corrigan-Sasaki that all the frequencies of small oscillations around equilibrium are " quantised" for Calogero and Sutherland (C-S) systems, typical integrable multi-particle dynamics. We present an analytic proof by applying recent results of Loris-Sasaki. Explicit forms of `classical' and quantum eigenfunctions are presented for C-S systems based on any root systems.

Loris, I.; Sasaki, R.

2003-01-01

182

We propose a quantitative criterion to determine whether the coupled quantum systems can achieve complete synchronization or phase synchronization in the process of analyzing quantum synchronization. Adopting the criterion, we discuss the quantum synchronization effects between optomechanical systems and find that the error between the systems and the fluctuation of error is sensitive to coupling intensity by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent of the model and quantum fluctuation, respectively. By taking the appropriate coupling intensity, we can control quantum synchronization even under different logical relationships between switches. Finally, we simulate the dynamical evolution of the system to verify the quantum synchronization criterion and to show the ability of synchronization control.

Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

2015-02-01

183

Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines ‘classical’ time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems. -- Highlights: •Present a general methodology for deriving temporal probabilities in tunneling systems. •Treatment applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. •Derive a new expression for tunneling time. •Identify new time parameters relevant to tunneling. •Propose a resolution of the superluminality paradox in tunneling.

Anastopoulos, Charis, E-mail: anastop@physics.upatras.gr; Savvidou, Ntina, E-mail: ksavvidou@physics.upatras.gr

2013-09-15

184

Long-range quantum discord in critical spin systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that quantum correlations as quantified by quantum discord can characterize quantum phase transitions by exhibiting nontrivial long-range decay as a function of distance in spin systems. This is rather different from the behavior of pairwise entanglement, which is typically short-ranged even in critical systems. In particular, we find a clear change in the decay rate of quantum discord as the system crosses a quantum critical point. We illustrate this phenomenon for first-order, second-order, and infinite-order quantum phase transitions, indicating that pairwise quantum discord is an appealing quantum correlation function for condensed matter systems. -- Highlights: ? Quantum discord may exhibit long-range decay in spin systems. ? Long-range behavior of discord occurs as the system crosses a critical point. ? Long-range behavior of discord is found for phase transitions of different orders. ? Discussion of discord as a function of distance is shown for several spin chains.

Maziero, J., E-mail: jonasmaziero@gmail.com [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adélia 166, Santo André, 09210-170, São Paulo (Brazil); Céleri, L.C., E-mail: lucas.celeri@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adélia 166, Santo André, 09210-170, São Paulo (Brazil); Serra, R.M., E-mail: serra@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adélia 166, Santo André, 09210-170, São Paulo (Brazil); Sarandy, M.S., E-mail: msarandy@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoatá, 24210-346, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

2012-04-02

185

Long-range quantum discord in critical spin systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that quantum correlations as quantified by quantum discord can characterize quantum phase transitions by exhibiting nontrivial long-range decay as a function of distance in spin systems. This is rather different from the behavior of pairwise entanglement, which is typically short-ranged even in critical systems. In particular, we find a clear change in the decay rate of quantum discord as the system crosses a quantum critical point. We illustrate this phenomenon for first-order, second-order, and infinite-order quantum phase transitions, indicating that pairwise quantum discord is an appealing quantum correlation function for condensed matter systems. -- Highlights: ? Quantum discord may exhibit long-range decay in spin systems. ? Long-range behavior of discord occurs as the system crosses a critical point. ? Long-range behavior of discord is found for phase transitions of different orders. ? Discussion of discord as a function of distance is shown for several spin chains.

186

Radiation processes in quantum systems with boundary

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is made of the emission effects in quantum field systems contained in the regions of space with a non-stationary boundary. The back reaction of emission on the boundary is taken into account. The classical equations of motion of a system consisting of a free massless scalar field limited in space by a massive reflecting wall (mirror) are investigated in the two-dimensional case. The system is closed, i.e. external forces are absent. This system is quantised. The effect of the reaction of emission on the trajectory of a mirror is studied. The specific peculiarities of the stimulated emission processes in closed quantum systems with boundary are established and investigated. The results are related to hadron physics. (author)

187

Integrals of Motion for Kicked Quantum Systems

The generalised quasienergy states are introduced as eigenstates of the new integral of motion for periodically and nonperiodically kicked quantum systems.The photon distribution function of polymode generalised correlated light expressed in terms of multivariable Hermite polynomials is discussed and the relation of its properties to Schrodinger uncertainty relation is given.

Man Ko, V. I.

1993-01-01

188

Quantum field theory and multiparticle systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of quantum field theory methods for the investigation of the physical characteristics of the MANY-BODY SYSTEMS is discussed. Mainly discussed is the method of second quantization and the method of the Green functions. Briefly discussed is the method of calculating the Green functions at finite temperatures. (Z.J.)

189

Quantum mechanics of a system with confinement

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is made of the quantum mechanical model of confinement. The spectrum of a system with permanently confined channel is investiogated. A closed analytical expression is obtained for the S-matrix describing the scattering on N levels in the confined channel. The influence of the confined channel on the resonant and Coulomb states in the scattering channel is considered

190

Quantum mechanics in the general quantum systems (V): Hamiltonian eigenvalues

We derive out a complete series expression of Hamiltonian eigenvalues without any approximation and cut in the general quantum systems based on Wang's formal framework \\cite{wang1}. In particular, we then propose a calculating approach of eigenvalues of arbitrary Hamiltonian via solving an algebra equation satisfied by a kernal function, which involves the contributions from all order perturbations. In order to verify the validity of our expressions and reveal the power of our approach, we calculate the ground state energy of a quartic anharmonic oscillator and have obtained good enough results comparing with the known one.

Li, Zhou

2009-01-01

191

An Operator-Based Exact Treatment of Open Quantum Systems

"Quantum mechanics must be regarded as open systems. On one hand, this is due to the fact that, like in classical physics, any realistic system is subjected to a coupling to an uncontrollable environment which influences it in a non-negligible way. The theory of open quantum systems thus plays a major role in many applications of quantum physics since perfect isolation of quantum system is not possible and since a complete microscopic description or control of the environmen...

Nicolosi, S.

2005-01-01

192

Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics

We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate atomic transport across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. Finally, we show that it is possible to demonstrate AND logic gate behavior in an optical lattice.

Pepino, R A; Meiser, D; Anderson, D Z; Holland, M J

2010-01-01

193

Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate the atomic transport of bosons across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. Finally, we show that it is possible to demonstrate and logic gate behavior in an optical lattice.

194

Semiclassical Analysis of Constrained Quantum Systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exact procedures that follow Dirac's constraint quantization of gauge theories are usually technically involved and often difficult to implement in practice. We overview an 'effective' scheme for obtaining the leading order semiclassical corrections to the dynamics of constrained quantum systems developed elsewhere. Motivated by the geometrical view of quantum mechanics, our method mimics the classical Dirac-Bergmann algorithm and avoids direct reference to a particular representation of the physical Hilbert space. We illustrate the procedure through the example of a relativistic particle in Minkowski spacetime.

195

Fluctuation Theorem for Arbitrary Open Quantum Systems

Based on the observation that the thermodynamic equilibrium free energy of an open quantum system in contact with a thermal environment can be understood as the difference between the free energy of the total system and that of the bare environment, the validity of the Crooks theorem and of the Jarzynski equality is extended to open quantum systems. No restrictions on the nature of the environment or on the strength of the coupling between system and environment need to be imposed. This free energy entering the Crooks theorem and the Jarzynski equality is closely related to the Hamiltonian of mean force that generalizes the classical statistical mechanical concept of the potential of mean force.

Campisi, Michele; Hänggi, Peter

2009-01-01

196

Quantum-entanglement aspects of polaron systems

We describe quantum entanglement inherent to the polaron ground states of coupled electron-phonon (or, more generally, particle-phonon) systems based on a model comprising both local (Holstein-type) and nonlocal (Peierls-type) coupling. We study this model using a variational method supplemented by the exact numerical diagonalization on a system of finite size. By way of subsequent numerical diagonalization of the reduced density matrix, we determine the particle-phonon enta...

Stojanovic, Vladimir M.; Vanevic, Mihajlo

2008-01-01

197

Seniority in quantum many-body systems

The use of the seniority quantum number in many-body systems is reviewed. A brief summary is given of its introduction by Racah in the context of atomic spectroscopy. Several extensions of Racah's original idea are discussed: seniority for identical nucleons in a single-$j$ shell, its extension to the case of many, non-degenerate $j$ shells and to systems with neutrons and protons. To illustrate its usefulness to this day, a recent application of seniority is presented in Bo...

Isacker, P.

2010-01-01

198

Hybrid quantum systems of ions and atoms

In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.

Sias, Carlo

2014-01-01

199

Maximal work extraction from quantum systems

Thermodynamics teaches that if a system initially off-equilibrium is coupled to work sources, the maximum work that it may yield is governed by its energy and entropy. For finite systems this bound is usually not reachable. The maximum extractable work compatible with quantum mechanics (``ergotropy'') is derived and expressed in terms of the density matrix and the Hamiltonian. It is related to the property of majorization: more major states can provide more work. Scenarios o...

Allahverdyan, A.; Balian, R.; Nieuwenhuizen, T. M.

2004-01-01

200

Dynamics of quantum trajectories in chaotic systems

Quantum trajectories defined in the de Broglie--Bohm theory provide a causal way to interpret physical phenomena. In this Letter, we use this formalism to analyze the short time dynamics induced by unstable periodic orbits in a classically chaotic system, a situation in which scars are known to play a very important role. We find that the topologies of the quantum orbits are much more complicated than that of the scarring and associated periodic orbits, since the former have quantum interference built in. Thus scar wave functions are necessary to analyze the corresponding dynamics. Moreover, these topologies imply different return routes to the vicinity of the initial positions, and this reflects in the existence of different contributions in each peak of the survival probability function.

Wisniacki, D A; Benito, R M

2003-01-01

201

Control landscapes for open system quantum operations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliable realization of control operations is a key component of quantum information applications. In practice, meeting this goal is very demanding for open quantum systems. This paper investigates the landscape defined as the fidelity J between the desired and achieved quantum operations with an open system. The goal is to maximize J as a functional of the control variables. We specify the complete set of critical points of the landscape function in the so-called kinematic picture. An associated Hessian analysis of the landscape reveals that, upon the satisfaction of a particular controllability criterion, the critical topology is dependent on the particular environment, but no false traps (i.e. suboptimal solutions) exist. Thus, a gradient-type search algorithm should not be hindered in searching for the ultimate optimal solution with such controllable systems. Moreover, the maximal fidelity is proven to coincide with Uhlmann’s fidelity between the environmental initial states associated with the achieved and desired quantum operations, which provides a generalization of Uhlmann’s theorem in terms of Kraus maps. (paper)

202

Edge reconstructions in fractional quantum Hall systems.

Two dimensional electron systems exhibiting fractional quantum Hall effects are characterized by a quantized Hall conductance and a dissipationless bulk. The transport in these systems occurs only at the edges where gapless excitations are possible [1]. We present a microscopic calculation of these egde-states at filling factors ?=1/3 and ?=2/5 using the Hamiltonian theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect [2]. We find that the quantum Hall egde undergoes a reconstruction as the confining potential, produced by the background charge density, softens [3,4]. Our results have implications to the tunneling experiments into the edge of a fractional quantum Hall system [5]. 1: X. G.Wen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2206 (1990). 2: R. Shankar and G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4437 (1997). 3: C. de C. Chamon and X. G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 8227 (1994). 4: X. Wan, K. Yang, and E. H. Razayi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 056802 (2002). 5: A.M.Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 143 (2000).

Joglekar, Yogesh; Nguyen, Hoang; Murthy, Ganpathy

2003-03-01

203

Symmetry and stability of open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation of the thesis involves an introduction and six chapters. Chapter 1 presents notions and results used in the other chpaters. Chapters 2-6 present our results which are focused on two notions: generalized observable and dynamic semigroup. These notions characterize a specific research domain (set up during the last 10 years) which is currently called quantum mechanics of open systems. The two notions (generalized observable and dynamic semigroup) are mathematically correlated. They belong to the set of completely positive linear applications among observable algebras. This fact, associated with that formulation of quantum mechanics according to which it is a special case of quantum mechanics namely, that for which the observable algebra is commutative, help to understand the similar essence of the results presented in chapter 2-6. Thus, the natural mathematical background has been achieved for our results; it is represented by that category whose objects are the observable algebras and whose morphisms are completely positive linear contractions generating unity within unity. These ideas are extensively presented in the introduction. The fact that the relations between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be rigorously treated as positive linear applications between classical observable algebras commutative and quantum observable algebras non-commutative, which are automatically fully positive, has been initially shown in our paper. (author)

204

Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. I. Quantum registers and quantum gates

During recent years, quantum computations and the study of n-qubit quantum systems have attracted a lot of interest, both in theory and experiment. Apart from the promise of performing quantum computations, however, these investigations also revealed a great deal of difficulties which still need to be solved in practice. In quantum computing, unitary and non-unitary quantum operations act on a given set of qubits to form (entangled) states, in which the information is encoded by the overall system often referred to as quantum registers. To facilitate the simulation of such n-qubit quantum systems, we present the FEYNMAN program to provide all necessary tools in order to define and to deal with quantum registers and quantum operations. Although the present version of the program is restricted to unitary transformations, it equally supports—whenever possible—the representation of the quantum registers both, in terms of their state vectors and density matrices. In addition to the composition of two or more quantum registers, moreover, the program also supports their decomposition into various parts by applying the partial trace operation and the concept of the reduced density matrix. Using an interactive design within the framework of MAPLE, therefore, we expect the FEYNMAN program to be helpful not only for teaching the basic elements of quantum computing but also for studying their physical realization in the future. Program summaryTitle of program:FEYNMAN Catalogue number:ADWE Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Computers for which the program is designed:All computers with a license of the computer algebra system MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterlo Maple Inc.] Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:Linux, MS Windows XP Programming language used:MAPLE 9.5 (but should be compatible with 9.0 and 8.0, too) Memory and time required to execute with typical data:Storage and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits, n, in the quantum registers due to the exponential increase of the associated Hilbert space. In particular, complex algebraic operations may require large amounts of memory even for small qubit numbers. However, most of the standard commands (see Section 4 for simple examples) react promptly for up to five qubits on a normal single-processor machine ( ?1GHz with 512 MB memory) and use less than 10 MB memory. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8864 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 493 182 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem:During the last decade, quantum computing has been found to provide a revolutionary new form of computation. The algorithms by Shor [P.W. Shor, SIAM J. Sci. Statist. Comput. 26 (1997) 1484] and Grover [L.K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 325. [2

Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

2005-12-01

205

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we give a generalization of Hartley's model for the measure of information. We propose a rate of emergence, which is applicable to systems obeying classical or quantum statistics. Quantum sys-tems that obey Fermi-Dirac statistics and Bose-Einstein condensate, as well as classical systems obey-ing the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics have been con-sidered. We found that the emergence parameter of quantum and classical systems differ as well as the emergence parameter of quantum systems of fermions and bosons. Consequently, the emergence parameter might be used to distinguish the classical system and quantum system, as well as quantum system of fermions and the quantum system of bosons

Lutsenko Y. V.

2013-06-01

206

Intertwining Symmetry Algebras of Quantum Superintegrable Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present an algebraic study of a kind of quantum systems belonging to a family of superintegrable Hamiltonian systems in terms of shape-invariant intertwinig operators, that span pairs of Lie algebras like (su(n,so(2n or (su(p,q,so(2p,2q. The eigenstates of the associated Hamiltonian hierarchies belong to unitary representations of these algebras. It is shown that these intertwining operators, related with separable coordinates for the system, are very useful to determine eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonians in the hierarchy. An study of the corresponding superintegrable classical systems is also included for the sake of completness.

Juan A. Calzada

2009-04-01

207

Mechanical systems in the quantum regime

Mechanical systems are ideal candidates for studying quantumbehavior of macroscopic objects. To this end, a mechanical resonator has to be cooled to its ground state and its position has to be measured with great accuracy. Currently, various routes to reach these goals are being explored. In this review, we discuss different techniques for sensitive position detection and we give an overview of the cooling techniques that are being employed. These include sideband cooling and active feedback cooling. The basic concepts that are importantwhen measuring on mechanical systems with high accuracy and/or at very low temperatures, such as thermal and quantum noise, linear response theory and backaction, are explained. From this, the quantum limit on linear position detection is obtained and the sensitivities that have been achieved in recent experiments are compared to this limit. The mechanical resonators that are used in the experiments range from metersized gravitational wave detectors to nanomechanical systems t...

Poot, Menno

2011-01-01

208

Nematic valley ordering in quantum Hall systems

The interplay between quantum Hall ordering and spontaneously broken “internal” symmetries in two-dimensional electron systems with spin or pseudospin degrees of freedom gives rise to a variety of interesting phenomena, including novel phases, phase transitions, and topological excitations. Here we develop a theory of broken-symmetry quantum Hall states, applicable to a class of multivalley systems, where the symmetry at issue is a point-group element that combines a spatial rotation with a permutation of valley indices. The anisotropy of the dispersion relation, generally present in such systems, favors states where all electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley “pseudospin” ordering occurs via a finite-temperature transition accompanied by a nematic pattern of spatial symmetry breaking. In weakly disordered systems, domains of pseudospin polarization are formed, which prevents macroscopic valley and nematic ordering; however, the resulting state still asymptotically exhibits the quantum Hall effect. We discuss the transport properties in the ordered and disordered regimes, and the relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs.

Abanin, D. A.; Parameswaran, S. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

2010-07-01

209

Irreversible processes in quantum mechanical systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the information provided by the evolution of the density matrix of a quantum system is equivalent with the knowledge of all observables at a given time, it turns out ot be insufficient to answer certain questions in quantum optics or linear response theory where the commutator of certain observables at different space-time points is needed. In this doctoral thesis we prove the existence of density matrices for common probabilities at multiple times and discuss their properties and their characterization independent of a special representation. We start with a compilation of definitions and properties of classical common probabilities and correlation functions. In the second chapter we give the definition of a quantum mechanical Markov process and derive the properties of propagators, generators and conditional probabilities as well as their mutual relations. The third chapter is devoted to a treatment of quantum mechanical systems in thermal equilibrium for which the principle of detailed balance holds as a consequence of microreversibility. We work out the symmetry properties of the two-sided correlation functions which turn out to be analogous to those in classical processes. In the final chapter we use the Gaussian behavior of the stationary correlation function of an oscillator and determine a class of Markov processes which are characterized by dissipative Lionville operators. We succeed in obtaining the canonical representation in a purely algebraic way by means of similarity transformations. Starting from this representation it is particularly easy to calculate the propagator and the correlation function. (HJ) 891 HJ/HJ 892 MKO

210

Quantum Networks as Models of Mesoscopic Systems

We review our work on quantum networks. These are one-dimensional systems consisting of vertices connected by bonds that have incommensurate lengths L. Particles with a fixed wave-number k can propagate freely on the bonds and scatter at the vertices. Combining the free propagation and the vertex scattering we have ended up with a quantum ``evolution'' operator on the graph. The corresponding classical dynamics was defined as follows: we have constructed a Liouville description by considering the evolution of a phase-space density over the space of directed bonds. The classical evolution operator consists of transition probabilities between connected bonds taken from the corresponding quantum evolution operator. Due to the multiple connectivity (stretching) and the compactness of the system (folding), the classical dynamics is chaotic. This analogy enables us to study the connection between statistical properties of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions and the classical dynamics. Finally, connecting them with leads to infinity we have also shown that quantum networks are excellent paradigms for the study of mesoscopic transport.

Kottos, Tsampikos

2007-03-01

211

Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)

2014-03-24

212

Mathematical Structure in Quantum Systems and applications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains most of the contributions presented at the Conference 'Mathematical Structures in Quantum Systems and applications', held at the Centro de Ciencias de Benasque 'Pedro Pascual', Benasque (Spain) from 8-14 July 2012. The aim of the Conference was to bring together physicists working on different applications of mathematical methods to quantum systems in order to enable the different communities to become acquainted with other approaches and techniques that could be used in their own fields of expertise. We concentrated on three main subjects: – the geometrical description of Quantum Mechanics; – the Casimir effect and its mathematical implications; – the Quantum Zeno Effect and Open system dynamics. Each of these topics had a set of general lectures, aimed at presenting a global view on the subject, and other more technical seminars. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to creating a wonderful scientific atmosphere during the Conference. We would especially like to thank the speakers and the authors of the papers contained in this volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and, of course, the referees for their generous work. Special thanks are also due to the staff of the Centro de Ciencias de Benasque 'Pedro Pascual' who made this successful meeting possible. On behalf of the organising committee and the authors we would also like to acknowledge the partial support provided by the ESF-CASIMIR network ('New Trends and Applications of the Casimir Effect'), the QUITEMAD research Project (“Quantum technologies at Madrid”, Ref. Comunidad de Madrid P2009/ESP-1594), the MICINN Project (MTM2011-16027-E) and the Government from Arag´on (DGA) (DGA, Department of Industry and Innovation and the European Social Fund, DGA-Grant 24/1) who made the Conference and this Proceedings volume possible.

213

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum-cryptography key distribution (QCKD) experiments have been recently reported using polarization-entangled photons. However, in any practical realization, quantum systems suffer from either unwanted or induced interactions with the environment and the quantum measurement system, showing up as quantum and, ultimately, statistical noise. In this paper, we investigate how an ideal polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) suffers quantum noise in its practical implementation as a secure quantum system, yielding errors in the transmitted bit sequence. Since all SPDC-based QCKD schemes rely on the measurement of coincidence to assert the bit transmission between the two parties, we bundle up the overall quantum and statistical noise in an exhaustive model to calculate the accidental coincidences. This model predicts the quantum-bit error rate and the sifted key and allows comparisons between different security criteria of the hitherto proposed QCKD protocols, resulting in an objective assessment of performances and advantages of different systems

214

Topological Excitations in Double-Layer Quantum Hall systems

Double-layer quantum Hall systems with spontaneous broken symmetry can exhibit a novel manybody quantum Hall effect due to the strong interlayer coherence. When the layer separation becomes close to the critical value, quantum fluctuations can destroy the interlayer coherence and the quantum Hall effect will disappear. We calculate the renormalized isospin stiffness $\\rho_s$ due to quantum fluctuations within the Hartree-Fock-RPA formalism. The activation energy of the topol...

Moon, Kyungsun

1996-01-01

215

A strongly perturbed quantum system is a semiclassical system

We show that a strongly perturbed quantum system, being a semiclassical system characterized by the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion for the propagator, has the same expansion for the eigenvalues as for the WKB series. The perturbation series is rederived by the duality principle in perturbation theory.

Frasca, Marco

2006-01-01

216

Observable Measure of Quantum Coherence in Finite Dimensional Systems

Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes.

Girolami, Davide

2014-10-01

217

Nonequilibrium representative ensembles for isolated quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An isolated quantum system is considered, prepared in a nonequilibrium initial state. In order to uniquely define the system dynamics, one has to construct a representative statistical ensemble. From the principle of least action it follows that the role of the evolution generator is played by a grand Hamiltonian, but not merely by its energy part. A theorem is proved expressing the commutators of field operators with operator products through variational derivatives of these products. A consequence of this theorem is the equivalence of the variational equations for field operators with the Heisenberg equations for the latter. A finite quantum system cannot equilibrate in the strict sense. But it can tend to a quasi-stationary state characterized by ergodic averages and the appropriate representative ensemble depending on initial conditions. Microcanonical ensemble, arising in the eigenstate thermalization, is just a particular case of representative ensembles. Quasi-stationary representative ensembles are defined by the principle of minimal information. The latter also implies the minimization of an effective thermodynamic potential. -- Highlights: ? The evolution of a nonequilibrium isolated quantum system is considered. ? The grand Hamiltonian is shown to be the evolution generator. ? A theorem is proved connecting operator commutators with variational derivatives. ? Quasi-stationary states are described by representative ensembles. ? These ensembles, generally, depend on initial conditions.

218

Polyadic systems, representations and quantum groups

Polyadic systems and their representations are reviewed and a classification of general polyadic systems is presented. A new multiplace generalization of associativity preserving homomorphisms, a 'heteromorphism' which connects polyadic systems having unequal arities, is introduced via an explicit formula, together with related definitions for multiplace representations and multiactions. Concrete examples of matrix representations for some ternary groups are then reviewed. Ternary algebras and Hopf algebras are defined, and their properties are studied. At the end some ternary generalizations of quantum groups and the Yang-Baxter equation are presented.

Duplij, Steven

2013-01-01

219

Open quantum systems and random matrix theory

A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with random matrix theory. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper the effect on the level statistics of opening the system is seen. In particular the ?3(L ) statistic, the width distribution and the level spacing are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The emergence of a super-radiant transition is observed. The level spacing and ?3(L ) statistics exhibit the signatures of missed levels or intruder levels as the super-radiant state is formed.

Mulhall, Declan

2015-01-01

220

Open quantum systems and random matrix theory

A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with RMT. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the level spacing, width distribution and ?3(L) statistic are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The usual super-radiant state is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and ?3(L) statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels.

Mulhall, Declan

2014-10-01

221

Anomalous quantum response of driven chaotic systems

Chaotic systems that have small Lyapunov exponent, do not obey the common random matrix theory predictions within a wide "weak quantum chaos" regime. This leads to a novel prediction for the rate of heating for cold atoms in optical billiards with vibrating walls. The Hamiltonian matrix of the driven system does not look like taken from a Gaussian ensemble, but rather it is very sparse. This sparsity can be characterized by parameters $s$ and $g$ that reflect the percentage of large elements, and their connectivity respectively. For $g$ we use a resistor network calculation that has direct relation to the semi-linear response characteristics of the system.

Stotaland, Alexander; Cohen, Doron

2010-01-01

222

The quantum $H_3$ integrable system

The quantum $H_3$ integrable system is a 3D system with rational potential related to the non-crystallographic root system $H_3$. It is shown that the gauge-rotated $H_3$ Hamiltonian as well as one of the integrals, when written in terms of the invariants of the Coxeter group $H_3$, is in algebraic form: it has polynomial coefficients in front of derivatives. The Hamiltonian has infinitely-many finite-dimensional invariant subspaces in polynomials, they form the infinite fla...

Garci?a, Marcos A. G.; Turbiner, Alexander V.

2010-01-01

223

The quantum $H_4$ integrable system

The quantum $H_4$ integrable system is a 4D system with rational potential related to the non-crystallographic root system $H_4$ with 600-cell symmetry. It is shown that the gauge-rotated $H_4$ Hamiltonian as well as one of the integrals, when written in terms of the invariants of the Coxeter group $H_4$, is in algebraic form: it has polynomial coefficients in front of derivatives. Any eigenfunctions is a polynomial multiplied by ground-state function (factorization property...

Garci?a, Marcos A. G.; Turbiner, Alexander V.

2010-01-01

224

Dynamical regimes of dissipative quantum systems

We reveal several distinct regimes of the relaxation dynamics of a small quantum system coupled to an environment within the plane of the dissipation strength and the reservoir temperature. This is achieved by discriminating between coherent dynamics with damped oscillatory behavior on all time scales, partially coherent behavior being nonmonotonic at intermediate times but monotonic at large ones, and purely monotonic incoherent decay. Surprisingly, elevated temperature can...

Kennes, D. M.; Kashuba, O.; Meden, V.

2013-01-01

225

Quantum Statistical Mechanics for Nonextensive Systems, 2

In this paper, the Green function theory of quantum many-particle systems recently presented is reworked within the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics with a new normalized $q$-expectation values. This reformulation introduces a renormalization of temperature of the earlier theory and a self-consistency condition. The linear response theory is also presented, along with its two-particle Green function version. Finally, a Boltzmann transport-like equation is also developed here.

Lenzi, E K; Rajagopal, A K

1999-01-01

226

Quantum spin Hall systems and topological insulators

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topological insulators (quantum spin Hall systems) are insulating in the bulk but have gapless edge/surface states, which remain gapless even when nonmagnetic disorder or interaction is present. This robustness stems from the topological nature characterized by the Z2 topological number, and this offers us various kinds of new novel properties. We review prominent advances in theories and in experiments on topological insulators since their theoretical proposal in 2005. (paper)

227

Spherical Quantum Chromodynamics of Heavy Quark Systems

We propose a model for Quantum Chromodynamics, obtained by ignoring the angular dependence of the gluon fields, which could qualitatively describe systems containing one heavy quark. This leads to a two dimensional gauge theory which has chiral symmetry and heavy quark symmetry. We show that in a light cone formalism, the Hamiltonian of this spherical QCD can be expressed entirely in terms of color singlet variables. Furthermore, in the large $N_c$ limit, it tends to a class...

Gupta, K. S.; Guruswamy, S.; Rajeev, S. G.

1993-01-01

228

Photorefractive quantum wells: Materials, devices and systems

Photorefractive quantum wells are dynamic holographic materials that combine the advantages of large excitonic electroabsorption with large carrier mobilities to produce high-sensitivity holographic devices operable at extremely low optical intensities compatible with image processing applications. They are finding a niche as versatile optical devices in systems such as joint image correlators, femtosecond autocorrelators, laser-based ultrasound detection, and time-to-space mapping. These dev...

Lahiri, Indrajit

1998-01-01

229

Evolution of quantum correlations in a two-atom system

We discuss the evolution of quantum correlations for a system of two two-level atoms interacting with a common reservoir. The Markovian master equation is used to describe the evolution of various measures of quantum correlations.

Tanas?, Ryszard

2012-01-01

230

Macroscopic models for quantum systems and computers

We present examples of macroscopic systems entailing a quantum mechanical structure. One of our examples has a structure which is isomorphic to the spin structure for a spin 1/2 and another system entails a structure isomorphic to the structure of two spin 1/2 in the entangled singlet state. We elaborate this system by showing that an arbitrary tensor product state representing two entangled qubits can be described in a complete way by a specific internal constraint between the ray or density states of the two qubits, which describes the behavior of the state of one of the spins if measurements are executed on the other spin. Since any n-qubit unitary operation can be decomposed into 2-qubit gates and unary operations, we argue that our representation of 2-qubit entanglement contributes to a better understanding of the role of n-qubit entanglement in quantum computation. We illustrate our approach on two 2-qubit algorithms proposed by Deutsch, respectively Arvind et al. One of the advantages of the 2-qubit case besides its relative simplicity is that it allows for a nice geometrical representation of entanglement, which contributes to a more intuitive grasp of what is going on in a 2-qubit quantum computation.

Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; Dehaene, Jeroen; DeMoor, Bart; D'Hooghe, Bart

2007-05-01

231

Quantum statistics of charged particle systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents information on the following topics: basic concepts for Coulomb systems; quantum statistics of many-particle systems; the method of Green's functions in quantum statistics; the binary collision approximation; application of the Green's function technique to Coulomb systems; many-particle complexes and T-matrices; cluster formation and the chemical picture; single particle excitations; equilibrium properties in classical and quasiclassical approximation; the one-component plasma model; the pair distribution function; quantum-statistical calculations of equilibrium properties; the mass action law; electron-hole plasmas; Pade approximations; hydrogen plasmas; the two-fluid model; transport properties; linear response theory; evaluation of collision integrals using Green's functions; results for a hydrogen plasma; self-energy and Debye-Onsager relaxation effects; hopping conductivity; Green's function approach to optical properties; many-body theory of absorption spectra; Doppler broadening; explicit expressions for shift and broadening; shift of spectral lines in dense hydrogen plasmas; and estimation of the shift and broadening of spectral lines for an argon plasma

232

Coherent and Collective Quantum Optical Effects in Mesoscopic Systems

A review of coherent and collective quantum optical effects like superradiance and coherent population trapping in mesoscopic systems is presented. Various new physical realizations of these phenomena are discussed, with a focus on their role for electronic transport and quantum dissipation in coupled nano-scale systems like quantum dots. A number of theoretical tools such as Master equations, polaron transformations, correlation functions, or level statistics are used to describe recent work on dissipative charge qubits (double quantum dots), the Dicke effect, phonon cavities, single oscillators, dark states and adiabatic control in quantum transport, and large spin-boson models. The review attempts to establish connections between concepts from Mesoscopics (quantum transport, coherent scattering, quantum chaos), Quantum Optics (such as superradiance, dark states, boson cavities), and (in its last part) Quantum Information Theory.

Brandes, T

2005-01-01

233

Coherent and collective quantum optical effects in mesoscopic systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of coherent and collective quantum optical effects like superradiance and coherent population trapping in mesoscopic systems is presented. Various new physical realizations of these phenomena are discussed, with a focus on their role for electronic transport and quantum dissipation in coupled nano-scale systems like quantum dots. A number of theoretical tools such as Master equations, polaron transformations, correlation functions, or level statistics are used to describe recent work on dissipative charge qubits (double quantum dots), the Dicke effect, phonon cavities, single oscillators, dark states and adiabatic control in quantum transport, and large spin-boson models. The review attempts to establish connections between concepts from Mesoscopics (quantum transport, coherent scattering, quantum chaos), Quantum Optics (such as superradiance, dark states, boson cavities), and (in its last part) Quantum Information Theory

234

Phase transitions in quantum Hall multiple layer systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polarized photoluminescence from multiple well electron systems was studied in the regime of the integer quantum Hall effect. Two quantum Hall ferromagnetic ground states assigned to the uncorrelated miniband quantum Hall state and to the spontaneous interwell phase coherent dimer quantum Hall state were observed. The photoluminescence associated with these states exhibits features caused by finite-size skyrmions. The depolarization of the ferromagnetic ground state was observed in bilayer system

235

Statistical Thermodynamics of Polymer Quantum Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional polymer quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. Depending on the dominance of the polymer length we can distinguish two regimes: vibrational and rotational. The first occur for small polymer length and here the standard oscillator in Schrödinger quantization is recovered at leading order. The second one, for large polymer length, features dominant polymer effects. In the case of the polymer particles in the box, a bounded and oscillating spectrum that presents a band structure and a Brillouin zone is found. The thermodynamical quantities calculated with these spectra have corrections with respect to standard ones and they depend on the polymer length. When the polymer length is small such corrections resemble those coming from the phenomenological generalized uncertainty relation approach based on the idea of the existence of a minimal length. For generic polymer length, thermodynamics of both systems present an anomalous peak in their heat capacity C_V. In the case of the polymer oscillators this peak separates the vibrational and rotational regimes, while in the ideal polymer gas it reflects the band structure which allows the existence of negative temperatures.

Guillermo Chacón-Acosta

2011-12-01

236

A kicked quantum system including the continuum

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of a quantum particle in a separable one-term potential with three-dimensional form factor is investigated under the influence of an external force which alters the potential strength periodically or quasiperiodically. The unperturbed system possesses one bound state and a continuum of scattering states which has treated almost analytically. First numerical results, fully including the emission channel, indicate, for certain parameter combinations with commensurate or incommensurate frequency ratios, either a regular or an irregular dynamical behaviour of the system. 17 refs.; 3 figs

237

Seniority in quantum many-body systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of the seniority quantum number in many-body systems is reviewed. A brief summary is given of its introduction by Racah in the context of atomic spectroscopy. Several extensions of Racah's original idea are discussed: seniority for identical nucleons in a single-j shell, its extension to the case of many, non-degenerate j shells and to systems with neutrons and protons. To illustrate its usefulness to this day, a recent application of seniority is presented in Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with spin.

238

EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems

Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit QED. Another rapidly growing research field (although its origin can be traced to the beginning of the 1980s) is the quantum control of evolution at the microscopic level. These examples show that quantum non-stationary systems continue to be a living and very interesting part of quantum physics, uniting researchers from many different areas. Thus it is no mere chance that several special scientific meetings devoted to these topics have been organized recently. One was the international seminar 'Time-Dependent Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' organized by Manfred Kleber and Tobias Kramer in 2007 at Blaubeuren, Germany. The proceedings of that event were published in 2008 as volume 99 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Another recent meeting was the International Workshop on Quantum Non-Stationary Systems, held on 19-23 October 2009 at the International Center for Condensed Matter Physics (ICCMP) in Brasilia, Brazil. It was organized and directed by Victor Dodonov (Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia, Brazil), Vladimir Man'ko (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) and Salomon Mizrahi (Physics Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil). This event was accompanied by a satellite workshop 'Quantum Dynamics in Optics and Matter', organized by Salomon Mizrahi and Victor Dodonov on 25-26 October 2009 at the Physics Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil. These two workshops, supported by the Brazilian federal agencies CAPES and CNPq and the local agencies FAP-DF and FAPESP, were attended by more than 120 participants from 16 countries. Almost 50 invited talks and 20 poster presentations covered a wide area of research in quantum mechanics, quantum optics and quantum information. This special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta contains contributions presented by some invited speakers and participants of the workshop in Brasilia. Although they do not cover all of the wide spectrum of problems related to quantum non-stationary systems, they nonetheless show some general trends. However, readers should remember that thes

Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

2010-09-01

239

Decoherence, delocalization and irreversibility in quantum chaotic systems

Decoherence in quantum systems which are classically chaotic is studied. The Arnold cat map and the quantum kicked rotor are chosen as examples of linear and nonlinear chaotic systems. The Feynman-Vernon influence functional formalism is used to study the effect of the environment on the system. It is well-known that quantum coherence can obliterate many chaotic behavior in the corresponding classical system. But interaction with an environment can under general circumstances quickly diminish quantum coherence and reenact many classical chaotic behavior. How effective decoherence works to sustain chaos, and how the resultant behavior qualitatively differs from the quantum picture depend on the coupling of the system with the environment and the spectral density and temperature of the environment. We show how recurrence in the quantum cat map is lost and classical ergodicity is recovered due to the effect of the environment. Quantum coherence and diffusion suppression are instrumental to dynamical localization...

Shiokawa, K; Shiokawa, K; Hu, B L

1995-01-01

240

Advanced Topic: Quasi-Hermitian Quantum Systems

So far, the discussion has limited itself to hermitian operators and systems. However, superficially non-hermitian Hamiltonian quantum systems are also of considerable current interest, especially in the context of PT symmetric models [Ben07, Mos05], although many of the main ideas appeared earlier [SGH92, XA96]. For such systems, the Hilbert space structure is at first sight very different from that for hermitian Hamiltonian systems, inasmuch as the dual wavefunctions are not just the complex conjugates of the wavefunctions, or, equivalently, the Hilbert space metric is not the usual one. While it is possible to keep most of the compact Dirac notation in analyzing such systems, here we work with explicit functions and avoid abstract notation, in the hope to fully expose all the structure, rather than to hide it...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

241

Five quantum register error correction code for higher spin systems

I construct a quantum error correction code (QECC) in higher spin systems using the idea of multiplicative group character. Each $N$ state quantum particle is encoded as five $N$ state quantum registers. By doing so, this code can correct any quantum error arising from any one of the five quantum registers. This code generalizes the well-known five qubit perfect code in spin-1/2 systems and is shown to be optimal for higher spin systems. I also report a simple algorithm for ...

Chau, Hf

1997-01-01

242

Quantum scaling in many-body systems

The theory of quantum critical phenomena is introduced to study some current many-body problems in condensed matter physics. Renormalization group concepts are applied to strongly correlated electronic materials which are close to a zero-temperature instability. These systems have enhanced effective masses and susceptibility. Scaling arguments yield the exponents which govern the critical behavior of these quantities in terms of the usual critical exponents associated with a zero-temperature phase transition. We show the existence of a new energy scale, related to the quantum nature of the many-body instability, which can be generally associated with the setting of Fermi-liquid behavior with decreasing temperature in three-dimensional strongly interacting electronic systems. The theory of quantum critical phenomena is used to investigate the Kondo lattice problem, which provides a model to describe heavy-fermion systems and to introduce a scaling theory of the Mott transition with special emphasis on charge fluctuation effects. However, this report is not a review on heavy fermions and Mott insulators. The microscopic theories of these systems are still controversial and present some of the most challenging and instigating problems in condensed matter physics. This state of affairs stimulated the author to review and extend the scaling approach. The scaling theory we develop provides a powerful tool, based on the notion of universality, to understand the physical properties of correlated systems beyond the mean-field level. This is illustrated by our treatment of the one-dimensional Hubbard model, where, although the Fermi-liquid fixed point does not survive the fluctuations, the scaling approach is still useful. Finally, we discuss briefly how disorder affect our results.

Continentino, Mucio A.

1994-04-01

243

Description of an open quantum mechanical system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for the description of an open quantum mechanical many-particle system is formulated. It starts from the shell model and treats the continuous states by a coupled channels method. The mixing of the discrete shell model states via the continuum of decay channels results in the genuine decaying states of the system. These states are eigenstates of a non-Hermitean Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which give both the energies and the widths of the states. All correlations between two particles which are caused by the two-particle residual interaction, are taken into account including those via the continuum. In the formalism describing the open quantum mechanical system, the coupling between the system and its environment appears nonlinearly. If the resonance states start to overlap, a redistribution of the spectroscopic values ('trapping effect') takes place. As a result, the complexity of the system is reduced at high level density, structures in space and time are formed. This redistribution describes, on the one hand, the transition from the well-known nuclear properties at low level density to those at high level density and fits, on the other hand, into the concept of selforganization. (orig.)

244

Optimal control of quantum gates in an exactly solvable non-Markovian open quantum bit system

We apply quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) to an exactly solvable non-Markovian open quantum bit (qubit) system to achieve state-independent quantum control and construct high-fidelity quantum gates for moderate qubit decaying parameters. An important quantity, improvement $\\mathcal{I}$, is proposed and defined to quantify the correction of gate errors due to the QOCT iteration when the environment effects are taken into account. With the help of the exact dynamics, we e...

Tai, Jung-shen; Lin, Kuan-ting; Goan, Hsi-sheng

2014-01-01

245

Many electronic systems exhibit striking features in their dynamical response over a prominent range of experimental parameters. While there are empirical suggestions of particular increasing length scales that accompany such transitions, this identification is not universal. To better understand such behavior in quantum systems, we extend a known mapping (earlier studied in stochastic, or supersymmetric, quantum mechanics) between finite temperature classical Fokker-Planck systems and related quantum systems at zero temperature to include general non-equilibrium dynamics. Unlike Feynman mappings or stochastic quantization methods (or holographic type dualities), the classical systems that we consider and their quantum duals reside in the same number of space-time dimensions. The upshot of our exact result is that a Wick rotation relates (i) dynamics in general finite temperature classical dissipative systems to (ii) zero temperature dynamics in the corresponding dual many-body quantum systems. Using this cor...

Nussinov, Zohar; Graf, Matthias J; Balatsky, Alexander V

2013-01-01

246

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a method for probabilistic quantum entanglement swapping between high-dimensional pure entangled systems by introducing only one auxiliary two-level particle. The probability of successful entanglement swapping is just the entanglement of the quantum channel. It can be used for practical long-distance quantum communication efficiently. We present a quantum secret sharing scheme based on quantum entanglement swapping with high-dimensional pure entangled systems. It has the advantage of having high intrinsic qubit efficiency and high capacity. Moreover, it greatly reduces the classical information exchanged for creating the private key.

247

General quantum phase estimation and calibration of a timepiece in a quantum dot system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a physical scheme for implementing quantum phase estimation via weakly coupled double-quantum-dot molecules embedded in a microcavity. During the same process of implementation, we can also realize the calibration of a timepiece based on the estimated phase. We use the electron-hole pair states in coupled double-quantum-dot molecules to encode quantum information, where the requirement that two quantum dots are exactly identical is not necessary. Our idea can also be generalized to other systems, such as atomic, trapped ion and linear optics systems.

Dong Ping [Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Acquisition and Manipulation, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Cao Zhuoliang [Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Acquisition and Manipulation, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

2007-09-19

248

General quantum phase estimation and calibration of a timepiece in a quantum dot system

We present a physical scheme for implementing quantum phase estimation via weakly coupled double quantum-dot molecules embedded in a microcavity. During the same process of implementation, we can also realize the calibration of a timepiece based on the estimated phase. We use the electron-hole pair states in coupled double quantum-dot molecules to encode quantum information, where the requirement that two quantum dots are exactly identical is not necessary. Our idea can also be generalized to other systems, such as atomic, trapped ion and linear optics system.

Dong, Ping

2007-01-01

249

Some aspects of quantum entanglement for CAR systems

We study quantum entanglement for CAR systems. Since the subsystems of disjoint regions are not independent for CAR systems, there are some distinct features of quantum entanglement which cannot be observed in tensor product systems. We show the failure of triangle inequality of von Neumann and the possible increase of entanglement degree under operations done in a local region for a bipartite CAR system.

Moriya, Hajime

2001-01-01

250

The transition to chaos conservative classical systems and quantum manifestations

This book provides a thorough and comprehensive discussion of classical and quantum chaos theory for bounded systems and for scattering processes Specific discussions include • Noether’s theorem, integrability, KAM theory, and a definition of chaotic behavior • Area-preserving maps, quantum billiards, semiclassical quantization, chaotic scattering, scaling in classical and quantum dynamics, dynamic localization, dynamic tunneling, effects of chaos in periodically driven systems and stochastic systems • Random matrix theory and supersymmetry The book is divided into several parts Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the dynamics of nonlinear conservative classical systems Chapter 5 and several appendices give a thorough grounding in random matrix theory and supersymmetry techniques Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the manifestations of chaos in bounded quantum systems and open quantum systems respectively Chapter 8 focuses on the semiclassical description of quantum systems with underlying classical chaos, and Chapt...

Reichl, Linda E

2004-01-01

251

Using a quantum dot system to realize perfect state transfer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are some disadvantages to Nikolopoulos et al.'s protocol [Nikolopoulos G M, Petrosyan D and Lambropoulos P 2004 Europhys. Lett. 65 297] where a quantum dot system is used to realize quantum communication. To overcome these disadvantages, we propose a protocol that uses a quantum dot array to construct a four-qubit spin chain to realize perfect quantum state transfer (PQST). First, we calculate the interaction relation for PQST in the spin chain. Second, we review the interaction between the quantum dots in the Heitler—London approach. Third, we present a detailed program for designing the proper parameters of a quantum dot array to realize PQST. (general)

252

Quantum Trajectory in Multi-Dimensional Non-Linear System

We discuss quantum dynamics in multi-dimensional non-linear systems. It is well-known that wave function is localized in a single kicked rotor. However, coupling with other degrees of freedom breaks the localization. In order to clarify the difference in the quantum dynamics, we use rigid quantum trajectories, which is accompanied with the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of the quantum mechanics. The bundle of quantum trajectories are repulsive by the quantum potential and flow never to go across each other. We shows that, depending on the degrees of freedom, this same property appears differently.

Kubotani, H

1999-01-01

253

Quantum Rotational Effects in Nanomagnetic Systems

Quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a nanomagnet must conserve the total angular momentum. For a nanomagnet embedded in a rigid body, reversal of the magnetic moment will cause the body to rotate as a whole. When embedded in an elastic environment, tunneling of the magnetic moment will cause local elastic twists of the crystal structure. In this thesis, I will present a theoretical study of the interplay between magnetization and rotations in a variety of nanomagnetic systems which have some degree of rotational freedom. We investigate the effect of rotational freedom on the tunnel splitting of a nanomagnet which is free to rotate about its easy axis. Calculating the exact instanton of the coupled equations of motion shows that mechanical freedom of the particle renormalizes the easy axis anisotropy, increasing the tunnel splitting. To understand magnetization dynamics in free particles, we study a quantum mechanical model of a tunneling spin embedded in a rigid rotor. The exact energy levels for a symmetric rotor exhibit first and second order quantum phase transitions between states with different values the magnetic moment. A quantum phase diagram is obtained in which the magnetic moment depends strongly on the moments of inertia. An intrinsic contribution to decoherence of current oscillations of a flux qubit must come from the angular momentum it transfers to the surrounding body. Within exactly solvable models of a qubit embedded in a rigid body and an elastic medium, we show that slow decoherence is permitted if the solid is macroscopically large. The spin-boson model is one of the simplest representations of a two-level system interacting with a quantum harmonic oscillator, yet has eluded a closed-form solution. I investigate some possible approaches to understanding its spectrum. The Landau-Zener dynamics of a tunneling spin coupled to a torsional resonator show that for certain parameter ranges the system exhibits multiple Landau-Zener transitions. These transitions coincide in time with changes in the oscillator dynamics. A large number of spins on a single oscillator coupled only through the in-phase oscillations behaves as a single large spin, greatly enhancing the spin-phonon coupling.

O'Keeffe, Michael F.

254

A toy model of a macroscopic quantum coherent system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with macroscopic quantum coherence while using only basic quantum mechanics. A square double well is used to illustrate Leggett–Caldeira oscillations. The effect of thermal radiation on two-level systems is discussed. The concept of decoherence is introduced at an elementary level. Reference values are deduced for the energy, temperature and time scales involved in macroscopic quantum coherence. (paper)

255

QUANTUM TUNNELLING AND MAGNETIZATION DYNAMICS IN LOW DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantum mechanics allows a system to overcome a classically-unsurmountable energy barrier through a mechanism called Quantum Tunnelling (QT. Although pertaining to the quantum domain, QT is the cause of important physical phenomena that can be detected at the macroscopic scale. Some of them have led to breakthrough applications in electronics (tunnel junctions and imaging (scanning tunnelling microscope.

ANDREA CORNIA

2011-12-01

256

Optimal control of quantum gates in an exactly solvable non-Markovian open quantum bit system

We apply quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) to an exactly solvable non-Markovian open quantum bit (qubit) system to achieve state-independent quantum control and construct high-fidelity quantum gates for moderate qubit decaying parameters. An important quantity, improvement I, is proposed and defined to quantify the correction of gate errors due to the QOCT iteration when the environment effects are taken into account. With the help of the exact dynamics, we explore how the gate error is corrected in the open qubit system and determine the conditions for significant improvement. The model adopted in this paper can be implemented experimentally in realistic systems such as the circuit QED system.

Tai, Jung-Shen; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

2014-06-01

257

Experimental Quantum Teleportation of a Two-Qubit Composite System

Quantum teleportation, a way to transfer the state of a quantum system from one location to another, is central to quantum communication and plays an important role in a number of quantum computation protocols. Previous experimental demonstrations have been implemented with photonic or ionic qubits. Very recently long-distance teleportation and open-destination teleportation have also been realized. Until now, previous experiments have only been able to teleport single qubit...

Zhang, Qiang; Goebel, Alexander; Wagenknecht, Claudia; Chen, Yu-ao; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Tao; Mair, Alois; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Pan, Jian-wei

2006-01-01

258

A neural-network-like quantum information processing system

The Hopfield neural networks and the holographic neural networks are models which were successfully simulated on conventional computers. Starting with these models, an analogous fundamental quantum information processing system is developed in this article. Neuro-quantum interaction can regulate the "collapse"-readout of quantum computation results. This paper is a comprehensive introduction into associative processing and memory-storage in quantum-physical framework.

Perus, Mitja; Bischof, Horst

2003-01-01

259

Combinatorial approach to multipartite quantum systems:basic formulation

In this paper we give a method to associate a graph with an arbitrary density matrix referred to a standard orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space of a finite dimensional quantum system. We study the related issues like classification of pure and mixed states, Von-Neumann entropy, separability of multipartite quantum states and quantum operations in terms of the graphs associated with quantum states. In order to address the separability and entanglement questions using graph...

Hassan, Ali Saif M.; Joag, Pramod

2006-01-01

260

Efficient Diagonalization of Kicked Quantum Systems

We show that the time evolution operator of kicked quantum systems, although a full matrix of size NxN, can be diagonalized with the help of a new method based on a suitable combination of fast Fourier transform and Lanczos algorithm in just N^2 ln(N) operations. It allows the diagonalization of matrizes of sizes up to N\\approx 10^6 going far beyond the possibilities of standard diagonalization techniques which need O(N^3) operations. We have applied this method to the kicke...

Ketzmerick, R.; Kruse, K.; Geisel, T.

1997-01-01

261

Quantum discord for qubit–qudit systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present two formulae to calculate quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation, between a qubit and a second party of arbitrary dimension d. The first formula is the original entropic definition and the second is a recently proposed geometric distance measure which leads to an analytical formulation. The tracing over the qubit in the entropic calculation is reduced to a very simple prescription. And, when the d-dimensional system is a so-calledX-state, the density matrix having non-zero elements only along the diagonal and anti-diagonal, the entropic calculation can also be carried out analytically. Such states of the full bipartite qubit–qudit system may be named ‘extended X-states’, whose density matrix is built of four block matrices, each visually appearing as an X. The optimization involved in the entropic calculation is generally over two parameters, reducing to one for many cases, and avoided altogether for an overwhelmingly large set of density matrices as our numerical investigations demonstrate. In the case of N = 2, extended X-states encompass the entire 15-dimensional parameter space, that is, they represent the full qubit–qubit system. (paper)

262

Properties of adsorbates as open quantum systems

We have recently developed a novel cluster-model approach to investigate adsorbate-surface systems. In our approach, a physically relevant subsystem is described as an open quantum system by considering a model cluster subject to the outgoing-wave boundary condition (OBC) at the edge of the cluster. We refer to this model as an open-boundary cluster model (OCM). Many known disadvantages of the conventional cluster-model approach, in which a model cluster is treated as an isolated system, have been remedied by introducing the OBC, whereas the local picture inherent in cluster models still remains valid. In our present research, the adsorption energy and the electron-transfer rate from adsorbates to surfaces are calculated with the OCM. Their dependences on the adsorption-distance and the Fermi energy are reasonably explained by analyzing the quasi-diabatic energy levels based on the local picture of adsorption.

Yasuike, Tomokazu; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

2008-10-01

263

Asymptotically open quantum systems; Asymptotisch offene Quantensysteme

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)

Westrich, M.

2008-04-15

264

Quantum Circuit Design for Solving Linear Systems of Equations

Recently, it has been demonstrated that quantum computers can be used for solving linear systems of algebraic equations with exponential speedup compared with classical computers. Here, we present a generic quantum circuit design for implementing the algorithm for solving linear systems. In particular, we show the detailed construction of a quantum circuit which solves a 4 by 4 linear system with 7 qubits. It consists of only the basic quantum gates that can be realized with present physical devices, implying great possibility for experimental implementation. Furthermore, the performance of the circuit is numerically simulated and its ability to solve the intended linear system is verified.

Cao, Yudong; Frankel, Steven; Kais, Sabre

2011-01-01

265

Schroedinger-cat states and decoherence in quantum electromechanical systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum-electromechanical systems are nanoscale mechanical resonators whose high-frequency oscillations are detected by an electronic transducer. Despite their macroscopic size and mechanical, ordinary-matter nature, these resonators can exhibit distinct quantum behavior that is of great interest and promise to an experimental exploration of questions in the foundations of quantum mechanics. After a brief introduction to quantum-electromechanical systems, I will sketch the feasibility and features of superposition states of macroscopically distinct positions in such systems. I will also show how these systems give rise to a new and hitherto hardly explored decoherence model and present some first results for this model

266

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

Quantum cryptography has attracted considerable interest among specialists in information security. The overwhelming majority of research projects in quantum cryptography are related to the development of quantum key distribution protocols. Absence of generalized classification & systematization makes it difficult to estimate the level of the latest achievements and does not allow using quantum technologies with full efficiency. From this viewpoint the analysis of existed quantum key dist...

Gnatyuk, S. O. National Aviation University

2013-01-01

267

In this paper we study the quantum phase properties of {\\it "nonlinear coherent states"} and {\\it "solvable quantum systems with discrete spectra"} using the Pegg-Barnett formalism in a unified approach. The presented procedure will then be applied to few special solvable quantum systems with known discrete spectrum as well as to some new classes of nonlinear oscillators with particular nonlinearity functions. Finally the associated phase distributions and their nonclasscial...

Honarasa, G. R.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Hatami, M.

2009-01-01

268

Quantum field theory in stationary coordinate systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum field theory is examined in stationary coordinate systems in Minkowski space. Preliminary to quantization of the scalar field, all of the possible stationary coordinate systems in flat spacetime are classified and explicitly constructed. Six distinct classes of such systems are found. Of these six, three have (identical) event horizons associated with them and five have Killing horizons. Two classes have distinct Killing and event horizons, with an intervening region analogous to the ergosphere in rotating black holes. Particular representatives of each class are selected for subsequent use in the quantum field theory. The scalar field is canonically quantized and a vacuum defined in each of the particular coordinate systems chosen. The vacuum states can be regarded as adapted to the six classes of stationary motions. There are only two vacuum states found, the Minkowski vacuum in those coordinate systems without event horizons and the Fulling vacuum in those with event horizons. The responses of monopole detectors traveling along stationary world lines are calculated in both the Minkowski and Fulling vacuums. The responses for each class of motions are distinct from those for every other class. A vacuum defined by the response of a detector must therefore not be equivalent in general to a vacuum defined by canonical quantization. Quantization of the scalar field within a rotating wedge is examined. It has not been possible to construct mode functions satisfyisible to construct mode functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the wedge. The asymptotic form of the renormalized stress tensor near the surfaces had been calculated and is found to include momentum terms which represent a circulation of energy within the wedge

269

Confined quantum systems and their limits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, the notion of the confined version of a system is proposed and discussed. Confined observables can turn out to be represented by just positive operator valued measures also when their nonconfined equivalents are represented by self-adjoint operators, and this nearly always happens for confined linear momentum observables. However, the self-adjoint operators of the nonconfined system can still be used to compute expected results and variances of confined observables. As a result, the precision with which some confined observables can be measured has limits which ultimately derive, through the Heisenberg commutation rules, from the covariance properties of nonconfined kinematical observables. Two conditions are proposed to characterize the approximation of a nonconfined system by a sequence of confined ones. A nonconfined system is deemed to be approximated by a sequence of confined systems if all probabilities determined by any observable of the nonconfined system with respect to nonconfined states can be approximated by confined counterparts and if the time evolution of any state of the nonconfined system can be approximated in any finite time interval by the time evolution of confined states. A rather general example of this situation is discussed

270

Sistemas cuánticos individuales / Individual Quantum Systems

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Premio Nobel de Física 2012 fue otorgado a Serge Haroche y David J.Wineland por métodos experimentales innovadores que permiten la medición y manipulación de sistemas cuánticos individuales. La primera estudia fotones midiéndolos con átomos, y la segunda estudia iones que manipula con fotones. La [...] s aplicaciones tanto potenciales como ya materializadas para el manejo de sistemas cuánticos están en la vía de revolucionar no solamente la tecnología sino la forma en la que comprendemos el mundo microscópico. Abstract in english The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2012 was awarded to Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems". The former deals with photons and measures them with atoms and the latter deals with ions and manipu [...] lates them with photons. The potential and actual applications of handling quantum systems are on their way to revolutionize not only technology but the way we understand the microscopic world.

Jorge A., Campos.

2013-01-01

271

Topics in biophysics and disordered quantum systems

We present a collection of problems applying the tools of statistical physics to biology. We also present work on the effects of disorder on quantum systems. First, we derive a mean-field phase diagram for the folding of a generic RNA molecule, focusing on the conditions under which a stable ribozyme may fold. Then, we study the statistical mechanics of nucleosorne positioning and trans-membrane protein alpha-helix prediction, applying related techniques. We compare the physical outcomes of each model, finding nucleosomes suffer from ubiquitous metastability while transmembrane proteins are designed to avoid this problem. Next we study the dynamical properties of a collection of neurons, believed to generate the spontaneous breathing rhythms of mammals, focusing on its ability to produce stable oscillations of activity. Next we address the competition between disorder and strong interaction in 2 D fermionic systems, finding that the Mott gap is completely washed out, leading to a glassy state. Finally, we study the rounding by disorder of first, order quantum phase transitions, both through a general heuristic argument and an in-depth study of a particular model.

Schwab, David Jason

272

Coulomb crystallization in classical and quantum systems

Coulomb crystallization occurs in one-component plasmas when the average interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy by about two orders of magnitude. A simple road to reach such strong coupling consists in using external confinement potentials the strength of which controls the density. This has been succsessfully realized with ions in traps and storage rings and also in dusty plasma. Recently a three-dimensional spherical confinement could be created [1] which allows to produce spherical dust crystals containing concentric shells. I will give an overview on our recent results for these ``Yukawa balls'' and compare them to experiments. The shell structure of these systems can be very well explained by using an isotropic statically screened pair interaction. Further, the thermodynamic properties of these systems, such as the radial density distribution are discussed based on an analytical theory [3]. I then will discuss Coulomb crystallization in trapped quantum systems, such as mesoscopic electron and electron hole plasmas in coupled layers [4,5]. These systems show a very rich correlation behavior, including liquid and solid like states and bound states (excitons, biexcitons) and their crystals. On the other hand, also collective quantum and spin effects are observed, including Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of bound electron-hole pairs [4]. Finally, I consider Coulomb crystallization in two-component neutral plasmas in three dimensions. I discuss the necessary conditions for crystals of heavy charges to exist in the presence of a light component which typically is in the Fermi gas or liquid state. It can be shown that their exists a critical ratio of the masses of the species of the order of 80 [5] which is confirmed by Quantum Monte Carlo simulations [6]. Familiar examples are crystals of nuclei in the core of White dwarf stars, but the results also suggest the existence of other crystals, including proton or ?-particle crystals in dense matter and of hole crystals in semiconductors. [1] O. Arp, D. Block, A. Piel, and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golubnychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel, and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [3] C. Henning, H. Baumgartner, A. Piel, P. Ludwig, V. Golubnychiy, M. Bonitz, and D. Block, Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006) and Phys. Rev. E (2007). [4] A. Filinov, M. Bonitz, and Yu. Lozovik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3851 (2001). [5] M. Bonitz, V. Filinov, P. Levashov, V. Fortov, and H. Fehske, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235006 (2005) and J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 4717 (2006). [6] Introduction to Computational Methods for Many-Body Systems, M. Bonitz and D. Semkat (eds.), Rinton Press, Princeton (2006)

Bonitz, Michael

2007-11-01

273

Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.

274

Capacities of linear quantum optical systems

A wide variety of communication channels employ the quantized electromagnetic field to convey information. Their communication capacity crucially depends on losses associated to spatial characteristics of the channel such as diffraction and antenna design. Here we focus on the communication via a finite pupil, showing that diffraction is formally described as a memory channel. By exploiting this equivalence we then compute the communication capacity of an optical refocusing system, modeled as a converging lens. Even though loss of information originates from the finite pupil of the lens, we show that the presence of the refocusing system can substantially enhance the communication capacity. We mainly concentrate on communication of classical information, the extension to quantum information being straightforward.

Lupo, Cosmo; Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth

2012-01-01

275

Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots—photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light–matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot–cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot–cavity coupling simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape. This range is much larger than the typical linewidth of the high-Q cavity modes (100?eV) allowing us to explore and contrast regimes where the dots couple to the cavity or decay by spontaneous emission into the two-dimensional photonic bandgap. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the dot spontaneous emission rate can be tuned using a gate voltage, with Purcell factors>7. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot–cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime, and electrical control of zerodimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the highest-Q cavities (Q > 12 000). Vacuum Rabi splittings up to 120?eV are observed, larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton ( 6 40?eV) or cavity mode. These observations represent a voltage switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components.

Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.

2009-01-01

276

Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.

277

On quantum chaos, stochastic webs and localization in a quantum mechanical kick system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study quantum chaos is discussed using the kicked harmonic oscillator as a model system. The kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by an exceptional scenario of weak chaos: In the case of resonance between the frequency of the harmonic oscillator and the frequency of the periodic forcing, stochastic webs in phase space are generated by the classical dynamics. For the quantum dynamics of this system it is shown that the resulting Husimi distributions in quantum phase space exhibit the same web-like structures as the classical webs. The quantum dynamics is characterized by diffusive energy growth - just as the classical dynamics in the channels of the webs. In the case of nonresonance, the classically diffusive dynamics is found to be quantum mechanically suppressed. This bounded energy growth, which corresponds to localization in quantum phase space, is explained analytically by mapping the system onto the Anderson model. In this way, within the context of quantum chaos, the kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by exhibiting its noteworthy geometrical and dynamical properties both classically and quantum mechanically, while at the same time there are also very distinct quantum deviations from classical properties, the most prominent example being quantum localization. (orig.)

278

Quantum dynamical echo in two-level systems

Evolution of quantum fidelity for two-level systems is studied in the context of periodic echo. From a general treatment for time independent case, we obtain a simple condition on the governing Hamiltonians under which the systems display periodic quantum echo. For a specific time dependent problem the quantum fidelity is shown to exhibit Rabi oscillation. This may be considered as a simple mechanism to generate periodic echo, except for a specific initial superpositional state in which case the fidelity remains invariant.

Sankaranarayanan, R; Lakshmanan, M; Sheeba, Jane H.

2005-01-01

279

Towards the experimental realization of hybrid quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the main interests of quantum physics in this new millennium is the exploitation of quantum mechanical principles in technical applications. One approach here is to use entanglement and superpositions of states to realize powerful algorithms capable of solving challenging computational tasks on a much faster time scale than a classical computer ever could. To find the quantum analogue of a classical bit one needs a quantum mechanical two level system that can be used to store and process quantum information. Most of the current approaches to find such a 'qubit' have the intention to find a single system that is able to fulfill all desirable tasks. But actually most quantum systems are only favorable for very specific tasks (e.g storage, processing, data exchange,..), similar as it is in classical computing. For some qubits the main disadvantages is that their quantum state is very fragile. Those systems loose their 'quantum information' (that is the possibility to store superpositions of their states coherently) easily. They 'decohere' on a timescale that is much shorter then any more involving algorithm. Other systems can keep those superposition states for quite a while, but are so difficult to address that the number of operations that can be made is very limited. The task of a so called hybrid quantum system is now to combine the strengths of these different systems, using e.g. one for manipulation and an other system for storage. Similar to a processor/memory architecture in conventional computers these systems could use a kind of bus system to couple between them. The main task of this thesis was to make steps towards the realization of such a system using two different combinations of quantum systems. Both are planned to use superconducting qubits (transmons) as processor qubit and either atoms (ultra cold rubidium 87 ensembles) or solid state spin systems (Nitrogen Vacancies in diamonds - NV centers) as memory. (author)

280

Quantum-based electronic devices and systems selected topics in electronics and systems, v.14

This volume includes highlights of the theories and experimental findings that underlie essential phenomena occurring in quantum-based devices and systems as well as the principles of operation of selected novel quantum-based electronic devices and systems. A number of the emerging approaches to creating new types of quantum-based electronic devices and systems are also discussed.

Dutta, Mitra

1998-01-01

281

Generalized conditional entropy in bipartite quantum systems

We analyze, for a general concave entropic form, the associated conditional entropy of a quantum system A + B, obtained as a result of a local measurement on one of the systems (B). This quantity is a measure of the average mixedness of A after such measurement, and its minimum over all local measurements is shown to be the associated entanglement of formation between A and a purifying third system C. In the case of the von Neumann entropy, this minimum determines also the quantum discord. For classically correlated states and mixtures of a pure state with the maximally mixed state, we show that the minimizing measurement can be determined analytically and is universal, i.e., the same for all concave forms. While these properties no longer hold for general states, we also show that in the special case of the linear entropy, an explicit expression for the associated conditional entropy can be obtained, whose minimum among projective measurements in a general qudit-qubit state can be determined analytically, in terms of the largest eigenvalue of a simple 3 × 3 correlation matrix. Such minimum determines the maximum conditional purity of A, and the associated minimizing measurement is shown to be also universal in the vicinity of maximal mixedness. Results for X states, including typical reduced states of spin pairs in XY chains at weak and strong transverse fields, are also provided and indicate that the measurements minimizing the von Neumann and linear conditional entropies are typically coincident in these states, being determined essentially by the main correlation. They can differ, however, substantially from that minimizing the geometric discord.

Gigena, N.; Rossignoli, R.

2014-01-01

282

Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz

An improved quantum key distribution test system operating at clock rates of up to 2GHz using a specially adapted commercially available silicon single photon avalanche diode is presented. The use of improved detectors has improved the fibre-based test system performance in terms of transmission distance and quantum bit error rate.

Gordon, K J; Buller, G S; Rech, I; Cova, S D; Townsend, P D

2005-01-01

283

Quantum Heat Engines; Multiple-State 1D Box System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluate quantum Otto, Diesel and Brayton cycles employing multiple-state 1D box system instead of ideal gas filled cylinder. The work and heat are extracted using the change in the expectation of Hamiltonian of the system which leads to the first law of thermodynamics to quantum system. The first law makes available to redefine the force which is in fact not well defined in a quantum mechanical system and then it is applied to define the quantum version of thermodynamic processes, i.e. isobaric, isovolume and adiabatic. As the results, the efficiency of quantum Otto engine depends only on the compression ratio and will be higher than the efficiency of quantum Diesel which can decrease by the widening of expansion under isobaric process. The efficiency of quantum Brayton engine may reach maximum on certain combination between the wide of box under isobaric expansion and compression, under certain conditions. The amount of levels participated in the quantum heat engine system will potentially reduce the performance of the quantum heat cycles consisting isobaric process, but it can be resisted using isobaric process controller.

Eny Latifah

2013-08-01

284

Correlation Functions in Open Quantum-Classical Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantum time correlation functions are often the principal objects of interest in experimental investigations of the dynamics of quantum systems. For instance, transport properties, such as diffusion and reaction rate coefficients, can be obtained by integrating these functions. The evaluation of such correlation functions entails sampling from quantum equilibrium density operators and quantum time evolution of operators. For condensed phase and complex systems, where quantum dynamics is difficult to carry out, approximations must often be made to compute these functions. We present a general scheme for the computation of correlation functions, which preserves the full quantum equilibrium structure of the system and approximates the time evolution with quantum-classical Liouville dynamics. Several aspects of the scheme are discussed, including a practical and general approach to sample the quantum equilibrium density, the properties of the quantum-classical Liouville equation in the context of correlation function computations, simulation schemes for the approximate dynamics and their interpretation and connections to other approximate quantum dynamical methods.

Chang-Yu Hsieh

2013-12-01

285

Anions, quantum particles in planar systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our purpose here is to present a general review of the non-relativistic quantum-mechanical description of excitations that do not obey neither the Fermi-Dirac nor the Bose-Einstein statistics; they rather fulfill an intermediate statistics, the we called 'any-statistics'. As we shall see, this is a peculiarity of (1+1) and (1+2) dimensions, due to the fact that, in two space dimensions, the spin is not quantised, once the rotation group is Abelian. The relevance of studying theories in (1+2) dimensions is justified by the evidence that, in condensed matter physics, there are examples of planar systems, for which everything goes as if the third spatial dimension is frozen. (author)

286

Quantum chromodynamics in few-nucleon systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most important implications of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is that nuclear systems and forces can be described at a fundamental level. The theory provides natural explanations for the basic features of hadronic physics: the meson and baryon spectra, quark statistics, the structure of the weak and electromagnetic currents of hadrons, the scale-invariance of hadronic interactions at short distances, and evidently, color (i.e., quark and gluon) confinement at large distances. Many different and diverse tests have confirmed the basic predictions of QCD; however, since tests of quark and gluon interactions must be done within the confines of hadrons there have been few truly quantitative checks. Nevertheless, it appears likely that QCD is the fundamental theory of hadronic and nuclear interactions in the same sense that QED gives a precise description of electrodynamic interctions. Topics discussed include exclusive processes in QCD, the deuteron in QCD, reduced nuclear amplitudes, and limitations of traditional nuclear physics. 32 references

287

Energy transmutation in nonequilibrium quantum systems

We investigate particle and heat transport in quantum junctions with the geometry of star graphs. The system is in a non-equilibrium steady state, characterized by the different temperatures and chemical potentials of the heat reservoirs connected to the edges of the graph. We explore the Landauer–Büttiker state and its orbit under parity and time reversal transformations. Both particle number and total energy are conserved in these states. However, the heat and chemical potential energy are in general not separately conserved, which gives origin to a basic process of energy transmutation among them. We study both directions of this process in detail, introducing appropriate efficiency coefficients. For scale invariant interactions in the junction our results are exact and explicit. They cover the whole parameter space and take into account all nonlinear effects. The energy transmutation depends on the particle statistics.

Mintchev, Mihail; Santoni, Luca; Sorba, Paul

2015-02-01

288

Effects of symmetry breaking in finite quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review considers the peculiarities of symmetry breaking and symmetry transformations and the related physical effects in finite quantum systems. Some types of symmetry in finite systems can be broken only asymptotically. However, with a sufficiently large number of particles, crossover transitions become sharp, so that symmetry breaking happens similarly to that in macroscopic systems. This concerns, in particular, global gauge symmetry breaking, related to Bose–Einstein condensation and superconductivity, or isotropy breaking, related to the generation of quantum vortices, and the stratification in multicomponent mixtures. A special type of symmetry transformation, characteristic only for finite systems, is the change of shape symmetry. These phenomena are illustrated by the examples of several typical mesoscopic systems, such as trapped atoms, quantum dots, atomic nuclei, and metallic grains. The specific features of the review are: (i) the emphasis on the peculiarities of the symmetry breaking in finite mesoscopic systems; (ii) the analysis of common properties of physically different finite quantum systems; (iii) the manifestations of symmetry breaking in the spectra of collective excitations in finite quantum systems. The analysis of these features allows for the better understanding of the intimate relation between the type of symmetry and other physical properties of quantum systems. This also makes it possible to predict new effects by employing the analogies between finite quantum systems of different physical nature

289

3.3 Gigahertz Clocked Quantum Key Distribution System

A fibre-based quantum key distribution system operating up to a clock frequency of 3.3GHz is presented. The system demonstrates significantly increased key exchange rate potential and operates at a wavelength of 850nm.

Gordon, K J; Collins, R J; Rech, I; Cova, S D; Townsend, P D; Buller, G S; Gordon, Karen J.; Fernandez, Veronica; Collins, Robert J.; Rech, Ivan; Cova, Sergio D.; Townsend, Paul D.; Buller, Gerald S.

2006-01-01

290

Density matrix of strongly coupled quantum dot - microcavity system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Any two-level quantum system can be used as a quantum bit (qubit) - the basic element of all devices and systems for quantum information and quantum computation. Recently it was proposed to study the strongly coupled system consisting of a two-level quantum dot and a monoenergetic photon gas in a microcavity-the strongly coupled quantum dot-microcavity (QD-MC) system for short, with the Jaynes-Cumming total Hamiltonian, for the application in the quantum information processing. Different approximations were applied in the theoretical study of this system. In this work, on the basis of the exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for this system without dissipation we derive the exact formulae for its density matrix. The realization of a qubit in this system is discussed. The solution of the system of rate equation for the strongly coupled QD-MC system in the presence of the interaction with the environment was also established in the first order approximation with respect to this interaction.

Nguyen Van Hop [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: hopnvdhsp@yahoo.com

2009-09-01

291

Density matrix of strongly coupled quantum dot - microcavity system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Any two-level quantum system can be used as a quantum bit (qubit) - the basic element of all devices and systems for quantum information and quantum computation. Recently it was proposed to study the strongly coupled system consisting of a two-level quantum dot and a monoenergetic photon gas in a microcavity-the strongly coupled quantum dot-microcavity (QD-MC) system for short, with the Jaynes-Cumming total Hamiltonian, for the application in the quantum information processing. Different approximations were applied in the theoretical study of this system. In this work, on the basis of the exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for this system without dissipation we derive the exact formulae for its density matrix. The realization of a qubit in this system is discussed. The solution of the system of rate equation for the strongly coupled QD-MC system in the presence of the interaction with the environment was also established in the first order approximation with respect to this interaction.

292

Sliding Mode Control of Two-Level Quantum Systems

This paper proposes a robust control method based on sliding mode design for two-level quantum systems with bounded uncertainties. An eigenstate of the two-level quantum system is identified as a sliding mode. The objective is to design a control law to steer the system's state into the sliding mode domain and then maintain it in that domain when bounded uncertainties exist in the system Hamiltonian. We propose a controller design method using the Lyapunov methodology and pe...

Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R.

2010-01-01

293

Coherent versus measurement feedback: Linear systems theory for quantum information

To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is the measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages/disa...

Yamamoto, Naoki

2014-01-01

294

Quantum Computing Using an Open System and Projected Subspace

Using the subdynamical kinetic equation for an open quantum system, a formulation is presented for performing decoherence-free (DF) quantum computing in Rigged Liouville Space (RLS). Three types of interactions were considered, and in each case, stationary and evolutionary states were evaluated for DF behavior in both the total space and the projected subspace. Projected subspaces were found using the subdynamics kinetic equation. It was shown that although the total space may be decoherent, the subspace can be DF. In the projected subspace, the evolution of the density operator may be time asymmetric. Hence, a formulation for performing quantum computing in RLS or rigged Hilbert space (RHS) was proposed, and a quantum Controlled-Not Logical gate with corresponding operations in RLS (RHS) was constructed. A generalized quantum Turing machine in RHS was also discussed. Key Words: Quantum Computing, Subdynamics, Rigged Liouvile Space, Decoherence, Open System PACS: 05.30.-d+85.30+82.20.Db+84.35.+i

Qiao, B; Zhen, X H; Qiao, Bi; Ruda, Harry. E.

2001-01-01

295

Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination

The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to grow a private, secret key, even if the eavesdropper can do anything permitted by the laws of nature. In quantum key distribution (QKD) the parties exchange non-orthogonal or entangled quantum states to generate quantum correlated classical data. Consequently, QKD implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of the signal states. However, practical detectors are not only sensitive to quantum states. Here we show how an eavesdropper can exploit such deviations from the ideal behaviour: We demonstrate experimentally how the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to acquire the full secret key without leaving any trace; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built of off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photo diodes (APDs) to detect ...

Lydersen, Lars; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; 10.1038/NPHOTON.2010.214

2010-01-01

296

Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new ''analog'' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)

297

Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new 'analog' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)

Murg, Valentin

2008-04-07

298

We show that the quantum de Finetti theorem holds for states on infinite-dimensional systems, provided they satisfy certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This result can be applied to prove the security of quantum key distribution based on weak coherent states or other continuous variable states against general attacks.

Renner, R.; Cirac, J. I.

2009-03-01

299

Quantum Coulomb Glass: Anderson localization in an interacting system

The quantum Coulomb glass model describes disordered interacting electrons on the insulating side of a metal-insulator transition. By taking quantum fluctuations into account it can describe not only the localized limit but also the weakly localized regime. We discuss several possibilities to generalize the concept of Anderson localization to interacting electron systems such as the quantum Coulomb glass and define criteria for localization. The corresponding physical quanti...

Vojta, Thomas; Epperlein, Frank; Schreiber, Michael

1997-01-01

300

A robust, scanning quantum system for nanoscale sensing and imaging

Controllable atomic-scale quantum systems hold great potential as sensitive tools for nanoscale imaging and metrology. Possible applications range from nanoscale electric and magnetic field sensing to single photon microscopy, quantum information processing, and bioimaging. At the heart of such schemes is the ability to scan and accurately position a robust sensor within a few nanometers of a sample of interest, while preserving the sensor's quantum coherence and readout fid...

Maletinsky, P.; Hong, S.; Grinolds, M. S.; Hausmann, B.; Lukin, M. D.; Walsworth, R. -l; Loncar, M.; Yacoby, A.

2011-01-01

301

Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems

Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.

Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina

2011-01-01

302

Quantum Hall effect in a one-dimensional dynamical system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We construct a periodically time-dependent Hamiltonian with a phase transition in the quantum Hall universality class. One spatial dimension can be eliminated by introducing a second incommensurate driving frequency, so that we can study the quantum Hall effect in a one-dimensional (1D) system. This reduction to 1D is very efficient computationally and would make it possible to perform experiments on the 2D quantum Hall effect using cold atoms in a 1D optical lattice.

303

Quantum Arnol'd Diffusion in a Simple Nonlinear System

We study the fingerprint of the Arnol'd diffusion in a quantum system of two coupled nonlinear oscillators with a two-frequency external force. In the classical description, this peculiar diffusion is due to the onset of a weak chaos in a narrow stochastic layer near the separatrix of the coupling resonance. We have found that global dependence of the quantum diffusion coefficient on model parameters mimics, to some extent, the classical data. However, the quantum diffusion ...

Demikhovskii, V. Ya; Izrailev, F. M.; Malyshev, A. I.

2002-01-01

304

Quantum interference in an electron-hole graphene ring system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum interference is observed in a graphene ring system via the Aharonov Bohm effect. As graphene is a gapless semiconductor, this geometry allows to study the unique situation of quantum interference between electrons and holes in addition to the unipolar quantum interference. The period and amplitude of the observed Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are independent of the sign of the applied gate voltage showing the equivalence between unipolar and dipolar interference

305

Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination

The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to communicate a private, secret key, which is protected from eavesdropping by the laws of physics. So-called quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of single photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote-controlled using specially tailored bright illumina...

Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim

2010-01-01

306

Finite Size Effect in the Quantum Anomalous Hall system

We theoretically investigate the finite size effect in quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) system. Using Mn-doped HgTe quantum well as an example, we demonstrate that the coupling between the edge states is spin dependent, and is related not only to the distance between the edges but also to the doping concentration. Thus, with proper tuning of the two, we can get four kinds of transport regimes: quantum spin Hall regime, QAH regime, edge conducting regime, and normal insulator reg...

Fu, Hua-hua; Lu?, Jing-tao; Gao, Jin-hua

2014-01-01

307

Correlation approach to work extraction from finite quantum systems

Reversible work extraction from identical quantum systems via collective operations was shown to be possible even without producing entanglement among the sub-parts. Here, we show that implementing such global operations necessarily imply the creation of quantum correlations, as measured by quantum discord. We also reanalyze the conditions under which global transformations outperform local gates as far as maximal work extraction is considered by deriving a necessary and sufficient condition that is based on classical correlations.

Giorgi, Gian Luca; Campbell, Steve

2015-02-01

308

Quantum groups, orthogonal polynomials and applications to some dynamical systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part is concerned with the introduction of quantum groups as an extension of Lie groups. In particular, we study the case of unitary enveloping algebras in dimension 2. We then connect the quantum group formalism to the construction of g CGC recurrent relations. In addition, we construct g-deformed Krawtchouck and Meixner orthogonal polynomials and list their respective main characteristics. The second part deals with some dynamical systems from a classical, a quantum and a gp-analogue point of view. We investigate the Coulomb Kepler system by using the canonical namical systems which contain as special cases some interesting systems for nuclear of atomic physics and for quantum chemistry, such as the Hartmann system, the ring-shaped oscillator, the Smarodinsky-Winternitz system, the Aharonov-Bohen system and the dyania of Dirac and Schroedinger. (author)

309

Entangled Systems New Directions in Quantum Physics

An introductory textbook for advanced students of physics, chemistry and computer science, covering an area of physics that has lately witnessed rapid expansion. The topics treated here include quantum information, quantum communication, quantum computing, teleportation and hidden parameters, thus imparting not only a well-founded understanding of quantum theory as such, but also a solid basis of knowledge from which readers can follow the rapid development of the topic or delve deeper into a more specialized branch of research. Commented recommendations for further reading as well as end-of-chapter problems help the reader to quickly access the theoretical basics of future key technologies

Audretsch, Jürgen

2007-01-01

310

Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by Lithographic Techniques: III-V Semiconductors and Carbon: 15. Electrically controlling single spin coherence in semiconductor nanostructures Y. Dovzhenko, K. Wang, M. D. Schroer and J. R. Petta; 16. Theory of electron and nuclear spins in III-V semiconductor and carbon-based dots H. Ribeiro and G. Burkard; 17. Graphene quantum dots: transport experiments and local imaging S. Schnez, J. Guettinger, F. Molitor, C. Stampfer, M. Huefner, T. Ihn and K. Ensslin; Part VI. Single Dots for Future Telecommunications Applications: 18. Electrically operated entangled light sources based on quantum dots R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Bennett and A. J. Shields; 19. Deterministic single quantum dot cavities at telecommunication wavelengths D. Dalacu, K. Mnaymneh, J. Lapointe, G. C. Aers, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams and S. Hughes; Index.

Tartakovskii, Alexander

2012-07-01

311

Floquet states of many-body quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Periodic driving of a quantum many-body system could provide an access to a multitude of new-non-equilibrium states, essentially different from those a system exhibits at equilibrium. However, the field of ac-driven many-body quantum systems is a little-explored area, mainly for two reasons. First, until recently there were enough exciting problems to study at the equilibrium corner. Second, even under equilibrium conditions, a typical many-body system is a hard nut to crack due to the exponential growth of the number of system states with the number of quantum entities it contains. We discuss the possible directions to take in order to get insight into the evolution of ac-driven many-body quantum systems, outline the obstacles and possible means to overcome them. Our approach is based on the Floquet operator formalism and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods.

312

Simulations of fluctuations of quantum statistical systems of electrons

The random matrix ensembles (RMT) of quantum statistical Hamiltonian operators, e.g.Gaussian random matrix ensembles (GRME) and Ginibre random matrix ensembles (Ginibre RME), are applied to following quantum statistical systems: nuclear systems, molecular systems, and two-dimensional electron systems (Wigner-Dyson's electrostatic analogy). The Ginibre ensemble of nonhermitean random Hamiltonian matrices $K$ is considered. Each quantum system described by $K$ is a dissipative system and the eigenenergies $Z_{i}$ of the Hamiltonian are complex-valued random variables. The second difference of complex eigenenergies is viewed as discrete analog of Hessian with respect to labelling index. The results are considered in view of Wigner and Dyson's electrostatic analogy. An extension of space of dynamics of random magnitudes is performed by introduction of discrete space of labeling indices. The comparison with the Gaussian ensembles of random hermitean Hamiltonian matrices $H$ is performed. Measures of quantum chaos ...

Duras, M M

2005-01-01

313

Attosecond neutron scattering from open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron Compton scattering (NCS) from single nuclei of atoms in molecules, e.g. H2 (and/or single atoms, e.g. He) is effectuated in the attosecond timescale. The related scattering time is considered in detail, in relation with the Uncertainty Relations. It is shown that the entity scattering time gives a statistical measure of the length of the time interval during which an elementary neutron-nucleus collision may occur, in the same way that the spatial extent of a particle wavefunction (or wavepacket) gives a statistical measure of the extent of the region in which the particle may be found. Consequently, the elementary neutron-nucleus scattering process represents a time-interference phenomenon over the sub-femtosecond ''scattering time'' window. Moreover, the very short-range strong interaction of the neutron-nucleus collision implies that the scattering system (e.g. a proton partically dressed'' with electrons) must be considered as an open quantum system. Experimental results from H2, D2 and HD are mentioned and their anomalous scattering property in the attosecond timescale is qualitatively discussed, also in connection with the Schulman-Gaveau effect.

314

Quantum Metrology in Open Systems: Dissipative Cramér-Rao Bound

Estimation of parameters is a pivotal task throughout science and technology. The quantum Cramér-Rao bound provides a fundamental limit of precision allowed to be achieved under quantum theory. For closed quantum systems, it has been shown how the estimation precision depends on the underlying dynamics. Here, we propose a general formulation for metrology scenarios in open quantum systems, aiming to relate the precision more directly to properties of the underlying dynamics. This feature may be employed to enhance an estimation precision, e.g., by quantum control techniques. Specifically, we derive a Cramér-Rao bound for a fairly large class of open system dynamics, which is governed by a (time-dependent) dynamical semigroup map. We illustrate the utility of this scenario through three examples.

Alipour, S.; Mehboudi, M.; Rezakhani, A. T.

2014-03-01

315

We investigate quantum dynamics in the electron-nuclei coupled spin system in quantum dots and clarify the fundamental features of quantum correlation induced via successive electron spin measurements. This quantum correlation leads to interesting phenomena such as the bunching of outcomes in the electron spin measurements and the revival of an arbitrary initial electron spin state. The nuclear spin system is also affected by the quantum correlation and is in fact squeezed v...

Cakir, Ozgur; Takagahara, Toshihide

2008-01-01

316

Quantum Knots and Lattices, or a Blueprint for Quantum Systems that Do Rope Tricks

Using the cubic honeycomb (cubic tessellation) of Euclidean 3-space, we define a quantum system whose states, called quantum knots, represent a closed knotted piece of rope, i.e., represent the particular spatial configuration of a knot tied in a rope in 3-space. This quantum system, called a quantum knot system, is physically implementable in the same sense as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm is implementable. To define a quantum knot system, we replace the standard three Reidemeister knot moves with an equivalent set of three moves, called respectively wiggle, wag, and tug, so named because they mimic how a dog might wag its tail. We argue that these moves are in fact more "physics friendly" because, unlike the Reidemeister moves, they respect the differential geometry of 3-space, and moreover they can be transformed into infinitesimal moves. These three moves wiggle, wag, and tug generate a unitary group, called the lattice ambient group, which acts on the state space of the quantum system. The lattice a...

Lomonaco, Samuel J

2009-01-01

317

Photon nonlinear mixing in subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems.

We provide, for the first time to our knowledge, an analysis of the influence of nonlinear photon mixing on the end to end quantum bit error rate (QBER) performance of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems. The results show that negligible impact is to be expected for modulation indexes in the range of 2%. PMID:19365470

Capmany, José

2009-04-13

318

Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms

A general theory is presented of quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. Within that general theory, $n$-th order and $m$-th order Lagrangians are shown to be quantum mechanically equivalent if their difference is a total derivative.

Kaminaga, Yasuhito

1995-01-01

319

Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.

320

System-free quantum mechanical description of particle decay processes

Using the formalism of system-free quantum mechanics, we show how quantum mechanical particle decay probabilities can be discussed rigorously within a framework that conserves total probability, requiring neither non-Hermitian Hamiltonians nor the ad-hoc introduction of complex energies. We apply our formalism to single channel decays, the ammonium molecule, and neutral Kaon decay processes.

Jaroszkiewicz, G

2006-01-01

321

Quantum materials, lateral semiconductor nanostructures, hybrid systems and nanocrystals

Semiconductor nanostructures are ideal systems to tailor the physical properties via quantum effects, utilizing special growth techniques, self-assembling, wet chemical processes or lithographic tools in combination with tuneable external electric and magnetic fields. Such systems are called 'Quantum Materials'. The electronic, photonic, and phononic properties of these systems are governed by size quantization and discrete energy levels. The charging is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. The spin can be manipulated by the geometrical structure, external gates and by integrating hybrid ferrom

Heitmann, Detlef

2010-01-01

322

Decoherence as irreversible dynamical process in open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A framework for a general discussion in Heisenberg's representation of environmentally induced decoherence will be proposed. Example showing that classical properties do not have to be postulated as an independent ingredient will be given. It will be also shown that infinite open quantum systems in some case after decoherence behave like - simple classical dynamical systems; simples quantum mechanical systems representing one particle. (author)

323

Image storage, retrieval, compression and segmentation in a quantum system

A set of quantum states for M colors and another set of quantum states for N coordinates are proposed in this paper to represent M colors and coordinates of the N pixels in an image respectively. We design an algorithm by which an image of N pixels and m different colors is stored in a quantum system just using 2N+m qubits. An algorithm for quantum image compression is proposed. Simulation result on the Lena image shows that compression ratio of lossless is 2.058. Moreover, an image segmentation algorithm based on quantum search quantum search which can find all solutions in the expected times in O(tsqrt{N} ) is proposed, where N is the number of pixels and t is the number of targets to be segmented.

Li, Hai-Sheng; Qingxin, Zhu; Lan, Song; Shen, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Rigui; Mo, Jia

2013-06-01

324

Geometrical and Topological Aspects of Quantum Information Systems

In this Thesis we examine the interplay between the encoding of information in quantum systems and their geometrical and topological properties. We first study photonic qubit probes of space-time curvature, showing how gauge-independent trajectories of photons can help to perform quantum information tasks in space. Then we introduce the first example of topologically ordered systems constructed using interacting light modes on a two-dimensional lattice, which paves the way for feasible observations of topological order in bosonic systems. To conclude, motivated by a theory of quantum gravity we analyze the convergence of entropy in unitarily inequivalent quantization schemes.

Demarie, Tommaso F

2014-01-01

325

Adiabatic theorem for bipartite quantum systems in weak coupling limit

We study the adiabatic approximation of the dynamics of a bipartite quantum system with respect to one of its components, when the coupling between the two components is perturbative. We show that the density matrix of the considered component is described by adiabatic transport formulae exhibiting operator-valued geometric and dynamical phases. The present results can be used to study the quantum control of the dynamics of qubits and of open quantum systems where the two components are the system and its environment. We treat two examples, the control of an atomic qubit interacting with another one and the control of a spin in the middle of a Heisenberg spin chain.

Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile

2015-01-01

326

Hamiltonian of mean force for damped quantum systems

We consider a quantum system linearly coupled to a reservoir of harmonic oscillators. For finite coupling strengths, the stationary distribution of the damped system is not of the Gibbs form, in contrast to standard thermodynamics. With the help of the quantum Hamiltonian of mean force, we quantify this deviation exactly for a harmonic oscillator and provide approximations in the limit of high and low temperatures, and weak and strong couplings. Moreover, in the semiclassical regime, we use the quantum Smoluchowski equation to obtain results valid for any potential. We, finally, give a physical interpretation of the deviation in terms of the initial system-reservoir coupling.

Hilt, Stefanie; Lutz, Eric

2011-01-01

327

Dynamical suppression of decoherence in two-state quantum systems

The dynamics of a decohering two-level system driven by a suitable control Hamiltonian is studied. The control procedure is implemented as a sequence of radiofrequency pulses that repetitively flip the state of the system, a technique that can be termed quantum "bang-bang" control after its classical analog. Decoherence introduced by the system's interaction with a quantum environment is shown to be washed out completely in the limit of continuous flipping and greatly suppressed provided the interval between the pulses is made comparable to the correlation time of the environment. The model suggests a strategy to fight against decoherence that complements existing quantum error-correction techniques.

Viola, L; Viola, Lorenza; Lloyd, Seth

1998-01-01

328

Simulations are performed of a small quantum system interacting with a quantum environment. The system consists of various initial states of two harmonic oscillators coupled to give normal modes. The environment is "designed" by its level pattern to have a thermodynamic temperature. A random coupling causes the system and environment to become entangled in the course of time evolution. The approach to a Boltzmann distribution is observed, and effective fitted temperatures close to the designed temperature are obtained. All initial pure states of the system are driven to equilibrium at very similar rates, with quick loss of memory of the initial state. The time evolution of the von Neumann entropy is calculated as a measure of equilibration and of quantum coherence. It is argued, contrary to common understanding, that quantum interference and coherence are eliminated only with maximal entropy, which corresponds thermally to infinite temperature. Implications of our results for the notion of "classicalizing" be...

Barnes, George L

2013-01-01

329

Fractionalization in spontaneous integer quantum Hall systems

We show that electron fractionalization can occur in quantum Hall liquids even in the absence of strong correlations. Focusing on a Kondo lattice model that exhibits spontaneous integer Hall effect due to non-coplanar magnetic ordering, we find that Z2 vortices in the magnetic order parameter can bind fractional quantum numbers. The vortices have anyonic exchange statistics.

Rahmani, Armin; Muniz, Rodrigo; Martin, Ivar

2012-02-01

330

The transfer dynamics of quantum correlation between systems and reservoirs

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we study the dynamics of quantum correlation (QC) in terms of quantum discord and its transfer for multiqubit systems in dissipative environments. At first, we investigate the dynamics of bipartite QC contained in a three-qubit system that are initially prepared in an extended W-like state with each qubit coupled to an independent reservoir. Subsequently, we study a realistic quantum network of several remote nodes each of which contains two qubits in contact with a common reservoir. For the simplest case of two nodes, we study the dynamics of QC and its transfer from the initially correlated system to the reservoirs and other degrees of freedom. In both models, we pay particular attention to the independent evolution and transfer of QC without the participation of entanglement when the systems of interest are initially prepared in unentangled states. We also observe the occurrence of sudden changes of quantum discord when the systems are initially in mixed states.

331

In this paper we study the quantum phase properties of {\\it "nonlinear coherent states"} and {\\it "solvable quantum systems with discrete spectra"} using the Pegg-Barnett formalism in a unified approach. The presented procedure will then be applied to few special solvable quantum systems with known discrete spectrum as well as to some new classes of nonlinear oscillators with particular nonlinearity functions. Finally the associated phase distributions and their nonclasscial properties such as the squeezing in number and phase operators have been investigated, numerically.

Honarasa, G R; Hatami, M; 10.1016/j.optcom.2009.02.039

2009-01-01

332

Quantum Narrowing Effect in a Spin-Peierls System with Quantum Lattice Fluctuation

We investigate a one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model coupled to quantum lattice vibration using a quantum Monte Carlo method. We study the ground-state lattice fluctuation where the system shows a characteristic structure factor. We also study the mass dependence of magnetic properties such as the magnetic susceptibility and the magnetic excitation spectrum. For heavy mass, the system shows the same behavior as the case of classical lattice vibration. On...

Onishi, Hiroaki; Miyashita, Seiji

2002-01-01

333

Does an onlooker stop an evolving quantum system?

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of 'gedanken' experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory - thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: 1. The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, 2. the system's temporal evolution, and 3. the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed.An experiment designed to demonstrate this 'quantum Zeno effect' and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individualelectrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretation.

Toschek, P E [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungius-Str.9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

2007-10-15

334

The classical limit of non-integrable quantum systems, a route to quantum chaos

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical limit of non-integrable quantum systems is studied. We define non-integrable quantum systems as those, which have, as their classical limit, a non-integrable classical system. This quantum systems will be the candidates to be the models of quantum chaos. In order to obtain this limit, the self-induced decoherence approach and the corresponding classical limit are generalized from integrable to non-integrable systems. In this approach, the lost of information, usually conceived as the result of a coarse-graining or the trace of an environment, is produced by a particular choice of the algebra of observables and the systematic use of mean values, that project the unitary evolution onto an effective non-unitary one. By means of our method, we can obtain the classical limit of the quantum state of a non-integrable system, which turns out to be a set of unstable, potentially chaotic classical trajectories contained in the Wigner transformation of the quantum state

335

Symmetry breaking and correlations in a quantum many body system

We analyze pure quantum correlations that are involved in the phenomenon of symmetry breaking in a many body system. To this aim we consider the one dimensional quantum XY model and we study the universal features of the quantum discord $Q$ in both the symmetric thermal ground state and the symmetry broken one. Moreover, $Q$ displays clear anomalies also at a non critical value of the control parameter inside the ordered phase, where the ground state is completely factorized as result of a collective effect governed by an exponential scaling law. At finite temperature, a discontinuity of $Q$ characterizes the symmetry broken phase. We show that, close to the quantum phase transition, $Q$ exhibits quantum-classical crossover of the system with universal scaling behavior. We evidence how the factorization phenomenon results in a non trivial pattern of correlations present at low temperature.

Tomasello, Bruno; Hamma, Alioscia; Amico, Luigi

2010-01-01

336

A robust, scanning quantum system for nanoscale sensing and imaging

Controllable atomic-scale quantum systems hold great potential as sensitive tools for nanoscale imaging and metrology. Possible applications range from nanoscale electric and magnetic field sensing to single photon microscopy, quantum information processing, and bioimaging. At the heart of such schemes is the ability to scan and accurately position a robust sensor within a few nanometers of a sample of interest, while preserving the sensor's quantum coherence and readout fidelity. These combined requirements remain a challenge for all existing approaches that rely on direct grafting of individual solid state quantum systems or single molecules onto scanning-probe tips. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and room temperature operation of a robust and isolated atomic-scale quantum sensor for scanning probe microscopy. Specifically, we employ a high-purity, single-crystalline diamond nanopillar probe containing a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center. We illustrate the versatility and performance of our sc...

Maletinsky, P; Grinolds, M S; Hausmann, B; Lukin, M D; Walsworth, R -L; Loncar, M; Yacoby, A

2011-01-01

337

Synthetic Topological Qubits in Conventional Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems

The idea of topological quantum computation is to build powerful and robust quantum computers with certain macroscopic quantum states of matter called topologically ordered states. These systems have degenerate ground states that can be used as robust "topological qubits" to store and process quantum information. In this paper, we propose a new experimental setup that can realize topological qubits in a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with proper electric gate configurations. Our proposal is accessible with current experimental techniques, involves well-established topological states, and, moreover, can realize a large class of topological qubits, generalizing the Majorana zero modes studied in recent literature to more computationally powerful possibilities. We propose three tunneling and interferometry experiments to detect the existence and nonlocal topological properties of the topological qubits.

Barkeshli, Maissam; Qi, Xiao-Liang

2014-10-01

338

PT phase transition in multidimensional quantum systems

Non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians generally exhibit a phase transition that separates two parametric regions, (i) a region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the eigenvalues are all real, and (ii) a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. This transition has recently been observed experimentally in a variety of physical systems. Until now, theoretical studies of the PT phase transition have generally been limited to one-dimensional models. Here, four nontrivial coupled PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+r^2/2+z^2/2+igxyz$, and $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+r^2/2+3z^2/2+igxyz$ are examined. Based on extensive numerical studies, this paper conjectures that all four models exhibit a phase transition. The transitions are found to occur at $g\\approx 0.1$, $g\\approx 0.04$, $g\\approx 0.1$, and $g\\approx 0.05$. These results suggest that the PT phase transition is a robust phen...

Bender, Carl M

2012-01-01

339

The DALTON quantum chemistry program system

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, while magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origininvariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms.

Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino

2014-01-01

340

The Dalton quantum chemistry program system

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self- consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecu- lar gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical ac- tivity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic re- sponse theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environ- mental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum- mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. ?C 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, C.

2014-01-01

341

Information Theory Density Matrix for a Simple Quantum System.

Derives the density matrix that best describes, according to information theory, a one-dimensional single particle quantum system when the only information available is the values for the linear and quadratic position-momentum moments. (Author/GA)

Titus, William J.

1979-01-01

342

Driven harmonic oscillator as a quantum simulator for open systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show theoretically how a driven harmonic oscillator can be used as a quantum simulator for the non-Markovian damped harmonic oscillator. In the general framework, our results demonstrate the possibility to use a closed system as a simulator for open quantum systems. The quantum simulator is based on sets of controlled drives of the closed harmonic oscillator with appropriately tailored electric field pulses. The non-Markovian dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained by using the information about the spectral density of the open system when averaging over the drives of the closed oscillator. We consider single trapped ions as a specific physical implementation of the simulator, and we show how the simulator approach reveals physical insight into the open system dynamics, e.g., the characteristic quantum mechanical non-Markovian oscillatory behavior of the energy of the damped oscillator, usually obtained by the non-Lindblad-type master equation, can have a simple semiclassical interpretation

343

Practical statecharts in CC++ quantum programming for embedded systems

''Downright revolutionary... the title is a major understatement... ''Quantum Programming'' may ultimately change the way embedded software is designed.'' -- Michael Barr, Editor-in-Chief, Embedded Systems Programming magazine (Click here

Samek, Miro

2014-01-01

344

A quantum key distribution system operating at gigahertz clock rates

A fiber-optic based quantum key distribution system, operating at a wavelength of 850 nm, has been developed capable of operating up to a clock frequency of 1 GHz, creating significantly increased key exchange rates.

Gordon, Karen J.; Ferna?ndez Ma?rmol, Vero?nica; Buller, Gerald S.; Townsend, Paul D.; Cova, Segio D.; Tisa, Simone

2004-01-01

345

Spectral Properties of Three Dimensional Layered Quantum Hall Systems

We investigate the spectral statistics of a network model for a three dimensional layered quantum Hall system numerically. The scaling of the quantity $J_0={1/2}$ is used to determine the critical exponent $\

Metzler, Marcus

1998-01-01

346

Ensemble Density Functional Theory for Inhomogeneous Quantum Hall Systems

We review an ensemble density functional approach to spin-polarized inhomogeneous quantum Hall systems. Recent work on generalizations to include spin degrees of freedom is summarized at the end of the manuscript.

Heinonen, O; Johnson, M D

1997-01-01

347

Quantum Brayton cycle with coupled systems as working substance.

We explore the quantum version of the Brayton cycle with a composite system as the working substance. The actual Brayton cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. Two pressures can be defined in our isobaric process; one corresponds to the external magnetic field (characterized by F(x)) exerted on the system, while the other corresponds to the coupling constant between the subsystems (characterized by F(y)). As a consequence, we can define two types of quantum Brayton cycle for the composite system. We find that the subsystem experiences a quantum Brayton cycle in one quantum Brayton cycle (characterized by F(x)), whereas the subsystem's cycle is quantum Otto cycle in another Brayton cycle (characterized by F(y)). The efficiency for the composite system equals to that for the subsystem in both cases, but the work done by the total system is usually larger than the sum of the work done by the two subsystems. The other interesting finding is that for the cycle characterized by F(y), the subsystem can be a refrigerator, while the total system is a heat engine. The result in this paper can be generalized to a quantum Brayton cycle with a general coupled system as the working substance. PMID:23410319

Huang, X L; Wang, L C; Yi, X X

2013-01-01

348

The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in sn cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke 'after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is inexperienced in such matters and needs to look at details. This book is addressed to graduate physics and chemistry students and was written thinking of students. However, I would recommend it also to young and mature physicists, even those who are already 'into' the subject. It is a comprehensive work, jointly written by five researchers. After a simple introduction to the subject, the book gradually provides deeper concepts, more advanced theory and finally an interesting introduction and explanation of recent experiments. For its multidisciplinary features, this work could not have been written by one single author. The collaborative effort is undoubtedly one of its most interesting qualities. I would definitely recommend it to anyone who wants to learn more on the geometric phase, a topic that is both beautiful and intriguing. (book review)

349

Closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems.

For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA), and reinforcement learning (RL) methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H(?) control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention. PMID:23997680

Chen, Chunlin; Wang, Lin-Cheng; Wang, Yuanlong

2013-01-01

350

Emergent quantum jumps in a nano-electro-mechanical system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a nano-electro-mechanical system that exhibits the 'retroactive' quantum jumps discovered by Mabuchi and Wiseman (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 4620). This system consists of a Cooper-pair box coupled to a nano-mechanical resonator, in which the latter is continuously monitored by a single-electron transistor or quantum point contact. Further, we show that these kinds of jumps, and the jumps that emerge in a continuous quantum non-demolition measurement, are one and the same phenomena. We also consider manipulating the jumps by applying feedback control to the Cooper-pair box. (fast track communication)

351

Estimation of Quantum Correlations in Two-Qubit NMR systems

We study evolution of quantum correlations in ensembles of two-qubit nuclear spin systems via nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. We use discord as a measure of quantum correlations and the Werner state as an explicit example. We first introduce different ways of measuring discord and geometric discord in two-qubit systems, and then we describe (a) quantitative measurement of discord for Werner-like states prepared using an entangling pulse sequence, (b) the efficiency of dynamical decoupling sequences in preserving quantum correlations, and (c) the evolution of discord for a singlet-triplet mixed state during a radio-frequency spin-lock.

Katiyar, Hemant; Mahesh, T S; Patel, Apoorva

2012-01-01

352

Fractional quantum Hall states in charge-imbalanced bilayer systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the fractional quantum Hall effect in a bilayer with charge-distribution imbalance induced, for instance, by a bias gate voltage. The bilayer can either be intrinsic or it can be formed spontaneously in wide quantum wells, due to the Coulomb repulsion between electrons. We focus on fractional quantum Hall effect in asymmetric bilayer systems at filling factor ? = 4/11 and show that an asymmetric Halperin-like trial wavefunction gives a valid description of the ground state of the system

353

Plausibility of quantum coherent states in biological systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we briefly discuss the necessity of using quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory applicable to some key functional aspects of biological systems. This is especially relevant to three important parts of a neuron in the human brain, namely the cell membrane, microtubules (MT) and ion channels. We argue that the recently published papers criticizing the use of quantum theory in these systems are not convincing.

354

Stochastic Resonance Phenomena in Quantum Many-Body Systems

We discuss stochastic resonance (SR) effects in driven coupled quantum systems. We construct dynamical and information theoretic measures of the system's response that exhibit a non-monotonic behaviour as a function of the noise strength. We analyze the relation between lack of monotonicity in the response and the presence of quantum correlations and identify parameter regimes where the breakdown of a linear response can be linked to the presence of entanglement. We also sho...

Huelga, Susana; Plenio, Martin

2006-01-01

355

Electron-vibron effects in interacting quantum dot systems

In this thesis we consider the vibrational effects on the electric transport properties of a quantum dot system. We thereby address three different problems. In the first part, we develope a theoretical model of a single level quantum dot system which is coupled to many vibronic modes. According to this model, many vibronic degenerate state can contribute to transport at finite bias. However, the coherences between the degenerate states do not play any significant role. In the differentia...

Yar, Abdullah

2012-01-01

356

Plausibility of Quantum Coherent States in Biological Systems

In this paper we briefly discuss the necessity of using quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory applicable to some key functional aspects of biological systems. This is especially relevant to three important parts of a neuron in the human brain, namely the cell membrane, microtubules (MT) and ion channels. We argue that the recently published papers criticizing the use of quantum theory in these systems are not convincing.

Salari, V; Rahnama, M; Bernroider, G

2010-01-01

357

Lepton and quark families as quantum-dynamical systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We conjecture that the observed four lepton and quark families (#betta#sub(N)), (esub(N)) and (usub(N)), (dsub(N)), if considered in the space of generations N = 1,2,3..., are quantum-dynamical systems, much like particles of the first quantization are quantum-dynamical systems in the position space. We call this far-going conjecture the ''zeroth quantization'' and discuss its consequences for lepton and quark mass spectra. (author)

358

Thermal Rectification in the Nonequilibrium Quantum-Dot-System

Quantum thermal transport in two-quantum-dot system with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DM interaction) has been studied. The sign of thermal rectification can be controlled through changing the energy splitting or the DM interaction strength. The anisotropic term in the system can also affect the sign of rectification. Compared with other proposals [Phys. Rev. B 80, 172301 (2009)], our model can offer larger rectification efficiency and show the potential application in...

Chen, T.; Wang, X. B.

2012-01-01

359

Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with subwavelength interatomic distances that exhibits long rage interactions. What lies at the heart of all these approaches is the endeavour to include the coupling to the environment into the description of the physical system with the aim of harnessing dissipative processes. While decoherence masks or destroys quantum effects and is considered as the main adversary of any quantum information application, we turn the existence of the dissipative coupling of spin systems to the environment into a fruitful resource.

360

Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with subwavelength interatomic distances that exhibits long rage interactions. What lies at the heart of all these approaches is the endeavour to include the coupling to the environment into the description of the physical system with the aim of harnessing dissipative processes. While decoherence masks or destroys quantum effects and is considered as the main adversary of any quantum information application, we turn the existence of the dissipative coupling of spin systems to the environment into a fruitful resource.

Schwager, Heike

2012-07-04

361

Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.

Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-12-13

362

Hybrid quantum systems: integrating atomic and solid-state qubits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: For quantum information to emerge as a valuable technology, it is mandatory to pool the strengths of different systems to bridge their weaknesses. For example solid-state devices allow very fast processing and promise dense integration, but have very short coherence times. Atomic systems are slow, but exhibit very long coherence of quantum states if they are stored in hyperfine states. An ensemble of ultracold atoms would thus be an ideal quantum memory. Placing an ensemble of 106 ultracold atoms in the near field of a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator (CPWR) with Q ? 106 one can achieve strong coupling between a single microwave photon in the CPWR and a collective hyperfine qubit state in the ensemble with geff/2? ? 40 kHz larger than the cavity line width of ?/2? ? 7 kHz. Integrated on an atomchip such a system constitutes a hybrid quantum device, which interconnects solid-state and atomic qubits. (author)

363

Perfect Entanglement Transport in Quantum Spin Chain Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose a mechanism for perfect entanglement transport in anti-ferromagnetic (AFM quantum spin chain systems with modulated exchange coupling and also for the modulation of on-site magnetic field. We use the principle of adiabatic quantum pumping process for entanglement transfer in the spin chain systems. We achieve the perfect entanglement transfer over an arbitrarily long distance and a better entanglement transport for longer AFM spin chain system than for the ferromagnetic one. We explain analytically and physically—why the entanglement hops in alternate sites. We find the condition for blocking of entanglement transport even in the perfect pumping situation. Our analytical solution interconnects quantum many body physics and quantum information science.

Sujit Sarkar

2011-12-01

364

Fractal geometry in quantum mechanics, field theory and spin systems

The goal of this article is to review the role of fractal geometry in quantum physics. There are two aspects: (a) The geometry of underlying space (space-time in relativistic systems) is fractal and one studies the dynamics of the quantum system. Example: percolation. (b) The underlying space-time is regular, and fractal geometry which shows up in particular observables is generated by the dynamics of the quantum system. Example: Brownian motion (imaginary time quantum mechanics), zig-zag paths of propagation in quantum mechanics (Feynman's path integral). Historically, the first example of fractal geometry in quantum mechanics was invoked by Feynman and Hibbs describing the self-similarity (fractal behavior) of paths occurring in the path integral. We discuss the geometry of such paths. We present analytical as well as numerical results, yielding Hausdorff dimension dH=2. Velocity-dependent interactions (propagation in a solid, Brueckner's theory of nuclear matter) allow for dHmodel of lattice gauge theory. As another topic we discuss fractal geometry and Hausdorff dimension of quantum gravity and also for gravity coupled to matter, like to the Ising model or to the 3-state Potts model. Finally, we study the role that fractal geometry plays in spin physics, in particular for the purpose to describe critical clusters.

Kröger, H.

365

Efficient quantum algorithm for preparing molecular-system-like states on a quantum computer

We present an efficient quantum algorithm for preparing a pure state on a quantum computer, where the quantum state corresponds to that of a molecular system with a given number $m$ of electrons occupying a given number $n$ of spin orbitals. Each spin orbital is mapped to a qubit: the states $| 1 >$ and $| 0>$ of the qubit represent, respectively, whether the spin orbital is occupied by an electron or not. To prepare a general state in the full Hilbert space of $n$ qubits, w...

Wang, Hefeng; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

2009-01-01

366

Entanglement and Quantum Information Transfer in Arrays of Interacting Quantum Systems

This thesis examines some of the more fundamental requirements of a successful quantum computation, namely the ability to transmit quantum information with maximum efficiency, and the creation of entanglement. I focus specifically on neutron entanglement, showing that the spins of two or more distinct neutrons can be measurably entangled by forward-scattering from an isotropic medium. The interpretation of `time' in scattering experiments is also discussed. I present a simple treatment based on the Heisenberg S-matrix, from which it emerges that in certain situations the quantum-mechanical time parameter appearing in the effective time-evolution operator for the spin system has an intuitive physical interpretation. The final part of the thesis deals with quantum information transfer in arrays of permanently coupled dipolar systems. It is shown that spin chains with dipolar couplings offer high fidelity long-distance state transmission, but transfer times in unmodulated chains are unfeasibly long. Possible opt...

Avellino, Martina

2009-01-01

367

According to the quantum de Finetti theorem, if the state of an N-partite system is invariant under permutations of the subsystems then it can be approximated by a state where almost all subsystems are identical copies of each other, provided N is sufficiently large compared to the dimension of the subsystems. The de Finetti theorem has various applications in physics and information theory, where it is for instance used to prove the security of quantum cryptographic schemes...

Renner, Renato; Cirac, J. Ignacio

2008-01-01

368

Open quantum system of two coupled harmonic oscillators

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems master equations for a system consisting of two harmonic oscillators are derived. The time dependence of expectation values, Wigner function and Weyl operator are obtained and discussed. The chosen system can be applied for the description of the charge and mass asymmetry degrees of freedom in deep inelastic collisions in nuclear physics

369

We propose an effective realization of the universal set of elementary quantum gates in solid state quantum computer based on macroscopic (or mesoscopic) resonance systems - multi-atomic coherent ensembles, squids or quantum dots in quantum electrodynamic cavity. We exploit an encoding of logical qubits by the pairs of the macroscopic two- or three-level atoms that is working in a Hilbert subspace of all states inherent to these atomic systems. In this subspace, logical sing...

Ablayev, F. M.; Andrianov, S. N.; Moiseev, S. A.; Vasiliev, A. V.

2013-01-01

370

System-reservoir dynamics of quantum and classical correlations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examine the system-reservoir dynamics of classical and quantum correlations in the decoherence phenomenon within a two-qubit composite system interacting with two independent environments. The most common noise channels (amplitude damping, phase damping, bit flip, bit-phase flip, and phase flip) are analyzed. By analytical and numerical analyses we find that, contrary to what is usually stated in the literature, decoherence may occur without entanglement between the system and the environment. We also show that, in some cases, the bipartite quantum correlation initially present in the system is completely evaporated and not transferred to the environments.

371

Decohering histories and open quantum systems

I briefly review the ''decohering histories'' or ''consistent histories'' formulation of quantum theory, due to Griffiths, Omnes, and Gell-Mann and Hartle (and the subject of my graduate work with George Sudarshan). I also sift through the many meanings that have been attached to decohering histories, with an emphasis on the most basic one: Decoherence of appropriate histories is needed to establish that quantum mechanics has the correct classical limit. Then I will describe efforts to find physical mechanisms that do this. Since most work has focused on density matrix versions of decoherence, I'll consider the relation between the two formulations, which historically has not been straightforward. Finally, I'll suggest a line of research that would use recent results by Sudarshan to illuminate this aspect of the classical limit of quantum theory.

Chisolm, E D

2006-01-01

372

Decohering histories and open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I briefly review the 'decohering histories' or 'consistent histories' formulation of quantum theory, due to Griffiths, Omnes, and Gell-Mann and Hartle (and the subject of my graduate work with George Sudarshan). I also sift through the many meanings that have been attached to decohering histories, with an emphasis on the most basic one: Decoherence of appropriate histories is needed to establish that quantum mechanics has the correct classical limit. Then I will describe efforts to find physical mechanisms that do this. Since most work has focused on density matrix versions of decoherence, I'll consider the relation between the two formulations, which historically has not been straightforward. Finally, I'll suggest a line of research that would use recent results by Sudarshan to illuminate this aspect of the classical limit of quantum theory.

373

Quantum Magnets and Matrix Lorenz Systems

The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for the evolution of the magnetization, in presence of an external torque, can be cast in the form of the Lorenz equations and, thus, can describe chaotic fluctuations. To study quantum effects, we describe the magnetization by matrices, that take values in a Lie algebra. The finite dimensionality of the representation encodes the quantum fluctuations, while the non-linear nature of the equations can describe chaotic fluctuations. We identify a criterion, for the appearance of such non-linear terms. This depends on whether an invariant, symmetric tensor of the algebra can vanish or not. This proposal is studied in detail for the fundamental representation of u(2) = u(1) × su(2). We find a knotted structure for the attractor, a bimodal distribution for the largest Lyapunov exponent and that the dynamics takes place within the Cartan subalgebra, that does not contain only the identity matrix, thereby can describe the quantum fluctuations.

Tranchida, J.; Thibaudeau, P.; Nicolis, S.

2015-01-01

374

Deconstructing non-Dirac-Hermitian supersymmetric quantum systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to construct a non-Dirac-Hermitian supersymmetric quantum system that is isospectral with a Dirac-Hermitian Hamiltonian is presented. The general technique involves a realization of the basic canonical (anti-)commutation relations involving both bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom in terms of non-Dirac-Hermitian operators which are Hermitian in a Hilbert space that is endowed with a pre-determined positive-definite metric. A pseudo-Hermitian realization of the Clifford algebra for a pre-determined positive-definite metric is used to construct supersymmetric systems with one or many degrees of freedom. It is shown that exactly solvable non-Dirac-Hermitian supersymmetric quantum systems can be constructed corresponding to each exactly solvable Dirac-Hermitian system. Examples of non-Dirac-Hermitian (i) non-relativistic Pauli Hamiltonian, (ii) super-conformal quantum system, and (iii) supersymmetric Calogero-type models admitting entirely real spectra are presented.

Ghosh, Pijush K, E-mail: pijushkanti.ghosh@visva-bharati.ac.in [Department of Physics, Siksha-Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, West Bengal (India)

2011-05-27

375

Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems

As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here, we set up a formalism that allows us to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices.

Gasparinetti, S.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Sassetti, M.

2014-11-01

376

Effects of symmetry breaking in finite quantum systems

The review considers the peculiarities of symmetry breaking and symmetry transformations and the related physical effects in finite quantum systems. Some types of symmetry in finite systems can be broken only asymptotically. However, with a sufficiently large number of particles, crossover transitions become sharp, so that symmetry breaking happens similarly to that in macroscopic systems. This concerns, in particular, global gauge symmetry breaking, related to Bose-Einstein condensation and superconductivity, or isotropy breaking, related to the generation of quantum vortices, and the stratification in multicomponent mixtures. A special type of symmetry transformation, characteristic only for finite systems, is the change of shape symmetry. These phenomena are illustrated by the examples of several typical mesoscopic systems, such as trapped atoms, quantum dots, atomic nuclei, and metallic grains. The specific features of the review are: (i) the emphasis on the peculiarities of the symmetry breaking in finit...

Birman, J L; Yukalov, V I

2013-01-01

377

Resonance distribution in open quantum chaotic systems

We use quantum maps as a model to study the resonance spectra of chaotic cavities subject to some damping, which can be due to absorption or partial refraction at the boundaries. In the high-frequency limit, the distribution of quantum decay rates clusters near a ``typical'' value, generally larger than the classical decay rate. The resonant modes exhibit fractal structures in phase space, governed by the unstable and stable manifolds, but our study seems to exclude the possibility of ``strong scars'' on periodic orbits.

Nonnenmacher, Stéphane

2008-01-01

378

Evaluation of Abbott Quantum II yeast identification system.

The identity of each of 239 yeasts, encompassing 9 genera and 30 species, was determined with the Quantum II and API 20C identification systems. With API 20C results accepted as being correct, Quantum II proved to be 92% accurate in identification of common isolates, e.g., Candida albicans and Torulopsis glabrata, but only 73% effective with less frequently encountered yeasts, e.g., Trichosporon beigelii and Rhodotorula glutinis. Overall, Quantum II was 86% as accurate as API 20C for the yeas...

Salkin, I. F.; Schadow, K. H.; Bankaitis, L. A.; Mcginnis, M. R.; Kemna, M. E.

1985-01-01

379

Quantum information transfer between topological and spin qubit systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this talk I introduce a method to coherently transfer quantum information, and to create entanglement, between topological qubits and conventional spin qubits. The transfer method uses gated control to transfer an electron (spin qubit) between a quantum dot and edge Majorana modes in adjacent topological superconductors. Because of the spin polarization of the Majorana modes, the electron transfer translates spin superposition states into superposition states of the Majorana system, and vice versa. Furthermore, I discuss how a topological superconductor can be used to facilitate long-distance quantum information transfer and entanglement between spatially separated spin qubits.

380

Quantum instabilities in the system of identical bosons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantum instability of the mean-field theory for identical bosons is shown to be described by an appropriate Bogoliubov transformation. A connection between the quantum and classical linear stability theories is indicated. It is argued that the instability rate in a system of identical bosons must be strongly affected by the nonlinear terms (interactions). In the case of the repulsive interactions or strong attractive interactions the instability rate is suppressed. On the other hand, a weak attraction significantly enhances the instability rate. The results can have applications in the field of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute quantum gases

381

Quantum Entanglement and Electron Correlation in Molecular Systems

We study the relation between quantum entanglement and electron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations. We prove that the Hartree-Fock (HF) wave function does not violate Bell's inequality, thus is not entangled while the configuration interaction (CI) wave function is entangled since it violates Bell's inequality. Entanglement is related to electron correlation and might be used as an alternative measure of the electron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations. As an example we show the calculations of entanglement for the H$_2$ molecule and how it is related to electron correlation of the system, which is the difference between the exact and the HF energies.

Wang, H; Kais, Sabre; Wang, Hefeng

2007-01-01

382

Self-assembled quantum dots in a nanowire system for quantum photonics.

Quantum dots embedded within nanowires represent one of the most promising technologies for applications in quantum photonics. Whereas the top-down fabrication of such structures remains a technological challenge, their bottom-up fabrication through self-assembly is a potentially more powerful strategy. However, present approaches often yield quantum dots with large optical linewidths, making reproducibility of their physical properties difficult. We present a versatile quantum-dot-in-nanowire system that reproducibly self-assembles in core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires. The quantum dots form at the apex of a GaAs/AlGaAs interface, are highly stable, and can be positioned with nanometre precision relative to the nanowire centre. Unusually, their emission is blue-shifted relative to the lowest energy continuum states of the GaAs core. Large-scale electronic structure calculations show that the origin of the optical transitions lies in quantum confinement due to Al-rich barriers. By emitting in the red and self-assembling on silicon substrates, these quantum dots could therefore become building blocks for solid-state lighting devices and third-generation solar cells. PMID:23377293

Heiss, M; Fontana, Y; Gustafsson, A; Wüst, G; Magen, C; O'Regan, D D; Luo, J W; Ketterer, B; Conesa-Boj, S; Kuhlmann, A V; Houel, J; Russo-Averchi, E; Morante, J R; Cantoni, M; Marzari, N; Arbiol, J; Zunger, A; Warburton, R J; Fontcuberta i Morral, A

2013-05-01

383

Symmetry and the thermodynamics of currents in open quantum systems

Symmetry is a powerful concept in physics, and its recent application to understand nonequilibrium behavior is providing deep insights and groundbreaking exact results. Here we show how to harness symmetry to control transport and statistics in open quantum systems. Such control is enabled by a first-order-type dynamic phase transition in current statistics and the associated coexistence of different transport channels (or nonequilibrium steady states) classified by symmetry. Microreversibility then ensues, via the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, a twin dynamic phase transition for rare current fluctuations. Interestingly, the symmetry present in the initial state is spontaneously broken at the fluctuating level, where the quantum system selects the symmetry sector that maximally facilitates a given fluctuation. We illustrate these results in a qubit network model motivated by the problem of coherent energy harvesting in photosynthetic complexes, and introduce the concept of a symmetry-controlled quantum thermal switch, suggesting symmetry-based design strategies for quantum devices with controllable transport properties.

Manzano, Daniel; Hurtado, Pablo I.

2014-09-01

384

Some statistical properties of simple classically stochastic quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical studies are made of simple one- and two-dimensional quantum models which are stochastic in the classical limit. It is shown that the correlation properties of the quantum and corresponding classical motions are only similar for very short time intervals tsub(s), and that the evolution of the quantum system, unlike the classical one, is stable. The diffusive excitation of the quantum system under a periodic perturbation is limited to a specific time interval tsup(*)>>tsub(s), during which the diffusion rate is similar to the corresponding classical diffusion rate. For the two-dimensional model, a continuous component in the correlation spectrum survives for an indefinite period tsub(w)>>tsup(*). It is shown that when the perturbation is quasiperiodic the interval tsup(*) increases sharply. (orig.)

385

Kepler-16 Circumbinary System Validates Quantum Celestial Mechanics

We report the application of quantum celestial mechanics (QCM) to the Kepler-16 circumbinary system which has a single planet orbiting binary stars with the important system parameters known to within one percent. Other gravitationally bound systems such as the Solar System of planets and the Jovian satellite systems have large uncertainties in their total angular momentum. Therefore, Kepler-16 allows us for the ?rst time to determine whether the QCM predicted angular momentum per mass quan...

Potter F.; Preston H. G.

2012-01-01

386

Quantum conditional entropy for infinite-dimensional systems

In this paper a general definition of quantum conditional entropy for infinite-dimensional systems is given based on recent work of Holevo and Shirokov arXiv:1004.2495 devoted to quantum mutual and coherent informations in the infinite-dimensional case. The properties of the conditional entropy such as monotonicity, concavity and subadditivity are also generalized to the infinite-dimensional case.

Kuznetsova, A. A.

2010-01-01

387

Far from equilibrium energy flow in quantum critical systems

We investigate far from equilibrium energy transport in strongly coupled quantum critical systems. Combining results from gauge-gravity duality, relativistic hydrodynamics, and quantum field theory, we argue that long-time energy transport occurs via a universal steady-state for any spatial dimensionality. This is described by a boosted thermal state. We determine the transport properties of this emergent steady state, including the average energy flow and its long-time fluctuations.

Bhaseen, M J; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad

2013-01-01

388

Description and control of decoherence in quantum bit systems

The description and control of decoherence of quantum bit systems have become a field of increasing interest during the last decade. We discuss different techniques to estimate and model decoherence sources of solid state quantum bit realizations. At first, we derive a microscopic, perturbation theoretical approach for Lindblad master equations of a spin-Boson model at low temperatures. A different sort of decoherence is investigate by means of the bistable fluctuator model. For thi...

Gutmann, Henryk

2005-01-01

389

Projected wave functions for fractionalized phases of quantum spin systems

Gutzwiller projection allows a construction of an assortment of variational wave functions for strongly correlated systems. For quantum spin S=1/2 models, Gutzwiller-projected wave functions have resonating-valence-bond structure and may represent states with fractional quantum numbers for the excitations. Using insights obtained from field-theoretical descriptions of fractionalization in two dimensions, we construct candidate wave functions of fractionalized states by projecting specific superconducting states. We explicitly demonstrate the presence of topological order in these states.

Ivanov, D A

2002-01-01

390

Computer simulation of mixed classical-quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We briefly review three important methods that are currently used in the simulation of mixed systems. Two of these techniques, path integral Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics and dynamical simulated annealing, have the limitation that they can only describe the structural properties in the ground state. The third so-called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) method can provide not only the static properties but also the real-time dynamics of a quantum particle at finite temperatures. 10 refs

391

The Signals and Systems Approach to Quantum Computation

In this note we point out the fact that the proper conceptual setting of quantum computation is the theory of Linear Time Invariant systems. To convince readers of the utility of the approach, we introduce a new model of computation based on the orthogonal group. This makes the link to traditional electronics engineering clear. We conjecture that the speed up achieved in quantum computation is at the cost of increased circuit complexity.

Gadiyar, H G; Padma, R; Sharatchandra, H S

2003-01-01

392

Dynamics of complex quantum systems with energy dissipation

A complex quantum system with energy dissipation is considered. The quantum Hamiltonians $H$ belong the complex Ginibre ensemble. The complex-valued eigenenergies $Z_{i}$ are random variables. The second differences $\\Delta^{1} Z_{i}$ are also complex-valued random variables. The second differences have their real and imaginary parts and also radii (moduli) and main arguments (angles). For $N$=3 dimensional Ginibre ensemble the distributions of above random variables are pro...

Duras, Maciej M.

2003-01-01

393

A term-rewriting system for computer quantum algebra

Existing computer algebra packages do not fully support quantum mechanics calculations in Dirac's notation. I present the foundation for building such support: a mathematical system for the symbolic manipulation of expressions used in the invariant formalism of quantum mechanics. I first describe the essential mathematical features of the Hilbert-space invariant formalism. This is followed by a formal characterisation of all possible algebraic expressions in this formalism. ...

Hudson, J. J.

2008-01-01

394

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND STATIONARY STATES OF QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL SYSTEMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Thus, it is proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves

Trunev A. P.

2014-03-01

395

Nuclear magnetometry studies of spin dynamics in quantum Hall systems

We performed a nuclear magnetometry study on quantum Hall ferromagnet with a bilayer total filling factor of ?tot=2 . We found not only a rapid nuclear relaxation but also a sudden change in the nuclear-spin polarization distribution after a one-second interaction with a canted antiferromagnetic phase. We discuss the possibility of observing cooperative phenomena coming from nuclear-spin ensemble triggered by hyperfine interaction in quantum Hall system.

Fauzi, M. H.; Watanabe, S.; Hirayama, Y.

2014-12-01

396

Spin Ensemble Density Functional Theory for Inhomogeneous Quantum Hall Systems

We have developed an ensemble density functional theory which includes spin degrees of freedom for nonuniform quantum Hall systems. We have applied this theory using a local-spin-density approximation to study the edge reconstruction of parabolically confined quantum dots. For a Zeeman splitting below a certain critical value, the edge of completely polarized maximum density droplet reconstructs into a spin-unpolarized structure. For larger Zeeman splittings, the edge remains polarized and develops an exchange hole.

Lubin, M I; Johnson, M D

1997-01-01

397

Cavity quantum electrodynamics of nanoscale two-level systems

Amorphous solids contain nanoscale two-level systems (TLSs) which are of interest in quantum computing because they are a source of decoherence but also can be used as a coherent resource. Here we report on a measurement of individual TLSs using cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED). A superconducting resonator forms the cavity and an insulating-thickness film contains the TLSs. For a dielectric volume of $80\\:\\mu$m$^{3}$, an individual TLS can be observed, and in silicon ni...

Sarabi, Bahman; Ramanayaka, Aruna N.; Burin, Alexander L.; Wellstood, Frederick C.; Osborn, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

398

Quantum metrology in Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick critical systems

The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model describes critical systems with interaction beyond the first-neighbor approximation. Here we address quantum metrology in LMG systems and show how criticality may be exploited to improve precision. At first we focus on the characterization of LMG systems themselves, i.e., the estimation of anisotropy, and address the problem by considering the quantum Cramér-Rao bound. We evaluate the quantum Fisher information of small-size LMG chains made of N =2, 3, and 4 lattice sites and also analyze the same quantity in the thermodynamical limit. Our results show that criticality is indeed a resource and that the ultimate bounds to precision may be achieved by tuning the external field and measuring the total magnetization of the system. We then address the use of LMG systems as quantum thermometers and show that (i) precision is governed by the gap between the lowest energy levels of the systems and (ii) field-dependent level crossing is a metrological resource to extend the operating range of the quantum thermometer.

Salvatori, Giulio; Mandarino, Antonio; Paris, Matteo G. A.

2014-08-01

399

Teleportation of general finite dimensional quantum systems

Teleportation of finite dimensional quantum states by a non-local entangled state is studied. For a generally given entangled state, an explicit equation that governs the teleportation is presented. Detailed examples and the roles played by the dimensions of the Hilbert spaces related to the sender, receiver and the auxiliary space are discussed.

Albeverio, Sergio A; Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao-Ming

2000-01-01

400

Optical nanostructures have proven to be meritorious for tailoring the emission properties of quantum emitters. However, unavoidable fabrication imperfections may represent a nuisance. Quite remarkably, disorder offers new opportunities since light can be efficiently confined by random multiple scattering leading to Anderson localization. Here we investigate the effect of such disorder-induced cavities on the emission dynamics of single quantum dots embedded in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides. We present time-resolved measurements of both the total emission from Anderson-localized cavities and from single emitters that are coupled to the cavities. We observe both strongly inhibited and enhanced decay rates relative to the rate of spontaneous emission in a homogeneous medium. From a statistical analysis, we report an average Purcell factor of 2 in without any control on the quantum dot - cavity detuning. By spectrally tuning individual quantum dots into resonance with Anderson-localized modes, a maximum...

Javadi, Alisa; Sapienza, Luca; Thyrrestrup, Henri; Lodahl, Peter

2013-01-01

401

Quantum dynamics of bio-molecular systems in noisy environments

We discuss three different aspects of the quantum dynamics of bio-molecular systems and more generally complex networks in the presence of strongly coupled environments. Firstly, we make a case for the systematic study of fundamental structural elements underlying the quantum dynamics of these systems, identify such elements and explore the resulting interplay of quantum dynamics and environmental decoherence. Secondly, we critically examine some existing approaches to the numerical description of system-environment interaction in the non-perturbative regime and present a promising new method that can overcome some limitations of existing methods. Thirdly, we present an approach towards deciding and quantifying the non-classicality of the action of the environment and the observed system-dynamics. We stress the relevance of these tools for strengthening the interplay between theoretical and experimental research in this field.

Plenio, M B

2012-01-01

402

Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications

The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.

Dehesa, J S; Sánchez-Moreno, P S; Yáñez, R J

2010-01-01

403

Sliding Mode Control of Two-Level Quantum Systems

This paper proposes a robust control method based on sliding mode design for two-level quantum systems with bounded uncertainties. An eigenstate of the two-level quantum system is identified as a sliding mode. The objective is to design a control law to steer the system's state into the sliding mode domain and then maintain it in that domain when bounded uncertainties exist in the system Hamiltonian. We propose a controller design method using the Lyapunov methodology and periodic projective measurements. In particular, we give conditions for designing such a control law, which can guarantee the desired robustness in the presence of the uncertainties. The sliding mode control method has potential applications to quantum information processing with uncertainties.

Dong, Daoyi

2010-01-01

404

Work extraction and thermodynamics for individual quantum systems

Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a ‘weight’ that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and gives a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used to construct a quantum Carnot engine.

Skrzypczyk, Paul; Short, Anthony J.; Popescu, Sandu

2014-06-01

405

Strongly interacting confined quantum systems in one dimension

In one dimension, the study of magnetism dates back to the dawn of quantum mechanics when Bethe solved the famous Heisenberg model that describes quantum behaviour in magnetic systems. In the last decade, one-dimensional (1D) systems have become a forefront area of research driven by the realization of the Tonks–Girardeau gas using cold atomic gases. Here we prove that 1D fermionic and bosonic systems with strong short-range interactions are solvable in arbitrary confining geometries by introducing a new energy-functional technique and obtaining the full spectrum of energies and eigenstates. As a first application, we calculate spatial correlations and show how both ferro- and antiferromagnetic states are present already for small system sizes that are prepared and studied in current experiments. Our work demonstrates the enormous potential for quantum manipulation of magnetic correlations at the microscopic scale.

Volosniev, A. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Valiente, M.; Zinner, N. T.

2014-11-01

406

We describe an algorithm for using a quantum computer to calculate mean values of observables and the partition function of a quantum system. Our algorithm includes two sub-algorithms. The first sub-algorithm is for calculating, with polynomial efficiency, certain diagonal matrix elements of an observable. This sub-algorithm is performed on a quantum computer, using quantum phase estimation and tomography. The second sub-algorithm is for sampling a probability distribution. This sub-algorithm is not polynomially efficient. It can be performed either on a classical or a quantum computer, but a quantum computer can perform it quadratically faster.

Tucci, Robert R

2009-01-01

407

Unifying relation for quantum systems driven out of equilibrium

We extend a classical relation derived by Crooks to quantum systems driven out of equilibrium and show that it provides a unified way of deriving both known and new results for these systems. For a fluid driven to a steady state with a shear flow, we use it to prove the fluctuation theorem for shear stress to obtain the Green-Kubo formula for shear viscosity in terms of the symmetrized correlation function of the shear stress operator. We also show that a generalized entropy for a quantum system in a steady heat conduction state satisfies extensions of the Clausius and the Gibbs relations.

Matsuoka, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

408

Closed-Loop and Robust Control of Quantum Systems

For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of b...

Chunlin Chen; Lin-Cheng Wang; Yuanlong Wang

2013-01-01

409

Theory and simulation of strong correlations in quantum Coulomb systems

Strong correlations in quantum Coulomb systems (QCS) are attracting increasing interest in many fields ranging from dense plasmas and semiconductors to metal clusters and ultracold trapped ions. Examples are bound states in dense plasmas (atoms, molecules, clusters) and semiconductors (excitons, trions, biexcitons) or Coulomb crystals. We present first-principle simulation results of these systems including path integral Monte Carlo simulations of the equilibrium behaviour of dense hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas and molecular dynamics and quantum kinetic theory simulations of the nonequilibrium properties of QCS. Finally, we critically assess potential and limitations of the various methods in their application to Coulomb systems.

Bonitz, M; Filinov, A V; Golubnychiy, V O; Kremp, D; Gericke, D O; Murillo, M S; Filinov, V S; Fortov, V; Hoyer, W; Koch, S W

2003-01-01

410

Quantum tunneling in nanomagnetic systems with different uniaxial anisotropy order

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) of the magnetic moment in systems with quadratic and higher order uniaxial anisotropy and Zeeman interaction is presented. By using the instanton technique, under the giant spin approximation, the escape rate or probability per unit of time {Gamma} that the system undergoes a transition between coherent or metastable states is calculated. Using an effective particle potential we also determine the escape temperature T{sub e}(T), which marks the transition from quantum tunneling to thermal activation. A discussion is presented about the different models and the behavior of the magnetic system under the tunneling regime.

Florez, J M; Vargas, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, PO Box 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S, E-mail: juanmanuel.florez@postgrado.usm.c [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile)

2009-11-18

411

Quantum tunneling in nanomagnetic systems with different uniaxial anisotropy order

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) of the magnetic moment in systems with quadratic and higher order uniaxial anisotropy and Zeeman interaction is presented. By using the instanton technique, under the giant spin approximation, the escape rate or probability per unit of time ? that the system undergoes a transition between coherent or metastable states is calculated. Using an effective particle potential we also determine the escape temperature Te(T), which marks the transition from quantum tunneling to thermal activation. A discussion is presented about the different models and the behavior of the magnetic system under the tunneling regime.

412

Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)

413

Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)

Schubert, Gerald

2008-11-03

414

Josephson phenomena and quantum ferromagnetism in double-layer quantum Hall systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze an effective theory for double-layer quantum Hall systems whose effective Hamiltonian consists of a kinetic energy term for the Goldstone mode and a tunneling term for electrons. This system corresponds to the quantum ferromagnet theory recently proposed. It is shown that Josephson phenomena occur except for the Meissner effect. A detailed physical picture of the commensurate-incommensurate phase transition in the magnetic order is described on the analogy of superconductor Josephson junction. Plasmon excitations are analyzed in each phase

415

Quantum state tomography and quantum logical operations in a three qubits NMR quadrupolar system

In this work, we present an implementation of quantum logic gates and algorithms in a three effective qubits system, represented by a (I = 7/2) NMR quadrupolar nuclei. To implement these protocols we have used the strong modulating pulses (SMP). The various stages of each implementation were verified by quantum state tomography (QST). It is presented here the results for the computational base states, Toffolli logic gates, and Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms. Also, we discuss the di?culties and advantages of implementing such protocols using the SMP technique in quadrupolar systems.

Araujo-Ferreira, A G; Soares-Pinto, D O; deAzevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Teles, J

2011-01-01

416

Dissipation and entropy production in open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A microscopic description of an open system is generally expressed by the Hamiltonian of the form: Htot = Hsys + Henviron + Hsys-environ. We developed a microscopic theory of entropy and derived a general formula, so-called 'entropy-Hamiltonian relation' (EHR), that connects the entropy of the system to the interaction Hamiltonian represented by Hsys-environ for a nonequilibrium open quantum system. To derive the EHR formula, we mapped the open quantum system to the representation space of the Liouville-space formulation or thermo field dynamics (TFD), and thus worked on the representation space L := H x H-tilde, where H denotes the ordinary Hilbert space while H-tilde the tilde Hilbert space conjugates to H. We show that the natural transformation (mapping) of nonequilibrium open quantum systems is accomplished within the theoretical structure of TFD. By using the obtained EHR formula, we also derived the equation of motion for the distribution function of the system. We demonstrated that by knowing the microscopic description of the interaction, namely, the specific form of Hsys-environ on the representation space L, the EHR formulas enable us to evaluate the entropy of the system and to gain some information about entropy for nonequilibrium open quantum systems.

417

Hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system.

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system with an inverse-square potential is algebraically demonstrated making use of Dunkl's operators. We find the underlying algebra explaining the super-integrability phenomenon for this system. Applications to related multi-variable Bessel functions are also discussed.

Kuzentsov, Vadim b

1996-01-01

418

Stochastic pure state representation for open quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the usual master equation formalism of Markovian open quantum systems is completely equivalent to a certain state vector formalism. The state vector of the system satisfies a given frictional Schroedinger equation except for random instant transitions of discrete nature. Hasse's frictional Hamiltonian is recovered for the damped harmonic oscillator. (author)

419

Fluorescence from a quantum dot and metallic nanosphere hybrid system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present energy absorption and interference in a quantum dot-metallic nanosphere system embedded on a dielectric substrate. A control field is applied to induce dipole moments in the nanosphere and the quantum dot, and a probe field is applied to monitor absorption. Dipole moments in the quantum dot or the metal nanosphere are induced, both by the external fields and by each other's dipole fields. Thus, in addition to direct polarization, the metal nanosphere and the quantum dot will sense one another via the dipole-dipole interaction. The density matrix method was used to show that the absorption spectrum can be split from one peak to two peaks by the control field, and this can also be done by placing the metal sphere close to the quantum dot. When the two are extremely close together, a self-interaction in the quantum dot produces an asymmetry in the absorption peaks. In addition, the fluorescence efficiency can be quenched by the addition of a metal nanosphere. This hybrid system could be used to create ultra-fast switching and sensing nanodevices

420

Fluorescence from a quantum dot and metallic nanosphere hybrid system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present energy absorption and interference in a quantum dot-metallic nanosphere system embedded on a dielectric substrate. A control field is applied to induce dipole moments in the nanosphere and the quantum dot, and a probe field is applied to monitor absorption. Dipole moments in the quantum dot or the metal nanosphere are induced, both by the external fields and by each other's dipole fields. Thus, in addition to direct polarization, the metal nanosphere and the quantum dot will sense one another via the dipole-dipole interaction. The density matrix method was used to show that the absorption spectrum can be split from one peak to two peaks by the control field, and this can also be done by placing the metal sphere close to the quantum dot. When the two are extremely close together, a self-interaction in the quantum dot produces an asymmetry in the absorption peaks. In addition, the fluorescence efficiency can be quenched by the addition of a metal nanosphere. This hybrid system could be used to create ultra-fast switching and sensing nanodevices.

Schindel, Daniel G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2E9 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2014-03-31

421

Fluctuation theorems for continuously monitored quantum systems

It is shown that quantum fluctuation theorems remain unaffected if measurements of any observable are performed during the action of a force protocol. That is, although the backward and forward probabilities entering the fluctuation theorems are both altered by these measurements, their ratio remains unchanged. This observation allows to bridge the gap between the current theory, based on only two measurements performed at the beginning and end of the protocol, and experiments that are based on continuous monitoring.

Campisi, Michele; Hänggi, Peter

2010-01-01

422

Quantum maximum entropy principle for a system of identical particles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By introducing a functional of the reduced density matrix, we generalize the definition of a quantum entropy which incorporates the indistinguishability principle of a system of identical particles. With the present definition, the principle of quantum maximum entropy permits us to solve the closure problem for a quantum hydrodynamic set of balance equations corresponding to an arbitrary number of moments in the framework of extended thermodynamics. The determination of the reduced Wigner function for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions is found to become possible only by assuming that the Lagrange multipliers can be expanded in powers of (?/2?)2. Quantum contributions are expressed in powers of (?/2?)2 while classical results are recovered in the limit (?/2?)?0.

423

Hidden symmetries enhance quantum transport in Light Harvesting systems

For more than 50 years we have known that photosynthetic systems harvest solar energy with almost unit {\\it quantum efficiency}. However, recent experimental evidence of {\\it quantum coherence} during the excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic organisms challenges our understanding of this fundamental biological function. Currently, and despite numerous efforts, the causal connection between coherence and efficiency is still a matter of debate. We show, through the study of extensive simulations of quantum coherent transport on networks, that three dimensional structures characterized by centro-symmetric Hamiltonians are statistically more efficient than random arrangements. Moreover, we demonstrate that the experimental data available for the electronic Hamiltonians of the Fenna-Mathew-Olson (FMO) complex of sulfur bacteria and of the crypophyte PC645 complex of marine algae are consistent with this strong correlation of centro-symmetry with quantum efficiency. These results show that what appears to b...

Zech, Tobias; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas

2012-01-01

424

RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.

Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Zwicknagl, G. [Institut für Mathematische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, Schafmattstr. 16, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland and Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regens (Germany)

2013-12-04

425

RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region

426

Quantum Algorithm for Obtaining the Energy Spectrum of Molecular Systems

Simulating a quantum system is more efficient on a quantum computer than on a classical computer. The time required for solving the Schr\\"odinger equation to obtain molecular energies has been demonstrated to scale polynomially with system size on a quantum computer, in contrast to the well-known result of exponential scaling on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm to obtain the energy spectrum of molecular systems based on the multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) wave function. By using a MCSCF wave function as the initial guess, the excited states are accessible; Entire potential energy surfaces of molecules can be studied more efficiently than if the simpler Hartree-Fock guess was employed. We show that a small increase of the MCSCF space can dramatically increase the success probability of the quantum algorithm, even in regions of the potential energy surface that are far from the equilibrium geometry. For the treatment of larger systems, a multi-reference con...

Wang, Hefeng; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Hoffmann, Mark R; 10.1039/b804804e

2009-01-01

427

Electronic transport and noise in quantum dot systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis we describe the current and shot noise properties of quantum dot systems. Their transport characteristics reveal information about interesting quantum mechanical effects such as the energy quantization and electronic correlations due to Coulomb interactions of electrons. Based on a diagrammatic real time approach we developed a numerical method to describe the current and shot noise. The method includes all relevant quantities such as the electron spin, the Coulomb interaction as well as thedelocalized nature of the electronic wavefunctions in coupled quantum dots. Our approach is based on a perturbative expansion in terms of the coupling constant to the leads and thus allows to describe sequential tunneling as well as co-tunneling transport in local as well as non-local multilevel systems. For a system of a double quantum dot we analyzed in detail the influence of asymmetries on the electronic transport properties and found strong correlations. In contrast, larger systems such as three and more coupled quantum dots display a strong noise enhancement even in fully symmetric situations due to their complex delocalized wavefunctions. Within the Coulomb blockade transport is governed by co-tunneling processes. In particular we investigated the regime of co-tunneling assisted sequential tunneling and described characteristic features in the differential conductance as well as the noise properties. (orig.)

428

Active optical clock based on four-level quantum system

Active optical clock, a new conception of atomic clock, has been proposed recently. In this report, we propose a scheme of active optical clock based on four-level quantum system. The final accuracy and stability of two-level quantum system are limited by second-order Doppler shift of thermal atomic beam. To three-level quantum system, they are mainly limited by light shift of pumping laser field. These limitations can be avoided effectively by applying the scheme proposed here. Rubidium atom four-level quantum system, as a typical example, is discussed in this paper. The population inversion between $6S_{1/2}$ and $5P_{3/2}$ states can be built up at a time scale of $10^{-6}$s. With the mechanism of active optical clock, in which the cavity mode linewidth is much wider than that of the laser gain profile, it can output a laser with quantum-limited linewidth narrower than 1 Hz in theory. An experimental configuration is designed to realize this active optical clock.

Zhang, Tonggang; Zang, Xiaorun; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

2012-01-01

429

A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS known for spin systems, and they approximate efficiently ground and thermal states of systems with short-range interaction. We give an explicit mapping between fPEPS and PEPS, allowing to extend previous simulation methods to fermions. In addition, we show that fPEPS naturally arise as exact ground states of certain fermionic Hamiltonians, and give an example that exhibits criticality while fulfilling the area law. Finally, we derive methods for the determination of ground and thermal states, as well as the time evolution, of interacting fermionic systems using generalized Hartree-Fock theory (gHFT). With the computational complexity scaling polynomially with the number of particles, this method can deal with large systems. As a benchmark we apply our methods to the translationally invariant Hubbard model with attractive interaction and find excellent agreement with known results. (orig.)

Kraus, Christina V.

2009-11-02

430

Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems can send signals over more than 100 km standard optical fiber and are widely believed to be secure. Here, we show experimentally for the first time a technologically feasible attack, namely the time-shift attack, against a commercial QKD system. Our result shows that, contrary to popular belief, an eavesdropper, Eve, has a non-negligible probability (~4%) to break the security of the system. Eve's success is due to the well-known detect...

Zhao, Yi; Fung, Chi-hang Fred; Qi, Bing; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-kwong

2007-01-01

431

An order parameter for impurity systems at quantum criticality.

A quantum phase transition may occur in the ground state of a system at zero temperature when a controlling field or interaction is varied. The resulting quantum fluctuations which trigger the transition produce scaling behaviour of various observables, governed by universal critical exponents. A particularly interesting class of such transitions appear in systems with quantum impurities where a non-extensive term in the free energy becomes singular at the critical point. Curiously, the notion of a conventional order parameter that exhibits scaling at the critical point is generically missing in these systems. Here we explore the possibility to use the Schmidt gap, which is an observable obtained from the entanglement spectrum, as an order parameter. A case study of the two-impurity Kondo model confirms that the Schmidt gap faithfully captures the scaling behaviour by correctly predicting the critical exponent of the dynamically generated length scale at the critical point. PMID:24807201

Bayat, Abolfazl; Johannesson, Henrik; Bose, Sougato; Sodano, Pasquale

2014-01-01

432

Composite Quantum Systems and Environment-Induced Heating

In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development of techniques which transfer trapped particles to very low temperatures. Here we focus our attention on a heating mechanism which contributes to the finite temperature limit in laser sideband cooling experiments with trapped ions. It is emphasized that similar heating processes might be present in a variety of composite quantum systems whose components couple individually to different environments. For example, quantum optical heating effects might contribute significantly to the very high temperatures which occur during the collapse phase in sonoluminescence experiments. It might even be possible to design composite quantum systems, like atom-cavity systems, such that they continuously emit photons even in the absence of external driving.

Beige, Almut; Kurcz, Andreas; Stokes, Adam

2011-09-01

433

Composite quantum systems and environment-induced heating

In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development of techniques which transfer trapped particles to very low temperatures. Here we focus our attention on a heating mechanism which contributes to the finite temperature limit in laser sideband cooling experiments with trapped ions. It is emphasized that similar heating processes might be present in a variety of composite quantum systems whose components couple individually to different environments. For example, quantum optical heating effects might contribute significantly to the very high temperatures which occur during the collapse phase in sonoluminescence experiments. It might even be possible to design composite quantum systems, like atom-cavity systems, such that they continuously emit photons even in the absence of external driving.

Beige, Almut; Stokes, Adam

2011-01-01

434

Planetary systems based on a quantum-like model

Planetary systems have their origin in the gravitational collapse of a cloud of gas and dust. Through a process of accretion, is formed a massive star and a disk of planetesimals orbiting the star. Using a formalism analogous to quantum mechanics (quantum-like model), the star-planetesimal system is described and the flow quantizing the gravitational field theoretical model parameters are obtained. Goodness of fit (chi-square) of the observed data with model quantum-like, to the solar system, satellites, exoplanets and protoplanetary disk around HL Tauri is determined. Shows that the radius, eccentricity, energy, angular momentum and orbital inclination of planetary objects formed take discrete values depending only on the mass star.

T., N Poveda; C, N Y Buitrago

2015-01-01

435

According to the quantum de Finetti theorem, if the state of an N-partite system is invariant under permutations of the subsystems then it can be approximated by a state where almost all subsystems are identical copies of each other, provided N is sufficiently large compared to the dimension of the subsystems. The de Finetti theorem has various applications in physics and information theory, where it is for instance used to prove the security of quantum cryptographic schemes. Here, we extend de Finetti's theorem, showing that the approximation also holds for infinite dimensional systems, as long as the state satisfies certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This is relevant for applications such as quantum key distribution (QKD), where it is often hard - or even impossible - to bound the dimension of the information carriers (which may be corrupted by an adversary). In particular, our result can be applied to prove the security of QKD based on weak coherent states or Gaussian states against general atta...

Renner, Renato

2008-01-01

436

Simple formula for pooling knowledge about a quantum system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When various observers obtain information in an independent fashion about a classical system, there is a simple rule which allows them to pool their knowledge, and this requires only the states-of-knowledge of the respective observers. Here we derive an equivalent quantum formula. While its realm of applicability is necessarily more limited, it does apply to a large class of measurements, and we show explicitly for a single qubit that it satisfies the intuitive notions of what it means to pool knowledge about a quantum system. This analysis also provides a physical interpretation for the trace of the product of two density matrices

437

CP_N Solitons in Quantum Hall Systems

We will present here an elementary pedagogical introduction to $CP_N$ solitons in quantum Hall systems. We begin with a brief introduction to both $CP_N$ models and to quantum Hall (QH) physics. Then we focus on spin and layer-spin degrees of freedom in QH systems and point out that these are in fact $CP_N$ fields for N=1 and N=3. Excitations in these degrees of freedom will be shown to be topologically non-trivial soliton solutions of the corresponding $CP_N$ field equation...

Rajaraman, R.

2001-01-01

438

Arbitrarily accurate dynamical control in open quantum systems.

We show that open-loop dynamical control techniques may be used to synthesize unitary transformations in open quantum systems in such a way that decoherence is perturbatively compensated for to a desired (in principle arbitrarily high) level of accuracy, which depends only on the strength of the relevant errors and the achievable rate of control modulation. Our constructive and fully analytical solution employs concatenated dynamically corrected gates, and is applicable independently of detailed knowledge of the system-environment interactions and environment dynamics. Explicit implications for boosting quantum gate fidelities in realistic scenarios are addressed. PMID:20366973

Khodjasteh, Kaveh; Lidar, Daniel A; Viola, Lorenza

2010-03-01

439

Critical Scaling of Two-component Systems from Quantum Fluctuations

The thermodynamics of excited nuclear systems allows one to explore the second-order phase transition in a two-component quantum mixture. Temperatures and densities are derived from quantum fluctuations of fermions. The pressures are determined from the grand partition function of Fisher's model. Critical scaling of observables is found for systems which differ in neutron to proton concentrations thus constraining the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. The derived critical exponent {\\beta}= 0.35 \\pm 0.01, belongs to the liquid-gas universality class. The critical compressibility factor Pc /{\\rho}c Tc increases with increasing neutron number.

Mabiala, J; Zheng, H; McIntosh, A B; Kohley, Z; Cammarata, P; Hagel, K; Heilborn, L; May, L W; Raphelt, A; Zarrella, A; Yennello, S J

2012-01-01

440

On the Supersymmetric Spectra of two Planar Integrable Quantum Systems

Two planar supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems built around the quantum integrable Kepler/Coulomb and Euler/Coulomb problems are analyzed in depth. The supersymmetric spectra of both systems are unveiled, profiting from symmetry operators not related to invariance with respect to rotations. It is shown analytically how the first problem arises at the limit of zero distance between the centers of the second problem. It appears that the supersymmetric modified Euler/Coulomb problem is a quasi-isospectral deformation of the supersymmetric Kepler/Coulomb problem.

Leon, M A Gonzalez; Guilarte, J Mateos; Senosiain, M J

2011-01-01

441

Stable classical structures in dissipative quantum chaotic systems

We study the stability of classical structures in chaotic systems when a dissipative quantum evolution takes place. We consider a paradigmatic model, the quantum baker map in contact with a heat bath at finite temperature. We analyze the behavior of the purity, fidelity and Husimi distributions corresponding to initial states localized on short periodic orbits (scar functions) and map eigenstates. Scar functions, that have a fundamental role in the semiclassical description of chaotic systems, emerge as very robust against environmental perturbations. This is confirmed by the study of other states localized on classical structures. Also, purity and fidelity show a complementary behavior as decoherence measures.

Raviola, Lisandro A; Rivas, Alejandro M F

2009-01-01

442

Quantum features in statistical observations of "timeless" classical systems

We pursue the view that quantum theory may be an emergent structure related to large space-time scales. In particular, we consider classical Hamiltonian systems in which the intrinsic proper time evolution parameter is related through a probability distribution to the discrete physical time. This is motivated by studies of ``timeless'' reparametrization invariant models, where discrete physical time has recently been constructed based on coarse-graining local observables. Describing such deterministic classical systems with the help of path-integrals, primordial states can naturally be introduced which follow unitary quantum mechanical evolution in suitable limits.

Elze, H T

2003-01-01

443

Manifestation of the Arnol'd Diffusion in Quantum Systems

We study an analog of the classical Arnol'd diffusion in a quantum system of two coupled non-linear oscillators one of which is governed by an external periodic force with two frequencies. In the classical model this very weak diffusion happens in a narrow stochastic layer along the coupling resonance, and leads to an increase of total energy of the system. We show that the quantum dynamics of wave packets mimics, up to some extent, global properties of the classical Arnol'd...

Demikhovskii, V. Ya; Izrailev, F. M.; Malyshev, A. I.

2001-01-01

444

Correlations of neutral kaons - an open quantum system approach

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: I will present the quantum mechanical model of decaying particles based on the open quantum system approach. I will discuss the decay of a single neutral kaon. In our model the time evolution of the density matrix describing such a kaon is given by the appropriate Lindblad equation. The corresponding Lindblad operators are constructed explicitly in two cases - when we assume CP-invariance and without this assumption. The complete positivity of the time evolution is proved by the explicit construction of the corresponding Krauss operators. We use this results to calculate the correlation function in neutral kaon system. (author)

445

Quantum dynamics and transport in a double well system

The simplest one-dimensional model for the studying of non-trivial geometrical effects is a ring shaped device which is formed by joining two arms. We explore the possibility to model such a system as a two level system (TLS). Of particular interest is the analysis of quantum stirring, where it is not evident that the topology is properly reflected within the framework of the TLS modeling. On the technical side we provide a practical "neighboring level" approximation for the analysis of such quantum devices, which remains valid even if the TLS modeling does not apply.

Sela, Itamar

2008-01-01

446

Conservation law of operator current in open quantum systems

We derive a fundamental conservation law of operator current for master equations describing reduced quantum systems. If this law is broken, the temporal integral of the current operator of an arbitrary system observable does not yield in general the change of that observable in the evolution. We study Lindblad-type master equations as examples and prove that the application of the secular approximation during their derivation results in a violation of the conservation law. We show that generally any violation of the law leads to artificial corrections to the complete quantum dynamics, thus questioning the accuracy of the particular master equation.

Salmilehto, J; Möttönen, M

2011-01-01

447

Classical representation of a quantum system at equilibrium

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. A quantum system at equilibrium is represented by a corresponding classical system, chosen to reproduce the thermodynamic and structural properties. The objective is to develop a means for exploiting strong coupling classical methods (e.g., MD, integral equations, DFT) to describe quantum systems. The classical system has an effective temperature, local chemical potential, and pair interaction that are defined by requiring equivalence of the grand potential and its functional derivatives with respect to the external and pair potentials for the classical and quantum systems. Practical inversion of this mapping for the classical properties is effected via the hypernetted chain approximation, leading to representations as functionals of the quantum pair correlation function (similar in spirit to the approach of Dharma-wardana and Perrot). The parameters of the classical system are determined such that ideal gas, weak coupling RPA, and strong coupling pair limits are preserved. The potential advantages of this approach are discussed. Research supported by NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science Award DE-FG02-07ER54946, and by US DOE Grant DE-SC0002139.

448

Functional methods and mappings of dissipative quantum systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first part of this work we extract the algebraic structure behind the method of the influence functional in the context of dissipative quantum mechanics. Special emphasis was put on the transition from a quantum mechanical description to a classical one, since it allows a deeper understanding of the measurement-process. This is tightly connected with the transition from a microscopic to a macroscopic world where the former one is described by the rules of quantum mechanics whereas the latter follows the rules of classical mechanics. In addition we show how the results of the influence functional method can be interpreted as a stochastical process, which in turn allows an easy comparison with the well known time development of a quantum mechanical system by use of the Schroedinger equation. In the following we examine the tight-binding approximation of models of which their hamiltionian shows discrete eigenstates in position space and where transitions between those states are suppressed so that propagation either is described by tunneling or by thermal activation. In the framework of dissipative quantum mechanics this leads to a tremendous simplification of the effective description of the system since instead of looking at the full history of all paths in the path integral description, we only have to look at all possible jump times and the possible corresponding set of weights for the jump direction, which is much easier to handle both analytically and numerically. In addition we deal with the mapping and the connection of dissipative quantum mechanical models with ones in quantum field theory and in particular models in statistical field theory. As an example we mention conformal invariance in two dimensions which always becomes relevant if a statistical system only has local interaction and is invariant under scaling. (orig.)

449

Description and control of decoherence in quantum bit systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The description and control of decoherence of quantum bit systems have become a field of increasing interest during the last decade. We discuss different techniques to estimate and model decoherence sources of solid state quantum bit realizations. At first, we derive a microscopic, perturbation theoretical approach for Lindblad master equations of a spin-Boson model at low temperatures. A different sort of decoherence is investigate by means of the bistable fluctuator model. For this particular but nevertheless for solid state qubits relevant noise source, we present a suitably designed dynamical decoupling method (so-called quantum bang-bang). This works as a high-pass filter, suppressing low frequency parts of the noise most effectively and thus being a promising method to compensate the ubiquituous 1/f noise. Furthermore, we investigate the behaviour of a two coupled spin system exposed to collective and localized bath. For this dressed-spin system we receive by means of scaling-analysis in first order a quantum phase diagram. On that we can identify the various quantum dynamical and entanglement phases

450

Efficient free energy calculations of quantum systems through computer simulations

In general, the classical limit is assumed in computer simulation calculations of free energy. This approximation, however, is not justifiable for a class of systems in which quantum contributions for the free energy cannot be neglected. The inclusion of quantum effects is important for the determination of reliable phase diagrams of these systems. In this work, we present a new methodology to compute the free energy of many-body quantum systems [1]. This methodology results from the combination of the path integral formulation of statistical mechanics and efficient non-equilibrium methods to estimate free energy, namely, the adiabatic switching and reversible scaling methods. A quantum Einstein crystal is used as a model to show the accuracy and reliability the methodology. This new method is applied to the calculation of solid-liquid coexistence properties of neon. Our findings indicate that quantum contributions to properties such as, melting point, latent heat of fusion, entropy of fusion, and slope of melting line can be up to 10% of the calculated values using the classical approximation. [1] R. M. Ramirez, C. P. Herrero, A. Antonelli, and E. R. Hernández, Journal of Chemical Physics 129, 064110 (2008)

Antonelli, Alex; Ramirez, Rafael; Herrero, Carlos; Hernandez, Eduardo

2009-03-01

451

From Quantum Spectra to Classical Orbits: the Circular Billiards Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semi-classical method has become a necessary instrument to study the classical movement of the particle. Periodic orbit theory is repidly becoming one of most useful semi-classical tools which can be used to make direct connections between the quantized energy eigenvalues of a bound state and the classical motions for the corresponding point particle. We use a quantum spectral function which contain rich information of classical orbits in well. We study the correspondence between quantum spectra and classical orbits in the circular Two-dimensional billiard systems have provided easily visualization examples relevant for both types of analyses. As a simple example of the application to a billiard or infinite well system of Periodic orbit theory, we compute the Fourier transform (p(L of the quantum mechanical energy level density of two-dimensional circular billiard system The resulting peaks in plots of |p(L|2 versus L are compared to lengths of the classical trajectories in these geometries. The locations of peaks in p(L agree with the lengths of classical orbits perfectly, which testifies the correspondence of quantum mechanics and classical mechanics. This examples show evidently that semi-classical methods provides a brdge between quantum and classical mechanics.

ZHANG Ye-bing

2011-01-01

452

State and dynamical parameter estimation for open quantum systems

Following the evolution of an open quantum system requires full knowledge of its dynamics. In this paper we consider open quantum systems for which the Hamiltonian is ``uncertain''. In particular, we treat in detail a simple system similar to that considered by Mabuchi [Quant. Semiclass. Opt. {\\bf 8}, 1103 (1996)]: a radiatively damped atom driven by an unknown Rabi frequency $\\Omega$ (as would occur for an atom at an unknown point in a standing light wave). By measuring the environment of the system, knowledge about the system state, and about the uncertain dynamical parameter, can be acquired. We find that these two sorts of knowledge acquisition (quantified by the posterior distribution for $\\Omega$, and the conditional purity of the system, respectively) are quite distinct processes, which are not strongly correlated. Also, the quality and quantity of knowledge gain depend strongly on the type of monitoring scheme. We compare five different detection schemes (direct, adaptive, homodyne of the $x$ quadratu...

Gambetta, J; Gambetta, Jay

2001-01-01

453

On a quantum system with memory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the integro-differential equation for the classical trajectory of an oscillator coupled to another one. On the quantum level the elimination of the coordinate A of the 'unvisible' oscillator leads to an effective path integral (?, ?, ?) for the associated imaginary time stochastic process t is an element of (-?, ?) ? x(t). We prove reflection positivity of the measure d? ? F · d?, where d? governes the free oscillator x and F is the counterpart of Feynman's influence functional. Finally, realizing the Hamiltonian semigroup exp(-tH), t ? 0, in the physical Hilbert space H = L2(?, ?, ?), where ? is contained in or ?+, we try to understand what is memory. (author)

454

Quantum transport through the system of parallel quantum dots with Majorana bound states

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the tunneling transport properties through a system of parallel quantum dots which are coupled to Majorana bound states (MBSs). The conductance and spectral function are computed using the retarded Green's function method based on the equation of motion. The conductance of the system is 2e2/h at zero Fermi energy and is robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The dependence of the Fermi energy on the spectral function is different for the first dot (dot1) than for the second dot (dot2) with fixed dot2-MBSs coupling. The influence of the Majorana bound states on the spectral function was studied for the series and parallel configurations of the system. It was found that when the configuration is in series, the Majorana bound states play an important role, resulting in a spectral function with three peaks. However, the spectral function shows two peaks when the system is in a parallel configuration. The zero Fermi energy spectral function is always 1/2 not only in series but also in the parallel configuration and robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The phase diagram of the Fermi energy versus the quantum dot energy levels was also investigated

455

Quantum transport through the system of parallel quantum dots with Majorana bound states

We study the tunneling transport properties through a system of parallel quantum dots which are coupled to Majorana bound states (MBSs). The conductance and spectral function are computed using the retarded Green's function method based on the equation of motion. The conductance of the system is 2e2/h at zero Fermi energy and is robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The dependence of the Fermi energy on the spectral function is different for the first dot (dot1) than for the second dot (dot2) with fixed dot2-MBSs coupling. The influence of the Majorana bound states on the spectral function was studied for the series and parallel configurations of the system. It was found that when the configuration is in series, the Majorana bound states play an important role, resulting in a spectral function with three peaks. However, the spectral function shows two peaks when the system is in a parallel configuration. The zero Fermi energy spectral function is always 1/2 not only in series but also in the parallel configuration and robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The phase diagram of the Fermi energy versus the quantum dot energy levels was also investigated.

Wang, Ning; Lv, Shuhui; Li, Yuxian

2014-02-01

456

Quantum transport through the system of parallel quantum dots with Majorana bound states

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the tunneling transport properties through a system of parallel quantum dots which are coupled to Majorana bound states (MBSs). The conductance and spectral function are computed using the retarded Green's function method based on the equation of motion. The conductance of the system is 2e{sup 2}/h at zero Fermi energy and is robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The dependence of the Fermi energy on the spectral function is different for the first dot (dot1) than for the second dot (dot2) with fixed dot2-MBSs coupling. The influence of the Majorana bound states on the spectral function was studied for the series and parallel configurations of the system. It was found that when the configuration is in series, the Majorana bound states play an important role, resulting in a spectral function with three peaks. However, the spectral function shows two peaks when the system is in a parallel configuration. The zero Fermi energy spectral function is always 1/2 not only in series but also in the parallel configuration and robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The phase diagram of the Fermi energy versus the quantum dot energy levels was also investigated.

Wang, Ning; Li, Yuxian, E-mail: yxli@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Information Engineering and Hebei Advanced Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Lv, Shuhui [School of Sciences, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China)

2014-02-28

457

Room-temperature resonant quantum tunneling transport of macroscopic systems.

A self-assembled quantum dots array (QDA) is a low dimensional electron system applied to various quantum devices. This QDA, if embedded in a single crystal matrix, could be advantageous for quantum information science and technology. However, the quantum tunneling effect has been difficult to observe around room temperature thus far, because it occurs in a microcosmic and low temperature condition. Herein, we show a designed a quasi-periodic Ni QDA embedded in a single crystal BaTiO3 matrix and demonstrate novel quantum resonant tunneling transport properties around room-temperature according to theoretical calculation and experiments. The quantum tunneling process could be effectively modulated by changing the Ni QDA concentration. The major reason was that an applied weak electric field (?10(2) V cm(-1)) could be enhanced by three orders of magnitude (?10(5) V cm(-1)) between the Ni QDA because of the higher permittivity of BaTiO3 and the 'hot spots' of the Ni QDA. Compared with the pure BaTiO3 films, the samples with embedded Ni QDA displayed a stepped conductivity and temperature (?-T curves) construction. PMID:25307500

Xiong, Zhengwei; Wang, Xuemin; Yan, Dawei; Wu, Weidong; Peng, Liping; Li, Weihua; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xinmin; An, Xinyou; Xiao, Tingting; Zhan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Xiangrong

2014-11-21

458

Universal quench dynamics of interacting quantum impurity systems

The equilibrium physics of quantum impurities frequently involves a universal crossover from weak to strong reservoir-impurity coupling, characterized by single-parameter scaling and an energy scale TK (Kondo temperature) that breaks scale invariance. For the noninteracting resonant level model, the nonequilibrium time evolution of the Loschmidt echo after a local quantum quench was recently computed explicitly [R. Vasseur, K. Trinh, S. Haas, and H. Saleur, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 240601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.240601]. It shows single-parameter scaling with variable TKt. Here, we scrutinize whether similar universal dynamics can be observed in various interacting quantum impurity systems. Using density matrix and functional renormalization group approaches, we analyze the time evolution resulting from abruptly coupling two noninteracting Fermi or interacting Luttinger liquid leads via a quantum dot or a direct link. We also consider the case of a single Luttinger liquid lead suddenly coupled to a quantum dot. We investigate whether the field-theory predictions for the universal scaling as well as for the large-time behavior successfully describe the time evolution of the Loschmidt echo and the entanglement entropy of microscopic models. Our study shows that for the considered local quench protocols the above quantum impurity models fall into a class of problems for which the nonequilibrium dynamics can largely be understood based on the knowledge of the corresponding equilibrium physics.

Kennes, D. M.; Meden, V.; Vasseur, R.

2014-09-01

459

Room-temperature resonant quantum tunneling transport of macroscopic systems

A self-assembled quantum dots array (QDA) is a low dimensional electron system applied to various quantum devices. This QDA, if embedded in a single crystal matrix, could be advantageous for quantum information science and technology. However, the quantum tunneling effect has been difficult to observe around room temperature thus far, because it occurs in a microcosmic and low temperature condition. Herein, we show a designed a quasi-periodic Ni QDA embedded in a single crystal BaTiO3 matrix and demonstrate novel quantum resonant tunneling transport properties around room-temperature according to theoretical calculation and experiments. The quantum tunneling process could be effectively modulated by changing the Ni QDA concentration. The major reason was that an applied weak electric field (~102 V cm-1) could be enhanced by three orders of magnitude (~105 V cm-1) between the Ni QDA because of the higher permittivity of BaTiO3 and the `hot spots' of the Ni QDA. Compared with the pure BaTiO3 films, the samples with embedded Ni QDA displayed a stepped conductivity and temperature (?-T curves) construction.

Xiong, Zhengwei; Wang, Xuemin; Yan, Dawei; Wu, Weidong; Peng, Liping; Li, Weihua; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xinmin; An, Xinyou; Xiao, Tingting; Zhan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Xiangrong

2014-10-01

460

Fermionic quantum systems: controllability and the parity superselection rule

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study controllability and simulability of fermionic quantum systems which observe the parity superselection rule. Superselection rules describe the existence of non-trivial symmetries (e.g., the parity operator) that commute with all physical observables. We present examples of fermionic sytems such as quasifree and translation-invariant ones and develop readily applicable conditions for the controllability of fermionic systems by studying their symmetries. As an application, we discuss under which conditions fermionic and spin systems can simulate each other.