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1

Utilizing general information theories for uncertainty quantification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uncertainties enter into a complex problem from many sources: variability, errors, and lack of knowledge. A fundamental question arises in how to characterize the various kinds of uncertainty and then combine within a problem such as the verification and validation of a structural dynamics computer model, reliability of a dynamic system, or a complex decision problem. Because uncertainties are of different types (e.g., random noise, numerical error, vagueness of classification), it is difficult to quantify all of them within the constructs of a single mathematical theory, such as probability theory. Because different kinds of uncertainty occur within a complex modeling problem, linkages between these mathematical theories are necessary. A brief overview of some of these theories and their constituents under the label of Generalized lnforrnation Theory (GIT) is presented, and a brief decision example illustrates the importance of linking at least two such theories.

Booker, J. M. (Jane M.)

2002-01-01

2

On Irrelevance and Algorithmic Equality in Predicative Type Theory  

CERN Multimedia

Dependently typed programs contain an excessive amount of static terms which are necessary to please the type checker but irrelevant for computation. To separate static and dynamic code, several static analyses and type systems have been put forward. We consider Pfenning's type theory with irrelevant quantification which is compatible with a type-based notion of equality that respects eta-laws. We extend Pfenning's theory to universes and large eliminations and develop its meta-theory. Subject reduction, normalization and consistency are obtained by a Kripke model over the typed equality judgement. Finally, a type-directed equality algorithm is described whose completeness is proven by a second Kripke model.

Abel, Andreas

2012-01-01

3

A dependent nominal type theory  

CERN Multimedia

Nominal abstract syntax is an approach to representing names and binding pioneered by Gabbay and Pitts. So far nominal techniques have mostly been studied using classical logic or model theory, not type theory. Nominal extensions to simple, dependent and ML-like polymorphic languages have been studied, but decidability and normalization results have only been established for simple nominal type theories. We present a LF-style dependent type theory extended with name-abstraction types, prove soundness and decidability of beta-eta-equivalence checking, discuss adequacy and canonical forms via an example, and discuss extensions such as dependently-typed recursion and induction principles.

Cheney, James

2012-01-01

4

Causality in Time Series: Its Detection and Quantification by Means of Information Theory.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

information theoryKód oboru RIV: BD - Teorie informace http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/schindler-causality in time series its detection and quantification by means of information theory.pdf

Hlavá?ková-Schindler, Kate?inaG

5

Type Classes for Mathematics in Type Theory  

CERN Document Server

The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library of constructive analysis in which abstraction penalties inhibiting efficient computation are reduced to a minimum. The base of our development consists of type classes representing a standard algebraic hierarchy, as well as portions of category theory and universal algebra. On this foundation we build a set of mathematically sound abstract interfaces for different kinds of numbers, succinctly expressed using categorical language and universal algebra constructions. Strategic use of type classes lets us support these high...

Spitters, Bas

2011-01-01

6

Type 0 Strings and Gauge Theories  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We briey review some recent work on extending the ideas of gauge theory { gravity correspondenceto type 0 string theory context. The main hope is understanding non-perturbative aspects ofnon-supersymmetric gauge theories.In the papers [1-3] non-supersymmetric large N gauge theories dual to certain backgrounds of the type0 string theory were studied. This work was inspired by the recently discovered relations between type IIstrings and superconformal gauge theories on N coincident D3-branes, and, in particular, by Polyakov'ssuggestion [4] that the type 0 string theory in dimensions D 10 is a natural setting for extending thisduality to non-supersymmetric gauge theories.The type 0 string has world sheet supersymmetry but no space-time supersymmetry. In both type 0Aand type 0B theory the fermions are completely projected out of the spectrum. The massless bosonic eldsare as in the corresponding type II theory (A or B), but with the doubled set of Ramond-Ramond (R-R)elds. T...

A. A. Tseytlin

7

Dissipative relativistic fluid theories of divergence type  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate the theories of dissipative relativistic fluids in which all of the dynamical equations can be written as total-divergence equations. Extending the analysis of Liu, Mueller, and Ruggeri, we find the general theory of this type. We discuss various features of these theories, including the causality of the full nonlinear evolution equations and the nature and stability of the equilibrium states.

Geroch, R. (Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (USA)); Lindblom, L. (Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (USA))

1990-03-15

8

Aspects of type $0$ string theory  

CERN Multimedia

A construction of compact tachyon-free orientifolds of the non-supersymmetric Type 0B string theory is presented. Moreover, we study effective non-supersymmetric gauge theories arising on self-dual D3-branes in Type 0B orbifolds and orientifolds.

Blumenhagen, R; Kumar, A; Lüst, Dieter

2000-01-01

9

Quantification of experienced hearing problems with Item Response Theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To improve the effectiveness of adult hearing screens and interventions assessment methods are needed which address the individual's experienced hearing. Item Response Theory, which provides a methodology for assessing Patient Reported Outcomes, will be examined here to demonstrate its usefulness in hearing screens and interventions. METHOD: The Graded Response Model is applied to a scale of 11 items assessing perceived hearing functioning and 10 items assessing experienced social limitations completed by a sample of 212 persons aged 55+. Fixed and variable slope models are compared. Discrimination and threshold parameters are estimated and information functions evaluated. RESULTS: Variable slope models for both scales provided the best fit. The estimated discrimination parameters for all items except for one in each scale were good if not excellent (1.5-3.4). Threshold values varied demonstrating the complementary and supplementary value of items within a scale. The information provided by each item varies relative to trait values so that each scale of items provides information over a wider range of trait values. CONCLUSION: IRT methodology facilitates the comparison of items relative to their discriminative ability and information provided and thus provides a basis for the selection of items for application in a screening setting.

Chenault M; Berger M; Kremer B; Anteunis L

2013-07-01

10

Transcriptional regulatory network refinement and quantification through kinetic modeling, gene expression microarray data and information theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression microarray and other multiplex data hold promise for addressing the challenges of cellular complexity, refined diagnoses and the discovery of well-targeted treatments. A new approach to the construction and quantification of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is presented that integrates gene expression microarray data and cell modeling through information theory. Given a partial TRN and time series data, a probability density is constructed that is a functional of the time course of transcription factor (TF) thermodynamic activities at the site of gene control, and is a function of mRNA degradation and transcription rate coefficients, and equilibrium constants for TF/gene binding. Results Our approach yields more physicochemical information that compliments the results of network structure delineation methods, and thereby can serve as an element of a comprehensive TRN discovery/quantification system. The most probable TF time courses and values of the aforementioned parameters are obtained by maximizing the probability obtained through entropy maximization. Observed time delays between mRNA expression and activity are accounted for implicitly since the time course of the activity of a TF is coupled by probability functional maximization, and is not assumed to be proportional to expression level of the mRNA type that translates into the TF. This allows one to investigate post-translational and TF activation mechanisms of gene regulation. Accuracy and robustness of the method are evaluated. A kinetic formulation is used to facilitate the analysis of phenomena with a strongly dynamical character while a physically-motivated regularization of the TF time course is found to overcome difficulties due to omnipresent noise and data sparsity that plague other methods of gene expression data analysis. An application to Escherichia coli is presented. Conclusion Multiplex time series data can be used for the construction of the network of cellular processes and the calibration of the associated physicochemical parameters. We have demonstrated these concepts in the context of gene regulation understood through the analysis of gene expression microarray time series data. Casting the approach in a probabilistic framework has allowed us to address the uncertainties in gene expression microarray data. Our approach was found to be robust to error in the gene expression microarray data and mistakes in a proposed TRN.

Sayyed-Ahmad Abdallah; Tuncay Kagan; Ortoleva Peter J

2007-01-01

11

Dissipative relativistic fluid theories of divergence type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We investigate the theories of dissipative relativistic fluids in which all of the dynamical equations can be written as total-divergence equations. Extending the analysis of Liu, Mueller, and Ruggeri, we find the general theory of this type. We discuss various features of these theories, including the causality of the full nonlinear evolution equations and the nature and stability of the equilibrium states

1990-03-15

12

Extending Type Theory with Forcing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an intuitionistic forcing translation for the Calculus of Constructions (CoC), a translation that corresponds to an internalization of the presheaf construction in CoC. Depending on the chosen set of forcing conditions, the resulting type system can be extended with extra logical...

Jaber, Guilhem; Tabareau, Nicolas; Sozeau, Matthieu

13

The term in type IIB string theory  

CERN Document Server

The modular invariant coefficient of the D^{2k} R^4 term in the effective action of type IIB superstring theory is expected to satisfy Poisson equation on the fundamental domain of SL(2,Z). We obtain the equation satisfied by D^{10} R^4 using the tree level and one loop results for four graviton scattering in type II string theory. We find that the perturbative contributions to D^{10} R^4 vanish above three loops, and we also predict the coefficients at two and three loops.

Basu, A

2007-01-01

14

Explicit Substitutions for Contextual Type Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present an explicit substitution calculus which distinguishes between ordinary bound variables and meta-variables. Its typing discipline is derived from contextual modal type theory. We first present a dependently typed lambda calculus with explicit substitutions for ordinary variables and explicit meta-substitutions for meta-variables. We then present a weak head normalization procedure which performs both substitutions lazily and in a single pass thereby combining substitution walks for the two different classes of variables. Finally, we describe a bidirectional type checking algorithm which uses weak head normalization and prove soundness.

Andreas Abel; Brigitte Pientka

2010-01-01

15

Auslander-type conditions and cotorsion theory  

CERN Document Server

We study the properties of rings satisfying Auslander-type conditions. If an artin algebra $\\Lambda$ satisfies the Auslander condition (that is, $\\Lambda$ is an $\\infty$-Gorenstein artin algebra), then we construct two kinds of subcategories which form functorially finite cotorsion theories.

Huang, Z; Huang, Zhaoyong; Iyama, Osamu

2007-01-01

16

Applicability of Information Theory to the Quantification of Responses to Anthropogenic Noise by Southeast Alaskan Humpback Whales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assess the effectiveness of applying information theory to the characterization and quantification of the affects of anthropogenic vessel noise on humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) vocal behavior in and around Glacier Bay, Alaska. Vessel noise has the potential to interfere with the complex vocal behavior of these humpback whales which could have direct consequences on their feeding behavior and thus ultimately on their health and reproduction. Humpback whale feeding calls recorded during conditions of high vessel-generated noise and lower levels of background noise are compared for differences in acoustic structure, use, and organization using information theoretic measures. We apply information theory in a self-referential manner (i.e., orders of entropy) to quantify the changes in signaling behavior. We then compare this with the reduction in channel capacity due to noise in Glacier Bay itself treating it as a (Gaussian) noisy channel. We find that high vessel noise is associated with an increase in the rate and repetitiveness of sequential use of feeding call types in our averaged sample of humpback whale vocalizations, indicating that vessel noise may be modifying the patterns of use of feeding calls by the endangered humpback whales in Southeast Alaska. The information theoretic approach suggested herein can make a reliable quantitative measure of such relationships and may also be adapted for wider application to many species where environmental noise is thought to be a problem.

Laurance R. Doyle; Brenda McCowan; Sean F. Hanser; Christopher Chyba; Taylor Bucci; J. Ellen Blue

2008-01-01

17

Hoare type theory, polymorphism and separation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We consider the problem of reconciling a dependently typed functional language with imperative features such as mutable higher-order state, pointer aliasing, and nontermination. We propose Hoare type theory (HTT), which incorporates Hoare-style specifications into types, making it possible to statically track and enforce correct use of side effects. The main feature of HTT is the Hoare type {P}x:A{Q} specifying computations with precondition P and postcondition Q that return a result of type A. Hoare types can be nested, combined with other types, and abstracted, leading to a smooth integration with higher-order functions and type polymorphism. We further show that in the presence of type polymorphism, it becomes possible to interpret the Hoare types in the “small footprint” manner, as advocated by separation logic, whereby specifications tightly describe the state required by the computation. We establish that HTT is sound and compositional, in the sense that separate verifications of individual program components suffice to ensure the correctness of the composite program.

Nanevski, Alexandar; Morrisett, J. Gregory

2008-01-01

18

Classical Predicative Logic-Enriched Type Theories  

CERN Document Server

A logic-enriched type theory (LTT) is a type theory extended with a primitive mechanism for forming and proving propositions. We construct two LTTs, named LTTO and LTTO*, which we claim correspond closely to the classical predicative systems of second order arithmetic ACAO and ACA. We justify this claim by translating each second-order system into the corresponding LTT, and proving that these translations are conservative. This is part of an ongoing research project to investigate how LTTs may be used to formalise different approaches to the foundations of mathematics. The two LTTs we construct are subsystems of the logic-enriched type theory LTTW, which is intended to formalise the classical predicative foundation presented by Herman Weyl in his monograph Das Kontinuum. The system ACAO has also been claimed to correspond to Weyl's foundation. By casting ACAO and ACA as LTTs, we are able to compare them with LTTW. It is a consequence of the work in this paper that LTTW is strictly stronger than ACAO. The cons...

Adams, Robin

2009-01-01

19

Multi-level Contextual Type Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

Mathieu Boespflug; Brigitte Pientka

2011-01-01

20

Type II Solar Radio Bursts: Theory and Space Weather Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent data and theory for type II solar radio bursts are reviewed, focusing on a recent analytic quantitative theory for interplanetary type II bursts. The theory addresses electron reflection and acceleration at the type II shock, formation of electron beams in the foreshock, and generation of Langmuir waves and the type II radiation there. The theory's predictions as functions of the shock and plasma parameters are summarized and discussed in terms of space weather events. The theory is consistent with available data, has explanations for radio-loud/quiet coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and why type IIs are bursty, and can account for empirical correlations between type IIs, CMEs, and interplanetary disturbances.

Cairns, Iver H.; Knock, S. A.; Robinson, P. A.; Kuncic, Z.

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

Percolation and sieving segregation patterns: Quantification, mechanistic theory, model development and validation, and application  

Science.gov (United States)

The general goal of this research was to study percolation and sieving segregation patterns---quantification, mechanistic theory, model development and validation of particulate materials. A second generation primary segregation shear cell (PSSC-II) was designed and fabricated to model the sieving and percolation segregation mechanisms of particulate materials. Two test materials used in this research were spherical shaped glass beads (denoted as G) and irregular shaped mash poultry feed (denoted as F), which are considered as representatives of ideal and real world materials, respectively. The PSSC-II test results showed that there is a linear relationship between normalized segregation rate (NSR) and absolute size or size ratio for GG and FG combinations; whereas, linear relationship does not hold for FF and GF combinations although the effect of absolute size and size ratio on NSR were significant (P MTB model) for GG and FG combinations was developed using mechanics, dimensional analysis, and linear regression methods. The MTB model, for the first time, successfully correlated the effect of particle size, density, and shape to segregation potential of binary mixtures in one quantitative equation. Furthermore, the MTB model has the potential to accommodate additional effects such as surface texture and electrostatic charge to generalize the model. Finally, as a case study, effect of feed particle segregation on bird performance was performed to examine the effectiveness of the research results. The results showed that, due to bird selection behavior and particle segregation, birds did not sufficiently consume those nutrients that are contained in smaller feed particles (<1,180 mum). The results of feed particle size and nutrients analysis verified the above observations. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Tang, Pingjun

22

Isotropization of Bianchi type models in string effective theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Using scaled variables we are able to integrate an equation valid for isotropic and anisotropic Bianchi type I, V, IX models in Brans-Dicke theory. We specialize our analysis for the case in which ? = - 1 that corresponds to string effective theories. In these theories we analyze the possibility that anisotropic models asymptotically isotropize, and/or possess inflationary properties. Additionally, a new solution of curve (k ? O) Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmologies is discussed. (Author)

2003-01-01

23

Quantification of gait parameters in freely walking wild type and sensory deprived Drosophila melanogaster.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coordinated walking in vertebrates and multi-legged in vertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster requires a complex neural network coupled to sensory feedback. An understanding of this network will benefit from systems such as Drosophila that have the ability to genetically manipulate neural activities. However, the fly's small size makes it challenging to analyze walking in this system. In order to overcome this limitation, we developed an optical method coupled with high-speed imaging that allows the tracking and quantification of gait parameters in freely walking flies with high temporal and spatial resolution. Using this method, we present a comprehensive description of many locomotion parameters, such as gait, tarsal positioning, and intersegmental and left-right coordination for wild type fruit flies. Surprisingly, we find that inactivation of sensory neurons in the fly's legs, to block proprioceptive feedback, led to deficient step precision, but interleg coordination and the ability to execute a tripod gait were unaffected.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00231.001.

Mendes CS; Bartos I; Akay T; Márka S; Mann RS

2013-01-01

24

On representation theory of affine Hecke algebras of type B  

CERN Multimedia

Ariki's and Grojnowski's approach to the representation theory of affine Hecke algebras of type $A$ is applied to type $B$ with unequal parameters to obtain -- under certain restrictions on the eigenvalues of the lattice operators -- analogous multiplicity-one results and a classification of irreducibles with partial branching rules as in type $A$.

Miemietz, Vanessa

2007-01-01

25

New vacua for type II string theory  

CERN Document Server

Lorentz-invariant expectation values for antisymmetric tensor field strengths in Calabi-Yau compactification of IIA string theory are considered. These are found to impart magnetic and/or electric charges to the dilaton hypermultiplet. This results in a potential which can have supersymmetric minima at zero coupling or at conifold points in the moduli space. The latter occurs whenever the dilaton charge is aligned with that of the light black hole at the conifold. It is shown that there is a flat direction extending from the conifold along which there is a black hole condensate whose strength is of order the string coupling g_s. It is speculated that these new vacua correspond to string compactification on generalized Calabi-Yau spaces which have c_1=0 but are not Kahler.

Polchinski, Joseph; Polchinski, Joseph; Strominger, Andrew

1995-01-01

26

Revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Attempts to date to obtain the shape of the beam forming electrodes of various Pierce-type electron guns are briefly discussed with emphasis on the many discrepansis in the results of previous works. A revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns is proposed. The shapes of the beam-forming electrodes for all known configurations of Pierce guns were computed on the basis of the proposed theory. (orig.)

1982-12-01

27

Revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attempts to date to obtain the shape of the beam forming electrodes of various Pierce-type electron guns are briefly discussed with emphasis on the many discrepansis in the results of previous works. A revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns is proposed. The shapes of the beam-forming electrodes for all known configurations of Pierce guns were computed on the basis of the proposed theory.

Sar-El, H.Z. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq Nuclear Research Center)

1982-12-01

28

Quantification analysis of CT for aphasic patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography, for 44 aphasic patients with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized matrices, composed of 10 slices with 3000 points (50 by 60). The relationships between the foci of the lesions and types of aphasia were investigated on the slices numbered 3, 4, 5, and 6 using a quantification theory, Type 3 (pattern analysis). Some types of regularities were observed on Slices 3, 4, 5, and 6. The group of patients with Broca's aphasia and the group with Wernicke's aphasia were generally separated on the 1st component and the 2nd component of the quantification theory, Type 3. On the other hand, the group with global aphasia existed between the group with Broca's aphasia and that with Wernicke's aphasia. The group of patients with amnestic aphasia had no specific findings, and the group with conduction aphasia existed near those with Wernicke's aphasia. The above results serve to establish the quantification theory, Type 2 (discrimination analysis) and the quantification theory, Type 1 (regression analysis). (author)

1987-01-01

29

Quantification analysis of CT for aphasic patients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography, for 44 aphasic patients with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized matrices, composed of 10 slices with 3000 points (50 by 60). The relationships between the foci of the lesions and types of aphasia were investigated on the slices numbered 3, 4, 5, and 6 using a quantification theory, Type 3 (pattern analysis). Some types of regularities were observed on slices 3, 4, 5, and 6. The group of patients with Broca's aphasia and the group with Wernicke's aphasia were generally separated on the 1st component and the 2nd component of the quantification theory, Type 3. On the other hand, the group with global aphasia existed between the group with Broca's aphasia and that with Wernicke's aphasia. The group of patients with amnestic aphasia had no specific findings, and the group with conduction aphasia existed near those with Wernicke's aphasia. The above results serve to establish the quantification theory, Type 2 (discrimination analysis) and the quantification theory, Type 1 (regression analysis).

Watanabe, S.; Ooyama, H.; Hojo, K.; Tasaki, H.; Hanazono, T.; Sato, T.; Metoki, H.; Totsuka, M.; Oosumi, N.

1987-02-01

30

Bianchi type V cosmological model in scale invariant theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper, an attempt has been taken to study the perfect fluid distribution in the scale invariant theory of gravitation, when the space-time described by Bianchi type V metric with a time dependent gauge function. In this theory, a non-singular steady state model of the universe is constructed and some physical behaviours of the model are studied. (authors)

2007-01-01

31

Models of Particle Physics from Type IIB String Theory and F-theory: A Review  

CERN Multimedia

We review particle physics model building in type IIB string theory and F-theory. This is a region in the landscape where in principle many of the key ingredients required for a realistic model of particle physics can be combined successfully. We begin by reviewing moduli stabilisation within this framework and its implications for supersymmetry breaking. We then review model building tools and developments in the weakly coupled type IIB limit, for both local D3-branes at singularities and global models of intersecting D7-branes. Much of recent model building work has been in the strongly coupled regime of F-theory due to the presence of exceptional symmetries which allow for the construction of phenomenologically appealing Grand Unified Theories. We review both local and global F-theory model building starting from the fundamental concepts and tools regarding how the gauge group, matter sector and operators arise, and ranging to detailed phenomenological properties explored in the literature.

Maharana, Anshuman

2012-01-01

32

Gauge Fluxes in F-theory and Type IIB Orientifolds  

CERN Document Server

We provide a detailed correspondence between G_4 gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications with SU(n) and SU(n)x(1) gauge symmetry and their Type IIB orientifold limit. Based on the resolution of the relevant F-theory Tate models we classify the factorisable G_4-fluxes and match them with the set of universal D5-tadpole free U(1)-fluxes in Type IIB. Where available, the global version of the universal spectral cover flux corresponds to Type IIB gauge flux associated with a massive diagonal U(1). In U(1)-restricted Tate models extra massless abelian fluxes exist which are associated with specific linear combinations of Type IIB fluxes. Key to a quantitative match between F-theory and Type IIB is a proper treatment of the conifold singularity encountered in the Sen limit of generic F-theory models. We also collect evidence that the Type IIB orientifold limit of the considered Tate models involves a non-trivial B-field and shed further light on the brane recombination process relating generic and U(1)-restricte...

Krause, Sven; Weigand, Timo

2012-01-01

33

Link Invariants of Finite Type and Perturbation Theory  

CERN Document Server

The Vassiliev-Gusarov link invariants of finite type are known to be closely related to perturbation theory for Chern-Simons theory. In order to clarify the perturbative nature of such link invariants, we introduce an algebra V_infinity containing elements g_i satisfying the usual braid group relations and elements a_i satisfying g_i - g_i^{-1} = epsilon a_i, where epsilon is a formal variable that may be regarded as measuring the failure of g_i^2 to equal 1. Topologically, the elements a_i signify crossings. We show that a large class of link invariants of finite type are in one-to-one correspondence with homogeneous Markov traces on V_infinity. We sketch a possible application of link invariants of finite type to a manifestly diffeomorphism-invariant perturbation theory for quantum gravity in the loop representation.

Baez, J C

1992-01-01

34

KO-Homology and Type I String Theory  

CERN Document Server

We study the classification of D-branes and Ramond-Ramond fields in Type I string theory by developing a geometric description of KO-homology. We define an analytic version of KO-homology using KK-theory of real C*-algebras, and construct explicitly the isomorphism between geometric and analytic KO-homology. The construction involves recasting the Cl(n)-index theorem and a certain geometric invariant into a homological framework which is used, along with a definition of the real Chern character in KO-homology, to derive cohomological index formulas. We show that this invariant also naturally assigns torsion charges to non-BPS states in Type I string theory, in the construction of classes of D-branes in terms of topological KO-cycles. The formalism naturally captures the coupling of Ramond-Ramond fields to background D-branes which cancel global anomalies in the string theory path integral. We show that this is related to a physical interpretation of bivariant KK-theory in terms of decay processes on spacetime...

Reis, R M G; Valentino, A; Reis, Rui M.G.; Szabo, Richard J.; Valentino, Alessandro

2006-01-01

35

On the homotopy theory of n-types  

CERN Document Server

An n-truncated model structure on simplicial (pre-)sheaves is described having as weak equivalences maps that induce isomorphisms on certain homotopy sheaves only up to degree n. Starting from one of Jardine's intermediate model structures we construct such an n-type model structure via Bousfield-Friedlander localization and exhibit useful generating sets of trivial cofibrations. Injectively fibrant objects in these categories are called n-hyperstacks. The whole setup can consequently be viewed as a description of the homotopy theory of higher hyperstacks. More importantly, we construct analogous n-truncations on simplicial groupoids and prove a Quillen equivalence between these settings. We achieve a classification of n-types of simplicial presheaves in terms of (n-1)-types of presheaves of simplicial groupoids. Our classification holds for general n. Therefore this can also be viewed as the homotopy theory of (pre-)sheaves of (weak) higher groupoids.

Biedermann, G

2006-01-01

36

On the classification of Floer-type theories  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we outline a program for the classification of Floer-type theories, (or defining invariants of finite type for families). We consider Khovanov complexes as a local system on the space of knots introduced by V. Vassiliev and construct the wall-crossing morphism. We extend this system to the singular locus by the cone of this morphism and introduce the definition of the local system of finite type. This program can be further generalized to the manifolds of dimension 3 and 4.

Shirokova, Nadya

2007-01-01

37

An inhibition ELISA for the quantification of collagens type I and type II in cyanogen bromide-digested tissues using fragment-directed antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantification of connective tissue components in small tissue samples is of great importance for the examination of drug-induced changes in the development of the mammalian embryo. An inhibition-ELISA for the quantification of collagens type I and type II in CNBr-digested tissue samples was developed. Fragments of type I collagen were produced by CNBr-cleavage of the pure collagen and partially purified by gel filtration chromatography. A mixture of fragments was used to immunize rabbits. Antisera with highest titres were absorbed with immobilized fibronectin and collagens type II, III, V and I. The eluted antibodies exhibited specificity for alpha 2(I)-CB4, exclusively. These antibodies, as well as the previously described antibodies with specificity for alpha 1(II)-CB8, were used for the development of an inhibition-ELISA. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.3 micrograms/ml for collagen I and 3 micrograms/ml for collagen II. To evaluate the value and practicability of the ELISA we have estimated the amounts of both collagens in biochemically well characterized tissues (skin, aorta, chondrosarcoma) and have performed an initial determination in mouse embryos. PMID:2074114

Schröter-Kermani, C; Ochsner-Welpelo, I; Kittelberger, R

38

Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2012-03-15

39

Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S4. (orig.)

2012-01-01

40

Space-time content of Liouville-type theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of the space-time content of the Liouville-type field theories (LFT) is presented. The origin and significance of D=2, D=26 and, respectively, D=10 are rigorously explained and connections between LFT, octonionic algebra and N=8 D=4 supergravity are derived. As byproducts, new approaches to (justification of) internal symmetries and, respectively, implementation of the Kaluza-Klein idea (i.e., ''physics from higher dimensions'') are suggested.

Tataru-Mihai, P.

1983-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

Type 1 2HDM as effective theory of supersymmetry  

CERN Multimedia

It is generally believed that the low energy effective theory of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is the type 2 two Higgs doublet model. We will show that the type 1 two Higgs doublet model can also as the effective of supersymmetry in a specific case with high scale supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation. If the other electroweak doublet obtain the vacuum expectation value after the electroweak symmetry breaking, the Higgs spectrum is quite different. A remarkable feature is that the physical Higgs boson mass can 125 GeV unlike in the ordinary models with high scale supersymmetry in which the Higgs mass is generally around 140 GeV.

Shao, Hua

2012-01-01

42

[Validation of an ELISA assay for the quantification of antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The validation study of an ELISA assay -internationally accepted for this purpose- was conducted aimed at having a method for the quantification of antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide in the clinical trials used to prove the immunogenicity of a new conjugated vaccine composed of a synthetic antigen. The validation was carried out in the National Haemophilus Reference Laboratory, in "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, Havana, Cuba. A protocol was designed, in which the determination of accuracy, exactness, linearity and limit of the detection of the assay were considered. The Hib Batch 1983 international reference serum was used in the preparation of the standard pattern curve. Dispersion indexes lower than 10 and 20% were observed for the repeatability and reproducibility of the system, respectively. The limit of detection was 3.6 ng/m and the recovery and linearity trials showed the high accuracy of the method. It was concluded that during the clinical evaluation of the candidate vaccine obtained by chemical synthesis, the quantification of antibodies against Hib capsular polysaccharide may be faced with an appropriate precision and exactness by using the proposed method.

Toraño Peraza G; Hernández Vadell I; Baly A; Toledo Romaní ME

2005-09-01

43

Definitions and Pi-conversion in Type Theory  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In [KN 95b], the Barendregt Cube was extended with Pi-conversion. The resultingsystem had only a Weak form of Subject Reduction. In this paper, the Cube is extendedwith explicit definitions. We show that the Cube extended with either explicit definitionsalone or with both explicit definitions and Pi-conversion satisfies all its original propertiesincluding Subject Reduction.1 IntroductionType theory has almost always been studied without Pi-conversion (which is the analogue offi-conversion on product type level). That is, ! fi : ( x:A :b)C ! fi b[x := C] is always assumedbut not ! Pi : (Pi x:A :B)C ! Pi B[x := C]. The exception for this are some Automath languagesin [NGV 95] and the current work of [KN 94] and [KN 95b]. We claim that ! Pi is desirablefor the following reasons:1. Pi is a kind of . In various higher order type theories, arrow-types of the form A ! B arereplaced by dependent products Pi x:A :B, where B may contain x as a free variable, and thusmay...

Fairouz Kamareddine; Roel Bloo

44

D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory  

CERN Multimedia

We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

Blumenhagen, Ralph; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

2009-01-01

45

D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Cvetic, Mirjam; /Pennsylvania U.; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

2009-06-19

46

Smooth double critical state theory for type-II superconductors  

CERN Document Server

Several aspects of the general theory for the critical states of a vortex lattice and the magnetic flux dynamics in type-II superconductors are examined by a direct variational optimisation method and widespread physical principles. Our method allows to unify a number of conventional models describing the complex vortex configurations in the critical state regime. Special attention is given to the discussion of the relation between the flux-line cutting mechanism and the depinning threshold limitation. This is done by using a smooth double critical state concept which incorporates the so-called isotropic, elliptical, T and CT models as well-defined limits of our general treatment. Starting from different initial configurations for a superconducting slab in a 3D magnetic field, we show that the predictions of the theory range from the collapse to zero of transverse magnetic moments in the isotropic model, to nearly force free configurations in which paramagnetic values can arbitrarily increase with the applied...

Ruiz, H S

2010-01-01

47

Leptogenesis in unified theories with Type II see-saw  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In some classes of flavour models based on unified theories with a type I see-saw mechanism, the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino is in conflict with the lower bound from the requirement of successful thermal leptogenesis. We investigate how lifting the absolute neutrino mass scale by adding a type II see-saw contribution proportional to the unit matrix can solve this problem. Generically, lifting the neutrino mass scale increases the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino while the decay asymmetry is enhanced and washout effects are reduced, relaxing the lower bound on the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino from thermal leptogenesis. For instance in classes of unified theories where the lightest right-handed neutrino dominates the type I see-saw contribution, we find that thermal leptogenesis becomes possible if the neutrino mass scale is larger than about 0.15 eV, making this scenario testable by neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in the near future.

Antusch, Stefan [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); King, Steve F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2006-01-15

48

Type II superstring field theory: geometric approach and operadic description  

Science.gov (United States)

We outline the construction of type II superstring field theory leading to a geometric and algebraic BV master equation, analogous to Zwiebach's construction for the bosonic string. The construction uses the small Hilbert space. Elementary vertices of the non-polynomial action are described with the help of a properly formulated minimal area problem. They give rise to an infinite tower of superstring field products defining a {N} = 1 generalization of a loop homotopy Lie algebra, the genus zero part generalizing a homotopy Lie algebra. Finally, we give an operadic interpretation of the construction.

Jur?o, Branislav; Münster, Korbinian

2013-04-01

49

Quantification of age-related changes in the structure model type and trabecular thickness of human tibial cancellous bone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Structure model type and trabecular thickness are important characteristics in describing cancellous bone architecture. It has been qualitatively observed that a radical change of trabeculae from plate-like to rod-like occurs in aging, bone remodeling, and osteoporosis. Thickness of trabeculae has traditionally been measured using model-based histomorphometric methods on two-dimensional (2-D) sections. However, no quantitative study has been published based on three-dimensional (3-D) methods on the age-related changes in structure model type and trabecular thickness for human peripheral (tibial) cancellous bone. In this study, 160 human proximal tibial cancellous bone specimens from 40 normal donors, aged 16 to 85 years, were collected. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned, then the micro-CT images were segmented using optimal thresholds. From accurate 3-D data sets, structure model type and trabecular thickness were quantified by means of novel 3-D methods. Structure model type was assessed by calculating the structure model index (SMI). The SMI was quantified based on a differential analysis of the triangulated bone surface of a structure. This technique allows quantification of structure model type, such as plate, rod objects, or mixture of plates or rods. Trabecular thickness is calculated directly from 3-D images, which is especially important for an a priori unknown or changing structure. Furthermore, 2-D trabecular thickness was also calculated based on the plate model. Our results showed that structure model type changed towards more rod-like in the elderly, and that trabecular thickness declined significantly with age. These changes become significant after 80 years of age for human tibial cancellous bone, whereas both properties seem to remain relatively unchanged between 20 and 80 years. Although a fairly close relationship was seen between 3-D trabecular thickness and 2-D trabecular thickness, real 3-D trabecular thickness was significantly underestimated using 2-D method.

Ding M; Hvid I

2000-03-01

50

Laser capture microdissection of metachromatically stained skeletal muscle allows quantification of fiber type specific gene expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Skeletal muscle contains various myofiber types closely associated with satellite stem cells, vasculature, and neurons, thus making it difficult to perform genetic or proteomic expression analysis with sufficient cellular specificity to resolve differences at the individual cell or myofiber type level. Here, we describe the combination of a simple histochemical method capable of simultaneously identifying Type I, IIA, IIB, and IIC myofibers followed by laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) to compare the expression profiles of individual fiber types, myonuclear domains, and satellite cells in frozen muscle sections of control and atrophied muscle. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) was used to verify the integrity of the cell-specific RNAs harvested after histologic staining, while qPCR for specific genes of interest was used to quantify atrophy-associated changes in mRNA. Our data demonstrate that the differential myofiber atrophy previously described by histologic means is related to differential expression of atrophy-related genes, such as MuRF1 and MAFbx (a.k.a. Atrogin-1), within different myofiber type populations. This spatially resolved molecular pathology (SRMP) technique allowed quantitation of atrophy-related gene products within individual fiber types that could not be resolved by expression analysis of the whole muscle. The present study demonstrates the importance of fiber type specific expression profiling in understanding skeletal muscle biology especially during muscle atrophy and provides a practical method of performing such research.

Vanderburg CR; Clarke MS

2013-03-01

51

Variation of DaTSCAN quantification between different gamma camera types.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To acquire data from a 123I filled Alderson phantom on different gamma cameras types and compare the relative uptake results from processing using the QuantiSPECT program (GE Healthcare). METHODS: A DaTSCAN phantom was filled using the standard protocol and imaged on seven different gamma camera types and on two identical cameras of the same type. The standard GE Healthcare protocols for the given cameras were used. Aliquots of the striatum and brain background were counted in a gamma counter to determine variations in filling concentration. All the raw DaTSCAN SPECT data was imported into QuantiSPECT and processed by the three different algorithms (two box, three box and crescent) to determine the relative uptake in the striatum. Inter-operater and intra-operator variation was also determined. RESULTS: The 10% variation in filling concentration found across the sites was compensated for in the final results. There was a 5-15% variation between cameras depending on the processing algorithm used. There was an intra-operator variation of between 5 and 12% which reflected the proportion of operator intervention within the processing method. There was no statistical variation between operators. CONCLUSIONS: The transfer of a DaTSCAN database between camera types is feasible, but ideally all data would be acquired on a single camera type and phantom data used to normalize the database accordingly.

Morton RJ; Guy MJ; Marshall CA; Clarke EA; Hinton PJ

2005-12-01

52

Smooth double critical state theory for type-II superconductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several aspects of the general theory for the critical states of a vortex lattice and the magnetic flux dynamics in type-II superconductors are examined by a direct variational optimization method and widespread physical principles. Our method allows us to unify a number of conventional models describing the complex vortex configurations in the critical state regime. Special attention is given to the discussion of the relation between the flux line cutting mechanism and the depinning threshold limitation. This is done by using a smooth double critical state concept which incorporates the so-called isotropic, elliptical, T and CT models as well-defined limits of our general treatment. Starting from different initial configurations for a superconducting slab in a 3D magnetic field, we show that the predictions of the theory range from the collapse to zero of transverse magnetic moments in the isotropic model, to nearly force-free configurations in which paramagnetic values can arbitrarily increase with the applied field for magnetically anisotropic current-voltage laws. Noteworthily, the differences between the several model predictions are minimal for the low applied field regime.

Ruiz, H S; Badia-Majos, A, E-mail: hsruizr@unizar.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada-I.C.M.A., Universidad de Zaragoza-C.S.I.C., Maria de Luna 1, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

2010-10-15

53

Smooth double critical state theory for type-II superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several aspects of the general theory for the critical states of a vortex lattice and the magnetic flux dynamics in type-II superconductors are examined by a direct variational optimization method and widespread physical principles. Our method allows us to unify a number of conventional models describing the complex vortex configurations in the critical state regime. Special attention is given to the discussion of the relation between the flux line cutting mechanism and the depinning threshold limitation. This is done by using a smooth double critical state concept which incorporates the so-called isotropic, elliptical, T and CT models as well-defined limits of our general treatment. Starting from different initial configurations for a superconducting slab in a 3D magnetic field, we show that the predictions of the theory range from the collapse to zero of transverse magnetic moments in the isotropic model, to nearly force-free configurations in which paramagnetic values can arbitrarily increase with the applied field for magnetically anisotropic current-voltage laws. Noteworthily, the differences between the several model predictions are minimal for the low applied field regime.

2010-01-01

54

Phenomenological theory of electrodynamic properties of type-II superconductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissertation deals with certain electrodynamic properties of type-2 superconductors which are derived from phenomenological theory. For both discrete and continuous type-2 superconductors, vortex dynamics are investigated and their consequences described. Many of the results of the thesis are expected to apply to high-transition temperature superconductors. The subject of dimensional crossover in a layered anisotropic superconductor and its implications for vortex structure is discussed. For discrete superconductors, specific quantitative results include the viscous drag coefficient for vortex motion parallel to the layers of a Josephson-coupled layer model, the lower critical field for parallel applied field for such a model, and a vortex inertial mass for motion parallel to the layers. A self-consistent approach for describing the various fields and densities associated with a vortex lattice in a continuous superconductor subject to small-amplitude driving forces is developed. This approach takes into account the nonlocality of vortex interactions, yielding a complex penetration depth which in turn gives certain linear response functions such as the complex permeability. The resulting theory is expected to be valid over wide range of magnetic inductions, temperatures, and frequencies. The frequency- and temperature- dependent vortex mobility is developed, providing a unifying tool for describing vortex dynamics. By including a random force in the vortex equation of motion and treating it in analogy to Brownian motion, the vortex mobility is extended to include flux creep effects. For continuous superconductors, specific quantitative results are given for the vortex inertial mass and dynamic mobility and complex rf surface impedance and permeability. A description of energy dissipation and screening is given in terms of the rf surface impedance and permeability.

Coffey, M.W.

1992-01-03

55

Quantification of tumor type M2 pyruvate kinase (Tu M2-PK) in human carcinomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proliferating and tumor cells express a certain isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, called PK type M2. This isoenzyme can be isolated in an active tetrameric and an inactive dimeric form. We have termed this form tumor type M2-PK. This tumor type pyruvate kinase can be quantified by a specific ELISA in blood sera and tumor homogenates. In this study we have compared 26 normal colon mucosa and colon cancer specimens from the same patients. The total specific pyruvate kinase activity and the amount of the tumour type M2-PK measured by ELISA was increased in the tumor samples compared to the normal colon mucosa of the same patient. In normal colon mucosa the specific PK-activity ranged between 0.21 and 1.25 U/mg protein whereas in colon carcinoma we found activities between 0.99 and 7.08 U/mg. The amount of tumor M2-PK measured by ELISA ranged between 0.82 and 27.10 U/mg protein in normal colon mucosa and between 1.96 and 242.40 U/mg protein in colon carcinoma. The tumor M2-PK content in the serum of 666 healthy blood donors was measured by ELISA and compared to sera from 15 colon carcinoma patients and showed a highly significant difference (Mann-Whitney rank sum test, p < 0.001). The values for the 50%-percentiles (median) of blood donors were 10.8 U/ml and 55.0 U/ml for colon carcinoma.

Eigenbrodt E; Basenau D; Holthusen S; Mazurek S; Fischer G

1997-07-01

56

The Biequivalence of Locally Cartesian Closed Categories and Martin-L\\"of Type Theories  

CERN Multimedia

Seely's paper "Locally cartesian closed categories and type theory" contains a well-known result in categorical type theory: that the category of locally cartesian closed categories is equivalent to the category of Martin-L\\"of type theories with Pi-types, Sigma-types and extensional identity types. However, Seely's proof relies on the problematic assumption that substitution in types can be interpreted by pullbacks. Here we prove a corrected version of Seely's theorem: that the B\\'enabou-Hofmann interpretation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in locally cartesian closed categories yields a biequivalence of 2-categories. To facilitate the technical development we employ categories with families as a substitute for syntactic Martin-L\\"of type theories. As a second result we prove that if we remove Pi-types the resulting categories with families are biequivalent to left exact categories.

Clairambault, Pierre

2011-01-01

57

Compactifications of type IIB string theory and F-theory models using toric geometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this work we focus on the toric construction of type IIB and F-theory models. After introducing the main concepts of type IIB orientifold and F-theory compactifications as well as their connection via the Sen limit, we provide the toric tools to explicitly construct and describe the manifolds involved in our setups. On the type IIB side, we study the 'Large Volume Scenario' on four-modulus, 'Swiss cheese' Calabi-Yau manifolds obtained from four-dimensional simplicial lattice polytopes. We thoroughly analyze the possibility of generating neutral, non-perturbative superpotentials from Euclidean D3-branes in the presence of chirally intersecting D7-branes. We find that taking proper account of the Freed-Witten anomaly on non-spin cycles and the Kaehler cone conditions imposes severe constraints on the models. Nevertheless, we are able to create setups where the constraints are solved, and up to three moduli are stabilized. In the case of F-theory compactifications, we make use of toric geometry to construct a class of grand unified theory (GUT) models in F-theory. The base manifolds are hypersurfaces of the four-dimensional projective space with toric point and curve blowups. The associated Calabi-Yau fourfolds are complete intersections of two hypersurfaces in the P[231] fibered toric sixfolds. We construct SO(10) GUT models on suitable divisors of the basis manifolds using the spectral cover construction. By means of abelian fluxes we break the SO(10) gauge group to SU(5)xU(1) which is interpreted as a flipped SU(5) model. With the GUT Higgses in this model it is possible to further break the gauge symmetry to the Standard Model. We present several phenomenologically attractive examples in detail. (author)[de] In dieser Arbeit konzentrieren wir uns auf die torische Konstruktion von Typ IIB und F-Theoriemodellen. Nachdem wir sowohl die primaeren Konzepte der Typ IIB Orientifold- und F-Theoriekompaktifizierungen, als auch deren Zusammenhang ueber den Senschen Limes eingefuehrt haben, praesentieren wir die torischen Werkzeuge, um die Mannigfaltigkeiten unserer Konfigurationen explizit zu konstruieren und zu beschreiben. Im Fall der Typ IIB Kompaktifizierungen untersuchen wir das 'Large Volume Scenario' auf viermodulus 'Swiss cheese' Calabi-Yau-Mannigfaltigkeiten, die von vierdimensionalen simplizialen Gitterpolytopen stammen. Wir untersuchen sorgfaeltig die Moeglichkeit neutrale nichtperturbative Superpotentiale von euklidischen D3-branen, in Anwesenheit von sich chiral schneidenden D7-branen, zu generieren. Wir kommen zu dem Ergebnis, dass die korrekte Inbetrachtnahme der Freed-Wittenanomalie der Nicht-Spin-Zyklen und der Kaehlerkegelbedingungen zu starken Einschraenkungen der Modelle fuehrt. Nichtsdestotrotz sind wir in der Lage Setups zu bilden, die diese Bedingungen erfuellen und bis zu drei Moduli stabilisieren. Auf Seiten der F-Theoriekompaktifizierung benutzen wir die torische Geometrie, um eine Klasse von Modellen zu konstruieren, die grossen vereinheitlichten Theorien (GUT) entsprechen. Die verwendeten Basismannigfaltigkeiten sind Hyperflaechen im vierdimensionalen projektiven Raum mit torischen Punkt- und Kurvenaufblasungen. Die zugehoerigen vierdimensionalen Calabi-Yau-Mannigfaltigkeiten sind vollstaendige Schnitte von zwei Hyperflaechen in den P

2010-01-01

58

S-duality Improved Perturbation Theory in Compactified Type I / Heterotic String Theory  

CERN Document Server

We study the mass of the stable non-BPS state in type I / heterotic string theory compactified on a circle with the help of the interpolation formula between weak and strong coupling results. Comparison between the results at different orders indicate that this procedure can determine the mass of the particle to within 10% accuracy over the entire two dimensional moduli space parametrized by the string coupling and the radius of compactification. This allows us to estimate the region of the stability of the particle in this two dimensional moduli space. Outside this region the particle is unstable against decay into three BPS states carrying the same total charge as the original state. We discuss generalization of this analysis to compactification on higher dimensional tori.

Pius, Roji

2013-01-01

59

Type IIA flux compactifications. Vacua, effective theories and cosmological challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis, we studied a number of type IIA SU(3)-structure compactifications with 06-planes on nilmanifolds and cosets, which are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the low energy effective theory. In particular we calculated the mass spectrum of the light scalar modes, using N = 1 supergravity techniques. For the torus and the Iwasawa solution, we have also performed an explicit Kaluza-Klein reduction, which led to the same result. For the nilmanifold examples we have found that there are always three unstabilized moduli corresponding to axions in the RR sector. On the other hand, in the coset models, except for SU(2) x SU(2), all moduli are stabilized. We discussed the Kaluza-Klein decoupling for the supersymmetric AdS vacua and found that it requires going to the Nearly-Calabi Yau limited. We searched for non-trivial de Sitter minima in the original flux potential away from the AdS vacuum. Finally, in chapter 7, we focused on a family of three coset spaces and constructed non-supersymmetric vacua on them. (orig.)

2009-01-01

60

Solvable Lie algebras in type IIA, type IIB and M-theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study some applications of solvable Lie algebras in type IIA, type IIB and M-theories. RR and NS generators find a natural geometric interpretation in this framework. Special emphasis is given to the counting of the abelian nilpotent ideals (translational symmetries of the scalar manifolds) in arbitrary D dimensions. These are seen to be related, using Dynkin diagram techniques, to one-form counting in D+1 dimensions. A recipe for gauging isometries in this framework is also presented. In particular, we list the gauge groups both for compact and translational isometries. The former agree with some results already existing in gauged supergravity. The latter should be possibly related to the study of partial supersymmetry breaking, as suggested by a similar role played by solvable Lie algebras in N=2 gauged supergravity. (orig.).

Andrianopoli, L. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physics]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); D`Auria, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucl., Torino (Italy); Ferrara, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucl., Torino (Italy); Fre, P. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica; Minasian, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucl., Torino (Italy); Trigiante, M. [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy)

1997-05-26

 
 
 
 
61

Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of a specific MMP-9 mediated degradation fragment of type III collagen--A novel biomarker of atherosclerotic plaque remodeling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Degradation of collagen in the arterial wall by matrix metalloproteinases is the hallmark of atherosclerosis. We have developed an ELISA for the quantification of type III collagen degradation mediated by MMP-9 in urine.

Barascuk, Natasha; Vassiliadis, Efstathios

2011-01-01

62

The 1-type of a Waldhausen K-theory spectrum  

CERN Multimedia

We give a small functorial algebraic model for the 2-stage Postnikov section of the K-theory spectrum of a Waldhausen category and use our presentation to describe the multiplicative structure with respect to biexact functors.

Muro, F; Muro, Fernando; Tonks, Andrew

2006-01-01

63

Nonperturbative states in type II superstring theory from classical spinning membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We find a new family of exact solutions in membrane theory, representing toroidal membranes spinning in several planes. They have energy square proportional to the sum of the different angular momenta, generalizing Regge-type string solutions to membrane theory. By compactifying the eleven-dimensional theory on a circle and on a torus, we identify a family of new nonperturbative states of type IIA and type IIB superstring theory (which contains the perturbative spinning string solutions of type II string theory as a particular case). The solution represents a spinning bound state of D branes and fundamental strings. Then we find similar solutions for membranes on AdS7xS4 and AdS4xS7. We also consider the analogous solutions in SU(N) Matrix-theory, and compute the energy. They can be interpreted as rotating open strings with D0 branes attached to their endpoints.

2005-03-21

64

Quantification of genetically modified soybeans using a combination of a capillary-type real-time PCR system and a plasmid reference standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved genetically modified varieties in many countries, there is a need for a rapid and useful method of GMO quantification in food samples. In this study, a rapid detection system was developed for Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) quantification using a combination of a capillary-type real-time PCR system, a LightCycler real-time PCR system, and plasmid DNA as the reference standard. In addition, we showed for the first time that the plasmid and genomic DNA should be similar in the established detection system because the PCR efficiencies of using plasmid DNA and using genomic DNA were not significantly different. The conversion factor (Cf) to calculate RRS content (%) was further determined from the average value analyzed in three laboratories. The accuracy and reproducibility of this system for RRS quantification at a level of 5.0% were within a range from 4.46 to 5.07% for RRS content and within a range from 2.0% to 7.0% for the relative standard deviation (RSD) value, respectively. This system rapidly monitored the labeling system and had allowable levels of accuracy and precision.

Toyota A; Akiyama H; Sugimura M; Watanabe T; Kikuchi H; Kanamori H; Hino A; Esaka M; Maitani T

2006-04-01

65

Initial layer theory and model equations of Volterra type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is demonstrated here that there exist initial layers to singularly perturbed Volterra equations whose thicknesses are not of order of magnitude of 0(?), ? ? 0. It is also shown that the initial layer theory is extremely useful because it allows one to construct the approximate solution to an equation, which is almost identical to the exact solution. (author)

2003-01-01

66

Induced WZW-type term in dual field theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One-loop quantum equivalence is investigated by proper time regularization for a nonlinear {sigma}-model in two dimensions on a group manifold and its dual theory constructed by Fradkin and Tseytlin. The one-loop effective actions are found to deviate by a finite local counterterm with a structure similar to that of a Wess-Zumino-Witten term.

Nielsen, N.K. (Fysisk Inst., Odense Univ., Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (DK))

1990-07-20

67

A non-supersymmetric large N CFT from type 0 string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that type 0B theory has a classical AdS5xS5 solution and argue that it is stable at the string-theory level for small enough radius. The dual 4-d conformal field theory is the infrared limit of the theory on N electric D3-branes coincident with N magnetic D3-branes. We explicitly construct this SU(N)xSU(N) gauge theory with global SO(6) symmetry and verify that the one-loop term in the beta function vanishes exactly, while the two-loop term vanishes in the large N limit. We find that this theory is related by a certain projection to the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory suggesting its large N conformal invariance to all orders in perturbation theory. (author)

1999-01-01

68

Teichm\\"uller Structures and Dual Geometric Gibbs Type Measure Theory for Continuous Potentials  

CERN Document Server

The Gibbs measure theory for smooth potentials is an old and beautiful subject and has many important applications in modern dynamical systems. For continuous potentials, it is impossible to have such a theory in general. However, we develop a dual geometric Gibbs type measure theory for certain continuous potentials in this paper following some ideas and techniques from Teichm\\"uller theory for Riemann surfaces. Furthermore, we prove that the space of those continuous potentials has a Teichm\\"uller structure. Moreover, this Teichm\\"uller structure is a complete structure and is a completion of the space of smooth potentials under this Teichm\\"uller structure. Thus our dual geometric Gibbs type theory is a completion of the Gibbs measure theory for smooth potentials from the dual geometric point of view.

Jiang, Yunping

2008-01-01

69

On stability theory for solutions of semilinear dissipative equations of the Sobolev type  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For abstract semilinear dissipative equations of the Sobolev type (1)-(8) the principle of linearized stability in the theory of exponential stability in the {open_quotes}strong{close_quotes} norm is investigated.

Oskolkov, A.P.

1995-11-25

70

Bianchi Type-II, VIII & IX Perfect Fluid Cosmological Models in Brans Dicke Theory of Gravitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field equations in the presence of perfect fluid distribution are obtained in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke[1] with the aid of Bianchi type-II, VIII & IX metrics. Exact prefect fluid Bianchi type- IX cosmological model is presented since other models doesn’t exist in Brans-Dicke scalar tensor theory of gravitation. Some physical properties of the model are also discussed.

Velagapudi Uma Maheswara Rao; Mandangi Vijaya Santhi

2011-01-01

71

On the Nonlinear Theory of Viscoelasticity of Differential Type  

CERN Document Server

We consider nonlinear viscoelastic materials of differential type and for some special models we derive exact solutions of initial boundary value problems. These exact solutions are used to investigate the reasons of non-existence of global solutions for such equations.

Pucci, Edvige

2011-01-01

72

Type-I D-branes in an H-flux and twisted KO-theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Witten has argued that charges of type-I D-branes in the presence of an H-flux, take values in twisted KO-theory. We begin with the study of real bundle gerbes and their holonomy. We then introduce the notion of real bundle gerbe KO-theory which we establish is a geometric realization of twisted KO-theory. We examine the relation with twisted K-theory, the Chern character and provide some examples. We conclude with some open problems. (author)

2003-01-01

73

On the conformal field theory duals of type IIA AdS4 flux compactifications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the conformal field theory dual of the type IIA flux compactification model of DeWolfe, Giryavets, Kachru and Taylor, with all moduli stabilized. We find its central charge and properties of its operator spectrum. We concentrate on the moduli space of the conformal field theory, which we investigate through domain walls in the type IIA string theory. The moduli space turns out to consist of many different branches. We use Bezout's theorem and Bernstein's theorem to enumerate the different branches of the moduli space and estimate their dimension.

2008-01-01

74

Delay time distribution of type Ia supernovae: theory vs. observation  

CERN Multimedia

Two formation scenarios are investigated for type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies: the single degenerate scenario (a white dwarf reaching the Chandrasekhar limit through accretion of matter transferred from its companion star in a binary) and the double degenerate scenario (the inspiraling and merging of two white dwarfs in a binary as a result of the emission of gravitational wave radiation). A population number synthesis code is used, which includes the latest physical results in binary evolution and allows to differentiate between certain physical scenarios (such as the description of common envelope evolution) and evolutionary parameters (such as the mass transfer efficiency during Roche lobe overflow). The thus obtained theoretical distributions of type Ia supernova delay times are compared to those that are observed, both in morphological shape and absolute number of events. The critical influence of certain parameters on these distributions is used to constrain their values. The single degenerate ...

Mennekens, N; De Greve, J P; De Donder, E

2010-01-01

75

A note on half-supersymmetric bound states in M-theory and type IIA  

CERN Multimedia

By using O(7,7) transformations, to deform D6-branes, we obtain half-supersymmetric bound state solutions of type IIA supergravity, containing D6, D4, D2, D0, F1-branes and waves. We lift the solutions to M-theory which gives half-supersymmetric M-theory bound states, e.g. KK6-M5-M5-M5-M2-M2-M2-MW. We also take near horizon limits for the type IIA solutions, which gives supergravity duals of 7-dimensional non-commutative open string theory (with space-time and space-space non-commutativity), non-commutative Yang-Mills theory (with space-space and light-like non-commutativity) and an open D4-brane theory.

Larsson, H

2002-01-01

76

Theory of Optical Orientation in n-Type Semiconductors  

CERN Multimedia

Time resolved measurements of magnetization in n-GaAs have revealed a rich array of spin decoherence processes, and have shown that fairly long lifetimes (\\sim 100 ns) can be achieved under certain circumstances. In time-resolved Faraday rotation and time-resolved Kerr rotation the evolution of the magnetization can be followed as a function of temperature, applied field, doping level and excitation level. We present a theory for the spin relaxation in n-GaAs based on a set of rate equations for two interacting thermalized subsystems of spins: localized states on donor sites and itinerant states in the conduction band. The conduction band spins relax by scattering from defects or phonons through the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism, while the localized spins relax by interacting with phonons (when in an applied field) or through the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. In this model, numerous features of the data, including puzzling temperature and doping dependences of the relaxation time, find an explanation.

Putikka, W O

2003-01-01

77

Bianchi type-I cosmological model in the scale covariant theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Bianchi type-I cosmological models in the scale covariant theory are derived. Raychaudhuri type equations are written and it is pointed out that a big bang type of singularity may not always occur, in contrast to the general relativistic Bianchi type-I model. The behaviour of the solutions near the initial singularity, when it occurs, is discussed as is that at late stages. (author)

1986-05-01

78

Bianchi type-I cosmological model in the scale covariant theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bianchi type-I cosmological models in the scale covariant theory are derived. Raychaudhuri type equations are written and it is pointed out that a big bang type of singularity may not always occur, in contrast to the general relativistic Bianchi type-I model. The behaviour of the solutions near the initial singularity, when it occurs, is discussed as is that at late stages.

Beesham, A.

1986-05-01

79

Why Argumentation Theory Should Differentiate Between Different Types of Claim  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper explores the distinction between epistemic reasoning (i.e., about the truth of propositions) and practical reasoning (i.e., about the adoption of proposals), emphasizing the depth of the differences. Aristotle's views of practical reasoning, as explained by Anthony Kenny, is used to show that practical reasoning has a complex, 'backward' structure that does not allow for the predication of 'truth' for the claims advanced, or for notions like 'inference.' Other features of practical reasoning such as 'multidimensionality' and the role of subjectivity are discussed, and a spectrum of types of claim, ranging from purely epistemic to purely practical, is suggested

Kock, Christian Erik J

2012-01-01

80

Quantum black holes in Type-IIA String Theory  

CERN Document Server

We study black hole solutions of Type-IIA Calabi-Yau compactifications in the presence of perturbative quantum corrections. We define a class of black holes that only exist in the presence of quantum corrections and that, consequently, can be considered as purely quantum black holes. The regularity conditions of the solutions impose the topological constraint h^{1,1}>h^{2,1} on the Calabi-Yau manifold, defining a class of admissible compactifications, which we prove to be non-empty for h^{1,1}=3 by explicitly constructing the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifolds, new in the literature.

Bueno, Pablo; Shahbazi, C S

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Quantum black holes in Type-IIA String Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We study black hole solutions of Type-IIA Calabi-Yau compactifications in the presence of quantum perturbative corrections. We define a class of black holes that only exist in the presence of quantum corrections and that, consequently, can be considered as purely quantum black holes. The regularity conditions of the solutions impose the topological constraint h 1,1 > h 2,1 on the Calabi-Yau manifold, defining a class of admissible compactifications, which we prove to be non-empty for h 1,1 = 3 by explicitly constructing the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifolds, new in the literature.

Bueno, Pablo; Davies, Rhys; Shahbazi, C. S.

2013-01-01

82

Development of Primer-Probe Energy Transfer real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A real-time PCR assay, based on Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET), was developed to improve the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PVC2). PCV2 is recognised as the essential infectious agent in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and has been associated with other disease syndromes such as porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) and porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Since circoviruses commonly occur in the pig populations and there is a correlation between the severity of the disease and the viral load in the organs and blood, it is important not only to detect PCV2 but also to determine the quantitative aspects of viral load. The PriProET real-time PCR assay described in this study was tested on various virus strains and clinical forms of PMWS in order to investigate any correlation between the clinical signs and viral loads in different organs. The data obtained in this study correlate with those described earlier; namely, the viral load in 1ml plasma and in 500 ng tissue DNA exceeds 10(7) copies in the case of PMWS. The results indicate that the new assay provides a specific, sensitive and robust tool for the improved detection and quantification of PCV2.

Balint, Adam; Tenk, M

2009-01-01

83

Towards a theory for type III solar radio bursts. III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The procedure developed in Smith (1974) to model the radiation source for type III bursts is modified to include scattering of radiation in the source itself. Since the inhomogeneities in the source must have the same statistical properties as the inhomogeneities used in tracing radiation from the source to the observer, these two parts of the type III problem are no longer uncoupled. Thus inhomogeneities are used consistent with the scattering inhomogeneities of Steinberg et al. (1971) and Riddle (1974) and the procedure is applied to an archetype 'fundamental-harmonic' pair observed at Culgoora on 28 September, 1973 at 03 19 UT. It is found that it is impossible to model this burst with a source which is homogeneous in the sense that every part of the source has the same energy density in plasma waves. The density inhomogeneities in the source severely hamper amplification of the supposed fundamental. Possible ways out of this dilemma are discussed, including second harmonic pairs and a source with an inhomogeneous distribution of plasma waves. It is concluded that none of the possibilities are completely satisfactory to explain present observations and suggested that critical observations are missing. (Auth.).

1975-01-01

84

Theory of zeolite supralattices: Se in zeolite Linde type A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study theoretically properties of Se clusters in zeolites, and choose zeolite Linde type A (LTA) as a prototype system. The geometries of free-space Se clusters are first determined, and we report the energetics and electronic and vibrational properties of these clusters. The work on clusters includes an investigation of the energetics of C3-C1 defect formation in Se rings and chains. The electronic properties of two Se crystalline polymorphs, trigonal Se and -monoclinic Se, are also determined. Electronic and vibrational properties of the zeolite LTA are investigated. Next we investigate the electronic and optical properties of ring-like Se clusters inside the large -cages of LTA. We find that Se clusters inside cages of silaceous LTA have very little interaction with the zeolite, and that the HOMO-LUMO gaps (HOMO standing for highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO for lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) are nearly those of the isolated cluster. The HOMO-LUMO gaps of Se6, Se8, and Se12 are found to be similar, which makes it difficult to identify them experimentally by absorption spectroscopy. We find that the zeolite/Se8 nanocomposite is lower in energy than the two separated systems. We also investigate two types of infinite chain encapsulated in LTA. Finally, we carry out finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations for an encapsulated Se12 cluster, which shows cluster melting and formation of nanoscale Se droplets in the?-cages of LTA. (author)

2001-11-19

85

Theory of zeolite supralattices: Se in zeolite Linde type A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study theoretically properties of Se clusters in zeolites, and choose zeolite Linde type A (LTA) as a prototype system. The geometries of free-space Se clusters are first determined, and we report the energetics and electronic and vibrational properties of these clusters. The work on clusters includes an investigation of the energetics of C{sub 3}-C{sub 1} defect formation in Se rings and chains. The electronic properties of two Se crystalline polymorphs, trigonal Se and -monoclinic Se, are also determined. Electronic and vibrational properties of the zeolite LTA are investigated. Next we investigate the electronic and optical properties of ring-like Se clusters inside the large -cages of LTA. We find that Se clusters inside cages of silaceous LTA have very little interaction with the zeolite, and that the HOMO-LUMO gaps (HOMO standing for highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO for lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) are nearly those of the isolated cluster. The HOMO-LUMO gaps of Se{sub 6}, Se{sub 8}, and Se{sub 12} are found to be similar, which makes it difficult to identify them experimentally by absorption spectroscopy. We find that the zeolite/Se{sub 8} nanocomposite is lower in energy than the two separated systems. We also investigate two types of infinite chain encapsulated in LTA. Finally, we carry out finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations for an encapsulated Se{sub 12} cluster, which shows cluster melting and formation of nanoscale Se droplets in the{alpha}-cages of LTA. (author)

Demkov, Alexander A. [Physical Sciences Research Laboratories, Motorola Incorporated, Tempe, AZ (United States); Sankey, Otto F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

2001-11-19

86

Bianchi Type-II, VIII & IX Perfect Fluid Cosmological Models in Brans Dicke Theory of Gravitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field equations in the presence of perfect fluid distribution are obtained in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke[1] with the aid of Bianchi type-II, VIII & IX metrics. Exact prefect fluid Bianchi type- IX cosmological model is presented since other models doesn’t exist...

Velagapudi Uma Maheswara Rao; Mandangi Vijaya Santhi

87

D-branes and dual gauge theories in type 0 strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We consider the type 0 theories, obtained from the closed NSR string by a diagonal GSO projection which excludes space-time fermions, and study the D-branes in these theories. The low-energy dynamics of N coincident D-branes is governed by a U(N) gauge theory coupled to adjoint scalar fields. It is tempting to look for the type 0 string duals of such bosonic gauge theories in the background of the R-R charged p-brane classical solutions. This results in a picture analogous to the one recently proposed by Polyakov (hep-th/9809057). One of the serious problems that needs to be resolved is the closed string tachyon mode which couples to the D-branes and appears to cause an instability. We study the tachyon terms in the type 0 effective action and argue that the background R-R flux provides a positive shift of the (mass)2 of the tachyon. Thus, for sufficiently large flux, the tachyonic instability may be cured, removing the most basic obstacle to constructing the type 0 duals of non-supersymmetric gauge theories. We further find that the tachyon acquires an expectation value in the presence of the R-R flux. This effect is crucial for breaking the conformal invariance in the dual description of the 3 + 1-dimensional non-supersymmetric gauge theory

1999-04-26

88

Nonperturbative type IIB model building in the F-theory framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This dissertation is concerned with the topic of non-perturbative string theory, which is generally considered to be the most promising approach to a consistent description of quantum gravity. The five known 10-dimensional perturbative string theories are all interconnected by numerous dualities, such that an underlying non-perturbative 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, is postulated. Due to several technical obstacles, little is known about the fundamental objects in this theory. There exists an alternative non-perturbative description to type IIB string theory, namely F-theory. Here the SL(2;Z) self-duality of IIB theory is geometrized in the form of an elliptic fibration over the space-time. Moreover, higher-dimensional objects like 7-branes are included via singularities into the geometric picture. This formally elegant description, however, requires significant technical effort for the construction of suitable compactification geometries, as many different aspects necessarily have to be dealt with at the same time. On the other hand, the generation of essential GUT building blocks like certain Yukawa couplings or spinor representations is easier compared to perturbative string theory. The goal of this study is therefore to formulate a unified theory within the framework of F-theory, that satisfies basic phenomenological constraints. Within this thesis, at first E3-brane instantons in type IIB string theory - 4-dimensional objects that are entirely wrapped around the invisible dimensions of space-time - are matched with M5-branes in F-theory. Such objects are of great importance in the generation of critical Yukawa couplings or the stabilization of the free parameters of a theory. Certain properties of M5-branes then allow to derive a new criterion for E3-branes to contribute to the superpotential. In the aftermath of this analysis, several compactification geometries are constructed and checked for basic properties that are relevant for semi-realistic unified model building. An important aspect is the proper handling of the gauge flux on the 7-branes. Via the spectral cover description - which at first requires further refinements - chiral matter can be generated and the unified gauge group can be broken to the Standard Model. Ultimately, in this thesis an explicit unified model based on the gauge group SU(5) is constructed within the F-theory framework, such that an acceptable phenomenology and the observed three chiral matter generations are obtained. (orig.)

2011-01-01

89

Hamiltonian BRST deformation of a class of n-dimensional BF-type theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consistent hamiltonian interactions that can be added to an abelian free BF-type class of theories in any n?4 spacetime dimensions are constructed in the framework of the hamiltonian BRST deformation based on cohomological techniques. The resulting model is an interacting field theory in higher dimensions with an open algebra of on-shell reducible first-class constraints. We argue that the hamiltonian couplings are related to a natural structure of Poisson manifold on the target space. (author)

2003-01-01

90

Real Separated Algebraic Curves, Quadrature Domains, Ahlfors Type Functions and Operator Theory  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this paper is to inter-relate several algebraic and analytic objects, such as real-type algebraic curves, quadrature domains, functions on them and rational matrix functions with special properties, and some objects from Operator Theory, such as vector Toeplitz operators and subnormal operators. Our tools come from operator theory, but some of our results have purely algebraic formulation. We make use of Xia's theory of subnormal operators and of the previous results by the author in this direction. We also correct (in Section 5) some inaccuracies in two papers by the author in Revista Matematica Iberoamericana (1998).

Yakubovich, D V

2005-01-01

91

Maximal R-symmetry violating amplitudes in type IIb superstring theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On-shell superspace techniques are used to quantify R-symmetry violation in type IIB superstring theory amplitudes in a flat background in 10 dimensions. This shows the existence of a particularly simple class of nonvanishing amplitudes in this theory, which violate R symmetry maximally. General properties of the class and some of its extensions are established that at string tree level are shown to determine the first three nontrivial effective field theory contributions to all multiplicity. This leads to a natural conjecture for the exact analytic part of the first two of these.

Boels RH

2012-08-01

92

Quantum-defect theory for $-1/r^4$ type of interactions  

CERN Document Server

We present a quantum-defect theory (QDT) for the $-1/r^4$ type of long-range potential, as a foundation for a systematic understanding of charge-neutral quantum systems such as ion-atom, ion-molecule, electron-atom, and positron-atom interactions. The theory incorporates both conceptual and mathematical advances since earlier formulations of the theory. It also includes more detailed discussions of the concept of resonance spectrum and its representations, universal properties in charge-neutral quantum systems, and the QDT description of scattering resonances that is applicable to any $-1/r^n$ potential with $n>2$.

Gao, Bo

2013-01-01

93

A General Formulation of Simultaneous Inductive-Recursive Definitions in Type Theory  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first example of a simultaneous inductive-recursive definition in intuitionistic type theory is Martin-Löf's universe à la Tarski. A set U0 of codes for small sets is generated inductively at the same time as a function T0 , which maps a code to the corresponding small set, is defined by recursion on the way the elements of U0 are generated. In this paper we argue that there is an underlying general notion of simultaneous inductiverecursive definition which is implicit in Martin-Löf's intuitionistic type theory. We extend previously given schematic formulations of inductive definitions in type theory to encompass a general notion of simultaneous induction-recursion. This enables us to give a unified treatment of several interesting constructions including various universe constructions by Palmgren, Griffor, Rathjen, and Setzer and a constructive version of Aczel's Frege structures. Consistency of a restricted version of the extension is shown by constructing a realisability model ...

Peter Dybjer

94

Stable D8-branes and tachyon condensation in type 0 open string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We consider non-BPS D8 (and D7) branes in type 0 open string theory and describe under which circumstances these branes are stable. We find stable non-BPS D7 and D8 in type 0 with and without D9-branes in the background. By extending the descent relations between D-branes to type 0 theories, the non-BPS D8-brane is considered as the result of a tachyon condensation of a D9 anti-D9 pair in type 0. We study the condensation of the open string tachyons in type 0 with generic gauge groups giving rise to different configurations involving non-BPS D8-branes and discuss the stability in each case. The results agree with the topological analysis of the vacuum manifold of the tachyon potential for each case. (author)

1999-01-01

95

Decision-making styles: managerial application of the MBTI and type theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Applying type theory is a relatively inexpensive way for managers to increase effectiveness by emphasizing the qualitative issues in organizations. The author describes managerial and organizational uses of C.G. Jung's theory of psychological type, as operationalized in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI is useful not only in identifying individual preferences, but also in developing effective managerial and working terms. Knowledge of one's own type and the type of others can help managers motivate others, maximize human resources, persuade others, and gain cooperation. An article in the January 1989 issue of JONA discusses the author's use of the MBTI to assess decision-making styles and the compatibility of hospital chief nursing officers and executive officers.

Freund CM

1988-12-01

96

Scale invariance of Dirac condition gegm=1 in type 0 string approach to gauge theory  

Science.gov (United States)

In this letter we shall discuss a description of non-supersymmetric four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory based on Type 0 strings recently proposed by Klebanov and Tseytlin. The three brane near-horizon geometry allows one to study the UV behaviour of the gauge theory. Following Minahan and Klebanov and Tseytlin we shall discuss how the gravity solution reproduces logarithmic renormalization of coupling constant ge extracted from quark-antiquark potential and then show that effective coupling constant gm describing monopole-antimonopole interactions is of zero-charge type and Dirac condition gegm=1 is scale invariant in logarithmic approximation.

Kogan, Ian I.; Luzón, Gloria

1999-06-01

97

Developing a Data-Tested Theory for Type II Solar Radio Bursts  

Science.gov (United States)

Type II bursts involve electron acceleration at shocks, either driven by coronal mass ejection (CMEs) or blast waves. The standard theory involves the formation of beams of accelerated electrons upstream of the shock, the generation of electrostatic Langmuir waves near the local electron plasma frequency fp, and the production of radiation near fp and near 2fp by various linear and nonlinear processes involving Langmuir waves. Over the last ten years analytic descriptions of this physics have been developed and then combined into a numerical model that predicts the radiation produced as a macroscopic rippled shock moves with an assumed velocity profile through models of the inhomogeneous corona and solar wind. These background plasma profiles are now produced by combining plasma and magnetic field data at 1 AU (Wind or ACE) with power-law radial profiles, guided by the Parker solar wind model and empirical temperature models. This paper has three primary goals. First, to demonstrate that combining the type II theory with data-driven solar wind models yields dynamic spectra that agree well with several well-observed type II events. The agreement in the details of the dynamic spectra (correlation coefficients of 40 - 50% and offsets in time and frequency that are less than 10%) and agreement of the typical emission level to within a factor of 10 is very good for a cradle-to-grave theory with no free parameters and a limited solar wind model. These initial data-theory comparisons suggest that the present theory for type II bursts agrees broadly with the available observations. Second, to describe refinements of the type II theory that enable an entirely analytic description of all aspects of the theory. Third, to present the first results of a new numerical code that couples the output of MHD simulations of self-consistent shock evolution through a background corona with the analytic type II theory. These results suggest that the goals of understanding type II bursts in detail and using them to probe the corona and solar wind are realistic and achievable.

Cairns, I. H.; Hillan, D. S.; Schmidt, J. M.; Robinson, P. A.

2011-12-01

98

The iteration formula of the Maslov-type index theory with applications to nonlinear Hamiltonian systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper, the iteration formula of the Maslov-type index theory for linear Hamiltonian systems with continuous periodic and symmetric coefficients is established. This formula yields a new method to determine the minimality of the period for solutions of nonlinear autonomous Hamiltonian systems via their Maslov-type indices. Applications of this formula give new results on the existence of periodic solutions with prescribed minimal period for such systems. (author). 40 refs

1994-01-01

99

Ginzburg-Landau-type theory of antiphase boundaries in polytwinned structures  

CERN Multimedia

The conventional Landau-Ginzburg theory of interphase boundaries is generalized to the case of not small values of order parameters, with application to polytwinned structures characteristic of cubic-tetragonal-type phase transitions. Explicit expressions for the structure and energy of antiphase boundaries via the functions entering the free energy functional are given. A peculiar dependence of equilibrium orientations of antiphase boundaries on the interaction type is predicted, and it qualitatively agrees with available experimental data

Vaks, V G

2001-01-01

100

Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a theory of electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level, ladder-type Doppler-broadened medium, paying special attention to the case where the coupling and probe beams are counterpropagating and have similar frequencies, so as to reduce the total Doppler width of the two-photon process. The theory is easily generalized to deal with the ? configuration, where the ideal arrangement involves two copropagating beams. We discuss different possible regimes, depending on the relative importance of the various broadening mechanisms, and identify ways to optimize the absorption-reduction effect. The theory is compared to the results of a recent experiment (on a ladder-type system), using the Rb D2 line, with generally very good agreement. The maximum absorption reduction observed (64.4%) appears to be mostly limited by the relatively large (?5 MHz) linewidth of the diode lasers used in our experiment.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Phase and interface behaviors in type-I and type-V Lennard-Jones mixtures: Theory and simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

Density gradient theory (DGT) and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to predict subcritical phase and interface behaviors in type-I and type-V equal-size Lennard-Jones mixtures. Type-I mixtures exhibit a continuum critical line connecting their pure critical components, which implies that their subcritical phase equilibria are gas liquid. Type-V mixtures are characterized by two critical lines and a heteroazeotropic line. One of the two critical lines begins at the more volatile pure component critical point up to an upper critical end point and the other one comes from the less volatile pure component critical point ending at a lower critical end point. The heteroazeotropic line connects both critical end points and is characterized by gas-liquid-liquid equilibria. Therefore, subcritical states of this type exhibit gas-liquid and gas-liquid-liquid equilibria. In order to obtain a correct characterization of the phase and interface behaviors of these types of mixtures and to directly compare DGT and MD results, the global phase diagram of equal-size Lennard-Jones mixtures has been used to define the molecular parameters of these mixtures. According to our results, DGT and MD are two complementary methodologies able to obtain a complete and simultaneous prediction of phase equilibria and their interfacial properties. For the type of mixtures analyzed here, both approaches have shown excellent agreement in their phase equilibrium and interface properties in the full concentration range.

Mejía, Andrés; Pàmies, Josep C.; Duque, Daniel; Segura, Hugo; Vega, Lourdes F.

2005-07-01

102

Type II solar radio bursts: 2. Detailed comparison of theory with observations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the second in a two paper series, we quantitatively compare a detailed theory for type II solar radio bursts with observations and extract the parameters of the associated shocks. We use the techniques and assessment parameters developed and demonstrated in the companion paper for artificial data sets and solar wind models. Here we investigate three relatively well-observed type II events with estimates of shock parameters from LASCO/SOHO observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) or other data. Using these parameters we obtain reasonable qualitative and semiquantitative agreement (25-40% correlations) between the theory and observed dynamic spectra. Then, using an iterative downhill simplex method with two assessment parameters, we extract model shock parameters that increase the agreement between theory and observation in terms of relative flux levels, spectral intensifications and drift rates. The extracted parameters agree qualitatively and semiquantitatively with the parameters (speed, size and expansion index) estimated from CME observations for one of the studied events. The extracted parameters agree qualitatively with the remaining two events and yield new initial shock speeds. The agreement between this multiprocess theory and observations is promising for these first quantitative comparisons performed here. Quantitatively, the bulk of the radio emission agrees to within 5 to 10 dB with observations, with the theory typically overpredicting the intensity of bright spots in the dynamic spectra. The methods and analyses presented here show potential for the remote inference of CME-driven shock parameters and the prediction of radio and space weather events.

Hillan, D. S.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

2012-06-01

103

Characterisation and quantification of liposome-type nanoparticles in a beverage matrix using hydrodynamic chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the characterisation of liposome-type nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in a beverage matrix. Characterisation is based on a two-step procedure: first, liposomes are separated on the basis of size in the nanometre range by use of hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC); second, chemical characterisation is performed by use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Characterisation of three types of Coatsome liposome, a commercially available type of empty liposome, was investigated. All three liposome types, Coatsome A = anionic, N = neutral, and C = cationic, gave single peaks in HDC, reflecting diameters of 153, 187, and 205 nm, respectively. Subsequent MALDI-TOF MS in positive mode furnished major signals at m/z = 734.5 ([M + H](+) adduct) and m/z = 756.6 ([M + Na](+) adduct) of L-(?)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monomer and dimeric adducts at m/z = 1468.1 and m/z = 1490.1, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS in negative mode gave a signal at m/z = 721.3 ([M - H](-) adduct) of L-(?)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), except for Coatsome C which lacks this phospholipid. After HDC separation of Coatsome A NPs the major DPPC and DPPG signals can be detected in the expected fractions by use of MALDI-TOF MS in positive and negative modes, respectively. Validation of the analytical strategy revealed linearity (R(2) > 0.99), repeatability (relative standard deviation <10 %), and reproducibility (relative standard deviation between days <10 %) were good, recovery was 61 ± 5 %, and the limit of quantification was 1 mg mL(-1) in this matrix. With 4 mg Coatsome A mL(-1) 20 out of 20 samples furnished the 734.5 and 756.6 signals typical of DPPC in MALDI-TOF MS characterisation.

Helsper JP; Peters RJ; Brouwer L; Weigel S

2013-02-01

104

Solutions of Dirac's equation in Bianchi type I spacetime in teleparallel gravity theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Different from the Einstein's general relativity which describes gravity through the curvature of a spacetime, teleparallel gravity theory depicts gravity through the Weitzenbock torsion of the spacetime. This leads to different expressions of the dynamical equations of fundamental fields, including Dirac fields, in both theories. Here we derive two types of solutions of the Dirac's equations for the case of isotropic Bianchi type I spacetime. The first is an oscillatory solution, i.e. the time dependence of the solution is chosen to be sinusoidal. Here we derive the general form of space coordinate dependent part of the solution. The second type of solution is a solution where the space coordinate part of solution is chosen to be sinusoidal. Here we derive the time dependence of the solution for the case of exponential scale factor.

Triyanta; Supardi; Zen, F. P.

2013-09-01

105

Three-dimensional quantification of femoral head shape in controls and patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement.  

Science.gov (United States)

An objective measurement technique to quantify 3D femoral head shape was developed and applied to normal subjects and patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D reconstructions were made from high-resolution CT images of 15 cam and 15 control femurs. Femoral heads were fit to ideal geometries consisting of rotational conchoids and spheres. Geometric similarity between native femoral heads and ideal shapes was quantified. The maximum distance native femoral heads protruded above ideal shapes and the protrusion area were measured. Conchoids provided a significantly better fit to native femoral head geometry than spheres for both groups. Cam-type FAI femurs had significantly greater maximum deviations (4.99 ± 0.39 mm and 4.08 ± 0.37 mm) than controls (2.41 ± 0.31 mm and 1.75 ± 0.30 mm) when fit to spheres or conchoids, respectively. The area of native femoral heads protruding above ideal shapes was significantly larger in controls when a lower threshold of 0.1 mm (for spheres) and 0.01 mm (for conchoids) was used to define a protrusion. The 3D measurement technique described herein could supplement measurements of radiographs in the diagnosis of cam-type FAI. Deviations up to 2.5 mm from ideal shapes can be expected in normal femurs while deviations of 4-5 mm are characteristic of cam-type FAI. PMID:23413103

Harris, Michael D; Reese, Shawn P; Peters, Christopher L; Weiss, Jeffrey A; Anderson, Andrew E

2013-02-15

106

Three-dimensional quantification of femoral head shape in controls and patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An objective measurement technique to quantify 3D femoral head shape was developed and applied to normal subjects and patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D reconstructions were made from high-resolution CT images of 15 cam and 15 control femurs. Femoral heads were fit to ideal geometries consisting of rotational conchoids and spheres. Geometric similarity between native femoral heads and ideal shapes was quantified. The maximum distance native femoral heads protruded above ideal shapes and the protrusion area were measured. Conchoids provided a significantly better fit to native femoral head geometry than spheres for both groups. Cam-type FAI femurs had significantly greater maximum deviations (4.99 ± 0.39 mm and 4.08 ± 0.37 mm) than controls (2.41 ± 0.31 mm and 1.75 ± 0.30 mm) when fit to spheres or conchoids, respectively. The area of native femoral heads protruding above ideal shapes was significantly larger in controls when a lower threshold of 0.1 mm (for spheres) and 0.01 mm (for conchoids) was used to define a protrusion. The 3D measurement technique described herein could supplement measurements of radiographs in the diagnosis of cam-type FAI. Deviations up to 2.5 mm from ideal shapes can be expected in normal femurs while deviations of 4-5 mm are characteristic of cam-type FAI.

Harris MD; Reese SP; Peters CL; Weiss JA; Anderson AE

2013-06-01

107

Mapping and Quantification of Land Area and Cover Types with LandsatTM in Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information about current land cover type is essential at a certain level to ensure the optimum use of the land resources. Several approaches can be used to estimate land cover area, where remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) is among the method. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate how reliable these technologies in preparing information about land cover in Carey Island, Selangor of Peninsular Malaysia. Erdas Imagine 9.1 was used in digital image processing. A primary data of Landsat TM, with spatial resolution of 30 m was acquired from scene 127/58 on July 2007. Area estimate was calculated using direct expansion method from samples proportion of each segments of land cover type (1 km by 1 km sample size). In this study, four classes of land cover type have been identified and the areas were oil palm, mangrove, water bodies and urban/bare land area. The area estimate for all classes are 11039.28 ha (oil palm), 5242.86 ha (mangrove), 4894.92 ha (water bodies), and 4751.96 ha (urban/bare land), respectively. The overall classification accuracy obtained for this study is 96%.  The results showed that the use of direct expansion method for estimating land cover type area is practical to be used with remote sensing approaches.

J Hj. Kamaruzaman,; I Mohd Hasmadi,

2009-01-01

108

Optimal Uncertainty Quantification  

CERN Document Server

We propose a rigorous framework for Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) in which the UQ objectives and the assumptions/information set are brought to the forefront. This framework, which we call \\emph{Optimal Uncertainty Quantification} (OUQ), is based on the observation that, given a set of assumptions and information about the problem, there exist optimal bounds on uncertainties: these are obtained as extreme values of well-defined optimization problems corresponding to extremizing probabilities of failure, or of deviations, subject to the constraints imposed by the scenarios compatible with the assumptions and information. In particular, this framework does not implicitly impose inappropriate assumptions, nor does it repudiate relevant information. Although OUQ optimization problems are extremely large, we show that under general conditions, they have finite-dimensional reductions. As an application, we develop \\emph{Optimal Concentration Inequalities} (OCI) of Hoeffding and McDiarmid type. Surprisingly, contr...

Owhadi, Houman; Sullivan, Timothy John; McKerns, Mike; Ortiz, Michael

2010-01-01

109

Generating Erler-Schnabl-type Solution for Tachyon Vacuum in Cubic Superstring Field Theory  

CERN Document Server

We analyze a new class of identity-based solutions in open bosonic string field theory and cubic superstring field theory. Even though these solutions seem to be trivial, it turns out that after performing a suitable gauge transformation, we are left with the known Erler-Schnabl-type solutions which correctly reproduce the value for the D-brane tension. This important result shows explicitly that how a seemingly trivial solution can generate a non-trivial configuration which precisely represents the tachyon vacuum.

Arroyo, E Aldo

2010-01-01

110

Bianchi Type-II Dark Energy Model in Scale Covariant Theory of Gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatially Homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-II space time with variable equation of state (EoS) parameter and constant deceleration parameter has been investigated in scale covariant theory of gravitation formulated by Canuto et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39:429, 1977). With the help of special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Bermann (Nuovo Cimento 74B:182, 1983) a dark energy cosmological model is obtained in this theory. We use the power law relation between scalar field ? and scale factor R to find the solutions. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Singh, J. K.; Sharma, N. K.

2013-09-01

111

[Quantification of visceral adipose tissue using magnetic resonance imaging compared with anthropometry, in type 2 diabetic patients].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with the development of metabolic diseases. Anthropometry is one of the methods used to quantify it. AIM: to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and anthropometric indexes, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in type 2 diabetic patients (DM2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients aged 55 to 78 years (15 females) and weighting 61.5 to 97 kg, were included. The patients underwent MRI examination on a Philips Intera® 1.5T MR scanner. The MRI protocol included a spectral excitation sequence centered at the fat peak. The field of view included from L4-L5 to the diaphragmatic border. VAT was measured using the software Image J®. Weight, height, BMI, WC and body fat percentage (BF%), derived from the measurement of four skinfolds with the equation of Durnin and Womersley, were also measured. The association between MRIVAT measurement and anthropometry was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Mean VAT was 2478 ± 758 ml, mean BMI29.5 ± 4.7 kg/m², and mean WC was 100 ± 9.7 cm. There was a poor correlation between VAT, BMI (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: BMI and WC are inaccurate predictors of VAT volume in type 2 diabetic patients.

Serrano García C; Barrera F; Labbé P; Liberona J; Arrese M; Irarrázabal P; Tejos C; Uribe S

2012-12-01

112

The structure of the R^8 term in type IIB string theory  

CERN Document Server

Based on the structure of the on-shell linearized superspace of type IIB supergravity, we argue that there is a non--BPS 16 derivative interaction in the effective action of type IIB string theory of the form (t_8 t_8 R^4)^2, which we call the R^8 interaction. It lies in the same supermultiplet as the G^8 R^4 interaction. Using the KLT relation, we analyse the structure of the tree level eight graviton scattering amplitude in the type IIB theory, which leads to the R^8 interaction at the linearized level. This involves an analysis of color ordered multi-gluon disc amplitudes in the type I theory, which shows an intricate pole structure and transcendentality consistent with various other interactions. Considerations of S-duality show that the R^8 interaction receives non-analytic contributions in the string coupling at one and two loops. Apart from receiving perturbative contributions, we show that the R^8 interaction receives a non-vanishing contribution in the one D-instanton-anti-instanton background at lea...

Basu, Anirban

2013-01-01

113

Type IIA/M-theory Moduli fixing in a Class of Orientifold Models  

CERN Document Server

We present the study of type II A flux vacua and their M-theory duals for compactification on a class of Calabi-Yau orientifolds. The Kahler potential is derived from toroidal compactifications and the superpotential contains a contribution from non-Abelian gauge degrees of freedoms. We obtain complete stabilisation of the moduli. We found one supersymmetric minimum and several non supersymmetric ones. Consistency of the analysis constrains the parameters of the models in a finite region containing a finite, although very large, number of flux vacua. From the M-theory side, we found some differences in the distributions of the physical quantities with respect to the M-theory ensemble studied by Acharya et al. In particular, it is easier to find small supersymmetry breaking scale.

Milanesi, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

114

Bipolarity in Jungian type theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The standard form of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was constructed to measure introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuiting, and thinking/feeling as single, bipolar dimensions. We tested this assumption of bipolarity with a Likert form of the MBTI that allowed for the independent assessment of each attitude and function. A total of 106 female and 59 male undergraduate and graduate students completed the standard and Likert MBTI forms approximately 3 weeks apart. Evidence for the bipolarity of the introversion/extroversion dimension was weak, and findings did not support the bipolarity of the sensing/intuiting or thinking/feeling dimensions. Results provide evidence that high negative correlations within MBTI dimensions are an artifact of its forced-choice format. Implications of the findings for typology measurement are discussed.

Girelli SA; Stake JE

1993-04-01

115

Quantification of the N-terminal propeptide of human procollagen type I (PINP): comparison of ELISA and RIA with respect to different molecular forms.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper compares the results of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) quantification by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PINP in serum from a patient with uremic hyperparathyroidism was measured in RIA and ELISA to 20 micrograms l-1 and 116 micrograms l-1 and the corresponding concentrations in dialysis fluid were 94.5 micrograms l-1 and 140 micrograms l-1, respectively. PINP antigen appears in two distinct peaks following size chromatography and the two peak fractions display immunological identity and identical M(r)'s (27 kDa: SDS-PAGE). Analysis of fractions from size separated amniotic fluid, serum and dialysis fluid demonstrated that the RIA failed to measure the low molecular weight form of PINP. However, the anti-PINP supplied with the RIA-kit and the anti-PINP applied in the ELISA reacted equally well with both molecular forms of PINP when analysed in a direct ELISA. It is concluded that the major difference in the ELISA and RIA results is due to assayefficacy with respect to the low molecular weight form of PINP. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Jan-12

Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Hansen, M

1998-01-01

116

Identification of enzymes and quantification of metabolic fluxes in the wild type and in a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae strain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two alpha-amylase-producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae, a wild-type strain and a recombinant containing additional copies of the alpha-amylase gene, were characterized,vith respect to enzyme activities, localization of enzymes to the mitochondria or cytosol, macromolecular composition, and metabolic fluxes through the central metabolism during glucose-limited chemostat cultivations. Citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD) activities were found only in the mitochondria, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP) activities were found only in the cytosol, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, malate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) activities were found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol, The measured biomass components and ash could account for 95% (wt/wt) of the biomass. The protein and RNA contents increased linearly with increasing specific growth rate, but the carbohydrate and chitin contents decreased. A metabolic model consisting of 69 fluxes and 59 intracellular metabolites was used to calculate the metabolic fluxes through the central metabolism at several specific growth rates, with ammonia or nitrate as the nitrogen source. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway increased with increasing specific growth rate. The fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway were 15 to 26% higher for the recombinant strain than for the wild-type strain.

Pedersen, Henrik; Carlsen, Morten

1999-01-01

117

Inflation of Bianchi type-$\\Rmnum{7}_0$ Universe with Dirac Field in Einstein-Cartan theory  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss the Bianchi type-$\\Rmnum{7}_0$ cosmology with Dirac field in Einstein-Cartan theory. We obtain the equations of Dirac field and gravitational field in Einstein-Cartan theory. We find a Bianchi type-$\\Rmnum{7}_0$ inflationary solution.

Fang, Wei; Lu, Hui-Qing

2010-01-01

118

Implementation of dipole type bosonic BRST symmetry in QED. Reconstruction of gaugeon theory of QED  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown in QED that we can incorporate dipole type bosonic BRST symmetry with gauge function ? satisfying #square#2?=0 in quite the same way as bosonic BRST symmetry is implemented. Lagrangian so defined turns out to be that of Yokoyama's gaugeon formalism. However difference in formulating the theory yields remarkable differences in its properties. Gaugeon and its conjugate fields come to transform differently in order for the gauge transformations to be residual ones with infinitesimal generator. We need not classify the gaugeon theory into types I and II because constituent operators of genuine QED transform such that values of the gauge parameter of Nakanishi-Lautrup formalism are freely altered. It follows that equivalence evidently holds among the one parameter covariant gauges and hence the difficulty inherent in Nakanishi-Lautrup formalism is resolved. (author).

1995-01-01

119

A General Formulation of Simultaneous Inductive-Recursive Definitions in Type Theory  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first example of a simultaneous inductive-recursive definition in intuitionistic type theory is Martin-Löf's universe à la Tarski. A set U0 of codes for small sets is generated inductively at the same time as a function T0, which maps a code to the corresponding small set, is defined by recursion on the way the elements of U0 are generated. In this paper we argue...

Peter Dybjer

120

Tilted Bianchi Type VI0 Cosmological Model in Saez and Ballester Scalar Tensor Theory of Gravitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tilted Bianchi type VI0 cosmological model is investigated in a new scalar tensor theory of gravitation pro-posed by Saez and Ballester (Physics Letters A 113:467, 1986). Exact solutions to the field equations are derived when the metric potentials are functions of cosmic time only. Some physical and geometrical proper-ties of the solutions are also discussed.

Subrata Kumar Sahu

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Bianchi type VI1 cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we have investigated Bianchi type VI h , II and III cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravity, where the matter field is in the form of perfect fluid and with a time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). A non-singular model for the universe filled with disorder radiation is constructed and some physical behaviors of the model are studied for the feasible VI h (h=1) space-time.

Mishra, B.; Sahoo, P. K.

2013-10-01

122

The epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory with Wilson-type fermions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this proceeding contribution we report on the ongoing effort to simulate Wilson-type fermions in the so called epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory (cPT).We present results for the chiral condensate and the pseudoscalar decay constant obtained with Wilson twisted mass fermions employing two lattice spacings, two different physical volumes and several quark masses. With this set of simulations we make a first attempt to estimate the systematic uncertainties. (orig.)

Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division

2009-11-15

123

Phenomenological theory of 1-3 type multiferroic composite thin film: thickness effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of thickness on the para-ferro-phase transition temperatures, the spontaneous polarization and magnetization and hysteresis loops of 1-3 type multiferroic composite thin films was studied in the framework of Landau phenomenological theory. We took into account the electrostrictive and magnetostrictive effects, misfit strains induced from the interfaces of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic portions and film/substrate. Butterfly loops under external fields were also simulated.

Lu Xiaoyan; Wang Biao; Zheng Yue [School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ryba, Earle [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States)], E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-01-07

124

Bianchi Type I Cosmology in Saez-Ballester Theory via Noether Symmetry  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, we investigate the Bianchi type I spacetime in Saez-Ballester scalar-tensor theory of gravity. We start with a Lagrangian of the model and calculate its Noether symmetries and corresponding invariant quantities. We study vacuum solutions only and obtain the potential function for the scalar field of the exponential form. For all the symmetries obtained, we clasify constant and dynamic gauge functions.

Jamil, Mubasher; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R

2012-01-01

125

Universality of oscillation theory laws. types and role of mathematical models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The universality of oscillation theory laws is discussed. It is suggested that all models of concrete systems be separated into four categories: models – “portraits” of investigated systems, models of the type of “black box”, aggregating models, and models of certain phenomena which can occur in real systems. As an example of the model of the fourth type, the equation of oscillations of a pendulum with a randomly vibrating suspension axis is considered for the purpose of clarifying the mechanism of the transition to turbulence.

Polina S. Landa

1996-01-01

126

Heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B: Quantification by dynamic CTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 ± 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 ± 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 ± 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 ± 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p

2009-01-01

127

Experimental quantification of dynamic forces and shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings under several contact conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact forces enable the hysteresis loops to be computed and analyzed. Consequently, the contact forces are plotted against the local deformation in order to assess the contact force loss during the impacts. The shaft motion during contact with the backup bearing is verified with a two-sided spectrum analyses. The analyses show that by use of a conventional annular guide, the shaft undergoes a direct transition from normal operation to a full annular backward whirling state for the case of external excitation. However, in a self-excited vibration case, where the speed is gradually increased and decreased through the first critical speed, the investigation revealed that different paths initiated the onset of backward whip and whirling motion. In order to improve the whirling and the full annular contact behavior, an unconventional pinned backup bearing is realized. The idea is to utilize pin connections that center the rotor during impacts and prevent the shaft from entering a full annular contact state. The experimental results show that the shaft escapes the pins and returns to a normal operational condition during an impact event. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

2013-01-01

128

Real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of Acanthamoeba species in various types of water samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR was developed to detect and quantify Acanthamoeba spp. in various environmental water samples. The water samples were taken from watershed, water treatment plant, and three thermal spring recreation areas. The overall detection rate was 14.2 % (25/176) for Acanthamoeba spp. The percentages of samples containing Acanthamoeba spp. from river water, raw drinking water, and thermal spring water were 13 % (13/100), 25 % (7/28), and 10.4 % (5/48), respectively. Acanthamoeba spp. concentrations were determined according to SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR. A plasmid-based standard curve was constructed to determine the Acanthamoeba concentration using dilution factors for achieving 1.36?×?10(9) gene copies per PCR for 18S rRNA gene in Acanthamoeba spp. The resulting concentrations varied by the type of water, in the range of 46-2.6?×?10(2) cells/l in positive raw drinking water, 2.7?×?10(2)-1.5?×?10(4) cells/l in river water, and 54-1.7?×?10(3) cells/l in thermal spring water. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the raw drinking water samples was also found to have a significant difference with heterotrophic plate count. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in various aquatic environments may be a potential health hazard and must be further evaluated.

Kao PM; Tung MC; Hsu BM; Tsai HL; She CY; Shen SM; Huang WC

2013-03-01

129

Four types of coping with COPD-induced breathlessness in daily living: a grounded theory study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Coping with breathlessness is a complex and multidimensional challenge for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and involves interacting physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial dimensions. The aim of this study was to explore how people with moderate to most severe COPD predominantly cope with breathlessness during daily living. We chose a multimodal grounded theory design that holds the opportunity to combine qualitative and quantitative data to capture and explain the multidimensional coping behaviour among poeple with COPD. The participants' main concern in coping with breathlessness appeared to be an endless striving to economise on resources in an effort to preserve their integrity. In this integrity-preserving process, four predominant coping types emerged and were labelled: `Overrater´, `Challenger´, `Underrater´, and `Leveller´. Each coping type comprised distrinctive physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial features constituting coping-type-specific indicators. In theory, four predominant coping types with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial properties are observed among people with COPD. The four coping types seem to constitute a coping trajectory. This hypothesis should be further tested in a longitudinal study.

Lomborg, Kirsten; Bastrup, Lene

2013-01-01

130

Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA). LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold) and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed) is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids) Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity. Conclusions We show that the natural system encoded in SPI-1 only produces high titers of secreted protein for 4-8 hours when the natural psicA promoter is used to drive expression. Secretion efficiency can be high, but declines for charged or large sequences. A quantitative characterization of these constraints will facilitate the effective use and engineering of this system.

Widmaier Daniel M; Voigt Christopher A

2010-01-01

131

Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. RESULTS: To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA). LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold) and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed) is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids) Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the natural system encoded in SPI-1 only produces high titers of secreted protein for 4-8 hours when the natural psicA promoter is used to drive expression. Secretion efficiency can be high, but declines for charged or large sequences. A quantitative characterization of these constraints will facilitate the effective use and engineering of this system.

Widmaier DM; Voigt CA

2010-01-01

132

Type II Solar Radio Bursts : Extraction of Shock Parameters and Detailed Comparison of Theory with Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

We use the current interplanetary type II theory and a data-driven solar wind model to simulate dynamic spectra of type II bursts. We start by developing techniques and performance metrics for extraction of shock parameters from artificial data sets. An iterative downhill simplex method is used, which compares two dynamic spectra and quantitatively assesses and then improves the agreement using two performance metrics; the first is based on the correlation function and the second is based on a normalized difference. By maximizing the agreement we are able to extract the input model shock parameters to within 30% or better when using model solar winds of increasing complexity. When using a realistic solar wind model, the parameters are recovered very accurately, generally to within a few percent of the correct solution. We then quantitatively compare the theory with observations and extract the parameters of the shocks for three well observed type II events. We first obtain good qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement (40-50% correlations) between the predicted and observed dynamic spectra using estimates of shock parameters from LASCO/SOHO coronal mass ejections (CME) observations. The iterative downhill simplex method with the two assessment parameters then extracts model shock parameters that increase the agreement between theory and observation in terms of relative flux levels, spectral intensifications, and drift rates. The shock parameters agree qualitatively and semi-quantitatively with those estimated from CME observations (speed, size and expansion index) for two events. Quantitatively, the simulated radio emission is typically overpredicted for each event by around 5 dB. Analysis of the third event leads to improved agreement for only a range of times and frequencies in the dynamic spectra, and leads to an implausible shock size. The theory and methods show great potential for space weather prediction and remote inference of CME-driven shock parameters.

Hillan, D.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.

2010-12-01

133

S duality and dyonic p-brane solutions in type II string theory  

CERN Multimedia

We show how a solitonic ``magnetically'' charged p-brane solution of a given supergravity theory, with the magnetic charge carried by an antisymmetric tensor gauge field, can be generalized to a dyonic solution. We discuss the cases of ten-dimensional and eleven-dimensional supergravity in more detail and a new dyonic five-brane solution in ten dimensions is given. Unlike the purely electrically or magnetically charged five-brane solution the dyonic five-brane contains non-zero Ramond--Ramond fields and is therefore an intrinsically type~II solution. The solution preserves half of the type~II spacetime supersymmetries. It is obtained by applying a solution-generating SL(2,\\R) \\times SL(2,\\R) S~duality transformation to the purely magnetically charged five-brane solution. One of the SL(2,\\R) duality transformations is basically an extension to the type~II case of the six-dimensional \\Z_2 string/string duality. We also present an action underlying the type IIB supergravity theory.

Bergshoeff, E A; Ortín, Tomas

1996-01-01

134

{ital S} duality and dyonic {ital p}-brane solutions in type II string theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show how a solitonic {open_quote}{open_quote}magnetically{close_quote}{close_quote} charged {ital p}-brane solution of a given supergravity theory, with the magnetic charge carried by an antisymmetric tensor gauge field, can be generalized to a dyonic solution. We discuss the cases of ten-dimensional and eleven-dimensional supergravity in more detail and a new dyonic five-brane solution in ten dimensions is given. Unlike the purely electrically or magnetically charged five-brane solution the dyonic five-brane contains nonzero Ramond-Ramond fields and is, therefore, an intrinsically type II solution. The solution preserves half of the type II spacetime supersymmetries. It is obtained by applying a solution-generating SL(2,{ital R}){times}SL(2,{ital R}) {ital S} duality transformation to the purely magnetically charged five-brane solution. One of the SL(2,{ital R}) duality transformations is basically an extension to the type II case of the six-dimensional {ital Z}{sub 2} string-string duality. We also present an action underlying the type IIB supergravity theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Bergshoeff, E.; Boonstra, H.J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (The Netherlands); Ortin, T. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

1996-06-01

135

A construction principle for ADM-type theories in maximal slicing gauge  

CERN Document Server

The differing concepts of time in general relativity and quantum mechanics are widely accused as the main culprits in our persistent failure in finding a complete theory of quantum gravity. Here we address this issue by constructing ADM-type theories \\emph{in a particular time gauge} directly from first principles. The principles are expressed as conditions on phase space constraints: we search for two sets of spatially covariant constraints, which generate symmetries (are first class) and gauge-fix each other leaving two propagating degrees of freedom. One of the sets is the Weyl generator tr$(\\pi)$, and the other is a one-parameter family containing the ADM scalar constraint $\\lambda R- \\beta(\\pi^{ab}\\pi_{ab}+(\\mbox{tr}(\\pi))^2/2))$. The two sets of constraints can be seen as defining ADM-type theories with a maximal slicing gauge-fixing. The principles above are motivated by a heuristic argument relying in the relation between symmetry doubling and exact renormalization arguments for quantum gravity, aside...

Gomes, Henrique

2013-01-01

136

BPS-saturated bound states of tilted p-branes in type II string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We find BPS-saturated solutions of M theory and type II string theory which correspond to (nonmarginally) bound states of p-branes intersecting at angles different from ?/2. These solutions are obtained by starting with a BPS marginally bound (orthogonally) intersecting configurations of two p-branes (e.g., two four-branes of type II string theory), performing a boost transformation at an angle with respect to the world volume of the configuration, performing T-duality transformation along the boost direction, S-duality transformation, and T transformations along the direction perpendicular to the boost transformation. The resulting configuration is a nonmarginally bound BPS-saturated solution whose static metric possesses the off-diagonal term which cannot be removed by a coordinate transformation, and thus signifies an angle (different from ?/2) between the resulting intersecting p-branes. Additional new p-branes are bound to this configuration, in order to ensure the stability of such a static, tilted configuration. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

1997-01-01

137

Up-type quark masses in SU(5) F-theory models  

CERN Multimedia

F-theory SU(5) unification has been proposed as a scenario where the mass of the top quark is naturally large, as opposed to type II SU(5) models. We analyze this claim from the viewpoint of local SU(5) F-theory models, by explicitly computing the 10 x 10 x 5 Yukawa couplings that are developed in the vicinity of an E6 singularity. Realizing this singularity via T-branes allows for a non-trivial mass for the top quark, while lighter generations of up-type quarks still have vanishing Yukawa couplings. Nevertheless, we show that by taking instanton effects into account non-vanishing Yukawas are induced for all U-quark families, together with a hierarchical structure at the level of the superpotential. Finally, by solving for internal wavefunction profiles we compute physical U-quark Yukawa couplings and show that this F-theory scenario allows to describe the measured top quark mass, as well as the observed quotients of U-quark masses.

Font, Anamaría; Regalado, Diego; Zoccarato, Gianluca

2013-01-01

138

Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this P-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with D78, DK01 or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day I post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8 p.i. for D78. Importantly, the primers set were specific as the D78 primer set gave no amplification of F52/70 and DK01 and the DK01 primer set gave no amplification of D78, thus DK01 and D78 could be quantified simultaneously in dually infected chickens by use of these two set of primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies.

Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.

2007-01-01

139

Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this beta-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with D78, DK01 or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day 1 post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8 p.i. for D78. Importantly, the primers set were specific as the D78 primer set gave no amplification of F52/70 and DK01 and the DK01 primer set gave no amplification of D78, thus DK01 and D78 could be quantified simultaneously in dually infected chickens by use of these two set of primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies.

Li YP; Handberg KJ; Kabell S; Kusk M; Zhang MF; Jørgensen PH

2007-02-01

140

Localized Modes in Type II and Heterotic Singular Calabi-Yau Conformal Field Theories  

CERN Document Server

We consider type II and heterotic string compactifications on an isolated singularity in the noncompact Gepner model approach. The conifold-type ADE noncompact Calabi-Yau threefolds, as well as the ALE twofolds, are modeled by a tensor product of the SL(2,R)/U(1) Kazama-Suzuki model and an N=2 minimal model. Based on the string partition functions on these internal Calabi-Yaus previously obtained by Eguchi and Sugawara, we construct new modular invariant, space-time supersymmetric partition functions for both type II and heterotic string theories, where the GSO projection is performed before the continuous and discrete state contributions are separated. We investigate in detail the massless spectra of the localized modes. In particular, we propose an interesting three generation model, in which each flavor is in the 27+1 representation of E6 and localized on a four-dimensional space-time residing at the tip of the cigar.

Mizoguchi, Shun'ya

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Study on n-type doping with phosphorous in diamond by means of density functional theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the n-type doping with phosphorous (P) in diamond, the electronic structure of a series of diamond clusters has been calculated by means of density functional theory method. From the results, we have found some of interesting properties of P doping. Firstly, the n-type doping behavior with P in diamond is very similar to that in silicon. Secondly, the donor level induced by P is shallower for the larger cluster than for the smaller cluster. Lastly, the phosphorous-dangling-bond complex is one of the factors defining the donor level position if dangling bonds (DBs) exist in samples. These findings may well explain some of experimental data of n-type materials doped with P

2003-05-25

142

[Quantification of motor activity in biomedicine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A computer-assisted analysis of motor activity was carried out using ultrasound waves, that are not invasive and free from any kind of interference, because of their specific characteristics. We worked out the Doppler's effect which determines a frequency variation on the reflected wave from any body in motion. That variation is linked to the velocity of the moving body and the superimposition of the emitted wave with those reflected, results in beats, which have a frequency proportional to the motor activity velocity. Our research group planned and carried out an electronic quantification apparatus that can be interfaced with a personal computer system by means of an Analog to Digital acquisition card. The performed test on the apparatus confirmed that the theory that the number of antinodes detected was proportional to the space covered by the moving body. The equipment was also tested on several types of animals.

Giannazzo E

1993-07-01

143

A tale of two cascades: Higgsing and Seiberg-duality cascades from type IIB string theory  

CERN Document Server

We construct explicitly new solutions of type IIB supergravity with brane sources, the duals of which are N = 1 supersymmetric field theories exhibiting two very interesting phenomena. The far UV dynamics is controlled by a cascade of Seiberg dualities analog to the Klebanov- Strassler backgrounds. At intermediate scales a cascade of Higgsing appears, in the sense that the gauge group undergoes a sequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking steps which reduces its rank. Deep in the IR, the theory confines, and the gravity background has a non-singular end of space. We explain in detail how to generate such solutions, discuss some of the Physics associated with them and briefly comment on the possible applications.

Conde, Eduardo; Nunez, Carlos; Piai, Maurizio; Ramallo, Alfonso V

2011-01-01

144

Theory of type II radio emission from the foreshock of an interplanetary shock  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an analytical model for type II solar radio bursts and then apply it to an observed type II event. Electron beams are produced in the foreshock of an interplanetary shock via shock drift acceleration. Reflection is treated in the de Hoffman-Teller frame with efficiencies modeled by a losscone that incorporates the effects of the static cross-shock potential ?. Stochastic growth theory is used to treat electron beam driven Langmuir wave growth in the type II foreshock. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions are used as the mechanisms for converting Langmuir wave energy into freely propagating radio emission. The electron beams produced in the foreshock have a wide range of speeds and number densities. These electron beams are qualitatively consistent with observations in a type II foreshock as well as earlier theoretical predictions, and observations in Earth's foreshock. Significant levels of Langmuir waves and fp and 2fp emission are predicted. In particular, the predicted volume emissivities are similar to those predicted for type III bursts. The simple model developed for the source environment of the type II event on August 26, 1998, produces fluxes in reasonable agreement with observation.

Knock, S. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Kuncic, Z.

2001-11-01

145

Delimited continuations in natural language: quantification and polarity sensitivity  

CERN Multimedia

Making a linguistic theory is like making a programming language: one typically devises a type system to delineate the acceptable utterances and a denotational semantics to explain observations on their behavior. Via this connection, the programming language concept of delimited continuations can help analyze natural language phenomena such as quantification and polarity sensitivity. Using a logical metalanguage whose syntax includes control operators and whose semantics involves evaluation order, these analyses can be expressed in direct style rather than continuation-passing style, and these phenomena can be thought of as computational side effects.

Shan, C

2004-01-01

146

On the vacuum stability in the superrenormalized Yukawa-type theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of the ground state and possibility of appearance of the phase transition in the superrenormalizable nonlical Yukawa-type field theory are investigated. A variational estimation of the upper bound for the effective potential is obtained. It is shown that there exist a finite critical value for the boson-fermion coupling constant. The initial vacuum becomes unstable when this coupling cosntant exceeds the critical value. As a result, the system under consideration goes into the phase with nonvanishing expectation value of the field. 17 refs.; 3 figs

1989-01-01

147

Relation between anomaly in type-I superstring and anomaly in its effective theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We explicitly calculate the hexagon and heptagon (covariant) gauge anomaly including the precise numerical coefficients in type-I open superstring. The calculation is performed by using the Pauli-Villars regularization on the basis of the stringy Ward identity, which is an assumption weaker than the cancelled propagator argument. We show that the anomalies in the effective theory are realized as the zero slope limit (?' ? 0) of the string anomalies in a very non-trivial way in the present calculational scheme. This non-trivial realization in higher point (n ? 8) anomalies is also discussed. (author)

1987-01-01

148

Comment on the one-loop finiteness in type-I superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] By using the Pauli-Villars method, one-loop divergence of the 4-point amplitude in SO(N) type-I superstring theory is studied. If one assigns the equal mass to the Pauli-Villars regulators appearing in the planar and nonorientable diagrams, the one-loop finiteness does not hold for N = 32. From the present view point, the principal-part prescription by Green and Schwarz corresponds to the different regulator mass assignment for the planar and nonorientable diagrams. (author)

1986-01-01

149

Integral representations of hypergeometric functions of confluent type from the WZNW conformal field theory  

CERN Multimedia

For any complex simple Lie algebra, we generalize primary fileds in the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory with respect to the case of irregular singularities and we construct integral representations of hypergeometric functions of confluent type, as expectation values of products of generalized primary fields. In the case of sl(2), these integral representations coincide with solutions to confluent KZ equations. Computing the operator product expansion of the energy-momentum tensor and the generalized primary field, we observe new differential operators in the result. In the case of sl(2), these differential operators are the same as those of the confluent KZ equations.

Nagoya, Hajime

2010-01-01

150

Duality between heterotic and type I superstring theories and effective actions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss higher order terms in the effective actions of 10-dimensional SO(32) heterotic and type I superstrings from the point of view of duality between the two theories. Some of these terms do not receive higher-loop corrections being related by supersymmetry to `anomaly-cancelling` terms, while others (like R{sup 4} tree-level super-invariant) should be multiplied by a non-trivial function of the dilaton in order for the duality conjecture to be consistent. (orig.)

Tseytlin, A.A. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.

1996-12-01

151

Bianchi type I cosmology in generalized Saez-Ballester theory via Noether gauge symmetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we investigate the generalized Saez-Ballester scalar-tensor theory of gravity via Noether gauge symmetry (NGS) in the background of Bianchi type I cosmological spacetime. We start with the Lagrangian of our model and calculate its gauge symmetries and corresponding invariant quantities. We obtain the potential function for the scalar field in the exponential form. For all the symmetries obtained, we determine the gauge functions corresponding to each gauge symmetry which include constant and dynamic gauge. We discuss cosmological implications of our model and show that it is compatible with the observational data. (orig.)

Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics (CAMP), Islamabad (Pakistan); Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Ali, Sajid [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (SEECS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan)

2012-04-15

152

Bianchi type I cosmology in generalized Saez-Ballester theory via Noether gauge symmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we investigate the generalized Saez-Ballester scalar-tensor theory of gravity via Noether gauge symmetry (NGS) in the background of Bianchi type I cosmological spacetime. We start with the Lagrangian of our model and calculate its gauge symmetries and corresponding invariant quantities. We obtain the potential function for the scalar field in the exponential form. For all the symmetries obtained, we determine the gauge functions corresponding to each gauge symmetry which include constant and dynamic gauge. We discuss cosmological implications of our model and show that it is compatible with the observational data. (orig.)

2012-01-01

153

A Yang-Mills Type Gauge Theory of Gravity and the Dark Matter and Dark Energy Problems  

CERN Multimedia

A Yang-Mills type gauge theory of gravity is shown to have a richer structure than the Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. This new structure can give an explanation of the form of the galactic rotation curves, of the amount of intergalactic gravitational lensing, and of the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

Yang, Yi

2012-01-01

154

On the effective theory of type II string compactifications on nilmanifolds and coset spaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis we analyzed a large number of type IIA strict SU(3)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O6/D6-sources, as well as type IIB static SU(2)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O5/O7-sources. Restricting to structures and fluxes that are constant in the basis of left-invariant one-forms, these models are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory. The six-dimensional compact manifolds we studied in this thesis are nilmanifolds based on nilpotent Lie-algebras, and, on the other hand, coset spaces based on semisimple and U(1)-groups, which admit a left-invariant strict SU(3)- or static SU(2)-structure. In particular, from the set of 34 distinct nilmanifolds we identified two nilmanifolds, the torus and the Iwasawa manifold, that allow for an AdS4, N = 1 type IIA strict SU(3)-structure solution and one nilmanifold allowing for an AdS4, N = 1 type IIB static SU(2)-structure solution. From the set of all the possible six-dimensional coset spaces, we identified seven coset spaces suitable for strict SU(3)-structure compactifications, four of which also allow for a static SU(2)-structure compactification. For all these models, we calculated the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory using N = 1 supergravity techniques. In order to write down the most general four-dimensional effective action, we also studied how to classify the different disconnected ''bubbles'' in moduli space. (orig.)

2009-01-01

155

A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of 'lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them - the method of 'Kaehler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading ?'-correction - allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the Kaehler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume. (orig.)

2011-01-01

156

M-theory/type IIA duality and K3 in the Gibbons-Hawking approximation  

CERN Multimedia

We review the geometry of K3 surfaces and then describe this geometry from the point of view of an approximate metric of Gibbons-Hawking form. This metric arises from the M-theory lift of the tree-level supergravity description of type IIA string theory on the T^3/Z_2 orientifold, the D6/O6 orientifold T-dual to type I on T^3. At large base, it provides a good approximation to the exact K3 metric everywhere except in regions that can be made arbitrarily small. The metric is hyperk\\"ahler, and we give explicit expressions for the hyperk\\"ahler forms as well as harmonic representatives of all cohomology classes. Finally we compute the metric on the moduli space of approximate metrics in two ways, first by projecting to transverse traceless deformations (using compensators), and then by computing the naive moduli space metric from dimensional reduction. In either case, we find agreement with the exact coset moduli space of K3 metrics. The T^3/Z_2 orientifold provides a simple example of a warped compactification...

Schulz, Michael B

2012-01-01

157

A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of 'lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them - the method of 'Kaehler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading {alpha}'-correction - allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the Kaehler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume. (orig.)

Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2011-07-15

158

A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory  

CERN Multimedia

We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of `lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them -- the method of `K\\"ahler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading $\\alpha'$-correction -- allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the K\\"ahler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume.

Rummel, Markus

2011-01-01

159

Information Theoretic Quantification of Diagnostic Uncertainty  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnostic test interpretation remains a challenge in clinical practice. Most physicians receive training in the use of Bayes’ rule, which specifies how the sensitivity and specificity of a test for a given disease combine with the pre-test probability to quantify the change in disease probability incurred by a new test result. However, multiple studies demonstrate physicians’ deficiencies in probabilistic reasoning, especially with unexpected test results. Information theory, a branch of probability theory dealing explicitly with the quantification of uncertainty, has been proposed as an alternative framework for diagnostic test interpretation, but is even less familiar to physicians. We have previously addressed one key challenge in the practical application of Bayes theorem: the handling of uncertainty in the critical first step of estimating the pre-test probability of disease. This essay aims to present the essential concepts of information theory to physicians in an accessible manner, and to extend previous work regarding uncertainty in pre-test probability estimation by placing this type of uncertainty within a principled information theoretic framework. We address several obstacles hindering physicians’ application of information theoretic concepts to diagnostic test interpretation. These include issues of terminology (mathematical meanings of certain information theoretic terms differ from clinical or common parlance) as well as the underlying mathematical assumptions. Finally, we illustrate how, in information theoretic terms, one can understand the effect on diagnostic uncertainty of considering ranges instead of simple point estimates of pre-test probability.

Westover, M Brandon; Eiseman, Nathaniel A; Cash, Sydney S; Bianchi, Matt T

2012-01-01

160

Type IIB String Backgrounds on Parallelizable PP-Waves and Conformal Liouville Theory  

CERN Multimedia

The scope of this work concerns the adaptation of the parallelizability pp-wave (Ppp-wave) process to D=10 type IIB string backgrounds in the presence of the non-trivial anti-self dual R-R 5-form $\\QTR{cal}{F}$. This is important in the sense that it gives rise to some unsuspected properties. In fact, exact solutions of type IIB string backgrounds on Ppp-waves are discussed. For the $u$-dependence of the dilaton field $\\Phi $, we establish explicitly a correspondence between type IIB supergravity equations of motion and 2d-conformal Liouville field theory. We show also that the corresponding conserved conformal current $T(\\Phi)$ coincides exactly with the trace of the symmetric matrix $\\mu_{ij}$ appearing in the quadratic front factor $F=\\mu _{ij}x^{i}x^{j}$ of the Ppp-wave. Furthermore, we consider the transverse space dependence of the dilaton $\\Phi $ and show that the supergravity equations are easily solved for the linear realization of the dilaton field. Other remarkable properties related to this case a...

Hssaini, M

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Optimizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence for direct trace element quantification in proteins I: Influence of sample homogeneity and reflector type  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results.

Wellenreuther, G. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Achard, M.E.S.; Faust, A.; Kreplin, X. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Meyer-Klaucke, W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Wolfram@embl-hamburg.de

2008-12-15

162

Type I and new seesaw in left-right symmetric theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We extend the Type I seesaw and suggest a new seesaw mechanism to generate neutrino masses within the left-right symmetric theories where parity is spontaneously broken. We construct a next to minimal left-right symmetric model where neutrino masses are determined irrespective of the B-L breaking scale and call it the new seesaw mechanism. In this scenario B-L scale can be very low. This makes B-L gauge boson and the quasi-Dirac heavy leptons very light. These TeV scale particles could have large impact on lepton flavor and CP violating processes. We also shed light on the phenomenological aspects of the model within the reach of the LHC.

Chakrabortty, Joydeep, E-mail: joydeep@hri.res.i [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)

2010-06-28

163

Type I and new seesaw in left-right symmetric theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We extend the Type I seesaw and suggest a new seesaw mechanism to generate neutrino masses within the left-right symmetric theories where parity is spontaneously broken. We construct a next to minimal left-right symmetric model where neutrino masses are determined irrespective of the B-L breaking scale and call it the new seesaw mechanism. In this scenario B-L scale can be very low. This makes B-L gauge boson and the quasi-Dirac heavy leptons very light. These TeV scale particles could have large impact on lepton flavor and CP violating processes. We also shed light on the phenomenological aspects of the model within the reach of the LHC.

2010-06-28

164

Fluxed instantons and moduli stabilization in type IIB orientifolds and F theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the superpotential induced by Euclidean D3-brane instantons carrying instanton flux, with special emphasis on its significance for the stabilization of Kaehler moduli and Neveu-Schwarz axions in type IIB orientifolds. Quite generally, once a chiral observable sector is included in the compactification, arising on intersecting D7-branes with world-volume flux, resulting charged instanton zero modes prevent a class of instantons from participating in moduli stabilization. We show that instanton flux on Euclidean D3-branes can remove these extra zero modes and help in reinstating full moduli stabilization within a geometric regime. We comment also on the F-theoretic description of this effect of alleviating the general tension between moduli stabilization and chirality. In addition, we propose an alternative solution to this problem based on dressing the instantons with charged matter fields, which is unique to F theory and cannot be realized in the weak coupling limit.

2011-09-15

165

Bianchi type-III bulk viscous string cosmological model in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III space-time is considered in the framework of a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961) in the presence of bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. We have found a determinate solution of the field equations using the plausible physical conditions (i) a barotropic equation state for the pressure and density, (ii) special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (Nuovo Cimento B74:182, 1983), (iii) shear scalar is proportional to scalar expansion and (iv) the trace of the energy tensor of the fluid vanishes. We have also assumed that bulk viscous pressure is proportional to energy density. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are, also, discussed.

Vidya Sagar, T.; Purnachandra Rao, C.; Bhuvana Vijaya, R.; Reddy, D. R. K.

2013-10-01

166

Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to conduct reasoning on descriptions obtained in order to automatically adapt the resources to a learner according to his preferences. We rely on the model MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) for the consideration of learning styles of learners as a criterion for adaptation.

Amel Behaz; Mahieddine Djoudi

2012-01-01

167

Non-perturbative black holes in Type-IIA String Theory vs. the No-Hair conjecture  

CERN Multimedia

We obtain the first black hole solution to Type-IIA String Theory compactified on an arbitrary self-mirror Calabi Yau manifold in the presence of non-perturbative quantum corrections. Remarkably enough, the solution involves multivalued functions, which could lead to a violation of the No-Hair conjecture. We discuss how String Theory forbids such secenario. However the possibility still remains open in the context of four-dimensional ungauged Supergravity.

Bueno, Pablo

2013-01-01

168

Three-dimensional theory of quantum memories based on {Lambda}-type atomic ensembles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We develop a three-dimensional theory for quantum memories based on light storage in ensembles of {Lambda}-type atoms, where two long-lived atomic ground states are employed. We consider light storage in an ensemble of finite spatial extent and we show that within the paraxial approximation the Fresnel number of the atomic ensemble and the optical depth are the only important physical parameters determining the quality of the quantum memory. We analyze the influence of these parameters on the storage of light followed by either forward or backward read-out from the quantum memory. We show that for small Fresnel numbers the forward memory provides higher efficiencies, whereas for large Fresnel numbers the backward memory is advantageous. The optimal light modes to store in the memory are presented together with the corresponding spin waves and outcoming light modes. We show that for high optical depths such {Lambda}-type atomic ensembles allow for highly efficient backward and forward memories even for small Fresnel numbers F(greater-or-similar sign)0.1.

Zeuthen, Emil; Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Soerensen, Anders S. [QUANTOP, Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

2011-10-15

169

Brane/antibrane Configurations in Type IIA and M-Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the relation between large N duality applied to systems of D5's and /lineD5's wrapping vanishing cycles of local CY in type IIB and M-theory lifts of the NS5/D4//lineD4 systems in type IIA to which they are related by T-duality. Through a simple example based on a local CY constructed using an A2 singularity, we review this well-known correspondence in the supersymmetric setting and describe the manner in which it generalizes when antibranes are added. Agreement between the IIB and IIA pictures, which supports the assertion that {N}=2 supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in these systems at string tree level, is demonstrated when gs ? 1. Novel nonholomorphic features can arise away from this regime and their physical origin is discussed. This note is based on talks given at KITP, Harvard University, TIFR, the University of Tokyo at Hongo, the 2007 Les Houches Summer School, and the 2007 Simons Workshop, is based on work done in collaboration with K. Papadodimas and M. Shigemori, and contains some previously unpublished results.

Marsano, Joseph

170

Analytic derivatives for the XYG3 type of doubly hybrid density functionals: Theory, implementation, and assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a theoretical development of the equations required to perform an analytic geometry optimization of a molecular system using the XYG3 type of doubly hybrid (xDH) functionals. In contrast to the well-established B2PLYP type of DH functionals, the energy expressions in the xDH functionals are constructed by using density and orbital information from another standard Kohn-Sham (KS) functional (e.g., B3LYP) for doing the self-consistent field calculations. Thus, the xDH functionals are nonvariational in both the hybrid density functional part and the second-order perturbation part, each of which requires formally to solve a coupled-perturbed KS equation. An implementation is reported here which combines the two parts by defining a total Lagrangian such that only a single set of the Z-vector equations need to be solved. The computational cost with our implementation is of the same order as those for the conventional Møller-Plesset theory to the second order (MP2) and B2PLYP. Systematic test calculations are provided for covalently bonded molecules as well as compounds involving the intramolecular nonbonded interactions for the main group elements. Satisfactory performance of the xDH functionals demonstrates that the extra computer time on top of the conventional KS procedure is well-invested, in particular, when the standard KS functionals and MP2 as well, are problematic.

Su NQ; Zhang IY; Xu X

2013-07-01

171

Analytic derivatives for the XYG3 type of doubly hybrid density functionals: Theory, implementation, and assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a theoretical development of the equations required to perform an analytic geometry optimization of a molecular system using the XYG3 type of doubly hybrid (xDH) functionals. In contrast to the well-established B2PLYP type of DH functionals, the energy expressions in the xDH functionals are constructed by using density and orbital information from another standard Kohn-Sham (KS) functional (e.g., B3LYP) for doing the self-consistent field calculations. Thus, the xDH functionals are nonvariational in both the hybrid density functional part and the second-order perturbation part, each of which requires formally to solve a coupled-perturbed KS equation. An implementation is reported here which combines the two parts by defining a total Lagrangian such that only a single set of the Z-vector equations need to be solved. The computational cost with our implementation is of the same order as those for the conventional Møller-Plesset theory to the second order (MP2) and B2PLYP. Systematic test calculations are provided for covalently bonded molecules as well as compounds involving the intramolecular nonbonded interactions for the main group elements. Satisfactory performance of the xDH functionals demonstrates that the extra computer time on top of the conventional KS procedure is well-invested, in particular, when the standard KS functionals and MP2 as well, are problematic. PMID:23681975

Su, Neil Qiang; Zhang, Igor Ying; Xu, Xin

2013-05-16

172

Lack of correlation between three commercial platforms for the evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load at the clinically critical lower limit of quantification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Concordance in plasma HIV-1 viral load quantification at the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) is crucial for current commercial assays. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of three commercial viral load assays and carry out a correlation study with the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test, the Roche Cobas Amplicor HIV-1 MONITOR test, and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay. STUDY DESIGN: Assay agreement was analyzed using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Concordance near the clinically critical LLOQ was measured by Cohen's kappa statistics. Intra-assay precision was assessed, and assay reproducibility was measured at 50copies/mL across all three platforms. RESULTS: While good overall correlation was observed between the assays (r?0.93), quantitative differences exceeded 0.5log(10)copies/mL among paired results in 3.7 to 8.3% of specimens. The degree of concordance between the assays near the LLOQ was unsatisfactory, with Cohen's kappa ranging from 0.14 to 0.38. The intra-assay precision of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay ranged from 0.04 to 0.15 (SD log(10)) and 1.34% to 8.37% (CV). Reproducibility at 50copies/mL for RealTime HIV-1, TaqMan, and Amplicor was 10.05, 11.04 and 5.07 (% CV), respectively. CONCLUSION: Although good correlation was observed between the assays across their linear range, their concordance at the clinically critical LLOQ was poor. The accurate quantification of low-level viremia remains elusive, and the lack of correlation of these assays presents a challenge to the interpretation of such results and in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients.

Yan CS; Hanafi I; Kelleher AD; Carr AD; Amin J; McNally LP; Cunningham PH

2010-12-01

173

The D^6 R^4 term in type IIB string theory on T^2 and U-duality  

CERN Document Server

We propose a manifestly U-duality invariant modular form for the D^6 R^4 interaction in the effective action of type IIB string theory compactified on T^2. It receives perturbative contributions upto genus three, as well as non-perturbative contributions from D-instantons and (p,q) string instantons wrapping T^2. Our construction is based on constraints coming from string perturbation theory, U-duality, the decompactification limit to ten dimensions, and the equality of the perturbative part of the amplitude in type IIA and type IIB string theories. Using duality, parts of the perturbative amplitude are also shown to match exactly the results obtained from eleven dimensional supergravity compactified on T^3 at one loop. We also obtain parts of the genus one and genus k amplitudes for the D^{2k} R^4 interaction for arbitrary k > 3. We enhance a part of this amplitude to a U-duality invariant modular form.

Basu, Anirban

2007-01-01

174

Scale Invariance of Dirac Condition $g_{e} g_{m} = 1$ in Type 0 String Approach to Gauge Theory  

CERN Document Server

In this letter we shall discuss a description of non-supersymmetric four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory based on Type 0 strings recently proposed by Klebanov and Tseytlin. The three brane near-horizon geometry allows one to study the UV behaviour of the gauge theory. Following Minahan and Klebanov and Tseytlin we shall discuss how the gravity solution reproduces logarithmic renormalization of coupling constant $g_e$ extracted from quark-antiquark potential and then show that effective coupling constant $g_m$ describing monopole-antimonopole interactions is of zero-charge type and Dirac condition $g_e g_m = 1$ is scale invariant in logarithmic approximation.

Kogan, I I; Kogan, Ian I.; Luzon, Gloria

1999-01-01

175

Chern class identities from tadpole matching in type IIB and F-theory  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of Sen's weak coupling limit of F-theory as a type IIB orientifold, the compatibility of the tadpole conditions leads to a non-trivial identity relating the Euler characteristics of an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold and of certain related surfaces. We present the physical argument leading to the identity, and a mathematical derivation of a Chern class identity which confirms it, after taking into account singularities of the relevant loci. This identity of Chern classes holds in arbitrary dimension, and for varieties that are not necessarily Calabi-Yau. Singularities are essential in both the physics and the mathematics arguments: the tadpole relation may be interpreted as an identity involving stringy invariants of a singular hypersurface, and corrections for the presence of pinch-points. The mathematical discussion is streamlined by the use of Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson classes of singular varieties. We also show how the main identity may be obtained by applying `Verdier specialization' to suitable constructible functions.

Aluffi, Paolo; Esole, Mboyo

2009-03-01

176

Supersymmetric intersecting D6-branes and fluxes in massive Type IIA string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We study N=1 supersymmetric four-dimensional solutions of massive Type IIA supergravity with intersecting D6-branes in the presence NS-NS three-form fluxes. We derive N=1 supersymmetry conditions for the D6-brane and flux configurations in an internal manifold X6 and derive the intrinsic torsion (or SU(3)-structure) related to the fluxes. In the absence of fluxes, N=1 supersymmetry implies that D6-branes wrap supersymmetric three-cycles of X6 that intersect at angles of SU(3) rotations and the geometry is deformed by SU(3)-structures. The presence of fluxes breaks the SU(3) structures to SU(2) and the D6-branes intersect at angles of SU(2) rotations; non-zero mass parameter corresponds to D8-branes which are orthogonal to the common cycle of all D6-branes. The anomaly inflow indicates that the gauge theory on intersecting (massive) D6-branes is not chiral

2004-01-05

177

Chern class identities from tadpole matching in type IIB and F-theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In light of Sen's weak coupling limit of F-theory as a type IIB orientifold, the compatibility of the tadpole conditions leads to a non-trivial identity relating the Euler characteristics of an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold and of certain related surfaces. We present the physical argument leading to the identity, and a mathematical derivation of a Chern class identity which confirms it, after taking into account singularities of the relevant loci. This identity of Chern classes holds in arbitrary dimension, and for varieties that are not necessarily Calabi-Yau. Singularities are essential in both the physics and the mathematics arguments: the tadpole relation may be interpreted as an identity involving stringy invariants of a singular hypersurface, and corrections for the presence of pinch-points. The mathematical discussion is streamlined by the use of Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson classes of singular varieties. We also show how the main identity may be obtained by applying 'Verdier specialization' to suitable constructible functions.

2009-01-01

178

Chern class identities from tadpole matching in type IIB and F-theory  

CERN Document Server

In light of Sen's weak coupling limit of F-theory as a type IIB orientifold, the compatibility of the tadpole conditions leads to a non-trivial identity relating the Euler characteristics of an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold and of certain related surfaces. We present the physical argument leading to the identity, and a mathematical derivation of a Chern class identity which confirms it, after taking into account singularities of the relevant loci. This identity of Chern classes holds in arbitrary dimension, and for varieties that are not necessarily Calabi-Yau. Singularities are essential in both the physics and the mathematics arguments: the tadpole relation may be interpreted as an identity involving stringy invariants of a singular hypersurface, and corrections for the presence of pinch-points. The mathematical discussion is streamlined by the use of Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson classes of singular varieties. We also show how the main identity may be obtained by applying `Verdier specialization' to...

Aluffi, Paolo

2009-01-01

179

The D^4 R^4 term in type IIB string theory on T^2 and U-duality  

CERN Document Server

We propose a manifestly U-duality invariant modular form for the D^4 R^4 interaction in type IIB string theory compactified on T^2. It receives perturbative contributions upto two loops, and non-perturbative contributions from D-instantons and (p,q) string instantons wrapping T^2. We provide evidence for this modular form by showing that the coefficients at tree level and at one loop precisely match those obtained using string perturbation theory. Using duality, parts of the perturbative amplitude are also shown to match exactly the results obtained from eleven dimensional supergravity compactified on T^3 at one loop. Decompactifying the theory to nine dimensions, we obtain a U-duality invariant modular form, whose coefficients at tree level and at one loop agree with string perturbation theory.

Basu, Anirban

2007-01-01

180

The Kolmogorov equation in the stochastic fragmentation theory and branching processes with infinite collection of particle types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The stochastic model for the description of the so-called fragmentation process in frameworks of Kolmogorov approach is proposed. This model is represented as the branching process with continuum set ( 0,? ) of particle types. Each type r?( 0,? ) corresponds to the set of fragments having the size r . It is proved that the branching condition of this process represents the basic equation of the Kolmogorov theory.

R. Ye. Brodskii; Yu. P. Virchenko

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Toward an integrative account of social cognition: marrying theory of mind and interactionism to study the interplay of Type 1 and Type 2 processes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional theory of mind (ToM) accounts for social cognition have been at the basis of most studies in the social cognitive neurosciences. However, in recent years, the need to go beyond traditional ToM accounts for understanding real life social interactions has become all the more pressing. At the same time it remains unclear whether alternative accounts, such as interactionism, can yield a sufficient description and explanation of social interactions. We argue that instead of considering ToM and interactionism as mutually exclusive opponents, they should be integrated into a more comprehensive account of social cognition. We draw on dual process models of social cognition that contrast two different types of social cognitive processing. The first type (labeled Type 1) refers to processes that are fast, efficient, stimulus-driven, and relatively inflexible. The second type (labeled Type 2) refers to processes that are relatively slow, cognitively laborious, flexible, and may involve conscious control. We argue that while interactionism captures aspects of social cognition mostly related to Type 1 processes, ToM is more focused on those based on Type 2 processes. We suggest that real life social interactions are rarely based on either Type 1 or Type 2 processes alone. On the contrary, we propose that in most cases both types of processes are simultaneously involved and that social behavior may be sustained by the interplay between these two types of processes. Finally, we discuss how the new integrative framework can guide experimental research on social interaction.

Bohl V; van den Bos W

2012-01-01

182

A theory of the thermal depinning transition in type-2 superconductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is pointed out theoretically that the electric field, E, vs. current density, J, characteristic of the vortex glass state is different from that predicted by M.P.A. Fisher; that is, the electric resistivity, {rho}=E/J has a finite value even at J{yields}0, while the Fisher theory predicts {rho}{yields}0 with J{yields}0. It is also pointed out that the vortex glass-liquid transition is merely a kind of the bifurcation transition in the mixed state of type-2 superconductors containing pinning centers, which may be called the thermal depinning transition between the pinning state and the depinning state of fluxoids resulting from the thermal agitation on fluxoids. Furthermore, it is shown theoretically that only the flux flow resistivity obeys the scaling law near the thermal depinning transition temperature, T{sub dp}, while the flux creep resistivity approaches a finite value as J is decreased to zero, even in the pinning state below T{sub dp}. When {rho} is measured down to a very small level of E, therefore, the noticeable deviation from the scaling law of {rho} against J that was predicted by Fisher is expected to appear due to the above-mentioned behavior of the flux creep resistivity. The above theoretical conclusion that is contrary to the theoretical prediction by Fisher, however, seems to be supported by the recently observed data over a very wide range of the electric field, E provided by Kodama et al., because the present theoretical expression for the E vs. J, characteristics agrees quantitatively with these observed data.

Yamafuji, K.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Kiss, T

2003-10-15

183

Theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the theoretical physics section of the report works concerning the particle structure, the Quantum Chromodynamics and the physics of the top quark are mentioned. As a way of investigation of the proton structure a study of the exclusive photoproduction of a ? meson on protons was carried out. In the field of photon-photon collisions a study concerning the event generators is mentioned. The physics of excited leptons is approached by a study of the neutrino-production of neutrinos or excited muons via processes of the type ? + nucleus ? ?* + X at very high energies (of the order of 10 TeV). In the same field works were done concerning the excited leptons production in heavy ion collisions at very high energy, the contribution of a heavy Majorana neutrino to the 0?2? decay and the muon pair production at very high energy in cosmic rays. Also, a paper using the diquark model in the study of neutron stars is reminded. In the field of the quark physics efforts were undertaken to solve a numerical disagreement between two different approaches of the semi-weak production of the top quark in hadronic colliders. Also reported is the the supersymmetric extension of the Eurojet event generator seemingly useful as a supersymmetric entrance, on one hand and permitting to tackle the problem of inclusion of R-parity violation, on the other hand

1997-01-01

184

Bianchi type-III bulk viscous cosmic string model in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III space-time is considered in the presence of bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings in the frame work of a scalar-tensor theory of gravity proposed by Saez and Ballester (in Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). We have obtained a determinate solution of the field equations of this theory, using (i) a barotropic equation of state for the pressure and density and (ii) the bulk viscous pressure is proportional to the energy density. Some physical properties of the model are also discussed.

Vidyasagar, T.; Purnachandra Rao, C.; Bhuvana Vijaya, R.; Reddy, D. R. K.

2013-09-01

185

Algebraic geometry approach in gravity theory and new relations between the parameters in type I low-energy string theory action in theories with extra dimensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the base of the distinction between covariant and contravariant metric tensor components, a new (multivariable) cubic algebraic equation for reparametrization invariance of the gravitational Lagrangian has been derived and parametrized with complicated non-elliptic functions, depending on the (elliptic) Weierstrass function and its derivative. This is different from standard algebraic geometry, where only two-dimensional cubic equations are parametrized with elliptic functions and not multivariable ones. Physical applications of the approach have been considered in reference to theories with extra dimensions. The s.c. ''length function'' l(x) has been introduced and found as a solution of quasilinear differential equations in partial derivatives for two different cases of ''compactification + rescaling'' and ''rescaling + compactification''. New physically important relations (inequalities) between the parameters in the action are established, which cannot be derived in the case l = 1 of the standard gravitational theory, but should be fulfilled also for that case. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Dimitrov, B.G. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

2010-04-15

186

Two types of conservation laws. Connection of physical fields with material systems. Peculiarities of field theories  

CERN Multimedia

Historically it happen so that in branches of physics connected with field theory and of physics of material systems (continuous media) the concept of "conservation laws" has a different meaning. In field theory "conservation laws" are those that claim the existence of conservative physical quantities or objects. These are conservation laws for physical fields. In contrast to that in physics (and mechanics) of material systems the concept of "conservation laws" relates to conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and mass that establish the balance between the change of physical quantities and external action. In the paper presented it is proved that there exist a connection between of conservation laws for physical fields and those for material systems. This points to the fact that physical fields are connected with material systems. Such results has an unique significance for field theories. This enables one to substantiate many basic principles of field theories, such as, for example...

Petrova, L I

2008-01-01

187

Some IHX type relations on trivalent graphs and symplectic representation theory  

CERN Multimedia

We consider several algebras that arise in the study of the mapping class group (by means of topology and Hodge theory) and describe their symplectic-invariant parts in terms of algebras on trivalent graphs.

Garoufalidis, S; Garoufalidis, Stavros; Nakamura, Hiroaki

1997-01-01

188

Landauer-type transport theory for interacting quantum wires: application to carbon nanotube y junctions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose a Landauerlike theory for nonlinear transport in networks of one-dimensional interacting quantum wires (Luttinger liquids). A concrete example of current experimental focus is given by carbon nanotube Y junctions. Our theory has three basic ingredients that allow one to explicitly solve this transport problem: (i) radiative boundary conditions to describe the coupling to external leads, (ii) the Kirchhoff node rule describing charge conservation, and (iii) density matching conditions at every node.

Chen S; Trauzettel B; Egger R

2002-11-01

189

Spectral analysis of polynomial potentials and its relation with ABJ/M-type theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We obtain a general class of polynomial potentials for which the Schroedinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We provide a proof of the discreteness of the spectrum of the associated Schroedinger operators. This is the first step in order to analyze BLG and ABJM supersymmetric theories from a non-perturbative point of view.

Garcia del Moral, M.P., E-mail: garciamormaria@uniovi.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Martin, I., E-mail: isbeliam@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Navarro, L., E-mail: lnavarro@ma.usb.v [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perez, A.J., E-mail: ajperez@ma.usb.v [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Restuccia, A., E-mail: arestu@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-11-01

190

Landauer-type transport theory for interacting quantum wires Application to carbon nanotube Y junctions  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a Landauer-like theory for nonlinear transport in networks of one-dimensional interacting quantum wires (Luttinger liquids). A concrete example of current experimental focus is given by carbon nanotube Y junctions. Our theory has three basic ingredients that allow to explicitly solve this transport problem: (i) radiative boundary conditions to describe the coupling to external leads, (ii) the Kirchhoff node rule describing charge conservation, and (iii) density matching conditions at every node.

Chen, S; Egger, R

2002-01-01

191

Understanding physical activity intentions among French Canadians with type 2 diabetes: an extension of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity is considered a cornerstone for managing type 2 diabetes. However, in Canada, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet national physical activity recommendations. When designing a theory-based intervention, one should first determine the key determinants of physical activity for this population. Unfortunately, there is a lack of information on this aspect among adults with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to fill this gap using an extended version of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as reference. Methods A total of 501 individuals with type 2 diabetes residing in the Province of Quebec (Canada) completed the study. Questionnaires were sent and returned by mail. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TPB variables explained 60% of the variance in intention. The addition of other psychosocial variables in the model added 7% of the explained variance. The final model included perceived behavioral control (? = .38, p Conclusion The findings suggest that interventions aimed at individuals with type 2 diabetes should ensure that people have the necessary resources to overcome potential obstacles to behavioral performance. Interventions should also favor the development of feelings of personal responsibility to exercise and promote the advantages of exercising for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Boudreau François; Godin Gaston

2009-01-01

192

Virial theorem for Ginzburg-Landau theories with potential applications to numerical studies of type-II superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory, we derive and discuss the relation RHxB = 4?(/sub k//sub i//sub n/+2F/sub f//sub i//sub e//sub l//sub d/)-(12F/sub i//sub n//sub h//sub o//sub m/), which should be useful in numerical calculations of magnetic properties of type-II superconductors.

1989-01-01

193

Bianchi type-I model with cosmological constant in a generalized scalar-tensor theory of gravitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bianchi type-I cosmological models are discussed in the Bergmann-Wagoner-Nordtvedt scalar-tensor theory where both the so-called cosmological constant ..lambda.. and the coupling parameter ..omega.. are taken to be functions of the scalar field phi. Exact solutions are obtained in Dicke's revised units assuming a very simple relationship between ..lambda.. and phi. The properties of the models are discussed in special cases.

Banerjee, A.; Duttachoudhury, S.B.; Banerjee, N.

1985-12-15

194

Stringy Unification of Type IIA and IIB Supergravities under N=2 D=10 Supersymmetric Double Field Theory  

CERN Multimedia

To the full order in fermions, we construct D=10 type II supersymmetric double field theory. We spell the precise N=2 supersymmetry transformation rules as for 32 supercharges. In terms of stringy differential geometry we have previously developed beyond Riemann, our action treats R-R sector democratically and unifies type IIA and IIB supergravities in a manifestly covariant fashion, with respect to O(10,10) T-duality and a pair of local Lorentz groups, Spin(1,9) \\times Spin(9,1), in addition to the usual general covariance of the supergravities.

Jeon, Imtak; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Suh, Yoonji

2013-01-01

195

Weyl-Titchmarsh Theory and Borg-Marchenko-type Uniqueness Results for CMV Operators with Matrix-Valued Verblunsky Coefficients  

CERN Multimedia

We prove local and global versions of Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems for half-lattice and full-lattice CMV operators (CMV for Cantero, Moral, and Velazquez) with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients. While our half-lattice results are formulated in terms of matrix-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh functions, our full-lattice results involve the diagonal and main off-diagonal Green's matrices. We also develop the basics of Weyl-Titchmarsh theory for CMV operators with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients as this is of independent interest and an essential ingredient in proving the corresponding Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems.

Clark, Stephen; Zinchenko, Maxim

2010-01-01

196

Evaluation of different RNA extraction methods and storage conditions of dried plasma or blood spots for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA quantification and PCR amplification for drug resistance testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development and validation of dried sample spots as a method of specimen collection are urgently needed in developing countries for monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Our aim was to test some crucial steps in the use of dried spots, i.e., viral recovery and storage over time. Moreover, we investigated whether dried plasma and blood spots (DPS and DBS, respectively) give comparable viral load (VL) results. Four manual RNA extraction methods from commercial HIV type 1 (HIV-1) VL assays--a QIAamp minikit (Qiagen), the Abbott Molecular sample preparation system, the Nuclisens assay (bioMarieux), and High Pure viral nucleic acid kit (Roche Applied Science)--were compared for VL quantification and PCR amplification for genotypic drug resistance testing on dried spots from spiked plasma and residual samples from HIV-1 patients (n = 47; median VL, 4.13 log(10) copies/ml). RNA recovery from DPS was efficient using Nuclisens extraction (median difference, 0.03 log(10) copies/ml) and slightly underestimated using the Abbott Molecular sample preparation system (median difference, 0.35 log(10) copies/ml). PCR amplification results were in concordance. Measurements from DBS overestimated VL for plasma, with VL results showing <3.7 log(10) copies/ml. VL was stable for up to 3 months in spiked DPS stored at 20 degrees C but for only 1 month at 37 degrees C. A faster decline was observed in PCR efficiency: DPS could be stored for 1 week at 37 degrees C and for 1 month at 20 degrees C. In conclusion, the RNA extraction method is an important factor in obtaining reliable RNA quantification and PCR amplification of HIV-1 on DPS/DBS. DBS could be used as an alternative for DPS depending on HIV RNA cutoffs for virological failure. VL measurements remain stable over a longer period than do PCR amplification results.

Monleau M; Montavon C; Laurent C; Segondy M; Montes B; Delaporte E; Boillot F; Peeters M

2009-04-01

197

On a generalization of renormalization group equations to quantum field theories of an arbitraty type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A generalization of renormalization group equations to the theories with arbitrary Lagrangians including nonrenormalizable ones is presented. In the framework of dimensional regularization these equations enable us to determine the coefficient functions of higher poles starting from a simple pole or generalized ?-functions.

1987-01-01

198

Comparison of Two High-Throughput Assays for Quantification of Adenovirus Type 5 Neutralizing Antibodies in a Population of Donors in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The presence of various levels of Adenovirus serotype 5 neutralizing antibodies (Ad5NAb) is thought to contribute to the inconsistent clinical results obtained from vaccination and gene therapy studies. Currently, two platforms based on high-throughput technology are available for Ad5NAb quantification, chemiluminescence- and fluorescence-based assays. The aim of this study was to compare the results of two assays in the seroepidemiology of Ad5NAb in a local population of donors. Methodology/Principal Findings The fluorescence-based neutralizing antibody detection test (FRNT) using recombinant Ad5-EGFP virus and the chemiluminescence-based neutralizing antibody test (CLNT) using Ad5-Fluc were developed and standardized for detecting the presence of Ad5NAb in serum samples from the population of donors in Beijing and Anhui provinces, China. First, the overall percentage of people positive for Ad5NAb performed by CLNT was higher than that obtained by FRNT (85.4 vs 69.9%, p<0.001). There was an 84.5% concordance between the two assays for the 206 samples tested (144 positive in both assays and 30 negative in both assays). All 32 discordant sera were CLNT-positive/FRNT-negative and were confirmed positive by western blot. Secondly, for all 144 sera positive by both assays, the two assays showed high correlation (r?=?0.94, p<0.001) and close agreement (mean difference: 0.395 log10, 95% CI: ?0.054 log10 to 0.845 log10). Finally, it was found by both assays that there was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender (p?=?0.503 vs 0.818, for two assays); however, age range (p?=?0.049 vs 0.010) and geographic origin (p?=?0.007 vs 0.011) were correlated with Ad5NAb prevalence in northern regions of China. Conclusion The CLNT assay was relatively more simple and had higher sensitivity than the FRNT assay for determining Ad5NAb titers. It is strongly suggested that the CLNT assay be used for future epidemiological studies of Ad5NAb in other localities.

Liu, Qiang; Nie, Jianhui; Huang, Weijin; Meng, Shufang; Yuan, Baozhu; Gao, Dongying; Xu, Xuemei; Wang, Youchun

2012-01-01

199

Search for different links with the same Jones' type polynomials: Ideas from graph theory and statistical mechanics  

CERN Multimedia

We describe in this talk three methods of constructing different links with the same Jones type invariant. All three can be thought as generalizations of mutation. The first combines the satellite construction with mutation. The second uses the notion of rotant, taken from the graph theory, the third, invented by Jones, transplants into knot theory the idea of the Yang-Baxter equation with the spectral parameter (idea employed by Baxter in the theory of solvable models in statistical mechanics). We extend the Jones result and relate it to Traczyk's work on rotors of links. We also show further applications of the Jones idea, e.g. to 3-string links in the solid torus. We stress the fact that ideas coming from various areas of mathematics (and theoretical physics) has been fruitfully used in knot theory, and vice versa. (This is the detailed version of the talk given at the Banach Center Colloquium, Warsaw, Poland, March 24, 1994: ``W poszukiwaniu nietrywialnego wezla z trywialnym wielomianem Jonesa: grafy i me...

Przytycki, J H

1995-01-01

200

Fluid structure interaction between a two-dimensional mat-type VLFS and solitary waves by the Green Naghdi theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-dimensional, nonlinear hydroelasticity of a mat-type very large floating structure (VLFS) is studied within the scope of linear beam theory for the structure and the nonlinear, Level I Green Naghdi (GN) theory for the fluid. The beam equation and the GN equations are coupled through the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions to obtain a new set of modified GN equations. These equations represent long-wave motion beneath an elastic plate. A set of jump conditions that are necessary for the continuity (or the matching) of the solutions in the open water region and that under the structure is derived through the use of the postulated conservation laws of mass, momentum, and mechanical energy. The resulting governing equations, subjected to the boundary and jump conditions, are solved by the finite-difference method in the time domain. The present model is applicable, for example, to the study of the hydroelastic response of a mat-type VLFS under the action of a solitary wave, or a frontal tsunami wave. Good agreement is observed between the model results and other published theoretical and numerical predictions, as well as experimental data. The results show that consideration of nonlinearity is important for accurate predictions of the bending moment of the floating elastic plate. It is found that the rigidity of the structure greatly affects the bending moment and displacement of the structure in this nonlinear theory.

Xia, D.; Ertekin, R. C.; Kim, J. W.

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

Remarks on the spectral theory for the multiparticle-type Schrodinger operator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mourre's method is used to prove the limiting absorption principle for the multiparticle Schrodinger operator under the same assumptions on the pair potentials as in the two-particle problem. It is shown that at high energies this principle is valid under wider conditions than on the whole spectral axis. The scattering theory for a Schrodinger operator whose potential decays at infinity in an essentially anisotropic manner is constructed in analogy with the three-particle problem.

Yafaev, D.R.

1985-12-20

202

Remarks on the spectral theory for the multiparticle-type Schrodinger operator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mourre's method is used to prove the limiting absorption principle for the multiparticle Schrodinger operator under the same assumptions on the pair potentials as in the two-particle problem. It is shown that at high energies this principle is valid under wider conditions than on the whole spectral axis. The scattering theory for a Schrodinger operator whose potential decays at infinity in an essentially anisotropic manner is constructed in analogy with the three-particle problem

1985-12-20

203

On a $p$-Laplacian type of evolution system and applications to the Bean model in the type-II superconductivity theory  

CERN Multimedia

We study the Cauchy problem for an $p$-Laplacian type of evolution system ${\\mathbf H}_{t}+\\g [ | \\g {\\mathbf H}|^{p-2} \\g {\\mathbf H}|]={\\mathbf F}$. This system governs the evolution of a magnetic field ${\\bf H}$, where the current displacement is neglected and the electrical resistivity is assumed to be some power of the current density. The existence, uniqueness and regularity of solutions to the system are established. Furthermore, it is shown that the limit solution as the power $p\\rightarrow \\infty$ solves the problem of Bean's model in the type-II superconductivity theory. The result provides us information about how the superconductor material under the external force to become the normal conductor and vice visa. It also provides an effective method to find numerical solutions to Bean's model.

Yin, H M

1998-01-01

204

A calculation methodology applied for fuel management in PWR type reactors using first order perturbation theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made to obtain a strategy coherent with the available instruments and that could be implemented with future developments. A calculation methodology was developed for fuel reload in PWR reactors, which evolves cell calculation with the HAMMER-TECHNION code and neutronics calculation with the CITATION code.The management strategy adopted consists of fuel element position changing at the beginning of each reactor cycle in order to decrease the radial peak factor. The bi-dimensional, two group First Order perturbation theory was used for the mathematical modeling. (L.C.J.A.)

1992-01-01

205

How Many Types of Thermodynamical Equilibrium are There: Relation to Information Theory and Holism  

CERN Multimedia

Major revision of the thermodynamics is made in order to provide rigorous fundament for functional diversity of holistic type. It turns out that the new approach ensures reproducibility of the information as well.

Koleva, M K

2006-01-01

206

A Gaussian-type quadrature formula and its applications to boundary and interface problems in neutron transport theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Gaussian-type quadrature formula is derived for Lebesgue-Stieltjes integrals pertaining to the neutron transport theory (one-velocity, isotropic scattering, plane geometry). The quadrature formula originates from an orthogonality property satisfied by the well-known gsub(n)(c, ?) functions which appear in the solution by Legendre expansion of the transport equation. The quadrature formula thus obtained reduces to the classical Gaussian one in the case of a purely capturing medium. An application to the Milne problem is given. Examples of numerical quadratures are carried out in the appendix

1978-07-21

207

Calculation of Fayet-Iliopoulos D-term in type I string theory revisited: T^6/Z^3 orbifold case  

CERN Multimedia

The string one-loop computation of Fayet-Iliopoulos D-term in type I string theory in the case of T^6/Z^3 orbifold compactification associated with annulus (planar) and Mobius strip string worldsheet diagrams is reexamined. The mass extracted from the sum of these amplitudes through a limiting procedure is found to be non-vanishing, which is contrary to the earlier computation. The sum can be made finite by a rescaling of the modular parameter in the closed string channel.

Itoyama, H

2013-01-01

208

LRS Bianchi type-II universe with cosmic strings and bulk viscosity in a modified theory of gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

A locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-II space-time is considered in the frame work of a modified theory of gravitation proposed by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011) when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. A barotropic equation of state is assumed to get a determinate solution of the field equations. Also, the bulk viscous pressure is assumed to be proportional to the energy density. The physical behavior of the model is also discussed.

Reddy, D. R. K.; Naidu, R. L.; Dasu Naidu, K.; Ram Prasad, T.

2013-07-01

209

Multiharmonic cubic-nonlinear theory of plasma-beam superheterodyne free-electron lasers of the dopplertron type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A multiharmonic cubic-nonlinear theory of a plasma-beam superheterodyne free-electron laser of the dopplertron type is constructed. A retarded electromagnetic wave propagating in the magnetized plasma-beam system toward the electron beam is used for pumping. The multiharmonic interaction of waves which plays an important role is taken into account. Saturation levels and mechanisms are analyzed. The promising application of such systems for generating high-power electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range is demonstrated.

2010-01-01

210

A New Strategy for Early Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Standard-Free, Label-Free LC-MS/MS Quantification of Glycated Peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, one of the top 3 chronic incurable diseases, is becoming increasingly important. Here, we investigated the applicability of an (18)O-labeling technique for the development of a standard-free, label-free LC-MS/MS method for the early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rather than attempting to identify quantitative differences in proteins as biomarkers, glycation of the highest abundance protein in human plasma, human serum albumin (HSA), was monitored through quantitative analysis of HSA characteristic peptides using the (18)O-labeling technique. Eight glucose-sensitive peptides and 1 glucose-insensitive peptide were discovered. The glucose-insensitive peptide served as the internal standard, and a standard-free, label-free LC-MS/MS method was developed. This method was then used to select putative biomarkers for type 2 diabetes in a clinical trial with 389 human plasma samples. As a result, 3 out of the 8 glucose-sensitive peptides (FKDLGEENFK, LDELRDEGK, and KVPQVSTPTLVEVSR) were selected and could be used as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (The Clinial Trial Registration Number: NCT01902316).

Zhang M; Xu W; Deng Y

2013-07-01

211

Landau theory of 180 degrees domain walls in BaTiO3 type ferroelectric particles: microcomposite materials  

CERN Multimedia

The Landau theory of 180 degrees domain walls in BaTiO3 type ferroelectric particles is presented. Results of exact description of domain walls in bulk enabled us to formulate variational approach to theory of domain walls in corresponding small particles. The depolarization field effects and the space-charge layers are taken into account in the samples of the cube form. It was found that at low temperatures well known hyperbolic tangent wall profile is a good approximation for description of domain walls. Near the transition temperature it is more appropriate to speak about two walls separating ferroelectric-paraelectric-ferroelectric domains correspondingly as a result of splitting of a single ferroelectric wall in small BaTiO3 particles. Domain wall energy density, average interwall distance and change of the dielectric response of thick walls in small ferroelectric particles in microcomposites is found. Our results describe observed dependencies better than those theories which exist up to date. In temper...

Hudak, O

2005-01-01

212

Quantum mechanical analysis on faujasite-type molecular sieves by using fermi dirac statistics and quantum theory of dielectricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied Faujasite type molecular sieves by using Fermi Dirac statistics and the quantum theory of dielectricity. We developed an empirical relationship for quantum capacitance which follows an inverse Gaussian profile in the frequency range of 66 Hz - 3 MHz. We calculated quantum capacitance, sample crystal momentum, charge quantization and quantized energy of Faujasite type molecular sieves in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz - 10/sup 4/ MHz. Our calculations for diameter of sodalite and super-cages of Faujasite type molecular sieves are in agreement with experimental results reported in this manuscript. We also calculated quantum polarizability, quantized molecular field, orientational polarizability and deformation polarizability by using experimental results of Ligia Frunza etal. The phonons are over damped in the frequency range 0.1 Hz - 10 kHz and become a source for producing cages in the Faujasite type molecular sieves. Ion exchange recovery processes occur due to over damped phonon excitations in Faujasite type molecular sieves and with increasing temperatures. (author)

2012-01-01

213

Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling approach revealed first proteome profiles of pulmonary alveolar macrophages infected with porcine circovirus type 2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been identified as the essential causal agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which has spread worldwide. Monocyte/macrophage lineage cells are the major target cells of PCV2. To discover cellular protein responses of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) to PCV2 infection, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling was employed to quantitatively identify the proteins that were differentially expressed in PAMs from the PCV2-infected group compared to the uninfected control group. A total of 145 cellular proteins in PAMs that were significantly altered at different time periods post-infection were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were related to the biological processes of binding, cell structure, signal transduction, cell adhesion, etc., and their interactions. The high number of differentially expressed proteins identified should be very useful to elucidate the mechanism of replication and pathogenesis of PCV2 in the future.

Liu J; Bai J; Lu Q; Zhang L; Jiang Z; Michal JJ; He Q; Jiang P

2013-02-01

214

Approximate solutions for general Riemann-Cartan-type R+R/sup 2/ theories of gravitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the case of a weak, spherically symmetric and static field, approximate solutions for the nine-parameter R+R/sup 2/ gravitational theories with torsion are obtained. Corresponding to some solutions with torsion, metrics (g/sub munu/) differ from the Schwarzschild metric to first order in M. One can define a distance-dependent gravitational ''constant'' G(r). For example, if clambda/(c-lambda)(p-r+2s) p >0 and -alambda/(a+lambda)(2p-2r+s)<0, a distance-dependent gravitational constant G(r) p = G/sub 0/(1+..cap alpha..(1+..mu..r)e/sup -mur/) is obtained.

Zhang, Y.Z.

1983-10-15

215

The quality of Mueller type functionals in reduced density matrix functional theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reduced density matrix functional theory, which uses the one-body density matrix as its fundamental variable, provides a powerful tool for the description of many-electron systems. While the kinetic energy is known exactly as a functional of the one-body density matrix the correlation energy needs to be approximated. Most approximations that are currently employed are modifications of the Mueller functional. The adiabatic extension of these functionals into the time-dependent domain proofs problematic because it leads to time-independent occupation numbers. We assess the general quality of these approximations for an exactly solvable two-electron system as well as for calculations of the fundamental gap. In addition, we address the impact of those functionals for excited state properties in optics.

Helbig, Nicole [Department of Material Science, UPV/EHU, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV, Centro Joxe Mari Korta, San Sebastian (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (Spain); Lathiotakis, Nektarios N. [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens (Greece); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (Spain); Akbari, Ali; Rubio, Angel [Department of Material Science, UPV/EHU, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV, Centro Joxe Mari Korta, San Sebastian (Spain); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (Spain); Gross, E.K.U. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (Spain)

2008-07-01

216

Theory of light-matter interactions in cascade and diamond type atomic ensembles  

CERN Multimedia

In this thesis, we investigate the quantum mechanical interaction of light with matter in the form of a gas of ultracold atoms: the atomic ensemble. We present a theoretical analysis of two problems, which involve the interaction of quantized electromagnetic fields (called signal and idler) with the atomic ensemble (i) cascade two-photon emission in an atomic ladder configuration, and (ii) photon frequency conversion in an atomic diamond configuration. The motivation of these studies comes from potential applications in long-distance quantum communication where it is desirable to generate quantum correlations between telecommunication wavelength light fields and ground level atomic coherences. We develop a theory of correlated signal-idler pair correlation. The analysis is complicated by the possible generation of multiple excitations in the atomic ensemble. An analytical treatment is given in the limit of a single excitation assuming adiabatic laser excitations. The analysis predicts superradiant timescales ...

Jen, Hsiang-Hua

2011-01-01

217

Fixed point theory for compact absorbing contractions in extension type spaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Son presentados en este artículo varios resultados nuevos de punto fijo para autoaplicaciones en espacios de tipo extensión. En particular discutimos contracciones compactas absorbentes. Abstract in english Several new fixed point results for self maps in extension type spaces are presented in this paper. In particular we discuss compact absorbing contractions.

ORegan, Donal

2010-01-01

218

Fixed point theory for compact absorbing contractions in extension type spaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several new fixed point results for self maps in extension type spaces are presented in this paper. In particular we discuss compact absorbing contractions.Son presentados en este artículo varios resultados nuevos de punto fijo para autoaplicaciones en espacios de tipo extensión. En particular discutimos contracciones compactas absorbentes.

Donal ORegan

2010-01-01

219

Investigating Strength and Frequency Effects in Recognition Memory Using Type-2 Signal Detection Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Criterion- versus distribution-shift accounts of frequency and strength effects in recognition memory were investigated with Type-2 signal detection receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, which provides a measure of metacognitive monitoring. Experiment 1 demonstrated a frequency-based mirror effect, with a higher hit rate and lower…

Higham, Philip A.; Perfect, Timothy J.; Bruno, Davide

2009-01-01

220

Bianchi type-VI0 perfect fluid cosmological model in a modified theory of gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-VI0 space-time filled with perfect fluid in general relativity and also in the framework of f( R, T) gravity proposed by Harko et al. (in arXiv:1104.2669 [gr-qc], 2011) has been studied with an appropriate choice of the function f( R, T). The field equations have been solved by using the anisotropy feature of the universe in Bianchi type-VI0 space time. Some important features of the models, thus obtained, have been discussed. We noticed that the involvement of new function f( R, T) doesn't affect the geometry of the space-time but slightly changes the matter distribution.

Rao, V. U. M.; Neelima, D.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

M-theory on 'toric' G2 cones and its type II reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze a class of conical G2 metrics admitting two commuting isometries, together with a certain one-parameter family of G2 deformations which preserves these symmetries. Upon using recent results of Calderbank and Pedersen, we extract the IIA reduction of eleven-dimensional supergravity on such backgrounds, as well as its type IIB dual. The associated type II solutions are expected to contain 6-branes and 5-branes respectively. By studying the general asympotics of the IIA and IIB solutions around the relevant loci, we confirm the interpretation of such solutions in terms of localized and delocalized branes. In particular, we find explicit, general expressions for the string coupling and R-R/NS-NS fields in the vicinity of these objects. Our solutions contain and generalize the field configurations relevant for certain models considered in recent work of Acharya and Witten. (author)

2002-01-01

222

The delay time distribution of type Ia supernovae: a comparison between theory and observation  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the contribution of different formation scenarios for type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies. The single degenerate scenario (a white dwarf accreting from a late main sequence or red giant companion) is tested against the double degenerate scenario (the spiral-in and merging of two white dwarfs through the emission of gravitational wave radiation). We use a population number synthesis code incorporating the latest physical results in binary evolution, and allowing to differentiate between certain physical scenarios (e.g. description of common envelope evolution) and evolutionary parameters (e.g. mass transfer efficiency during Roche lobe overflow). The obtained theoretical distributions of the delay times of type Ia supernovae are compared to those which are observed, both in morphological shape and absolute number of events. The critical dependency of these distributions on certain parameters is used to constrain the values of the latter. We find that the single degenerate scenario alone ca...

Mennekens, N; De Greve, J P; De Donder, E

2010-01-01

223

Iwasawa theory of Heegner points on abelian varieties of GL_2 type  

CERN Document Server

In an earlier paper the author proved one divisibility of Perrin- Riou's Iwasawa main conjecture for Heegner points on elliptic curves. In the present paper, that result is generalized to abelian varieties of GL2-type (i.e. abelian varieties with real multiplication defined over totally real fields) under the hypothesis that the abelian variety is associated to a Hilbert modular form via a construction of Zhang.

Howard, Benjamin

2012-01-01

224

Renormalizations and Rigidity Theory for Circle Homeomorphisms with Singularities of the Break Type  

Science.gov (United States)

Circle homeomorphisms with singularities of the break type are considered in the case when rotation numbers have periodic continued fraction expansion. We establish hyperbolicity for renormalizations and then use it in order to prove the following rigidity result. Namely, we show that any two homeomorphisms with a single break point are smoothly conjugate to each other provided they have the same quadratic irrational rotation number and the same ``size'' of a break.

Khanin, K.; Khmelev, D.

225

Simply connected surfaces of general type in positive characteristic via deformation theory  

CERN Multimedia

Algebraically simply connected surfaces of general type with p_g=q=0 and 1\\le K^2\\le 4 in positive characteristic (with one exception in K^2=4) are presented by using a Q-Gorenstein smoothing of two-dimensional toric singularities, a generalization of Lee-Park's construction in the field of complex numbers to the positive characteristic case, and Grothendieck's specialization theorem for the fundamental group.

Lee, Yongnam

2011-01-01

226

A constrained theory of non-BCS type superconductivity in gapped Graphene  

CERN Document Server

We show that gapped Graphene, with a local constraint that current arising from the two valley fermions are exactly equal, shows a non-BCS type superconductivity. Unlike the conventional mechanisms, this superconductivity phenomenon does not require any pairing. We estimate the critical temperature for superconducting-to-normal transition via Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism, and find that it is proportional to the gap.

Vyas, Vivek M

2011-01-01

227

An analysis of the openehr archetype semantics based on a typed lambda theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The openEHR has adopted the dual model architecture consisting of Reference Model and Archetype. The specification, however, lacks formal definitions of archetype semantics, so that its behaviors have remained ambiguous. The objective of this poster is to analyze semantics of the openEHR archetypes: its variance and mutability. We use a typed lambda calculus as an analyzing tool. As a result, we have reached the conclusion that archetypes should be 1) covariant and 2) immutable schema. PMID:23920764

Tatsukawa, Akimichi; Shinohara, Emiko Y; Kawazoe, Yoshimasa; Imai, Takeshi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

2013-01-01

228

An analysis of the openehr archetype semantics based on a typed lambda theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The openEHR has adopted the dual model architecture consisting of Reference Model and Archetype. The specification, however, lacks formal definitions of archetype semantics, so that its behaviors have remained ambiguous. The objective of this poster is to analyze semantics of the openEHR archetypes: its variance and mutability. We use a typed lambda calculus as an analyzing tool. As a result, we have reached the conclusion that archetypes should be 1) covariant and 2) immutable schema.

Tatsukawa A; Shinohara EY; Kawazoe Y; Imai T; Ohe K

2013-01-01

229

A New Strategy for Early Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes by Standard-Free, Label-Free LC-MS/MS Quantification of Glycated Peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The early diagnosis of diabetes, one of the top three chronic incurable diseases, is becoming increasingly important. Here, we investigated the applicability of an (18)O-labeling technique for the development of a standard-free, label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rather than attempting to identify quantitative differences in proteins as biomarkers, glycation of the highest abundance protein in human plasma, human serum albumin (HSA), was monitored through quantitative analysis of HSA characteristic peptides using the (18)O-labeling technique. Eight glucose-sensitive peptides and one glucose-insensitive peptide were discovered. The glucose-insensitive peptide served as the internal standard, and a standard-free, label-free LC-MS/MS method was developed. This method was then used to select putative biomarkers for T2DM in a clinical trial with 389 human plasma samples. As a result, three of the eight glucose-sensitive peptides (FKDLGEENFK, LDELRDEGK, and KVPQVSTPTLVEVSR) were selected and could be used as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of T2DM. PMID:23894188

Zhang, Mei; Xu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

2013-07-26

230

Quantification of the Effects on Viral DNA Synthesis of Reverse Transcriptase Mutations Conferring Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Resistance to Nucleoside Analogues  

Science.gov (United States)

Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) resistance mutations reduce the susceptibility of the virus to nucleoside analogues but may also impair viral DNA synthesis. To further characterize the effect of nucleoside analogue resistance mutations on the efficiency and kinetics of HIV-1 DNA synthesis and to evaluate the impact of the depletion of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTP) on this process, DNA synthesis was evaluated by allowing DNA synthesis to proceed with natural HIV-1 templates and primers, either within permeabilized viral particles or in newly infected cells, and quantifying the products by real-time PCR. Three recombinant viruses derived from three pNL4-3 molecular clones expressing mutations associated with resistance to zidovudine: a clone expressing RT mutation M184V, a clone expressing mutations M41L plus T215Y (M41L+T215Y), and clinical isolate BV34 (carrying seven resistance mutations). Following infection of P4 cells, the BV34 mutant, but not viruses expressing the M184V mutation or M41L+T215Y, exhibited a defect in DNA synthesis. Importantly, however, for mutants carrying the M184V mutation or M41L+T215Y mutations, a defect could be detected by using target cells in which dATP pools had been reduced by pretreatment with hydroxyurea. Based on these observations, we developed a recombinant-virus assay to assess the effects of hydroxyurea pretreatment on infectivity of viruses carrying plasma-derived RT sequences from patients with nucleoside resistance. Using this assay, we found that many, but not all, viruses carrying RT resistance mutations display an increased sensitivity to hydroxyurea, suggesting that the impact of RT resistance mutations on viral replication may be more profound in cell populations characterized by smaller dNTP pools.

Bouchonnet, Francine; Dam, Elisabeth; Mammano, Fabrizio; de Soultrait, Vaea; Hennere, Gaelle; Benech, Henri; Clavel, Francois; Hance, Allan J.

2005-01-01

231

Investigation of the association of growth rate in grower-finishing pigs with the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As a part of a prospective cohort study in four herds, a nested case control study was carried out. Five slow growing pigs (cases) and five fast growing pigs (controls) out of 60 pigs were selected for euthanasia and laboratory examination at the end of the study in each herd. A total of 238 pigs, all approximately 12 weeks old, were included in the study during the first week in the grower–finisher barn. In each herd, approximately 60 pigs from four pens were individually ear tagged. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 6–8 weeks observation period. Clinical data, blood and faecal samples were serially collected from the 60 selected piglets every second week in the observation period. In the killed pigs serum was examined for antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and procine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and in addition PCV2 viral DNA content was quantified. In faeces the quantity of LI cells/g faeces and number of PCV2 copies/g faeces was measured by qPCR. The objective of the study was to examine if growth rate in grower-finishing pig is associated with the detection of LI and PCV2 infection or clinical data. This study has shown that diarrhoea is a significant risk factor for low growth rate and that one log10 unit increase in LI load increases the odds ratio for a pig to have a low growth rate by 2.0 times. Gross lesions in the small intestine and LI load > log10 6/g were significant risk factors for low growth. No association between PCV2 virus and low growth was found.

Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, MaiBritt

2013-01-01

232

Investigation of the association of growth rate in grower-finishing pigs with the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a part of a prospective cohort study in four herds, a nested case control study was carried out. Five slow growing pigs (cases) and five fast growing pigs (controls) out of 60 pigs were selected for euthanasia and laboratory examination at the end of the study in each herd. A total of 238 pigs, all approximately 12 weeks old, were included in the study during the first week in the grower-finisher barn. In each herd, approximately 60 pigs from four pens were individually ear tagged. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 6-8 weeks observation period. Clinical data, blood and faecal samples were serially collected from the 60 selected piglets every second week in the observation period. In the killed pigs serum was examined for antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and procine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and in addition PCV2 viral DNA content was quantified. In faeces the quantity of LI cells/g faeces and number of PCV2 copies/g faeces was measured by qPCR. The objective of the study was to examine if growth rate in grower-finishing pig is associated with the detection of LI and PCV2 infection or clinical data. This study has shown that diarrhoea is a significant risk factor for low growth rate and that one log(10) unit increase in LI load increases the odds ratio for a pig to have a low growth rate by 2.0 times. Gross lesions in the small intestine and LI load>log(10)6/g were significant risk factors for low growth. No association between PCV2 virus and low growth was found.

Johansen M; Nielsen M; Dahl J; Svensmark B; Bækbo P; Kristensen CS; Hjulsager CK; Jensen TK; Ståhl M; Larsen LE; Angen O

2013-01-01

233

Investigation of the association of growth rate in grower-finishing pigs with the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a part of a prospective cohort study in four herds, a nested case control study was carried out. Five slow growing pigs (cases) and five fast growing pigs (controls) out of 60 pigs were selected for euthanasia and laboratory examination at the end of the study in each herd. A total of 238 pigs, all approximately 12 weeks old, were included in the study during the first week in the grower-finisher barn. In each herd, approximately 60 pigs from four pens were individually ear tagged. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 6-8 weeks observation period. Clinical data, blood and faecal samples were serially collected from the 60 selected piglets every second week in the observation period. In the killed pigs serum was examined for antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and procine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and in addition PCV2 viral DNA content was quantified. In faeces the quantity of LI cells/g faeces and number of PCV2 copies/g faeces was measured by qPCR. The objective of the study was to examine if growth rate in grower-finishing pig is associated with the detection of LI and PCV2 infection or clinical data. This study has shown that diarrhoea is a significant risk factor for low growth rate and that one log(10) unit increase in LI load increases the odds ratio for a pig to have a low growth rate by 2.0 times. Gross lesions in the small intestine and LI load>log(10)6/g were significant risk factors for low growth. No association between PCV2 virus and low growth was found. PMID:22854321

Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, Maibritt; Dahl, Jan; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bækbo, Poul; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Jensen, Tim K; Ståhl, Marie; Larsen, Lars E; Angen, Oystein

2012-07-31

234

Quantificational logic of context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we extend the Propositional Logic of Context, to the quantificational (predicate calculus) case. This extension is important in the declarative representation of knowledge for two reasons. Firstly, since contexts are objects in the semantics which can be denoted by terms in the language and which can be quantified over, the extension enables us to express arbitrary first-order properties of contexts. Secondly, since the extended language is no longer only propositional, we can express that an arbitrary predicate calculus formula is true in a context. The paper describes the syntax and the semantics of a quantificational language of context, gives a Hilbert style formal system, and outlines a proof of the system`s completeness.

Buvac, Sasa [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

235

Quantificational Logic of Context  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we extend the Propositional Logic ofContext, (Buvac & Mason 1993; Buvac, Buvac, & Mason1995), to the quantificational (predicate calculus)case. This extension is important in the declarativerepresentation of knowledge for two reasons. Firstly,since contexts are objects in the semantics which canbe denoted by terms in the language and which canbe quantified over, the extension enables us to expressarbitrary first-order properties of contexts. Secondly,since the extended language is no longer only propositional,we can express that an arbitrary predicate calculusformula is true in a context. The paper describesthe syntax and the semantics of a quantificational languageof context, gives a Hilbert style formal system,and outlines a proof of the system's completeness.IntroductionContexts first appeared in declarative AI when theywere presented as a possible solution to the problem ofgenerality in McCarthy's Turing Award Paper, (McCarthy1987). ...

Sasa Buvac

236

Time-delayed coupled chaotic semiconductor lasers show new types of synchronization: Experiment and theory  

CERN Document Server

Topologies of two, three and four time-delay-coupled chaotic semiconductor lasers are experimentally and theoretically found to show new types of synchronization. Shifted zero-lag synchronization is observed for two lasers separated by long distances even when their self-feedback delays are not equal. Shifted sub-lattice synchronization is observed for quadrilateral geometries while the equilateral triangle is zero-lag synchronized. Generalized zero-lag synchronization, without the limitation of precisely matched delays, opens possibilities for advanced multi-user communication protocols.

Aviad, Y; Zigzag, M; Rosenbluh, M; Kanter, I

2011-01-01

237

On Bianchi Type-1 vacuum solutions in R + R2 theories of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The field equations following from a Lagrangian L=(1/k)(-g)sup(1/2)[(1/2)R+12(?Rsub(ik)Rsup(ik)+?R2)] will be considered for Bianchi type-I homogeneous models. Thereby the special case, ?+3?=0, is considered qualitatively for axially symmetric anisotropic metrics. Generically, the solutions have both past and future singularities, but it will be proven by topological arguments that the two-dimensional space of solutions possesses a one-parameter subspace of solutions with a behaviour similar to the Kasner solution. (author)

1985-01-01

238

To Theory One Class Linear Model Noclassical Volterra Type Integral Equation with Left Boundary Singular Point  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we investigate one class of Volterra type integral equation, in model case, when kernels have first order fixed singularity and logarithmic singularity. In detail study the case, when n = 3. In depend of the signs parameters solution to this integral equation can contain three arbitrary constants, two arbitrary constants, one constant and may have unique solution. In the case when general solution of integral equation contains arbitrary constants, we stand and investigate different boundary value problems, when conditions are given in singular point. Besides for considered integral equation, the solution found cane represented in generalized power series. Some results obtained in the general model case.

Nusrat Rajabov

2013-01-01

239

Quantification in ordinary language  

CERN Multimedia

We firstly show that the standard interpretation of natural quantification in mathematical logic does not provide a satisfying account of its original richness. In particular, it ignores the difference between generic and distributive readings. We claim that it is due to the use of a set theoretical framework. We therefore propose a proof theoretical treatment in terms of proofs and refutations. Thereafter we apply these ideas to quantifiers that are not first order definable like "the majority of".

Abrusci, Michele

2011-01-01

240

The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 10(2) bacteria/g feces for Bpilo-qPCR and Laws-qPCR, 10(3)CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R(2) above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4-qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six log units for F18-qPCR and three log units for Bpilo-qPCR in spiked feces. When measured on pure DNA from the reference strains used in spiking experiments, the respective log ranges were: seven units for Bpilo-qPCR, Laws-qPCR and F18-qPCR and six log units for F4-qPCR. This shows the importance of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive than the earlier used method due to improvements in DNA extraction. In addition, as samples were not analysed for all four pathogen agents by traditional diagnostic methods, many samples were found positive for agents that were not expected on the basis of age and case history. The use of quantitative PCR tests for diagnosis of enteric diseases provides new possibilities for veterinary diagnostics. The parallel simultaneous analysis for several bacteria in multi-qPCR and the determination of the quantities of the infectious agents increases the information obtained from the samples and the chance for obtaining a relevant diagnosis. PMID:21530108

Ståhl, M; Kokotovic, B; Hjulsager, C K; Breum, S Ø; Angen, Ø

2011-03-25

 
 
 
 
241

The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R2 above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4- qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six log units for F18-qPCR and three log units for Bpilo-qPCR in spiked feces. When measured on pure DNA from the reference strains used in spiking experiments, the respective log ranges were: seven units for Bpilo-qPCR, Laws-qPCR and F18-qPCR and six log units for F4-qPCR. This shows the importance of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive than the earlier used method due to improvements in DNA extraction. In addition, as samples were not analysed for all four pathogen agents by traditional diagnostic methods, many samples were found positive for agents that were not expected on the basis of age and case history. The use of quantitative PCR tests for diagnosis of enteric diseases provides new possibilities for veterinary diagnostics. The parallel simultaneous analysis for several bacteria in multi-qPCR and the determination of the quantities of the infectious agents increases the information obtained from the samples and the chance for obtaining a relevant diagnosis.

Ståhl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko

2011-01-01

242

The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 10(2) bacteria/g feces for Bpilo-qPCR and Laws-qPCR, 10(3)CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R(2) above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4-qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six log units for F18-qPCR and three log units for Bpilo-qPCR in spiked feces. When measured on pure DNA from the reference strains used in spiking experiments, the respective log ranges were: seven units for Bpilo-qPCR, Laws-qPCR and F18-qPCR and six log units for F4-qPCR. This shows the importance of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive than the earlier used method due to improvements in DNA extraction. In addition, as samples were not analysed for all four pathogen agents by traditional diagnostic methods, many samples were found positive for agents that were not expected on the basis of age and case history. The use of quantitative PCR tests for diagnosis of enteric diseases provides new possibilities for veterinary diagnostics. The parallel simultaneous analysis for several bacteria in multi-qPCR and the determination of the quantities of the infectious agents increases the information obtained from the samples and the chance for obtaining a relevant diagnosis.

Ståhl M; Kokotovic B; Hjulsager CK; Breum SØ; Angen Ø

2011-08-01

243

Experimento para quantificar a eficiência de aspersão de líquidos: aplicação em distribuidores espinha de peixe Liquid aspersion efficiency quantification experiment: application in ladder-type distributors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente texto descreve um equipamento na escala-piloto e um método simples para comparar a eficiência de distribuidores de líquido. A técnica consiste basicamente em analisar a massa do líquido coletado em 21 tubos verticais de 52mm de diâmetro interno e 800 mm de comprimento dispostos em arranjo quadrático colocados abaixo do distribuidor. Uma manta acrílica que não dispersa o líquido com 50 mm de espessura foi fixada entre o distribuidor e o banco de tubos para evitar respingos. Como exemplo de aplicação foram realizados ensaios com nove distribuidores do tipo espinha de peixe de 4 tubos paralelos cada, para uma coluna com 400 mm de diâmetro. Variaram-se o número (n) de furos (95, 127 e 159 furos/m²), o diâmetro (d) dos furos (2, 3 e 4 mm) e as vazões (q) de (1,2; 1,4 e 1,6m³/h). A melhor eficiência de espalhamento pelo menor desvio-padrão foi obtida com n de 159, d de 2 e q de 1,4 indicando as limitações de regras práticas de projeto. A pressão (p), na entrada do distribuidor, para essa condição, foi de apenas 51000 Pa (0,51 kgf/cm²) e a velocidade média (v) em cada orifício foi de 6,3 m/s.This paper describes a device developed on the pilot scale and a simple approach to compare liquid distributor efficiencies. The technique consists basically of analyzing the mass of the liquid collected in 21 vertical pipes measuring 52 mm in internal diameter and 800 mm in length placed in a quadratic arrangement and positioned below the distributor. A 50 mm thick acrylic blanket that does not disperse liquids was placed between the distributor and the pipe bank to avoid splashes. Assays were carried out with ladder-type distributors equipped with 4 parallel pipes each for a column measuring 400 mm in diameter as an example of the application. The number (n) of orifices (95, 127, and 159 orifices/m²), orifice diameter (d) (2, 3, and 4 mm) and the flowrate (q) (1.2; 1.4; and 1.6 m3/h) were varied. The best spread efficiency, which presented the lowest standard deviation, was achieved with 159 orifices, 2 mm and 1.4 m³/h. The pressure (p) at the distributor's inlet for this condition was only 51000 Pa (0.51 kgf/cm²), while the average velocity (v) was 6.3 m/s in each orifice. These results show some limitations of the practical rules used in distributor designs.

Marlene Silva de Moraes; José Renato Baptista de Lima; Deovaldo de Moraes Júnior; Luis Renato Bastos Lia; Sandro Megale Pizzo

2008-01-01

244

Experimento para quantificar a eficiência de aspersão de líquidos: aplicação em distribuidores espinha de peixe/ Liquid aspersion efficiency quantification experiment: application in ladder-type distributors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente texto descreve um equipamento na escala-piloto e um método simples para comparar a eficiência de distribuidores de líquido. A técnica consiste basicamente em analisar a massa do líquido coletado em 21 tubos verticais de 52mm de diâmetro interno e 800 mm de comprimento dispostos em arranjo quadrático colocados abaixo do distribuidor. Uma manta acrílica que não dispersa o líquido com 50 mm de espessura foi fixada entre o distribuidor e o banco de tubos (more) para evitar respingos. Como exemplo de aplicação foram realizados ensaios com nove distribuidores do tipo espinha de peixe de 4 tubos paralelos cada, para uma coluna com 400 mm de diâmetro. Variaram-se o número (n) de furos (95, 127 e 159 furos/m²), o diâmetro (d) dos furos (2, 3 e 4 mm) e as vazões (q) de (1,2; 1,4 e 1,6m³/h). A melhor eficiência de espalhamento pelo menor desvio-padrão foi obtida com n de 159, d de 2 e q de 1,4 indicando as limitações de regras práticas de projeto. A pressão (p), na entrada do distribuidor, para essa condição, foi de apenas 51000 Pa (0,51 kgf/cm²) e a velocidade média (v) em cada orifício foi de 6,3 m/s. Abstract in english This paper describes a device developed on the pilot scale and a simple approach to compare liquid distributor efficiencies. The technique consists basically of analyzing the mass of the liquid collected in 21 vertical pipes measuring 52 mm in internal diameter and 800 mm in length placed in a quadratic arrangement and positioned below the distributor. A 50 mm thick acrylic blanket that does not disperse liquids was placed between the distributor and the pipe bank to avoi (more) d splashes. Assays were carried out with ladder-type distributors equipped with 4 parallel pipes each for a column measuring 400 mm in diameter as an example of the application. The number (n) of orifices (95, 127, and 159 orifices/m²), orifice diameter (d) (2, 3, and 4 mm) and the flowrate (q) (1.2; 1.4; and 1.6 m3/h) were varied. The best spread efficiency, which presented the lowest standard deviation, was achieved with 159 orifices, 2 mm and 1.4 m³/h. The pressure (p) at the distributor's inlet for this condition was only 51000 Pa (0.51 kgf/cm²), while the average velocity (v) was 6.3 m/s in each orifice. These results show some limitations of the practical rules used in distributor designs.

Moraes, Marlene Silva de; Lima, José Renato Baptista de; Moraes Júnior, Deovaldo de; Lia, Luis Renato Bastos; Pizzo, Sandro Megale

2008-03-01

245

Quantification of crystal morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Morphological measurement constitutes an important experimental subject in crystal growth and materials science, and is currently receiving renewed attention because of the rapid advances occurring in computer technology, coupled with the concomitant sharp reductions in the cost of digital image processing. Image processing applied to the quantification of microstructural images is currently being used in our laboratory to increase the understanding of interfacial dynamics during crystal growth and to analyze the kinetics of microstructural evolution. Quantification of microstructural and crystal growth morphologies, such as the measurement of dendritic tip radii, crystallite size distributions, and crystallite shapes, provides the geometric foundation needed for interpreting interfacial dynamics during crystal growth and an objective description of morphogenesis accompanying solid-liquid and solid-solid phase transformations. Automated methods employed, and, in part, developed by the authors to measure these morphological and kinetic parameters, using advanced statistical and stereological methods, are reviewed in this paper. Some of the techniques disclosed here are currently being refined even further to achieve improved precision in the quantification of crystal growth morphology

Glicksman, M.E.; Koss, M.B.; Fradkov, V.E.; Rettenmayr, M.E.; Mani, S.S. (Materials Engineering Dept., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York (United States))

1994-03-15

246

[A theory explaining the relation between "egorrhea symptoms" and "symptoms of being influenced" more efficiently than the existing theories--from the viewpoint of "experiencial type" as opposed to symptomatological direction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fujinawa, A. and his co-researchers have categorized symptoms of ego disorder into two opposing symptoms; "egorrhea symptoms" having the direction of "Inside to Outside" in their symptomatological structure and "symptoms of being influenced" having the direction of "Outside to Inside". They have also proposed, for ideal cases, the following: (1) "Egorrhea symptoms" are schizophrenic ego disorders. (2) These two types of symptoms are independent and opposing series of ego disorder. (3) There exists a new entity named "egorrhea type of schizophrenia" which is mainly characterized by "egorrhea symptoms" and opposed to the common type of schizophrenia which is mainly characterized by "symptoms of being influenced". The author, however, indicated several faults in their propositions and revised them from their same viewpoint. The author then proposed, from the viewpint of intentionality, the following: (1) Any symptom exhibits one of two opposite direction of intentionality; one exhibits intentionality to an object ("object experiencial type") and the other exhibits intentionality to the subject itself ("subject experiencial type"). (2) Symptoms of each "experiencial type" are related to each other and therefore make the state be composed mainly of them. The author attempted to compare his theory with Fujinawa. A. and his co-researchers theory and the revised one. 58 hallucinatory-delusional cases (29 schizophrenic cases, 29 non-schizophrenic cases) were examined. Some results were as follows: (1) "Egorrhea symptoms" are not peculiar to schizophrenia. (2) A special type of auditory hallucination, which occurs when the patient sees others, is statistically related to "egorrhea symptoms". (3) The other common type of auditory hallucination, which occurs when the patient cannot see others, is statistically related to "symptoms of being influenced". The theory proposed by the author explains these results satisfactorily compared with the former two theories. That is, (1) is not against the theory, and (2) is considered to be caused by the relation between the special type of auditory hallucination and "egorrhea symptoms" having the same object experiencial type of symptoms, and (3) is considered to be caused by the relation between the common type of auditory hallucination and "symptom of being influenced" having the same subject experiencial type of symptoms. The author further deduced the developmental series of symptoms and states from his theory and examined them with the data from the above 58 cases and other cases reported by other researchers. As a result, much of the data was successfully explained by his theory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Tanaka K

1995-01-01

247

Critical state theory for nonparallel flux line lattices in type-II superconductors  

CERN Multimedia

Coarse-grained flux density profiles in type-II superconductors with non-parallel vortex configurations are obtained by a proposed phenomenological least action principle. We introduce a functional $C[H(x)]$, which is minimized under a constraint of the kind $J$ belongs to $Delta$ for the current density vector, where $Delta$ is a bounded set. This generalizes the concept of critical current density introduced by C. P. Bean for parallel vortex configurations. In particular, we choose the isotropic case ($Delta$ is a circle), for which the field penetration profiles $H(x,t)$ are derived when a changing external excitation is applied. Faraday's law, and the principle of minimum entropy production rate for stationary thermodynamic processes dictate the evolution of the system. Calculations based on the model can reproduce the physical phenomena of flux transport and consumption, and the striking effect of magnetization collapse in crossed field measurements.

Badía, A

2001-01-01

248

Boussinesq Systems of Bona-Smith Type on Plane Domains: Theory and Numerical Analysis  

CERN Multimedia

We consider a class of Boussinesq systems of Bona-Smith type in two space dimensions approximating surface wave flows modelled by the three-dimensional Euler equations. We show that various initial-boundary-value problems for these systems, posed on a bounded plane domain are well posed locally in time. In the case of reflective boundary conditions, the systems are discretized by a modified Galerkin method which is proved to converge in $L^2$ at an optimal rate. Numerical experiments are presented with the aim of simulating two-dimensional surface waves in complex plane domains with a variety of initial and boundary conditions, and comparing numerical solutions of Bona-Smith systems with analogous solutions of the BBM-BBM system.

Dougalis, Vassilios; Saut, Jean-Claude

2009-01-01

249

Storage density limitation of a volume-type hologram memory: theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The maximum storage density of a volume-type hologram memory obtainable with a prescribed signal-to-noise ratio is discussed. In the theoretical analysis, a microscopic particle model of a phase hologram is considered; the refractive index variation is assumed to be caused by the density variation of bleached silver particles distributed spatially at random. The signal and noise intensities are derived from the analysis based upon this model. The theoretical limit of the storage density and the optimum hologram thickness are then derived in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio. The maximum storage density is finally given as a function of the average scattering cross section of the particles, the light wavelength, and the prescribed signal-to-noise ratio. Some practical cases are also discussed on the basis of measured material parameters.

Nomura H; Okoshi T

1976-02-01

250

Ginzburg-Landau-Gor'kov Theory of Magnetic oscillations in a type-II 2-dimensional Superconductor  

CERN Document Server

We investigate de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations in the mixed state of a type-II two-dimensional superconductor within a self-consistent Gor'kov perturbation scheme. Assuming that the order parameter forms a vortex lattice we can calculate the expansion coefficients exactly to any order. We have tested the results of the perturbation theory to fourth and eight order against an exact numerical solution of the corresponding Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. The perturbation theory is found to describe the onset of superconductivity well close to the transition point $H_{c2}$. Contrary to earlier calculations by other authors we do not find that the perturbative scheme predicts any maximum of the dHvA-oscillations below $H_{c2}$. Instead we obtain a substantial damping of the magnetic oscillations in the mixed state as compared to the normal state. We have examined the effect of an oscillatory chemical potential due to particle conservation and the effect of a finite Zeeman splitting. Furthermore we have inve...

Bruun, G M; Johnson, N F

1996-01-01

251

Rotating strings and D2-branes in type IIA reduction of M-theory on G2 manifold and their semiclassical limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We consider rotating strings and D2-branes on type IIA background, which arises as dimensional reduction of M-theory on manifold of G2 holonomy, dual to N = 1 gauge theory in four dimensions. We obtain exact solutions and explicit expressions for the conserved charges. By taking the semiclassical limit, we show that the rotating strings can reproduce only one type of semiclassical behavior, exhibited by rotating M2-branes on G2 manifolds. Our further investigation leads to the conclusion that the rotating D2-branes reproduce two types of the semiclassical energy-charge relations known for membranes in eleven dimensions

2006-01-01

252

Bianchi type-V bulk viscous string cosmological model in Saez-Ballester scalar-tensor theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological model is considered in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (in Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986) when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. The field equations being highly non-linear, we obtain a determinate solution using the plausible physical conditions (i) the scalar of expansion of the space-time is proportional to shear scalar (ii) the baratropic equation of state for pressure and density and (iii) the bulk viscous pressure is proportional to the energy density. It is interesting to observe that cosmic strings do not survive in this model. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Reddy, D. R. K.; Naidu, R. L.; Sobhan Babu, K.; Dasu Naidu, K.

2013-09-01

253

LRS Bianchi type-II bulk viscous cosmic string model in a scale covariant theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

A locally rotationally symmetric(LRS) Bianchi type-II space-time is considered in the frame work of a modified theory of gravitation proposed by Canuto et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39:429, 1977) when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. A special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Bermann (Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) is used to obtain determinate solution of the field equations. We have also used the barotropic equation of state and the bulk viscous pressure is assumed to be proportional to the energy density. The physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Reddy, D. R. K.; Naidu, R. L.; Ramprasd, T.; Ramana, K. V.

2013-07-01

254

The IHX-Type Relations On Trivalent Graphs And Symplectic Representation Theory  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We consider two types of graded algebras (with graded actions by the symplecticLie algebra) that arise in the study of the mapping class group, and describe theirsymplectic invariants in terms of algebras on trivalent graphs.1. IntroductionLet sp g be the Lie algebra of symplectic matrices of degree 2g over the rational numbers.In recent studies related to the structure of the surface mapping class group, several authors[KM, Mo, Ha, HL] have encountered a certain distinguished quotient B of the exterior algebraU , where U is an irreducible sp g -module isomorphic to3H=H, H is the fundamental sp g -module andkis the kthexterior functor. The second exterior component2U is decomposedas an sp g -module in the following way:2U= [16] sp Phi [14] sp Phi [12] sp Phi [0] sp Phi [2212] sp Phi [22] sp (g 6); (1)where [] sp denotes an irreducible sp g -module corresponding to a partition , and the algebraB mentioned above is d...

255

Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. J. [Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Seoul National Univ., Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. W. [Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engr, Dongguk Univ., Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-Do, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, G. C. [Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Seoul National Univ., Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

256

Bianchi Type-II, VIII & IX Cosmological Models with Strange Quark Matter Attached to String Cloud in Brans-Dicke and General Theory of Gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

We have obtained and presented spatially homogeneous Bianchi type-II, VIII & IX cosmological models with strange quark matter attached to string cloud in Brans and Dicke (Phys. Rev. C 71:054905, 1961) scalar tensor theory and general theory of gravitation. Some important features of the models, thus obtained, have been discussed. We noticed that these universes always expand isotropically and the presence of scalar field doesn't affect the geometry of the space-time but changes the matter distribution.

Rao, V. U. M.; Sireesha, K. V. S.

2013-04-01

257

Self-Organized Criticality as Witten-type Topological Field Theory with Spontaneously Broken BRST-Symmetry  

CERN Multimedia

Here we propose a scenario according to which a generic self-organized critical (SOC) system can be looked upon as a Witten-type topological field theory (W-TFT) with spontaneously broken BRST-symmetry. One of the conditions for the SOC is the slow external driving that unambiguously suggests the Stratanovich interpretation of noise in the corresponding stochastic differential equation (SDE). This necessitates the use of the Parisi-Wu quantization of the SDE leading to a model with a BRST-exact action, \\emph i.e., to a W-TFT. For a general SDE with a mixed-type drift term (Langevin + Hamilton parts), the BRST-symmetry is spontaneously broken and there is the Goldstone mode of Fadeev-Popov ghosts. In the low-energy/long-wavelength limit, the ghosts represent instanton/avalanche modulii and being gapless are responsible for the critical distribution of avalanches. The above arguments are robust against a moderate variation of the SDE's parameters and the criticality is "self-tuned". Our proposition suggests tha...

Ovchinnikov, Igor V

2011-01-01

258

Synchrotron-maser theory of type II solar radio emission processes - the physical model and generation mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A theory is proposed to explain the generation mechanism of type II solar radio bursts. It is suggested that the shock wave formed at the leading edge of a coronal transient can accelerate electrons. Because of the nature of the acceleration process, the energized electrons can possess a hollow-beam type distribution function. When the electron beam propagates along the ambient magnetic field to lower altitudes and attains larger pitch angles, a synchrotron-maser instability can set in. This instability leads to the amplification of unpolarized or weakly polarized radiation. The present discussion incorporates a model which describes the ambient magnetic field and background plasma by means of MHD simulation. The potential emission regions may be located approximately, according to the time-dependent MHD simulation. Since the average local plasma frequency in the source region can be evaluated from the MHD model, the frequent drift associated with the radiation may be estimated. The result seems to be in good agreement with that derived from observations. 65 references

1986-01-01

259

The synchrotron-maser theory of type II solar radio emission processes - The physical model and generation mechanism  

Science.gov (United States)

A theory is proposed to explain the generation mechanism of type II solar radio bursts. It is suggested that the shock wave formed at the leading edge of a coronal transient can accelerate electrons. Because of the nature of the acceleration process, the energized electrons can possess a 'hollow-beam' type distribution function. When the electron beam propagates along the ambient magnetic field to lower altitudes and attains larger pitch angles, a synchrotron-maser instability can set in. This instability leads to the amplification of unpolarized or weakly polarized radiation. The present discussion incorporates a model which describes the ambient magnetic field and background plasma by means of MHD simulation. The potential emission regions may be located approximately, according to the time-dependent MHD simulation. Since the average local plasma frequency in the source region can be evaluated from the MHD model, the frequent drift associated with the radiation may be estimated. The result seems to be in good agreement with that derived from observations.

Wu, C. S.; Steinolfson, R. S.; Zhou, G. C.

1986-10-01

260

Synchrotron-maser theory of type II solar radio emission processes - the physical model and generation mechanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A theory is proposed to explain the generation mechanism of type II solar radio bursts. It is suggested that the shock wave formed at the leading edge of a coronal transient can accelerate electrons. Because of the nature of the acceleration process, the energized electrons can possess a hollow-beam type distribution function. When the electron beam propagates along the ambient magnetic field to lower altitudes and attains larger pitch angles, a synchrotron-maser instability can set in. This instability leads to the amplification of unpolarized or weakly polarized radiation. The present discussion incorporates a model which describes the ambient magnetic field and background plasma by means of MHD simulation. The potential emission regions may be located approximately, according to the time-dependent MHD simulation. Since the average local plasma frequency in the source region can be evaluated from the MHD model, the frequent drift associated with the radiation may be estimated. The result seems to be in good agreement with that derived from observations. 65 references.

Wu, C.S.; Steinolfson, R.S.; Zhou, G.C.

1986-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Relation of Aggression Types according to Karen Horney’s Theory with Negative and Positive Driving Behaviors and Accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: The purpose of the current research was to investigate the relation of varieties of personality aggression types according to Karen Horney’s theory (Malevolence, Power, and Strength) with negative (errors and violations) and positive driving behaviors and frequency of accidents. Method: For this purpose, 263 volunteer drivers with generalized driving license (base two) were selected. The subjects completed Negative and Positive Driving Behavior Questionnaire (NPDBQ) and Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI). They were also asked to indicate the number of accidents in which they had been faulty in the last 5 years. Results: Results of multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix showed that all three kinds of aggressions had positive and significant correlation with violations and errors and negative and significant correlation with positive driving behaviors (p<0.05). There was a negative and significant correlation between aggressions and driving behaviors. There was no significant correlation between the aggressions and the frequency of accidents. However, gender had a significant relation with frequency of accidents. Conclusion: Different types of aggressions, regarding gender, have important role in prediction of driving behaviors and accidents.

Abbas Haghayegh; Hamid Reza Oreyzi

2009-01-01

262

Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds.) ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed.) ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds.) ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 203–212. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Carlson, Gregory N. 1977. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.Carlson, Gregory N. 1984. ‘Thematic roles and their role in semantic interpretation’. Linguistics 22: 259–279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ling.1984.22.3.259Champollion, Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Champollion, Lucas, Tauberer, Josh & Romero, Maribel. 2007. ‘The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical software for natural language semantics’. In Tracy Holloway King & Emily Bender (eds.) ‘Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks(GEAF) 2007 Workshop’, Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.Condoravdi, Cleo. 2002. ‘Punctual until as a scalar NPI’. In Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (eds.) ‘The nature of the word’, 631–654. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Csirmaz, Aniko. 2006. ‘Aspect, Negation and Quantifiers’. In Liliane Haegeman, Joan Maling, James McCloskey & Katalin E. Kiss (eds.) ‘Event Structure And The Left Periphery’, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol. 68, 225–253. SpringerNetherlands.Davidson, Donald. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In Nicholas Rescher (ed.) ‘The logic of decision and action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.de Swart, Henriëtte. 1996. ‘Meaning and use of not . . . until’. Journal of Semantics 13: 221–263.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/13.3.221de Swart, Henriëtte & Molendijk, Arie. 1999. ‘Negation and the temporal structure of narrative discourse’. Journal of Semantics 16: 1–42.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/16.1.1Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel.Eckardt, Regine. 2010. ‘A Logic for Easy Linking Semantics’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds.) ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Sc

Lucas Champollion

2010-01-01

263

A critical examination of the predictive capabilities of a new type of general laminated plate theory in the inelastic response regime  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, a new type of general, multiscale plate theory was developed for application to the analysis of the history-dependent response of laminated plates (Williams). In particular, the history-dependent behavior in a plate was considered to arise from both delamination effects as well as history-dependent material point responses (such as from viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, damage, etc.). The multiscale nature of the theoretical framework is due to the use of a superposition of both general global and local displacement effects. Using this global-local displacement field the governing equations of the theory are obtained by satisfying the governing equations of nonlinear continuum mechanics referenced to the initial configuration. In order to accomplish the goal of conducting accurate analyses in the history-dependent response regimes the formulation of the theory has been carried out in a sufficiently general fashion that any cohesive zone model (CZM) and any history-dependent constitutive model for a material point can be incorporated into the analysis without reformulation. Recently, the older multiscale theory of Williams has been implemented into the finite element (FE) framework by Mourad et al. and the resulting capabilities where used to shown that in a qualitative sense it is important that the local fields be accurately obtained in order to correctly predict even the overall response characteristics of a laminated plate in the inelastic regime. The goal of this work is to critically examine the predictive capabilities of this theory, as well as the older multiscale theory of Williams and other types of laminated plate theories, with recently developed exact solutions for the response of inelastic plates in cylindrical bending (Williams). These exact solutions are valid for both nonlinear CZMs as well as inelastic material responses obtained from different constitutive theories. In particular, the accuracy with which the different plate theories predict the local and global responses are considered.

Williams, Todd O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

264

Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP`s cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs.

Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

1997-01-01

265

Sz.-Nagy-Foias theory and Lax-Phillips type semigroups in the description of quantum mechanical resonances  

CERN Multimedia

A quantum mechanical version of the Lax-Phillips scattering theory was recently developed. This theory is a natural framework for the description of quantum unstable systems. However, since the spectrum of the generator of evoltuion in this theory is unbounded from below, the existsing framework does not apply to a large class of quantum mechanical problems. It is shown in this work that the fundamental mathematical structure underlying the Lax-Phillips theory, i.e., the Sz.-Nagy-Foias theory of contraction operators on Hilbert space, can be used for the construction of a formalism in which models associated with semiblounded spectrum may be accomodated.

Strauss, Y

2004-01-01

266

On a phase transition of a Kosterlitz-thouless-type in the d=4, U(1)-lattice gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The d=4, U(1)-lattice gauge theory with the Villain action may be represented as a locally neutral gas of topological (plaquette) charges which interact via a logarithmically confining potential, is shown. Using this representation a renormalization group analysis to show the existence of a phase transition of the Kosterlitz-Thouless-type was performed. An improved hierarchical version of the model which displays (unlike the usual Migdal-Kadanoff approach) a stable line of gaussian fixed points at low temperatures, which should correspond to the usual deconfining region of these systems is presented. (Author)[pt] Mostra-se que para d=4, a teoria de calibre de rede-U(1) com a acao de Villain pode ser representada como um gas localmente neutro das cargas topologicas (placas) que interagem via um potential logaritimicamente confinado. Usando esta representacao, fez-se uma analise do grupo de renormalizacao para mostrar a existencia de uma transicao de fase do tipo de Kosterlitz-Thouless. Uma versao hierarquica melhorada do modelo, que exibe (diferente da aproximacao usual de Migdal-Kadanoff) uma linha estavel dos pontos fixos gaussianos a baixas temperaturas, que deve corresponder a regiao usual de desconfinamento destes sistemas e apresentada. (M.C.K.)

1986-01-01

267

Isotropization of the minimally coupled scalar-tensor theory with a massive scalar field and a perfect fluid in the Bianchi type I model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We look for necessary conditions such that the minimally coupled scalar-tensor theory with a massive scalar field and a perfect fluid in the Bianchi type I model isotropizes. We then derive the dynamical asymptotical properties of the Universe

2002-01-21

268

Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

Pike, Gary R.

2006-01-01

269

Mass Western for absolute quantification of target proteins and considerations about the instrument of choice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Mass Western describes the absolute quantification of proteins based on stable isotope labeled integral standard peptides and liquid chromatography coupled selective reaction monitoring triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-SRM/MS). Here, we present a detailed workflow including tips and we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using different types of MS for absolute quantification.

Lyon D; Weckwerth W; Wienkoop S

2014-01-01

270

Mass Western for absolute quantification of target proteins and considerations about the instrument of choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mass Western describes the absolute quantification of proteins based on stable isotope labeled integral standard peptides and liquid chromatography coupled selective reaction monitoring triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-SRM/MS). Here, we present a detailed workflow including tips and we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using different types of MS for absolute quantification. PMID:24136524

Lyon, David; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Wienkoop, Stefanie

2014-01-01

271

Theory; Theorie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the theoretical physics section of the report works concerning the particle structure, the Quantum Chromodynamics and the physics of the top quark are mentioned. As a way of investigation of the proton structure a study of the exclusive photoproduction of a {Phi} meson on protons was carried out. In the field of photon-photon collisions a study concerning the event generators is mentioned. The physics of excited leptons is approached by a study of the neutrino-production of neutrinos or excited muons via processes of the type {nu} + nucleus {yields} {nu}{sup *} + X at very high energies (of the order of 10 TeV). In the same field works were done concerning the excited leptons production in heavy ion collisions at very high energy, the contribution of a heavy Majorana neutrino to the 0{nu}2{beta} decay and the muon pair production at very high energy in cosmic rays. Also, a paper using the diquark model in the study of neutron stars is reminded. In the field of the quark physics efforts were undertaken to solve a numerical disagreement between two different approaches of the semi-weak production of the top quark in hadronic colliders. Also reported is the the supersymmetric extension of the Eurojet event generator seemingly useful as a supersymmetric entrance, on one hand and permitting to tackle the problem of inclusion of R-parity violation, on the other hand

Arteaga-Romero, N.; Carimalo, C.; Ong, S.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.; Parisi, J.; Ichola, A.; Kessler, P.; Bordes, G. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire et Cosmologie, College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

1997-12-31

272

A cluster randomised pragmatic trial applying Self-determination theory to type 2 diabetes care in general practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment recommendations for prevention of type 2 diabetes complications often require radical and life-long health behaviour changes. Observational studies based on Self-determination theory (SDT) propose substantial factors for the maintenance of behaviour changes and concomitant well-being, but experimental research is needed to develop and evaluate SDT-based interventions. The aims of this paper were to describe 1) the design of a trial assessing the effectiveness of a training course for practice-nurses in autonomy support on patient-perceived motivation, HbA1, cholesterol, and well-being among a diabetes population, 2) the actual intervention to a level of detail that allows its replication, and 3) the connection between SDT recommendations for health care-provider behaviour and the content of the training course. Methods/Design The study is a cluster-randomised pragmatic trial including 40 Danish general practices with nurse-led diabetes consultations, and the associated diabetes population. The diabetes population was identified by registers (n = 4034). The intervention was a 16-hour course with interactive training for practice nurses. The course was delivered over 4 afternoons at Aarhus University and one 1/2 hour visit to the practice by one of the course-teachers over a period of 10 months (0, 2, 5, 10 mths.). The intervention is depicted by a PaT Plot showing the timeline and the characteristics of the intervention components. Effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed on the diabetes populations with regard to well-being (PAID, SF-12), HbA1c- and cholesterol-levels, perceived autonomy support (HCCQ), type of motivation (TSRQ), and perceived competence for diabetes care (PCD) 15-21 months after the core course; the completion of the second course afternoon. Data will be retrieved from registers and by questionnaires. Discussion Challenges and advantages of the pragmatic design are discussed. In a real-world setting, this study will determine the impact on motivation, HbA1c, cholesterol, and well-being for people with diabetes by offering a training course in autonomy support to practice-nurses from general practices with nurse-led consultations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01187069

Juul Lise; Maindal Helle T; Zoffmann Vibeke; Frydenberg Morten; Sandbaek Annelli

2011-01-01

273

Perturbation theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references.

1978-08-16

274

Shielding Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper determines relations for shieldingeffectiveness relative to several variables, includingmetal type, metal properties, thickness, distance,frequency, etc. It starts by presenting some relationshipsregarding magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fieldsas a pertinent background to understanding and applyingfield theory. Since literature about electromagneticcompatibility is replete with discussions about Maxwellequations and field theory only a few aspects arepresented.

Ion N.Chiuta; Roncea Marius-Andrei

2009-01-01

275

Quantification In Neurology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a distinct shift of emphasis in clinical neurology in the last few decades. A few years ago, it was just sufficient for a clinician to precisely record history, document signs, establish diagnosis and write prescription. In the present context, there has been a significant intrusion of scientific culture in clinical practice. Several criteria have been proposed, refined and redefined to ascertain accurate diagnosis for many neurological disorders. Introduction of the concept of impairment, disability, handicap and quality of life has added new dimension to the measurement of health and disease and neurological disorders are no exception. "Best guess" treatment modalities are no more accepted and evidence based medicine has become an integral component of medical care. Traditional treatments need validation and new therapies require vigorous trials. Thus, proper quantification in neurology has become essential, both in practice and research methodology in neurology. While this aspect is widely acknowledged, there is a limited access to a comprehensive document pertaining to measurements in neurology. This following description is a critical appraisal of various measurements and also provides certain commonly used rating scales/scores in neurological practice.

Netravati M; Taly AB; Nair KPS

2005-01-01

276

Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

Padovani, Luca

2011-01-01

277

Uncertainty Quantification in Hybrid Dynamical Systems  

CERN Multimedia

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above method...

Sahai, Tuhin

2011-01-01

278

Log data comparison and quantification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two geothermal wells were logged with similar wireline logs by several logging companies in a period of five years (1974 to 1979). The results of these equivalent logs are quantitatively different and in some cases qualitatively different. This difference also occurs between the same type of logs recorded at different time intervals by the same logging company. These various log data are related and qualified when logging equipment has not been properly calibrated. All depths referred to for either well are from their respective kelly bushing (KB). The first well (Mesa 31-1) is in the Imperial Valley of California and penetrates a sand, shale, and clay sedimentary lithology with a maximum temperature of 165/sup 0/C (330/sup 0/F) and a total depth of 1882 m (6175 ft). The second well (Phillips 9-1) is in the Roosevelt Hot Springs known geothermal resource areas (KGRA) of southwestern Utah and penetrates hydrothermally altered (low-grade metamorphic) and igneous lithology with a maximum temperature of 225/sup 0/C (440/sup 0/F) and a toatl depth of 2098.5 m (6885 ft). During that period (1974 to 1979) calibration of logging equipment in metamorphic and igneous lithologies could not be done. The logging data from this well is not qualitatively comparable in all cases and indicates the need for calibration. The open-hole log data acquired from Mesa 31-1 and Phillips 9-1 wells were compared to core data from these wells and comparison factors were calculated to better quantify the open-hole log data. Then open-hole log data were compared to the cased-hole log data from various companies and additional comparison factors were calculated for the cased-hole log data. These comparison factors allow for some quantification of these uncalibrated log data.

Mathews, M.; LaDelfe, C.

1981-01-01

279

UV-Vis as quantification tool for solubilized lignin following a single-shot steam process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this short communication, UV/Vis was used as an analytical tool for the quantification of lignin concentrations in aqueous mediums. A significant correlation was determined between absorbance and concentration of lignin in solution. For this study, lignin was produced from different types of biomasses (willow, aspen, softwood, canary grass and hemp) using steam processes. Quantification was performed at 212, 225, 237, 270, 280 and 287 nm. UV-Vis quantification of lignin was found suitable for different types of biomass making this a timesaving analytical system that could lead to uses as Process Analytical Tool (PAT) in biorefineries utilizing steam processes or comparable approaches.

Lee RA; Bédard C; Berberi V; Beauchet R; Lavoie JM

2013-09-01

280

Training load quantification in triathlon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are different Indices of Training Stress of varying complexity, to quantification Training load. Examples include the training impulse (TRIMP), the session (RPE), Lucia’s TRIMP or Summated Zone Score. But the triathlon, a sport to be combined where there are interactions between different segments, is a complication when it comes to quantify the training. The aim of this paper is to review current methods of quantification, and to propose a scale to quantify the training load in triathlon simple application.

ROBERTO CEJUELA ANTA; JONATHAN ESTEVE-LANAO

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Analytical theory for the nonlinear optical response of a Kerr-type standing-wave cavity side-coupling to a MIM waveguide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article, an analytical theory to describe the nonlinear dynamic response characteristics of a typical SPP waveguide-cavity structure formed by a Kerr-type standing-wave cavity side-coupling to a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide is proposed by combining the temporal coupled mode theory and the Kerr nonlinearity. With the analytical theory, the optical bistability with the hysteresis behavior is successfully predicted, and the optical bistability evolutions and its dynamic physical mechanism are also phenomenologically analyzed. Moreover, the influence of the quality factors Q0 and Q1 on the first-turnning point (FTP) power of optical bistability and the bistable region width, the approaches to decrease the FTP power and to broaden the bistable region are also discussed in detail with our analytical theory. This work can help us understand the physical mechanism of the nonlinear dynamical response at nanoscale, and may be useful to design nonlinear nanophotonic systems for applications in ultra-compact all-optical devices and storages.

Liu Y; Zhou F; Mao Q

2013-10-01

282

Review of Hydroelasticity Theories  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS) are reviewed and discussed in details. Special emphasis is placed on papers from China and Japan (in native languages) as these papers are not generally publicly known in the rest of the world.

Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng

2006-01-01

283

Quantification of natural phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories.

1997-01-01

284

Application of perturbation theory to sensitivity calculations of PWR type reactor cores using the two-channel model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity calculations are very important in design and safety of nuclear reactor cores. Large codes with a great number of physical considerations have been used to perform sensitivity studies. However, these codes need long computation time involving high costs. The perturbation theory has constituted an efficient and economical method to perform sensitivity analysis. The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (matricial formalism) to a simplified model of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) analysis to perform sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of enthalpy and coolant velocity with respect to coolant density and hot channel area were developed from the proposed model. The CASNUR.FOR code to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients was written in Fortran. The comparison between results obtained from the matricial formalism of perturbation theory with those obtained directly from the proposed model makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

1988-01-01

285

Slater-type geminals in explicitly-correlated perturbation theory: application to n-alkanols and analysis of errors and basis-set requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the recent years, Slater-type geminals (STGs) have been used with great success to expand the first-order wave function in an explicitly-correlated perturbation theory. The present work reports on this theory's implementation in the framework of the Turbomole suite of programs. A formalism is presented for evaluating all of the necessary molecular two-electron integrals by means of the Obara-Saika recurrence relations, which can be applied when the STG is expressed as a linear combination of a small number (n) of Gaussians (STG-nG geminal basis). In the Turbomole implementation of the theory, density fitting is employed and a complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) is used for the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation of explicitly-correlated theory. By virtue of this RI approximation, the calculation of molecular three- and four-electron integrals is avoided. An approximation is invoked to avoid the two-electron integrals over the commutator between the operators of kinetic energy and the STG. This approximation consists of computing commutators between matrices in place of operators. Integrals over commutators between operators would have occurred if the theory had been formulated and implemented as proposed originally. The new implementation in Turbomole was tested by performing a series of calculations on rotational conformers of the alkanols n-propanol through n-pentanol. Basis-set requirements concerning the orbital basis, the auxiliary basis set for density fitting and the CABS were investigated. Furthermore, various (constrained) optimizations of the amplitudes of the explicitly-correlated double excitations were studied. These amplitudes can be optimized in orbital-variant and orbital-invariant manners, or they can be kept fixed at the values governed by the rational generator approach, that is, by the electron cusp conditions. Electron-correlation effects beyond the level of second-order perturbation theory were accounted for by conventional coupled-cluster calculations with single, double and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The explicitly-correlated perturbation theory results were combined with CCSD(T) results and compared with literature data obtained by basis-set extrapolation. PMID:18535722

Höfener, Sebastian; Bischoff, Florian A; Glöss, Andreas; Klopper, Wim

2008-05-06

286

Slater-type geminals in explicitly-correlated perturbation theory: application to n-alkanols and analysis of errors and basis-set requirements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the recent years, Slater-type geminals (STGs) have been used with great success to expand the first-order wave function in an explicitly-correlated perturbation theory. The present work reports on this theory's implementation in the framework of the Turbomole suite of programs. A formalism is presented for evaluating all of the necessary molecular two-electron integrals by means of the Obara-Saika recurrence relations, which can be applied when the STG is expressed as a linear combination of a small number (n) of Gaussians (STG-nG geminal basis). In the Turbomole implementation of the theory, density fitting is employed and a complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) is used for the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation of explicitly-correlated theory. By virtue of this RI approximation, the calculation of molecular three- and four-electron integrals is avoided. An approximation is invoked to avoid the two-electron integrals over the commutator between the operators of kinetic energy and the STG. This approximation consists of computing commutators between matrices in place of operators. Integrals over commutators between operators would have occurred if the theory had been formulated and implemented as proposed originally. The new implementation in Turbomole was tested by performing a series of calculations on rotational conformers of the alkanols n-propanol through n-pentanol. Basis-set requirements concerning the orbital basis, the auxiliary basis set for density fitting and the CABS were investigated. Furthermore, various (constrained) optimizations of the amplitudes of the explicitly-correlated double excitations were studied. These amplitudes can be optimized in orbital-variant and orbital-invariant manners, or they can be kept fixed at the values governed by the rational generator approach, that is, by the electron cusp conditions. Electron-correlation effects beyond the level of second-order perturbation theory were accounted for by conventional coupled-cluster calculations with single, double and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The explicitly-correlated perturbation theory results were combined with CCSD(T) results and compared with literature data obtained by basis-set extrapolation.

Höfener S; Bischoff FA; Glöss A; Klopper W

2008-06-01

287

An uncertainty inventory demonstration - a primary step in uncertainty quantification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tools, methods, and theories for assessing and quantifying uncertainties vary by application. Uncertainty quantification tasks have unique desiderata and circumstances. To realistically assess uncertainty requires the engineer/scientist to specify mathematical models, the physical phenomena of interest, and the theory or framework for assessments. For example, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) specifically identifies uncertainties using probability theory, and therefore, PRA's lack formal procedures for quantifying uncertainties that are not probabilistic. The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) proceeds by ranking phenomena using scoring criteria that results in linguistic descriptors, such as importance ranked with words, 'High/Medium/Low.' The use of words allows PIRT to be flexible, but the analysis may then be difficult to combine with other uncertainty theories. We propose that a necessary step for the development of a procedure or protocol for uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the application of an Uncertainty Inventory. An Uncertainty Inventory should be considered and performed in the earliest stages of UQ.

Langenbrunner, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Issac F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

2009-01-01

288

Study on exploration theory and SAR technology for interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit and its application in Eastern Jungar Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Started with analyzing the features of metallogenetic epoch and space distribution of typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit both in China and abroad and their relations of basin evolution, the authors have proposed the idea that the last unconformity mainly controls the metallogenetic epoch and the strength of structure activity after the last unconformity determines the deposit space. An exploration theory with the kernel from new events to the old one is put forward. The means and method to use SAR technology to identify ore-controlling key factors are discussed. An application study in Eastern Jungar Basin is performed

2001-01-01

289

Application of the perturbation theory-differential formalism-for sensitivity analysis in steam generators of PWR type nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An homogeneous model which simulates the stationary behavior of steam generators of PWR type reactors and uses the differential formalism of perturbation theory for analysing sensibility of linear and non-linear responses, is presented. The PERGEVAP computer code to calculate the temperature distribution in the steam generator and associated importance function, is developed. The code also evaluates effects of the thermohydraulic parameter variation on selected functionals. The obtained results are compared with results obtained by GEVAP computer code . (M.C.K.)

1987-01-01

290

Behavior of a Bianchi Type I Universe in Einstein-Cartan theory using the improved energy-momentum tensor with spin density  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this treatise is to examine the behavior of a standard Bianchi Type I universe modeled as a fluid with expansion, shear, and vorticity and to see what effects torsion has on the behavior of the model. It is shown that a generalized (or power law) inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a cosmology modeled as a Bianchi Type I anisotropic model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory with the improved Stress-Energy-Momentum-Tensor (SEMT) with spin density of Ray and Smalley. This is made explicit by analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially-dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear allipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation

1986-01-01

291

Viscosity solutions for partial differential equations with Neumann type boundary conditions and some aspects of Aubry-Mather theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We study partial differential inequalities (PDI) of the type where NK([dot operator]) is the normal cone to the set K. We prove existence of a constant such that the PDI of Hamilton-Jacobi type has a unique (global) Lipschitz viscosity solution. We provide a formula to calculate this constant. Moreover, we define a subset of K such that any two solutions of the previous PDI which coincide on will coincide on K. Our paper generalizes results of the case without boundary conditions for convex Hamiltonians obtained by LEC. Evans and A. Fathi.

Serea, Oana-Silvia

2007-12-01

292

Accelerating Bianchi Type-V Cosmology with Perfect Fluid and Heat Flow in Saez-Ballester Theory  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we discuss the law of variation of scale factor $a = (t^{k}e^{t})^{\\frac{1}{n}}$ which yields a time-dependent deceleration parameter (DP) representing a new class of models that generate a transition of universe from the early decelerated phase to the recent accelerating phase. Exact solutions of Einstein's modified field equations with perfect fluid and heat conduction are obtained within the framework of Saez-Ballester scalar-tensor theory of gravitation and the model is found to be in good agreement with recent observations. We find, for n = 3, k = 1, the present value of DP in derived model as q_0 = -0.67 which is very near to the observed value of DP at present epoch. We find that the time-dependent DP is sensible for the present day Universe and give an earmark description of evolution of universe. Some physical and geometric properties of the models are also discussed.

Pradhan, Anirudh; Chouhan, D S

2012-01-01

293

Active assistance technology reduces glycosylated hemoglobin and weight in individuals with type 2 diabetes: results of a theory-based randomized trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes is an individual health challenge requiring ongoing self-management. Remote patient reporting of relevant health parameters and linked automated feedback via mobile telephone have potential to strengthen self-management and improve outcomes. This research involved development and evaluation of a mobile telephone-based remote patient reporting and automated telephone feedback system, guided by health behavior change theory, aimed at improving self-management and health status in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects and Methods: This research comprised a randomized controlled trial. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (range, 6.5-11%) or use of oral diabetes medication, and 30-70 years of age. Intervention subjects (n=24) participated in remote patient reporting of health status parameters and linked health behavior change feedback. Control participants (n=24) received standard of care including diabetes education and healthcare provider counseling. Patients were followed for approximately 10 months. Results: Intervention participants achieved, compared with controls and controlling for baseline, a significantly greater mean reduction in HbA1c of -0.40% (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.67% to -0.14%) versus 0.036% (95% CI -0.23% to 0.30%) (P<0.03) and significantly greater weight reduction of -2.1?kg (95% CI -3.6 to -0.6?kg) versus 0.4?kg (95% CI -1.1 to 1.9?kg). Nonsignificant trends for greater intervention compared with control improvement in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. Conclusions: Sophisticated information technology platforms for remote patient reporting linked with theory-based health behavior change automated feedback have potential to improve patient outcomes in type 2 diabetes and merit scaled-up research efforts.

Orsama AL; Lähteenmäki J; Harno K; Kulju M; Wintergerst E; Schachner H; Stenger P; Leppänen J; Kaijanranta H; Salaspuro V; Fisher WA

2013-08-01

294

Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ebben, WP, Fauth, ML, Garceau, LR, and Petushek, EJ. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3288-3298, 2011-Quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is necessary to understand the characteristics of these exercises and the proper progression of this mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises. This study also sought to assess gender differences in these variables. Twenty-six men and 23 women with previous experience in performing plyometric training served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including line hops, 15.24-cm cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJs), loaded CMJs equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum squat, depth jumps normalized to the subject's jump height (JH), and single leg jumps. All plyometric exercises were assessed with a force platform. Outcome variables associated with the takeoff, airborne, and landing phase of each plyometric exercise were evaluated. These variables included the peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) during takeoff, the time to takeoff, flight time, JH, peak power, landing rate of force development, and peak vertical GRF during landing. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type and all outcome variables (p ? 0.05) and for the interaction between gender and peak vertical GRF during takeoff (p ? 0.05). Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the outcome variables assessed (p ? 0.05). These findings can be used to guide the progression of plyometric training by incorporating exercises of increasing intensity over the course of a program.

Ebben WP; Fauth ML; Garceau LR; Petushek EJ

2011-12-01

295

Patient experiences of a theory-based lifestyle-focused group treatment in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are two of the most common public health diseases, and up to 80 % of the cases may be prevented by lifestyle modification. The physiological effects of lifestyle-focused treatment are relatively well studied, but how patients actually experience such treatments is still rather unclear. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore how patients experience lifestyle-focused group treatment in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. METHOD: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 patients attending lifestyle-focused group treatment based on social cognitive theory at a behavioral medicine clinic in northern Sweden. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed according to Malterud's systematic text condensation. RESULTS: The study shows that patients participating in this kind of group-based lifestyle treatment went through a process of self-development which deepened their understanding of own responsibility for health and improved their skills in finding support in others. The process could be tracked through three different themes (the holistic view, personal responsibility, and group treatment) which together reflected the most essential parts of the informants' experience and showed the patient as an active decision maker struggling to adopt the principles of behavioral change. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle-focused group treatment, based on social cognitive theory, was shown to stimulate different components that strengthen patients' self-efficacy for long-term behavioral change.

Ljung S; Olsson C; Rask M; Lindahl B

2013-09-01

296

Information Theory Filters for Wavelet Packet Coefficient Selection with Application to Corrosion Type Identification from Acoustic Emission Signals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The damage caused by corrosion in chemical process installations can lead to unexpected plant shutdowns and the leakage of potentially toxic chemicals into the environment. When subjected to corrosion, structural changes in the material occur, leading to energy releases as acoustic waves. This acoustic activity can in turn be used for corrosion monitoring, and even for predicting the type of corrosion. Here we apply wavelet packet decomposition to extract features from acoustic emission signals. We then use the extracted wavelet packet coefficients for distinguishing between the most important types of corrosion processes in the chemical process industry: uniform corrosion, pitting and stress corrosion cracking. The local discriminant basis selection algorithm can be considered as a standard for the selection of the most discriminative wavelet coefficients. However, it does not take the statistical dependencies between wavelet coefficients into account. We show that, when these dependencies are ignored, a lower accuracy is obtained in predicting the corrosion type. We compare several mutual information filters to take these dependencies into account in order to arrive at a more accurate prediction.

Gert Van Dijck; Marc M. Van Hulle

2011-01-01

297

Massive IIA string theory and Matrix theory compactification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We propose a Matrix theory approach to Romans' massive Type IIA supergravity. It is obtained by applying the procedure of Matrix theory compactifications to Hull's proposal of the massive Type IIA string theory as M-theory on a twisted torus. The resulting Matrix theory is a super-Yang-Mills theory on large N three-branes with a space-dependent noncommutativity parameter, which is also independently derived by a T-duality approach. We give evidence showing that the energies of a class of physical excitations of the super-Yang-Mills theory show the correct symmetry expected from massive Type IIA string theory in a lightcone quantization

2003-09-08

298

Quantification of Information in a One-Way Plant-to-Animal Communication System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to demonstrate possible broader applications of information theory to the quantification of non-human communication systems, we apply calculations of information entropy to a simple chemical communication from the cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum) to the wasp (Cardiochiles nigriceps) studied by DeMoraes et al. The purpose of this chemical communication from cotton plants to wasps is presumed to be to allow the predatory wasp to more easily obtain the location of its preferred prey—one of two types of parasitic herbivores feeding on the cotton plants. Specification of the plant-eating herbivore feeding on it by the cotton plants allows preferential attraction of the wasps to those individual plants. We interpret the emission of nine chemicals by the plants as individual signal differences, (depending on the herbivore type), to be detected by the wasps as constituting a nine-signal one-way communication system across kingdoms (from the kingdom Plantae to the kingdom Animalia). We use fractional differences in the chemical abundances, (emitted as a result of the two herbivore types), to calculate the Shannon information entropic measures (marginal, joint, and mutual entropies, as well as the ambiguity, etc. of the transmitted message). We then compare these results with the subsequent behavior of the wasps, (calculating the equivocation in the message reception), for possible insights into the history and actual working of this one-way communication system.

Laurance R. Doyle

2009-01-01

299

Behaviour of a fibre-type thermal insulation for high temperature reactors under rapid depressurization; theory and measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The depressurization behaviour of a fibre-type thermal insulation has been investigated both by measurements with air and helium and with numerical models. A simple lumped parameter model has been used to reproduce the measured transients for air as well as for helium. All the experimental data have been obtained with reasonable accuracy by fitting two empirical parameters, the effective surfaces of the flow through the venting holes and the flow through the perforated tube. It is remarkable that the same parameters reproduce the experimental data for such different gases as air and helium. The dependence of the depressurization behaviour on the different parameters has been treated by a dimensional analysis. (Auth.)

1980-01-01

300

D=4 N=1 type IIB orientifolds with continuous Wilson lines, moving branes, and their field theory realization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We investigate four-dimensional N=1 type IIB orientifolds with continuous Wilson lines, and their T-dual realizations as orientifolds with moving branes. When continuous Wilson lines become discrete the gauge symmetry is enhanced and the T-dual orientifold corresponds to branes sitting at the orbifold fixed points. There is a field theoretic analog describing these phenomena as D- and F-flat deformations of the T-dual model, where the branes sit at the origin (original model without Wilson lines) as well as a deformation of the T-dual model where sets of branes sit at the fixed points (the model with discrete Wilson lines). We demonstrate these phenomena for the prototype Z3 orientifold: we present an explicit construction of the general set of continuous Wilson lines as well as their explicit field theoretic realization

2000-10-16

 
 
 
 
301

Theory of chemical bonds in metalloenzymes IV: Hybrid-DFT study of Rieske-type [2Fe bond 2S] clusters  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rieske-type [2Fe bond 2S] cores of electron-transfer (ET) proteins in the mitochondrial respiratory chain have unusual properties, such as redox potentials and spectroscopy. In this study, part IV of a series, the inherent molecular structures and characteristic electronic structures of the Rieske-type [2Fe bond 2S] clusters are investigated using broken-symmetry hybrid density functional theory (BS-HDFT). Geometry optimizations for the oxidized and reduced states were performed and their characteristic vibrational modes are assigned. Magnetic properties are investigated using model Hamiltonians to describe the electron delocalization and the unsymmetric property. The parameters of the model Hamiltonian, such as exchange coupling J, valence delocalization B, and potential energy difference ?, are evaluated from the BS-HDFT calculations. The valence localization and excitation energy (?E) of the Rieske-type [2Fe bond 2S] cluster are discussed. The chemical bond nature is characterized by chemical indices from natural orbital analysis. Our theoretical results are reasonably consistent with experimental results.

Shoji, Mitsuo; Koizumi, Kenichi; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

302

Effective field theory and Ab-initio calculation of p-type (Ga, Fe)N within LDA and SIC approximation  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on first-principles spin-density functional calculations, using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation, we investigated the half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior of (Ga, Fe)N co-doped with carbon within the self-interaction-corrected local density approximation. Mechanism of hybridization and interaction between magnetic ions in p-type (Ga, Fe)N is investigated. Stability energy of ferromagnetic and disorder local moment states was calculated for different carbon concentration. The local density and the self-interaction-corrected approximations have been used to explain the strong ferromagnetic interaction observed and the mechanism that stabilizes this state. The transition temperature to the ferromagnetic state has been calculated within the effective field theory, with a Honmura-Kaneyoshi differential operator technique.

Salmani, E.; Mounkachi, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; El Kenz, A.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.

2013-03-01

303

Vortex motion and the Hall effect in type II superconductors a time dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory approach  

CERN Multimedia

Vortex motion in type II superconductors is studied starting from a variant of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, in which the order parameter relaxation time is taken to be complex. Using a method due to Gor'kov and Kopnin, we derive an equation of motion for a single vortex ($B\\ll H_{c2}$) in the presence of an applied transport current. The imaginary part of the relaxation time and the normal state Hall effect both break ``particle-hole symmetry,'' and produce a component of the vortex velocity parallel to the transport current, and consequently a Hall field due to the vortex motion. Various models for the relaxation time are considered, allowing for a comparison to some phenomenological models of vortex motion in superconductors, such as the Bardeen-Stephen and Nozi\\`eres-Vinen models, as well as to models of vortex motion in neutral superfluids. In addition, the transport energy, Nernst effect, and thermopower are calculated for a single vortex. Vortex bending and fluctuations can also be incl...

Dorsey, A T

1992-01-01

304

Detection and quantification of neurotransmitters in dialysates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensitive analytical methods are needed for the separation and quantification of neurotransmitters obtained in microdialysate studies. This unit describes methods that permit quantification of nanomolar concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] electrochemical detection), acetylcholine (HPLC-coupled to an enzyme reactor), and amino acids (HPLC-fluorescence detection, capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection). PMID:23559307

Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I; Parrot, Sandrine; Denoroy, Luc

2013-04-01

305

The necessity of operational risk management and quantification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beginning with the fact that performant strategies of the financial institutions have programmes and management procedures for the banking risks, which have as main objective to minimize the probability of risk generation and the bank’s potential exposure, this paper wants to present the operational risk management and quantification methods. Also it presents the modality of minimum capital requirement for the operational risk. Therefore, the first part presents the conceptual approach of the operational risks through the point of view of the financial institutions exposed to this type of risk. The second part describes the management and evaluation methods for the operational risk. The final part of this article presents the approach assumed by a financial institution with a precise purpose: the quantification of the minimum capital requirements of the operational risk.

Barbu Teodora Cristina; Olteanu (Puiu) Ana Cornelia; Radu Alina Nicoleta

2008-01-01

306

Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec). These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

Plotnikoff Ronald C; Courneya Kerry S; Trinh Linda; Karunamuni Nandini; Sigal Ronald J

2008-01-01

307

Medición volumétrica de grasa visceral abdominal con resonancia magnética y su relación con antropometría, en una población diabética/ Quantification of visceral adipose tissue using magnetic resonance imaging compared with anthropometry, in type 2 diabetic patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with the development of metabolic diseases. Anthropometry is one of the methods used to quantify it. aim: to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and anthropometric indexes, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in type 2 diabetic patients (DM2). Patients and Methods: Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients aged 55 to 78 (more) years (15 females) and weighting 61.5 to 97 kg, were included. The patients underwent MRI examination on a Philips Intera® 1.5T MR scanner. The MRI protocol included a spectral excitation sequence centered at the fat peak. The field of view included from L4-L5 to the diaphragmatic border. VAT was measured using the software Image J®. Weight, height, BMI, WC and body fat percentage (BF%), derived from the measurement offour skinfolds with the equation of Durnin and Womersley, were also measured. The association between MRIVAT measurement and anthropometry was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Mean VAT was 2478 ± 758 ml, mean BMI29.5 ± 4.7 kg/m², and mean WC was 100 ± 9.7 cm. There was a poor correlation between VAT, BMI (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.56). Conclusions: BMI and WC are inaccurate predictors of VAT volume in type 2 diabetic patients.

Serrano García, Cristóbal; Barrera, Francisco; Labbé, Pilar; Liberona, Jessica; Arrese, Marco; Irarrázabal, Pablo; Tejos, Cristián; Uribe, Sergio

2012-12-01

308

Medición volumétrica de grasa visceral abdominal con resonancia magnética y su relación con antropometría, en una población diabética Quantification of visceral adipose tissue using magnetic resonance imaging compared with anthropometry, in type 2 diabetic patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with the development of metabolic diseases. Anthropometry is one of the methods used to quantify it. aim: to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and anthropometric indexes, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in type 2 diabetic patients (DM2). Patients and Methods: Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients aged 55 to 78 years (15 females) and weighting 61.5 to 97 kg, were included. The patients underwent MRI examination on a Philips Intera® 1.5T MR scanner. The MRI protocol included a spectral excitation sequence centered at the fat peak. The field of view included from L4-L5 to the diaphragmatic border. VAT was measured using the software Image J®. Weight, height, BMI, WC and body fat percentage (BF%), derived from the measurement offour skinfolds with the equation of Durnin and Womersley, were also measured. The association between MRIVAT measurement and anthropometry was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Mean VAT was 2478 ± 758 ml, mean BMI29.5 ± 4.7 kg/m², and mean WC was 100 ± 9.7 cm. There was a poor correlation between VAT, BMI (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.56). Conclusions: BMI and WC are inaccurate predictors of VAT volume in type 2 diabetic patients.

Cristóbal Serrano García; Francisco Barrera; Pilar Labbé; Jessica Liberona; Marco Arrese; Pablo Irarrázabal; Cristián Tejos; Sergio Uribe

2012-01-01

309

Waltz's Theory of Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the ‘fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda, the article introduces a key literature from philosophy of science about the structure of theory, and particularly about the way even natural science uses theory very differently from what IRs mainstream thinks - and much more like the way Waltz wants his theory used.

Wæver, Ole

2009-01-01

310

Quantification of Flow Structures in Syntectonic Magmatic Rocks  

Science.gov (United States)

Fabrics of syntectonic magmatic rocks provide important information on melt emplacement and crystallization conditions and, consequently, information on state and development of certain parts of the continental crust. Therefore, detailed studies on magmatic fabrics and, specifically, their quantification is a necessary prerequisite for any more detailed study. Fabric anisotropy and heterogeneity are fundamental properties of magmatic rocks. Their quantification can be performed by recently developed modified methods of fractal geometry. (i) A modified Cantor-dust method leads to a direction-related fractal dimension and, consequently, to quantification of fabric anisotropy. (ii) A modified perimeter method allows determination of fractal dimensions of complex curves in relation to their average orientations. (iii) A combination of box-counting method with kriging results in a contour map of the box-counting dimension, revealing the local fabric heterogeneity. (iv) A combination of method iii and a modified Cantor-dust method leads to mapping of fabric anisotropy (Kruhl et al. 2004, Peternell et al. subm.). Automation of these methods allows fast recording, generation of large data sets and the application of quantification methods on large areas (Gerik & Kruhl subm.). It leads to a precision of fabric analysis, not obtainable by manual execution of methods. Specifically, the direction-related Cantor-dust method has proven useful for analyzing magmatic flow structures and quantifying the intensity of flow. Application of this method to different types of syntectonic magmatic rocks will be presented and discussed. References: Gerik, A. & Kruhl, J.H.: Towards automated pattern quantification: time-efficient assessment of anisotropy of 2D pattern with AMOCADO. Computers & Geosciences (subm.). Kruhl, J.H., Andries, F., Peternell, M. & Volland, S. 2004: Fractal geometry analyses of rock fabric anisotropies and inhomogeneities. In: Kolymbas, D. (ed.), Fractals in Geotechnical Engineering, Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and Tunnelling, 9, Logos, Berlin, 115-135. Peternell, M., Bitencourt, M.F. & Kruhl, J.H.: New methods for large-scale rock fabric quantification - the Piquiri Syenite Massif, Southern Brazil. Journal of Structural Geology (subm.)

Kruhl, J. H.; Gerik, A.

2007-12-01

311

Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

2009-01-01

312

PSAQ™ standards for accurate MS-based quantification of proteins: from the concept to biomedical applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Absolute protein quantification, i.e. determining protein concentrations in biological samples, is essential to our understanding of biological and physiopathological phenomena. Protein quantification methods based on the use of antibodies are very effective and widely used. However, over the last ten years, absolute protein quantification by mass spectrometry has attracted considerable interest, particularly for the study of systems biology and as part of biomarker development. This interest is mainly linked to the high multiplexing capacity of MS analysis, and to the availability of stable-isotope-labelled standards for quantification. This article describes the details of how to produce, control the quality and use a specific type of standard: Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) standards. These standards are whole isotopically labelled proteins, analogues of the proteins to be assayed. PSAQ standards can be added early during sample treatment, thus they can correct for protein losses during sample prefractionation and for incomplete sample digestion. Because of this, quantification of target proteins is very accurate and precise using these standards. To illustrate the advantages of the PSAQ method, and to contribute to the increase in its use, selected applications in the biomedical field are detailed here.

Picard G; Lebert D; Louwagie M; Adrait A; Huillet C; Vandenesch F; Bruley C; Garin J; Jaquinod M; Brun V

2012-10-01

313

Molecular quantification of canine specific microRNA species.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to the heterogeneous group of non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules. They play an important role in physiological functions, especially during tissue development. Moreover, their cell-type specific expression levels are also thought to be altered in association with different pathological conditions, including metabolic disorders and cancer. However, the vast majority of molecular assays for their quantification have been established for humans and mice, with no reports on specific research tools for dogs. Here canine-specific SYBRGreen based quantitative, real-time PCR assays are introduced for the quantification of 21 miRNAs and five small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). The assay includes a time-saving and economical universal one-tube cDNA synthesis approach which allows for a more robust relative quantification than the commonly used multiple specific reverse transcriptions. GeNorm and NormFinder analysis were used for the evaluation of potential housekeeping genes and identified miRNAs to be more stable housekeeping genes by trend. PMID:23886399

von Deetzen, M-C; Schmeck, B; Gruber, A D; Klopfleisch, R

2013-07-22

314

Molecular quantification of canine specific microRNA species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to the heterogeneous group of non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules. They play an important role in physiological functions, especially during tissue development. Moreover, their cell-type specific expression levels are also thought to be altered in association with different pathological conditions, including metabolic disorders and cancer. However, the vast majority of molecular assays for their quantification have been established for humans and mice, with no reports on specific research tools for dogs. Here canine-specific SYBRGreen based quantitative, real-time PCR assays are introduced for the quantification of 21 miRNAs and five small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). The assay includes a time-saving and economical universal one-tube cDNA synthesis approach which allows for a more robust relative quantification than the commonly used multiple specific reverse transcriptions. GeNorm and NormFinder analysis were used for the evaluation of potential housekeeping genes and identified miRNAs to be more stable housekeeping genes by trend.

von Deetzen MC; Schmeck B; Gruber AD; Klopfleisch R

2013-10-01

315

Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. Methods The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall basement membrane layer continuity or lack thereof. Non-sinusoidal blood capillaries were further sub-classified as non-fenestrated or fenestrated based on the absence or presence of endothelial cells with fenestrations. The sinusoidal blood capillaries of the liver, myeloid (red) bone marrow, and spleen were sub-classified as reticuloendothelial or non-reticuloendothelial based on the phago-endocytic capacity of the endothelial cells. Results The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across capillary walls of non-sinusoidal non-fenestrated blood capillaries is less than 1 nm for those with interendothelial cell clefts lined with zona occludens junctions (i.e. brain and spinal cord), and approximately 5 nm for those with clefts lined with macula occludens junctions (i.e. skeletal muscle). The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated blood capillaries with diaphragmed fenestrae ranges between 6 and 12 nm (i.e. exocrine and endocrine glands); whereas, the physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated capillaries with open 'non-diaphragmed' fenestrae is approximately 15 nm (kidney glomerulus). In the case of the sinusoidal reticuloendothelial blood capillaries of myeloid bone marrow, the transvascular transport of non-endogenous macromolecules larger than 5 nm into the bone marrow interstitial space takes place via reticuloendothelial cell-mediated phago-endocytosis and transvascular release, which is the case for systemic bone marrow imaging agents as large as 60 nm in diameter. Conclusions The physiologic upper limit of pore size in the capillary walls of most non-sinusoidal blood capillaries to the transcapillary passage of lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules ranges between 5 and 12 nm. Therefore, macromolecules larger than the physiologic upper limits of pore size in the non-sinusoidal blood capillary types generally do not accumulate within the respective tissue intersti

Sarin Hemant

2010-01-01

316

Assessment of Factors Affecting Self-Care Behavior Among Women With Type 2 Diabetes in Khoy City Diabetes Clinic Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies show that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating complications is continuous self-care. This study aimed to determine factors affecting self-care behavior of diabetic women in Khoy City, Iran based the extended theory of reasoned action (ETRA). Materials and Methods: A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy City in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the relevant variables (diabetes knowledge, personal beliefs, subjective norm, self-efficacy and behavioral intention, and self-care behavior) based on ETRA. Reliability and validity of the instruments were determined prior to the study. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the SPSS-version 16 software.Results: Based on the data obtained, the proposed model could predict and explain 41% and 26.2% of the variance of behavioral intention and self-care, respectively, in women with type-2 diabetes. The data also indicated that among the constructs of the model perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor for intention for self-care behavior. This construct affected both directly and indirectly self-care behavior. The next strongest predictors were attitudes, social pressures, social norms, and intervals between visiting patients by the treating team.Conclusion: The proposed model can predict self-care behavior very well. Thus, it may form the basis for educational interventions aiming at promoting self-care and, ultimately, controlling diabetes.

Alireza Didarloo; Davood Shojaeizadeh; Hasan Eftekhar Ardebili; Shamseddin Niknami; Ebrahim Hajizadeh; Mohammad Alizadeh

2011-01-01

317

Rate theory modeling of defect evolution under cascade damage conditions: the influence of vacancy-type cascade remnants and application to the defect production characterization by microstructural analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recent computational and experimental studies have confirmed that high energy cascades produce clustered defects of both vacancy- and interstitial-types as well as isolated point defects. However, the production probability, configuration, stability and other characteristics of the cascade clusters are not well understood in spite of the fact that clustered defect production would substantially affect the irradiation-induced microstructures and the consequent property changes in a certain range of temperatures and displacement rates. In this work, a model of point defect and cluster evolution in irradiated materials under cascade damage conditions was developed by combining the conventional reaction rate theory and the results from the latest molecular dynamics simulation studies. This paper provides a description of the model and a model-based fundamental investigation of the influence of configuration, production efficiency and the initial size distribution of cascade-produced vacancy clusters. In addition, using the model, issues on characterizing cascade-induced defect production by microstructural analysis will be discussed. In particular, the determination of cascade vacancy cluster configuration, surviving defect production efficiency and cascade-interaction volume is attempted by analyzing the temperature dependence of swelling rate and loop growth rate in austenitic steels and model alloys. (author)

1995-01-01

318

Quantification of Toxicological Effects for Dichloromethane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The source documents for background information used to develop the report on the quantification of toxicological effects for dichloromethane are the health assessment document (HAD) for dichloromethane and a subsequent addendum to the HAD (U.S. EPA, 1985...

1990-01-01

319

Quantification model for energy consumption in edification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment. The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m2 de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación. La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado. Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos numéricos que podrán ser comparados en otras tipologías y ámbitos geográficos, a la vez que permitirán analizar y precisar mejoras en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado por los diferentes materiales, subsistemas y elementos constructivos habitualmente utilizados en las tipologías edificatorias definidas.

Mercader, Mª P.; Olivares, M.; Ramírez de Arellano, A.

2012-01-01

320

Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team management of chronic disease such as diabetes, however, the application of such models is less well established. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors underlying health professional teams' clinical management of diabetes using a psychological model of human behaviour. Methods A predictive questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) investigated health professionals' (HPs') cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes and intentions) about the provision of two aspects of care for patients with diabetes: prescribing statins and inspecting feet. General practitioners and practice nurses in England and the Netherlands completed parallel questionnaires, cross-validated for equivalence in English and Dutch. Behavioural data were practice-level patient-reported rates of foot examination and use of statin medication. Relationships between the cognitive antecedents of behaviour proposed by the TPB and healthcare teams' clinical behaviour were explored using multiple regression. Results In both countries, attitude and subjective norm were important predictors of health professionals' intention to inspect feet (Attitude: beta = .40; Subjective Norm: beta = .28; Adjusted R2 = .34, p 2 = .40, p Conclusion Using the TPB, we identified modifiable factors underlying health professionals' intentions to perform two clinical behaviours, providing a rationale for the development of targeted interventions. However, we did not observe a relationship between health professionals' intentions and our proxy measure of team behaviour. Significant methodological issues were highlighted concerning the use of models of individual behaviour to explain behaviours performed by teams. In order to investigate clinical behaviours performed by teams it may be necessary to develop measures that reflect the collective cognitions of the members of the team to facilitate the application of these theoretical models to team behaviours.

Hrisos Susan; Eccles Martin P; Francis Jill J; Bosch Marije; Dijkstra Rob; Johnston Marie; Grol Richard; Kaner Eileen FS; Steen Ian N

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Human error rates: initial quantification from instrumentation/control data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on a practical method of quantifying human errors made in conjunction with testing, maintaining, and operating specific instrumentation and control (I and C) components in reactor safety systems of licensed nuclear power plants. This quantification of human error is measured in terms of human error rate (HER); namely, the ratio of the number of human errors (of a specific type) to the number of opportunities for those particular errors. The HER's generated in this work provide a needed next step to the safety system valve and pump related human error endeavor reported this past year and detailed in NUREG/CR-1880.

Luckas, W.J. Jr.; Lettieri, V.; Hall, R.E.

1981-01-01

322

Precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanoparticles have opened new exciting avenues for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in human disease, and targeted nanoparticles are increasingly used as specific drug delivery vehicles. The precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization is of importance to measure the impact of physical and chemical properties on the uptake of nanoparticles into target cells or into cells responsible for rapid clearance. Internalization of nanoparticles has been measured by various techniques, but comparability of data between different laboratories is impeded by lack of a generally accepted standardized assay. Furthermore, the distinction between associated and internalized particles has been a challenge for many years, although this distinction is critical for most research questions. Previously used methods to verify intracellular location are typically not quantitative and do not lend themselves to high-throughput analysis. Here, we developed a mathematical model which integrates the data from high-throughput flow cytometry measurements with data from quantitative confocal microscopy. The generic method described here will be a useful tool in biomedical nanotechnology studies. The method was then applied to measure the impact of surface coatings of vesosomes on their internalization by cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). RES cells are responsible for rapid clearance of nanoparticles, and the resulting fast blood clearance is one of the major challenges in biomedical applications of nanoparticles. Coating of vesosomes with long chain polyethylene glycol showed a trend for lower internalization by RES cells.

Gottstein C; Wu G; Wong BJ; Zasadzinski JA

2013-06-01

323

Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative) theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

J. Nicolas Kaufmann

1998-01-01

324

WaveletQuant, an improved quantification software based on wavelet signal threshold de-noising for labeled quantitative proteomic analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative proteomics technologies have been developed to comprehensively identify and quantify proteins in two or more complex samples. Quantitative proteomics based on differential stable isotope labeling is one of the proteomics quantification technologies. Mass spectrometric data generated for peptide quantification are often noisy, and peak detection and definition require various smoothing filters to remove noise in order to achieve accurate peptide quantification. Many traditional smoothing filters, such as the moving average filter, Savitzky-Golay filter and Gaussian filter, have been used to reduce noise in MS peaks. However, limitations of these filtering approaches often result in inaccurate peptide quantification. Here we present the WaveletQuant program, based on wavelet theory, for better or alternative MS-based proteomic quantification. Results We developed a novel discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and a 'Spatial Adaptive Algorithm' to remove noise and to identify true peaks. We programmed and compiled WaveletQuant using Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition. We then incorporated the WaveletQuant program in the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP), a commonly used open source proteomics analysis pipeline. Conclusions We showed that WaveletQuant was able to quantify more proteins and to quantify them more accurately than the ASAPRatio, a program that performs quantification in the TPP pipeline, first using known mixed ratios of yeast extracts and then using a data set from ovarian cancer cell lysates. The program and its documentation can be downloaded from our website at http://systemsbiozju.org/data/WaveletQuant.

Mo Fan; Mo Qun; Chen Yuanyuan; Goodlett David R; Hood Leroy; Omenn Gilbert S; Li Song; Lin Biaoyang

2010-01-01

325

El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} space-time, hydrodynamic model of scale relativity theory and some applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A generalization of the Nottale's scale relativity theory is elaborated: the generalized Schroedinger equation results as an irrotational movement of Navier-Stokes type fluids having an imaginary viscosity coefficient. Then {psi} simultaneously becomes wave-function and speed potential. In the hydrodynamic formulation of scale relativity theory, some implications in the gravitational morphogenesis of structures are analyzed: planetary motion quantizations, Saturn's rings motion quantizations, redshift quantization in binary galaxies, global redshift quantization etc. The correspondence with El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} space-time implies a special type of superconductivity (El Naschie's superconductivity) and Cantorian-fractal sequences in the quantification of the Universe.

Agop, M. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece) and Department of Physics, Technical Gh., Asachi University, Iasi 700050 (Romania)]. E-mail: magop@phys.tuiasi.ro; Nica, P. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece); Department of Physics, Technical Gh., Asachi University, Iasi 700050 (Romania); Ioannou, P.D. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece); Malandraki, Olga [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece); Gavanas-Pahomi, I. [Department of Physics, Technical Gh., Asachi University, Iasi 700050 (Romania)

2007-12-15

326

Quantification dans le groupe nominal : étude comparative des structures partitives de quantification avec « of » en anglais général et en anglais de spécialité Quantification within the noun phrase : a comparative study of of-partitive structures in generalist and specialist texts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En complément des termes classiques utilisés par la langue afin d’exprimer la quantité ou la masse, il existe une pléthore de syntagmes caractérisés par l’utilisation de termes de quantité reliés par la préposition « of » au groupe nominal qui les suit, formant ensemble une structure dite partitive, que nous symboliserons par [Q of the NP]. Ce type de quantification renferme une série très diverse de formes selon qu’elles expriment le nombre ou la masse, ou qu’elles se rapportent à des quantifications objectives (mesures précises et vérifiables) ou subjectives (liées à l’appréciation du locuteur sur le nombre ou la masse). Cet article se propose d’étudier cette structure de quantification à travers des corpus de textes de la langue anglaise générale et de spécialité. Ceci nous a permis d’observer la façon dont ces quantificateurs se répartissent et se comportent lorsque l’on passe du domaine général au particulier, ainsi que de mettre l’accent sur leurs caractéristiques morphologiques et syntaxiques.In addition to a handful of words used by the language to express entities or mass, there are a plethora of phrases characterized by the use of a quantity word or phrase linked up by ‘of’ to the following noun group in a partitive construction, symbolized by [Q of the NP]. This type of quantification contains a series of various forms depending on whether they refer to number or mass on the one hand, or to objective quantifications (accurate and easily checked measures) or subjective ones (left to the speaker’s appraisal of number or mass) on the other. Much of this paper will concentrate on the of-partitive construction by analyzing a corpus of both generalist and specialist texts. This has allowed us not only to investigate the way these quantifiers are organized and behave as we move from general to particular domains, but to lay stress on their morphological and syntactic features.

Mourad Boughedaoui

2012-01-01

327

Introduction to superstring theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

2009-07-01

328

Introduction to superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS5 x S5. (author)

2009-01-01

329

Matrix String Theory  

CERN Document Server

Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

1997-01-01

330

The Practicality of Theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study of medical education has broadened significantly over the past decade to include a wide variety of theoretical frameworks from multiple research domains. There remains a significant misconception, however, that learning theories (largely drawn from cognitive psychology and education) are practical and useful to educators, whereas other types of theory are not. The authors of this commentary reflect on a learning-theory-based model for developing master learners presented by Schumacher and colleagues in this issue of Academic Medicine. They suggest that bioscientific and sociocultural theories can enhance different aspects of that model and provide specific examples from neuropsychophysiology, Foucauldian discourse analysis, and critical theory. Bioscientific and sociocultural theories such as these present medical educators with an exciting array of new methodological and interpretive possibilities. The authors illustrate ways in which these theories can have important practical applications for, and impacts on, the practice of medical education.

Kuper A; Whitehead C

2013-09-01

331

Pancreas++: Automated Quantification of Pancreatic Islet Cells in Microscopy Images  

Science.gov (United States)

The microscopic image analysis of pancreatic Islet of Langerhans morphology is crucial for the investigation of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Besides the general size of the islet, the percentage and relative position of glucagon-containing alpha-, and insulin-containing beta-cells is also important for pathophysiological analyses, especially in rodents. Hence, the ability to identify, quantify and spatially locate peripheral, and “involuted” alpha-cells in the islet core is an important analytical goal. There is a dearth of software available for the automated and sophisticated positional quantification of multiple cell types in the islet core. Manual analytical methods for these analyses, while relatively accurate, can suffer from a slow throughput rate as well as user-based biases. Here we describe a newly developed pancreatic islet analytical software program, Pancreas++, which facilitates the fully automated, non-biased, and highly reproducible investigation of islet area and alpha- and beta-cell quantity as well as position within the islet for either single or large batches of fluorescent images. We demonstrate the utility and accuracy of Pancreas++ by comparing its performance to other pancreatic islet size and cell type (alpha, beta) quantification methods. Our Pancreas++ analysis was significantly faster than other methods, while still retaining low error rates and a high degree of result correlation with the manually generated reference standard.

Chen, Hongyu; Martin, Bronwen; Cai, Huan; Fiori, Jennifer L.; Egan, Josephine M.; Siddiqui, Sana; Maudsley, Stuart

2013-01-01

332

In-gel total protein quantification using a ninhydrin-based method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Precise in-gel quantification of total protein amount of bands or spots in gels is the basis of subsequent biochemical, molecular biological and immunological analyses. Though several methods have been designed to evaluate relative amounts of proteins, these methods are of limited reliability because (semi-) quantifications depend on the amount of protein migrating into the gel and different proteins may lead to different absorptions/intensities of stained bands or spots. In the present study, we described a method to quantify both, hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteins using in-gel digestion with proteinase K, subsequent extraction and acid hydrolysis followed by the use of the ninhydrin reaction. The protocol is accurate and compatible with mass spectrometric characterization of proteins. Reproducible in-gel protein quantification was performed from SDS-PAGE and IEF/SDS-PAGE gels using bovine serum albumin as a standard protein. Bacteriorhodopsin separated on SDS-PAGE gel was quantified in addition in order to show that the method is also suitable for quantification of hydrophobic protein. This protocol for reliable in-gel protein quantification, which not only provides "arbitrary units of optical density", can also be completed in a minimum of 4 days or maximum 1 week depending on the type of electrophoresis with the disadvantage of being time consuming. PMID:23836417

Kang, Sung Ung; Heo, Seok; Lubec, Gert

2013-07-09

333

Topological field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We begin with a general discussion of topological field theories, their defining properties, and classification. The first model we consider in detail (section 3) is supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Topological sigma models, their observables, and the associated mathematics of complex geometry and intersection theory are presented in section 4. Following this, topological gauge theories are discussed in section 5, with particular emphasis on Donaldson theory. The matematics here is necessarily much more sophisticated than at any other point in this report, and to bridge this gap, a mathematical review of gauge theory and moduli spaces has been included. An analysis of the geometry underlying Donaldson theory gives a general recipe for constructing field theories associated to moduli spaces in arbitrary dimensions, and as an example, we analyze in detail the super BF theories associated with flat connections. Chern-Simons theory and related BF models are the subject of section 6. The connections with knot theory are briefly reviewed and the link with 2D conformal field theory is sketched. We also consider 3D gravity from the Chern-Simons point of view. A presentation of the metric and gauge theory approaches to topological gravity in two dimensions is given. As in all quantum field theories, the issues of renormalization needs to be addressed, and one is obliged to show that the formal topological properties of these theories survive quantization. This point is considered in section 8. We present a detailed analysis of the beta function in certain Witten type theories, and compute one-loop effects in Chern-Simons theory. (orig./HSI).

1991-01-01

334

Theory of bridge aerodynamics  

CERN Multimedia

Intended for studies in structural dynamics or wind engineering, this book focuses on the stochastic theory of wind induced dynamic response calculations for slender bridges or other line- like civil engineering type of structures. It contains examples of relevant cases, useful for the understanding and the practical application of the theory.

Strømmen, Einar

2006-01-01

335

Topological Domain Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis presents Topological Domain Theory as a powerful and flexible framework for denotational semantics. Topological Domain Theory models a wide range of type constructions and can interpret many computational features. Furthermore, it has close connections to established frameworks for denot...

Battenfeld, Ingo

336

Entanglement in Theory Space  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a new concept of entanglement for quantum systems: entanglement in theory space. This is defined by decomposing a theory into two by an un-gauging procedure. We provide two examples where this newly-introduced entanglement is closely related with conventional geometric entropies: deconstruction and AGT-type correspondence.

Yamazaki, Masahito

2013-01-01

337

Quantification of fuel rod cladding failure during LOCA accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper describes methodology for quantification of fuel cladding failure as a result of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) for WWER-440 reactor type. The methodology is based on external coupling of the thermo-hydraulic code RELAP5 and thermo-mechanical code TRANSURANUS. The thermo-hydraulic response of the unit to the accident is simulated by RELAP5 code, providing initial and boundary conditions for the thermo-mechanical simulation by the TRANSURANUS code. Cladding failure criterion of the TRANSURANUS code, derived and implemented into the code in the framework of EXTRA EURATOM fifth Framework Programme is used. Cladding failure probability is evaluated by the Monte Carlo algorithm varying the outer cladding temperature. In the second part of the paper, an example of application of the methodology for typical maximum design accident of the WWER-440 is given, presenting every step of methodology and typical failure rate for this type of accident (Authors)

2006-01-01

338

Group field theory with noncommutative metric variables.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We introduce a dual formulation of group field theories as a type of noncommutative field theories, making their simplicial geometry manifest. For Ooguri-type models, the Feynman amplitudes are simplicial path integrals for BF theories. We give a new definition of the Barrett-Crane model for gravity by imposing the simplicity constraints directly at the level of the group field theory action.

Baratin A; Oriti D

2010-11-01

339

Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to increased emissions unless we improve production efficiencies and management. Developing countries currently account for about three-quarters of direct emissions and are expected to be the most rapidly growing emission sources in the future (FAO 2011). Reducing agricultural emissions and increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and biomass has the potential to reduce agriculture's contribution to climate change by 5.5-6.0 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq)/year. Economic potentials, which take into account costs of implementation, range from 1.5 to 4.3 GT CO2eq/year, depending on marginal abatement costs assumed and financial resources committed, with most of this potential in developing countries (Smith et al 2007). The opportunity for mitigation in agriculture is thus significant, and, if realized, would contribute to making this sector carbon neutral. Yet it is only through a robust and shared understanding of how much carbon can be stored or how much CO2 is reduced from mitigation practices that informed decisions can be made about how to identify, implement, and balance a suite of mitigation practices as diverse as enhancing soil organic matter, increasing the digestibility of feed for cattle, and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applications. Only by selecting a portfolio of options adapted to regional characteristics and goals can mitigation needs be best matched to also serve rural development goals, including food security and increased resilience to climate change. Expansion of agricultural land also remains a major contributor of greenhouse gases, with deforestation, largely linked to clearing of land for cultivation or pasture, generating 80% of emissions from developing countries (Hosonuma et al 2012). There are clear opportunities for these countries to address mitigation strategies from the forest and agriculture sector, recognizing that agriculture plays a large role in economic and development potential. In this context, multiple development goals can be reinforced by specific climate funding granted on the basis of

Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

2013-03-01

340

Influenza: propagation, quantification, and storage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Three types exist, influenza A, B, and C. All infect humans, but only A and B are major human pathogens. Influenza type A viruses are divided into subtypes based on genetic and antigenic differences in the two surface spike proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The appropriate cell lines to be used for isolation of influenza A or B viruses depend on the clinical information and the host of origin. MDCK cells are the preferred cell line for isolation of human influenza viruses from clinical specimens.

Balish AL; Katz JM; Klimov AI

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Entanglement quantification by local unitaries  

CERN Multimedia

Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitaries play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as "shield entanglement". They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert- Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary. To the action of each different local unitary there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitaries with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these shield entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary f...

Monras, A; Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Davies, G B; Illuminati, F

2011-01-01

342

Review of the methods of quantification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to analyze qualitative observations, methods of quantification or optimal scaling have been proposed by Fisher, Guttman, and Hayashi. According to these methods, scores are assigned optimally in some objective and operational sense to the qualitative categories. The present paper mainly reviews Hayashi's four methods of quantification from the mathematical point of view. They are widely used, especially in Japan, in various fields such as social and marketing surveys, psychological research, medical research, etc., where information is obtained mainly in the form of qualitative categories. The first and second methods are applied to the case where an external criterion is present, and are used to predict the external criterion or to analyze the effects of factors. On the other hand, the third and fourth methods are applied to the case where no external criterion is present, and are used to construct a spatial configuration so as to grasp the mutual relationship of the data. After reviewing Hayashi's four methods, we discuss two topics which have been pointed out as the problems to be solved in applying the methods of quantification. One is quantification for ordered categories and the other is statistical consideration. With respect to these topics we review some recently developed methods including the studies due to the present author. Finally we mention briefly several computer programs available in Japan.

Tanaka Y

1979-10-01

343

MICROPLATE QUANTIFICATION OF PLANT LEAF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASES  

Science.gov (United States)

Superoxide dismutases (SODs; EC 1.15.1.1) catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals in a broad range of organisms including plants. Quantification of SOD activity in crude plant extracts has been problematic due to the presence of compounds that interfere with the linearity of the assay. Alt...

344

Anwendung der "Uncertainty Quantification" bei eisenbahndynamischen problemen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes the results of the application of "Uncertainty Quantification" methods in railway vehicle dynamics. The system parameters are given by probability distributions. The results of the application of the Monte-Carlo and generalized Polynomial Chaos methods to a simple bogie model will be discussed.

Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

2013-01-01

345

Quantification of topological concepts using ideals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce certain ideals of real-valued functions as a natural generalization of filters. We show that these ideals establish a canonical framework for the quantification of topological concepts, such as closedness, adherence, and compactness, in the setting of approach spaces.

Robert Lowen; Bart Windels

2001-01-01

346

Options theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

1992-01-01

347

Assessment of Factors Affecting Self-Care Behavior Among Women With Type 2 Diabetes in Khoy City Diabetes Clinic Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Many studies show that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating complications is continuous self-care. This study aimed to determine factors affecting self-care behavior of diabetic women in Khoy City, Iran based the extended theory of reasoned action (ETRA)....

Alireza Didarloo; Davood Shojaeizadeh; Hasan Eftekhar Ardebili; Shamseddin Niknami; Ebrahim Hajizadeh; Mohammad Alizadeh

348

Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Verification and validation (V&V) are playing more important roles to quantify uncertainties and realize high fidelity simulations in engineering system analyses, such as transients happened in a complex nuclear reactor system. Traditional V&V in the reactor system analysis focused more on the validation part or did not differentiate verification and validation. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a 'black box' approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. The 'black box' method mixes numerical errors with all other uncertainties. It is also not efficient to perform sensitivity analysis. Contrary to the 'black box' method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In these types of approaches equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivities are directly solved for as variables in the simulation. This paper presents the forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty qualification. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other interested physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time and space steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time and space steps forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step and grid convergence study with much less computational cost. Several well defined benchmark problems with manufactured solutions are utilized to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis method. All the physical solutions, parameter sensitivity solutions, even the time step sensitivity in one case, have analytical forms, which allows the verification to be performed in the strictest sense.

Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau

2011-09-01

349

Graph Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Graph theory is widely used in computer science, engineering and of course, mathematics. Wikipedia offers this definition and overview of Graph Theory (1). This next website from Mega-Math (2) reviews some of the Vocabulary of Graphs and highlights some applications for graph theory, such as the design of computer systems and games. Some additional applications for Graph Theory are discussed in this more technical book called Graph Theory with Applications (3). This website from Georgia Tech (4) discusses a proof that allows a user to create a map of the U.S. using just four colors. For a more involved explanation of Graph Theory, see this Graph Theory book by Reinhard Diestel (5). On this next website (6), Christopher P. Mawata of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga offers a collection of Graph Theory Lessons for educators. The final website provides a short biography of a key figure in Graph Theory who recently passed away, Frank Harary (7).

350

Understanding the p-Type Conduction Properties of the Transparent Conducting Oxide CuBO2: A Density Functional Theory Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CuCrO2 is the most promising Cu-based delafossite for p-type optoelectronic devices. Despite this, little is known about the p-type conduction mechanism of this material, with both CuI/CuII and CrIII/CrIV hole mechanisms being proposed. In this article we examine the electronic structure, thermodyna...

WATSON, GRAEME WILLIAM; SCANLON, DAVID

351

Parallel quantification of lectin-glycan interaction using ultrafiltration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using ultrafiltration membrane, a simple method for screening protein-ligand interaction was developed. The procedure comprises three steps: mixing ligand with protein, ultrafiltration of the solution, and quantification of unbound ligands by HPLC. By conducting analysis with variable protein concentrations, affinity constants were easily obtained. Multiple ligands can be analyzed simultaneously as a mixture, when concentration of ligands was controlled. Feasibility of this method for lectin-glycan interaction analysis was examined using fluorescently labeled high-mannose-type glycans and recombinant intracellular lectins or endo-?-mannosidase mutants. Estimated Ka values of malectin and VIP36 were in good agreement indeed with those evaluated by conventional methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) or frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). Finally, several mutants of endo-?-mannosidase were produced and their affinities to monoglucosylated glycans were evaluated.

Takeda Y; Seko A; Sakono M; Hachisu M; Koizumi A; Fujikawa K; Ito Y

2013-06-01

352

Residual transglutaminase in collagen - effects, detection, quantification, and removal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for microbial transglutaminase (mTG) from Streptomyces mobaraensis to overcome the lack of a quantification method for mTG. We further performed a detailed follow-on-analysis of insoluble porcine collagen type I enzymatically modified with mTG primarily focusing on residuals of mTG. Repeated washing (4 ×) reduced mTG-levels in the washing fluids but did not quantitatively remove mTG from the material (p < 0.000001). Substantial amounts of up to 40% of the enzyme utilized in the crosslinking mixture remained associated with the modified collagen. Binding was non-covalent as could be demonstrated by Western blot analysis. Acidic and alkaline dialysis of mTG treated collagen material enabled complete removal the enzyme. Treatment with guanidinium chloride, urea, or sodium chloride was less effective in reducing the mTG content.

Schloegl W; Klein A; Fürst R; Leicht U; Volkmer E; Schieker M; Jus S; Guebitz GM; Stachel I; Meyer M; Wiggenhorn M; Friess W

2012-02-01

353

Parallel quantification of lectin-glycan interaction using ultrafiltration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using ultrafiltration membrane, a simple method for screening protein-ligand interaction was developed. The procedure comprises three steps: mixing ligand with protein, ultrafiltration of the solution, and quantification of unbound ligands by HPLC. By conducting analysis with variable protein concentrations, affinity constants were easily obtained. Multiple ligands can be analyzed simultaneously as a mixture, when concentration of ligands was controlled. Feasibility of this method for lectin-glycan interaction analysis was examined using fluorescently labeled high-mannose-type glycans and recombinant intracellular lectins or endo-?-mannosidase mutants. Estimated Ka values of malectin and VIP36 were in good agreement indeed with those evaluated by conventional methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) or frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). Finally, several mutants of endo-?-mannosidase were produced and their affinities to monoglucosylated glycans were evaluated. PMID:23701871

Takeda, Yoichi; Seko, Akira; Sakono, Masafumi; Hachisu, Masakazu; Koizumi, Akihiko; Fujikawa, Kohki; Ito, Yukishige

2013-05-07

354

Non-Relativistic Superstring Theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We construct a supersymmetric version of the 'critical' non-relativistic bosonic string theory [1] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc CFT which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of Type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are non-chiral. We further consider 'noncritical' generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical non-relativistic string theory and the lightlike Linear Dilaton theory.

Kim, Bom Soo

2007-12-14

355

Quantification of atherosclerosis with MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis is a major cause of death in the United States. A major limitation in the current treatment of atherosclerosis is the lack of a quantitative means to non-invasively evaluate the extent of the disease. Recent studies suggest that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has the potential for the detection of atherosclerotic plaque. It has been demonstrated that multi-dimensional pattern recognition can be applied to multi-pulse sequence MR images to identify different tissue types. The authors reported the identification of tissues involved in the atherosclerotic disease process, such as normal endothelium, smooth muscle, thrombus, fat or lipid, connective tissue and calcified plaque. The work reported in this abstract presents preliminary results of applying quantitative 3-D reconstruction to the problem of identifying and quantifying atherosclerotic plaque in vitro

1986-01-01

356

Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G2-manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G2-manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G2-manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G2-manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G2-manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E8 x E8-heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)

2005-01-01

357

SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide activities within the human body is affected by several physical and instrumental factors including attenuation of photons within the patient, Compton scattered events, the system's finite spatial resolution and object size, finite number of detected events, partial volume effects, the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics, and patient and/or organ motion. Furthermore, other instrumentation factors such as calibration of the center-of-rotation, sampling, and detector nonuniformities will affect the SPECT measurement process. These factors are described, together with examples of compensation methods that are currently available for improving SPECT quantification. SPECT offers the potential to improve in vivo estimates of absorbed dose, provided the acquisition, reconstruction, and compensation procedures are adequately implemented and utilized. 53 references, 2 figures

1986-01-01

358

Viability Theory  

CERN Multimedia

Examines viability theory and its applications to control theory and differential games. This book emphasises the construction of feedbacks and dynamical systems by myopic optimization methods. It is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians.

Aubin, Jean-Pierre

2009-01-01

359

Resource-Bound Quantification for Graph Transformation  

CERN Multimedia

Graph transformation has been used to model concurrent systems in software engineering, as well as in biochemistry and life sciences. The application of a transformation rule can be characterised algebraically as construction of a double-pushout (DPO) diagram in the category of graphs. We show how intuitionistic linear logic can be extended with resource-bound quantification, allowing for an implicit handling of the DPO conditions, and how resource logic can be used to reason about graph transformation systems.

Torrini, Paolo; 10.4204/EPTCS.22.2

2010-01-01

360

Quantification of amyloid precursor protein isoforms using quantification concatamer internal standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is likely that expression and/or post-translational generation of various protein isoforms can be indicative of initial pathological changes or pathology development. However, selective quantification of individual protein isoforms remains a challenge, because they simultaneously possess common and unique amino acid sequences. Quantification concatamer (QconCAT) internal standards were originally designed for a large-scale proteome quantification and are artificial proteins that are concatamers of tryptic peptides for several proteins. We developed a QconCAT for quantification of various isoforms of amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP-QconCAT includes tryptic peptides that are common for all isoforms of APP concatenated with those tryptic peptides that are unique for specific APP isoforms. Isotope-labeled APP-QconCAT was expressed, purified, characterized, and further used for quantification of total APP, APP695, and amyloid-? (A?) in the human frontal cortex from control and severe Alzheimer's disease donors. Potential biological implications of our quantitative measurements are discussed. It is also expected that using APP-QconCAT(s) will advance our understanding of biological mechanism by which various APP isoforms involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

Chen J; Wang M; Turko IV

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

GIS based quantification method of spatial competition  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the problem of quantification of spatial competition is solved from three aspects: quantification of spatial competition potency, spatial competition relationship, and spatial competition intensity. In quantification of spatial competition potency, traditional evaluation method and Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analysis technique are combined for evaluation. The influence factors of spatial competition potency are divided as three categories: limiting factors, characteristic factors, and ordinary factors. Thus, synthesis appraisal is employed to analyses spatial competition potency for all geographical entities in evaluation area. At the time of construction of spatial competition relationship model, the gravity model is referred. Nevertheless, some parameters of traditional gravity model are endowed with new meaning: using spatial competition potency of geographical entity to replace the "quality", and using accessibility to replace the "distance". The process of estimating spatial competition intensity of one point in spatial competition area can be finished through the following three steps: computing spatial competition intensity between each two geographical entities around the point, comparing all spatial competition intensity, selecting the maximum spatial competition intensity as the spatial competition intensity of the point. In order to verify feasibility of the method, rural settlements in Tonglu County are selected as test objects.

Chen, Zhenjie; Li, Manchun; Fu, Haiyue; Chen, Dong

2007-08-01

362

Constructor Theory  

CERN Multimedia

Constructor theory is the theory of which physical transformations can be caused to happen and which cannot, and why. Several converging motivations for expecting it to be a fundamental branch of physics are discussed. Some principles of the theory are proposed and its potential for solving various problems and achieving various unifications is explored.

Deutsch, David

2012-01-01

363

Matrix Theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two areas of matrix theory are discussed: the theory of permanents, and the theory of nonnegative matrices. Paper (1) deals with permanental compounds and their use in recurrence formulas for permanents of (0,1)-circulants and in related asymptotic formul...

H. Minc

1987-01-01

364

Quantification of nanosized extracellular membrane vesicles with scanning ion occlusion sensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Cells secrete different types of membrane vesicles (MVs), which may act as important entities in normal human physiology and in various pathological processes. The established methods for quantification of MVs require purification or preanalytical handling of samples with labeling moieties. Aim: The authors' aim was to develop a method for high-throughput, labeling-free quantification of nonpurified MVs. Materials & methods: Scanning ion occlusion sensing technology, which relies on the detection of particles upon their movement through a nanopore, was investigated for the ability to quantify nanosized MVs (<400 nm) in bodily fluids and cell culture supernatants. Results: Scanning ion occlusion sensing allowed for rapid and easy measurement of the concentration of MVs in all biological fluids tested. Conclusion: Scanning ion occlusion sensing technology enables the quantification of MVs in biological samples without the requirement of MV isolation and/or labeling. This offers a highly valuable addition to the currently used repertoire of MV quantification methods. Original submitted 26 April 2012; Revised submitted 7 September 2012; Published online 5 February 2013. PMID:23384702

de Vrij, Jeroen; Maas, Sybren Ln; van Nispen, Malisa; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Limpens, Ronald Wa; Koster, Abraham J; Leenstra, Sieger; Lamfers, Martine L; Broekman, Marike Ld

2013-02-05

365

A simple dot-blot-Sirius red-based assay for collagen quantification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The assessment of collagen content in tissues is important in biomedical research, since this protein is altered in numerous diseases. Hydroxyproline and Sirius red based assays are the most common methods for collagen quantification. However, these procedures have some pitfalls, such as the requirement of oxygen-free medium or expensive equipment and large sample size or being unsuitable for hydrolyzed collagen, respectively. Our objective was to develop a specific, versatile, and user-friendly quantitative method applicable to small tissue samples and extracts obtained from elastin purification, therefore, suitable for simultaneous quantification of elastin. This method is based on the binding of Sirius red to collagen present in a sample immobilized on a PVDF membrane, as in the dot-blot technique, and quantified by a scanner and image analysis software. Sample loading, Sirius red concentration, temperature and incubation time, type of standard substance, albumin interference, and quantification time are optimized. The method enabled the quantification of (1) intact collagen in several rat tissue homogenates, including small resistance-sized arteries, (2) partially hydrolyzed collagen obtained from NaOH extracts, compatible with elastin purification, and (3) for the detection of differences in collagen content between hypertensive and normotensive rats. We conclude that the developed technique can be widely used since it is versatile (quantifies intact and hydrolyzed collagen), requires small sample volumes, is user-friendly (low-cost, easy to use, minimum toxic materials, and reduced time of test), and is specific (minimal interference with serum albumin).

Rodríguez-Rodríguez P; Arribas SM; de Pablo AL; González MC; Abderrahim F; Condezo-Hoyos L

2013-08-01

366

Ring theory  

CERN Multimedia

This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

Rowen, Louis H

1991-01-01

367

Plasma theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The progress during the past year is organized by group efforts and divided into six major areas. The basic tokamak areas and the sections in which their work is summarized are: MHD theory, kinetic theory, and transport simulation. The EBT theory work has its own research projects on MHD theory, kinetic theory, and transport simulation. In the plasma engineering area, relevant research work is further developed and synthesized into models that are used in the design of advanced fusion systems--TNS, Demo, EBTR, etc. Finally, the computer support activities during the past year are summarized

1977-12-31

368

Precise protein quantification based on peptide quantification using iTRAQ™  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry based quantification of peptides can be performed using the iTRAQ™ reagent in conjunction with mass spectrometry. This technology yields information about the relative abundance of single peptides. A method for the calculation of reliable quantification information is required in order to obtain biologically relevant data at the protein expression level. Results A method comprising sound error estimation and statistical methods is presented that allows precise abundance analysis plus error calculation at the peptide as well as at the protein level. This yields the relevant information that is required for quantitative proteomics. Comparing the performance of our method named Quant with existing approaches the error estimation is reliable and offers information for precise bioinformatic models. Quant is shown to generate results that are consistent with those produced by ProQuant™, thus validating both systems. Moreover, the results are consistent with that of Mascot™ 2.2. The MATLAB® scripts of Quant are freely available via http://www.protein-ms.de and http://sourceforge.net/projects/protms/, each under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Conclusion The software Quant demonstrates improvements in protein quantification using iTRAQ™. Precise quantification data can be obtained at the protein level when using error propagation and adequate visualization. Quant integrates both and additionally provides the possibility to obtain more reliable results by calculation of wise quality measures. Peak area integration has been replaced by sum of intensities, yielding more reliable quantification results. Additionally, Quant allows the combination of quantitative information obtained by iTRAQ™ with peptide and protein identifications from popular tandem MS identification tools. Hence Quant is a useful tool for the proteomics community and may help improving analysis of proteomic experimental data. In addition, we have shown that a lognormal distribution fits the data of mass spectrometry based relative peptide quantification.

Boehm Andreas M; Pütz Stephanie; Altenhöfer Daniela; Sickmann Albert; Falk Michael

2007-01-01

369

Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

Gray Iii, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

370

AdS{sub 3} x{sub w} (S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 1}) solutions of type IIB string theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We analyse a recently constructed class of local solutions of type IIB supergravity that consist of a warped product of AdS{sub 3} with a sevendimensional internal space. In one duality frame the only other nonvanishing fields are the NS three-form and the dilaton. We analyse in detail how these local solutions can be extended to globally well-defined solutions of type IIB string theory, with the internal space having topology S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 1} and with properly quantised three-form flux. We show that many of the dual (0,2) SCFTs are exactly marginal deformations of the (0,2) SCFTs whose holographic duals are warped products of AdS{sub 3} with seven-dimensional manifolds of topology S{sup 3} x S{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. (orig.)

Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sicences; Sparks, James [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Mathematical Institute

2008-10-15

371

Processing and quantification of x-ray energy dispersive spectra in the Analytical Electron Microscope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spectral processing in x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy deals with the extraction of characteristic signals from experimental data. In this text, the four basic procedures for this methodology are reviewed and their limitations outlined. Quantification, on the other hand, deals with the interpretation of the information obtained from spectral processing. Here the limitations are for the most part instrumental in nature. The prospects of higher voltage operation does not, in theory, present any new problems and may in fact prove to be more desirable assuming that electron damage effects do not preclude analysis. 28 refs., 6 figs.

Zaluzec, N.J.

1988-08-01

372

Processing and quantification of x-ray energy dispersive spectra in the Analytical Electron Microscope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Spectral processing in x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy deals with the extraction of characteristic signals from experimental data. In this text, the four basic procedures for this methodology are reviewed and their limitations outlined. Quantification, on the other hand, deals with the interpretation of the information obtained from spectral processing. Here the limitations are for the most part instrumental in nature. The prospects of higher voltage operation does not, in theory, present any new problems and may in fact prove to be more desirable assuming that electron damage effects do not preclude analysis. 28 refs., 6 figs

1988-03-05

373

Game-theory type optimization plan for power charges by quality in an electric power market including cogeneration systems; CGS wo fukumu denryoku shijo ni okeru hinshitsubetsu denki ryokin no sutakkeruberugugata saiteki keikaku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discussion using a game-theory type optimization was given on setting power charges in areas where three parties of a utility company, a cogenerator and general users coexist. In the discussion model, a cogenerator is supposed to possess such ancillary facilities to take care of thermal demand as a gas engine, a cogeneration system and a boiler, and to be connected to systems of utility companies. Power generated by utility companies is classified into three grades, wherein privately generated power is regarded as equivalent to low quality power. General uses determine how much power they will buy from the utility companies and the cogenerators according to their quality and price. The above three parties form a game-theory type market with respect to power price and amount of trade. The balanced price and the trade amount form an intersection of a critical utility function for consumers and a supply function for producers. An analysis using numerical experiments derived a result which nearly satisfies a hypothesis, although a few problems are left unresolved. A similar result was also obtained in an analysis on combinations other than shops and hospitals. 5 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

Masuda, J.; Mori, S.; Harada, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

1997-01-30

374

General Argyres-Douglas Theory  

CERN Multimedia

We construct a large class of Argyres-Douglas type theories by compactifying six dimensional (2,0) A_N theory on a Riemann surface with irregular singularities. We give a complete classification for the choices of Riemann surface and the singularities. The Seiberg-Witten curve and scaling dimensions of the operator spectrum are worked out. Three dimensional mirror theory and the central charges a and c are also calculated for some subsets, etc. Our results greatly enlarge the landscape of N=2 superconformal field theory and in fact also include previous theories constructed using regular singularity on the sphere.

Xie, Dan

2012-01-01

375

A method for extraction and quantification of Ginkgo terpene trilactones.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for the extraction and quantification of pharmacologically active terpene trilactones (ginkgolides, bilobalide) from the tissues of Ginkgo biloba L. and pharmaceutical ginkgo products by RP-HPLC, based on the theory of terpene trilactones ionization. Four ginkgolides (GA, GB, GC, GJ) and bilobalide (BB) from both the ginkgo leaves and commercially available ginkgo extracts were quantitatively extracted by using this method. The recovery rate of the method was 97.5-100% with RSD of 1.2-2.8%. The detection limit was 0.05-0.1 microg, and the linear range was 0.1-12 microg. This detection limit represents a marked improvement over previously reported methods, suggesting the new method is a viable technique for routine analysis of ginkgo terpene trilactones in natural and commercial samples. The method reported by van Beek et al. in 1991 (van Beek, T. A.; Scheeren, H. A.; Rantio T.; Melger, W. C.; Lelyveld, G. P. J. Chromatogr. 1991, 543, 375-387.) was used as a reference method to monitor the accuracy of extraction and analysis in this study. SSI-MS technique was used to identify isolated target components. Carbohydrase treatment and solubility of terpene trilactones in various solvents were also discussed. PMID:15283569

Ding, Chen; Chen, Erqin; Zhou, Weijia; Lindsay, Robert C

2004-08-01

376

Quantification of Inositol Hexa-Kis Phosphate in Environmental Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorous (P) is a major contributor to eutrophication of surface waters, yet a complete understanding of the P cycle remains elusive. Inositol hexa-kis phosphate (IHP) is the primary form of organic (PO) in the environment and has been implicated as an important sink in aquatic and terrestrial samples. IHP readily forms complexes in the environment due to the 12 acidic sites on the molecule. Quantification of IHP in environmental samples has typically relied on harsh extraction methods that limit understanding of IHP interactions with potential soil and aquatic complexation partners. The ability to quantify IHP in-situ at the pH of existing soils provides direct access to the role of IHP in the P cycle. Since it is itself a buffer, adjusting the pH correspondingly alters charged species of IHP present in soil. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations support the charged species assignments made based pKas associated with the IHP molecule. Raman spectroscopy was used to generate pH dependent spectra of inorganic (PI) and IHP as well as (PO) from IHP and (PI) in soil samples. Electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) was used to quantify IHP-Iron complexes in two soil samples using a neutral aqueous extraction.

Lynne P. Heighton; Merle Zimmerman; Clifford P. Rice; Eton E. Codling; John A. Tossell; Walter F. Schmidt

2012-01-01

377

Viability Theory  

CERN Multimedia

Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

2011-01-01

378

Graph Theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

2005-12-27

379

Galois Theory  

CERN Multimedia

Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo

Cox, David A

2012-01-01

380

OM theory in diverse dimensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open string theories can be decoupled from closed strings and gravity by scaling to the critical electric field. We propose dual descriptions for the strong coupling limit of these NCOS (Non-Commutative Open String) theories in six or fewer spacetime dimensions. In particular, we conjecture that the five-dimensional NCOS theory at strong coupling, is a theory of light Open Membranes (OM), decoupled from gravity, on an M5-brane with a near-critical three-form field strength. The relation of OM theory to NCOS theories resembles that of M theory to Type II closed string theories. In two dimensions we conjecture that supersymmetric U(n) gauge theory with a unit of electric flux is dual to the NCOS theory with string coupling 1/n. A construction based on NS5-branes leads to new theories in six dimensions generalising the little string theory. A web of dualities relates all the above theories when they are compactified on tori. (author)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The Modest, or Quantificational, Account of Truth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Truth is a stable, epistemically unconstrained property of propositions, and the concept of truth admits of a non-reductive explanation: that, in a nutshell, is the view for which I argued in Conceptions of Truth. In this paper I try to explain that explanation in a more detailed and, hopefully, more perspicuous way than I did in Ch. 6.2 of the book and to defend its use of sentential quantification against some of the criticisms it has has come in for.

Wolfgang Künne

2008-01-01

382

Label-free quantification in clinical proteomics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nowadays, proteomic studies no longer focus only on identifying as many proteins as possible in a given sample, but aiming for an accurate quantification of them. Especially in clinical proteomics, the investigation of variable protein expression profiles can yield useful information on pathological pathways or biomarkers and drug targets related to a particular disease. Over the time, many quantitative proteomic approaches have been established allowing researchers in the field of proteomics to refer to a comprehensive toolbox of different methodologies. In this review we will give an overview of different methods of quantitative proteomics with focus on label-free proteomics and its use in clinical proteomics.

Megger DA; Bracht T; Meyer HE; Sitek B

2013-08-01

383

Theory of Superconductivity  

CERN Document Server

A theory of superconductivity based on the pairing of two electrons bound by a phonon for any type of superconductor material is developed. A general equation, from which the fundamental properties of the superconductor are obtained, is derived. The theory is reached in the frame of self-consistent field equations for any natural or artificial solid where free electrons can exist. The necessity that the electrons must be coupled by phonons for the existence of the superconducting state is also justified; arriving to a general conclusion: the superconductivity theory is based only on the theoretical concepts used to carry out the electron-phonon interaction and more concretely of the phonons (harmonic or anharmonic theory, low, intermediate and high temperature).

Riera, R

2004-01-01

384

Dislocation theory as a 3-dimensional translation gauge theory  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the static elastoplastic theory of dislocations in an elastoplastic material. We use a Yang-Mills type Lagrangian (the teleparallel equivalent of Hilbert-Einstein Lagrangian) and some Lagrangians with anisotropic constitutive laws. The translational part of the generalized affine connection is utilized to describe the theory of elastoplasticity in the framework of a translation gauge theory. We obtain a system of Yang-Mills field equations which express the balance of force and moment.

Lázár, M

2000-01-01

385

Factors Influencing Self-Management Behavior in Type-2 Diabetes Patients: A Strategy Proposed to be Adopted When Planning Theory/Model Based Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease. Diabetes patients should be fully familiar with the different dimensions of this chronic disease and possess the skills required for self-management and self-care. They should realize that each patient is a different case. It is to be noted that promoting self-management behavior is an essential component of case management in type-2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to assess self-management behavior of type-2 diabetes patients in Isfahan, Iran and determine factors influencing it. Materials and Methods: This was a 6-month cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. The study population was type-2 diabetes patients consulting an outpatient diabetes center in Isfahan, Iran. The sample included a group of 350 patients selected by the continuous sampling method. The self-management behavior of the patients was assessed using a diabetes self-management instrument (DSMI), containing questions on 5 domains. The responses were rated on a 5-point Likert scale and SPSS software, version 11.5 was used for analyzing the collected data.Results: The response rate was 88%. The majority of the patients were 50-60 years (55.52 ± 8.42) old and 54.3% of them demonstrated borderline metabolic control according to the World Health Organization criteria. Mean scores of self-integration, self-regulation, interaction with health professionals and other influential persons, self-monitoring blood glucose, and adherence to recommended regime were 33.67±6.36, 29.09±5.9, 27.08±4.81, 11.71±3.91 and 11.46±2.9, respectively. On the whole, the global diabetes self-management behavior seemed to be not quite desirable (the score was at an intermediate level). Further analysis of the data revealed that self-management behaviors (at 3 levels, namely, desirable, intermediate, and undesirable) had significant associations (p<0.001) with demographic (age, gender, marital status, education level) and health-related (duration of diabetes, diabetes-related diseases, diabetes complications, general health, type of treatment, family income, and serum HbA1C level) variables. Self-management behavior had no association with disease history Conclusion: Empowerment of patients afflicted with diabetes and, more generally, non-communicable diseases, which are quite prevalent and on the increase, in the area of self-management at the individual and community level will be a vital step towards promotion of health of the population.

Azar Tol; Gholamreza Sharifi Rad; Ahmad Ali Eslami; Fatemeh Alhani; Mohammad Reza Mohajeri Tehrani; Davoud Shojaeezadeh

2012-01-01

386

Galois Theory  

CERN Document Server

Galois theory is a mature mathematical subject of particular beauty. While Artin's book pioneered an approach to Galois theory that relies heavily on linear algebra, this book's author takes the linear algebra emphasis even further. With a chapter on transcendental extensions, it is suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate math majors.

Weintraub, Steven H

2008-01-01

387

Game theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Game Theory describes human interaction involving conflict, cooperation and competition, the term Interpersonal Decision Theory is synonymous. The term reflects the fact that most essential features of this field are manifested in parlor games. This topic-level treatment covers large parts of the ba...

Rosenmüller, Joachim; Trockel, Walter

388

Quantum Theory  

CERN Multimedia

The study of quantum theory allowed twentieth-century scientists to examine the world in a new way, one that was filled with uncertainties and probabilities. Further study also led to the development of lasers, the atomic bomb, and the computer. This exciting new book clearly explains quantum theory and its everyday uses in our world.

Manning, Phillip

2011-01-01

389

Fluorometric quantification of polyphosphate in environmental plankton samples: extraction protocols, matrix effects, and nucleic acid interference.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polyphosphate (polyP) is a ubiquitous biochemical with many cellular functions and comprises an important environmental phosphorus pool. However, methodological challenges have hampered routine quantification of polyP in environmental samples. We tested 15 protocols to extract inorganic polyphosphate from natural marine samples and cultured cyanobacteria for fluorometric quantification with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without prior purification. A combination of brief boiling and digestion with proteinase K was superior to all other protocols, including other enzymatic digestions and neutral or alkaline leaches. However, three successive extractions were required to extract all polyP. Standard addition revealed matrix effects that differed between sample types, causing polyP to be over- or underestimated by up to 50% in the samples tested here. Although previous studies judged that the presence of DNA would not complicate fluorometric quantification of polyP with DAPI, we show that RNA can cause significant interference at the wavelengths used to measure polyP. Importantly, treating samples with DNase and RNase before proteinase K digestion reduced fluorescence by up to 57%. We measured particulate polyP along a North Pacific coastal-to-open ocean transect and show that particulate polyP concentrations increased toward the open ocean. While our final method is optimized for marine particulate matter, different environmental sample types may need to be assessed for matrix effects, extraction efficiency, and nucleic acid interference.

Martin P; Van Mooy BA

2013-01-01

390

Fluorometric Quantification of Polyphosphate in Environmental Plankton Samples: Extraction Protocols, Matrix Effects, and Nucleic Acid Interference  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphosphate (polyP) is a ubiquitous biochemical with many cellular functions and comprises an important environmental phosphorus pool. However, methodological challenges have hampered routine quantification of polyP in environmental samples. We tested 15 protocols to extract inorganic polyphosphate from natural marine samples and cultured cyanobacteria for fluorometric quantification with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without prior purification. A combination of brief boiling and digestion with proteinase K was superior to all other protocols, including other enzymatic digestions and neutral or alkaline leaches. However, three successive extractions were required to extract all polyP. Standard addition revealed matrix effects that differed between sample types, causing polyP to be over- or underestimated by up to 50% in the samples tested here. Although previous studies judged that the presence of DNA would not complicate fluorometric quantification of polyP with DAPI, we show that RNA can cause significant interference at the wavelengths used to measure polyP. Importantly, treating samples with DNase and RNase before proteinase K digestion reduced fluorescence by up to 57%. We measured particulate polyP along a North Pacific coastal-to-open ocean transect and show that particulate polyP concentrations increased toward the open ocean. While our final method is optimized for marine particulate matter, different environmental sample types may need to be assessed for matrix effects, extraction efficiency, and nucleic acid interference.

Martin, Patrick

2013-01-01

391

Les cardinaux définis et la quantification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans ce travail, on s'intéressera aux constructions cardinales définies: les sept nains, la douze apôtres...mais aussi tous les étudiants, le quart des participants. On peut en effet considérer tous comme l'équivalent d'un cardinal non précisé signalant le nombre total des objets dans l'ensemble de référence, ou encore comme le haut de l'échelle des fractions définissant une proportion: la totalité des N, opposé à la quantification indéfinie et partielle une partie des N.. Le but de ce travail est d'explorer les variations sémantiques particulières dues à l'interaction entre la quantification, normalement associée à l'indéfinition, et la présence d'un défini. Cette interaction produit des interprétations divergentes, dont la plus connue mais pas forcément la mieux comprise est l'interaction avec la négation: tous les enfants ne sont pas venus a deux interprétations, celle d'une totalité d'enfants absente, ou celle d'une absence limitée à quelques-uns. On utilisera les notions informatives de quantifieur de premier plan, versus celle de quantifieur d'arrière-plan, pour décrire les variations de ces interprétations .

Claude Muller

2009-01-01

392

Fast algorithms for Universal quantification in large databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Universal quantification is not supported directly in most database systems despite the fact that it adds significant power to a system`s query processing and inference capabilities, in particular for the analysis of many-to-many relationships and of set-valued attributes. One of the main reasons for this omission has been that universal quantification algorithms and their performance have not been explored for large databases. In this article, we describe and compare three known algorithms and one recently proposed algorithm for relational division, the algebra operator that embodies universal quantification. For each algorithm, we investigate the performance effects of explicit duplicate removal and referential integrity enforcement, variants for inputs larger than memory, and parallel execution strategies. Analytical and experimental performance comparisons illustrate the substantial differences among the algorithms. Moreover, comparisons demonstrate that the recently proposed division algorithm evaluates a universal quantification predicate over two relations as fast as hash (semi-) join evaluates an existential quantification predicate over the same relations. Thus, existential and universal quantification can be supported with equal efficiency by adding the recently proposed algorithm to a query evaluation system. A second result of our study is that universal quantification should be expressed directly in a database query language because most query optimizers do not recognize the rather indirect formulations available in SQL as relational division, and therefore produce very poor evaluation plans for many universal quantification queries. 32 refs., 18 figs.

Graefe, G.; Cole, R.L.

1995-06-01

393

Detection and quantification of levoglucosan in atmospheric aerosols: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Levoglucosan is a tracer for biomass burning sources in atmospheric aerosol particles. Therefore, much effort has been recently put into developing methods for its quantification. This review describes and compares both established and emerging analytical methods for levoglucosan quantification in ambient aerosol samples, with the special needs of the environmental analytical chemist in mind. (orig.)

Schkolnik, Gal; Rudich, Yinon [Weizmann Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Rehovot (Israel)

2006-05-15

394

Multivariate data analysis for depth resolved chemical classification and quantification of sulfur in SNMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The quantification of elements in quadrupole based SNMS is hampered by superpositions of atomic and cluster signals. Moreover, the conventional SNMS data evaluation employs only atomic signals to determine elemental concentrations, which not allows any chemical specifications of the determined elements. Improvements in the elemental quantification and additional chemical information can be obtained from kinetic energy analysis and the inclusion of molecular signals into mass spectra evaluation. With the help of multivariate data analysis techniques, the combined information is used for the first time for a quantitative and chemically distinctive determination of sulfur. The kinetic energy analysis, used to solve the interference of sulfur with O2 at masses 32-34 D, turned out to be highly important for the new type of evaluation

2005-09-30

395

DNA quantification by real time PCR and short tandem repeats (STRs) amplification results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determining the DNA amount in a forensic sample is fundamental for PCR-based analyses because if on one hand an excessive amount of template may cause the appearance of additional or out-of-scale peaks, by the other a low quantity can determine the appearance of stochastic phenomena affecting the PCR reaction and the subsequent interpretation of typing results. In the common practice of forensic genetics laboratories, the quantification results provided by Real Time PCR (qPCR) assume the role of “boundary line” between the possibility for a given DNA sample to be subjected or not to the subsequent analytical steps, on the basis of an optimal amount of DNA in the range indicated by the manufacturer of the specific commercial kit.However, some studies have shown the possibility to obtain STR typing results even with an extremely low DNA concentration or, paradoxically, equal to zero (1). Regardless of the amount of DNA used for the quantification of the testing sample, specific software are able to use the standard curve to calculate concentration values far below the manufacturer’s reported optimal detection limit (0.023 ng/?L). Consequently, laboratories have to face the critical decision to interrupt the analyses giving up the possibility to obtain a genetic profile -although partial- or to try the amplification of the extract with the awareness of the interpretation issues that this implies.The authors will present the quantification results obtained by qPCR performed on numerous samples collected from items of forensic interest, subjected to DNA extraction using magnetic beads. Following the quantification step, the extracts were subjected to DNA amplification and STR typing using last generation commercial kits. Samples that showed quantification values below the limit of detection for the method were included in the analysis in order to check the existence of a correlation between the DNA quantification results by qPCR and the possibility of obtaining a genetic profile useful for identification purposes.Our study, performed on 558 samples from forensic casework items, has shown a correlation between the DNA amount resulted from qPCR analysis and the possibility of obtaining a genetic profile useful for identification purposes.In spite of the increasing sensitivity of last generation commercial kits for STR analysis, as demonstrated by the ability to detect allelic peaks from extremely low DNA quantities (with concentrations far below the limit of detection for the specific quantification kit, even corresponding to 0 or “Undetermined”), the results obtained show a correlation between qPCR quantification values and STR typing results. Thus the qPCR method confirms being today a useful and valid instrument for both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of genetic samples for human identification purposes.

Zoppis S; D’Alessio A; Rosini M; Vecchiotti C

2012-01-01

396

Human errors rates: quantification method from nuclear experience and data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on a practical method of quantifying human errors made in conjunction with testing, maintaining, and operating select important components in reactor safety systems of licensed nuclear power plants. This quantification of human error is measured in terms of human error rate (HER) namely the ratio of the number of human errors (of a specified type) to the number of opportunities for those particular errors. The human error rates generated in this work provide a very useful broad basis of comparison for appropriate derived and/or best judgment human error rate estimates which have been used in WASH-1400, and also can provide input to bounding type risk assessments. The number of human errors have been extracted from a computer-based data file of one-line description summary interpretations of Licensee Event Reports for interfacing with manual and remotely operated valves and pumps over a three year period ending in 1978. The systems evaluated are the reactor safety systems for 23 BWRs and for 41 PWRs.

Luckas, W.J. Jr.; Hall, R.E.

1980-01-01

397

A study for the development of PSA automatic quantification system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

KAERI is constructing the PSA Integrated database for UCN 3, 4 nuclear power plant. PSA Integrated DB includes PSA Model Database and PSA Information Database. PSA model DB consists of PSA models and data which are used for PSA quantification. This paper describes the development of PSA automatic quantification system that calculates the core damage frequency according to the initiating event scenario. We describe the design of PSA model DB schema, the design and implementation of automatic quantification for PSA and the study for the storing of results of that quantification. Recently, we have developed the prototype of PSA automatic quantification system and we are developing more flexible system that applies the various user input and scenario changes.

Kim, S. W.; Han, S. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2003-10-01

398

Ontology View on Automata Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The summary of automata theory ontology is presented in the paper. It is based on the following dependences: a type of an automaton – the language accepted by the automaton – applications. The given ontology does not claim to be exhaustive as automata theory is very extensive and it is a complicat...

Krivoi, Sergey; Matveyeva, Lyudmila; Lukianova, Yelena; Sedleckaya, ?lga

399

Diagnosis of dementia--automatic quantification of brain structures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of a fully automatic quantification of brain structures by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). MATERIAL AND METHOD: MRI scans of the brains of 122 patients, referred to a memory clinic, were analysed using Neuroquant® software, which quantifies the volume of various brain structures. Clinical diagnoses were made by two doctors without knowledge of the MRI results. We performed Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses and calculated the area under the curve (AUC). A value of 1 means that all ill patients have been diagnosed as diseased and no patient has been falsely diagnosed as diseased. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 67.2 years (SD 10.5 years), 60 % were men, 63 had DAT, 24 had another type of dementia, 25 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and ten had subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). In the comparison between DAT patients and patients with SCI or MCI, seven of eleven volumes were significantly larger than AUC 0.5. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were less than 5 and more than 0.2, respectively, for the best limit values of the volumes. Apart from the cerebellum (AUC 0.67), none of the brain structures was significantly different from AUC 0.5 in patients with dementia conditions other than dementia Alzheimer's type. INTERPRETATION: MRI scans with Neuroquant analyses cannot be used alone to distinguish between persons with dementia of Alzheimer's type and persons without dementia.

Engedal K; Brækhus A; Andreassen OA; Nakstad PH

2012-08-01

400

Agency Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.

Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Soft-x-ray emission and the local p-type partial density of electronic states in Y2O3: Experiment and theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photon-excited yttrium MIV,V, and electron-excited oxygen K x-ray emission spectra for yttrium oxide are presented. It is shown that, as in the case of yttrium metal, the decay of MIV vacancies does not contribute substantially to the oxide MIV,V emission. The valence emission is interpreted in a one-electron picture as a measure of the local p-type partial density of states. The yttrium and oxygen valence emission bands are very similar and strongly resemble published photoelectron spectra. Using local-density approximation electronic structure calculations, we show that the broadening of the Y-4p signal in yttrium oxide relative to Y metal are due to two inequivalent yttrium sites in Y2O3. Features present in the oxide, but not the metal spectrum, are the result of overlap (hybridization) between the Y-4p wave function and states in the oxygen 2s subband. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society.

1996-01-01

402

Plasma theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A series of lectures on plasma theory with the main headings: introduction; charged particles moving in em fields; the liquid model; transport phenomena in the plasma; wave propagation in plasmas; plasma instabilities. 57 figs. (qui)

1988-01-01

403

(Nuclear theory)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics. (LSP)

1989-06-01

404

Field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminaries are given on groups and rings, and subsequent discussion focuses on some important topics on fields, such as algebraic and transcendental extensions, valuations, ordered fields, and Galois theory of algebraic extensions

1977-01-01

405

Bolometer theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The theory of a thin bolometer strip is developed. It explains observation of enhanced response to spot illumination near the trip terminals, and predicts enhanced thermal fluctuation at the same point for uniform chopped illumination.

Strong J; Lawrence PW Jr

1968-01-01

406

Phases of Gauge Theories  

CERN Document Server

One of the most fundamental questions we can ask about a given gauge theory is its phase diagram. In the standard model, we observe three fundamentally different types of behavior: QCD is in a confined phase at zero temperature, while the electroweak sector of the standard model combines Coulomb and Higgs phases. Our current understanding of the phase structure of gauge theories owes much to the modern theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, but has developed into a subject of extensive study. After reviewing some fundamental concepts of phase transitions and finite-temperature gauge theories, we discuss some recent work that broadly extends our knowledge of the mechanisms that determine the phase structure of gauge theories. A new class of models with a rich phase structure has been discovered, generalizing our understanding of the confinement-deconfinement transition in finite-temperature gauge theories. Models in this class have space-time topologies with one or more compact directions. On R^3 ...

Ogilvie, Michael C

2012-01-01

407

Applications of classical detonation theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Classical detonation theory is the basis for almost all calculations of explosive systems. One common type of calculation is of the detailed behavior of inert parts driven by explosive, predicting pressures, velocities, positions, densities, energies, etc as functions of time. Another common application of the theory is predicting the detonation state and expansion isentrope of a new explosive or mixtures, perhaps an explosive that has not yet been made. Both types of calculations are discussed.

Davis, W.C.

1994-09-01

408

Changes in temporal flow characteristics of CSF in Chiari malformation Type I with and without syringomyelia: implications for theory of syrinx development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in association with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is unclear. Studies of patients with CM-I have shown alterations in the CSF velocity profile using cardiac-gated cine phase-contrast MRI, and computational simulations have demonstrated that temporal features of the CSF pulse could contribute to syrinx development or enlargement. Few studies have reported temporal characteristics of the CSF profile, and few studies have reported on CM-I patients with and without syringomyelia separately. This study was performed to determine whether specific temporal features of the CSF flow profile may underlie the development or enlargement of a syrinx in patients with CM-I. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers and 18 patients with CM-I with (8 patients) and without (10 patients) syringomyelia were studied using cardiac-gated cine phase-contrast MRI, measuring the maximum CSF velocities in the cranial and caudal directions, the timing of these maximums relative to the cardiac cycle time, the timing of caudal flow onset, timing of cranial flow onset, and the duration of caudal flow. RESULTS: The caudal CSF flow was significantly faster (p ? 0.01) and earlier (p < 0.02) in patients without syringomyelia than in healthy volunteers and patients with syringomyelia. There were no significant differences in the CSF velocities between patients with syringomyelia and healthy volunteers. Patients with CM-I who had syringomyelia had a significantly later start of caudal CSF flow (p < 0.01) and earlier maximum cranial velocity (p = 0.03) than healthy volunteers, but the relative durations of caudal and cranial flow were not significantly different between any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The significantly earlier arrival and earlier peak velocity of caudal CSF flow may underlie the development of syringomyelia in patients with CM-I, and after a syrinx develops the CSF flow profile appears to stabilize.

Clarke EC; Stoodley MA; Bilston LE

2013-05-01

409

Image reconstruction and quantification in emission tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radionuclide tomographic imaging has substantially benefited from the introduction of statistical image reconstruction. Although the main concepts of these iterative algorithms were published decades ago, their widespread use in clinical routine only became available with faster computers for image processing in the last few years. This article gives an overview of data acquisition and iterative reconstruction in emission tomography, deals with the popular maximum likelihood algorithm, and describes the basics of the maximum a posteriori reconstruction. Prerequisites and corrections necessary for quantification are discussed in the second part of the article on the basis of positron emission tomography. Improvements in technical equipment are expected to stimulate future research into image reconstruction. (orig.)

2006-01-01

410

Recurrence quantification analysis of eye movements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) has been successfully used for describing dynamic systems that are too complex to be characterized adequately by standard methods in time series analysis. More recently, RQA has been used for analyzing the coordination of gaze patterns between cooperating individuals. Here, we extend RQA to the characterization of fixation sequences, and we show that the global and local temporal characteristics of fixation sequences can be captured by a small number of RQA measures that have a clear interpretation in this context. We applied RQA to the analysis of a study in which observers looked at different scenes under natural or gaze-contingent viewing conditions, and we found large differences in the RQA measures between the viewing conditions, indicating that RQA is a powerful new tool for the analysis of the temporal patterns of eye movement behavior. PMID:23344735

Anderson, Nicola C; Bischof, Walter F; Laidlaw, Kaitlin E W; Risko, Evan F; Kingstone, Alan

2013-09-01