Complete Coherent Control of a Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot-Cavity Polariton System
Dory, Constantin; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L; Kelaita, Yousif; Vuckovic, Jelena
2015-01-01
Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in excellent agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms.
Competition between loss channels in quantum-dot cavity systems: unconventional consequences
Vagov, A.; Glässl, M.; Croitoru, M. D.; Axt, V. M.; Kuhn, T.
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that in quantum-dot cavity systems, the interplay between acoustic phonons and photon losses introduces novel features and characteristic dependencies in the system dynamics. In particular, the combined action of both loss mechanisms strongly affects the transition from the weak to the strong coupling regime as well as the shape of Mollow-type spectra in untypical ways. For weak coupling, where the spectra degenerate to a single line, we predict that their wid...
Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær
2012-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons, described by a non-Markovian model, interacting with a coupled quantum dot-cavity system. The reduction of phonon-induced dephasing is obtained by placing the cavity-quantum dot system inside an infinite slab, assuming spherical electronic wavefunctions. Based on our calculations, we expect this to have important implications in single-photon sources, allowing the indistinguishability of the photons to be improved.
Phonon-mediated population inversion in a semiconductor quantum-dot cavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate pump-induced exciton inversion in a quantum-dot cavity system with continuous wave drive. Using a polaron-based master equation, we demonstrate excited-state populations above 0.9 for an InAs quantum dot at a phonon bath temperature of 4 K. In an exciton-driven system, the dominant mechanism is incoherent excitation from the phonon bath. For cavity driving, the mechanism is phonon-mediated switching between ground- and excited-state branches of the ladder of photon states, as quantum trajectory simulations clearly show. The exciton inversion as a function of detuning is found to be qualitatively different for exciton and cavity driving, primarily due to cavity filtering. The master equation approach allows us to include important radiative and non-radiative decay processes on the zero phonon line, provides a clear underlying dynamic in terms of photon and phonon scattering, and admits simple analytical approximations that help to explain the physics. (paper)
Quantum nature of a strongly-coupled single quantum dot-cavity system
Hennessy, K; Badolato, A; Falt, S; Gerace, D; Gulde, S T; Hu, E L; Imamoglu, A; Winger, M
2006-01-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between a quantum emitter and a single radiation-field mode. When an atom is in strong coupling with a cavity mode1,2, it is possible to realize key quantum information processing (QIP) tasks, such as controlled coherent coupling and entanglement of distinguishable quantum systems. Realizing these tasks in the solid state is clearly desirable, and coupling semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) to monolithic optical cavities is a promising route to this end. However, validating the efficacy of QDs in QIP applications requires confirmation of the quantum nature of the QD-cavity system in the strong coupling regime. Here we find a confirmation by observing quantum correlations in photoluminescence (PL) from a photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity3-5 interacting with one, and only one, QD located precisely at the cavity electric field maximum. When off-resonance, photon emission from the cavity mode and QD excitons is anti-correlated at the level o...
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay $g^{(2)}(0)$ in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum in...
HUGHES, S; Yao, P.; Milde, F; Knorr, A; Dalacu, D.; Mnaymneh, K.; Sazonova, V.; Poole, P. J.; Aers, G. C.; Lapointe, J.; Cheriton, R.; Williams, R.L.
2011-01-01
We present a medium-dependent quantum optics approach to describe the influence of electron-acoustic phonon coupling on the emission spectra of a strongly coupled quantum-dot cavity system. Using a canonical Hamiltonian for light quantization and a photon Green function formalism, phonons are included to all orders through the dot polarizability function obtained within the independent Boson model. We derive simple user-friendly analytical expressions for the linear quantum ...
Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum in a quantum dot-cavity system
Gomez, Edgar A; Vinck-Posada, Herbert
2015-01-01
We introduce the Green's functions technique as an alternative theory to the quantum regression theorem formalism for calculating the two-time correlation functions in open quantum systems. In particular, we investigate the potential of this theoretical approach by its application to compute the emission spectrum of a dissipative system composed by a single quantum dot inside of a semiconductor cavity. We also describe a simple algorithm based on the Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum of the quantum dot as well as of the cavity which can easily be implemented in any numerical linear algebra package. We find that the Green's functions technique demonstrates a better accuracy and efficiency in the calculation of the emission spectrum and it allows to overcome the inherent theoretical difficulties associated to the direct application of the quantum regression theorem approach.
Two-photon emission in coupled biexciton quantum dot—cavity system: Phonon-assisted model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We theoretically analyze the steady state emission spectrum and transient temporal dynamics in a coupled biexciton quantum dot (QD)—cavity system. For steady state, a phonon-assisted biexciton—exciton cascade model under continuous wave (CW) excitation is presented to explain the asymmetric QD—cavity emission spectrum intensities (intensities of cavity, exciton, and biexciton emission peak) in off-resonance condition. Results demonstrate that the electron—phonon process is crucial to the asymmetry of emission spectrum intensity. Moreover the transient characteristics of the biexciton—exciton cascade system under pulse excitation show abundant nonlinear temporal dynamic behaviors, including complicated oscillations which are caused by the four-level structure of QD model. We also reveal that under off-resonance condition the cavity outputs are slightly reduced due to the electron—phonon interaction. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Sub-Poissonian photon emission in coupled double quantum dots–cavity system
Ye, Han; Peng, Yi-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yu-Min
2015-11-01
In this work, we theoretically analyze the few-photon emissions generated in a coupled double quantum dots (CDQDs)-single mode microcavity system, under continuous wave and pulse excitation. Compared with the uncoupled case, strong sub-Poissonian character is achieved in a CDQDs–cavity system at a certain laser frequency. Based on the proposed scheme, single photon generation can be obtained separately under QD–cavity resonant condition and off-resonant condition. For different cavity decay rates, we reveal that laser frequency detunings of minimum second-order autocorrelation function are discrete and can be divided into three regions. Moreover, the non-ideal situation where two QDs are not identical is discussed, indicating the robustness of the proposed scheme, which possesses sub-Poissonian character in a large QD difference variation range. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61372037 and 61401035), the Beijing Excellent Ph.D. Thesis Guidance Foundation, China (Grant No. 20131001301), and the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China (Grant No. IPOC2015ZC05).
Influence of a phonon bath in a quantum dot cavity QED system: Dependence of the shape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a systematic analysis on the role of the quantum dot (QD) shape in the influence of the phonon bath on the dynamics of a QD cavity QED system. The spectral functions of the phonon bath in three representative QD shapes: spherical, ellipsoidal, and disk, are calculated from the carrier wave functions subjected to the confinement potential provided by the corresponding shape. The obtained spectral functions are used to calculate three main effects brought by the phonon bath, i.e., the coupling renormalization, the off-resonance assisted feeding rate and the pure dephasing rate. It is found that the spectral function of a disk QD has the widest distribution, hence the phonon bath in a disk QD can lead to the smallest renormalization factor, the largest dephasing rate in the short time domains(? 2 ps), and the off-resonance assisted feeding can support the widest detuning. Except for the pure dephasing rate in the long time domains, all the influences brought by the phonon bath show serious shape dependence. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter
2014-01-01
We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g2(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission.
Transport Spectroscopy of a Spin-Coherent Dot-Cavity System
Rössler, C.; Oehri, D.; Zilberberg, O.; Blatter, G.; Karalic, M.; Pijnenburg, J.; Hofmann, A.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.
2015-10-01
Quantum engineering requires controllable artificial systems with quantum coherence exceeding the device size and operation time. This can be achieved with geometrically confined low-dimensional electronic structures embedded within ultraclean materials, with prominent examples being artificial atoms (quantum dots) and quantum corrals (electronic cavities). Combining the two structures, we implement a mesoscopic coupled dot-cavity system in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas, and obtain an extended spin-singlet state in the regime of strong dot-cavity coupling. Engineering such extended quantum states presents a viable route for nonlocal spin coupling that is applicable for quantum information processing.
Competition between pure dephasing and photon losses in the dynamics of a dot-cavity system
Vagov, A.; Glässl, M.; Croitoru, M. D.; Axt, V. M.; Kuhn, T.
2014-08-01
We demonstrate that in quantum-dot cavity systems, the interplay between acoustic phonons and photon losses introduces novel features and characteristic dependencies in the system dynamics. In particular, the combined action of both dephasing mechanisms strongly affects the transition from the weak- to the strong-coupling regime as well as the shape of the spectral triplet that represents the quantum-dot occupation in Fourier space. The width of the central peak in the triplet is expected to decrease with rising temperature, while the widths and heights of the side peaks depend nonmonotonically on the dot-cavity coupling.
Coupling and single-photon purity of a quantum dot-cavity system studied using hydrostatic pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, P. Y.; Wu, X. F.; Ding, K.; Dou, X. M.; Zha, G. W.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Zhu, H. J.; Jiang, D. S. [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, C. L. [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Sun, B. Q., E-mail: bqsun@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Information, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China)
2015-01-07
We propose an approach to tune the emission of a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD) to couple with a planar cavity using hydrostatic pressure without inducing temperature variation during the process of measurement. Based on this approach, we studied the influence of cavity mode on the single-photon purity of an InAs/GaAs QD. Our measurement demonstrates that the single-photon purity degrades when the QD emission resonates with the cavity mode. This negative influence of the planar cavity is mainly caused by the cavity feeding effect.
Phonon Mediated Off-Resonant Quantum Dot-Cavity Coupling
Majumdar, Arka; Gong, Yiyang; Kim, Erik D.; Vuckovic, Jelena
2010-01-01
A theoretical model for the phonon-mediated off-resonant coupling between a quantum dot and a cavity, under resonant excitation of the quantum dot, is presented. We show that the coupling is caused by electron-phonon interaction in the quantum dot and is enhanced by the cavity. We analyze recently observed resonant quantum dot spectroscopic data by our theoretical model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum dot (QD)–cavity system with deep confinement potential is usually studied by either non-resonant or quasi-resonant p-exciton pump (PEP) with the s-exciton pump (SEP) ignored. In this paper, we investigate the effect of an SEP on the emission properties of a QD–cavity system with deep confinement potential by comparing the different incoherent excitation schemes, including pumping with both s- and p-exciton pump and with PEP only. The investigation reveals that the steady-state properties such as photon statistical properties and emission spectra of the QD–cavity system are significantly affected. More importantly, after taking SEP into consideration, the lasing and self-quenching regime of the entire system will be reached at a much lower pump rate than that of the only PEP scheme. (paper)
HUGHES, S; Roy, C.
2011-01-01
We present a semiconductor master equation technique to study the input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport in a semiconductor waveguide-cavity system containing a single quantum dot. We use this approach to investigate the effects of photon propagation and anharmonic cavity-QED for various dot-cavity interaction strengths, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less tha...
Fast Two-Qubit Gates in Semiconductor Quantum Dots using a Photonic Microcavity
Solenov, Dmitry; Economou, Sophia E.; Reinecke, T. L.
2012-01-01
Implementations for quantum computing require fast single- and multi-qubit quantum gate operations. In the case of optically controlled quantum dot qubits theoretical designs for long-range two- or multi-qubit operations satisfying all the requirements in quantum computing are not yet available. We have developed a design for a fast, long-range two-qubit gate mediated by a photonic microcavity mode using excited states of the quantum dot-cavity system that addresses these ne...
Fundamental properties of devices for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær
2012-01-01
This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of the influence of the electronphonon interaction on semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamical systems, specifically a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We develop a theoretical description of the decay dynamics of the quantum dot interacting with the cavity and the phonons. It is shown that the presence of the phonon interaction, fundamentally changes the spontaneous emission decay behavior of the quantum dot. Especially in the regime where the quantum dotcavity spectral detuning is significantly larger than any linewidth of the system, the effect of the phonon interaction is very pronounced. A simple approximate analytical expression for the quantum dot decay rate is derived, which predicts a strong asymmetry with respect to the quantum dot-cavity detuning at low temperatures, and allows for a clear interpretation of the physics. Furthermore, a study of the indistinguishability of single photons emitted from the coupled quantum dot-cavity system is performed, with special emphasis on non-Markovian decoherence due to the phonon interaction. We show that common theoretical approaches fail to predict the degree of indistinguishability, on both a qualitative and quantitative level, for experimentally relevant parameters regimes. The important role of non-Markovian effects in the shorttime regime, where virtual processes dominate the decoherence of the quantum dot-cavity system, is emphasized. Importantly, our investigations lead to a maximum achievable degree of indistinguishability, a prediction which eludes common approaches.
Hughes, S
2011-01-01
The input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport through a semiconductor cavity system containing a single quantum dot is presented. The nonlinear quantum optics formalism uses a master equation approach and focuses on a waveguide-cavity system containing a semiconductor quantum dot; our general technique also applies to studying coherent reflection from a micropillar cavity. We investigate the effects of light propagation and show the need for quantized multiphoton effects for various dot-cavity systems, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less than 0.1, the commonly adopted weak excitation (single quantum) approximation breaks down---even in the weak coupling regime. As a measure of the photon correlations, we compute the Fano factor and the error associated with making a semiclassical approximation. We also investigate the role of electron--acoustic-phonon scattering and show that phonon-mediated scatt...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter
2013-01-01
We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods. An important finding is that short-time non-Markovian effects limit the maximal attainable indistinguishability. The results are explained using a polariton picture that yields valuable insight into the phonon-induced dephasing dynamics.
Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Hua, Ming; Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2012-10-22
Bell-state analysis (BSA) is essential in quantum communication, but it is impossible to distinguish unambiguously the four Bell states in the polarization degree of freedom (DOF) of two-photon systems with only linear optical elements, except for the case in which the BSA is assisted with hyperentangled states, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one DOF. Here, we propose a scheme to distinguish completely the 16 hyperentangled Bell states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode DOFs of two-photon systems, by using the giant nonlinear optics in quantum dot-cavity systems. This scheme can be applied to increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication based on hyperentanglement, such as entanglement swapping, teleportation, and superdense coding. We use hyperentanglement swapping as an example to show the application of this HBSA. PMID:23187229
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara
We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasiresonantly pumped coupled quantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing the sample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning, and on spectral resonance we observe a three-fold improvement in the Hong–Ou–Mandel interference visibility, reaching values in excess of 80%. By comparison with our microscopic model, we are able to identify pure-dephasing and not time-jitter as the dominating source of imperfections in our system.
Giant Rabi splitting in a metallic cluster–cavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We theoretically investigate the photoabsorption cross-section of a cluster of alkali atoms embedded in a single-mode quantum microcavity. We show that if the energy of the giant plasmonic resonance lies close to the energy of the cavity mode, the strong coupling between the plasmon and cavity photon can occur which is characterized by mode anticrossing and observation of the doublet structure in the photoabsorption spectrum. The characteristic values of the Rabi splitting are expected to be several orders of magnitude larger than those observed in single quantum dot–cavity systems. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by the double-sided quantum-dot–cavity system, we construct a deterministic hybrid hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate, in which the spatial-mode and polarization states of a photon act as the two control qubits, whereas two stationary electron spins in quantum dots confined inside the optical microcavities serve as the two target qubits. In our scheme, the control qubits are easily manipulated with simple optical elements and the target qubits are suitable for storage and processing use. With our hybrid hyper-CNOT gates, we design a high-capacity direct transmission quantum communication network which requires neither the establishment of entanglement between remote locations nor the use of long-lived quantum memories. We discuss the feasibility and efficiency of our hybrid hyper-CNOT gate, concluding that it is feasible with current technology. (letter)
Quantum Games and Programmable Quantum Systems
Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sladkowski, Jan
2005-01-01
Attention to the very physical aspects of information characterizes the current research in quantum computation, quantum cryptography and quantum communication. In most of the cases quantum description of the system provides advantages over the classical approach. Game theory, the study of decision making in conflict situation has already been extended to the quantum domain. We would like to review the latest development in quantum game theory that is relevant to information...
Dusek, M; Hendrych, M; Myska, R; Dusek, Miloslav; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin; Myska, Robert
1999-01-01
A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are ``refuelled'' from a shared provably secret key transferred through the quantum channel. Two identification protocols are devised. The first protocol can be applied when legitimate users have an unjammable public channel at their disposal. The deception probability is derived for the case of a noisy quantum channel. The second protocol employs unconditionally secure authentication of information sent over the public channel, and thus it can be applied even in the case when an adversary is allowed to modify public communications. An experimental realization of a quantum identification system is described.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær
2013-01-01
Differences in the confinement of electrons and holes in quantum dots are shown to profoundly impact the magnitude of scattering with acoustic phonons. Using an extensive model that includes the non-Markovian nature of the phonon reservoir, we show how the effect may be addressed by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of a single quantum dot. We also investigate the implications for cavity QED, i.e., a coupled quantum dot-cavity system, and demonstrate that the phonon scattering may be strongly quenched. The quenching is explained by a balancing between the deformation potential interaction strengths and the carrier confinement and depends on the quantum dot shape. Numerical examples suggest a route towards engineering the phonon scattering.
Weiss, Ulrich
2008-01-01
Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Micheli, Fiorenza de [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 440, Santiago (Chile)
2012-10-15
A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems-in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action-the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.
Equilibration of quantum chaotic systems
Zhuang, Quntao; Biao WU
2013-01-01
Quantum ergordic theorem for a large class of quantum systems was proved by von Neumann [Z. Phys. {\\bf 57}, 30 (1929)] and again by Reimann [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 101}, 190403 (2008)] in a more practical and well-defined form. However, it is not clear whether the theorem applies to quantum chaotic systems. With the rigorous proof still elusive, we illustrate and verify this theorem for quantum chaotic systems with examples. Our numerical results show that a quantum chaotic s...
Talalaev, D.
2010-01-01
The Toda chains take a particular place in the theory of integrable systems, in contrast with the linear group structure for the Gaudin model this system is related to the corresponding Borel group and mediately to the geometry of flag varieties. The main goal of this paper is to reconstruct a "spectral curve" in a wider context of the generic Toda system. This appears to be an efficient way to find its quantization which is obtained here by the technique of quantum characte...
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
2009-11-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
Yukalov, V I
2009-01-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
V.I. Yukalov; SORNETTE, D
2009-01-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans...
Quantum Systems Bound by Gravity
Fil'Chenkov, Michael L.; Kopylov, Sergey V.; Laptev, Yuri P.
2009-01-01
Quantum systems contain charged particles around mini-holes called graviatoms. Electromagnetic and gravitational radiations for the graviatoms are calculated. Graviatoms with neutrino can form quantum macro-systems.
Weiss, U
1999-01-01
Recent advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems have brightened up the field and brought it into the focus of a general community in natural sciences. The fundamental concepts, methods and applications including the most recent developments, previously covered for the most part only in the original literature, are presented here in a comprehensive treatment to an audience who is reasonably familiar with quantum-statistical mechanics and has had rudimentary contacts with the path integral formulation.This book deals with the phenomena and theory of decoherence and dissipation in qu
Decoherence in quantum spin systems
De Raedt, H A
2003-01-01
Computer simulations of decoherence in quantum spin systems require the solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for interacting quantum spin systems over extended periods of time. We use exact diagonalization, Chebyshev polynomial technique, four Suzuki-formula algorithms, and the short-iterative-Lanczos method to solve a simple model for decoherence of a quantum spin system by an environment consisting of quantum spins, and compare advantages and limitations of different algorithms.
Stationary States of Dissipative Quantum Systems
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2011-01-01
In this Letter we consider stationary states of dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of dissipative quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of Hamiltonian quantum systems. Dissipative quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear harmonic oscillator are suggested. We discuss bifurcations of stationary states for dissipative quantum systems which are quantum analogs of classical dynamical bifurcations.
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum comput...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Settnes, Mikkel; Nielsen, Per Kær
2013-01-01
We show that Auger processes involving wetting layer transitions mediate emission from a cavity that is detuned from a quantum dot by even tens of meV. The wetting layer thus acts as a reservoir, which by Coulomb scattering can supply or absorb the energy difference between emitter and cavity. We perform microscopic calculations of the effect treating the wetting layer as a non-Markovian reservoir interacting with the coupled quantum dot-cavity system through Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, cavity feeding has been observed in the asymmetric detuning range of -10 to +45 meV. We show that this asymmetry arises naturally from the quasiequilibrium properties of the wetting layer reservoir. Furthermore, we present numerical calculations of both photoluminescence spectra and photon correlations, demonstrating good qualitative agreement with experiments.
Equilibration of quantum chaotic systems.
Zhuang, Quntao; Wu, Biao
2013-12-01
The quantum ergordic theorem for a large class of quantum systems was proved by von Neumann [Z. Phys. 57, 30 (1929)] and again by Reimann [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190403 (2008)] in a more practical and well-defined form. However, it is not clear whether the theorem applies to quantum chaotic systems. With a rigorous proof still elusive, we illustrate and verify this theorem for quantum chaotic systems with examples. Our numerical results show that a quantum chaotic system with an initial low-entropy state will dynamically relax to a high-entropy state and reach equilibrium. The quantum equilibrium state reached after dynamical relaxation bears a remarkable resemblance to the classical microcanonical ensemble. However, the fluctuations around equilibrium are distinct: The quantum fluctuations are exponential while the classical fluctuations are Gaussian. PMID:24483425
Scarring in open quantum systems.
Wisniacki, Diego; Carlo, Gabriel G
2008-04-01
We study scarring phenomena in open quantum systems. We show numerical evidence that individual resonance eigenstates of an open quantum system present localization around unstable short periodic orbits in a similar way as their closed counterparts. The structure of eigenfunctions around these classical objects is not destroyed by the opening. This is exposed in a paradigmatic system of quantum chaos, the cat map. PMID:18517679
Asymptotically open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)
Fault Tolerant Quantum Filtering and Fault Detection for Quantum Systems
Gao, Qing(MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan, Hubei, China); Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R
2015-01-01
This paper aims to determine the fault tolerant quantum filter and fault detection equation for a class of open quantum systems coupled to laser fields and subject to stochastic faults. In order to analyze open quantum systems where the system dynamics involve both classical and quantum random variables, a quantum-classical probability space model is developed. Using a reference probability approach, a fault tolerant quantum filter and a fault detection equation are simultan...
The scalable quantum computation based on quantum dot systems
Zhang, Jian-Qi; Yu, Ya-Fei; Feng, Xun-Li; ZHANG, ZHI-MING
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for realizing the scalable quantum computation based on nonidentical quantum dots trapped in a single-mode waveguide. In this system, the quantum dots simultaneously interact with a large detuned waveguide and classical light fields. During the process, neither the waveguide mode nor the quantum dots are excited, while the sub-system composed of any two quantum dots can acquire phases conditional upon the states of these two quantum dots and the certain d...
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-03-31
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Entanglement in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups, we solve the master equation for two independent bosonic oscillators interacting with an environment in the asymptotic long-time regime. We give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix of the quantum states of the considered system for an arbitrary Gaussian input state. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems immersed in a common environment and evolving under a Markovian, completely positive dynamics become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that their non-local quantum correlations exist in the long-time regime. (author) Key words: quantum information theory, open systems, quantum entanglement, inseparable states
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
Roy, Sisir
2014-07-01
The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.
Pure Stationary States of Open Quantum Systems
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2003-01-01
Using Liouville space and superoperator formalism we consider pure stationary states of open and dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of open quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of closed quantum systems. Open quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear oscillator are suggested. We consider stationary states for the Lindblad equation. We discuss bifurcations of pure stationary states for open quantum systems which are quantum...
Quantum models of classical systems
Hájí?ek, P.
2015-07-01
Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties.
Three Terminal Quantum Dot System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Chandrasekar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the transmission rate for the three terminal quantum dot system is determined using Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function technique for interacting and non-interacting cases. The three terminal quantum dot systems consist of three leads and three quantum dots that are arranged in a triangular form. Each led is coupled with each dot. The lesser and retarded Green’s functions are used for the calculations of transmission rates and how the transmission rates vary for interacting and non-interacting system are studied is investigated.
Manipulation of single quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The founders of quantum theory assumed in thought experiments that they were manipulating isolated quantum systems obeying the counterintuitive laws which they had just discovered. Technological advances have recently turned these virtual experiments into real ones by making possible the actual control of isolated quantum particles. Many laboratories are realizing such experiments, in a research field at the frontier between physics and information science. Fundamentally, these studies explore the transition between the microscopic world ruled by quantum laws and our macroscopic environment which appears classical. Practically, physicists hope that these experiments will result in new technologies exploiting the strange quantum logic to compute, communicate or measure physical quantities better than was previously conceivable. In Paris, we perform such experiments by juggling with photons trapped between superconducting mirrors. I will give a simple description of these studies, compare them to similar ones performed on other systems and guess about possible applications. (author)
All-optical coherent control of energy transfer between a quantum dot and a cavity mode
Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik; Solomon, Glenn; Waks, Edo
2015-03-01
Here we demonstrated all-optical coherent control of energy transfer in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule at optical frequency. The photonic crystal molecule composes two photonic crystal cavities, supporting a pair of strongly coupled normal modes. One of the modes strongly couples with a quantum dot and the other induces a cavity enhanced a.c. stark shift to rapidly tune the quantum dot resonance on timescales much shorter than the vacuum Rabi period of the strongly coupled dot-cavity system. The quantum dot initially detunes from the cavity mode. By tuning the quantum dot onto resonance with the cavity mode on picosecond timescales, we achieved coherent transfer of energy between a quantum dot and the cavity mode through vacuum Rabi oscillation. We investigated the energy transfer as a function of stark laser power to confirm the coherence of the energy transfer process. We further demonstrated coherent control of light-matter states by implementing a Ramsey-type experiment. These results pave the path for achieving gigahertz controlled generation of quantum states of light and synthesis of photon wavefunctions using integrated semiconductor nano-photonics platform.
Quantum systems and symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S.; Sadlier, Ronald J.
2014-01-01
Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communica...
Coherent control of energy transfer in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule
Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik R.; Solomon, Glenn S.; Waks, Edo
2015-03-01
Vacuum Rabi oscillation is a damped oscillation in which energy can transfer between an atomic excitation and a photon when an atom is strongly coupled to a photonic cavity. This process is challenging to be coherently controlled due to the fact that interaction between the atom and the electromagnetic resonator needs to be modulated in a quick manner compared to vacuum Rabi frequency. This control has been achieved at microwave frequencies, but has remained challenging to be implemented in the optical domain. Here we demonstrated coherent control of energy transfer in a semiconductor quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule by manipulating the vacuum Rabi oscillation of the system. Instead of using a single photonic crystal cavity, we utilized a photonic crystal molecule consisting two coupled photonic crystal defect cavities to obtain both strong quantum dot-cavity coupling and cavityenhanced AC stark shift. In our system the AC stark shift modulates the coupling interaction between the quantum dot and the cavity by shifting the quantum dot resonance, on timescales (picosecond) shorter than the vacuum Rabi period. We demonstrated the ability to transfer excitation between a quantum dot and cavity, and performed coherent control of light-matter states. Our results provides an ultra-fast approach for probing and controlling light-matter interactions in an integrated nanophotonic device, and could pave the way for gigahertz rate synthesis of arbitrary quantum states of light at optical frequencies.
Introduction to quantum spin systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Langari
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This manuscript is the collection of lectures given in the summer school on strongly correlated electron systems held at Isfahan university of technology, June 2007. A short overview on quantum magnetism and spin systems is presented. The numerical exact diagonalization (Lanczos alghorithm is explained in a pedagogical ground. This is a method to get some ground state properties on finite cluster of lattice models. Two extensions of Lanczos method to get the excited states and also finite temperature properties of quantum models are also explained. The basic notions of quantum phase transition is discussed in term of Ising model in transverse field. Its phase diagram and critical properties are explained using the quantum renormalization group approach. Most of the topics are in tutorial level with hints to recent research activities.
Quantum chaos in nanoelectromechanical systems
Gusso, Andre; da Luz, M. G. E.; Rego, Luis G. C.
2005-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the electron-phonon coupling in suspended nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and investigate the resulting quantum chaotic behavior. The phonons are associated with the vibrational modes of a suspended rectangular dielectric plate, with free or clamped boundary conditions, whereas the electrons are confined to a large quantum dot (QD) on the plate's surface. The deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions are considered. By perfor...
Duality of quantum competing system
Yoneda, Morishige; Niwa, Masaaki; Motohashi, Mitsuya
2012-01-01
We have constructed a theory of dual canonical formalism to study the quantum competing systems. In such a system, as the relationship between current and voltage of each, we assumed the duality conditions. We considered competing system of two types. One type of these system are composed of the sandwich structure by SC(superconductor)/SI(superinsulator)/SC junction, and its dual junction is consists of the sandwich structure by SI/SC/SI junction. Another one type of these s...
Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot
Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Hauke, N.; Angele, J.; Stobbe, Søren; Kaniber, M.; Böhm, G.; Lodahl, Peter; Amann, M-C; Finley, J. J.
2009-01-01
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot - photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert-gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly ...
Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Hauke, N.; Angele, J.; Stobbe, Søren; Kaniber, M.; Böhm, G.; Lodahl, Peter; Amann, M-C; Finley, J.J.
2009-01-01
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots—photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light–matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot–cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch ...
Darboux Transformations of Bispectral Quantum Integrable Systems
Horozov, E; Horozov, Emil; Kasman, Alex
1998-01-01
We present an approach to higher dimensional Darboux transformations suitable for application to quantum integrable systems and based on the bispectral property of partial differential operators. Specifically, working with the algebro-geometric definition of quantum integrability, we utilize the bispectral duality of quantum Hamiltonian systems to construct non-trivial Darboux transformations between completely integrable quantum systems. As an application, we are able to construct new quantum integrable systems as the Darboux transforms of trivial examples (such as symmetric products of one dimensional systems) or by Darboux transformation of well-known bispectral systems such as quantum Calogero-Moser.
The scalable quantum computation based on quantum dot systems
Zhang, Jian-Qi; Feng, Xun-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Ming
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for realizing the scalable quantum computation based on the system of quantum dots trapped in a single-mode waveguide. In this system, the quantum dots simultaneously interact with a large detuned waveguide and classical light fields. During the process, neither the waveguide mode nor the quantum dots are excited, so the decoherence can be suppressed, while the system can acquire phases conditional upon the states of any two quantum dots. Therefore, it can be used to realize graph states, one qubit controlling multi-qubit phase $\\pi $ gate, and cluster states.
Quantum chaos in nanoelectromechanical systems
Gusso, A; Rego, L G C; Gusso, Andre; Rego, Luis G. C.
2005-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the electron-phonon coupling in suspended nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and investigate the resulting quantum chaotic behavior. The phonons are associated with the vibrational modes of a suspended rectangular dielectric plate, with free or clamped boundary conditions, whereas the electrons are confined to a large quantum dot (QD) on the plate's surface. The deformation potential and piezoelectric interactions are considered. By performing standard energy-level statistics we demonstrate that the spectral fluctuations exhibit the same distributions as those of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) or the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE), therefore evidencing the emergence of quantum chaos. That is verified for a large range of material and geometry parameters. In particular, the GUE statistics occurs only in the case of a circular QD. It represents an anomalous phenomenon, previously reported for just a small number of systems, since the problem is time-reversal invarian...
Low Energy Quantum System Simulation
Cho, P; Cho, Peter; Berggren, Karl
2003-01-01
A numerical method for solving Schrodinger's equation based upon a Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion of the time evolution operator is presented herein. The technique manifestly preserves wavefunction norm, and it can be applied to problems in any number of spatial dimensions. We also identify a particular dimensionless ratio of potential to kinetic energies as a key coupling constant. This coupling establishes characteristic length and time scales for a large class of low energy quantum states, and it guides the choice of step sizes in numerical work. Using the BCH method in conjunction with an imaginary time rotation, we compute low energy eigenstates for several quantum systems coupled to non-trivial background potentials. The approach is subsequently applied to the study of 1D propagating wave packets and 2D bound state time development. Failures of classical expectations uncovered by simulations of these simple systems help develop quantum intuition. Finally, we investigate the response of a Super...
Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2011-09-15
We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.
Quantum simulation of QFTs with discrete quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Classical simulation of quantum many-body systems is usually very inefficient with long running times and with high needs for memory (e.g., it is not even possible to store classically the arbitrary state of 50 qubits). One might overcome these difficulties by using other quantum systems, similar to the one we want to study, as quantum simulators. Most of the efforts in this direction has been concentrated on simulating discrete quantum systems (e.g. spin chains) with other discrete quantum systems that are relatively easy to prepare in labs (ion traps, atoms in optical lattices, etc.). In this talk I will treat a different problem: How can we simulate a continuous quantum system (e.g. a QFT) with a discrete one? I will in particular show how (and in which sense) one can use the Holstein-Primakoff transformation to store continuous quantum information in a discrete quantum system, and after the storage how one can model the time-evolution of the continuous quantum system with a quantum cellular automata action on the discrete system.
Entangled systems. New directions in quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entangled Systems is an introductory textbook for advanced students of physics, chemistry and computer science which covers an area of physics that has lately witnessed rapid expansion. The topics treated here include foundations of quantum theory, quantum information, quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum teleportation and hidden variables, thus providing not only a solid basis for the study of quantum theory as such, but also a profound foundation of knowledge from which readers can follow the rapid development of the topic or start out into a more specialized branch of research. Commented recommendations for further reading as well as end-of-chapter problems help the reader to access quickly the basic theoretical concepts of future key technologies. Only a basic prior knowledge of quantum theory and the necessary mathematical foundations is assumed, as introductory chapters are provided to present these to the readers. Thus, 'Entangled Systems' can be used both as a course book and for self-study purposes. From the contents: - The Mathematical Framework - Basic Concepts of Quantum Theory - The Simplest Quantum Systems: Qubits - Mixed State and Density Operator - Shannon's Entropy and Classical Information - The von Neumann Entropy and Quantum Information - Composite Systems - Entanglement - Correlations and Non-Local Measurements - There is no (Local-Realistic) Alternative to the Quantum Theory - Working with Entanglement - The Quantum Computer - General Measurements, POVM - The General Evolution of an Open Quantum System and Special Quantum Channels - Decoherence and Approaches to the Description of the Quantum Measurement Process - Two Implementations of Quantum Operations. (orig.)
On Entropy of Quantum Compound Systems
Watanabe, Noboru
2015-10-01
We review some notions for general quantum entropies. The entropy of the compound systems is discussed and a numerical computation of the quantum dynamical systems is carried for the noisy optical channel.
Quantum Heat Engine With Multi-Level Quantum Systems
Quan, H. T.; Zhang, P; C. P. Sun
2005-01-01
By reformulating the first law of thermodynamics in the fashion of quantum-mechanical operators on the parameter manifold, we propose a universal class of quantum heat engines (QHE) using the multi-level quantum system as the working substance. We obtain a general expression of work for the thermodynamic cycle with two thermodynamic adiabatic processes, which are microscopically quantum adiabatic processes. We also classify the conditions for a 3-level QHE to extract positiv...
Quantum Indeterminacy of Cosmic Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Craig J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-12-30
It is shown that quantum uncertainty of motion in systems controlled mainly by gravity generally grows with orbital timescale $H^{-1}$, and dominates classical motion for trajectories separated by distances less than $\\approx H^{-3/5}$ in Planck units. For example, the cosmological metric today becomes indeterminate at macroscopic separations, $H_0^{-3/5}\\approx 60$ meters. Estimates suggest that entangled non-localized quantum states of geometry and matter may significantly affect fluctuations during inflation, and connect the scale of dark energy to that of strong interactions.
On quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The parable of Schroedinger's cat may lead to several up-to date questions: how to treat open systems in quantum theory, how to treat thermodynamically irreversible processes in the quantum mechanics framework, how to explain, following the quantum theory, the existence, phenomenologically evident, of classical observables, what implies the predicted existence by the quantum theory of non localized macroscopic material object ?
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baecker, Arnd
2007-07-01
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Quantum Annealing and Quantum Fluctuation Effect in Frustrated Ising Systems
Tanaka, Shu
2012-01-01
Quantum annealing method has been widely attracted attention in statistical physics and information science since it is expected to be a powerful method to obtain the best solution of optimization problem as well as simulated annealing. The quantum annealing method was incubated in quantum statistical physics. This is an alternative method of the simulated annealing which is well-adopted for many optimization problems. In the simulated annealing, we obtain a solution of optimization problem by decreasing temperature (thermal fluctuation) gradually. In the quantum annealing, in contrast, we decrease quantum field (quantum fluctuation) gradually and obtain a solution. In this paper we review how to implement quantum annealing and show some quantum fluctuation effects in frustrated Ising spin systems.
Quantum phase transitions in constrained Bose systems
Bonnes, Lars
2011-01-01
This doctoral thesis studies low dimensional quantum systems that can be realized in recent cold atom experiments. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the main emphasis is on the detailed study of the different quantum and thermal phases and their transitions using numerical methods, such as quantum Monte Carlo and the Tensor Network Renormalization Group. The first part of this work deals with a lattice Boson model subject to strong three-body losses. In a quantum-Zeno li...
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
A Diffusion Equation for Quantum Adiabatic Systems
Jain, Sudhir R.
1998-01-01
For ergodic adiabatic quantum systems, we study the evolution of energy distribution as the system evolves in time. Starting from the von Neumann equation for the density operator, we obtain the quantum analogue of the Smoluchowski equation on coarse-graining over the energy spectrum. This result brings out the precise notion of quantum diffusion.
Quantum mechanics of damped systems
Chru?ci?ski, Dariusz
2003-01-01
We show that the quantization of a simple damped system leads to a self-adjoint Hamiltonian with a family of complex generalized eigenvalues. It turns out that they correspond to the poles of energy eigenvectors when continued to the complex energy plane. Therefore, the corresponding generalized eigenvectors may be interpreted as resonant states. We show that resonant states are responsible for the irreversible quantum dynamics of our simple model.
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1992-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continua...
Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems.
Zulkowski, Patrick R; DeWeese, Michael R
2015-09-01
The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing. PMID:26465432
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)
2014-07-15
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.
Measurement theory for closed quantum systems
Wouters, Michiel
2015-07-01
We introduce the concept of a “classical observable” as an operator with vanishingly small quantum fluctuations on a set of density matrices. Their study provides a natural starting point to analyse the quantum measurement problem. In particular, it allows to identify Schrödinger cats and the associated projection operators intrinsically, without the need to invoke an environment. We discuss how our new approach relates to the open system analysis of quantum measurements and to thermalization studies in closed quantum systems.
Dynamical Universal Behavior in Quantum Chaotic Systems
Xiong, Hongwei; Biao WU
2010-01-01
We discover numerically that a moving wave packet in a quantum chaotic billiard will always evolve into a quantum state, whose density probability distribution is exponential. This exponential distribution is found to be universal for quantum chaotic systems with rigorous proof. In contrast, for the corresponding classical system, the distribution is Gaussian. We find that the quantum exponential distribution can smoothly change to the classical Gaussian distribution with co...
Quantum chaos and level distribution law in a quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work consists in considering the links between the quantum system motion integrals and the law of its levels distribution. The relation between the properties of the quantum system energy levels distribution and its regularity or chaos is considered. It is shown, that the Wigner distribution may as an example of the quality indication of the system chaos. However, the deviation of the distribution law from the Wigner one is not obligatorily connected with the system regularity
QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL CORRELATIONS IN GAUSSIAN OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurelian ISAR
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum correlations (quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We solve the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for the time evolution of the considered system and describe the entanglement and discord in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression takes place for all temperatures of the environment, including zero temperature. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that it decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath. This is in contrast with the sudden death of entanglement. Before the suppression of the entanglement, the qualitative evolution of quantum discord is very similar to that of the entanglement. We describe also the time evolution of the degree of classical correlations and of quantum mutual information, which measures the total correlations of the quantum system.
Maxwell's demons in multipartite quantum correlated systems
Braga, Helena C.; Rulli, Clodoaldo C.; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2014-10-01
We investigate the extraction of thermodynamic work by a Maxwell's demon in a multipartite quantum correlated system. We begin by adopting the standard model of a Maxwell's demon as a Turing machine, either in a classical or quantum setup depending on its ability to implement classical or quantum conditional dynamics. Then, for an n -partite system (A1,A2,⋯,An) , we introduce a protocol of work extraction that bounds the advantage of the quantum demon over its classical counterpart through the amount of multipartite quantum correlation present in the system, as measured by a thermal version of the global quantum discord. This result is illustrated for an arbitrary n -partite pure state of qubits with Schmidt decomposition, where it is shown that the thermal global quantum discord exactly quantifies the quantum advantage. Moreover, we also consider the work extraction via mixed multipartite states, where examples of tight upper bounds can be obtained.
Could nanostructure be unspeakable quantum system?
Aristov, V V
2010-01-01
Heisenberg, Bohr and others were forced to renounce on the description of the objective reality as the aim of physics because of the paradoxical quantum phenomena observed on the atomic level. The contemporary quantum mechanics created on the base of their positivism point of view must divide the world into speakable apparatus which amplifies microscopic events to macroscopic consequences and unspeakable quantum system. Examination of the quantum phenomena corroborates the confidence expressed by creators of quantum theory that the renunciation of realism should not apply on our everyday macroscopic world. Nanostructures may be considered for the present as a boundary of realistic description for all phenomena including the quantum one.
Optimal Control for Open Quantum Systems: Qubits and Quantum Gates
Roloff, Robert; Pötz, Walter
2009-01-01
This article provides a review of recent developments in the formulation and execution of optimal control strategies for the dynamics of quantum systems. A brief introduction to the concept of optimal control, the dynamics of of open quantum systems, and quantum information processing is followed by a presentation of recent developments regarding the two main tasks in this context: state-specific and state-independent optimal control. For the former, we present an extension of conventional theory (Pontryagin's principle) to quantum systems which undergo a non-Markovian time-evolution. Owing to its importance for the realization of quantum information processing, the main body of the review, however, is devoted to state-independent optimal control. Here, we address three different approaches: an approach which treats dissipative effects from the environment in lowest-order perturbation theory, a general method based on the time--evolution superoperator concept, as well as one based on the Kraus representation ...
Classical equations for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that decohere, which means that there is negligible quantum interference between the individual histories in the set. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e., such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models
Could nanostructure be unspeakable quantum system?
Aristov, V. V.; Nikulov, A. V.
2010-01-01
Heisenberg, Bohr and others were forced to renounce on the description of the objective reality as the aim of physics because of the paradoxical quantum phenomena observed on the atomic level. The contemporary quantum mechanics created on the base of their positivism point of view must divide the world into speakable apparatus which amplifies microscopic events to macroscopic consequences and unspeakable quantum system. Examination of the quantum phenomena corroborates the c...
On Realization Theory of Quantum Linear Systems
Gough, John E.; Zhang, Guofeng
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the realization theory of quantum linear systems. It is shown that for a general quantum linear system its controllability and observability are equivalent and they can be checked by means of a simple matrix rank condition. Based on controllability and observability a specific realization is proposed for general quantum linear systems in which an uncontrollable and unobservable subspace is identified. When restricted to the passive case,...
Classical and quantum dissipative systems
Razavy, Mohsen
2006-01-01
This book discusses issues associated with the quantum mechanical formulation of dissipative systems. It begins with an introductory review of phenomenological damping forces, and the construction of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for the damped motion. It is shown, in addition to these methods, that classical dissipative forces can also be derived from solvable many-body problems. A detailed discussion of these derived forces and their dependence on dynamical variables is also presented. The second part of this book investigates the use of classical formulation in the quantization of dynamica
Quantum Friction: Cooling Quantum Systems with Unitary Time Evolution
Bulgac, Aurel; Roche, Kenneth J; Wlaz?owski, Gabriel
2013-01-01
We introduce a type of quantum dissipation -- local quantum friction -- by adding to the Hamiltonian a local potential that breaks time-reversal invariance so as to cool the system. Unlike the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation, local quantum friction directly effects unitary evolution of the wavefunctions rather than the density matrix: it may thus be used to cool fermionic many-body systems with thousands of wavefunctions that must remain orthogonal. In addition to providing an efficient way to simulate quantum dissipation and non-equilibrium dynamics, local quantum friction coupled with adiabatic state preparation significantly speeds up many-body simulations, making the solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation significantly simpler than the solution of its stationary counterpart.
Adiabatic quantum metrology with strongly correlated quantum optical systems
Ivanov, P. A.; Porras, D.
2013-08-01
We show that the quasiadiabatic evolution of a system governed by the Dicke Hamiltonian can be described in terms of a self-induced quantum many-body metrological protocol. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the ground state to a small symmetry-breaking perturbation at the quantum phase transition, which leads to the collapse of the wave function into one of two possible ground states. The scaling of the final-state properties with the number of atoms and with the intensity of the symmetry-breaking field can be interpreted in terms of the precession time of an effective quantum metrological protocol. We show that our ideas can be tested with spin-phonon interactions in trapped ion setups. Our work points to a classification of quantum phase transitions in terms of the capability of many-body quantum systems for parameter estimation.
Quantum Transport from the Perspective of Quantum Open Systems
Cui, Ping; Li, Xin-Qi; Shao, Jiushu; Yan, Yijing
2005-01-01
By viewing the non-equilibrium transport setup as a quantum open system, we propose a reduced-density-matrix based quantum transport formalism. At the level of self-consistent Born approximation, it can precisely account for the correlation between tunneling and the system internal many-body interaction, leading to certain novel behavior such as the non-equilibrium Kondo effect. It also opens a new way to construct time-dependent density functional theory for transport throu...
Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions
Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael
2010-01-01
In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...
The Quantum Mechanics of Closed Systems
Hartle, J B
1992-01-01
A pedagogical introduction is given to the quantum mechanics of closed systems, most generally the universe as a whole. Quantum mechanics aims at predicting the probabilities of alternative coarse-grained time histories of a closed system. Not every set of alternative coarse-grained histories that can be described may be consistently assigned probabilities because of quantum mechanical interference between individual histories of the set. In the quantum mechanics of closed systems, containing both observer and observed, probabilities are assigned to those sets of alternative histories for which there is negligible interference between individual histories as a consequence of the system's initial condition and dynamics. Such sets of histories are said to decohere. Typical mechanisms of decoherence that are widespread in our universe are illustrated. Copenhagen quantum mechanics is an approximation to the more general quantum framework of closed subsystems. It is appropriate when there is an approximately isola...
Chaos and Quantum Chaos in Nuclear Systems
Salasnich, Luca
1995-01-01
The presence of chaos and quantum chaos is shown in two different nuclear systems. We analyze the chaotic behaviour of the classical SU(2) Yang--Mills--Higgs system, and then we study quantum chaos in the nuclear shell model calculating the spectral statistics of $A=46$--$50$ atomic nuclei.
Hydrodynamics for quasi-free quantum systems
Maes, Christian; Spitzer, Wolfgang
1998-01-01
We consider quasi-free quantum systems and we derive the Euler equation using the so-called hydrodynamic limit. We use Wigner's well-known distribution function and discuss an extension to band distribution functions for particles in a periodic potential. We investigate the Bosonic system of hard rods and calculate fluctuations of the density. Keywords: Euler equation, quantum distribution function, hydrodynamic limit
Quantum field theory of relic nonequilibrium systems
Underwood, Nicolas G
2014-01-01
In terms of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, we develop field-theoretical models of quantum nonequilibrium systems which could exist today as relics from the very early universe. We consider relic excited states generated by inflaton decay, as well as relic vacuum modes, for particle species that decoupled close to the Planck temperature. Simple estimates suggest that, at least in principle, quantum nonequilibrium could survive to the present day for some relic systems. The main focus of this paper is to describe the behaviour of such systems in terms of field theory, with the aim of understanding how relic quantum nonequilibrium might manifest experimentally. We show by explicit calculation that simple perturbative couplings will transfer quantum nonequilibrium from one field to another (for example from the inflaton field to its decay products). We also show that fields in a state of quantum nonequilibrium will generate anomalous spectra for standard energy measurements. Possibl...
Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems
Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"
2007-01-01
The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...
Joint system quantum descriptions arising from local quantumness
Cooney, Tom; Navascues, Miguel; Perez-Garcia, David; Villanueva, Ignacio
2012-01-01
Bipartite correlations generated by non-signalling physical systems that admit a finite-dimensional local quantum description cannot exceed the quantum limits, i.e., they can always be interpreted as distant measurements of a bipartite quantum state. Here we consider the effect of dropping the assumption of finite dimensionality. Remarkably, we find that the same result holds provided that we relax the tensor structure of space-like separated measurements to mere commutativity. We argue why an extension of this result to tensor representations seems unlikely.
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1993-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Mixing and entropy increase in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper attempts to explain the key feature of deterministic chaotic classical systems and how they can be translated to quantum systems. To do so we develop the appropriate algebraic language for the non-specialist. 22 refs. (Author)
Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron–electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes. (comment)
Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems
Akulin, Vladimir M
2006-01-01
A large number of modern problems in physics, chemistry, and quantum electronics require a consideration of population dynamics in complex multilevel quantum systems. The purpose of this book is to provide a systematic treatment of these questions and to present a number of exactly solvable problems. It considers the different dynamical problems frequently encountered in different areas of physics from the same perspective, based mainly on the fundamental ideas of group theory and on the idea of ensemble average. Also treated are concepts of complete quantum control and correction of decoherence induced errors that are complementary to the idea of ensemble average. "Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems" is aimed at senior-level undergraduate students in the areas of Atomic, Molecular, and Laser Physics, Physical Chemistry, Quantum Optics and Quantum Informatics. It should help them put particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby take advantage of the well-elabora...
Quantum chaos in generic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First I briefly review the basic elements of the stationary quantum chaos in Hamiltonian systems, the universality classes of energy spectra and eigenfunctions. Then I consider the problem of the generic systems whose classical dynamics and the phase portrait is of the mixed type, i.e. regular for certain initial conditions and irregular (chaotic) for other initial conditions. I present the Berry-Robnik picture, the Principle of Uniform Semiclassical Condensation (of the Wigner functions of the eigenstates), and the statistical description of the energy spectra in terms of E(k,L) statistics, which is shown to be valid in the semiclassical limit of sufficiently small effective Planck constant and is numerically firmly confirmed. Then I consider the spectral autocorrelation function and the form factor (its Fourier transform) in the same limit, and show its agreement with the numerical investigations in the regular and fully chaotic cases. I show the numerical evidence for the deviations from that prediction in mixed type systems at low energies, due to localization and tunneling effects. Here are also the important open theoretical questions that I address. (author)
Quantum Transport from the Perspective of Quantum Open Systems
Cui, P; Shao, J; Yan, Y J; Cui, Ping; Li, Xin-Qi; Shao, Jiushu; Yan, YiJing
2005-01-01
By viewing the non-equilibrium transport setup as a quantum open system, we propose a reduced-density-matrix based quantum transport formalism. At the level of self-consistent Born approximation, it can precisely account for the correlation between tunneling and the system internal many-body interaction, leading to certain novel behavior such as the non-equilibrium Kondo effect. It also opens a new way to construct time-dependent density functional theory for transport through large-scale complex systems.
An Axiomatic System Suggested by Quantum Computation
LEPORINI, ROBERTO; BERTINI, CESARINO
2009-01-01
The theory of logical gates in quantum computation has suggested new forms of quantum logic, called quantum computational logics. The basic semantic idea is the following: the meaning of a sentence is identified with a quregister (a system of qubits in a pure state) or, more generally, with a mixture of quregisters (called qumix). Following an approach proposed by Domenech and Freytes, we apply residuated structures associated with fuzzy logic to develop certain aspects of information process...
Classical approaches to quantum dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum dynamical systems are often investigated by classical or semi-classical approaches. Classical methods are applied when a full quantum mechanical treatment is not feasible. They allow to work in the framework of familiar classical concepts and to investigate the quantum-to-classical transition However, the limits of classical approaches to quantum dynamical systems are often not very well understood. In our contribution, we investigate the validity and the limits of the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method by comparing the dynamics of non-interacting classical particles under the evolution of the Liouville equation with the quantum dynamics in phase space under the quantum Liouville equation. Our results allow us to estimate in which setups quantum effects become non-negligible. We show that a modified classical trajectory Monte Carlo method becomes equivalent to the actual quantum dynamics in the limit that all forces are harmonic. This method allows us to study time-dependent processes in driven many particle quantum systems with harmonic interactions.
Dynamical systems where time is a quantum group and quantum ergodicity
Kozyrev, S. V.
2003-01-01
We define dynamical systems where time is a quantum group. We give the definition of quantum ergodicity for the introduced dynamical system with noncommutative (or quantum) time, and discuss the examples.
Quantum discord for a two-parameter class of states in $2 \\otimes d$ quantum systems
Ali, Mazhar
2010-01-01
Quantum discord witnesses the nonclassicality of quantum states even when there is no entanglement in these quantum states. This type of quantum correlation also has some interesting and significant applications in quantum information processing. Quantum discord has been evaluated explicitly only for certain class of two-qubit states. We extend the previous studies to $2 \\otimes d$ quantum systems and derive an analytical expression for quantum discord for a two-parameter cl...
Sliding mode control of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a new robust control method for quantum systems with uncertainties involving sliding mode control (SMC). SMC is a widely used approach in classical control theory and industrial applications. We show that SMC is also a useful method for robust control of quantum systems. In this paper, we define two specific classes of sliding modes (i.e. eigenstates and state subspaces) and propose two novel methods combining unitary control and periodic projective measurements for the design of quantum SMC systems. Two examples including a two-level system and a three-level system are presented to demonstrate the proposed SMC method. One of the main features of the proposed method is that the designed control laws can guarantee the desired control performance in the presence of uncertainties in the system Hamiltonian. This SMC approach provides a useful control theoretic tool for robust quantum information processing with uncertainties.
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered
Spin in fractional quantum Hall system.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Výborný, Karel
2007-01-01
Ro?. 16, ?. 2 (2007), s. 87-165. ISSN 0003-3804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : fractional quantum Hall systems * quantum Hall ferromagnets * magnetic inhomegeneities Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.485, year: 2007
Quantum Dynamical Entropy of Spin Systems
Miyadera, Takayuki; Ohya, Masanori
2003-01-01
We investigate a quantum dynamical entropy of one-dimesional quantum spin systems. We show that the dynamical entropy is bounded from above by a quantity which is related with group velocity determined by the interaction and mean entropy of the state.
Quantum discord from system–environment correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In an initially uncorrelated mixed separable bi-partite system, quantum correlations can emerge under the action of a local measurement or local noise [1]. We analyse this counter-intuitive phenomenon using quantum discord as a quantifier. We then relate changes in quantum discord to system–environment correlations between the system in a mixed state and some purifying environmental mode using the Koashi–Winter inequality. On this basis, we suggest an interpretation of discord as a byproduct of transferring entanglement and correlations around the different subsystems of a global pure state. (paper)
Quantum Simulation for Open-System Dynamics
Wang, Dong-Sheng; de Oliveira, Marcos Cesar; Berry, Dominic; Sanders, Barry
2013-03-01
Simulations are essential for predicting and explaining properties of physical and mathematical systems yet so far have been restricted to classical and closed quantum systems. Although forays have been made into open-system quantum simulation, the strict algorithmic aspect has not been explored yet is necessary to account fully for resource consumption to deliver bounded-error answers to computational questions. An open-system quantum simulator would encompass classical and closed-system simulation and also solve outstanding problems concerning, e.g. dynamical phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems, establishing long-range order via dissipation, verifying the simulatability of open-system dynamics on a quantum Turing machine. We construct an efficient autonomous algorithm for designing an efficient quantum circuit to simulate many-body open-system dynamics described by a local Hamiltonian plus decoherence due to separate baths for each particle. The execution time and number of gates for the quantum simulator both scale polynomially with the system size. DSW funded by USARO. MCO funded by AITF and Brazilian agencies CNPq and FAPESP through Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia-Informacao Quantica (INCT-IQ). DWB funded by ARC Future Fellowship (FT100100761). BCS funded by AITF, CIFAR, NSERC and USARO.
Avoiding irreversible dynamics in quantum systems
Karasik, Raisa Iosifovna
2009-10-01
Devices that exploit laws of quantum physics offer revolutionary advances in computation and communication. However, building such devices presents an enormous challenge, since it would require technologies that go far beyond current capabilities. One of the main obstacles to building a quantum computer and devices needed for quantum communication is decoherence or noise that originates from the interaction between a quantum system and its environment, and which leads to the destruction of the fragile quantum information. Encoding into decoherence-free subspaces (DFS) provides an important strategy for combating decoherence effects in quantum systems and constitutes the focus of my dissertation. The theory of DFS relies on the existence of certain symmetries in the decoherence process, which allow some states of a quantum system to be completely decoupled from the environment and thus to experience no decoherence. In this thesis I describe various approaches to DFS that are developed in the current literature. Although the general idea behind various approaches to DFS is the same, I show that different mathematical definitions of DFS actually have different physical meaning. I provide a rigorous definition of DFS for every approach, explaining its physical meaning and relation to other definitions. I also examine the theory of DFS for Markovian systems. These are systems for which the environment has no memory, i.e., any change in the environment affects the quantum system instantaneously. Examples of such systems include many systems in quantum optics that have been proposed for implementation of a quantum computer, such as atomic and molecular gases, trapped ions, and quantum dots. Here I develop a rigorous theory that provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of DFS. This theory allows us to identify a special new class of DFS that was not known before. Under particular circumstances, dynamics of a quantum system can connive together with the interactions between the system and its environment in a special way to reduce decoherence. This property is used to discover new DFS that rely on rather counterintuitive phenomenon, which I call an "incoherent generation of coherences." I also provide examples of physical systems that support such states. These DFS can be used to suppress & coherence, but may not be sufficient for performing full quantum computation. I also explore the possibility of physically generating the DFS that are useful for quantum computation. For quantum computation we need to preserve at least two quantum states to encode the quantum analogue of classical bits. Here I aim to generate DFS in a system composed from a large collection of atoms or molecules and I need to determine how one should position atoms or molecules in 3D space so that the overall system possesses a DFS with at least two states (i.e., non-trivial DFS). I show that for many Markovian systems, non-trivial DFS can exist only when particles are located in exactly the same position in space. This, of course, is not possible in the real world. For these systems, I also show that states in DFS are states with infinite lifetime. However, for all practical applications we just need long-lived states. Thus in reality, we do just need to bring quantum particles close together to generate an imperfect DFS, i.e. a collection of long-lived states. This can be achieved, for example, for atoms within a single molecule.
System Design for a Long-Line Quantum Repeater
van Meter, Rodney; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Munro, W. J.; Nemoto, Kae
2007-01-01
We present a new control algorithm and system design for a network of quantum repeaters, and outline the end-to-end protocol architecture. Such a network will create long-distance quantum states, supporting quantum key distribution as well as distributed quantum computation. Quantum repeaters improve the reduction of quantum-communication throughput with distance from exponential to polynomial. Because a quantum state cannot be copied, a quantum repeater is not a signal ampl...
Classical and Quantum Discrete Dynamical Systems
Kornyak, Vladimir V
2013-01-01
We study deterministic and quantum dynamics from a constructive "finite" point of view, since the introduction of a continuum, or other actual infinities in physics poses serious conceptual and technical difficulties, without any need for these concepts to physics as an empirical science. For a consistent description of the symmetries of dynamical systems at different times and the symmetries of the various parts of such systems, we introduce discrete analogs of the gauge connections. Gauge structures are particularly important to describe the quantum behavior. We show that quantum behavior is the result of a fundamental inability to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in the process of evolution. Information is available only on invariant statements and values, relating to such objects. Using mathematical arguments of a general nature we can show that any quantum dynamics can be reduced to a sequence of permutations. Quantum interferences occur in the invariant subspaces of permutation representa...
Coarse-grained quantum systems and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constrained Hamiltonian dynamics is exploited to provide the mathematical framework of a coarse-grained description of the quantum system of two interacting qubits and of nonlinear interacting oscillators. The coarse-graining is treated as an equivalence relation on the set of quantum states resulting in the emergence of the classical phase-space. The equivalence relation imposes constraints on the Hamiltonian dynamics of the quantum system. It is seen that the evolution of the coarse-grained system preserves constant and minimal quantum fluctuations of the fundamental observables. This leads to the emergence of typical classical properties, like the relation between symmetry and integrability, and in the case of oscillators in the macro-limit implies the emergence of the classical system.
Electrons at the surface of quantum systems
Leiderer, Paul
1992-01-01
Electrons can be trapped at the surfaces and interfaces of the condensed phases of quantum matter (in particular hydrogen and helium), where they form classical two-dimensional Coulomb systems. Apart from studying the intrinsic properties of these nearly ideal systems, like the transition from an electron gas to a Wigner solid, one can use the electrons also as a sensitive probe to investigate the surface of quantum liquids and solids. The examples presented here include the surface of solid ...
Aberration-corrected quantum temporal imaging system
Zhu, Yunhui; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J
2013-01-01
We describe the design of a temporal imaging system that simultaneously reshapes the temporal profile and converts the frequency of a photonic wavepacket, while preserving its quantum state. A field lens, which imparts a temporal quadratic phase modulation, is used to correct for the residual phase caused by field curvature in the image, thus enabling temporal imaging for phase-sensitive quantum applications. We show how this system can be used for temporal imaging of time-b...
Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems
Sandvik, Anders. W.
2011-01-01
These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer impl...
Adiabatic quantum metrology with strongly correlated quantum optical systems
Ivanov, P. A.; Porras, D.
2013-01-01
We show that the quasi-adiabatic evolution of a system governed by the Dicke Hamiltonian can be described in terms of a self-induced quantum many-body metrological protocol. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the ground state to a small symmetry-breaking perturbation at the quantum phase transition, that leads to the collapse of the wavefunciton into one of two possible ground states. The scaling of the final state properties with the number of atoms and with the inten...
CIME School on Quantum Many Body Systems
Rivasseau, Vincent; Solovej, Jan Philip; Spencer, Thomas
2012-01-01
The book is based on the lectures given at the CIME school "Quantum many body systems" held in the summer of 2010. It provides a tutorial introduction to recent advances in the mathematics of interacting systems, written by four leading experts in the field: V. Rivasseau illustrates the applications of constructive Quantum Field Theory to 2D interacting electrons and their relation to quantum gravity; R. Seiringer describes a proof of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gross-Pitaevski limit and explains the effects of rotating traps and the emergence of lattices of quantized vortices; J.-P. Solovej gives an introduction to the theory of quantum Coulomb systems and to the functional analytic methods used to prove their thermodynamic stability; finally, T. Spencer explains the supersymmetric approach to Anderson localization and its relation to the theory of random matrices. All the lectures are characterized by their mathematical rigor combined with physical insights.
Superconducting circuitry for quantum electromechanical systems
LaHaye, Matthew D.; Rouxinol, Francisco; Hao, Yu; Shim, Seung-Bo; Irish, Elinor K.
2015-05-01
Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and e orts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.
Kalaga, J. K.; Leo?ski, W.; Kowalewska-Kud?aszyk, A.
2014-12-01
A model of a nonlinear, damped kicked oscillator is discussed. For such a model intra-mode correlations described by mutual information parameter I[?] based on the Wehrl entropy are considered. Furthermore, the system's quantum evolution is compared to its classical counterpart. The mutual information parameter is discussed as a proposal for quantum chaos' witness.
Bogolyubov kinetic equation for quantum dynamic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Weil representation of quantum-mechanic dynamic variables of the system is considered. At the very first stage of the problem solution the authors pass on to Weil symbols of the corresponding variables in the von Neuman equation. This gives the possibility of deriving opportune for investigation concrete systems of kinetic equations and permits to develop a consecutive approach to plotting of a closed kinetic equation for a case of a weak interaction of classical dynamic systems for a quantum case separating to the possible extent variables of the great and small systems in the equation
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
Wang, W; Yi, X X
2009-01-01
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum system. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum systems. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on the quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of the quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Open quantum systems far from equilibrium
Schaller, Gernot
2014-01-01
This monograph provides graduate students and also professional researchers aiming to understand the dynamics of open quantum systems with a valuable and self-contained toolbox. Special focus is laid on the link between microscopic models and the resulting open-system dynamics. This includes how to derive the celebrated Lindblad master equation without applying the rotating wave approximation. As typical representatives for non-equilibrium configurations it treats systems coupled to multiple reservoirs (including the description of quantum transport), driven systems, and feedback-controlled quantum systems. Each method is illustrated with easy-to-follow examples from recent research. Exercises and short summaries at the end of every chapter enable the reader to approach the frontiers of current research quickly and make the book useful for quick reference.
Quantum optical properties in plasmonic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ooi, C. H. Raymond [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-04-24
Plasmonic metallic particle (MP) can affect the optical properties of a quantum system (QS) in a remarkable way. We develop a general quantum nonlinear formalism with exact vectorial description for the scattered photons by the QS. The formalism enables us to study the variations of the dielectric function and photon spectrum of the QS with the particle distance between QS and MP, exciting laser direction, polarization and phase in the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the MP. The quantum formalism also serves as a powerful tool for studying the effects of these parameters on the nonclassical properties of the scattered photons. The plasmonic effect of nanoparticles has promising possibilities as it provides a new way for manipulating quantum optical properties of light in nanophotonic systems.
Levitated Quantum Nano-Magneto-Mechanical Systems
Cirio, Mauro; Twamley, Jason; Brennen, Gavin K.; Milburn, Gerard J.
2011-03-01
Quantum nanomechanical sysems have attracted much attention as they provide new macroscopic platforms for the study of quantum mechanics but may also have applications in ultra-sensitive sensing, high precision measurements and in quantum computing. In this work we study the control and cooling of a quantum nanomechanical system which is magnetically levitated via the Meissner effect. Supercurrents in nano-sized superconducting loops give rise to a motional restoring force (trap), when placed in an highly inhomogenous magnetic field and can yield complete trapping of all translational and rotational motions of the levitated nano-object with motional oscillation frequencies ? ~ 10 - 100 MHz. As the supercurrents experience little damping this system will possess unprecendented motional quality factors, with Qmotion ~109 -1013 , and motional superposition states may remain coherent for days. We describe how to execute sideband cooling through inductive coupling to a nearby flux qubit, cooling the mechanical motion close to the ground state.
Pairing in the quantum Hall system
Ahn, Kang-Hun; Chang, K J
1997-01-01
We find an analogy between the single skyrmion state in the quantum Hall system and the BCS superconducting state and address that the quantum mechanical origin of the skyrmion is electronic pairing. The skyrmion phase is found to be unstable for magnetic fields above the critical field $B_{c}(T)$ at temperature $T$, which is well represented by the relation $B_c(T)/B_{c}(0) \\approx {[1-(T/T_c)^3]}^{1/2}$.
Quantum phase transitions in electronic systems
Kirkpatrick, T. R.; Belitz, D.
1997-01-01
Zero-temperature or quantum phase transitions in itinerant electronic systems both with and without quenched disordered are discussed. Phase transitions considered include, the ferromagnetic transition, the antiferromagnetic transition, the superconductor-metal transition, and various metal-insulator transitions. Emphasis is placed on how to determine the universal properties that characterize these quantum phase transitions. For the first three of the phase transitions list...
Quantum field theory of relic nonequilibrium systems
Underwood, Nicolas G.; Valentini, Antony
2015-09-01
In terms of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, we develop field-theoretical models of quantum nonequilibrium systems which could exist today as relics from the very early Universe. We consider relic excited states generated by inflaton decay, as well as relic vacuum modes, for particle species that decoupled close to the Planck temperature. Simple estimates suggest that, at least in principle, quantum nonequilibrium could survive to the present day for some relic systems. The main focus of this paper is to describe the behavior of such systems in terms of field theory, with the aim of understanding how relic quantum nonequilibrium might manifest experimentally. We show by explicit calculation that simple perturbative couplings will transfer quantum nonequilibrium from one field to another (for example from the inflaton field to its decay products). We also show that fields in a state of quantum nonequilibrium will generate anomalous spectra for standard energy measurements. Possible connections to current astrophysical observations are briefly addressed.
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vourdas, A [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)
2004-03-01
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space are considered, and phase-space methods like the Heisenberg-Weyl group, symplectic transformations and Wigner and Weyl functions are discussed. A factorization of such systems in terms of smaller subsystems, based on the Chinese remainder theorem, is studied. The general formalism is applied to the case of angular momentum. In this context, SU(2) coherent states are used for analytic representations. Links between the theory of finite quantum systems and other fields of research are discussed.
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space are considered, and phase-space methods like the Heisenberg-Weyl group, symplectic transformations and Wigner and Weyl functions are discussed. A factorization of such systems in terms of smaller subsystems, based on the Chinese remainder theorem, is studied. The general formalism is applied to the case of angular momentum. In this context, SU(2) coherent states are used for analytic representations. Links between the theory of finite quantum systems and other fields of research are discussed
Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.
Quantum mechanics in general quantum systems (I): Exact solution
Wang, An Min
2006-01-01
Starting from our idea of combining the Feynman path integral spirit and the Dyson series kernel, we find an explicit and general form of time evolution operator that is a $c$-number function and a power series of perturbation including all order approximations in the unperturbed Hamiltonian representation. Based on it, we obtain an exact solution of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation in general quantum systems independent of time. Comparison of our exact solution with the existed...
Recent advances in quantum integrable systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amico, L.; Belavin, A.; Buffenoir, E.; Castro Alvaredo, A.; Caudrelier, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Corrig, E.; Crampe, N.; Deguchi, T.; Dobrev, V.K.; Doikou, A.; Doyon, B.; Feher, L.; Fioravanti, D.; Gohmann, F.; Hallnas, M.; Jimbo, M.; Konno, N.C.H.; Korchemsky, G.; Kulish, P.; Lassalle, M.; Maillet, J.M.; McCoy, B.; Mintchev, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Quano, F.Y.Z.; Ragnisco, R.; Ravanini, F.; Rittenberg, V.; Rivasseau, V.; Rossi, M.; Satta, G.; Sedrakyan, T.; Shiraishi, J.; Suzuki, N.C.J.; Yamada, Y.; Zamolodchikov, A.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Posta, S.; Sedra, M.B.; Zuevskiy, A.; Gohmann, F
2005-07-01
This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies.
Recent advances in quantum integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This meeting was dedicated to different aspects of the theory of quantum integrable systems. The organizers have intended to concentrate on topics related to the study of correlation functions, to systems with boundaries and to models at roots of unity. This document gathers the abstracts of 32 contributions, most of the contributions are accompanied by the set of transparencies
Cavity-Enhanced Two-Photon Interference using Remote Quantum Dot Sources
Giesz, V; Grange, T; Antón, C; De Santis, L; Demory, J; Somaschi, N; Sagnes, I; Lemaître, A; Lanco, L; Auffeves, A; Senellart, P
2015-01-01
The generation of indistinguishable photons from a solid-state emitter like a semiconductor quantum dot is often limited by dephasing processes. It is known that accelerating the spontaneous emission of the quantum dot can greatly improve the indistinguishability of successively emitted photons. Here we show that cavity quantum electrodynamics can also efficiently improve the quantum interference between remote quantum dot sources. The quantum interference of photons emitted by two separate quantum dot-cavity devices is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Controlling the spontaneous emission on one source is shown to efficiently overcome the detrimental effect of pure dephasing on the other one. Our experimental observations and calculations demonstrate that cavity quantum electrodynamics is a powerful tool for the scalability of a quantum dot-based quantum network.
Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems
Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco; 10.1038/srep00885
2012-01-01
Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent "quantumness" still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two "quantum witnesses" to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems.
Nonequilibrium Quantum Systems: Fluctuations and Interactions
Subasi, Yigit
We explore some aspects of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems. Two chapters are devoted to fluctuation theorems which were originally derived for classical systems. The main challenge in formulating them in quantum mechanics is the fact that fundamental quantities of interest, like work, are defined via the classical concept of a phase space trajectory. We utilize the decoherent histories conceptual framework, in which classical trajectories emerge in quantum mechanics as a result of coarse graining, and provide a first-principles analysis of the nonequilibrium work relation of Jarzynski and Crooks's fluctuation theorem for a quantum system interacting with a general environment based on the quantum Brownian motion (QBM) model. We indicate a parameter range at low temperatures where the theorems might fail in their original form. Fluctuation theorems of Jarzynski and Crooks for systems obeying classical Hamiltonian dynamics are derived under the assumption that the initial conditions are sampled from a canonical ensemble, even though the equilibrium state of an isolated system is typically associated with the microcanonical ensemble. We address this issue through an exact analysis of the classical Brownian motion model. We argue that a stronger form of ensemble equivalence than usually discussed in equilibrium statistical mechanics is required for these theorems to hold in the infinite environment limit irrespective of the ensemble used, and proceed to prove it for this model. An exact expression for the probability distribution of work is obtained for finite environments. Intuitively one expects a system to relax to an equilibrium state when brought into contact with a thermal environment. Yet it is important to have rigorous results that provide conditions for equilibration and characterize the equilibrium state. We consider the dynamics of open quantum systems using the Langevin and master equations and rigorously show that under fairly general conditions quantum systems interacting with a heat bath relax to the equilibrium state defined as the reduced thermal state of the system plus environment, even in the strong coupling regime. Our proof is valid to second-order in interaction strength for general systems and exact for the linear QBM model, for which we also show the equivalence of multi-time correlations. In the final chapter we give a sampling of our investigations into macroscopic quantum phenomena. We work out in detail a specific example of how and under what conditions the center of mass (CoM) coordinate of a macroscopic object emerges as the relevant degree of freedom. Interaction patterns are studied in terms of the couplings they induce between the CoM and relative coordinates of two macroscopic objects. We discuss the implications of these interaction patterns on macroscopic entanglement.
Quantum games in open systems using biophysical Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the necessary physical conditions to model an open quantum system as a quantum game. By applying the formalism of quantum operations on a particular system, we use Kraus operators as quantum strategies. The physical interpretation is a conflict among different configurations of the environment. The resolution of the conflict displays regimes of minimum loss of information
Quantum games in open systems using biophysical Hamiltonians
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faber, Jean [National Laboratory of Scientific Computing (LNCC), Av. Getulio Vargas 333, Quitandinha 25651-075, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: faber@lncc.br; Portugal, Renato [National Laboratory of Scientific Computing (LNCC), Av. Getulio Vargas 333, Quitandinha 25651-075, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: portugal@lncc.br; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lpr@adc.coppe.ufrj.br
2006-09-25
We analyze the necessary physical conditions to model an open quantum system as a quantum game. By applying the formalism of quantum operations on a particular system, we use Kraus operators as quantum strategies. The physical interpretation is a conflict among different configurations of the environment. The resolution of the conflict displays regimes of minimum loss of information.
On the velocity of moving relativistic unstable quantum systems
Urbanowski, K
2015-01-01
We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of moving freely relativistic quantum unstable systems can not be constant in time. We show that this effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: It is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not definite.
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Yu, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au; Miao, Zibo, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Amini, Hadis, E-mail: nhamini@stanford.edu [Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Gough, John, E-mail: jug@aber.ac.uk [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, SY23 3BZ Wales (United Kingdom); Ugrinovskii, Valery, E-mail: v.ugrinovskii@gmail.com [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales at ADFA, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); James, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.james@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2014-06-15
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.
Quantum spin glass in anisotropic dipolar systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schechter, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Stamp, P C E [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Laflorencie, N [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)
2007-04-11
The spin-glass phase in the LiHo{sub x}Y{sub 1-x}F{sub 4} compound is considered. At zero transverse field this system is well described by the classical Ising model. At finite transverse field deviations from the transverse field quantum Ising model are significant, and one must take properly into account the hyperfine interactions, the off-diagonal terms in the dipolar interactions, and details of the full J = 8 spin Hamiltonian to obtain the correct physical picture. In particular, the system is not a spin glass at finite transverse fields and does not show quantum criticality.
Duality of a quantum competing system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have constructed a theory of dual canonical formalism to study the quantum competing systems. In such a system, as the relationship between current and voltage of each, we assumed the duality condition. We considered competing systems of two types. One type is composed of a sandwich structure with a superconductor (SC)/superinsulator (SI)/SC junction, and its dual junction consists of a sandwich structure formed by the SI/SC/SI junction. The other type of system consists of a sandwich structure formed by the SC/FM (ferromagnet)/SC junction, and its dual junction consists of a sandwich structure formed by the FM/SC/FM junction (spin Josephson junctions). We derived the relationship between the phase and the number of particles in a dual system. As an application of the dual competitive systems, we introduce a quantum spin transistor.
Study of Classical and Quantum Open Systems
Kong, Lee Chee
2010-01-01
This thesis covers various aspects of open systems in classical and quantum mechanics. In the first part, we deal with classical systems. The bath-of-oscillators formalism is used to describe an open system, and the phenomenological Langevin equation is recovered. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived from its corresponding Langevin equation. The Fokker-Planck equation for a particle in a periodic potential in the high-friction limit is solved using the continued-fraction me...
Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium
Kasztelan, Christian
2010-01-01
The main topic of this thesis is the study of many-body effects in strongly correlated one- or quasi one-dimensional condensed matter systems. These systems are characterized by strong quantum and thermal fluctuations, which make mean-field methods fail and demand for a fully numerical approach. Fortunately, a numerical method exist, which allows to treat unusually large one -dimensional system at very high precision. This method is the density-matrix renormalization group method (DMRG), in...
Current in open quantum systems
Gebauer, R; Gebauer, Ralph; Car, Roberto
2004-01-01
We show that a dissipative current component is present in the dynamics generated by a Liouville-master equation, in addition to the usual component associated with Hamiltonian evolution. The dissipative component originates from coarse graining in time, implicit in a master equation, and needs to be included to preserve current continuity. We derive an explicit expression for the dissipative current in the context of the Markov approximation. Finally, we illustrate our approach with a simple numerical example, in which a quantum particle is coupled to a harmonic phonon bath and dissipation is described by the Pauli master equation.
Lyapunov Control of Quantum Systems with Impulsive Control Fields
Wei Yang; Jitao Sun
2013-01-01
We investigate the Lyapunov control of finite-dimensional quantum systems with impulsive control fields, where the studied quantum systems are governed by the Schrödinger equation. By three different Lyapunov functions and the invariant principle of impulsive systems, we study the convergence of quantum systems with impulsive control fields and propose new results for the mentioned quantum systems in the form of sufficient conditions. Two numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the ...
Symmetric and asymmetric quantum channels in quantum communication systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Symmetric and asymmetric quantum channels which act on bipartite bosonic states are considered. The linear dissipative channel and the quantum teleportation channel are applied. The influences of the symmetric and asymmetric quantum channels on bipartite Gaussian states are investigated by means of the inseparability condition. Furthermore, quantum teleportation and quantum dense coding of continuous variables performed by means of two-mode squeezed-vacuum states under the influence of the noisy quantum channels are discussed
Quantum frustrated and correlated electron systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Thalmeier
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Quantum phases and fluctuations in correlated electron systems with frustration and competing interactions are reviewed. In the localized moment case the S=1/2 J1 - J2 - model on a square lattice exhibits a rich phase diagram with magnetic as well as exotic hidden order phases due to the interplay of frustration and quantum fluctuations. Their signature in magnetocaloric quantities and the high field magnetization are surveyed. The possible quantum phase transitions are discussed and applied to layered vanadium oxides. In itinerant electron systems frustration is an emergent property caused by electron correlations. It leads to enhanced spin fluctuations in a very large region of momentum space and therefore may cause heavy fermion type low temperature anomalies as in the 3d spinel compound LiV2O4 . Competing on-site and inter-site electronic interactions in Kondo compounds are responsible for the quantum phase transition between nonmagnetic Kondo singlet phase and magnetic phase such as observed in many 4f compounds. They may be described by Kondo lattice and simplified Kondo necklace type models. Their quantum phase transitions are investigated by numerical exact diagonalization and analytical bond operator methods respectively.
Environment-assisted quantum transport in ordered systems
Kassal, Ivan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2012-01-01
Noise-assisted transport in quantum systems occurs when quantum time-evolution and decoherence conspire to produce a transport efficiency that is higher than what would be seen in either the purely quantum or purely classical cases. In disordered systems, it has been understood as the suppression of coherent quantum localisation through noise, which brings detuned quantum levels into resonance and thus facilitates transport. We report several new mechanisms of environment-as...
On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system
Khrennikov, Andrei
2004-01-01
It is proposed to define "quantumness" of a system (micro or macroscopic, physical, biological, social, political) by starting with understanding that quantum mechanics is a statistical theory. It says us only about probability distributions. The only possible criteria of quantum behaviour are statistical ones. Therefore I propose to consider any system which produces quantum statistics as quantum ("quantumlike"). A possible test is based on the interference of probabilities...
Quantum-mechanical aspects of classically chaotic driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper treats atoms and molecules in laser fields as periodically driven quantum systems. The paper concludes by determining that stochastic excitation is possible in quantum systems with quasiperiodic driving. 17 refs
Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sainz, I. [Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Enrique Diaz de Leon, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico)]. E-mail: isa@culagos.udg.mx; Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410 Guadalajara, Jal. (Mexico)]. E-mail: klimov@cencar.udg.mx; Saavedra, C. [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)]. E-mail: csaaved@udec.cl
2006-02-20
We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found.
Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found
Quantum field theory and multiparticle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The use of quantum field theory methods for the investigation of the physical characteristics of the MANY-BODY SYSTEMS is discussed. Mainly discussed is the method of second quantization and the method of the Green functions. Briefly discussed is the method of calculating the Green functions at finite temperatures. (Z.J.)
Quantum mechanics of a system with confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study is made of the quantum mechanical model of confinement. The spectrum of a system with permanently confined channel is investiogated. A closed analytical expression is obtained for the S-matrix describing the scattering on N levels in the confined channel. The influence of the confined channel on the resonant and Coulomb states in the scattering channel is considered
Controllable quantities for bilinear quantum systems
Gabriel TURINICI
2000-01-01
This paper is dediated to the searh of tailored controllability concepts for quantum systems interating with lasers. A negative result for in finite dimensional spaes serves as motivation for a finite dimensional analysis. We show that under physially reasonable hypothesis we can locally control sets of observables. As a remarkable particular case global exact controllability is proven for the population of the eigenstates.
Quantum chaos and thermalization in gapped systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the onset of thermalization and quantum chaos in finite one-dimensional gapped systems of hard-core bosons. Integrability in these systems is broken by next-nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions, which also generate a superfluid to insulator transition. By employing full exact diagonalization, we study chaos indicators and few-body observables. We show that with increasing system size, chaotic behavior is seen over a broader range of parameters and, in particular, deeper into the insulating phase. Concomitantly, we observe that, as the system size increases, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis extends its range of validity inside the insulating phase and is accompanied by the thermalization of the system.
An Operator-Based Exact Treatment of Open Quantum Systems
Nicolosi, S.
2005-01-01
"Quantum mechanics must be regarded as open systems. On one hand, this is due to the fact that, like in classical physics, any realistic system is subjected to a coupling to an uncontrollable environment which influences it in a non-negligible way. The theory of open quantum systems thus plays a major role in many applications of quantum physics since perfect isolation of quantum system is not possible and since a complete microscopic description or control of the environmen...
Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems
Horowitz, Jordan M.; Jacobs, Kurt
2015-09-01
We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples, we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state and the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing.
Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems.
Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt
2015-09-25
We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples, we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state and the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing. PMID:26451540
Resonant macroscopic quantum tunneling in SQUID systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detailed theoretical analysis of the resonant macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconducting quantum interference device systems is presented. Our approach allows us to include the effect of both temperature and sweeping rate of the external flux, and to study the phenomenon both in quasistationary and nonstationary conditions, which can be induced by a fast sweep of the external bias. Moreover we compare our theory with the experimental data of Rouse, Han, and Lukens [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1614 (1995)] referring to the quasistationary case, while other observable effects are predicted in the nonstationary case. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Dissipative effects on quantum glassy systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the behavior of a quantum glassy system coupled to a bath of quantum oscillators. We show that the system localizes in the absence of interactions when coupled to a subOhmic bath. When interactions are switched on localization disappears and the system undergoes a phase transition towards a glassy phase. We show that the position of the critical line separating the disordered and the ordered phases strongly depends on the coupling to the bath. For a given type of bath, the ordered glassy phase is favored by a stronger coupling. Ohmic, subOhmic and superOhmic baths lead to different transition lines. We draw our conclusions from the analysis of the partition function using the replicated imaginary-time formalism and from the study of the real-time dynamics of the coupled system using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time-path formalism. (author)
Security of practical quantum key distribution systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.
Periodic thermodynamics of isolated quantum systems.
Lazarides, Achilleas; Das, Arnab; Moessner, Roderich
2014-04-18
The nature of the behavior of an isolated many-body quantum system periodically driven in time has been an open question since the beginning of quantum mechanics. After an initial transient period, such a system is known to synchronize with the driving; in contrast to the nondriven case, no fundamental principle has been proposed for constructing the resulting nonequilibrium state. Here, we analytically show that, for a class of integrable systems, the relevant ensemble is constructed by maximizing an appropriately defined entropy subject to constraints, which we explicitly identify. This result constitutes a generalization of the concepts of equilibrium statistical mechanics to a class of far-from-equilibrium systems, up to now mainly accessible using ad hoc methods. PMID:24785013
Quantum spin glass in anisotropic dipolar systems
Schechter, M; Stamp, P. C. E.; Laflorencie, N.
2006-01-01
The spin-glass phase in the $\\LHx$ compound is considered. At zero transverse field this system is well described by the classical Ising model. At finite transverse field deviations from the transverse field quantum Ising model are significant, and one must take properly into account the hyperfine interactions, the off-diagonal terms in the dipolar interactions, and details of the full J=8 spin Hamiltonian to obtain the correct physical picture. In particular, the system is ...
The quantum human central neural system.
Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John
2015-01-01
In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere. PMID:25416114
Repeated Interaction Quantum Systems: Deterministic and Random
Joye, Alain
2008-01-01
This paper gives an overview of recent results concerning the long time dynamics of repeated interaction quantum systems in a deterministic and random framework. We describe the non equilibrium steady states (NESS) such systems display and we present, as a macroscopic consequence, a second law of thermodynamics these NESS give rise to. We also explain in some details the analysis of products of certain random matrices underlying this dynamical problem.
Repeated Interactions Quantum Systems:. Deterministic and Random
Joye, Alain
2008-08-01
This paper gives an overview of recent results concerning the long time dynamics of repeated interaction quantum systems in a deterministic and random framework. We describe the non equilibrium steady states (NESS) such systems display and we present, as a macroscopic consequence, a second law of thermodynamics these NESS give rise to. We also explain in some details the analysis of products of certain random matrices underlying this dynamical problem.
Theory of quantum control of spin-photon dynamics and spin decoherence in semiconductors
Yao, Wang
Single electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and single photon wavepacket propagating in an optical waveguide are investigated as carriers of quantum bit (qubit) for information processing. Cavity quantum electrodynamics of the coupled system composed of charged QD, microcavity and waveguide provides a quantum interface for the interplay of stationary spin qubits and flying photon qubits via cavity assisted optical control. This interface forms the basis for a wide range of essential functions of a quantum network, including transferring, swapping, and entangling qubits at distributed quantum nodes as well as a deterministic source and an efficient detector of a single photon wavepacket with arbitrarily specified shape. The cavity assisted optical process also made possible ultrafast initialization and QND readout of the spin qubit in QD. In addition, the strong optical nonlinearity of dot-cavity-waveguide coupled system enables phase gate and entanglement operation for flying single photon qubits in waveguides. The coherence of the electron spin is the wellspring of these quantum applications being investigated. At low temperature and strong magnetic field, the dominant cause of electron spin decoherence is the coupling with the interacting lattice nuclear spins. We present a quantum solution to the coupled dynamics of the electron with the nuclear spin bath. The decoherence is treated in terms of quantum entanglement of the electron with the nuclear pair-flip excitations driven by the various nuclear interactions. A novel nuclear interaction, mediated by virtue spin-flips of the single electron, plays an important role in single spin free-induction decay (FID). The spin echo not only refocuses the dephasing by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble dynamics but also eliminates the decoherence by electron-mediated nuclear interaction. Thus, the decoherence times for single spin FID and ensemble spin echo are significantly different. The quantum theory of decoherence also leads to a method of coherence recovery of the electron by disentanglement, realized through maneuvering the nuclear bath evolution by control of the electron spin-flip. The studies form the basis to outline the construction of a solid-state quantum network for scalable and distributed processing of quantum information.
Symmetry and stability of open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The presentation of the thesis involves an introduction and six chapters. Chapter 1 presents notions and results used in the other chpaters. Chapters 2-6 present our results which are focused on two notions: generalized observable and dynamic semigroup. These notions characterize a specific research domain (set up during the last 10 years) which is currently called quantum mechanics of open systems. The two notions (generalized observable and dynamic semigroup) are mathematically correlated. They belong to the set of completely positive linear applications among observable algebras. This fact, associated with that formulation of quantum mechanics according to which it is a special case of quantum mechanics namely, that for which the observable algebra is commutative, help to understand the similar essence of the results presented in chapter 2-6. Thus, the natural mathematical background has been achieved for our results; it is represented by that category whose objects are the observable algebras and whose morphisms are completely positive linear contractions generating unity within unity. These ideas are extensively presented in the introduction. The fact that the relations between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be rigorously treated as positive linear applications between classical observable algebras commutative and quantum observable algebras non-commutative, which are automatically fully positive, has been initially shown in our paper. (author)
An E-payment system based on quantum group signature
Xiaojun, Wen
2010-12-01
Security and anonymity are essential to E-payment systems. However, existing E-payment systems will easily be broken into soon with the emergence of quantum computers. In this paper, we propose an E-payment system based on quantum group signature. In contrast to classical E-payment systems, our quantum E-payment system can protect not only the users' anonymity but also the inner structure of customer groups. Because of adopting the two techniques of quantum key distribution, a one-time pad and quantum group signature, unconditional security of our E-payment system is guaranteed.
Ferromagnetic quantum criticality in heavy fermion systems
Brando, Manuel
2013-03-01
Heavy fermion (HF) systems are metals where the weak hybridisation between nearly localized f-electrons and the mobile conduction electrons, i.e. the Kondo effect, leads to a Fermi liquid (FL) ground state with narrow bands and quasiparticles with strongly enhanced effective electronic masses. When the magnetic RKKY interaction becomes comparable to the Kondo interaction, magnetic order can appear, mostly at very low T. The magnetic order can be suppressed by an external parameter, e.g. pressure or magnetic field, inducing a quantum phase transition (QPT) at T = 0 . If this QPT is continuous, the associated quantum critical point (QCP) is surrounded by a non-FL regime of quantum critical fluctuations where unconventional superconductivity or novel phases of matter may arise. The unambiguous observation of antiferromagnetic (AFM) QCPs in HF systems has led to an increasing number of theoretical and experimental works in order to understand QPTs as deeply as their classical counterpart. Although it has been demonstrated that in antiferromagnets QCPs exist, in ferromagnets there is still no clear evidence. Intensive investigations have shown that metallic ferromagnets are inherently unstable and do not exhibit a FM QCP. However, in the recently discovered HF system YbNi4P2, a quasi-1D ferromagnet with a remarkably-low TC = 0 . 15 K, the T-divecgence in the Grüneisen ratio points to the presence of a FM QCP. I will present a general overview of the state of the art of FM quantum criticality in HF systems, discussing in particular the cases of YbNi4P2, CeFePO, CePd1-xRhx as well as the AFM system YbRh2Si2 where FM order is induced by chemical pressure. Heavy fermion (HF) systems are metals where the weak hybridisation between nearly localized f-electrons and the mobile conduction electrons, i.e. the Kondo effect, leads to a Fermi liquid (FL) ground state with narrow bands and quasiparticles with strongly enhanced effective electronic masses. When the magnetic RKKY interaction becomes comparable to the Kondo interaction, magnetic order can appear, mostly at very low T. The magnetic order can be suppressed by an external parameter, e.g. pressure or magnetic field, inducing a quantum phase transition (QPT) at T = 0 . If this QPT is continuous, the associated quantum critical point (QCP) is surrounded by a non-FL regime of quantum critical fluctuations where unconventional superconductivity or novel phases of matter may arise. The unambiguous observation of antiferromagnetic (AFM) QCPs in HF systems has led to an increasing number of theoretical and experimental works in order to understand QPTs as deeply as their classical counterpart. Although it has been demonstrated that in antiferromagnets QCPs exist, in ferromagnets there is still no clear evidence. Intensive investigations have shown that metallic ferromagnets are inherently unstable and do not exhibit a FM QCP. However, in the recently discovered HF system YbNi4P2, a quasi-1D ferromagnet with a remarkably-low TC = 0 . 15 K, the T-divecgence in the Grüneisen ratio points to the presence of a FM QCP. I will present a general overview of the state of the art of FM quantum criticality in HF systems, discussing in particular the cases of YbNi4P2, CeFePO, CePd1-xRhx as well as the AFM system YbRh2Si2 where FM order is induced by chemical pressure. Part of this work has been supported by the DFG Research Unit 960 ``Quantum Phase Transitions''
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lutsenko Y. V.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this article we give a generalization of Hartley's model for the measure of information. We propose a rate of emergence, which is applicable to systems obeying classical or quantum statistics. Quantum sys-tems that obey Fermi-Dirac statistics and Bose-Einstein condensate, as well as classical systems obey-ing the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics have been con-sidered. We found that the emergence parameter of quantum and classical systems differ as well as the emergence parameter of quantum systems of fermions and bosons. Consequently, the emergence parameter might be used to distinguish the classical system and quantum system, as well as quantum system of fermions and the quantum system of bosons
Aberration-corrected quantum temporal imaging system
Zhu, Yunhui; Gauthier, Daniel J
2013-01-01
We describe the design of a temporal imaging system that simultaneously reshapes the temporal profile and converts the frequency of a photonic wavepacket, while preserving its quantum state. A field lens, which imparts a temporal quadratic phase modulation, is used to correct for the residual phase caused by field curvature in the image, thus enabling temporal imaging for phase-sensitive quantum applications. We show how this system can be used for temporal imaging of time-bin entangled photonic wavepackets and compare the field lens correction technique to systems based on a temporal telescope and far-field imaging. The field-lens approach removes the residual phase using four dispersive elements. The group delay dispersion (GDD) $D$ is constrained by the available bandwidth $\\Delta\
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)
2014-03-24
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Quantum Algorithm for Obtaining the Energy Spectrum of Molecular Systems
Wang, Hefeng; Kais, Sabre; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Hoffmann, Mark R.
2009-01-01
Simulating a quantum system is more efficient on a quantum computer than on a classical computer. The time required for solving the Schr\\"odinger equation to obtain molecular energies has been demonstrated to scale polynomially with system size on a quantum computer, in contrast to the well-known result of exponential scaling on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm to obtain the energy spectrum of molecular systems based on the multi-configurat...
Irreversible processes in quantum mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although the information provided by the evolution of the density matrix of a quantum system is equivalent with the knowledge of all observables at a given time, it turns out ot be insufficient to answer certain questions in quantum optics or linear response theory where the commutator of certain observables at different space-time points is needed. In this doctoral thesis we prove the existence of density matrices for common probabilities at multiple times and discuss their properties and their characterization independent of a special representation. We start with a compilation of definitions and properties of classical common probabilities and correlation functions. In the second chapter we give the definition of a quantum mechanical Markov process and derive the properties of propagators, generators and conditional probabilities as well as their mutual relations. The third chapter is devoted to a treatment of quantum mechanical systems in thermal equilibrium for which the principle of detailed balance holds as a consequence of microreversibility. We work out the symmetry properties of the two-sided correlation functions which turn out to be analogous to those in classical processes. In the final chapter we use the Gaussian behavior of the stationary correlation function of an oscillator and determine a class of Markov processes which are characterized by dissipative Lionville operators. We succeed in obtaining the canonical representation in a purely algebraic way by means of similarity transformations. Starting from this representation it is particularly easy to calculate the propagator and the correlation function. (HJ) 891 HJ/HJ 892 MKO
PSPACE has 2-round quantum interactive proof systems
Watrous, J
1999-01-01
In this paper we consider quantum interactive proof systems, i.e., interactive proof systems in which the prover and verifier may perform quantum computations and exchange quantum messages. It is proved that every language in PSPACE has a quantum interactive proof system that requires only two rounds of communication between the prover and verifier, while having exponentially small (one-sided) probability of error. It follows that quantum interactive proof systems are strictly more powerful than classical interactive proof systems in the constant-round case unless the polynomial time hierarchy collapses to the second level.
Quantum information processing based on cavity QED with mesoscopic systems
Lukin, Mikhail; Fleischhauer, Michael; Imamoglu, Atac
2000-01-01
Introduction: Recent developments in quantum communication and computing [1-3] stimulated an intensive search for physical systems that can be used for coherent processing of quantum information. It is generally believed that quantum entanglement of distinguishable quantum bits (qubits) is at the heart of quantum information processing. Significant efforts have been directed towards the design of elementary logic gates, which perform certain unitary processes on pairs of qubits. These gates m...
Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems
Girolami, Davide
2014-01-01
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource...
Work exchange between quantum systems: the spin-oscillator model
Schröder, Heiko; Mahler, Günter
2009-01-01
With the development of quantum thermodynamics it has been shown that relaxation to thermal equilibrium and with it the concept of heat flux may emerge directly from quantum mechanics. This happens for a large class of quantum systems if embedded into another quantum environment. In this paper, we discuss the complementary question of the emergence of work flux from quantum mechanics. We introduce and discuss two different methods to assess the work source quality of a syste...
Mascarenhas, E; Cavalcanti, D; Cunha, M Terra; Santos, M França
2010-01-01
We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, essential for classical entanglement percolation.
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer
Focus on coherent control of complex quantum systems
Whaley, Birgitta; Milburn, Gerard
2015-10-01
The rapid growth of quantum information sciences over the past few decades has fueled a corresponding rise in high profile applications in fields such as metrology, sensors, spintronics, and attosecond dynamics, in addition to quantum information processing. Realizing this potential of today’s quantum science and the novel technologies based on this requires a high degree of coherent control of quantum systems. While early efforts in systematizing methods for high fidelity quantum control focused on isolated or closed quantum systems, recent advances in experimental design, measurement and monitoring, have stimulated both need and interest in the control of complex or large scale quantum systems that may also be coupled to an interactive environment or reservoir. This focus issue brings together new theoretical and experimental work addressing the formulation and implementation of quantum control for a broad range of applications in quantum science and technology today.
Theory of classical and quantum frustration in quantum many-body systems
Giampaolo, S M; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-01-01
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. After introducing a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems, we derive for it an exact inequality in terms of a class of entanglement monotones. We then state sufficient conditions for the ground states of quantum spin systems to saturate the inequality and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems and establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.
Electron Dynamics in Finite Quantum Systems
McDonald, Christopher R.
The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) and multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) methods are employed to investigate nonperturbative multielectron dynamics in finite quantum systems. MCTDHF is a powerful tool that allows for the investigation of multielectron dynamics in strongly perturbed quantum systems. We have developed an MCTDHF code that is capable of treating problems involving three dimensional (3D) atoms and molecules exposed to strong laser fields. This code will allow for the theoretical treatment of multielectron phenomena in attosecond science that were previously inaccessible. These problems include complex ionization processes in pump-probe experiments on noble gas atoms, the nonlinear effects that have been observed in Ne atoms in the presence of an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and the molecular rearrangement of cations after ionization. An implementation of MCTDH that is optimized for two electrons, each moving in two dimensions (2D), is also presented. This implementation of MCTDH allows for the efficient treatment of 2D spin-free systems involving two electrons; however, it does not scale well to 3D or to systems containing more that two electrons. Both MCTDHF and MCTDH were used to treat 2D problems in nanophysics and attosecond science. MCTDHF is used to investigate plasmon dynamics and the quantum breathing mode for several electrons in finite lateral quantum dots. MCTDHF is also used to study the effects of manipulating the potential of a double lateral quantum dot containing two electrons; applications to quantum computing are discussed. MCTDH is used to examine a diatomic model molecular system exposed to a strong laser field; nonsequential double ionization and high harmonic generation are studied and new processes identified and explained. An implementation of MCTDHF is developed for nonuniform tensor product grids; this will allow for the full 3D implementation of MCTDHF and will provide a means to investigate a wide variety of problems that cannot be currently treated by any other method. Finally, the time it takes for an electron to tunnel from a bound state is investigated; a definition of the tunnel time is established and the Keldysh time is connected to the wavefunction dynamics.
Decoherence in infinite quantum systems
Hellmich, Mario
2009-01-01
Die Quantenmechanik gilt heute als unsere grundlegendste physikalische Theorie. Als solche beschränkt sie sich nicht nur auf ihre ursprünglichen Anwendungsbereiche wie die Atomphysik, Elementarteilchenphysik und die Quantenfeldtheorie, sondern ihr Gegenstandsbereich sollte auch makroskopische Systeme einschließen, die den Gesetzen der klassischen Physik gehorchen. Hier stößt man jedoch auf ein fundamentales Problem: Wendet man die Gesetze der Quantenmechanik direkt auf die Objekte unserer All...
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with RMT. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the level spacing, width distribution and ?3(L) statistic are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The usual super-radiant state is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and ?3(L) statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels
Polyadic systems, representations and quantum groups
Duplij, Steven
2013-01-01
Polyadic systems and their representations are reviewed and a classification of general polyadic systems is presented. A new multiplace generalization of associativity preserving homomorphisms, a 'heteromorphism' which connects polyadic systems having unequal arities, is introduced via an explicit formula, together with related definitions for multiplace representations and multiactions. Concrete examples of matrix representations for some ternary groups are then reviewed. Ternary algebras and Hopf algebras are defined, and their properties are studied. At the end some ternary generalizations of quantum groups and the Yang-Baxter equation are presented.
Nonlocal realistic theories and continuous quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauber, Anna; Freyberger, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)
2009-07-01
Recently, a certain class of non-local, realistic theories (NLRT) has been formulated for two-particle systems with dichotomic observables and has been shown to be incompatible with quantum mechanics and with experimental data. The proof us es inequalities for correlation functions, as in the original Bell case. We study how to expand the formulation to systems with continuous variables and demonst rate how such systems can violate the predictions of the NLRT. Moreover, we analyze how violations of the NLRT-inequalities are related to violations of Bell-type inequalities.
Exchange fluctuation theorem for correlated quantum systems
Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Jennings, David; Hirono, Yuji; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio
2015-10-01
We extend the exchange fluctuation theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the nonequilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. In addition, a more abstract approach leads us to a "correlation fluctuation theorem". Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semiclassical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations. We also present a toy example of qubit-qudit heat exchange, and find that non-classical behaviour such as deterministic energy transfer and anomalous heat flow are reflected in our exchange fluctuation theorem.
Quantum chromodynamic evolution of multiquark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new technique which extends the quantum chromodynamic evolution formalism in order to predict the short distance behavior of multiquark wavefunctions. In particular, predictions are given for the deuteron reduced form factor in the high momentum transfer region, and rigorous constraints on the short distance effective force between two baryons are predicted. These new techniques can be generalized in order to analyze the short distance behavior of multibaryon systems
Transient dynamics of open quantum systems
Kashuba, Oleksiy; Schoeller, Herbert
2013-01-01
We present a renormalization group (RG) method which allows for an analytical study of the transient dynamics of open quantum systems on all time scales. Whereas oscillation frequencies and decay rates of exponential time evolution follow from the fixed point positions, the long-time behavior of pre-exponential functions is related to the scaling behavior around the fixed points. We show that certain terms of the RG flow are only cut off by inverse time, which leads to a dif...
Noise cancellation effect in quantum systems
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino
2004-01-01
We consider the time evolution of simple quantum systems under the influence of random fluctuations of the control parameters. We show that when the parameters fluctuate sufficiently fast, there is a cancellation effect of the noise. We propose that such an effect could be experimentally observed by performing a simple experiment with trapped ions. As a byproduct of our analysis, we provide an explanation of the robustness against random perturbations of adiabatic population...
On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.
On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems
Achuthan, P.; Narayanankutty, Karuppath
2009-07-01
The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.
Construction of a quantum repeater based on a quantum dot in an optical microcavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate an efficient quantum repeater protocol based on quantum dots (QDs) and optical microcavity coupled systems. The proposed system can be used for long-distance quantum entanglement distribution, exploiting the interaction between single photons and QDs embedded in optical microcavities. We present the entanglement generation and entanglement swapping modules with QDs in microcavity systems and generalize it to quantum repeaters. The utilization of QDs and coupled cavities leads to a high success probability for the generation of entanglement. By using current and near future technology, entanglement with a high fidelity can be achieved and robust quantum communication over long-distance channels is feasible. (letters)
Quantum chaos in a fermion system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the growing realisation that the dynamics of a system with a few degrees of freedom is chaotic more as a rule than an exception, the relevance of quantum chaos in nuclear single-particle motion is now receiving closer scrutinisation. This on one hand is helping to gain a deeper understanding of dissipative processes in nuclear dynamics as well as revealing certain interesting features of a fermion system on the other. In the present talk, we would discuss the chaotic features of the single-particle motion in a di nucleus with a view to study the signatures of an effective underlying classical dynamics in the system. As the present day understanding of quantum chaos relies quite heavily on the existence of classical trajectories, it is rather interesting to study how far such considerations can be pushed for systems which do not have a obvious classical analogue such as the spin-orbit interaction in our system. This question has been further investigated for a relativistic fermion system, similar to the Bogoliubov bag. This model is particularly suited as spin, without a classical analogue, has its natural place in the Dirac equation. The results of this study have been presented in the talk. (author). 25 refs., 14 figs
Statistical Thermodynamics of Polymer Quantum Systems
Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Manrique, Elisa; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.
2011-12-01
Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional polymer quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. Depending on the dominance of the polymer length we can distinguish two regimes: vibrational and rotational. The first occur for small polymer length and here the standard oscillator in Schrödinger quantization is recovered at leading order. The second one, for large polymer length, features dominant polymer effects. In the case of the polymer particles in the box, a bounded and oscillating spectrum that presents a band structure and a Brillouin zone is found. The thermodynamical quantities calculated with these spectra have corrections with respect to standard ones and they depend on the polymer length. When the polymer length is small such corrections resemble those coming from the phenomenological generalized uncertainty relation approach based on the idea of the existence of a minimal length. For generic polymer length, thermodynamics of both systems present an anomalous peak in their heat capacity CV. In the case of the polymer oscillators this peak separates the vibrational and rotati onal regimes, while in the ideal polymer gas it reflects the band structure which allows the existence of negative temperatures.
Statistical Thermodynamics of Polymer Quantum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo Chacón-Acosta
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional polymer quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. Depending on the dominance of the polymer length we can distinguish two regimes: vibrational and rotational. The first occur for small polymer length and here the standard oscillator in Schrödinger quantization is recovered at leading order. The second one, for large polymer length, features dominant polymer effects. In the case of the polymer particles in the box, a bounded and oscillating spectrum that presents a band structure and a Brillouin zone is found. The thermodynamical quantities calculated with these spectra have corrections with respect to standard ones and they depend on the polymer length. When the polymer length is small such corrections resemble those coming from the phenomenological generalized uncertainty relation approach based on the idea of the existence of a minimal length. For generic polymer length, thermodynamics of both systems present an anomalous peak in their heat capacity C_V. In the case of the polymer oscillators this peak separates the vibrational and rotational regimes, while in the ideal polymer gas it reflects the band structure which allows the existence of negative temperatures.
Teaching the environment to control quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A nonequilibrium, generally time-dependent, environment whose form is deduced by optimal learning control is shown to provide a means for incoherent manipulation of quantum systems. Incoherent control by the environment (ICE) can serve to steer a system from an initial state to a target state, either mixed or in some cases pure, by exploiting dissipative dynamics. Implementing ICE with either incoherent radiation or a gas as the control is explicitly considered, and the environmental control is characterized by its distribution function. Simulated learning control experiments are performed with simple illustrations to find the shape of the optimal nonequilibrium distribution function that best affects the posed dynamical objectives
Parallel decoherence in composite quantum systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Dugi?i; J Jekni?-Dugi?
2012-08-01
For the standard quantum Brownian motion (QBM) model, we point out the occurrence of simultaneous (parallel), mutually irreducible and autonomous decoherence processes. Besides the standard Brownian particle, we show that there is at least another system undergoing the dynamics described by the QBM model. We do this by selecting the two mutually irreducible, global structures (decompositions into subsystems) of the composite system of the QBM model. The generalization of this observation is a new, challenging task in the foundations of the decoherence theory. We do not place our findings in any interpretational context.
Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems
Laflorencie, Nicolas
2015-01-01
This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial informations can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated R\\'enyi entropies are now well recognized to contains key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the u...
Description of an open quantum mechanical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model for the description of an open quantum mechanical many-particle system is formulated. It starts from the shell model and treats the continuous states by a coupled channels method. The mixing of the discrete shell model states via the continuum of decay channels results in the genuine decaying states of the system. These states are eigenstates of a non-Hermitean Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which give both the energies and the widths of the states. All correlations between two particles which are caused by the two-particle residual interaction, are taken into account including those via the continuum. In the formalism describing the open quantum mechanical system, the coupling between the system and its environment appears nonlinearly. If the resonance states start to overlap, a redistribution of the spectroscopic values ('trapping effect') takes place. As a result, the complexity of the system is reduced at high level density, structures in space and time are formed. This redistribution describes, on the one hand, the transition from the well-known nuclear properties at low level density to those at high level density and fits, on the other hand, into the concept of selforganization. (orig.)
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
Iqbal, Azhar
2009-01-01
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses well known criticism of quantum games.
Formulation and Application of Quantum Monte Carlo Method to Fractional Quantum Hall Systems
Suzuki, Sei; Nakajima, Tatsuya
2003-01-01
Quantum Monte Carlo method is applied to fractional quantum Hall systems. The use of the linear programming method enables us to avoid the negative-sign problem in the Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The formulation of this method and the technique for avoiding the sign problem are described. Some numerical results on static physical quantities are also reported.
Controllability of multi-partite quantum systems and selective excitation of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the degrees of controllability of multi-partite quantum systems, as well as necessary and sufficient criteria for each case. The results are applied to the problem of simultaneous control of an ensemble of quantum dots with a single laser pulse. Finally, we apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate selective excitation of individual dots for a simultaneously controllable ensemble of quantum dots
Characterizing and Quantifying Frustration in Quantum Many-Body Systems
Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G; Monras, A.; Illuminati, F.
2011-01-01
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with e...
The transition to chaos conservative classical systems and quantum manifestations
Reichl, Linda E
2004-01-01
This book provides a thorough and comprehensive discussion of classical and quantum chaos theory for bounded systems and for scattering processes Specific discussions include • Noether’s theorem, integrability, KAM theory, and a definition of chaotic behavior • Area-preserving maps, quantum billiards, semiclassical quantization, chaotic scattering, scaling in classical and quantum dynamics, dynamic localization, dynamic tunneling, effects of chaos in periodically driven systems and stochastic systems • Random matrix theory and supersymmetry The book is divided into several parts Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the dynamics of nonlinear conservative classical systems Chapter 5 and several appendices give a thorough grounding in random matrix theory and supersymmetry techniques Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the manifestations of chaos in bounded quantum systems and open quantum systems respectively Chapter 8 focuses on the semiclassical description of quantum systems with underlying classical chaos, and Chapt...
Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.
2009-01-01
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots—photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light–matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot–cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot–cavity coupling simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape. This range is much larger than the typical linewidth of the high-Q cavity modes (100?eV) allowing us to explore and contrast regimes where the dots couple to the cavity or decay by spontaneous emission into the two-dimensional photonic bandgap. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the dot spontaneous emission rate can be tuned using a gate voltage, with Purcell factors>7. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot–cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime, and electrical control of zerodimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the highest-Q cavities (Q > 12 000). Vacuum Rabi splittings up to 120?eV are observed, larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton ( 6 40?eV) or cavity mode. These observations represent a voltage switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components.
Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laucht, A; Hofbauer, F; Hauke, N; Angele, J; Kaniber, M; Boehm, G; Amann, M-C; Finley, J J [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P [DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Building 345V, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: finley@wsi.tum.de
2009-02-15
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots-photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light-matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by {approx}4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape. This range is much larger than the typical linewidth of the high-Q cavity modes ({approx}100 {mu}eV) allowing us to explore and contrast regimes where the dots couple to the cavity or decay by spontaneous emission into the two-dimensional photonic bandgap. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the dot spontaneous emission rate can be tuned using a gate voltage, with Purcell factors {>=}7. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime, and electrical control of zero-dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the highest-Q cavities (Q{>=}12 000). Vacuum Rabi splittings up to {approx}120 {mu}eV are observed, larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton ({gamma}{<=}40 {mu}eV) or cavity mode. These observations represent a voltage switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components.
Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots-photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light-matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by ?4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape. This range is much larger than the typical linewidth of the high-Q cavity modes (?100 ?eV) allowing us to explore and contrast regimes where the dots couple to the cavity or decay by spontaneous emission into the two-dimensional photonic bandgap. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the dot spontaneous emission rate can be tuned using a gate voltage, with Purcell factors ?7. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime, and electrical control of zero-dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the highest-Q cavities (Q?12 000). Vacuum Rabi splittings up to ?120 ?eV are observed, larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton (??40 ?eV) or cavity mode. These observations represent a voltage switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components.
Quantum Trajectory in Multi-Dimensional Non-Linear System
Kubotani, H
1999-01-01
We discuss quantum dynamics in multi-dimensional non-linear systems. It is well-known that wave function is localized in a single kicked rotor. However, coupling with other degrees of freedom breaks the localization. In order to clarify the difference in the quantum dynamics, we use rigid quantum trajectories, which is accompanied with the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of the quantum mechanics. The bundle of quantum trajectories are repulsive by the quantum potential and flow never to go across each other. We shows that, depending on the degrees of freedom, this same property appears differently.
Complex flows in granular and quantum systems
Herrera, Mark Richard
In this thesis we investigate three problems involving complex flows in granular and quantum systems. (a) We first study the dynamics of granular particles in a split-bottom shear cell experiment. We utilize network theory to quantify the dynamics of the granular system at the mesoscopic scale. We find an apparent phase transition in the formation of a giant component of broken links as a function of applied shear. These results are compared to a numerical model where breakages are based on the amount of local stretching in the granular pile. (b) Moving to quantum mechanical systems, we study revival and echo phenomena in systems of anharmonically confined atoms, and find a novel phenomena we call the "pre-revival echo". We study the effect of size and symmetry of the perturbations on the various echoes and revivals, and form a perturbative model to describe the phenomena. We then model the effect of interactions using the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation and study interactions' effect on the revivals. (c) Lastly, we continue to study the effect of interactions on particles in weakly anharmonic traps. We numerically observe a "dynamical localization" phenomena in the presence of both anharmonicity and interactions. States may remain localized or become spread out in the potential depending on the strength and sign of the anharmonicity and interactions. We formulate a model for this phenomena in terms of a classical phase space.
Quantum MIMO n-Systems and Conditions for Stability
Mansourbeigi, Seyed M H
2009-01-01
In this paper we present some conditions for the (strong) stabilizability of an n-D Quantum MIMO system P(X). It contains two parts. The first part is to introduce the n-D Quantum MIMO systems where the coefficients vary in the algebra of Q-meromorphic functions. Then we introduce some conditions for the stabilizability of these systems. The second part is to show that this Quantum system has the n-D system as its quantum limit and the results for the SISO,SIMO,MISO,MIMO are obtained again as special cases.
Degenerate integrability of quantum spin Calogero--Moser systems
Reshetikhin, N
2015-01-01
The main result of this note is the proof of degenerate quantum integrability of quantum spin Calogero--Moser systems and the description of the spectrum of quantum Hamiltonians in terms of the decomposition of tensor products of irreducible representations of corresponding Lie algebra.
Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems
Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup
2011-01-01
The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…
A toy model of a macroscopic quantum coherent system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper deals with macroscopic quantum coherence while using only basic quantum mechanics. A square double well is used to illustrate Leggett–Caldeira oscillations. The effect of thermal radiation on two-level systems is discussed. The concept of decoherence is introduced at an elementary level. Reference values are deduced for the energy, temperature and time scales involved in macroscopic quantum coherence. (paper)
QUANTUM TUNNELLING AND MAGNETIZATION DYNAMICS IN LOW DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANDREA CORNIA
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum mechanics allows a system to overcome a classically-unsurmountable energy barrier through a mechanism called Quantum Tunnelling (QT. Although pertaining to the quantum domain, QT is the cause of important physical phenomena that can be detected at the macroscopic scale. Some of them have led to breakthrough applications in electronics (tunnel junctions and imaging (scanning tunnelling microscope.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constrained Hamiltonian dynamics is exploited to provide the mathematical framework of a coarse-grained description of the quantum system of nonlinear interacting oscillators. The coarse graining is treated as an equivalence relation on the set of quantum states resulting in the emergence of classical phase space. The equivalence relation imposes constraints on the Hamiltonian dynamics of the quantum system. It is seen that the evolution of the coarse-grained system preserves constant and minimal quantum fluctuations of the fundamental observables. This leads to the emergence of the corresponding classical system on a sufficiently large scale. (paper)
Quantum chaotic system as a model of decohering environment
Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N.
2008-01-01
As a model of decohering environment, we show that quantum chaotic system behave equivalently as many-body system. An approximate formula for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a system interacting with a quantum chaotic environment is derived. This theoretical formulation is substantiated by the numerical study of decoherence of two qubits interacting with a quantum chaotic environment modeled by a chaotic kicked top. Like the many-body model of environment...
Orbifold Duality Symmetries and Quantum Hall systems
Skoulakis, Spyros; Thomas, Steven
1998-01-01
We consider the possible role that chiral orbifold conformal field theories may play in describing the edge state theories of quantum Hall systems. This is a generalization of work that already exists in the literature, where it has been shown that 1+1 chiral bosons living on a n-dimensional torus, and which couple to a U_1 gauge field, give rise to anomalous electric currents, the anomaly being related to the Hall conductivity. The well known $O(n,n;Z)$ duality group associ...
Quantum Correlations in Two-Fermion Systems
Schliemann, John; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kus, Marek; Lewenstein, Maciej; Loss, Daniel
2000-01-01
We characterize and classify quantum correlations in two-fermion systems having 2K single-particle states. For pure states we introduce the Slater decomposition and rank (in analogy to Schmidt decomposition and rank); i.e., we decompose the state into a combination of elementary Slater determinants formed by pairs of mutually orthogonal single-particle states. Mixed states can be characterized by their Slater number which is the minimal Slater rank required to generate them. For K=2 we give a...
Asymptotically open quantum systems; Asymptotisch offene Quantensysteme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Westrich, M.
2008-04-15
In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)
Ultracold Quantum Gases and Lattice Systems: Quantum Simulation of Lattice Gauge Theories
Wiese, U -J
2013-01-01
Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories are of central importance in many areas of physics. In condensed matter physics, Abelian U(1) lattice gauge theories arise in the description of certain quantum spin liquids. In quantum information theory, Kitaev's toric code is a Z(2) lattice gauge theory. In particle physics, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the non-Abelian SU(3) gauge theory of the strong interactions between quarks and gluons, is non-perturbatively regularized on a lattice. Quantum link models extend the concept of lattice gauge theories beyond the Wilson formulation, and are well suited for both digital and analog quantum simulation using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices. Since quantum simulators do not suffer from the notorious sign problem, they open the door to studies of the real-time evolution of strongly coupled quantum systems, which are impossible with classical simulation methods. A plethora of interesting lattice gauge theories suggests itself for quantum simulation, which should al...
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. PMID:26632587
System of classical nonlinear oscillators as a coarse-grained quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constrained Hamiltonian dynamics of a quantum system of nonlinear oscillators is used to provide the mathematical formulation of a coarse-grained description of the quantum system. It is seen that the evolution of the coarse-grained system preserves constant and minimal quantum fluctuations of the fundamental observables. This leads to the emergence of the corresponding classical system on a sufficiently large scale.
Probability representation of kinetic equation for open quantum system
Man'ko, V I; Shchukin, E V
2003-01-01
The tomographic probability distribution is used to decribe the kinetic equations for open quantum systems. Damped oscillator is studied. Purity parameter evolution for different damping regime is considered.
Characterizing and quantifying frustration in quantum many-body systems.
Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-12-23
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration. PMID:22243147
Orbifold Duality Symmetries and Quantum Hall systems
Skoulakis, S; Skoulakis, Spyros; Thomas, Steven
1999-01-01
We consider the possible role that chiral orbifold conformal field theories may play in describing the edge state theories of quantum Hall systems. This is a generalization of work that already exists in the literature, where it has been shown that 1+1 chiral bosons living on a n-dimensional torus, and which couple to a U_1 gauge field, give rise to anomalous electric currents, the anomaly being related to the Hall conductivity. The well known $O(n,n;Z)$ duality group associated with such toroidal conformal field theories transforms the edge states and Hall conductivities in a way which makes interesting connections between different theories, e.g. between systems exhibiting the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. In this paper we try to explore the extension of these constructions to the case where such bosons live on a n-dimensional orbifold. We give a general formalism for discussing the relevant quantities like the Hall conductance and their transformation under the duality groups present in orbif...
Sistemas cuánticos individuales / Individual Quantum Systems
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Jorge A., Campos.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available El Premio Nobel de Física 2012 fue otorgado a Serge Haroche y David J.Wineland por métodos experimentales innovadores que permiten la medición y manipulación de sistemas cuánticos individuales. La primera estudia fotones midiéndolos con átomos, y la segunda estudia iones que manipula con fotones. La [...] s aplicaciones tanto potenciales como ya materializadas para el manejo de sistemas cuánticos están en la vía de revolucionar no solamente la tecnología sino la forma en la que comprendemos el mundo microscópico. Abstract in english The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2012 was awarded to Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems". The former deals with photons and measures them with atoms and the latter deals with ions and manipu [...] lates them with photons. The potential and actual applications of handling quantum systems are on their way to revolutionize not only technology but the way we understand the microscopic world.
Work exchange between quantum systems: the spin-oscillator model
Schröder, Heiko
2009-01-01
With the development of quantum thermodynamics it has been shown that relaxation to thermal equilibrium and with it the concept of heat flux may emerge directly from quantum mechanics. This happens for a large class of quantum systems if embedded into another quantum environment. In this paper, we discuss the complementary question of the emergence of work flux from quantum mechanics. We introduce and discuss two different methods to assess the work source quality of a system, one based on the generalized factorization approximation, the other based on generalized definitions of work and heat. By means of those methods, we show that small quantum systems can, indeed, act as work reservoirs. We illustrate this behavior for a simple system consisting of a spin coupled to an oscillator and investigate the effects of two different interactions on the work source quality. One case will be shown to allow for a work source functionality of arbitrarily high quality.
Capacities of linear quantum optical systems
Lupo, Cosmo; Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth
2012-01-01
A wide variety of communication channels employ the quantized electromagnetic field to convey information. Their communication capacity crucially depends on losses associated to spatial characteristics of the channel such as diffraction and antenna design. Here we focus on the communication via a finite pupil, showing that diffraction is formally described as a memory channel. By exploiting this equivalence we then compute the communication capacity of an optical refocusing system, modeled as a converging lens. Even though loss of information originates from the finite pupil of the lens, we show that the presence of the refocusing system can substantially enhance the communication capacity. We mainly concentrate on communication of classical information, the extension to quantum information being straightforward.
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.
A greedy algorithm for the identification of quantum systems
Maday, Yvon
2009-01-01
The control of quantum phenomena is a topic that has carried out many challenging problems. Among others, the Hamiltonian identification, i.e, the inverse problem associated with the unknown features of a quantum system is still an open issue. In this work, we present an algorithm that enables to design a set of selective laser fields that can be used, in a second stage, to identify unknown parameters of quantum systems.
The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems
Bolivar, A. O.
2010-01-01
On the basis of the dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems, we can derive a non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett quantum master equation as well as a non-Markovian quantum Smoluchowski equation in phase space. On the one hand, we solve our Caldeira-Leggett equation for the case of a quantum Brownian particle in a gravitational field. On the other hand, we solve our quantum Smoluchowski equation for a harmonic oscillator. In both physical situations we come up with...
Towards the experimental realization of hybrid quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the main interests of quantum physics in this new millennium is the exploitation of quantum mechanical principles in technical applications. One approach here is to use entanglement and superpositions of states to realize powerful algorithms capable of solving challenging computational tasks on a much faster time scale than a classical computer ever could. To find the quantum analogue of a classical bit one needs a quantum mechanical two level system that can be used to store and process quantum information. Most of the current approaches to find such a 'qubit' have the intention to find a single system that is able to fulfill all desirable tasks. But actually most quantum systems are only favorable for very specific tasks (e.g storage, processing, data exchange,..), similar as it is in classical computing. For some qubits the main disadvantages is that their quantum state is very fragile. Those systems loose their 'quantum information' (that is the possibility to store superpositions of their states coherently) easily. They 'decohere' on a timescale that is much shorter then any more involving algorithm. Other systems can keep those superposition states for quite a while, but are so difficult to address that the number of operations that can be made is very limited. The task of a so called hybrid quantum system is now to combine the strengths of these different systems, using e.g. one for manipulation and an other system for storage. Similar to a processor/memory architecture in conventional computers these systems could use a kind of bus system to couple between them. The main task of this thesis was to make steps towards the realization of such a system using two different combinations of quantum systems. Both are planned to use superconducting qubits (transmons) as processor qubit and either atoms (ultra cold rubidium 87 ensembles) or solid state spin systems (Nitrogen Vacancies in diamonds - NV centers) as memory. (author)
Quantum-based electronic devices and systems selected topics in electronics and systems, v.14
Dutta, Mitra
1998-01-01
This volume includes highlights of the theories and experimental findings that underlie essential phenomena occurring in quantum-based devices and systems as well as the principles of operation of selected novel quantum-based electronic devices and systems. A number of the emerging approaches to creating new types of quantum-based electronic devices and systems are also discussed.
An Operator-Based Exact Treatment of Open Quantum Systems
Nicolosi, S
2005-01-01
"Quantum mechanics must be regarded as open systems. On one hand, this is due to the fact that, like in classical physics, any realistic system is subjected to a coupling to an uncontrollable environment which influences it in a non-negligible way. The theory of open quantum systems thus plays a major role in many applications of quantum physics since perfect isolation of quantum system is not possible and since a complete microscopic description or control of the environment degrees of freedom is not feasible or only partially so" [1]. Practical considerations therefore force one to seek for a simpler, effectively probabilistic description in terms of an open system. There is a close physical and mathematical connection between the evolution of an open system, the state changes induced by quantum measurements, and the classical notion of a stochastic process. The paper provides a bibliographic review of this interrelations, it shows the mathematical equivalence between markovian master equation and generaliz...
On quantum chaos, stochastic webs and localization in a quantum mechanical kick system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engel, U.M.
2007-07-01
In this study quantum chaos is discussed using the kicked harmonic oscillator as a model system. The kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by an exceptional scenario of weak chaos: In the case of resonance between the frequency of the harmonic oscillator and the frequency of the periodic forcing, stochastic webs in phase space are generated by the classical dynamics. For the quantum dynamics of this system it is shown that the resulting Husimi distributions in quantum phase space exhibit the same web-like structures as the classical webs. The quantum dynamics is characterized by diffusive energy growth - just as the classical dynamics in the channels of the webs. In the case of nonresonance, the classically diffusive dynamics is found to be quantum mechanically suppressed. This bounded energy growth, which corresponds to localization in quantum phase space, is explained analytically by mapping the system onto the Anderson model. In this way, within the context of quantum chaos, the kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by exhibiting its noteworthy geometrical and dynamical properties both classically and quantum mechanically, while at the same time there are also very distinct quantum deviations from classical properties, the most prominent example being quantum localization. (orig.)
On quantum chaos, stochastic webs and localization in a quantum mechanical kick system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study quantum chaos is discussed using the kicked harmonic oscillator as a model system. The kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by an exceptional scenario of weak chaos: In the case of resonance between the frequency of the harmonic oscillator and the frequency of the periodic forcing, stochastic webs in phase space are generated by the classical dynamics. For the quantum dynamics of this system it is shown that the resulting Husimi distributions in quantum phase space exhibit the same web-like structures as the classical webs. The quantum dynamics is characterized by diffusive energy growth - just as the classical dynamics in the channels of the webs. In the case of nonresonance, the classically diffusive dynamics is found to be quantum mechanically suppressed. This bounded energy growth, which corresponds to localization in quantum phase space, is explained analytically by mapping the system onto the Anderson model. In this way, within the context of quantum chaos, the kicked harmonic oscillator is characterized by exhibiting its noteworthy geometrical and dynamical properties both classically and quantum mechanically, while at the same time there are also very distinct quantum deviations from classical properties, the most prominent example being quantum localization. (orig.)
Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system
Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems
Sun, Kai
2009-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…
Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms
Kaminaga, Yasuhito
1996-08-01
A general theory is presented of the classical and quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. It is shown that adding a total derivative to a Lagrangian does not materially affect either, (a) the canonical analysis of the system, or (b) its quantum mechanics.
Higher time derivatives in effective equations of canonical quantum systems
Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Nelson, Elliot
2012-01-01
Quantum-corrected equations of motion generically contain higher time derivatives, computed here in the setting of canonically quantized systems. The main example in which detailed derivations are presented is a general anharmonic oscillator, but conclusions can be drawn also for systems in quantum gravity and cosmology.
An Open-System Quantum Simulator with Trapped Ions
Barreiro, Julio T; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Monz, Thomas; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Roos, Christian F; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer; 10.1038/nature09801
2011-01-01
The control of quantum systems is of fundamental scientific interest and promises powerful applications and technologies. Impressive progress has been achieved in isolating the systems from the environment and coherently controlling their dynamics, as demonstrated by the creation and manipulation of entanglement in various physical systems. However, for open quantum systems, engineering the dynamics of many particles by a controlled coupling to an environment remains largely unexplored. Here we report the first realization of a toolbox for simulating an open quantum system with up to five qubits. Using a quantum computing architecture with trapped ions, we combine multi-qubit gates with optical pumping to implement coherent operations and dissipative processes. We illustrate this engineering by the dissipative preparation of entangled states, the simulation of coherent many-body spin interactions and the quantum non-demolition measurement of multi-qubit observables. By adding controlled dissipation to coheren...
Correlation Functions in Open Quantum-Classical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-Yu Hsieh
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum time correlation functions are often the principal objects of interest in experimental investigations of the dynamics of quantum systems. For instance, transport properties, such as diffusion and reaction rate coefficients, can be obtained by integrating these functions. The evaluation of such correlation functions entails sampling from quantum equilibrium density operators and quantum time evolution of operators. For condensed phase and complex systems, where quantum dynamics is difficult to carry out, approximations must often be made to compute these functions. We present a general scheme for the computation of correlation functions, which preserves the full quantum equilibrium structure of the system and approximates the time evolution with quantum-classical Liouville dynamics. Several aspects of the scheme are discussed, including a practical and general approach to sample the quantum equilibrium density, the properties of the quantum-classical Liouville equation in the context of correlation function computations, simulation schemes for the approximate dynamics and their interpretation and connections to other approximate quantum dynamical methods.
Thermalization and pseudolocality in extended quantum systems
Doyon, Benjamin
2015-01-01
Recently, it was understood that extended concepts of locality played important roles in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by response functions. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states: clustering states connected to the infinite-temperature state by paths whose tangents are actions of pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to ...
Spherical quantum chromodynamics of heavy quark systems
Sen-Gupta, K; Rajeev, S G
1993-01-01
We propose a model for Quantum Chromodynamics, obtained by ignoring the angular dependence of the gluon fields, which could qualitatively describe systems containing one heavy quark. This leads to a two dimensional gauge theory which has chiral symmetry and heavy quark symmetry. We show that in a light cone formalism, the Hamiltonian of this spherical QCD can be expressed entirely in terms of color singlet variables. Furthermore, in the large $N_c$ limit, it tends to a classical hadron theory. We derive an integral equation for the masses and wavefunctions of a heavy meson. This can be interpreted as a relativistic potential model. The integral equation is scale invariant, but renormalization of the coupling constant generates a scale. We compute the approximate beta function of the coupling constant, which has an ultraviolet stable fixed point at the origin.
Dynamics of initially entangled open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linear maps of matrices describing the evolution of density matrices for a quantum system initially entangled with another are identified and found to be not always completely positive. They can even map a positive matrix to a matrix that is not positive, unless we restrict the domain on which the map acts. Nevertheless, their form is similar to that of completely positive maps. Only some minus signs are inserted in the operator-sum representation. Each map is the difference of two completely positive maps. The maps are first obtained as maps of mean values and then as maps of basis matrices. These forms also prove to be useful. An example for two entangled qubits is worked out in detail. The relation to earlier work is discussed
The study of classical dynamical systems using quantum theory
Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.
2014-12-01
We have developed a method for complementing an arbitrary classical dynamical system to a quantum system using the Lorenz and Rössler systems as examples. The Schrödinger equation for the corresponding quantum statistical ensemble is described in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We consider both the original dynamical system in the coordinate space and the conjugate dynamical system corresponding to the momentum space. Such simultaneous consideration of mutually complementary coordinate and momentum frameworks provides a deeper understanding of the nature of chaotic behavior in dynamical systems. We have shown that the new formalism provides a significant simplification of the Lyapunov exponents calculations. From the point of view of quantum optics, the Lorenz and Rössler systems correspond to three modes of a quantized electromagnetic field in a medium with cubic nonlinearity. From the computational point of view, the new formalism provides a basis for the analysis of complex dynamical systems using quantum computers.
Quantum-assisted and Quantum-based Solutions in Wireless Systems
Imre, Sandor; Gyongyosi, Laszlo
2012-01-01
In wireless systems there is always a trade-off between reducing the transmit power and mitigating the resultant signal-degradation imposed by the transmit-power reduction with the aid of sophisticated receiver algorithms, when considering the total energy consumption. Quantum-assisted wireless communications exploits the extra computing power offered by quantum mechanics based architectures. This paper summarizes some recent results in quantum computing and the correspondin...
Sliding Mode Control of Two-Level Quantum Systems
Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a robust control method based on sliding mode design for two-level quantum systems with bounded uncertainties. An eigenstate of the two-level quantum system is identified as a sliding mode. The objective is to design a control law to steer the system's state into the sliding mode domain and then maintain it in that domain when bounded uncertainties exist in the system Hamiltonian. We propose a controller design method using the Lyapunov methodology and pe...
Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems
Gisin, Nicolas; Fasel, Sylvain; Kraus, Barbara; Zbinden, Hugo; Ribordy, Grégoire
2006-01-01
General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob’s system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today’s technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can be efficient, provided that enough additional privacy amplification is applied to th...
Quasiprobability distributions in open quantum systems: Spin-qubit systems
Thapliyal, Kishore; Banerjee, Subhashish; Pathak, Anirban; Omkar, S.; Ravishankar, V.
2015-11-01
We study nonclassical features in a number of spin-qubit systems including single, two and three qubit states, as well as an N qubit Dicke model and a spin-1 system, of importance in the fields of quantum optics and information. This is done by analyzing the behavior of the well known Wigner, P, and Q quasiprobability distributions on them. We also discuss the not so well known F function and specify its relation to the Wigner function. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of quasiprobability distributions for spin-qubit systems under general open system effects, including both pure dephasing as well as dissipation. This makes it relevant from the perspective of experimental implementation.
Quantum Non-Demolition Detection of Strongly Correlated Systems
Eckert, Kai; Rodriguez, Mirta; Lewenstein, Maciej; Polzik, Eugene S; Sanpera, Anna
2008-01-01
Preparation, manipulation, and detection of strongly correlated states of quantum many body systems are among the most important goals and challenges of modern physics. Ultracold atoms offer an unprecedented playground for realization of these goals. Here we show how strongly correlated states of ultracold atoms can be detected in a quantum non-demolition scheme, that is, in the fundamentally least destructive way permitted by quantum mechanics. In our method, spatially resolved components of atomic spins couple to quantum polarization degrees of freedom of light. In this way quantum correlations of matter are faithfully mapped on those of light; the latter can then be efficiently measured using homodyne detection. We illustrate the power of such spatially resolved quantum noise limited polarization measurement by applying it to detect various standard and "exotic" types of antiferromagnetic order in lattice systems and by indicating the feasibility of detection of superfluid order in Fermi liquids.
Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new ''analog'' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murg, Valentin
2008-04-07
This thesis is devoted to recent developments in the fields of classical and quantum simulations of many-body systems. We describe new classical algorithms that overcome problems apparent in conventional renormalization group and Monte Carlo methods. These algorithms make possible the detailed study of finite temperature properties of 2-D classical and 1-D quantum systems, the investigation of ground states of 2-D frustrated or fermionic systems and the analysis of time evolutions of 2-D quantum systems. Furthermore, we propose new 'analog' quantum simulators that are able to realize interesting models such as a Tonks-Girardeau gas or a frustrated spin-1/2 XY model on a trigonal lattice. These quantum simulators make use of optical lattices and trapped ions and are technically feasible. In fact, the Tonks-Girardeau gas has been realized experimentally and we provide a detailed comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems does consist in quantizing the Brownian motion starting directly from its stochastic dynamics under the framework of both Langevin and Fokker–Planck equations, without alluding to any model Hamiltonian. On the ground of this non-Hamiltonian quantization method, we can derive a non-Markovian Caldeira–Leggett quantum master equation as well as a non-Markovian quantum Smoluchowski equation. The former is solved for the case of a quantum Brownian particle in a gravitational field whilst the latter for a harmonic oscillator. In both physical situations, we come up with the existence of a non-equilibrium thermal quantum force and investigate its classical limit at high temperatures as well as its quantum limit at zero temperature. Further, as a physical application of our quantum Smoluchowski equation, we take up the tunneling phenomenon of a non-inertial quantum Brownian particle over a potential barrier. Lastly, we wish to point out, corroborating conclusions reached in our previous paper [A. O. Bolivar, Ann. Phys. 326 (2011) 1354], that the theoretical predictions in the present article uphold the view that our non-Hamiltonian quantum mechanics is able to capture novel features inherent in quantum Brownian motion, thereby overcoming shortcomings underlying the Caldeira–Leggett Hamiltonian model. - Highlights: ? Non-Markovian classical Brownian motion. ? Dynamical quantization. ? Non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion. ? Classical limit.
Quantum groups, orthogonal polynomials and applications to some dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first part is concerned with the introduction of quantum groups as an extension of Lie groups. In particular, we study the case of unitary enveloping algebras in dimension 2. We then connect the quantum group formalism to the construction of g CGC recurrent relations. In addition, we construct g-deformed Krawtchouck and Meixner orthogonal polynomials and list their respective main characteristics. The second part deals with some dynamical systems from a classical, a quantum and a gp-analogue point of view. We investigate the Coulomb Kepler system by using the canonical namical systems which contain as special cases some interesting systems for nuclear of atomic physics and for quantum chemistry, such as the Hartmann system, the ring-shaped oscillator, the Smarodinsky-Winternitz system, the Aharonov-Bohen system and the dyania of Dirac and Schroedinger. (author)
Maps for general open quantum systems and a theory of linear quantum error correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that quantum subdynamics of an open quantum system can always be described by a linear, Hermitian map irrespective of the form of the initial total system state. Since the theory of quantum error correction was developed based on the assumption of completely positive (CP) maps, we present a generalized theory of linear quantum error correction, which applies to any linear map describing the open system evolution. In the physically relevant setting of Hermitian maps, we show that the CP-map-based version of quantum error correction theory applies without modifications. However, we show that a more general scenario is also possible, where the recovery map is Hermitian but not CP. Since non-CP maps have nonpositive matrices in their range, we provide a geometric characterization of the positivity domain of general linear maps. In particular, we show that this domain is convex and that this implies a simple algorithm for finding its boundary.
Separability and ground state factorization in quantum spin systems
Giampaolo, S. M.; Adesso, G.; Illuminati, F.
2009-01-01
We investigate the existence and the properties of fully separable (fully factorized) ground states in quantum spin systems. Exploiting techniques of quantum information and entanglement theory we extend a recently introduced method and construct a general, self-contained theory of ground state factorization in frustration free quantum spin models defined on lattices in any spatial dimension and for interactions of arbitrary range. We show that, quite generally, non exactly ...
Dissipative Quantum Systems and the Heat Capacity Enigma
Dattagupta, S.; Kumar, Jishad; Sinha, S.; Sreeram, P. A.
2009-01-01
We present a detailed study of the quantum dissipative dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field. Our focus of attention is the effect of dissipation on the low- and high-temperature behavior of the specific heat at constant volume. After providing a brief overview of two distinct approaches to the statistical mechanics of dissipative quantum systems, viz., the ensemble approach of Gibbs and the quantum Brownian motion approach due to Einstein, we present exact anal...
Logic Column 13: Reasoning Formally about Quantum Systems: An Overview
Papanikolaou, Nick
2005-01-01
This article is intended as an introduction to the subject of quantum logic, and as a brief survey of the relevant literature. Also discussed here are logics for specification and analysis of quantum information systems, in particular, recent work by P. Mateus and A. Sernadas, and also by R. van der Meyden and M. Patra. Overall, our objective is to provide a high-level presentation of the logical aspects of quantum theory. Mateus' and Sernadas' EQPL logic is illustrated with...
Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems
Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina
2011-01-01
Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.
Quantum Chaos in Physical Systems: from Super Conductors to Quarks
Bittner, Elmar; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer
2001-01-01
This article is the written version of a talk delivered at the Bexbach Colloquium of Science 2000 and starts with an introduction into quantum chaos and its relationship to classical chaos. The Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture is formulated and evaluated within random-matrix theory. Several examples of physical systems exhibiting quantum chaos ranging from nuclear to solid state physics are presented. The presentation concludes with recent research work on quantum chromody...
Correlation approach to work extraction from finite quantum systems
Giorgi, Gian Luca; Campbell, Steve
2014-01-01
Reversible work extraction from identical quantum systems via collective operations was shown to be possible even without producing entanglement among the sub-parts. Here, we show that implementing such global operations necessarily imply the creation of quantum correlations, as measured by quantum discord. We also reanalyze the conditions under which global transformations outperform local gates as far as maximal work extraction is considered by deriving a necessary and suf...
Correlation approach to work extraction from finite quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reversible work extraction from identical quantum systems via collective operations was shown to be possible even without producing entanglement among the sub-parts. Here, we show that implementing such global operations necessarily imply the creation of quantum correlations, as measured by quantum discord. We also reanalyze the conditions under which global transformations outperform local gates as far as maximal work extraction is considered by deriving a necessary and sufficient condition that is based on classical correlations. (paper)
The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke 'after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is inexperienced in such matters and needs to look at details. This book is addressed to graduate physics and chemistry students and was written thinking of students. However, I would recommend it also to young and mature physicists, even those who are already 'into' the subject. It is a comprehensive work, jointly written by five researchers. After a simple introduction to the subject, the book gradually provides deeper concepts, more advanced theory and finally an interesting introduction and explanation of recent experiments. For its multidisciplinary features, this work could not have been written by one single author. The collaborative effort is undoubtedly one of its most interesting qualities. I would definitely recommend it to anyone who wants to learn more on the geometric phase, a topic that is both beautiful and intriguing. (book review)
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
Schwager, Heike
2012-01-01
In this thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from several perspectives. We propose the realization of a quantum interface between a traveling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay and allows for high-fidelity write-in and read-out. We present a theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a self-assembled quantum dot. Moreover, we propose a ...
Tartakovskii, Alexander
2012-07-01
Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by Lithographic Techniques: III-V Semiconductors and Carbon: 15. Electrically controlling single spin coherence in semiconductor nanostructures Y. Dovzhenko, K. Wang, M. D. Schroer and J. R. Petta; 16. Theory of electron and nuclear spins in III-V semiconductor and carbon-based dots H. Ribeiro and G. Burkard; 17. Graphene quantum dots: transport experiments and local imaging S. Schnez, J. Guettinger, F. Molitor, C. Stampfer, M. Huefner, T. Ihn and K. Ensslin; Part VI. Single Dots for Future Telecommunications Applications: 18. Electrically operated entangled light sources based on quantum dots R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Bennett and A. J. Shields; 19. Deterministic single quantum dot cavities at telecommunication wavelengths D. Dalacu, K. Mnaymneh, J. Lapointe, G. C. Aers, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams and S. Hughes; Index.
Pure Stationary States of non-Hamiltonian and Dissipative Quantum Systems
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2002-01-01
Using Liouville space and superoperator formalism we consider pure stationary states of open and dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of open quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of closed quantum systems. Open quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear oscillator are suggested. We consider stationary states for the Lindblad equation. We discuss bifurcations of pure stationary states for open quantum systems which are quantum...
Quantum Smoluchowski equation for driven systems
Dillenschneider, Raoul; Lutz, Eric
2009-01-01
We consider a driven quantum harmonic oscillator strongly coupled to a heat bath. Starting from the exact quantum Langevin equation, we use a Green's function approach to determine the corresponding semiclassical equation for the Wigner phase space distribution. In the limit of high friction, we apply Brinkman's method to derive the quantum Smoluchowski equation for the probability distribution in position space. We further determine the range of validity of the equation and...
Quantum fluctuations in nonlinear optical systems
Zambrini, Roberta
2003-01-01
The subject of quantum structures in nonlinear optics is a quite recent interdisciplinary field. It deals with the quantum properties of electromagnetic radiation in self-organized spatial structures. Until the decade of 1980 the areas of quantum optics and self-organized patterns were investigated by two different communities: • Most of the literature about pattern formation was concerned with classical features of the phenomenon [Haken, Cross & Hohenberg]. The effects of fluc...
Floquet states of many-body quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Periodic driving of a quantum many-body system could provide an access to a multitude of new-non-equilibrium states, essentially different from those a system exhibits at equilibrium. However, the field of ac-driven many-body quantum systems is a little-explored area, mainly for two reasons. First, until recently there were enough exciting problems to study at the equilibrium corner. Second, even under equilibrium conditions, a typical many-body system is a hard nut to crack due to the exponential growth of the number of system states with the number of quantum entities it contains. We discuss the possible directions to take in order to get insight into the evolution of ac-driven many-body quantum systems, outline the obstacles and possible means to overcome them. Our approach is based on the Floquet operator formalism and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods.
Floquet states of many-body quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denisov, Sergey; Seibert, Armin; Ponomarev, Alexey Vladimir; Haenggi, Peter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstr. 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)
2012-07-01
Periodic driving of a quantum many-body system could provide an access to a multitude of new-non-equilibrium states, essentially different from those a system exhibits at equilibrium. However, the field of ac-driven many-body quantum systems is a little-explored area, mainly for two reasons. First, until recently there were enough exciting problems to study at the equilibrium corner. Second, even under equilibrium conditions, a typical many-body system is a hard nut to crack due to the exponential growth of the number of system states with the number of quantum entities it contains. We discuss the possible directions to take in order to get insight into the evolution of ac-driven many-body quantum systems, outline the obstacles and possible means to overcome them. Our approach is based on the Floquet operator formalism and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods.
Quantum Signatures of Solar System Dynamics
Kholodenko, Arkady L
2007-01-01
Let w(i) be a period of rotation of the i-th planet around the Sun (or w(j;i) be a period of rotation of j-th satellite around the i-th planet). From empirical observations it is known that the sum of n(i)w(i)=0 (or the sum of n(j)w(j;i)=0) for some integers n(i)(or n(j)) (some of which allowed to be zero), different for different satellite systems. These conditions, known as ressonance conditions, make uses of theories such as KAM difficult to implement. To a high degree of accuracy these periods can be described in terms of the power law dependencies of the type w(i)=Ac^i (or w(j;i)= A(i)m^i) with A,c (respectively, A(i),m) being some known empirical constants. Such power law dependencies are known in literature as the Titius-Bode law of planetary/satellite motion. The resonances in Solar system are similar to those encountered in old quantum mechanics. Although not widely known nowadays, applications of methods of celestial mechanics to atomic physics were, in fact, highly successful. With such a success, ...
Quantum simulation of a frustrated Heisenberg spin system
Ma, Xiao-song; Naylor, William; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2010-01-01
Quantum simulators are capable of calculating properties of quantum systems unfeasible for classical computers. Here we report the analog quantum simulation of arbitrary Heisenberg-type interactions among four spin-1/2 particles. This spin-1/2 tetramer is the two-dimensional archetype system whose ground state belongs to the class of valence-bond states. Depending on the interaction strength, frustration within the system emerges such that the ground state evolves from a localized to a resonating valence-bond state. This spin-1/2 tetramer is created using the polarization states of four photons. We utilize the particular advantages of the precise single-particle addressability and a tunable measurement-induced interaction to obtain fundamental insights into entanglement dynamics among individual particles. We also directly extract ground-state energies and pair-wise quantum correlations, which enable our quantum simulator to investigate the frustration of entanglement. Remarkably, the pair-wise correlations a...
Quantum Control of Infinite Dimensional Many-Body Systems
Bliss, Roger S.; Burgarth, Daniel
2013-01-01
A major challenge to the control of infinite dimensional quantum systems is the irreversibility which is often present in the system dynamics. Here we consider systems with discrete-spectrum Hamiltonians operating over a Schwartz space domain, and show that by utilizing the implications of the Quantum Recurrence Theorem this irreversibility may be overcome, in the case of individual states more generally, but also in certain specified cases over larger subsets of the Hilbert...
Quantum materials, lateral semiconductor nanostructures, hybrid systems and nanocrystals
Heitmann, Detlef
2010-01-01
Semiconductor nanostructures are ideal systems to tailor the physical properties via quantum effects, utilizing special growth techniques, self-assembling, wet chemical processes or lithographic tools in combination with tuneable external electric and magnetic fields. Such systems are called 'Quantum Materials'. The electronic, photonic, and phononic properties of these systems are governed by size quantization and discrete energy levels. The charging is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. The spin can be manipulated by the geometrical structure, external gates and by integrating hybrid ferrom
Quantum Measurement Problem and Systems Selfdescription in Operators Algebras Formalism
Mayburov, S.
2002-01-01
Quantum Measurement problem studied in Information Theory approach of systems selfdescription which exploits the information acquisition incompleteness for the arbitrary information system. The studied model of measuring system (MS) consist of measured state S environment E and observer $O$ processing input S signal. $O$ considered as the quantum object which interaction with S,E obeys to Schrodinger equation (SE). MS incomplete or restricted states for $O$ derived by t...
Emergence of thermodynamic behavior within composite quantum systems
Mahler, Guenter; Gemmer, Jochen; Michel, Mathias
2005-01-01
Entanglement within a given device provides a potential resource for quantum information processing. Entanglement between system and environment leads to decoherence (thus suppressing non-classical features within the system) but also opens up a route to robust and universal control. The latter is related to thermodynamic equilibrium, a generic behavior of bi-partite quantum systems. Fingerprints of this equilibrium behavior (including relaxation and stability) show up alrea...
Energy-time uncertainty for driven quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive a generalization of the energy-time uncertainty relation for driven quantum systems based on the Bures geometric distance in Hilbert space and the concept of quantum speed limit. This relation is valid for arbitrary driving protocol and arbitrary distance between initial and final state.
Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms
Kaminaga, Y
1995-01-01
A general theory is presented of quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. Within that general theory, n-th order and m-th order Lagrangians are shown to be quantum mechanically equivalent if their difference is a total derivative.
Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms
Kaminaga, Yasuhito
1995-01-01
A general theory is presented of quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. Within that general theory, $n$-th order and $m$-th order Lagrangians are shown to be quantum mechanically equivalent if their difference is a total derivative.
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
Scardigli, Fabio(Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy)
2005-01-01
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this rule in the "quantum-like" language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed.
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this law in the 'quantum-like' language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
Scardigli, Fabio
2007-05-01
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this law in the "quantum-like" language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed.
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scardigli, Fabio [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2007-05-15
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this law in the 'quantum-like' language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed.
Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (–e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ? = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries
System-free quantum mechanical description of particle decay processes
Jaroszkiewicz, G
2006-01-01
Using the formalism of system-free quantum mechanics, we show how quantum mechanical particle decay probabilities can be discussed rigorously within a framework that conserves total probability, requiring neither non-Hermitian Hamiltonians nor the ad-hoc introduction of complex energies. We apply our formalism to single channel decays, the ammonium molecule, and neutral Kaon decay processes.
Quantum Knots and Lattices, or a Blueprint for Quantum Systems that Do Rope Tricks
Lomonaco, Samuel J
2009-01-01
Using the cubic honeycomb (cubic tessellation) of Euclidean 3-space, we define a quantum system whose states, called quantum knots, represent a closed knotted piece of rope, i.e., represent the particular spatial configuration of a knot tied in a rope in 3-space. This quantum system, called a quantum knot system, is physically implementable in the same sense as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm is implementable. To define a quantum knot system, we replace the standard three Reidemeister knot moves with an equivalent set of three moves, called respectively wiggle, wag, and tug, so named because they mimic how a dog might wag its tail. We argue that these moves are in fact more "physics friendly" because, unlike the Reidemeister moves, they respect the differential geometry of 3-space, and moreover they can be transformed into infinitesimal moves. These three moves wiggle, wag, and tug generate a unitary group, called the lattice ambient group, which acts on the state space of the quantum system. The lattice a...
Inequalities detecting quantum entanglement for 2 x d systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a set of inequalities for detecting quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states. For 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems, the inequalities give rise to sufficient and necessary separability conditions for both pure and mixed states. For the case of d>3, these inequalities are necessary conditions for separability, which detect all entangled states that are not positive under partial transposition and even some entangled states with positive partial transposition. These inequalities are given by mean values of local observables and present an experimental way of detecting the quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states and even multiqubit pure states.
Entanglement generation in spatially separated systems using quantum walk
Chandrashekar, C M; Banerjee, Subhashish
2010-01-01
We present a novel scheme to generate entanglement between two spatially separated systems. The scheme makes use of spatial entanglement generated by a single-particle quantum walk which is used to entangle two spatially separated, not necessarily correlated, systems. This scheme can be used to entangle any two systems which can interact with the spatial modes entangled during the quantum walk evolution. A notable feature is that we can control the quantum walk dynamics and its ability to localize leads to a substantial control and improvement in the entanglement output.
Hamiltonian of mean force for damped quantum systems
Hilt, Stefanie; Lutz, Eric
2011-01-01
We consider a quantum system linearly coupled to a reservoir of harmonic oscillators. For finite coupling strengths, the stationary distribution of the damped system is not of the Gibbs form, in contrast to standard thermodynamics. With the help of the quantum Hamiltonian of mean force, we quantify this deviation exactly for a harmonic oscillator and provide approximations in the limit of high and low temperatures, and weak and strong couplings. Moreover, in the semiclassical regime, we use the quantum Smoluchowski equation to obtain results valid for any potential. We, finally, give a physical interpretation of the deviation in terms of the initial system-reservoir coupling.
Dynamical suppression of decoherence in two-state quantum systems
Viola, L; Viola, Lorenza; Lloyd, Seth
1998-01-01
The dynamics of a decohering two-level system driven by a suitable control Hamiltonian is studied. The control procedure is implemented as a sequence of radiofrequency pulses that repetitively flip the state of the system, a technique that can be termed quantum "bang-bang" control after its classical analog. Decoherence introduced by the system's interaction with a quantum environment is shown to be washed out completely in the limit of continuous flipping and greatly suppressed provided the interval between the pulses is made comparable to the correlation time of the environment. The model suggests a strategy to fight against decoherence that complements existing quantum error-correction techniques.
Multi-particle correlations in quaternionic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors investigated the outcomes of measurements on correlated, few-body quantum systems described by a quaternionic quantum mechanics that allows for regions of quaternionic curvature. It was found that a multi particles interferometry experiment using a correlated system of four nonrelativistic, spin-half particles has the potential to detect the presence of quaternionic curvature. Two-body systems, however, are shown to give predictions identical to those of standard quantum mechanics when relative angles are used in the construction of the operators corresponding to measurements of particle spin components. 15 refs
Control of quantum correlations in solid state systems
Berrada, K.
2015-11-01
The quantum correlations between two independent qubits immersed in an anisotropic and isotropic photonic band-gab (PBG) crystal have been studied without Born or Markovian approximation. We show that the amount of the entanglement and quantum discord between the qubits in the photonic crystal is greatly different from that of qubits in vacuum or that subjected to the usual non-Markovian reservoir. The results also show that, for PBG materials as environment, high values of quantum correlation trapping can be achieved and thus prevention of correlation sudden drop occurs, which seriously enhances the coherence and increase the amount of the correlations. Moreover, we show that the quantum correlations in the isotropic PBG are more easily preserved than that in the anisotropic PBG under the same condition. These features make the quantum systems in PBG materials as a good candidate for implementation of different schemes of quantum optics and information with high performance.
The transfer dynamics of quantum correlation between systems and reservoirs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, we study the dynamics of quantum correlation (QC) in terms of quantum discord and its transfer for multiqubit systems in dissipative environments. At first, we investigate the dynamics of bipartite QC contained in a three-qubit system that are initially prepared in an extended W-like state with each qubit coupled to an independent reservoir. Subsequently, we study a realistic quantum network of several remote nodes each of which contains two qubits in contact with a common reservoir. For the simplest case of two nodes, we study the dynamics of QC and its transfer from the initially correlated system to the reservoirs and other degrees of freedom. In both models, we pay particular attention to the independent evolution and transfer of QC without the participation of entanglement when the systems of interest are initially prepared in unentangled states. We also observe the occurrence of sudden changes of quantum discord when the systems are initially in mixed states.
Quantum System under Periodic Perturbation Effect of Environment
Hotta, M; Matsumoto, S; Yoshimura, M; Matsumoto, Sh.
1996-01-01
In many physical situations the behavior of a quantum system is affected by interaction with a larger environment. We develop, using the method of influence functional, how to deduce the density matrix of the quantum system incorporating the effect of environment. After introducing characterization of the environment by spectral weight, we first devise schemes to approximate the spectral weight, and then a perturbation method in field theory models, in order to approximately describe the environment. All of these approximate models may be classified as extended Ohmic models of dissipation whose differences are in the high frequency part. The quantum system we deal with in the present work is a general class of harmonic oscillators with arbitrary time dependent frequency. The late time behavior of the system is well described by an approximation that employs a localized friction in the dissipative part of the correlation function appearing in the influence functional. The density matrix of the quantum system i...
Barnes, George L
2013-01-01
Simulations are performed of a small quantum system interacting with a quantum environment. The system consists of various initial states of two harmonic oscillators coupled to give normal modes. The environment is "designed" by its level pattern to have a thermodynamic temperature. A random coupling causes the system and environment to become entangled in the course of time evolution. The approach to a Boltzmann distribution is observed, and effective fitted temperatures close to the designed temperature are obtained. All initial pure states of the system are driven to equilibrium at very similar rates, with quick loss of memory of the initial state. The time evolution of the von Neumann entropy is calculated as a measure of equilibration and of quantum coherence. It is argued, contrary to common understanding, that quantum interference and coherence are eliminated only with maximal entropy, which corresponds thermally to infinite temperature. Implications of our results for the notion of "classicalizing" be...
Does an onlooker stop an evolving quantum system?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toschek, P E [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungius-Str.9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)
2007-10-15
The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of 'gedanken' experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory - thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: 1. The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, 2. the system's temporal evolution, and 3. the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed.An experiment designed to demonstrate this 'quantum Zeno effect' and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individualelectrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretation.
Does an onlooker stop an evolving quantum system?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of 'gedanken' experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory - thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: 1. The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, 2. the system's temporal evolution, and 3. the emergence of macroscopic reality out of the microcosmos. A well-known calculation shows the evolution of a quantum system being slowed down, or even obstructed, when the system is merely observed.An experiment designed to demonstrate this 'quantum Zeno effect' and performed in the late eighties on an ensemble of identical atomic ions confirmed its quantum description, but turned out inconclusive with respect to the very origin of the impediment of evolution. During the past years, experiments on individualelectrodynamically stored and laser-cooled ions have been performed that unequivocally demonstrate the observed system's quantum evolution being impeded. Strategy and results exclude any physical reaction on the measured object, but reveal the effect of the gain of information as put forward by the particular correlation of the ion state with the detected signal. They shed light on the process of measurement as well as on the quantum evolution and allow an epistemological interpretation
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino
2014-01-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms.
Holomorphic anomaly in the quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental and theoretical evidence which is accumulating in favor of the existence of a global sub-modular symmetry in the quantum Hall system is reviewed. The scaling data suggest that the zeros of the beta-function are effectively anti-holomorphic, and it is explained how this leads to a superuniversal scaling function. This motivates the first construction of a candidate beta-function which agrees with all scaling data, as well as the restrictions coming from both the perturbative and dilute instanton gas analysis of the non-linear sigma-model of planar charge transport. The key mathematical concept allowing global analysis of this non-holomorphic function is quasi-holomorphic automorphy, and a firm mathematical foundation is given which exhibits the intimate relationship with the holomorphic anomaly that appears in supersymmetric string- and field-theories in high energy physics. It is therefore natural to conjecture that quasi-holomorphy is simply a consequence of the well-known existence of an effective supersymmetry in the low-energy field theory of a disordered medium
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system.
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebjørn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pål; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekström, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernández, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hättig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenæs, Eirik; Høst, Stinne; Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansík, Branislav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; Jørgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnæs, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Sa?ek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Merás, Alfredo Sánchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Thøgersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Agren, Hans
2014-05-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller-Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629
The classical limit of non-integrable quantum systems, a route to quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical limit of non-integrable quantum systems is studied. We define non-integrable quantum systems as those, which have, as their classical limit, a non-integrable classical system. This quantum systems will be the candidates to be the models of quantum chaos. In order to obtain this limit, the self-induced decoherence approach and the corresponding classical limit are generalized from integrable to non-integrable systems. In this approach, the lost of information, usually conceived as the result of a coarse-graining or the trace of an environment, is produced by a particular choice of the algebra of observables and the systematic use of mean values, that project the unitary evolution onto an effective non-unitary one. By means of our method, we can obtain the classical limit of the quantum state of a non-integrable system, which turns out to be a set of unstable, potentially chaotic classical trajectories contained in the Wigner transformation of the quantum state
Quantum dot systems: artificial atoms with tunable properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum dots - also called zero-dimensional electron systems or artificial atoms - are physical objects where the constituent electrons are confined in a small spatial region, leading to discrete eigenvalues for the energies of the confined electrons. Large quantum dots offer a dense energy spectrum comparable to that of metallic grains, whereas small quantum dots more closely resemble atoms in their electronic properties. Quantum dots can be linked to leads by tunnel barriers, hence permitting electrical transport measurements: Coulomb blockade and single-electron charging effects are observed due to the repulsive electron electron interaction on the quantum dot site. Usually fabricated by conventional semiconductor growth and processing technology, the advantage is that both simple and also more complex quantum dot systems can be designed to purpose, acting as model systems with in-situ tunable parameters such as the number of confined electrons in the quantum dot and the strength of the tunnel coupling to the leads, electrostatically controlled by the applied voltages to gate electrodes. With increasing the tunnel coupling to the leads, the virtual occupation of the quantum dot from the leads becomes more and more important -- the simple description of electrical transport by single-electron tunneling events breaks down. The basic physics is described by the Kondo physics based on the Anderson impurity model. A system consisting of strongly electrostatically coupled quantum dots with separate leads to each quantum dot represent another realization of the Anderson impurity model. Experiments to verify the analogy are presented. The experimental data embedded within this tutorial have been obtained with Alexander Huebel, Matthias Keller, Joerg Schmid, David Quirion, Armin Welker, Ulf Wilhelm, and Klaus von Klitzing. (author)
Steering a quantum system over a Schroedinger bridge
Beghi, A.; Ferrante, A; Pavon, M.
2001-01-01
A new approach to the steering problem for quantum systems relying on Nelson's stochastic mechanics and on the theory of Schroedinger bridges is presented. The method is illustrated by working out a simple Gaussian example.
Frustration, Entanglement, and Correlations in Quantum Many Body Systems
Marzolino U.; Giampaolo S.M.; Illuminati F.
2013-01-01
We derive an exact lower bound to a universal measure of frustration in degenerate ground states of quantum many-body systems. The bound results in the sum of two contributions: entanglement and classical correlations arising from local measurements. We show that average frustration properties are completely determined by the behavior of the maximally mixed ground state. We identify sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to saturate the bound, and for models with tw...
Entanglement Generation in Spatially Separated Systems Using Quantum Walk
Goyal, Sandeep K.; C. M. Chandrashekar; Subhashish Banerjee
2012-01-01
We present a scheme for generating entanglement between two spatially separated systems from the spatial entanglement generated by the interference effect during the evolution of a single-particle quantum walk. Any two systems which can interact with the spatial modes entangled during the walk evolution can be entangled using this scheme. A notable feature is the ability to control the quantum walk dynamics and its localization at desired pair lattice sites irrespective of separation distance...
Plausibility of quantum coherent states in biological systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salari, V [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, CNRS UMR7590 (France); Tuszynski, J [Department of Experimental Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rahnama, M [Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bernroider, G, E-mail: vahid.salari@impmc.upmc.fr [Department of Organismic Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg (Austria)
2011-07-08
In this paper we briefly discuss the necessity of using quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory applicable to some key functional aspects of biological systems. This is especially relevant to three important parts of a neuron in the human brain, namely the cell membrane, microtubules (MT) and ion channels. We argue that the recently published papers criticizing the use of quantum theory in these systems are not convincing.
Integrable and superintegrable quantum systems in a magnetic field
Berube, J; Berube, Josee; Winternitz, Pavel
2004-01-01
Integrable quantum mechanical systems with magnetic fields are constructed in two-dimensional Euclidean space. The integral of motion is assumed to be a first or second order Hermitian operator. Contrary to the case of purely scalar potentials, quadratic integrability does not imply separation of variables in the Schroedinger equation. Moreover, quantum and classical integrable systems do not necessarily coincide: the Hamiltonian can depend on the Planck constant in a nontrivial manner.
Relativistic quantum econophysics - new paradigms in complex systems modelling
Saptsin, Vladimir; Soloviev, Vladimir
2009-01-01
This work deals with the new, relativistic direction in quantum econophysics, within the bounds of which a change of the classical paradigms in mathematical modelling of socio-economic system is offered. Classical physics proceeds from the hypothesis that immediate values of all the physical quantities, characterizing system's state, exist and can be accurately measured in principle. Non-relativistic quantum mechanics does not reject the existence of the immediate values of ...
Invisibility of quantum systems to tunneling of matter waves
Cordero, Sergio; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston
2009-01-01
We show that an appropriate choice of the potential parameters in one-dimensional quantum systems allows for unity transmission of the tunneling particle at all incident tunneling energies, except at controllable exceedingly small incident energies. The corresponding dwell time and the transmission amplitude are indistinguishable from those of a free particle in the unity-transmission regime. This implies the possibility of designing quantum systems that are invisible to tun...
Fourier's Law confirmed for a class of small quantum systems
Michel, M; Gemmer, J; Mahler, G; Michel, Mathias; Hartmann, Michael; Gemmer, Jochen; Mahler, Guenter
2003-01-01
Within the Lindblad formalism we consider an interacting spin chain coupled locally to heat baths. We investigate the dependence of the energy transport on the type of interaction in the system as well as on the overall interaction strength. For a large class of couplings we find a normal heat conduction and confirm Fourier's Law. In a fully quantum mechanical approach linear transport behavior appears to be generic even for small quantum systems.
Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation with Higher-Dimensional Systems
Gottesman, D
1998-01-01
Instead of a quantum computer where the fundamental units are 2-dimensional qubits, we can consider a quantum computer made up of d-dimensional systems. There is a straightforward generalization of the class of stabilizer codes to d-dimensional systems, and I will discuss the theory of fault-tolerant computation using such codes. I prove that universal fault-tolerant computation is possible with any higher-dimensional stabilizer code for prime d.
Quantum speed limit in a qubit-spin-bath system
Hou, Lu; Shao, Bin; Wei, Yong-Bo; Zou, Jian
2015-12-01
We investigate the behavior of quantum speed limit (QSL) time for a typical non-Markovian system, a central spin coupled to a spin star configuration. We connect the QSL time with an external control and show that the effectiveness of the external magnetic field, as well as the coupling strength, is related to the fundamental bounds that affect the maximum speed at which a quantum system can evolve in its state space. We also demonstrate that a spin bath with larger size may shorten the QSL time, while the upper state population plays an important role for the acceleration of quantum evolution in the memory surrounding.
Rate equations for quantum transport in multi-dot systems
Gurvitz, S A
1998-01-01
Starting with the many-body Schrödinger equation we derive new rate equations for resonant transport in quantum dots linked by ballistic channels with high density of states. It is shown that the current in such a system displays quantum coherence effects, even if the dots are away one from another. A comparative analysis of quantum coherence effects in coupled and separated dots is presented. The rate equations are extended for description of coherent and incoherent transport in arbitrary multi-dot systems. It is demonstrated that new rate equations constitute a generalization of the well-known optical Bloch equations.
Emergent quantum jumps in a nano-electro-mechanical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe a nano-electro-mechanical system that exhibits the 'retroactive' quantum jumps discovered by Mabuchi and Wiseman (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 4620). This system consists of a Cooper-pair box coupled to a nano-mechanical resonator, in which the latter is continuously monitored by a single-electron transistor or quantum point contact. Further, we show that these kinds of jumps, and the jumps that emerge in a continuous quantum non-demolition measurement, are one and the same phenomena. We also consider manipulating the jumps by applying feedback control to the Cooper-pair box. (fast track communication)
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for rovibrational states of molecular systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blume, D. [Max?Planck?Institut für Strömungsforschung, Bunsenstr.10, D?37073 Göttingen, Germany and Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lewerenz, M.; Whaley, K. B. [Max?Planck?Institut für Strömungsforschung, Bunsenstr.10, D?37073 Göttingen (Germany)
1997-12-01
We present applications to molecular problems of a recently developed quantum Monte Carlo algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 55, 3664 (1997)] for the calculation of excited state energies of multi?dimensional quantum systems, employing a projection operator imaginary time spectral evolution (POITSE). The extraction of vibrational energies is demonstrated on a double well potential and on two coupled harmonic oscillators, and on excited rotational states of a rotating harmonic oscillator. All energies extracted by the quantum Monte Carlo algorithm are in good agreement with exact results, showing that the new method is very promising for the calculation of tunneling splittings, and of vibrational and rotational excitations in real multi?dimensional molecular systems.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for rovibrational states of molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present applications to molecular problems of a recently developed quantum Monte Carlo algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 55, 3664 (1997)] for the calculation of excited state energies of multi?dimensional quantum systems, employing a projection operator imaginary time spectral evolution (POITSE). The extraction of vibrational energies is demonstrated on a double well potential and on two coupled harmonic oscillators, and on excited rotational states of a rotating harmonic oscillator. All energies extracted by the quantum Monte Carlo algorithm are in good agreement with exact results, showing that the new method is very promising for the calculation of tunneling splittings, and of vibrational and rotational excitations in real multi?dimensional molecular systems
Fidelity and entanglement fidelity for infinite-dimensional quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Instead of unitary freedom for finite-dimensional cases, bi-contractive freedom in the operator-sum representation for quantum channels of infinite-dimensional systems is established. Specifically, if the channel sends every pure state to a finite rank state, then the isometric freedom feature holds. Then, a method of computing entanglement fidelity and a relation between quantum fidelity and entanglement fidelity for infinite-dimensional systems are obtained. In addition, upper and lower bounds of the quantum fidelity, and their connection to the trace distance, are also provided. (paper)
Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit
Sachdev, S
1995-01-01
We study the finite temperature crossovers in the vicinity of a zero temperature quantum phase transition. The universal crossover functions are observables of a continuum quantum field theory. Particular attention is focussed on the high temperature limit of the continuum field theory, the so-called ``quantum-critical'' region. Basic features of crossovers are illustrated by a simple solvable model of dilute spinless fermions, and a partially solvable model of dilute bosons. The low frequency relaxational behavior of the quantum-critical region is displayed in the solution of the transverse-field Ising model. The insights from these simple models lead to a fairly complete understanding of the system of primary interest: the two-dimensional quantum rotor model, whose phase transition is expected to be in the same universality class as those in antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin models. Recent work on the experimental implications of these results for the cuprate compounds is briefly reviewed.
Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)
2011-12-13
The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.
Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems
Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)
2011-12-13
The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.
Measurement theory for closed quantum systems
Wouters, Michiel
2014-01-01
We introduce the concept of a "classical observable" as an operator with vanishingly small quantum fluctuations on a set of density matrices. It is shown how to construct them for a time evolved pure state. The study of classical observables provides a natural starting point to analyse the quantum measurement problem. In particular, it allows to identify Schr\\"odinger cats and the associated projection operators intrinsically, without the need to invoke an environment. We di...
On the response of quantum linear systems to single photon input fields
Zhang, Guofeng; James, Matthew R.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to extend linear systems and signals theory to include single photon quantum signals. We provide detailed results describing how quantum linear systems respond to multichannel single photon quantum signals. In particular, we characterize the class of states (which we call {\\em photon-Gaussian} states) that result when multichannel photons are input to a quantum linear system. We show that this class of quantum states is preserved by quantum linea...
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwager, Heike
2012-07-04
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with subwavelength interatomic distances that exhibits long rage interactions. What lies at the heart of all these approaches is the endeavour to include the coupling to the environment into the description of the physical system with the aim of harnessing dissipative processes. While decoherence masks or destroys quantum effects and is considered as the main adversary of any quantum information application, we turn the existence of the dissipative coupling of spin systems to the environment into a fruitful resource.
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with subwavelength interatomic distances that exhibits long rage interactions. What lies at the heart of all these approaches is the endeavour to include the coupling to the environment into the description of the physical system with the aim of harnessing dissipative processes. While decoherence masks or destroys quantum effects and is considered as the main adversary of any quantum information application, we turn the existence of the dissipative coupling of spin systems to the environment into a fruitful resource.
Javadi, Alisa; Sapienza, Luca; Thyrrestrup, Henri; Lodahl, Peter
2013-01-01
Optical nanostructures have proven to be meritorious for tailoring the emission properties of quantum emitters. However, unavoidable fabrication imperfections may represent a nuisance. Quite remarkably, disorder offers new opportunities since light can be efficiently confined by random multiple scattering leading to Anderson localization. Here we investigate the effect of such disorder-induced cavities on the emission dynamics of single quantum dots embedded in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides. We present time-resolved measurements of both the total emission from Anderson-localized cavities and from single emitters that are coupled to the cavities. We observe both strongly inhibited and enhanced decay rates relative to the rate of spontaneous emission in a homogeneous medium. From a statistical analysis, we report an average Purcell factor of 2 in without any control on the quantum dot - cavity detuning. By spectrally tuning individual quantum dots into resonance with Anderson-localized modes, a maximum...
Manipulating quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces
Zhang, Ming
2010-01-01
In this paper, we explore how to constructively manipulate quantum information on the controllable systems or subspaces. It is revealed that one can make full use of distinguished properties of Pauli operators to design control Hamiltonian based on the geometric parametrization of quantum states. It is demonstrated in this research that Bang-Bang controls, triangle-function controls and square-function control can be utilized to manipulate controllable qubits or encoded qubits on controllable subspace for both open quantum dynamical systems and uncontrollable closed quantum dynamical systems. Furthermore, we propose a new kind of time-energy performance index to trade-off time and energy resource cost, and comprehensively discuss how to design control magnitude to minimize a kind of time-energy performance. A comparison has been made among these three kind of optimal control. It is underlined in this research that the optimal time performance can be always expressed as J^{*} =\\lamda{\\cdot}t^{*}_{f} +E^{*} for...
A tunable macroscopic quantum system based on two fractional vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a tunable macroscopic quantum system based on two fractional vortices. Our analysis shows that two coupled fractional vortices pinned at two artificially created ? discontinuities of the Josephson phase in a long Josephson junction can reach the quantum regime where coherent quantum oscillations arise. For this purpose we map the dynamics of this system to that of a single particle in a double-well potential. By tuning the ? discontinuities with injector currents, we are able to control the parameters of the effective double-well potential as well as to prepare a desired state of the fractional vortex molecule. The values of the parameters derived from this model suggest that an experimental realization of this tunable macroscopic quantum system is possible with today's technology. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum discrete sine-Gordon model at roots of 1 is studied. It is shown that this model provides an example of an integrable quantum system in an integrable classical background. In particular, the spectrum of quantum integrals of motions in this model depends only on the values of integrals of motion of a background classical system. (orig.). With 1 fig
Does an isolated many body quantum system relax?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Understanding non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems is crucial for many fundamental and applied physics problems ranging from de-coherence and equilibration to the development of future quantum technologies such as quantum computers, which are inherently non-equilibrium quantum systems. One of the biggest challenges in probing non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems is that there is no general approach to characterize the resulting quantum states. Using the full distribution functions of a quantum observable [1,2], and the full phase correlation functions allows us to study the relaxation dynamics in one-dimensional quantum systems and to characterize the underlying many body states. Interfering two isolated one-dimensional quantum gases we study how the coherence created between the two many body systems by the splitting process slowly dies by coupling to the many internal degrees of freedom available. Two distinct regimes are clearly visible: for short length scales the system is characterized by spin diffusion, for long length scales by spin decay [3]. The system approaches a pre-thermalized state [4], which is characterized by thermal like distribution functions but exhibits an effective temperature over five times lower than the kinetic temperature of the initial system. A detailed study of the correlation functions reveals that these thermal-like properties emerge locally in their final form and propagate through the system in a light-cone-like evolution [5]. Furthermore we demonstrate that the pre-thermalized state is connected to a Generalized Gibbs Ensemble and that its higher order correlation functions factorize. Finally we show two distinct ways for subsequent evolution away from the pre-thermalized state. One proceeds by further de-phasing, the other by higher order phonon scattering processes. In both cases the final state is indistinguishable from a thermally relaxed state. We conjecture that our experiments points to a universal way through which relaxation in isolated many body quantum systems proceeds if the low energy dynamics is dominated by long lived excitations. [1] A. Polkovnikov, et al. PNAS 103, 6125 (2006); V. Gritsev, et al., Nature Phys. 2, 705 (2006). [2] S. Hofferberth et al. Nature Physics 4, 489 (2008). [3] M. Kuhnert et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 110, 090405 (2013). [4] M. Gring et al., Science 337, 1318 (2012); D. Adu Smith et al. NJP 15, 075011 (2013). [5] T. Langen et al. Nature Physics 9, 640643 (2013). (author)
Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan [Sharif University of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-05-15
The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)
Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)
The entropy power inequality for quantum systems
Koenig, Robert
2012-01-01
When two independent analog signals, X and Y are added together giving Z=X+Y, the entropy of Z, H(Z), is not a simple function of the entropies H(X) and H(Y), but rather depends on the details of X and Y's distributions. Nevertheless, the entropy power inequality (EPI), which states that exp [2H(Z)] \\geq exp[2H(X) + exp[2H(Y)], gives a very tight restriction on the entropy of Z. This inequality has found many applications in information theory and statistics. The quantum analogue of adding two random variables is the combination of two independent bosonic modes at a beam splitter. The purpose of this work is to give a detailed outline of the proof of two separate generalizations of the entropy power inequality to the quantum regime. Our proofs are similar in spirit to standard classical proofs of the EPI, but some new quantities and ideas are needed in the quantum setting. Specifically, we find a new quantum de Bruijin identity relating entropy production under diffusion to a divergence-based quantum Fisher i...
Emergence of thermodynamic behavior within composite quantum systems
Mahler, G; Michel, M; Mahler, Guenter; Gemmer, Jochen; Michel, Mathias
2005-01-01
Entanglement within a given device provides a potential resource for quantum information processing. Entanglement between system and environment leads to decoherence (thus suppressing non-classical features within the system) but also opens up a route to robust and universal control. The latter is related to thermodynamic equilibrium, a generic behavior of bi-partite quantum systems. Fingerprints of this equilibrium behavior (including relaxation and stability) show up already far from the thermodynamic limit, where a complete solution of the underlying Schroedinger dynamics of the total system is still feasible.
Ablayev, F. M.; Andrianov, S. N.; Moiseev, S. A.; Vasiliev, A.V.
2013-01-01
We propose an effective realization of the universal set of elementary quantum gates in solid state quantum computer based on macroscopic (or mesoscopic) resonance systems - multi-atomic coherent ensembles, squids or quantum dots in quantum electrodynamic cavity. We exploit an encoding of logical qubits by the pairs of the macroscopic two- or three-level atoms that is working in a Hilbert subspace of all states inherent to these atomic systems. In this subspace, logical sing...
Atomic quantum systems in optical micro-structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We combine state-of-the-art technology in micro-optics with the quantum optical techniques of laser cooling, laser trapping, and quantum control to open a new gateway for quantum information processing and matter wave optics with atomic systems. We use micro-fabricated optical systems to create light fields that allow us to trap and guide neutral atoms as a result of the optical dipole force experienced by the atoms. The realization of arrays of laser traps that can serve as registers for atomic quantum bits and as integrated waveguide structures for atom optics and atom interferometry has been achieved. This approach opens the possibility to scale, parallelize, and miniaturize systems for quantum information processing and atom optics. Currently we investigate the production of quantum-degenerate systems in pure optical trapping geometries and the coherent manipulation (1-qubit rotations, Ramsey-oscillations, spin-echo experiments) of internal qubit states for atoms trapped in arrays of dipole traps (author)
Method for adding nodes to a quantum key distribution system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grice, Warren P
2015-02-24
An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.
Quantum phase transitions and quantum communication in a spin star system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a generalized spin star system which can be solved exactly, with the central spin-1/2 system embedded in a bath of N spin-1/2 particles. In this system, in addition to the central-outer couplings, each pair of nearest neighbours of the bath spins interacts within themselves. The general expressions of the eigenstates as well as the eigenvalues of the model are derived with the use of symmetries of the system. We then investigate the quantum phase transitions in some limiting cases and show that the occurrence of the quantum phase transitions can be obtained by varying the external control parameters. We further analyse the properties of quantum communication in this model. In the time evolution, some simple and interesting results are discovered concerning transfer fidelity, cloning fidelity, as well as entanglements created
Real-time simulation of dissipation-driven quantum systems
Banerjee, Debasish; Jiang, Fu-Jiun; Kon, Mark; Wiese, Uwe-Jens
2015-01-01
We set up a real-time path integral to study the evolution of quantum systems driven in real-time completely by the coupling of the system to the environment. For specifically chosen interactions, this can be interpreted as measurements being performed on the system. For a spin-1/2 system, in particular, when the measurement results are averaged over, the resulting sign problem completely disappears, and the system can be simulated with an efficient cluster algorithm.
Quantum information transfer between topological and spin qubit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this talk I introduce a method to coherently transfer quantum information, and to create entanglement, between topological qubits and conventional spin qubits. The transfer method uses gated control to transfer an electron (spin qubit) between a quantum dot and edge Majorana modes in adjacent topological superconductors. Because of the spin polarization of the Majorana modes, the electron transfer translates spin superposition states into superposition states of the Majorana system, and vice versa. Furthermore, I discuss how a topological superconductor can be used to facilitate long-distance quantum information transfer and entanglement between spatially separated spin qubits.
Time-resolved electron transport in quantum-dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis the time-resolved electron transport in quantum dot systems was studied. For this two different formalisms were presented: The nonequilibrium Green functions and the generalized quantum master equations. For both formalisms a propagation method for the numerical calculation of time-resolved expectation values, like the occupation and the electron current, was developed. For the demonstration of the propagation method two different question formulations were considered. On the one hand the stochastically driven resonant-level model was studied. On the other hand the pulse-induced transport through a double quantum dot was considered.
Bohr-Heisenberg Reality and System-Free Quantum Mechanics
Jaroszkiewicz, G; Jaroszkiewicz, George; Eakins, Jon
2007-01-01
Motivated by Heisenberg's assertion that electron trajectories do not exist until they are observed, we present a new approach to quantum mechanics in which the concept of observer independent system under observation is eliminated. Instead, the focus is only on observers and apparatus, the former describing the latter in terms of labstates. These are quantum states over time-dependent Heisenberg nets, which are quantum registers of qubits representing information gateways accessible to the observers. We discuss the motivation for this approach and lay down the basic principles and mathematical notation.
Scalar material reference systems and loop quantum gravity
Giesel, K.; Thiemann, T.
2015-07-01
In the past, the possibility to employ (scalar) material reference systems in order to describe classical and quantum gravity directly in terms of gauge invariant (Dirac) observables has been emphasized frequently. This idea has been picked up more recently in loop quantum gravity with the aim to perform a reduced phase space quantization of the theory, thus possibly avoiding problems with the (Dirac) operator constraint quantization method for a constrained system. In this work, we review the models that have been studied on the classical and/or the quantum level and parametrize the space of theories considered so far. We then describe the quantum theory of a model that, to the best of our knowledge, has only been considered classically so far. This model could arguably be called the optimal one in this class of models considered as it displays the simplest possible true Hamiltonian, while at the same time reducing all constraints of general relativity.
Decoherence of Macroscopic Closed Systems within Newtonian Quantum Gravity
Kay, B S
1998-01-01
A theory recently proposed by the author aims to explain decoherence and the thermodynamical behaviour of closed systems within a conservative, unitary, framework for quantum gravity by assuming that the operators tied to the gravitational degrees of freedom are unobservable and equating physical entropy with matter-gravity entanglement entropy. Here we obtain preliminary results on the extent of decoherence this theory predicts. We treat first a static state which, if one were to ignore quantum gravitational effects, would be a quantum superposition of two spatially displaced states of a single classically well describable ball of uniform mass density in empty space. Estimating the quantum gravitational effects on this system within a simple Newtonian approximation, we obtain formulae which predict e.g. that as long as the mass of the ball is considerably larger than the Planck mass, such a would-be-coherent static superposition will actually be decohered whenever the separation of the centres of mass of the...
Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.
Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-06-01
Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm. PMID:25167475
Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rapcan, P. [Research Center for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Calsamiglia, J.; Munoz-Tapia, R. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Bagan, E. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Buzek, V. [Research Center for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, CZ-602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)
2011-09-15
Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system collapses into a postmeasurement state from which the same observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or can scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and we study the classical limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In addition to the case where all observers perform most informative measurements, we study the scenario where a finite number of observers estimates the state with equal fidelity, regardless of their position in the measurement sequence and the scenario where all observers use identical measurement apparatuses (up to a mutually unknown orientation) chosen so that a particular observer's estimation fidelity is maximized.
Modeling a quantum Hall system via elliptic equations
Sowa, Artur
2008-01-01
Quantum Hall systems are a suitable theme for a case study in the general area of nanotechnology. In particular, it is a good framework for considering such general problems as nanosystem modeling, and nanosystem-specific signal processing. It has been demonstrated in my recent work--A. Sowa, Fractional quantization of Hall resistance as a consequence of mesoscopic feedback, Russ. J. Math. Phys., Vol. 15, No.1 (2008), 122-127--how to construct a simple model of a quantum Hall system. Briefly speaking, this is achieved by complementing the Schroedinger dynamics with a special type of nonlinear feedback loop. This result stems from a novel systematic approach to describing quantum Hall systems. In particular, our analysis of such systems implicitly involves the notion of quantum entanglement. In this article we undertake to modify the original model of a quantum Hall system by substituting the dynamics based on the Dirac operator. This leads to a model that consists of a system of three nonlinearly coupled firs...
Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems
Islam, Md. Saiful; Hafiz, Mohd. Zulfiquar; begum, Zerina
2011-01-01
Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable prope...
Canonical Typicality of Energy Eigenstates of an Isolated Quantum System
Dymarsky, Anatoly
2015-01-01
Currently there are two main approaches to describe how quantum statistical physics emerges from an isolated quantum many-body system in a pure state: Canonical Typicality (CT) and Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH). These two approaches has different but overlapping areas of validity, phenomenology and set of physical outcomes. In this paper we discuss the relation between CT and ETH and propose a formulation of ETH in terms of the reduced density matrix. We provide strong numerical evidences for the proposal.
Quantum mechanics of rapidly and periodically driven systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Malay Bandyopadhyay; Sushanta Dattagupta
2008-03-01
This review deals with the dynamics of quantum systems that are subject to high frequency external perturbations. Though the problem may look hopelessly time-dependent, and poised on the extreme opposite side of adiabaticity, there exists a `Kapitza Window' over which the dynamics can be treated in terms of effective time-independent Hamiltonians. The consequent results are important in the context of atomic traps as well as quantum optic properties of atoms in intense and high-frequency electromagnetic fields.
Strong exciton–photon coupling in semiconductor quantum dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An overview is given on strong coupling phenomena in semiconductor quantum dot systems by utilizing cavity-enhanced light–matter interaction. The basic theory on strong coupling, the quantum dot and cavity fabrication technologies are reviewed while mainly three approaches are highlighted, i.e., micropillar, photonic crystal and microdisc cavities. The first and recent strong coupling experiments and the impact for future work are discussed. (topical review)
Spin Ensemble Density Functional Theory for Inhomogeneous Quantum Hall Systems
Lubin, M I; Johnson, M D
1997-01-01
We have developed an ensemble density functional theory which includes spin degrees of freedom for nonuniform quantum Hall systems. We have applied this theory using a local-spin-density approximation to study the edge reconstruction of parabolically confined quantum dots. For a Zeeman splitting below a certain critical value, the edge of completely polarized maximum density droplet reconstructs into a spin-unpolarized structure. For larger Zeeman splittings, the edge remains polarized and develops an exchange hole.
Nonlinear Transport through Coupled Double Quantum Dot Systems
Kotlyar, R
1997-01-01
We investigate sequential tunneling transport through a semiconductor double quantum dot structure by combining a simple microscopic quantum confinement model with a Mott-Hubbard type correlation model. We calculate nonperturbatively the evolution of the Coulomb blockade oscillations as a function of the interdot barrier conductance, obtaining good qualitative agreement with the experimental data over the whole tunneling regime from the weak-coupling individual dot to the strong-coupling coherent double-dot molecular system.
Far from equilibrium energy flow in quantum critical systems
Bhaseen, M J; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad
2013-01-01
We investigate far from equilibrium energy transport in strongly coupled quantum critical systems. Combining results from gauge-gravity duality, relativistic hydrodynamics, and quantum field theory, we argue that long-time energy transport occurs via a universal steady-state for any spatial dimensionality. This is described by a boosted thermal state. We determine the transport properties of this emergent steady state, including the average energy flow and its long-time fluctuations.
Unitarity as preservation of entropy and entanglement in quantum systems
Hulpke, Florian; Poulsen, Uffe V.; Sanpera, Anna; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej
2004-01-01
The logical structure of Quantum Mechanics (QM) and its relation to other fundamental principles of Nature has been for decades a subject of intensive research. In particular, the question whether the dynamical axiom of QM can be derived from other principles has been often considered. In this contribution, we show that unitary evolutions arise as a consequences of demanding preservation of entropy in the evolution of a single pure quantum system, and preservation of entangl...
Quantum Dynamical Entropies and Complexity in Dynamical Systems
Cappellini, Valerio
2004-01-01
We analyze the behaviour of two quantum dynamical entropies in connection with the classical limit. Using strongly chaotic classical dynamical systems as models (Arnold Cat Maps and Sawtooth Maps), we also propose a discretization procedure that resembles quantization; even in this case, studies of quantum dynamical entropy production are carried out and the connection with the continuous limit is explored. In both case (quantization and discretization) the entropy productio...
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND STATIONARY STATES OF QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Thus, it is proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves
Entanglement dynamics in quantum many-body systems
Ho, Wen Wei
2015-01-01
We study entanglement growth in quantum many-body systems and propose a method to experimentally measure it. We show that entanglement growth is related to the spreading of local operators. In ergodic systems, linear spreading of operators results in a universal, linear in time growth of entanglement for initial product states, in contrast to the logarithmic growth of entanglement in many-body localized (MBL) systems. Furthermore, we show that entanglement growth is directly related to the decay of the Loschmidt echo in a composite system comprised of many copies of the original system, subject to a perturbation that reconnects different parts of the system. Exponential decay of the Loschmidt echo, characteristic of ergodic systems, implies linear growth of entanglement. Our proposal to experimentally measure entanglement growth uses a quantum switch (two-level system) which controls connections in the composite system. By measuring only the switch's dynamics, the growth of the R\\'enyi entropies can be extrac...
Teleportation of general finite dimensional quantum systems
Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao-Ming
2000-01-01
Teleportation of finite dimensional quantum states by a non-local entangled state is studied. For a generally given entangled state, an explicit equation that governs the teleportation is presented. Detailed examples and the roles played by the dimensions of the Hilbert spaces related to the sender, receiver and the auxiliary space are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle
De Roeck, W.; Maes, C.; Neto?ný, K.; Schütz, M.
2015-02-01
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Roeck, W., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: netocny@fzu.cz, E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Maes, C., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: netocny@fzu.cz, E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be; Schütz, M., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: netocny@fzu.cz, E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Neto?ný, K., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: christian.maes@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: netocny@fzu.cz, E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be [Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2015-02-15
We study the projection on classical spins starting from quantum equilibria. We show Gibbsianness or quasi-locality of the resulting classical spin system for a class of gapped quantum systems at low temperatures including quantum ground states. A consequence of Gibbsianness is the validity of a large deviation principle in the quantum system which is known and here recovered in regimes of high temperature or for thermal states in one dimension. On the other hand, we give an example of a quantum ground state with strong nonlocality in the classical restriction, giving rise to what we call measurement induced entanglement and still satisfying a large deviation principle.
Sliding Mode Control of Two-Level Quantum Systems
Dong, Daoyi
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a robust control method based on sliding mode design for two-level quantum systems with bounded uncertainties. An eigenstate of the two-level quantum system is identified as a sliding mode. The objective is to design a control law to steer the system's state into the sliding mode domain and then maintain it in that domain when bounded uncertainties exist in the system Hamiltonian. We propose a controller design method using the Lyapunov methodology and periodic projective measurements. In particular, we give conditions for designing such a control law, which can guarantee the desired robustness in the presence of the uncertainties. The sliding mode control method has potential applications to quantum information processing with uncertainties.
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
Dehesa, J S; Sánchez-Moreno, P S; Yáñez, R J
2010-01-01
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems
Suomela, S.; Salmilehto, J.; Savenko, I. G.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Möttönen, M.
2015-02-01
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions.
Universal response of quantum systems with chaotic dynamics.
Wisniacki, Diego A; Ares, Natalia; Vergini, Eduardo G
2010-06-25
The prediction of the response of a closed system to external perturbations is one of the central problems in quantum mechanics, and in this respect, the local density of states (LDOS) provides an in-depth description of such a response. The LDOS is the distribution of the overlaps squared connecting the set of eigenfunctions with the perturbed one. Here, we show that in the case of closed systems with classically chaotic dynamics, the LDOS is a Breit-Wigner distribution under very general perturbations of arbitrary high intensity. Consequently, we derive a semiclassical expression for the width of the LDOS which is shown to be very accurate for paradigmatic systems of quantum chaos. This Letter demonstrates the universal response of quantum systems with classically chaotic dynamics. PMID:20867383
Multi-scale analysis for random quantum systems with interaction
Chulaevsky, Victor
2014-01-01
The study of quantum disorder has generated considerable research activity in mathematics and physics over past 40 years. While single-particle models have been extensively studied at a rigorous mathematical level, little was known about systems of several interacting particles, let alone systems with positive spatial particle density. Creating a consistent theory of disorder in multi-particle quantum systems is an important and challenging problem that largely remains open. Multi-scale Analysis for Random Quantum Systems with Interaction presents the progress that had been recently achieved in this area. The main focus of the book is on a rigorous derivation of the multi-particle localization in a strong random external potential field. To make the presentation accessible to a wider audience, the authors restrict attention to a relatively simple tight-binding Anderson model on a cubic lattice Zd. This book includes the following cutting-edge features: * an introduction to the state-of-the-art single-...
Quantum Criticality and Superconductivity in Spin and Charge Systems
Saxena, Siddharth
2013-06-01
This talk will focus on experimental search and discovery of novel forms of quantum order in metallic and insulating magnets, intercalated compounds, ferroelectric systems and multi-ferroic materials. Particularly discussed will be the pressure-induced superconductivity and critical phenomena in the vicinity of quantum phase transitions. Materials tuned to the neighbourhood of a zero temperature phase transition often show the emergence of novel quantum phenomena. Much of the effort to study these new emergent effects, like the breakdown of the conventional Fermi-liquid theory in metals has been focused in narrow band electronic systems. But Spin or Charge ordered phases in insulating systems can also be tuned to absolute zero using hydrostatic pressure. Close to such a zero temperature phase transition, physical quantities like resistivity, magnetisation and dielectrics constant change into radically unconventional forms due to the fluctuations experienced in this region giving rise to new kinds ordered states including superconductivity in the metallic systems.
Quantum dynamics of bio-molecular systems in noisy environments
Plenio, M B
2012-01-01
We discuss three different aspects of the quantum dynamics of bio-molecular systems and more generally complex networks in the presence of strongly coupled environments. Firstly, we make a case for the systematic study of fundamental structural elements underlying the quantum dynamics of these systems, identify such elements and explore the resulting interplay of quantum dynamics and environmental decoherence. Secondly, we critically examine some existing approaches to the numerical description of system-environment interaction in the non-perturbative regime and present a promising new method that can overcome some limitations of existing methods. Thirdly, we present an approach towards deciding and quantifying the non-classicality of the action of the environment and the observed system-dynamics. We stress the relevance of these tools for strengthening the interplay between theoretical and experimental research in this field.
An Online Banking System Based on Quantum Cryptography Communication
Zhou, Ri-gui; Li, Wei; Huan, Tian-tian; Shen, Chen-yi; Li, Hai-sheng
2014-07-01
In this paper, an online banking system has been built. Based on quantum cryptography communication, this system is proved unconditional secure. Two sets of GHZ states are applied, which can ensure the safety of purchase and payment, respectively. In another word, three trading participants in each triplet state group form an interdependent and interactive relationship. In the meantime, trading authorization and blind signature is introduced by means of controllable quantum teleportation. Thus, an effective monitor is practiced on the premise that the privacy of trading partners is guaranteed. If there is a dispute or deceptive behavior, the system will find out the deceiver immediately according to the relationship mentioned above.
Closed-Loop and Robust Control of Quantum Systems
Chunlin Chen; Lin-Cheng Wang; Yuanlong Wang
2013-01-01
For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of b...
Quantum control of infinite-dimensional many-body systems
Bliss, Roger S.; Burgarth, Daniel
2014-03-01
A major challenge to the control of infinite-dimensional quantum systems is the irreversibility which is often present in the system dynamics. Here we consider systems with discrete-spectrum Hamiltonians operating over a Schwartz space domain and show that by utilizing the implications of the quantum recurrence theorem this irreversibility may be overcome, in the case of individual states more generally, but also in certain specified cases over larger subsets of the Hilbert space. We discuss briefly the possibility of using these results in the control of infinite-dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators and also draw attention to some of the issues and open questions arising from this and related work.
Alternative routes to equivalent classical models of a quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coarse-graining of some sort is a fundamental and unavoidable step in any attempt to derive the classical mechanical behavior from the quantum formalism. We utilize the two-mode Bose—Hubbard model to illustrate how different coarse-grained systems can be naturally associated with a fixed quantum system if it is compatible with different dynamical algebras. Alternative coarse-grained systems generate different evolutions of the same physical quantities, and the difference becomes negligible only in the appropriate macro-limit. (general)
Alternative routes to equivalent classical models of a quantum system
Radonji?, M.; Slobodan, Prvanovi?; Nikola, Buri?
2012-12-01
Coarse-graining of some sort is a fundamental and unavoidable step in any attempt to derive the classical mechanical behavior from the quantum formalism. We utilize the two-mode Bose—Hubbard model to illustrate how different coarse-grained systems can be naturally associated with a fixed quantum system if it is compatible with different dynamical algebras. Alternative coarse-grained systems generate different evolutions of the same physical quantities, and the difference becomes negligible only in the appropriate macro-limit.
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Gerald
2008-11-03
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)
Numerical approaches to complex quantum, semiclassical and classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we analyse the capabilities of several numerical techniques for the description of different physical systems. Thereby, the considered systems range from quantum over semiclassical to classical and from few- to many-particle systems. In chapter 1 we investigate the behaviour of a single quantum particle in the presence of an external disordered background (static potentials). Starting from the quantum percolation problem, we address the fundamental question of a disorder induced (Anderson-) transition from extended to localised single-particle eigenstates. Distinguishing isolating from conducting states by applying a local distribution approach for the local density of states (LDOS), we detect the quantum percolation threshold in two- and three-dimensions. Extending the quantum percolation model to a quantum random resistor model, we comment on the possible relevance of our results to the influence of disorder on the conductivity in graphene sheets. For the calculation of the LDOS as well as for the Chebyshev expansion of the time evolution operator, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) is the key numerical technique. In chapter 2 we examine how a single quantum particle is influenced by retarded bosonic fields that are inherent to the system. Within the Holstein model, these bosonic degrees of freedom (phonons) give rise to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space, posing a true many-particle problem. Constituting a minimal model for polaron formation, the Holstein model allows us to study the optical absorption and activated transport in polaronic systems. Using a two-dimensional variant of the KPM, we calculate for the first time quasi-exactly the optical absorption and dc-conductivity as a function of temperature. In chapter 3 we come back to the time evolution of a quantum particle in an external, static potential and investigate the capability of semiclassical approximations to it. We address basic quantum effects as tunneling, interference and anharmonicity. To this end we consider the linearised semiclassical propagator method, the Wigner-Moyal approach and the recently proposed quantum tomography. Finally, in chapter 4 we calculate the dynamics of a classical many-particle system under the influence of external fields. Considering a low-temperature rf-plasma, we investigate the interplay of the plasma dynamics and the motion of dust particles, immersed into the plasma for diagnostic reasons. (orig.)
Multi-time correlations in relaxing quantum dynamical systems
Andries, J; De Cock, M; Fannes, M
2000-01-01
In this paper, we consider the long time asymptotics of multi-time correlation functions for quantum dynamical systems that are sufficiently random to relax to a ``reference state''. In particular, the evolution of such systems must have a continuous spectrum. Special attention is paid to general dynamical clustering conditions and their consequences for the structure of fluctuations of temporal averages.
On the complete ionization of a periodically perturbed quantum system
Costin, O; Rokhlenko, A
2000-01-01
We analyze the time evolution of a one-dimensional quantum system with zerorange potential under time periodic parametric perturbation of arbitrarystrength and frequency. We show that the projection of the wave function on thebound state vanishes, i.e. the system gets fully ionized, as time growsindefinitely.
Special entangled quantum systems and the Freudenthal construction
Vrana, Péter; Lévay, Péter
2009-01-01
We consider special quantum systems containing both distinguishable and identical constituents. It is shown that for these systems the Freudenthal construction based on cubic Jordan algebras naturally defines entanglement measures invariant under the group of stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). For this type of multipartite entanglement the SLOCC classes can be explicitly given. These results enable further explicit constructions of multiqubit en...
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND EMERGENCE PARAMETER OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available It was established that the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Bose-Einstein and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution can be described by a single equation, which follows from Einstein's equations for systems with central symmetry. Emergence parameter of classical and quantum systems composed by the rays of gravitational waves interacting with gravitational field of the universe has been computed
Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.
Dudziak, Martin Joseph
Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain, by virtue of mathematical and computational models that may be transferred from the macroscopic domain to the microscopic. A consequence of this multi-faceted thesis is that there may be mature analytical tools and techniques that have heretofore not been adequately recognized for their value to quantum physics. These may include adaptations of neural networks, cellular automata, chaotic attractors, and parallel processing systems. Conceptual and practical architectures are presented for the development of software and hardware environments to employ massively parallel computing for the modeling of large populations of dynamic processes.
Quantum chaos and dissipation in nuclear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The order-to-chaos transition is studied within a schematic model which is defined by the sum of a regular hamiltonian H0 and a random part ?V with strength ? and V a member of the gaussian othogonal ensemble. In the non-chaotic regime (strengh ? 1=?/?? (spreading width ??=2??2/D) until equilibrium is reached, (2) the absence of recurrence for physically relevant times, and hence the occurrence of true dissipation also in large-amplitude collective motion and (3) the extreme sensitivity of the time evolution on small changes of H0. All these characteristics of quantum chaos are determined by the condition ?> or approx.2D or equivalently by ??/D> or approx.25. It is suggested to consider ??/? as the crucial parameter which determines quantum chaos in the same way as the Lyapunov exponent does for classical chaos. (orig.)
Decoherence and Recoherence in Model Quantum Systems
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung
2008-01-01
We discuss the various manifestations of quantum decoherence in the forms of dephasing, entanglement with the environment, and revelation of "which-path" information. As a specific example, we consider an electron interference experiment. The coupling of the coherent electrons to the quantized electromagnetic field illustrates all of these versions of decoherence. This decoherence has two equivalent interpretations, in terms of photon emission or in terms of Aharonov-Bohm phase fluctuations. We consider the case when the coherent electrons are coupled to photons in a squeezed vacuum state. The time-averaged result is increased decoherence. However, if only electrons which are emitted during selected periods are counted, the decoherence can be suppressed below the level for the photon vacuum. This is the phenomenon of recoherence. This effect is closely related to the quantum violations of the weak energy condition, and is restricted by similar inequalities. We give some estimates of the magnitude of the recoh...
The power of quantum systems on a line
Aharonov, Dorit; Kempe, Julia
2007-01-01
We study the computational strength of quantum particles (each of finite dimensionality) arranged on a line. First, we prove that it is possible to perform universal adiabatic quantum computation using a one-dimensional quantum system (with 9 states per particle). This might have practical implications for experimentalists interested in constructing an adiabatic quantum computer. Building on the same construction, but with some additional technical effort and 12 states per particle, we show that the problem of approximating the ground state energy of a system composed of a line of quantum particles is QMA-complete; QMA is a quantum analogue of NP. This is in striking contrast to the fact that the analogous classical problem, namely, one dimensional MAX-2-SAT with nearest neighbor constraints, is in P. The proof of the QMA-completeness result requires an additional idea beyond the usual techniques in the area: Not all illegal configurations can be ruled out by local checks, so instead we rule out such illegal ...
Quantum Energy Teleportation in Spin Chain Systems
Hotta, Masahiro
2008-01-01
We propose a protocol for quantum energy teleportation which transports energy in spin chains to distant sites only by local operations and classical communication. By utilizing ground-state entanglement and notion of negative energy density region, energy is teleported without breaking any physical laws including causality and local energy conservation. Because not excited physical entity but classical information is transported in the protocol, the dissipation rate of ener...
Quantum Algorithm for Obtaining the Energy Spectrum of Molecular Systems
Wang, Hefeng; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Hoffmann, Mark R; 10.1039/b804804e
2009-01-01
Simulating a quantum system is more efficient on a quantum computer than on a classical computer. The time required for solving the Schr\\"odinger equation to obtain molecular energies has been demonstrated to scale polynomially with system size on a quantum computer, in contrast to the well-known result of exponential scaling on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm to obtain the energy spectrum of molecular systems based on the multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) wave function. By using a MCSCF wave function as the initial guess, the excited states are accessible; Entire potential energy surfaces of molecules can be studied more efficiently than if the simpler Hartree-Fock guess was employed. We show that a small increase of the MCSCF space can dramatically increase the success probability of the quantum algorithm, even in regions of the potential energy surface that are far from the equilibrium geometry. For the treatment of larger systems, a multi-reference con...
Logic Column 13: Reasoning Formally about Quantum Systems: An Overview
Papanikolaou, N
2005-01-01
This article is intended as an introduction to the subject of quantum logic, and as a brief survey of the relevant literature. Also discussed here are logics for specification and analysis of quantum information systems, in particular, recent work by P. Mateus and A. Sernadas, and also by R. van der Meyden and M. Patra. Overall, our objective is to provide a high-level presentation of the logical aspects of quantum theory. Mateus' and Sernadas' EQPL logic is illustrated with a small example, namely the state of an entangled pair of qubits. The "KT" logic of van der Meyden and Patra is demonstrated briefly in the context of the B92 protocol for quantum key distribution.
Time evolution of open quantum many-body systems
Overbeck, Vincent R
2015-01-01
We establish a generic method to analyze the time evolution of open quantum many-body systems. Our approach is based on a variational integration of the quantum master equation describing the dynamics and naturally connects to a variational principle for its nonequilibrium steady state. We successfully apply our variational method to study dissipative Rydberg gases, finding excellent quantitative agreement with small-scale simulations of the full quantum master equation. We observe that correlations related to non-Markovian behavior play a significant role during the relaxation dynamics towards the steady state. We further quantify this non-Markovianity and find it to be closely connected to an information-theoretical measure of quantum and classical correlations.
Unifying variational methods for simulating quantum many-body systems
Dawson, Christopher M; Osborne, Tobias J
2007-01-01
We introduce a unified formulation of variational methods for simulating ground state properties of quantum many-body systems. The key feature is a novel variational method over quantum circuits via infinitesimal unitary transformations, inspired by flow equation methods. This gives rise to a unifying picture of several existing variational techniques for simulating strongly correlated systems: variational classes are represented as efficiently contractible unitary networks, including, the matrix-product states of density matrix renormalization (DMRG), multiscale entanglement renormalization (MERA) states, weighted graph states, quantum cellular automata, and others. In particular, this provides a tool for varying over classes of states, such as MERA, for which so far no efficient way of variation is known, including two-dimensional systems. The scheme is flexible when it comes to hybridizing existing methods or formulating new ones. We demonstrate the functioning of the formalism by a numerical implementatio...
Planetary systems based on a quantum-like model
T., N Poveda; C, N Y Buitrago
2015-01-01
Planetary systems have their origin in the gravitational collapse of a cloud of gas and dust. Through a process of accretion, is formed a massive star and a disk of planetesimals orbiting the star. Using a formalism analogous to quantum mechanics (quantum-like model), the star-planetesimal system is described and the flow quantizing the gravitational field theoretical model parameters are obtained. Goodness of fit (chi-square) of the observed data with model quantum-like, to the solar system, satellites, exoplanets and protoplanetary disk around HL Tauri is determined. Shows that the radius, eccentricity, energy, angular momentum and orbital inclination of planetary objects formed take discrete values depending only on the mass star.
Relativistic quantum econophysics - new paradigms in complex systems modelling
Saptsin, Vladimir
2009-01-01
This work deals with the new, relativistic direction in quantum econophysics, within the bounds of which a change of the classical paradigms in mathematical modelling of socio-economic system is offered. Classical physics proceeds from the hypothesis that immediate values of all the physical quantities, characterizing system's state, exist and can be accurately measured in principle. Non-relativistic quantum mechanics does not reject the existence of the immediate values of the classical physical quantities, nevertheless not each of them can be simultaneously measured (the uncertainty principle). Relativistic quantum mechanics rejects the existence of the immediate values of any physical quantity in principle, and consequently the notion of the system state, including the notion of the wave function, which becomes rigorously nondefinable. The task of this work consists in econophysical analysis of the conceptual fundamentals and mathematical apparatus of the classical physics, relativity theory, non-relativis...
Continuity of the entropy of macroscopic quantum systems
Swendsen, Robert H.
2015-11-01
The proper definition of entropy is fundamental to the relationship between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. It also plays a major role in the recent debate about the validity of the concept of negative temperature. In this paper, I analyze and calculate the thermodynamic entropy for large but finite quantum mechanical systems. A special feature of this analysis is that the thermodynamic energy of a quantum system is shown to be a continuous variable, rather than being associated with discrete energy eigenvalues. Calculations of the entropy as a function of energy can be carried out with a Legendre transform of thermodynamic potentials obtained from a canonical ensemble. The resultant expressions for the entropy are able to describe equilibrium between quantum systems having incommensurate energy-level spacings. This definition of entropy preserves all required thermodynamic properties, including satisfaction of all postulates and laws of thermodynamics. It demonstrates the consistency of the concept of negative temperature with the principles of thermodynamics.
Controllable quantum information network with a superconducting system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Feng-yang, E-mail: zhangfy@mail.dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Bao [Beijing Computational Science Research Center (CSRC), Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Zi-hong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Song-lin [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, He-shan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2014-07-15
We propose a controllable and scalable architecture for quantum information processing using a superconducting system network, which is composed of current-biased Josephson junctions (CBJJs) as tunable couplers between the two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), each coupling to multiple superconducting qubits (SQs). We explicitly demonstrate that the entangled state, the phase gate, and the information transfer between any two selected SQs can be implemented, respectively. Lastly, numerical simulation shows that our scheme is robust against the decoherence of the system. -- Highlights: •An architecture for quantum information processing is proposed. •The quantum information transfer between any two selected SQs is implemented. •This proposal is robust against the decoherence of the system. •This architecture can be fabricated on a chip down to the micrometer scale.
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS known for spin systems, and they approximate efficiently ground and thermal states of systems with short-range interaction. We give an explicit mapping between fPEPS and PEPS, allowing to extend previous simulation methods to fermions. In addition, we show that fPEPS naturally arise as exact ground states of certain fermionic Hamiltonians, and give an example that exhibits criticality while fulfilling the area law. Finally, we derive methods for the determination of ground and thermal states, as well as the time evolution, of interacting fermionic systems using generalized Hartree-Fock theory (gHFT). With the computational complexity scaling polynomially with the number of particles, this method can deal with large systems. As a benchmark we apply our methods to the translationally invariant Hubbard model with attractive interaction and find excellent agreement with known results. (orig.)
A quantum information perspective of fermionic quantum many-body systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraus, Christina V.
2009-11-02
In this Thesis fermionic quantum many-body system are theoretically investigated from a quantum information perspective. Quantum correlations in fermionic many-body systems, though central to many of the most fascinating effects of condensed matter physics, are poorly understood from a theoretical perspective. Even the notion of ''paired'' fermions which is widely used in the theory of superconductivity and has a clear physical meaning there, is not a concept of a systematic and mathematical theory so far. Applying concepts and tools from entanglement theory, we close this gap, developing a pairing theory allowing to unambiguously characterize paired states. We develop methods for the detection and quantification of pairing according to our definition which are applicable to current experimental setups. Pairing is shown to be a quantum correlation distinct from any notion of entanglement proposed for fermionic systems, giving further understanding of the structure of highly correlated quantum states. In addition, we show the resource character of paired states for precision metrology, proving that BCS-states allow phase measurements at the Heisenberg limit. Next, the power of fermionic systems is considered in the context of quantum simulations, where we study the possibility to simulate Hamiltonian time evolutions on a cubic lattice under the constraint of translational invariance. Given a set of translationally invariant local Hamiltonians and short range interactions we determine time evolutions which can and those which can not be simulated. Bosonic and finite-dimensional quantum systems (''spins'') are included in our investigations. Furthermore, we develop new techniques for the classical simulation of fermionic many-body systems. First, we introduce a new family of states, the fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States (fPEPS) on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimension. These are the natural generalization of the PEPS known for spin systems, and they approximate efficiently ground and thermal states of systems with short-range interaction. We give an explicit mapping between fPEPS and PEPS, allowing to extend previous simulation methods to fermions. In addition, we show that fPEPS naturally arise as exact ground states of certain fermionic Hamiltonians, and give an example that exhibits criticality while fulfilling the area law. Finally, we derive methods for the determination of ground and thermal states, as well as the time evolution, of interacting fermionic systems using generalized Hartree-Fock theory (gHFT). With the computational complexity scaling polynomially with the number of particles, this method can deal with large systems. As a benchmark we apply our methods to the translationally invariant Hubbard model with attractive interaction and find excellent agreement with known results. (orig.)
Quantum Monte Carlo studies of novel phases in strongly correlated systems
Meng, Zi Yang
2011-01-01
Three models of strongly correlated electron systems have been studied in this thesis: the Shastry-Sutherland quantum antiferromagnet, the quantum spin liquid emerging out of correlated Dirac fermions on the honeycomb lattice, and the edge-state magnetism in the graphene nanoribbons. The methods applied are quantum Monte Carlo simulations, namely, stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo for bosonic (spin) systems and projector auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo for fermionic systems....
Quantum mechanical actuation of microelectromechanical systems by the Casimir force.
Chan, H B; Aksyuk, V A; Kleiman, R N; Bishop, D J; Capasso, F
2001-03-01
The Casimir force is the attraction between uncharged metallic surfaces as a result of quantum mechanical vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. We demonstrate the Casimir effect in microelectromechanical systems using a micromachined torsional device. Attraction between a polysilicon plate and a spherical metallic surface results in a torque that rotates the plate about two thin torsional rods. The dependence of the rotation angle on the separation between the surfaces is in agreement with calculations of the Casimir force. Our results show that quantum electrodynamical effects play a significant role in such microelectromechanical systems when the separation between components is in the nanometer range. PMID:11239149
Bayesian parameter inference from continuously monitored quantum systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, SØren; MØlmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
We review the introduction of likelihood functions and Fisher information in classical estimation theory, and we show how they can be defined in a very similar manner within quantum measurement theory. We show that the stochastic master equations describing the dynamics of a quantum system subject to a definite set of measurements provides likelihood functions for unknown parameters in the system dynamics, and we show that the estimation error, given by the Fisher information, can be identified by stochastic master equation simulations. For large parameter spaces we describe and illustrate the efficient use of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling of the likelihood function.
Arbitrarily Accurate Dynamical Control in Open Quantum Systems
Khodjasteh, Kaveh; Viola, Lorenza
2009-01-01
We show that open-loop dynamical control techniques may be used to synthesize unitary transformations in open quantum systems in such a way that decoherence is perturbatively compensated for to a desired (in principle arbitrarily high) level of accuracy, which depends only on the strength of the relevant errors, and the achievable rate of control modulation. Our constructive and fully analytical solution employs concatenated dynamically corrected gates, and is applicable independently of detailed knowledge of the system-environment interactions and environment dynamics. Explicit implications for boosting quantum gate fidelities are addressed.
On Which Length Scales Can Temperature Exist in Quantum Systems?
Hartmann, M; Hess, O; Hartmann, Michael; Mahler, Guenter; Hess, Ortwin
2005-01-01
We consider a regular chain of elementary quantum systems with nearest neighbor interactions and assume that the total system is in a canonical state with temperature $T$. We analyze under what condition the state factors into a product of canonical density matrices with respect to groups of $n$ subsystems each, and when these groups have the same temperature $T$. While in classical mechanics the validity of this procedure only depends on the size of the groups $n$, in quantum mechanics the minimum group size $n_{\\text{min}}$ also depends on the temperature $T $! As examples, we apply our analysis to different types of Heisenberg spin chains.
Quantum features in statistical observations of "timeless" classical systems
Elze, H T
2003-01-01
We pursue the view that quantum theory may be an emergent structure related to large space-time scales. In particular, we consider classical Hamiltonian systems in which the intrinsic proper time evolution parameter is related through a probability distribution to the discrete physical time. This is motivated by studies of ``timeless'' reparametrization invariant models, where discrete physical time has recently been constructed based on coarse-graining local observables. Describing such deterministic classical systems with the help of path-integrals, primordial states can naturally be introduced which follow unitary quantum mechanical evolution in suitable limits.
Classical representation of a quantum system at equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Complete text of publication follows. A quantum system at equilibrium is represented by a corresponding classical system, chosen to reproduce the thermodynamic and structural properties. The objective is to develop a means for exploiting strong coupling classical methods (e.g., MD, integral equations, DFT) to describe quantum systems. The classical system has an effective temperature, local chemical potential, and pair interaction that are defined by requiring equivalence of the grand potential and its functional derivatives with respect to the external and pair potentials for the classical and quantum systems. Practical inversion of this mapping for the classical properties is effected via the hypernetted chain approximation, leading to representations as functionals of the quantum pair correlation function (similar in spirit to the approach of Dharma-wardana and Perrot). The parameters of the classical system are determined such that ideal gas, weak coupling RPA, and strong coupling pair limits are preserved. The potential advantages of this approach are discussed. Research supported by NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science Award DE-FG02-07ER54946, and by US DOE Grant DE-SC0002139.
Functional methods and mappings of dissipative quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the first part of this work we extract the algebraic structure behind the method of the influence functional in the context of dissipative quantum mechanics. Special emphasis was put on the transition from a quantum mechanical description to a classical one, since it allows a deeper understanding of the measurement-process. This is tightly connected with the transition from a microscopic to a macroscopic world where the former one is described by the rules of quantum mechanics whereas the latter follows the rules of classical mechanics. In addition we show how the results of the influence functional method can be interpreted as a stochastical process, which in turn allows an easy comparison with the well known time development of a quantum mechanical system by use of the Schroedinger equation. In the following we examine the tight-binding approximation of models of which their hamiltionian shows discrete eigenstates in position space and where transitions between those states are suppressed so that propagation either is described by tunneling or by thermal activation. In the framework of dissipative quantum mechanics this leads to a tremendous simplification of the effective description of the system since instead of looking at the full history of all paths in the path integral description, we only have to look at all possible jump times and the possible corresponding set of weights for the jump direction, which is much easier to handle both analytically and numerically. In addition we deal with the mapping and the connection of dissipative quantum mechanical models with ones in quantum field theory and in particular models in statistical field theory. As an example we mention conformal invariance in two dimensions which always becomes relevant if a statistical system only has local interaction and is invariant under scaling. (orig.)
From Quantum Spectra to Classical Orbits: the Circular Billiards Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHANG Ye-bing
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The semi-classical method has become a necessary instrument to study the classical movement of the particle. Periodic orbit theory is repidly becoming one of most useful semi-classical tools which can be used to make direct connections between the quantized energy eigenvalues of a bound state and the classical motions for the corresponding point particle. We use a quantum spectral function which contain rich information of classical orbits in well. We study the correspondence between quantum spectra and classical orbits in the circular Two-dimensional billiard systems have provided easily visualization examples relevant for both types of analyses. As a simple example of the application to a billiard or infinite well system of Periodic orbit theory, we compute the Fourier transform (p(L of the quantum mechanical energy level density of two-dimensional circular billiard system The resulting peaks in plots of |p(L|2 versus L are compared to lengths of the classical trajectories in these geometries. The locations of peaks in p(L agree with the lengths of classical orbits perfectly, which testifies the correspondence of quantum mechanics and classical mechanics. This examples show evidently that semi-classical methods provides a brdge between quantum and classical mechanics.
Entanglement Routers via Wireless Quantum Network Based on Arbitrary Two Qubit Systems
Metwally, N.
2014-01-01
A wireless quantum network is generated between multi-hop, where each hop consists of two entangled nodes. These nodes share a finite number of entangled two qubit systems randomly. Different types of wireless quantum bridges are generated between the non-connected nodes. The efficiency of these wireless quantum bridges to be used as quantum channels between its terminals to perform quantum teleportation is investigated. We suggest a theoretical wireless quantum communicatio...
Work extraction and thermodynamics for individual quantum systems
Paul Skrzypczyk; Short, Anthony J.; Sandu Popescu
2013-01-01
Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a `weight' that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and give a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in fr...
Charge pairing by quantum entanglement in strongly correlated electron systems
Chae, Byung Gyu
2012-01-01
Various charge pairings in strongly correlated electron systems are interpreted as quantum entanglement of a composite system. Particles in the intermediate phase have a tendency to form the coherent superposition state of the localized state and the itinerant state, which induces the entanglement of both particles in the bipartite subsystems for increasing the entropy of the system. The correction to the entropic Coulomb force becomes an immediate cause of charge pairing.
Novel optical probe for quantum Hall system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Biswajit Karmakar; Brij Mohan Arora
2006-07-01
Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy has been used for the first time to explore Landau levels of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in modulation doped InP/InGaAs/InP QW in the quantum Hall regime. The technique gives spectroscopically distinct signals from the bulk Landau levels and the edge states. Evolution of the bulk Landau levels and the edge electronic states is investigated at 2.0 K for magnetic field up to 8 T using SPV spectroscopy.
Sign Rules for Anisotropic Quantum Spin Systems
Bishop, R F; Parkinson, J B
1999-01-01
We present new and exact ``sign rules'' for various spin-s anisotropic spin-lattice models. It is shown that, after a simple transformation which utilizes these sign rules, the ground-state wave function of the transformed Hamiltonian is positive-definite. Using these results exact statements for various expectation values of off-diagonal operators are presented, and transitions in the behavior of these expectation values are observed at particular values of the anisotropy. Furthermore, the effects of sign rules in variational calculations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations are considered. They are illustrated by a simple variational treatment of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin model.
Error Bounds on Finite-Dimensional Approximations of Input-Output Open Quantum Systems
Techakesari, O.; Nurdin, H. I.
2015-01-01
Many physical systems of interest that are encountered in practice are input-output open quantum systems described by quantum stochastic differential equations and defined on an infinite-dimensional underlying Hilbert space. Most commonly, these systems involve coupling to a quantum harmonic oscillator as a system component. This paper is concerned with the error in the finite-dimensional approximation of input-output open quantum systems defined on an infinite-dimensional u...
Aspelmeyer, Markus; Schwab, Keith
2008-09-01
The last five years have witnessed an amazing development in the field of nano- and micromechanics. What was widely considered fantasy ten years ago is about to become an experimental reality: the quantum regime of mechanical systems is within reach of current experiments. Two factors (among many) have contributed significantly to this situation. As part of the widespread effort into nanoscience and nanofabrication, it is now possible to produce high-quality nanomechanical and micromechanical resonators, spanning length scales of millimetres to nanometres, and frequencies from kilohertz to gigahertz. Researchers coupled these mechanical elements to high-sensitivity actuation and readout systems such as single-electron transistors, quantum dots, atomic point contacts, SQUID loops, high-finesse optical or microwave-cavities etc. Some of these ultra-sensitive readout schemes are in principle capable of detection at the quantum limit and a large part of the experimental effort is at present devoted to achieving this. On the other hand, the fact that the groups working in the field come from various different physics backgrounds—the authors of this editorial are a representative sample—has been a constant source of inspiration for helpful theoretical and experimental tools that have been adapted from other fields to the mechanical realm. To name just one example: ideas from quantum optics have led to the recent demonstration (both in theory and experiment) that coupling a mechanical resonator to a high-finesse optical cavity can be fully analogous to the well-known sideband-resolved laser cooling of ions and hence is capable in principle of cooling a mechanical mode into its quantum ground state. There is no doubt that such interdisciplinarity has been a crucial element for the development of the field. It is interesting to note that a very similar sociological phenomenon occurred earlier in the quantum information community, an area which is deeply enriched by the diverse backgrounds and approaches of the researchers. As diverse as the approaches are the manifold of goals and perspectives for operating mechanical systems close to or within the quantum regime. Already now, nanomechanical sensors achieve single-molecule mass detection and magnetic resonance force detection from single-electron spins although they are operated far from quantum. Quantum-limited mechanical devices promise a new technology with hitherto unachieved performance for high-resolution sensing. This is also of high relevance for macroscopic mechanical resonators used in gravitational wave detectors. Furthermore, the increasing capability to couple mechanical modes to individual quantum systems raises the interesting question of whether mechanics can serve as a quantum bus in hybrid implementations of quantum information processing. Finally, the possibility of generating quantum superposition states that involve displacements of a massive macroscopic object (such as the center of mass of a mechanical beam) provides a completely new parameter regime for testing quantum theory over the amazing range from nanomechanical objects of several picograms up to gram-scale mirrors used in gravitational wave interferometers. We are looking forward to these fascinating developments! This Focus Issue is intended to highlight the present status of the field and to provide both introduction and motivation for students and researchers who want to get familiar with this exciting area or even want to join it. It also complements the conference activities of our community during the last year, where a series of dedicated invited sessions at several international conferences (APS March Meeting 2008, CLEO/QELS 2008, OSA Frontiers in Optics 2008, PQE 2008/2009 etc) culminated in the first Gordon Conference on 'Mechanical Systems at the Quantum Limit'. Given the fast development of the field it was not surprising to see that during the collection of the following contributions new progress was reported almost on a monthly basis and new groups entered the field. We intend to
Transport through constricted quantum Hall edge systems: beyond the quantum point contact
Lal, Siddhartha
2007-01-01
Motivated by surprises in recent experimental findings, we study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained from a Landauer-Buttiker analysis as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk ($\
Large quantum systems: a mathematical and numerical perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis is devoted to the mathematical study of variational models for large quantum systems. The mathematical methods are that of nonlinear analysis, calculus of variations, partial differential equations, spectral theory, and numerical analysis. The first part contains some results on finite systems. We study several approximations of the N-body Schroedinger equation for electrons in an atom or a molecule, and then the so-called Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov model for a system of fermions interacting via the gravitational force. In a second part, we propose a new method allowing to prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit of Coulomb quantum systems. Then, we construct two Hartree-Fock-type models for infinite systems. The first is a relativistic theory deduced from Quantum Electrodynamics, allowing to describe the behavior of electrons, coupled to that of Dirac's vacuum which can become polarized. The second model describes a nonrelativistic quantum crystal in the presence of a charged defect. A new numerical method is also proposed. The last part of the thesis is devoted to spectral pollution, a phenomenon which is observed when trying to approximate eigenvalues in a gap of the essential spectrum of a self-adjoint operator, for instance for periodic Schroedinger operators or Dirac operators. (author)
Harnessing quantum superposition and interference in atomic systems.
Kani, A; Wanare, Harshawardhan
2014-06-16
We propose resilient quantum superposition states in closed-loop multilevel system which result in myriad quantum interference phenomena. An interplay of these superposition states results in a whole gamut of atomic phenomena including coherent population trapping (CPT), electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), amplification without inversion (AWI) and enhancement of refractive index accompanied with negligible absorption. The polarization and the phases of the fields transform the underlying superposition of the excited states leading to all these effects, where, given the macroscopic nature of these phenomena the quantum superposition states as well as the synergy between them can be ascertained. Numerical simulations for D1 transition in room temperature Rb87 atomic vapour system bear out these findings. PMID:24977621
Theoretical discussion for quantum computation in biological systems
Baer, Wolfgang
2010-04-01
Analysis of the brain as a physical system, that has the capacity of generating a display of every day observed experiences and contains some knowledge of the physical reality which stimulates those experiences, suggests the brain executes a self-measurement process described by quantum theory. Assuming physical reality is a universe of interacting self-measurement loops, we present a model of space as a field of cells executing such self-measurement activities. Empty space is the observable associated with the measurement of this field when the mass and charge density defining the material aspect of the cells satisfy the least action principle. Content is the observable associated with the measurement of the quantum wave function ? interpreted as mass-charge displacements. The illusion of space and its content incorporated into cognitive biological systems is evidence of self-measurement activity that can be associated with quantum operations.
TRIQS: A Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems
Parcollet, Olivier; Ayral, Thomas; Hafermann, Hartmut; Krivenko, Igor; Messio, Laura; Seth, Priyanka
2015-01-01
We present the TRIQS library, a Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems. It is an open-source, computational physics library providing a framework for the quick development of applications in the field of many-body quantum physics, and in particular, strongly-correlated electronic systems. It supplies components to develop codes in a modern, concise and efficient way: e.g. Green's function containers, a generic Monte Carlo class, and simple interfaces to HDF5. TRIQS is a C++/Python library that can be used from either language. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPLv3). State-of-the-art applications based on the library, such as modern quantum many-body solvers and interfaces between density-functional-theory codes and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) codes are distributed along with it.
Quantum teleportation of dynamics and effective interactions between remote systems.
Muschik, Christine A; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S; Cirac, Ignacio J
2013-07-12
Most protocols for quantum information processing consist of a series of quantum gates, which are applied sequentially. In contrast, interactions between matter and fields, for example, as well as measurements such as homodyne detection of light are typically continuous in time. We show how the ability to perform quantum operations continuously and deterministically can be leveraged for inducing nonlocal dynamics between two separate parties. We introduce a scheme for the engineering of an interaction between two remote systems and present a protocol that induces a dynamics in one of the parties that is controlled by the other one. Both schemes apply to continuous variable systems, run continuously in time, and are based on real-time feedback. PMID:23889374
Natural Light Harvesting Systems: Unraveling the quantum puzzles
Thilagam, A
2013-01-01
In natural light harvesting systems, the sequential quantum events of photon absorption by specialized biological antenna complexes, charge separation, exciton formation and energy transfer to localized reaction centers culminates in the conversion of solar to chemical energy. A notable feature in these processes is the exceptionally high efficiencies (> 95 %) at which excitation is transferred from the illuminated protein complex site to the reaction centers. Such high exciton propagation rates within a system of interwoven biomolecular network structures, is yet to be replicated in artificial light harvesting complexes. A clue to unraveling the quantum puzzles of nature may lie in the observation of long lived coherences lasting several picoseconds in the electronic spectra of photosynthetic complexes, even in noisy environmental baths. A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been devoted to unlocking the links between quantum processes and information protocols, in the hope of finding answers...
Quantum control of atomic systems by time resolved homodyne detection
Hofmann, H F; Hess, O; Hofmann, Holger F.; Mahler, Guenter; Hess, Ortwin
1998-01-01
We investigate the properties of ideal projective balanced homodyne detection measurements on low intensity light fields emitted by individual atomic systems during short time intervals. A model for time resolved photon emissions based on Wigner-Weisskopf theory is used to describe the emission process. The back- action of this emission process is analytically described as a quantum diffusion of the Bloch vector. It is shown that the evolution of the atomic wavefunction can be controlled completely using the results of homodyne detection. This allows the stabilization of a known quantum state or the creation of coherent states by a feedback mechanism. However, the feedback mechanism can never compensate the dissipative effects of quantum fluctuations even though the coherent state of the system is known at all times.
Secret sharing with a single d -level quantum system
Tavakoli, Armin; Herbauts, Isabelle; ?ukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed
2015-09-01
We give an example of a wide class of problems for which quantum-information protocols based on multisystem entanglement can be mapped into much simpler ones involving one system. Secret sharing is a cryptographic primitive which plays a central role in various secure multiparty computation tasks and management of keys in cryptography. In secret sharing protocols, a classical message is divided into shares given to recipient parties in such a way that some number of parties need to collaborate in order to reconstruct the message. Quantum protocols for the task commonly rely on multipartite GHZ entanglement. We present a multiparty secret sharing protocol which requires only sequential communication of a single quantum d -level system (for any prime d ). It has huge advantages in scalability and can be realized with state-of-the-art technology.
Simulations of discrete quantum systems in continuous euclidean time
Beard, B B
1996-01-01
Path integrals are usually formulated in discrete Euclidean time using the Trotter formula. We propose a new method to study discrete quantum systems, in which we work directly in the Euclidean time continuum. The method is of general interest and can be applied to studies of quantum spin systems, lattice fermions, and in principle also lattice gauge theories. Here it is applied to the Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet using a continuous-time version of a loop cluster algorithm. The computational advantage of this algorithm is exploited to confirm the predictions of chiral perturbation theory in the extreme low temperature regime, down to T = 0.01 J. A fit of the low-energy parameters of chiral perturbation theory gives excellent agreement with previous results and with experiments.
Quantum Discord in Two-Qubit System Constructed from the Yang—Baxter Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum correlations among parts of a composite quantum system are a fundamental resource for several applications in quantum information. In general, quantum discord can measure quantum correlations. In that way, we investigate the quantum discord of the two-qubit system constructed from the Yang—Baxter Equation. The density matrix of this system is generated through the unitary Yang—Baxter matrix R. The analytical expression and numerical result of quantum discord and geometric measure of quantum discord are obtained for the Yang—Baxter system. These results show that quantum discord and geometric measure of quantum discord are only connect with the parameter ?, which is the important spectral parameter in Yang—Baxter equation. (general)
Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob's system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can be efficient, provided that enough additional privacy amplification is applied to the data. We present a practical way to reduce the maximal information gain that an adversary can gain using Trojan-horse attacks. This does reduce the security analysis of the two-way plug-and-play implementation to those of the standard one-way systems
Correlations in complex nonlinear systems and quantum information theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamical evolution of classical complex systems such as coupled logistic maps or simple models of lattice gases and cellular automata can result in correlations between distant parts of the system. For the understanding of these systems, it is crucial to develop methods to characterize and quantify these multi-party correlations. On the other hand, the study of correlations between distant particles is also a central problem in the field of quantum information theory. There, correlations are often viewed as a resource and many tools have been developed for their characterization. In this talk, we explore the extent to which the tools from quantum information can be applied to study classical complex systems and whether they allow to study complex systems from a different perspective.
Quantum thermodynamics. Emergence of thermodynamic behavior within composite quantum systems. 2. ed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gemmer, Jochen [Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany). FB Physik; Michel, M. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). School of Electronics/Physical Sciences; Mahler, Guenter [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. Theoretische Physik und Synergetik
2009-07-01
This introductory text treats thermodynamics as an incomplete description of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom. Its main goal is to show that the approach to equilibrium -with equilibrium characterized by maximum ignorance about the open system of interest- neither requires that many particles nor is the precise way of partitioning, relevant for the salient features of equilibrium and equilibration. Furthermore, the text depicts that it is indeed quantum effects that are at work in bringing about thermodynamic behavior of modest-sized open systems, thus making Von Neumann's concept of entropy appear much more widely useful than sometimes feared, far beyond truly macroscopic systems in equilibrium. This significantly revised and expanded second edition pays more attention to the growing number of applications, especially non-equilibrium phenomena and thermodynamic processes of the nano-domain. In addition, to improve readability and reduce unneeded technical details, a large portion of this book has been thoroughly rewritten. (orig.)
Quantum thermodynamics. Emergence of thermodynamic behavior within composite quantum systems. 2. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This introductory text treats thermodynamics as an incomplete description of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom. Its main goal is to show that the approach to equilibrium -with equilibrium characterized by maximum ignorance about the open system of interest- neither requires that many particles nor is the precise way of partitioning, relevant for the salient features of equilibrium and equilibration. Furthermore, the text depicts that it is indeed quantum effects that are at work in bringing about thermodynamic behavior of modest-sized open systems, thus making Von Neumann's concept of entropy appear much more widely useful than sometimes feared, far beyond truly macroscopic systems in equilibrium. This significantly revised and expanded second edition pays more attention to the growing number of applications, especially non-equilibrium phenomena and thermodynamic processes of the nano-domain. In addition, to improve readability and reduce unneeded technical details, a large portion of this book has been thoroughly rewritten. (orig.)
An Extension of Histogram Monte Carlo Methods to Quantum Systems
Oquendo, W F
2004-01-01
In this work we propose how to extend Histogram Monte Carlo methods to quantum systems in the World Line Quantum Monte Carlo formulation (WLQMC). Such extension is achieved by defining a density of states, g(k_1, k_2), over the classical system (in d+1 dimensions) equivalent to the quantum one (in d dimensions). The two quantities, k_1 and k_2, take into account that spatial and temporal dimensions in WLQMC are weighted by the temperature in different ways. With this extension, we can use a single simulation at fixed temperature, for instance, to compute quantum averages at other temperatures. The density of states g(k_1, k_2) can be computed by any histogram method. To illustrate the procedure we extend the Single Histogram Method (SHM) to investigate a canonical ensemble of one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillators in equilibrium with a heat bath at fixed temperature, and we compute averages of the potential, the kinetic and the total energy operators. Our results are precise and exact on broad temperatu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we study Spectral Decomposition Theorem (Lasota and Mackey, 1985) and translate it to quantum language by means of the Wigner transform. We obtain a Quantum Version of Spectral Decomposition Theorem (QSDT) which enables us to achieve three distinct goals: First, to rank Quantum Ergodic Hierarchy levels (Castagnino and Lombardi, 2009, Gomez and Castagnino, 2014). Second, to analyze the classical limit in quantum ergodic systems and quantum mixing systems. And third, and maybe most important feature, to find a relevant and simple connection between the first three levels of Quantum Ergodic Hierarchy (ergodic, exact and mixing) and quantum spectrum. Finally, we illustrate the physical relevance of QSDT applying it to two examples: Microwave billiards (Stockmann, 1999, Stoffregen et al. 1995) and a phenomenological Gamow model type (Laura and Castagnino, 1998, Omnès, 1994)
Quantum Communication in the Ion-Trapped System
Xu, Xiong
2015-09-01
A theoretical scheme of quantum communication is proposed in the context of ion-trapped systems. According to the results, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.
Dissipative quantum metrology in manybody systems of identical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estimation of physical parameters is essential in almost any part of science and technology. The enhancement of performance in this task (e.g. beating the standard classical shot-noise limit) using available physical resources is a major goal in metrology. Quantum metrology in closed systems has indicated that entanglement in such systems may be a useful resource. However, whether in open quantum systems such enhancements may still show up is not yet fully understood. Here, we consider a dissipative (open) quantum system of identical particles in which a parameter of the open dynamics itself is to be estimated. We employ a recently developed dissipative quantum metrology framework, and investigate whether the entanglement produced in the course of the dissipative dynamics may help the estimation task. Specifically, we show that, even in a Markovian dynamics in which states become less distinguishable in time, at small enough times the entanglement generated by the dynamics may offer some advantage over the classical shot-noise limit. (paper)
Symmetry-breaking skyrmion states in fractional quantum Hall systems
Ahn, Kang-Hun; Chang, K J
1996-01-01
We calculate in an analyical fashion the energies and net spins of skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall systems, based on the suggestion that skyrmion states are spontaneously $L_Z$ and $S_Z$ symmetry-breaking states. The quasihole-skyrmion state with a charge $-e/3$ around $\
Eigenvalue problem of the Liouvillian of open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is argued that the Liouvillian that appears in the Liouville-von Neumann equation for open quantum systems can have complex eigenvalues. Attention is paid to the question whether the Liouvillian has an eigenvalue that are not given by the difference of the two Hamiltonian eigenvalues
Parameter symmetries of quantum many-body systems
Cejnar, P; Cejnar, Pavel; Geyer, Hendrik B.
2001-01-01
We analyze the occurrence of dynamically equivalent Hamiltonians in the parameter space of general many-body interactions for quantum systems, particularly those that conserve the total number of particles. As an illustration of the general framework, the appearance of parameter symmetries in the interacting boson model-1 and their absence in the Ginocchio SO(8) fermionic model are discussed.
Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations
Local Temperatures and Heat Flow in Quantum Driven Systems
Caso, Alvaro; Arrachea, Liliana; Lozano, Gustavo S.
2011-01-01
We discuss the concept of local temperature for quantum systems driven out of equilibrium by ac pumps showing explicitly that it is the correct indicator for heat flow. We also show that its use allows for a generalization of the Wiedemann Franz law.
Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations.
Solution of quantum integrable systems from quiver gauge theories
Dorey, Nick
2016-01-01
We construct new integrable systems describing particles with internal spin from four-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=2$ quiver gauge theories. The models can be quantized and solved exactly using the quantum inverse scattering method and also using the Bethe/Gauge correspondence.
Optimal control of quantum systems: a projection approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper considers the optimal control of quantum systems. The controlled quantum systems are described by the probability-density-matrix-based Liouville-von Neumann equation. Using projection operators, the states of the quantum system are decomposed into two sub-spaces, namely the 'main state' space and the 'remaining state' space. Since the control energy is limited, a solution for optimizing the external control force is proposed in which the main state is brought to the desired main state at a certain target time, while the population of the remaining state is simultaneously suppressed in order to diminish its effects on the final population of the main state. The optimization problem is formulated by maximizing a general cost functional of states and control force. An efficient algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, using the hydrogen fluoride (HF) molecular population transfer problem as an illustrative example, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for a quantum system initially in a mixed state or in a pure state is investigated through numerical simulations
Retardation effects in the motion of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Equations determining the motion of quantum systems taking into account the retardation effects are derived and investigated. Basic consequences of the equations derived are considered. The theory is applied to the study of the atom energy level broadening in a turbulent plasma
Gaussian quantum fluctuations in interacting many particle systems
HARTMANN, M; Mahler, G; Hess, O
2003-01-01
We consider a many particle quantum system, in which each particle interacts only with its nearest neighbours. Provided that the energy per particle has an upper bound, we show, that the energy distribution of almost every product state becomes a Gaussian normal distribution in the limit of infinite number of particles. We indicate some possible applications.
Circuit QED in a double quantum dot system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toida, Hiraku; Nakajima, Takashi; Komiyama, Susumu [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)
2013-12-04
Strong coupling peculiar feature is demonstrated in a coupled qubit-resonator system consisting of a GaAs double quantum dot and a coplanar waveguide resonator. Qubit-resonator coupling strength (g and the decoherence rate ? are directly derived from the experiment, assuring a strong coupling condition (g/? ? 2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum correlations play vital roles in the quantum features in quantum information processing tasks. Among the measures of quantum correlations, quantum discord (QD) and entanglement of formation (EOF) are two significant ones. Recent research has shown that there exists a relation between QD and EOF, which makes QD more significant in quantum information theory. However, until now, there exists no general method of characterizing quantum discord in high-dimensional quantum systems. In this paper, we have proposed a general method for calculating quantum discord in arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum systems in terms of Hurwitz's theory. Applications including the Werner state, the spin-1 XXZ model thermal equilibrium state, the Horodecki state, and the separable-bound-free entanglement state are investigated. We present the method of obtaining the EOF of arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum states via purification, and the relationship between QD and EOF. (general)
Lari, Behzad
2011-01-01
This is a thesis submitted to university of Pune, India, for the Ph.D. degree. This work deals with entanglement production in two qubit, two qutrit and three qubit systems, entanglement in indistinguishable fermionic systems, quantum discord in a Heisenberg chain and geometric measure of quantum discord in an arbitrary state of a bipartite quantum system.
Investigation of quantum and classical correlations in a quantum dot system under decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we investigate quantitatively the thermal classical and quantum correlations in an isolated quantum dot system (QDS) including the effects of different parameters. We show that the quantum discord (QD) is more resistant against the temperature effect and might be finite even for higher temperatures in the asymptotic limit. Decoherence in a QDS caused by interaction with its environment is another interesting issue in the quantum information field. Assuming Markovian dynamics for the time evolution, we present noise models for the QDS by using Kraus operators for several noisy channels; in particular bit flip, bit-phase flip, phase flip, and depolarizing channels. By analytical and numerical analyses, we investigate the dynamics of different kinds of correlations, namely, the mutual information, the classical correlation, the entanglement of formation (EOF), and the QD in different channels. The sudden change in behavior in the decay rates of correlations and their immunity against certain decoherences are shown. We explore a symmetry among these channels and provide the decoherence areas for which both classical and quantum correlations remain affected in the QDS. (paper)
van Wezel, Jasper
2007-01-01
In this thesis the connection between Quantum Mechanics and the Classical World, which we see around us every day, is investigated. The quantum origin of large systems turns out to continuously influence their behaviour. One of the consequences discussed in this thesis, is that qubits (the basic building blocks of a future quantum computer) can hold on to their stored quantum information only for a given time. After that time the qubit will be effectively reduced to just an ordinary bit.Another important connection between quantum mechanics and classical physics is the way in which gravity cou
Computational Physics Simulation of Classical and Quantum Systems
Scherer, Philipp O. J
2010-01-01
This book encapsulates the coverage for a two-semester course in computational physics. The first part introduces the basic numerical methods while omitting mathematical proofs but demonstrating the algorithms by way of numerous computer experiments. The second part specializes in simulation of classical and quantum systems with instructive examples spanning many fields in physics, from a classical rotor to a quantum bit. All program examples are realized as Java applets ready to run in your browser and do not require any programming skills.
Frustration, entanglement, and factorization in quantum spin systems
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2009-01-01
We investigate the separability properties of quantum ground states in frustrated spin systems. We prove that the existence of fully factorized ground states is compatible with increasing degrees of frustration up to a critical threshold above which only entangled ground states are permitted. The separability threshold identifies a frustration-driven transition between classical-like and entanglement-dominated regimes. We determine the critical degree of frustration and the form of the exact factorized ground-state solutions in various classes of non exactly solvable frustrated quantum spin models with finite-range as well as infinite-range interactions.
Formal Analysis of Quantum Systems using Process Calculus
Davidson, Timothy A S; Nagarajan, Rajagopal; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.9
2011-01-01
Quantum communication and cryptographic protocols are well on the way to becoming an important practical technology. Although a large amount of successful research has been done on proving their correctness, most of this work does not make use of familiar techniques from formal methods, such as formal logics for specification, formal modelling languages, separation of levels of abstraction, and compositional analysis. We argue that these techniques will be necessary for the analysis of large-scale systems that combine quantum and classical components, and summarize the results of initial investigation using behavioural equivalence in process calculus. This paper is a summary of Simon Gay's invited talk at ICE'11.
Formal Analysis of Quantum Systems using Process Calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy A.S. Davidson
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Quantum communication and cryptographic protocols are well on the way to becoming an important practical technology. Although a large amount of successful research has been done on proving their correctness, most of this work does not make use of familiar techniques from formal methods, such as formal logics for specification, formal modelling languages, separation of levels of abstraction, and compositional analysis. We argue that these techniques will be necessary for the analysis of large-scale systems that combine quantum and classical components, and summarize the results of initial investigation using behavioural equivalence in process calculus. This paper is a summary of Simon Gay's invited talk at ICE'11.
Hybrid quantum system: Coupling color centers to superconducting cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Circuit quantum electrodynamics is a system that allows us to carry out new experiments in quantum optics using a superconducting integrated circuit on a chip. In circuit QED, microwave photons are guided and confined by superconducting transmission lines and cavities, and can then be coherently coupled to a transmon qubit. The very small mode volume allows to couple spins of atoms and molecules to the resonator. In that way it becomes possible to couple an ensemble of nitrogen vacancy defects to a superconducting resonator.
Trapped ion system for for multi-species quantum control
Hanneke, David
2015-05-01
Many atoms and molecules possess interesting spectroscopic transitions, but lack dissipative transitions useful for control and detection of internal states. In particular, molecules are useful candidates for quantum memories, low-temperature chemistry studies, tests of fundamental symmetries, and searches for time-variation of fundamental constants, but most lack a convenient cycling transition. By co-trapping a molecular ion with an atomic ion, the atom can provide all dissipation and detection. We present a system capable of such quantum control and report progress towards its use. This work is supported by the NSF, the Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Amherst College.
Quantum chaos and fluctuations in isolated nuclear-spin systems.
Ludlow, J A; Sushkov, O P
2007-01-01
Using numerical simulations we investigate dynamical quantum chaos in isolated nuclear spin systems. We determine the structure of quantum states, investigate the validity of the Curie law for magnetic susceptibility and find the spectrum of magnetic noise. The spectrum is the same for positive and negative temperatures. The study is motivated by recent interest in condensed-matter experiments for searches of fundamental parity- and time-reversal-invariance violations. In these experiments nuclear spins are cooled down to microkelvin temperatures and are completely decoupled from their surroundings. A limitation on statistical sensitivity of the experiments arises from the magnetic noise. PMID:17358232
Quantum chaos and fluctuations in isolated nuclear spin systems
Ludlow, J A
2006-01-01
Using numerical simulations we investigate dynamical quantum chaos in isolated nuclear spin systems. We determine the structure of quantum states, investigate the validity of the Curie law for magnetic susceptibility and find the spectrum of magnetic noise. The spectrum is the same for positive and negative temperatures. The study is motivated by recent interest in condensed-matter experiments for searches of fundamental parity- and time-reversal-invariance violations. In these experiments nuclear spins are cooled down to microkelvin temperatures and are completely decoupled from their surroundings. A limitation on statistical sensitivity of the experiments arises from the magnetic noise.
Quantum chaos and fluctuations in isolated nuclear-spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using numerical simulations we investigate dynamical quantum chaos in isolated nuclear spin systems. We determine the structure of quantum states, investigate the validity of the Curie law for magnetic susceptibility and find the spectrum of magnetic noise. The spectrum is the same for positive and negative temperatures. The study is motivated by recent interest in condensed-matter experiments for searches of fundamental parity- and time-reversal-invariance violations. In these experiments nuclear spins are cooled down to microkelvin temperatures and are completely decoupled from their surroundings. A limitation on statistical sensitivity of the experiments arises from the magnetic noise
On the quantum dynamics of non-commutative systems
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
F. S., Bemfica; H. O., Girotti.
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This is a review paper concerned with the global consistency of the quantum dynamics of non-commutative systems. Our point of departure is the theory of constrained systems, since it provides a unified description of the classical and quantum dynamics for the models under investigation. We then elab [...] orate on recently reported results concerned with the sufficient conditions for the existence of the Born series and unitarity and turn, afterwards, into analyzing the functional quantization of non-commutative systems. The compatibility between the operator and the functional approaches is established in full generality. The intricacies arising in connection with the explicit computation of path integrals, for the systems under scrutiny, is illustrated by presenting the detailed calculation of the Feynman kernel for the non-commutative two dimensional harmonic oscillator.
Generalizations of the Ermakov system through the Quantum Arnold Transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An Ermakov system consists of a pair of coupled non-linear differential equations which share a joint constant of motion named Ermakov invariant. One of those equations, non-linear, is frequently referred to as the Ermakov-Pinney equation; the other equation may be thought of as describing a dynamical system: a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency. In this paper, we revise the Quantum Arnold Transformation, a unitary operator mapping the solutions of the Schrödinger equation for time-dependent (even damped) harmonic oscillators, described by the Generalized Caldirola-Kanai equation, into solutions for the free particle. With this tool, we elucidate the existence of Ermakov-type invariants in classically linear systems at the classical and quantum levels. We also provide more general Ermakov-type systems and the corresponding invariants, together with a physical interpretation
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range. PMID:18518481
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems
Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F
2008-01-01
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows to determine rigorously existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally non-exactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Probing Quantum Frustrated Systems via Factorization of the Ground State
Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2009-01-01
The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvabl...
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems
Giampaolo, S. M.; Adesso, G.; Illuminati, F.
2008-01-01
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows to determine rigorously existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally non-exactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interact...
Optimal discrimination of multiple quantum systems: controllability analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical study is presented concerning the ability to dynamically discriminate between members of a set of different (but possibly similar) quantum systems. This discrimination is analysed in terms of independently and simultaneously steering about the wavefunction of each component system to a target state of interest using a tailored control (i.e. laser) field. Controllability criteria are revealed and their applicability is demonstrated in simple cases. Discussion is also presented in some uncontrollable cases
Magnetic light scattering in low-dimensional quantum spin systems
Lemmens, P.; Guntherodt, G.; Gros, C
2003-01-01
An overview of one- and two-dimensional quantum spin systems based on transition-metal oxides and halides of current interest is given, such as spin-Peierls, spin-dimer, geometrically frustrated and ladder systems. The most significant and outstanding contributions of magnetic light scattering to the understanding of these materials are discussed and compared to results of other spectroscopies and thermodynamic measurements.
On Which Length Scales Can Temperature Exist in Quantum Systems?
Hartmann, Michael; Mahler, Guenter; Hess, Ortwin
2005-01-01
We consider a regular chain of elementary quantum systems with nearest neighbor interactions and assume that the total system is in a canonical state with temperature $T$. We analyze under what condition the state factors into a product of canonical density matrices with respect to groups of $n$ subsystems each, and when these groups have the same temperature $T$. While in classical mechanics the validity of this procedure only depends on the size of the groups $n$, in quant...
The pointer basis and the feedback stabilization of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamics for an open quantum system can be ‘unravelled’ in infinitely many ways, depending on how the environment is monitored, yielding different sorts of conditioned states, evolving stochastically. In the case of ideal monitoring these states are pure, and the set of states for a given monitoring forms a basis (which is overcomplete in general) for the system. It has been argued elsewhere (Atkins et al 2005 Europhys. Lett. 69 163) that the ‘pointer basis’ as introduced by Zurek et al (1993 Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 1187), should be identified with the unravelling-induced basis which decoheres most slowly. Here we show the applicability of this concept of pointer basis to the problem of state stabilization for quantum systems. In particular we prove that for linear Gaussian quantum systems, if the feedback control is assumed to be strong compared to the decoherence of the pointer basis, then the system can be stabilized in one of the pointer basis states with a fidelity close to one (the infidelity varies inversely with the control strength). Moreover, if the aim of the feedback is to maximize the fidelity of the unconditioned system state with a pure state that is one of its conditioned states, then the optimal unravelling for stabilizing the system in this way is that which induces the pointer basis for the conditioned states. We illustrate these results with a model system: quantum Brownian motion. We show that even if the feedback control strength is comparable to the decoherence, the optimal unravelling still induces a basis very close to the pointer basis. However if the feedback control is weak compared to the decoherence, this is not the case. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With quantum operators corresponding to functions of the canonical variables, Schroedinger equations are constructed for systems corresponding to classical systems connected by a general point canonical transformation. Using the operator connecting quantum states between systems before and after the transformation, the quantum correction term and ordering parameter are obtained
Separability and ground state factorization in quantum spin systems
Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F
2009-01-01
We investigate the existence and the properties of fully separable (fully factorized) ground states in quantum spin systems. Exploiting techniques of quantum information and entanglement theory we extend a recently introduced method and construct a general, self-contained theory of ground state factorization in frustration-free quantum spin models defined on lattices in any spatial dimension and for interactions of arbitrary range. We show that, quite generally, non exactly solvable models in external field admit exact, fully factorized ground state solutions. Unentangled ground states occur at finite values of the Hamiltonian parameters satisfying well defined balancing conditions between external fields and interaction strengths. These conditions are analytically determined together with the type of magnetic orderings compatible with factorization and the corresponding values of the fundamental observables such as energy and magnetization. The method is applied to a series of examples of increasing complexi...
Radiative corrections and quantum gates in molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a method for quantum information processing using molecules coupled to an external laser field. This utilizes molecular interactions, control of the external field, and an effective energy shift of the doubly excited state of two coupled molecules. Such a level shift has been seen in the two-photon resonance experiments recently reported by Hettich et al. Here we show that this can be explained in terms of the QED Lamb shift. We quantify the performance of the proposed quantum logic gates in the presence of dissipative mechanisms. The unitary transformations required for performing one- and two-qubit operations can be implemented with present day molecular technology. The proposed techniques can also be applied to coupled quantum dot and biomolecular systems
Limits of Gaudin Systems: Classical and Quantum Cases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Chervov
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We consider the XXX homogeneous Gaudin system with N sites, both in classical and the quantum case. In particular we show that a suitable limiting procedure for letting the poles of its Lax matrix collide can be used to define new families of Liouville integrals (in the classical case and new ''Gaudin'' algebras (in the quantum case. We will especially treat the case of total collisions, that gives rise to (a generalization of the so called Bending flows of Kapovich and Millson. Some aspects of multi-Poisson geometry will be addressed (in the classical case. We will make use of properties of ''Manin matrices'' to provide explicit generators of the Gaudin Algebras in the quantum case.
Universal EFT for strongly interacting quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effective field theories provide a powerful framework to exploit a separation of scales in physical systems. I will discuss the application of this method to resonant few-body systems with large scattering length. Such systems show universal behavior and can display the Efimov effect and log-periodic scaling. Finally, I will discuss some applications ranging from nuclear and particle physics to the physics of ultracold atoms. (author)
The strong-coupling master equation of quantum open systems
Fleming, C H
2010-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate how to generate the strong-coupling master equations for open quantum systems of continuous variables. These are the dissipative master equations of quantum Brownian particles for which the environmental noise is stronger than other system forces. Our strong-coupling master equations are very different from other so-called "strong-coupling" master equations (e.g. the quantum Smoluchowski equation) which are perturbing off a limit in which the system energy is taken to be perturbative and thus the dynamics is principally Markovian. Such approximations also require the system mass to be asymptotically large (even as compared to the ratio of noise and induced system frequencies) and thus they do not fully categorize the regime of what one might consider to be strong coupling. Our master equations are highly non-Markovian and radically different for different system potentials, admitting no apparent generic form. This result is quite exciting as it brings forth a new regime for theore...
Quantum States and Phases in Driven Open Quantum Systems with Cold Atoms
Diehl, S; Kantian, A; Kraus, B; Büchler, H P; Zoller, P
2008-01-01
An open quantum system, whose time evolution is governed by a master equation, can be driven into a given pure quantum state by an appropriate design of the system-reservoir coupling. This points out a route towards preparing many body states and non-equilibrium quantum phases by quantum reservoir engineering. Here we discuss in detail the example of a \\emph{driven dissipative Bose Einstein Condensate} of bosons and of paired fermions, where atoms in an optical lattice are coupled to a bath of Bogoliubov excitations via the atomic current representing \\emph{local dissipation}. In the absence of interactions the lattice gas is driven into a pure state with long range order. Weak interactions lead to a weakly mixed state, which in 3D can be understood as a depletion of the condensate, and in 1D and 2D exhibits properties reminiscent of a Luttinger liquid or a Kosterlitz-Thouless critical phase at finite temperature, with the role of the ``finite temperature'' played by the interactions.
Sumner, Isaiah
A methodology, Quantum Wavepacket Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (QWAIMD), for the efficient, simultaneous dynamics of electrons and nuclei is presented. This approach allows for the quantum-dynamical treatment of a subset of nuclei in complex, molecular systems while treating the remaining nuclei and electrons within in the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) paradigm. Developments of QWAIMD discussed within include: (a) a novel sampling algorithm dubbed Time-Dependent Deterministic Sampling (TDDS), which increases the computational efficiency by several orders of magnitude; (b) generalizations to hybrid QM/QM and QM/MM electronic structure methods via a combination of the ONIOM and empirical valence bond approaches, which may allow for the accurate simulation of large molecules; and (c) a novel velocity-flux autocorrelation function to calculate the vibrational density-of-states of quantum-classical systems. These techniques are benchmarked on calculations of small, hydrogen-bound clusters. Furthermore, since many chemical processes occur over time-scales inaccessible to computation, a scheme is discussed and benchmarked here which can bias both QWAIMD and classical-AIMD dynamics to sample these long time-scale events, like proton transfer in enzyme catalysis. Finally, hydrogen tunneling in an enzyme, soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) is examined by calculating the orbitals (eigenstates) of the transferring proton along the reaction coordinate. This orbital analysis is then supplemented by using quantum measurement theory to reexamine the transfer.
a Monte Carlo Study of Classical and Quantum Hard - Systems.
Runge, Karl John
1988-12-01
The first part of this thesis discusses the elastic properties of the classical hardsphere crystal in equilibrium at temperature T. The second part investigates the thermodynamical, structural, and elastic properties of the solid and fluid phases of the quantum hard-sphere system at T > 0. The underlying connections between these two topics are the hard-sphere Hamiltonian and the Monte Carlo methods used to stochastically estimate the respective many-body integrals. The classical hard-sphere system has been a very useful system in the theory of classical fluids and solids, and has been extensively studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Recently, some theoretical studies have concluded that Poisson's ratio of the hard-sphere solid is negative. When a system with a negative Poisson's ratio is compressed along the x-direction it contracts along the y- and z-directions. This is very counterintuitive, especially for the hard-sphere system where purely repulsive forces act. Our work provides an algorithm for computing the hard-sphere elastic moduli and demonstrates conclusively that Poisson's ratio is positive for the hard-sphere solid. With the mass and diameter chosen appropriately, the hard-sphere system can be used to model strongly quantum mechanical systems such as ^3He and ^4He at low temperature. In this case the classical configurational integral is replaced by a sum over all Feynman paths. The second part of this thesis discusses the results of the path integral Monte Carlo method applied to a system of distinguishable hard -spheres at T > 0. Our work introduces an efficient algorithm for sampling paths of the many-body hard-sphere system and provides extensive tables of the total energy, pressure and Helmholtz free energy. From these data we locate the thermodynamic coexistence between the solid and fluid phases. As in our work on the classical system, we compute the elastic moduli of the quantum hard -sphere system. We also extend the hard-sphere perturbation theory of quantum solids and fluids to finite temperatures and demonstrate that good to excellent agreement with experimentally measured properties of ^3He and ^4He may be achieved. These properties include: the free energy and pressure; the melting-freezing densities, pressure, and latent heat; liquid-vapor coexistence; the pair distribution function; and the Debye temperature. Our results indicate that the experimental observation of the nearly constant ratio of ^3He to ^4He Debye temperatures can be explained by our elastic moduli results and the scaling properties of the quantum hard-sphere system.
On a Quantum System with Memory
Löffelholz, J.
We consider the integro-differential equation for the classical trajectory of an oscillator coupled to another one. On the quantum level the elimination of the coordinate A of the unvisible oscillator leads to an effective path integral (X, , ) for the associated imaginary time stochastic process t , (-,) x(t). We prove reflection positivity of the measure d? F . d, where d governes the free oscillator x and F is the counterpart of Feynman's influence functional. Finally, realizing the Hamiltonian semigroup exp(-tH), t 0, in the physical Hilbert space = L2(X, , ?), where +, we try to understand what is memory.Translated AbstractÜber ein Quantensystem mit GedächtnisWir untersuchen die Integro-Differentialgleichung für die klassische Trajektorie eines Oszillators, welcher an einen zweiten gekoppelt ist. Was passiert in der Quantenmechanik, wenn man die Koordinate des unsichtbaren Oszillators eliminiert? In imaginärer Zeit erhalten wir ein effektives Funktionalintegral (X, , ?) für den assoziierten stochastischen Prozeß t (-,) x(t). Formal gilt d? F . d. Hierbei beschreibt das Maß d die Dynamik des freien Oszillators x und F entspricht dem Feynmanschen Einflußfunktional. Wir zeigen, daß d? reflexionspositiv ist und realisieren die Halbgruppe exp(-tH), t 0, in = L2(X, +, ?). Dabei versuchen wir zu verstehen, wie in der Quantentheorie Gedächtnis entsteht.