WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantification theory type

  1. Quantum Theory without Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Piron, Constantin

    2002-01-01

    After having explained Samuel Clarke's conception of the new philosophy of physical reality, we will treat the electron field in this context as a field modifying the void. From this we will be able to derive the so-called quantum rules just from Noether's theorem on conserved currents. Thus quantum theory appears as a kind of nonlocal field theory, in fact a new theory.

  2. Quantum Theory without Quantification

    CERN Document Server

    Piron, Constantin

    1996-01-01

    After having explained Samuel Clarke's conception of the new philosophy of physical reality, we will treat the electron field in this context as a field modifying the void. From this we will be able to derive the so-called quantum rules just from Noether's theorem on conserved currents. Thus quantum theory appears as a kind of nonlocal field theory, in fact a new theory.

  3. Uncertainty quantification theory, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Ralph C

    2014-01-01

    The field of uncertainty quantification is evolving rapidly because of increasing emphasis on models that require quantified uncertainties for large-scale applications, novel algorithm development, and new computational architectures that facilitate implementation of these algorithms. Uncertainty Quantification: Theory, Implementation, and Applications provides readers with the basic concepts, theory, and algorithms necessary to quantify input and response uncertainties for simulation models arising in a broad range of disciplines. The book begins with a detailed discussion of applications where uncertainty quantification is critical for both scientific understanding and policy. It then covers concepts from probability and statistics, parameter selection techniques, frequentist and Bayesian model calibration, propagation of uncertainties, quantification of model discrepancy, surrogate model construction, and local and global sensitivity analysis. The author maintains a complementary web page where readers ca...

  4. Recurrence quantification analysis theory and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Marwan, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of recurrences in dynamical systems by using recurrence plots and their quantification is still an emerging field.  Over the past decades recurrence plots have proven to be valuable data visualization and analysis tools in the theoretical study of complex, time-varying dynamical systems as well as in various applications in biology, neuroscience, kinesiology, psychology, physiology, engineering, physics, geosciences, linguistics, finance, economics, and other disciplines.   This multi-authored book intends to comprehensively introduce and showcase recent advances as well as established best practices concerning both theoretical and practical aspects of recurrence plot based analysis.  Edited and authored by leading researcher in the field, the various chapters address an interdisciplinary readership, ranging from theoretical physicists to application-oriented scientists in all data-providing disciplines.

  5. On Irrelevance and Algorithmic Equality in Predicative Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Dependently typed programs contain an excessive amount of static terms which are necessary to please the type checker but irrelevant for computation. To separate static and dynamic code, several static analyses and type systems have been put forward. We consider Pfenning's type theory with irrelevant quantification which is compatible with a type-based notion of equality that respects eta-laws. We extend Pfenning's theory to universes and large eliminations and develop its meta-theory. Subject reduction, normalization and consistency are obtained by a Kripke model over the typed equality judgement. Finally, a type-directed equality algorithm is described whose completeness is proven by a second Kripke model.

  6. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Ale; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald; Birkedal, Lars; Mgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    2015-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular......, type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call delayed substitutions. These generalise the applicative...

  7. An overview of type theories

    OpenAIRE

    Guallart, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Pure type systems arise as a generalisation of simply typed lambda calculus. The contemporary development of mathematics has renewed the interest in type theories, as they are not just the object of mere historical research, but have an active role in the development of computational science and core mathematics. It is worth exploring some of them in depth, particularly predicative Martin-L\\"of's intuitionistic type theory and impredicative Coquand's calculus of construction...

  8. Computational semantics in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Aarne

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show how Montague-style grammars can be completely formalized and thereby declaratively implemented by using the Grammatical Framework GF. The implementation covers the fundamental operations of Montague’s PTQ model: the construction of analysis trees, the linearization of trees into strings, and the interpretation of trees as logical formulas. Moreover, a parsing algorithm is derived from the grammar. Given that GF is a constructive type theory with dependent types, the te...

  9. A "Toy" Model for Operational Risk Quantification using Credibility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hans B\\"uhlmann; Shevchenko, Pavel V.; Mario V. W\\"uthrich

    2009-01-01

    To meet the Basel II regulatory requirements for the Advanced Measurement Approaches in operational risk, the bank's internal model should make use of the internal data, relevant external data, scenario analysis and factors reflecting the business environment and internal control systems. One of the unresolved challenges in operational risk is combining of these data sources appropriately. In this paper we focus on quantification of the low frequency high impact losses exceeding some high thr...

  10. A "Toy" Model for Operational Risk Quantification using Credibility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bhlmann, Hans; Shevchenko, Pavel V.; Wthrich, Mario V.

    2009-01-01

    To meet the Basel II regulatory requirements for the Advanced Measurement Approaches in operational risk, the bank's internal model should make use of the internal data, relevant external data, scenario analysis and factors reflecting the business environment and internal control systems. One of the unresolved challenges in operational risk is combining of these data sources appropriately. In this paper we focus on quantification of the low frequency high impact losses excee...

  11. A computable type theory for control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, P.J.; Guo, L.; Baillieul, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a theory of computable types suitable for the study of control systems. The theory uses type-two effectivity as the underlying computational model, but we quickly develop a type system which can be manipulated abstractly, but for which all allowable operations are guaranteed to be computable. We apply the theory to the study of hybrid systems, reachability analysis, and control synthesis.

  12. Some Properties of Type I' String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, John H.

    1999-01-01

    The T-dual formulation of Type I superstring theory, sometimes called Type I' theory, has a number of interesting features. Here we review some of them including the role of D0-branes and D8-branes in controlling possible gauge symmetry enhancement.

  13. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @i?a , where ?a is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that ...

  14. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We dont, for example, make use of Montagues intensional type s, or Fitting......We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types the...... way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @i?a , where ?a is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that ?a receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  15. Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, N; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is one of the main theoretical tools used to study the properties of heavy and superheavy elements, or to describe the structure of nuclei far from stability. While on-going efforts seek to better root nuclear DFT in the theory of nuclear forces [see Duguet et al., this issue], energy functionals remain semi-phenomenological constructions that depend on a set of parameters adjusted to experimental data in finite nuclei. In this paper, we review recent efforts to quantify the related uncertainties, and propagate them to model predictions. In particular, we cover the topics of parameter estimation for inverse problems, statistical analysis of model uncertainties and Bayesian inference methods. Illustrative examples are taken from the literature.

  16. Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunck, N; McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M

    2015-03-17

    Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is one of the main theoretical tools used to study the properties of heavy and superheavy elements, or to describe the structure of nuclei far from stability. While on-going eff orts seek to better root nuclear DFT in the theory of nuclear forces, energy functionals remain semi-phenomenological constructions that depend on a set of parameters adjusted to experimental data in fi nite nuclei. In this paper, we review recent eff orts to quantify the related uncertainties, and propagate them to model predictions. In particular, we cover the topics of parameter estimation for inverse problems, statistical analysis of model uncertainties and Bayesian inference methods. Illustrative examples are taken from the literature.

  17. Quantification of Uncertainties in Nuclear Density Functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, N; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S

    2014-01-01

    Reliable predictions of nuclear properties are needed as much to answer fundamental science questions as in applications such as reactor physics or data evaluation. Nuclear density functional theory is currently the only microscopic, global approach to nuclear structure that is applicable throughout the nuclear chart. In the past few years, a lot of effort has been devoted to setting up a general methodology to assess theoretical uncertainties in nuclear DFT calculations. In this paper, we summarize some of the recent progress in this direction. Most of the new material discussed here will be be published in separate articles.

  18. Type II string theory and modularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, in a sense, completes a series of three papers. In the previous two, we have explored the possibility of refining the K-theory partition function in type II string theories using elliptic cohomology. In the present paper, we make that more concrete by defining a fully quantized free field theory based on elliptic cohomology of 10-dimensional spacetime. Moreover, we describe a concrete scenario how this is related to compactification of F-theory on an elliptic curve leading to IIA and IIB theories. We propose an interpretation of the elliptic curve in the context of elliptic cohomology. We discuss the possibility of orbifolding of the elliptic curves and derive certain properties of F-theory. We propose a link of this to type IIB modularity, the structure of the topological lagrangian of M-theory, and Witten's index of loop space Dirac operators. The discussion suggests a S1-lift of type IIB and an F-theoretic model for type I obtained by orbifolding that for type IIB

  19. Transcriptional regulatory network refinement and quantification through kinetic modeling, gene expression microarray data and information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay Kagan; Sayyed-Ahmad Abdallah; Ortoleva Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Gene expression microarray and other multiplex data hold promise for addressing the challenges of cellular complexity, refined diagnoses and the discovery of well-targeted treatments. A new approach to the construction and quantification of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is presented that integrates gene expression microarray data and cell modeling through information theory. Given a partial TRN and time series data, a probability density is constructed that is...

  20. Quantification of margins and mixed uncertainties using evidence theory and stochastic expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to implement DempsterShafer Theory of Evidence (DSTE) in the presence of mixed (aleatory and multiple sources of epistemic) uncertainty to the reliability and performance assessment of complex engineering systems through the use of quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) methodology. This study focuses on quantifying the simulation uncertainties, both in the design condition and the performance boundaries along with the determination of margins. To address the possibility of multiple sources and intervals for epistemic uncertainty characterization, DSTE is used for uncertainty quantification. An approach to incorporate aleatory uncertainty in DempsterShafer structures is presented by discretizing the aleatory variable distributions into sets of intervals. In view of excessive computational costs for large scale applications and repetitive simulations needed for DSTE analysis, a stochastic response surface based on point-collocation non-intrusive polynomial chaos (NIPC) has been implemented as the surrogate for the model response. The technique is demonstrated on a model problem with non-linear analytical functions representing the outputs and performance boundaries of two coupled systems. Finally, the QMU approach is demonstrated on a multi-disciplinary analysis of a high speed civil transport (HSCT). - Highlights: Quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) methodology with evidence theory. Treatment of both inherent and epistemic uncertainties within evidence theory. Stochastic expansions for representation of performance metrics and boundaries. Demonstration of QMU on an analytical problem. QMU analysis applied to an aerospace system (high speed civil transport)

  1. Transcriptional regulatory network refinement and quantification through kinetic modeling, gene expression microarray data and information theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Kagan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression microarray and other multiplex data hold promise for addressing the challenges of cellular complexity, refined diagnoses and the discovery of well-targeted treatments. A new approach to the construction and quantification of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs is presented that integrates gene expression microarray data and cell modeling through information theory. Given a partial TRN and time series data, a probability density is constructed that is a functional of the time course of transcription factor (TF thermodynamic activities at the site of gene control, and is a function of mRNA degradation and transcription rate coefficients, and equilibrium constants for TF/gene binding. Results Our approach yields more physicochemical information that compliments the results of network structure delineation methods, and thereby can serve as an element of a comprehensive TRN discovery/quantification system. The most probable TF time courses and values of the aforementioned parameters are obtained by maximizing the probability obtained through entropy maximization. Observed time delays between mRNA expression and activity are accounted for implicitly since the time course of the activity of a TF is coupled by probability functional maximization, and is not assumed to be proportional to expression level of the mRNA type that translates into the TF. This allows one to investigate post-translational and TF activation mechanisms of gene regulation. Accuracy and robustness of the method are evaluated. A kinetic formulation is used to facilitate the analysis of phenomena with a strongly dynamical character while a physically-motivated regularization of the TF time course is found to overcome difficulties due to omnipresent noise and data sparsity that plague other methods of gene expression data analysis. An application to Escherichia coli is presented. Conclusion Multiplex time series data can be used for the construction of the network of cellular processes and the calibration of the associated physicochemical parameters. We have demonstrated these concepts in the context of gene regulation understood through the analysis of gene expression microarray time series data. Casting the approach in a probabilistic framework has allowed us to address the uncertainties in gene expression microarray data. Our approach was found to be robust to error in the gene expression microarray data and mistakes in a proposed TRN.

  2. Divergence-type theory of conformal fields

    CERN Document Server

    Peralta-Ramos, J

    2009-01-01

    We present a nonlinear hydrodynamical description of a conformal plasma within the framework of divergence-type theories (DTTs), which are not based on a gradient expansion. We compare the equations of the DTT and the second-order theory (based on conformal invariants), for the case of Bjorken ow. The approach to ideal hydrodynamics is faster in the DTT, indicating that our results can be useful in the study of early-time dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Game-theoretic Interpretation of Type Theory Part I: Intuitionistic Type Theory with Universes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    We present a game semantics for intuitionistic type theory. Concretely, we propose categories with families of games and strategies for both extensional and intensional type theories, which support dependent product, dependent sum, and Id-types as well as universes. The intensional interpretation of the Id-types in particular has interesting phenomena: It admits the principle of uniqueness of identity proofs as well as Streicher's first and second Criteria of Intensionality, but refutes the t...

  4. Predictions for orientifold field theories from type 0' string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, A

    2005-01-01

    Two predictions about finite-N non-supersymmetric "orientifold field theories" are made by using the dual type 0' string theory on C^3 / Z_2 x Z_2 orbifold singularity. First, the mass ratio between the lowest pseudoscalar and scalar color-singlets is estimated to be equal to the ratio between the axial anomaly and the scale anomaly at strong coupling, M_- / M_+ ~ C_- / C_+. Second, the ratio between the domain wall tension and the value of the quark condensate is computed.

  5. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Boespflug; Brigitte Pientka

    2011-01-01

    Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce...

  6. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Boespflug

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

  7. Uncertainty Quantification for Nuclear Density Functional Theory and Information Content of New Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M; Nazarewicz, W

    2015-01-01

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models; to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability; to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment; and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, w...

  8. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Boespflug, Mathieu; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.3

    2011-01-01

    Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable ...

  9. Applicability of Information Theory to the Quantification of Responses to Anthropogenic Noise by Southeast Alaskan Humpback Whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ellen Blue

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We assess the effectiveness of applying information theory to the characterization and quantification of the affects of anthropogenic vessel noise on humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae vocal behavior in and around Glacier Bay, Alaska. Vessel noise has the potential to interfere with the complex vocal behavior of these humpback whales which could have direct consequences on their feeding behavior and thus ultimately on their health and reproduction. Humpback whale feeding calls recorded during conditions of high vessel-generated noise and lower levels of background noise are compared for differences in acoustic structure, use, and organization using information theoretic measures. We apply information theory in a self-referential manner (i.e., orders of entropy to quantify the changes in signaling behavior. We then compare this with the reduction in channel capacity due to noise in Glacier Bay itself treating it as a (Gaussian noisy channel. We find that high vessel noise is associated with an increase in the rate and repetitiveness of sequential use of feeding call types in our averaged sample of humpback whale vocalizations, indicating that vessel noise may be modifying the patterns of use of feeding calls by the endangered humpback whales in Southeast Alaska. The information theoretic approach suggested herein can make a reliable quantitative measure of such relationships and may also be adapted for wider application to many species where environmental noise is thought to be a problem.

  10. Applicability of Information Theory to the Quantification of Responses to Anthropogenic Noise by Southeast Alaskan Humpback Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Hanser, Sean F.; Chyba, Christopher; Bucci, Taylor; Blue, J. E.

    2008-06-01

    We assess the effectiveness of applying information theory to the characterization and quantification of the affects of anthropogenic vessel noise on humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) vocal behavior in and around Glacier Bay, Alaska. Vessel noise has the potential to interfere with the complex vocal behavior of these humpback whales which could have direct consequences on their feeding behavior and thus ultimately on their health and reproduction. Humpback whale feeding calls recorded during conditions of high vessel-generated noise and lower levels of background noise are compared for differences in acoustic structure, use, and organization using information theoretic measures. We apply information theory in a self-referential manner (i.e., orders of entropy) to quantify the changes in signaling behavior. We then compare this with the reduction in channel capacity due to noise in Glacier Bay itself treating it as a (Gaussian) noisy channel. We find that high vessel noise is associated with an increase in the rate and repetitiveness of sequential use of feeding call types in our averaged sample of humpback whale vocalizations, indicating that vessel noise may be modifying the patterns of use of feeding calls by the endangered humpback whales in Southeast Alaska. The information theoretic approach suggested herein can make a reliable quantitative measure of such relationships and may also be adapted for wider application to many species where environmental noise is thought to be a problem.

  11. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schunck, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Higdon, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sarich, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wild, S. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nazarewicz, W. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. As a result, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.

  12. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J D; Schunck, N; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M; Nazarewicz, W

    2015-03-27

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. The example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method. PMID:25860736

  13. Dynamic Typing: Syntax and Proof Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic typing, coercions, dynamically typed lambda-calculus, type inference coherence, completions, safety, minimality......Dynamic typing, coercions, dynamically typed lambda-calculus, type inference coherence, completions, safety, minimality...

  14. Chiron: A Set Theory with Types, Undefinedness, Quotation, and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Chiron is a derivative of von-Neumann-Bernays-G\\"odel (NBG) set theory that is intended to be a practical, general-purpose logic for mechanizing mathematics. Unlike traditional set theories such as Zermelo-Fraenkel (ZF) and NBG, Chiron is equipped with a type system, lambda notation, and definite and indefinite description. The type system includes a universal type, dependent types, dependent function types, subtypes, and possibly empty types. Unlike traditional logics such as first-order log...

  15. Three-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Witten type

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalarska, Malgorzata; Broda, Boguslaw

    1999-01-01

    Description of two three-dimensional topological quantum field theories of Witten type as twisted supersymmetric theories is presented. Low-energy effective action and a corresponding topological invariant of three-dimensional manifolds are considered.

  16. Three-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Witten type

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalarska, M; Bakalarska, Malgorzata; Broda, Boguslaw

    1998-01-01

    Description of two three-dimensional topological quantum field theories of Witten type as twisted supersymmetric theories is presented. Low-energy effective action and a corresponding topological invariant of three-dimensional manifolds are considered.

  17. Simple Type Theory as Framework for Combining Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Simple type theory is suited as framework for combining classical and non-classical logics. This claim is based on the observation that various prominent logics, including (quantified) multimodal logics and intuitionistic logics, can be elegantly embedded in simple type theory. Furthermore, simple type theory is sufficiently expressive to model combinations of embedded logics and it has a well understood semantics. Off-the-shelf reasoning systems for simple type theory exist that can be uniformly employed for reasoning within and about combinations of logics.

  18. Orbifolds of M-theory and type II string theories in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider several orbifold compactifications of M-theory and theircorresponding type II duals in two space-time dimensions. In particular, we show that while the orbifold compactification of M-theory on T9/J9 is dual to the orbifold compactification of type IIB string theory on T8/I8, the same orbifold T8/I8 of type IIA string theory is dual to M-theory compactified on a smooth product manifold K3 x T5. Similarly, while the orbifold compactification of M-theory on (K3 x T5)/?. J5 is dual to the orbifold compactification of type IIB string theory on (K3 x T4)/?.I4, the same orbifold of type IIA string theory is dual to the orbifold T4 x (K3 x S1)/?.J1 of M-theory. The spectrum of various orbifold compactifications of M-theory and type II string theories on both sides are compared giving evidence in favor of these duality conjectures. We also comment on a connection between the Dasgupta-Mukhi-Witten conjecture and the Dabholkar-Park-Sen conjecture for the six-dimensional orbifold models of type IIB string theory and M-theory. (orig.)

  19. Uncertainty Quantification of Composite Laminate Damage with the Generalized Information Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Lucero; F. Hemez; T. Ross; K.Kline; J.Hundhausen; T. Tippetts

    2006-05-01

    This work presents a survey of five theories to assess the uncertainty of projectile impact induced damage on multi-layered carbon-epoxy composite plates. Because the types of uncertainty dealt with in this application are multiple (variability, ambiguity, and conflict) and because the data sets collected are sparse, characterizing the amount of delamination damage with probability theory alone is possible but incomplete. This motivates the exploration of methods contained within a broad Generalized Information Theory (GIT) that rely on less restrictive assumptions than probability theory. Probability, fuzzy sets, possibility, and imprecise probability (probability boxes (p-boxes) and Dempster-Shafer) are used to assess the uncertainty in composite plate damage. Furthermore, this work highlights the usefulness of each theory. The purpose of the study is not to compare directly the different GIT methods but to show that they can be deployed on a practical application and to compare the assumptions upon which these theories are based. The data sets consist of experimental measurements and finite element predictions of the amount of delamination and fiber splitting damage as multilayered composite plates are impacted by a projectile at various velocities. The physical experiments consist of using a gas gun to impact suspended plates with a projectile accelerated to prescribed velocities, then, taking ultrasound images of the resulting delamination. The nonlinear, multiple length-scale numerical simulations couple local crack propagation implemented through cohesive zone modeling to global stress-displacement finite element analysis. The assessment of damage uncertainty is performed in three steps by, first, considering the test data only; then, considering the simulation data only; finally, performing an assessment of total uncertainty where test and simulation data sets are combined. This study leads to practical recommendations for reducing the uncertainty and improving the prediction accuracy of the damage modeling and finite element simulation.

  20. Kripke Semantics for Martin-L\\"of's Extensional Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Awodey, Steve

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that simple type theory is complete with respect to non-standard set-valued models. Completeness for standard models only holds with respect to certain extended classes of models, e.g., the class of cartesian closed categories. Similarly, dependent type theory is complete for locally cartesian closed categories. However, it is usually difficult to establish the coherence of interpretations of dependent type theory, i.e., to show that the interpretations of equal expressions are indeed equal. Several classes of models have been used to remedy this problem. We contribute to this investigation by giving a semantics that is standard, coherent, and sufficiently general for completeness while remaining relatively easy to compute with. Our models interpret types of Martin-L\\"of's extensional dependent type theory as sets indexed over posets or, equivalently, as fibrations over posets. This semantics can be seen as a generalization to dependent type theory of the interpretation of intuitionistic firs...

  1. Methods of earthquake resistance quantification for old types of PWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles are presented of the technology developed by the US NRC. The Systematic Evaluation Programme consists of a detailed inspection of the plant, of an analysis of existing reports and calculations, and of a new assessment of critical buildings and technological equipment. This programme is followed by a seismic Probabilistic Safety Analysis and a Seismic Margin Review. Instead of the failure probability this analysis introduces the high confidential of a low probability of failure, which identifies an acceleration value such that the probability of component failure is less than 5 %. For WWER-type reactors the technique according to the Systematic Evaluation Programme seems to be the most viable. (M.D.) 12 refs., 2 figs

  2. Type Arithmetics: Computation based on the theory of types

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselyov, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The present paper shows meta-programming turn programming, which is rich enough to express arbitrary arithmetic computations. We demonstrate a type system that implements Peano arithmetics, slightly generalized to negative numbers. Certain types in this system denote numerals. Arithmetic operations on such types-numerals - addition, subtraction, and even division - are expressed as type reduction rules executed by a compiler. A remarkable trait is that division by zero becom...

  3. Numerical Domain Wall Type Solutions in phi**4 Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Karkowski, J.; Swierczynski, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The well known domain wall type solutions are nowadays of great physical interest in classical field theory. These solutions can mostly be found only approximately. Recently the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method was succesfully applied to obtain this type solutions in phi**4 theory. The goal of the present paper is to verify these perturbative results by numerical computations.

  4. Motion in Bimetric Type Theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kahil, M E

    2015-01-01

    The problem of motion for different test particles, charged and spinning objects of constant spinning tensor in different versions of bimetric theory of gravity is obtained by deriving their corresponding path and path deviation equations, using a modified Bazanski in presence of Riemannian geometry. This method enables us to find path and path deviation equations of different objects orbiting very strong gravitational fields.

  5. Water type quantification in the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Kristiansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive data series of salinity, nutrients and coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM was collected in the Skagerrak, the northern part of the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast in April each year during the period 19962000, by the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. In this month, after the spring bloom, German Bight Water differs from its surrounding waters by a higher nitrate content and higher nitrate/phosphate and nitrate/silicate ratios. The spreading of this water type into the Skagerrak is of special interest with regard to toxic algal blooms. The quantification of the spatial distributions of the different water types required the development of a new algorithm for the area containing the Norwegian Coastal Current, while an earlier Danish algorithm was applied for the rest of the area. From the upper 50m a total of 2227 observations of salinity and CDOM content have been used to calculate the mean concentration of water from the German Bight, the North Sea (Atlantic water, the Baltic Sea and Norwegian rivers. The Atlantic Water was the dominant water type, with a mean concentration of 79%, German Bight Water constituted 11%, Baltic Water 8%, and Norwegian River Water 2%. At the surface the mean percentages of these water types were found to be 68%, 15%, 15%, and 3%, respectively. Within the northern part of the Skagerrak, closer to the Norwegian coast, the surface waters were estimated to consist of 74% Atlantic Water, 20% Baltic Water, and 7% Norwegian River Water. The analysis indicates that the content of German Bight Water in this part is less than 5%.

  6. Closed tachyon solitons in type II string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Garca-Etxebarria, Iaki; Uranga, Angel M

    2015-01-01

    Type II theories can be described as the endpoint of closed string tachyon condensation in certain orbifolds of supercritical type 0 theories. In this paper, we study solitons of this closed string tachyon and analyze the nature of the resulting defects in critical type II theories. The solitons are classified by the real K-theory groups KO of bundles associated to pairs of supercritical dimensions. For real codimension 4 and 8, corresponding to $KO({\\bf S}^4)={\\bf Z}$ and $KO({\\bf S}^8)={\\bf Z}$, the defects correspond to a gravitational instanton and a fundamental string, respectively. We apply these ideas to reinterpret the worldsheet GLSM, regarded as a supercritical theory on the ambient toric space with closed tachyon condensation onto the CY hypersurface, and use it to describe charged solitons under discrete isometries. We also suggest the possible applications of supercritical strings to the physical interpretation of the matrix factorization description of F-theory on singular spaces.

  7. Evidence theory and differential evolution based uncertainty quantification for buckling load of semi-rigid jointed frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hesheng Tang; Yu Su; Jiao Wang

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes a procedure for the uncertainty quantification (UQ) using evidence theory in buckling analysis of semi-rigid jointed frame structures under mixed epistemic–aleatory uncertainty. The design uncertainties (geometrical, material, strength, and manufacturing) are often prevalent in engineering applications. Due to lack of knowledge or incomplete, inaccurate, unclear information in the modeling, simulation, measurement, and design, there are limitations in using only one framework (probability theory) to quantify uncertainty in a system because of the impreciseness of data or knowledge. Evidence theory provides an alternative to probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty that derives from a lack of knowledge with respect to the appropriate values to use for various inputs to the model. Unfortunately, propagation of an evidence theory representation for uncertainty through a model is more computationally demanding than propagation of a probabilistic representation for uncertainty. In order to alleviate the computational difficulties in the evidence theory based UQ analysis, a differential evolution-based computational strategy for propagation of epistemic uncertainty in a system with evidence theory is presented here. A UQ analysis for the buckling load of steel-plane frames with semi-rigid connections is given herein to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. HPAEC-PAD quantification of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide in upstream and downstream samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Robert M F; de Haan, Alex; van den IJssel, Jan G M; Hamidi, Ahd; Beurret, Michel

    2015-11-27

    Due to the rapidly increasing introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and other conjugate vaccines worldwide during the last decade, reliable and robust analytical methods are needed for the quantitative monitoring of intermediate samples generated during fermentation (upstream processing, USP) and purification (downstream processing, DSP) of polysaccharide vaccine components. This study describes the quantitative characterization of in-process control (IPC) samples generated during the fermentation and purification of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP), derived from Hib. Reliable quantitative methods are necessary for all stages of production; otherwise accurate process monitoring and validation is not possible. Prior to the availability of high performance anion exchange chromatography methods, this polysaccharide was predominantly quantified either with immunochemical methods, or with the colorimetric orcinol method, which shows interference from fermentation medium components and reagents used during purification. Next to an improved high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) method, using a modified gradient elution, both the orcinol assay and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analyses were evaluated. For DSP samples, it was found that the correlation between the results obtained by HPAEC-PAD specific quantification of the PRP monomeric repeat unit released by alkaline hydrolysis, and those from the orcinol method was high (R(2)=0.8762), and that it was lower between HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC results. Additionally, HPSEC analysis of USP samples yielded surprisingly comparable results to those obtained by HPAEC-PAD. In the early part of the fermentation, medium components interfered with the different types of analysis, but quantitative HPSEC data could still be obtained, although lacking the specificity of the HPAEC-PAD method. Thus, the HPAEC-PAD method has the advantage of giving a specific response compared to the orcinol assay and HPSEC, and does not show interference from various components that can be present in intermediate and purified PRP samples. PMID:25045809

  9. Extensions of flat functors and theories of presheaf type

    OpenAIRE

    Caramello, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    We develop a general theory of extensions of flat functors along geometric morphisms of toposes, and apply it to the study of the class of theories whose classifying topos is equivalent to a presheaf topos. As a result, we obtain a characterization theorem providing necessary and sufficient semantic conditions for a theory to be of presheaf type. This theorem subsumes all the previous partial results obtained on the subject and has several corollaries which can be used in practice for testing...

  10. Type IIB string theory, S-duality, and generalized cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of background Neveu-Schwarz flux, the description of the Ramond-Ramond fields of type IIB string theory using twisted K-theory is not compatible with S-duality. We argue that other possible variants of twisted K-theory would still not resolve this issue. We propose instead a connection of S-duality with elliptic cohomology, and a possible T-duality relation of this to a previous proposal for IIA theory, and higher-dimensional limits. In the process, we obtain some other results which may be interesting on their own. In particular, we prove a conjecture of Witten that the 11-dimensional spin cobordism group vanishes on K(Z,6), which eliminates a potential new θ-angle in type IIB string theory

  11. Intensional Type Theory with Guarded Recursive Types qua Fixed Points on Universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Mogelberg, R.E.

    Guarded recursive functions and types are useful for giving semantics to advanced programming languages and for higher-order programming with infinite data types, such as streams, e.g., for modeling reactive systems. We propose an extension of intensional type theory with rules for forming fixed...... points of guarded recursive functions. Guarded recursive types can be formed simply by taking fixed points of guarded recursive functions on the universe of types. Moreover, we present a general model construction for constructing models of the intensional type theory with guarded recursive functions and...... types. When applied to the groupoid model of intensional type theory with the universe of small discrete groupoids, the construction gives a model of guarded recursion for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between fixed points of functions on the universe of types and fixed points of (suitable...

  12. Introduction to type-2 fuzzy logic control theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry M; Tan, Woei-Wan; Melek, William W; Ying, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Written by world-class leaders in type-2 fuzzy logic control, this book offers a self-contained reference for both researchers and students. The coverage provides both background and an extensive literature survey on fuzzy logic and related type-2 fuzzy control. It also includes research questions, experiment and simulation results, and downloadable computer programs on an associated website. This key resource will prove useful to students and engineers wanting to learn type-2 fuzzy control theory and its applications.

  13. Applying genre theory to improve exposition-type essay writing

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lirola, maría; Tabuenca Cuevas, María Felicidad

    2010-01-01

    The study reported in this paper focuses on the use of the Genre Theory in multilingual classrooms as an appropriate framework for English L2 writing. Our students' mother tongues were Spanish, Valencian, French, Flemish, Italian, German and Rumanian. The Genre Theory was applied to increase students' literacy skills through the study of text types and specific grammar structures that appear in these texts. As an adequate evaluation process had to be implemented, the computer programme Markin...

  14. Closed tachyon solitons in type II string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Inaki [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Montero, Miguel [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, C/Nicolas Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Uranga, Angel M. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, C/Nicolas Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Type II theories can be described as the endpoint of closed string tachyon condensation in certain orbifolds of supercritical type 0 theories. In this paper, we study solitons of this closed string tachyon and analyze the nature of the resulting defects in critical type II theories. The solitons are classified by the real K-theory groups KO of bundles associated to pairs of supercritical dimensions. For real codimension 4 and 8, corresponding to KO(S{sup 4}) = Z and KO(S{sup 8}) = Z, the defects correspond to a gravitational instanton and a fundamental string, respectively. We apply these ideas to reinterpret the worldsheet GLSM, regarded as a supercritical theory on the ambient toric space with closed tachyon condensation onto the CY hypersurface, and use it to describe charged solitons under discrete isometries. We also suggest the possible applications of supercritical strings to the physical interpretation of the matrix factorization description of F-theory on singular spaces. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Closed tachyon solitons in type II string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type II theories can be described as the endpoint of closed string tachyon condensation in certain orbifolds of supercritical type 0 theories. In this paper, we study solitons of this closed string tachyon and analyze the nature of the resulting defects in critical type II theories. The solitons are classified by the real K-theory groups KO of bundles associated to pairs of supercritical dimensions. For real codimension 4 and 8, corresponding to KO(S4) = Z and KO(S8) = Z, the defects correspond to a gravitational instanton and a fundamental string, respectively. We apply these ideas to reinterpret the worldsheet GLSM, regarded as a supercritical theory on the ambient toric space with closed tachyon condensation onto the CY hypersurface, and use it to describe charged solitons under discrete isometries. We also suggest the possible applications of supercritical strings to the physical interpretation of the matrix factorization description of F-theory on singular spaces. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Intensional type theory with guarded recursive types qua fixed points on universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Guarded recursive functions and types are useful for giving semantics to advanced programming languages and for higher-order programming with infinite data types, such as streams, e.g., for modeling reactive systems. We propose an extension of intensional type theory with rules for forming fixed points of guarded recursive functions. Guarded recursive types can be formed simply by taking fixed points of guarded recursive functions on the universe of types. Moreover, we present a general model construction for constructing models of the intensional type theory with guarded recursive functions and types. When applied to the groupoid model of intensional type theory with the universe of small discrete groupoids, the construction gives a model of guarded recursion for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between fixed points of functions on the universe of types and fixed points of (suitable) operators on types. In particular, we find that the functor category from the preordered set of natural numbers to the category of groupoids is a model of intensional type theory with guarded recursive types.

  17. Intensional Type Theory with Guarded Recursive Types qua Fixed Points on Universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Mogelberg, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Guarded recursive functions and types are useful for giving semantics to advanced programming languages and for higher-order programming with infinite data types, such as streams, e.g., for modeling reactive systems. We propose an extension of intensional type theory with rules for forming fixed points of guarded recursive functions. Guarded recursive types can be formed simply by taking fixed points of guarded recursive functions on the universe of types. Moreover, we present a general model construction for constructing models of the intensional type theory with guarded recursive functions and types. When applied to the groupoid model of intensional type theory with the universe of small discrete groupoids, the construction gives a model of guarded recursion for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between fixed points of functions on the universe of types and fixed points of (suitable) operators on types. In particular, we find that the functor category Grpd?op from the preordered set of natural numbers to the category of groupoids is a model of intensional type theory with guarded recursive types.

  18. Type IIB theory on half-flat manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we derive the low-energy effective action of type IIB theory compactified on half-flat manifolds and show that this precisely coincides with the low-energy effective action of type IIA theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold in the presence of NS three-form fluxes. In this way we provide a further check of the recently formulated conjecture that half-flat manifolds appear as mirror partners of Calabi-Yau manifolds when NS fluxes are turned on

  19. Determination and quantification of collagen types by LC-MS/MS and CE-MS/MS.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikk, Ivan; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam; Lacinov, Kate?ina; Sedlkov, Pavla

    Freiberg : Forschungsinstitut fr Leder und Kunststoffbahnen (FILK)gGmbH, 2012, s. 131-141. ISBN 978-3-00-039421-8. [Freiberg Collagen Symposium /5./. Freiberg (DE), 04.09.2012-05.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/08/1428; GA ?R(CZ) GAP206/12/0453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : collagen * protein quantification Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Multivariate Bonferroni-type inequalities theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, John

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate Bonferroni-Type Inequalities: Theory and Applications presents a systematic account of research discoveries on multivariate Bonferroni-type inequalities published in the past decade. The emergence of new bounding approaches pushes the conventional definitions of optimal inequalities and demands new insights into linear and Frchet optimality. The book explores these advances in bounding techniques with corresponding innovative applications. It presents the method of linear programming for multivariate bounds, multivariate hybrid bounds, sub-Markovian bounds, and bounds using Hamil

  1. A model of PCF in guarded type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco; Mgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    2015-01-01

    Guarded recursion is a form of recursion where recursive calls are guarded by delay modalities. Previous work has shown how guarded recursion is useful for constructing logics for reasoning about programming languages with advanced features, as well as for constructing and reasoning about elements of coinductive types. In this paper we investigate how type theory with guarded recursion can be used as a metalanguage for denotational semantics useful both for constructing models and for proving properties of these. We do this by constructing a fairly intensional model of PCF and proving it computationally adequate. The model construction is related to Escardo's metric model for PCF, but here everything is carried out entirely in type theory with guarded recursion, including the formulation of the operational semantics, the model construction and the proof of adequacy

  2. A model of PCF in guarded type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco; Mgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Guarded recursion is a form of recursion where recursive calls are guarded by delay modalities. Previous work has shown how guarded recursion is useful for constructing logics for reasoning about programming languages with advanced features, as well as for constructing and reasoning about elements...... of coinductive types. In this paper we investigate how type theory with guarded recursion can be used as a metalanguage for denotational semantics useful both for constructing models and for proving properties of these. We do this by constructing a fairly intensional model of PCF and proving it...... computationally adequate. The model construction is related to Escardo's metric model for PCF, but here everything is carried out entirely in type theory with guarded recursion, including the formulation of the operational semantics, the model construction and the proof of adequacy...

  3. A model of PCF in guarded type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco; Mgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    Guarded recursion is a form of recursion where recursive calls are guarded by delay modalities. Previous work has shown how guarded recursion is useful for constructing logics for reasoning about programming languages with advanced features, as well as for constructing and reasoning about elements...... of coinductive types. In this paper we investigate how type theory with guarded recursion can be used as a metalanguage for denotational semantics useful both for constructing models and for proving properties of these. We do this by constructing a fairly intensional model of PCF and proving it...... computationally adequate. The model construction is related to Escardo's metric model for PCF, but here everything is carried out entirely in type theory with guarded recursion, including the formulation of the operational semantics, the model construction and the proof of adequacy...

  4. Electric Black Holes in Type 0 String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sachs, I

    1999-01-01

    We discuss AdS_{2+1} (BTZ) black holes arising in type 0 string theory corresponding to D1-D5 and F1-NS5 bound states. In particular we describe a new non-dilatonic solution in the RR sector with only Dp_{+}, that is ``electric'' branes. This system is distinguished by the absence of fermions in the world volume theory which is an interacting CFT. It can therefore not be obtained as a projection of a type II BPS-solution. As for previous type 0 backgrounds linear stability is guaranteed only if the curvature is of the order of the string scale where alpha' corrections cannot be excluded. Some problems concerning the counting of states are discussed.

  5. On the theories of type 1 polar stratospheric cloud formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, A.R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1995-06-20

    The authors apply classical theories of nucleation and freezing, in addition to condensation theories, to the problem of modeling the formation of polar stratospheric cloud particles. An array of different paths can be followed to arrive at solutions and solids composed of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and water vapor. The authors attempt to do an energetics study to determine the most likely path leading to cloud particle formation, and then to study the implications for nitric acid condensation within resultant clouds. Their conclusion is that the most likely growth mechanism is condensation of ternary type solutions, followed by rapid freezing to water ices, nitric acid trihydrates, and sulfuric acid trihydrates.

  6. A ground many-valued type theory and its extensions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    B?hounek, Libor

    Linz : Johannes Kepler Universitt, 2014 - (Flaminio, T.; Godo, L.; Gottwald, S.; Klement, E.). s. 15-18 [Linz Seminar on Fuzzy Set Theory /35./. 18.02.2014-22.02.2014, Linz] R&D Projects: GA Mk ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA Mk EE2.3.30.0010 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : type theory * many-valued logics * higher-order logic * teorie typ? * vcehodnotov logiky * logika vyho ?du Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. Formation of social types in the theory of Orrin Klapp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunovi? Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Orrin Klapp about social types draws attention to important functions that these types have within certain societies as well as that it is preferable to take them into consideration if our goal is more complete knowledge of that society. For Klapp, social types are important social symbols, which in an interesting way reflect society they are part of and for that reason this author dedicates his work to considering their meanings and social functions. He thinks that we can not understand a society without the knowledge about the types with which its members are identified and which serve them as models in their social activity. Hence, these types have cognitive value since, according to Klapp, they assist in perception and "contain the truth", and therefore the knowledge of them allows easier orientation within the social system. Social types also offer insight into the scheme of the social structure, which is otherwise invisible and hidden, but certainly deserves attention if we wish clearer picture about social relations within specific community. The aim of this work is to present this very interesting and inspirative theory of Orrin Klapp, pointing out its importance but also its weaknesses which should be kept in mind during its application in further research.

  8. Deliverables: a categorical approach to program development in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    McKinna, James H

    1992-01-01

    This thesis considers the problem of program correctness within a rich theory of dependent types, the Extended Calculus of Constructions (ECC). This system contains a powerful programming language of higher-order primitive recursion and higher-order intuitionistic logic. It is supported by Pollack's versatile LEGO implementation, which I use extensively to develop the mathematical constructions studied here. I systematically investigate Burstall's notion of deliverable, that is, a program...

  9. Type 1 2HDM as Effective Theory of Supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally believed that the low energy effective theory of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is the type 2 two Higgs doublet model. We will show that the type 1 two Higgs doublet model can also be as the effective of supersymmetry in a specific case with high scale supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation. If the other electroweak doublet obtain the vacuum expectation value after the electroweak symmetry breaking, the Higgs spectrum is quite different. A remarkable feature is that the physical Higgs boson mass can be 125 GeV unlike in the ordinary models with high scale supersymmetry in which the Higgs mass is generally around 140 GeV.

  10. D-branes and KK-theory in type I string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse unstable D-brane systems in type-I string theory. Generalizing the proposal in hep-th/0108085, we give a physical interpretation for real KK-theory and claim that the D-branes embedded in a product space XxY which are made from the unstable Dp-brane system wrapped on Y are classified by a real KK-theory group KKOp-1(X,Y). The field contents of the unstable D-brane systems are systematically described by a hidden Clifford algebra structure.We also investigate the matrix theory based on non-BPS D-instantons and show that the spectrum of D-branes in the theory is exactly what we expect in type-I string theory, including stable non-BPS D-branes with Z2 charge. We explicitly construct the D-brane solutions in the framework of BSFT and analyse the physical property making use of the Clifford algebra. (author)

  11. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

  12. Uncertainty Propagation and Quantification using Constrained Coupled Adaptive Forward-Inverse Schemes: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    The success of implementation and execution of numerous subsurface energy technologies such shale gas extraction, geothermal energy, underground coal gasification rely on detailed characterization of the geology and the subsurface properties. For example, spatial variability of subsurface permeability controls multi-phase flow, and hence impacts the prediction of reservoir performance. Subsurface properties can vary significantly over several length scales making detailed subsurface characterization unfeasible if not forbidden. Therefore, in common practices, only sparse measurements of data are available to image or characterize the entire reservoir. For example pressure, P, permeability, k, and production rate, Q, measurements are only available at the monitoring and operational wells. Elsewhere, the spatial distribution of k is determined by various deterministic or stochastic interpolation techniques and P and Q are calculated from the governing forward mass balance equation assuming k is given at all locations. Several uncertainty drivers, such as PSUADE, are then used to propagate and quantify the uncertainty (UQ) of quantities (variable) of interest using forward solvers. Unfortunately, forward-solver techniques and other interpolation schemes are rarely constrained by the inverse problem itself: given P and Q at observation points determine the spatially variable map of k. The approach presented here, motivated by fluid imaging for subsurface characterization and monitoring, was developed by progressively solving increasingly complex realistic problems. The essence of this novel approach is that the forward and inverse partial differential equations are the interpolator themselves for P, k and Q rather than extraneous and sometimes ad hoc schemes. Three cases with different sparsity of data are investigated. In the simplest case, a sufficient number of passive pressure data (pre-production pressure gradients) are given. Here, only the inverse hyperbolic equation for the distribution of k is solved, provided that Cauchy data are appropriately assigned. In the next stage, only a limited number of passive measurements are provided. In this case, the forward and inverse PDEs are solved simultaneously. This is accomplished by adding regularization terms and filtering the pressure gradients in the inverse problem. Both the forward and the inverse problem are either simultaneously or sequentially coupled and solved using implicit schemes, adaptive mesh refinement, Galerkin finite elements. The final case arises when P, k, and Q data only exist at producing wells. This exceedingly ill posed problem calls for additional constraints on the forward-inverse coupling to insure that the production rates are satisfied at the desired locations. Results from all three cases are presented demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed approach and, more importantly, providing some insights into the consequences of data under sampling, uncertainty propagation and quantification. We illustrate the advantages of this novel approach over the common UQ forward drivers on several subsurface energy problems in either porous or fractured or/and faulted reservoirs. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. The dopant type and amount governs the electrochemical performance of graphene platforms for the antioxidant activity quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kai Hwee; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zden?k; Pumera, Martin; Bonanni, Alessandra

    2015-05-01

    Graphene doped with heteroatoms can show new or improved properties as compared to the original undoped material. It has been reported that the type of heteroatoms and the doping conditions can have a strong influence on the electronic and electrochemical properties of the resulting material. Here, we wish to compare the electrochemical behavior of two n-type and two p-type doped graphenes, namely boron-doped graphenes and nitrogen-doped graphenes containing different amounts of heteroatoms. We show that the boron-doped graphene containing a higher amount of dopants provides the best electroanalytical performance in terms of calibration sensitivity, selectivity and linearity of response for the detection of gallic acid normally used as the standard probe for the quantification of antioxidant activity of food and beverages. Our findings demonstrate that the type and amount of heteroatoms used for the doping have a profound influence on the electrochemical detection of gallic acid rather than the structural properties of the materials such as amounts of defects, oxygen functionalities and surface area. This finding has a profound influence on the application of doped graphenes in the field of analytical chemistry.Graphene doped with heteroatoms can show new or improved properties as compared to the original undoped material. It has been reported that the type of heteroatoms and the doping conditions can have a strong influence on the electronic and electrochemical properties of the resulting material. Here, we wish to compare the electrochemical behavior of two n-type and two p-type doped graphenes, namely boron-doped graphenes and nitrogen-doped graphenes containing different amounts of heteroatoms. We show that the boron-doped graphene containing a higher amount of dopants provides the best electroanalytical performance in terms of calibration sensitivity, selectivity and linearity of response for the detection of gallic acid normally used as the standard probe for the quantification of antioxidant activity of food and beverages. Our findings demonstrate that the type and amount of heteroatoms used for the doping have a profound influence on the electrochemical detection of gallic acid rather than the structural properties of the materials such as amounts of defects, oxygen functionalities and surface area. This finding has a profound influence on the application of doped graphenes in the field of analytical chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01045d

  14. Enhanced gauge symmetry in type II string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how enhanced gauge symmetry in type II string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau threefold arises from singularities in the geometry of the target space. When the target space of the type IIA string acquires a genus g curve C of AN-1 singularities, we find that an SU(N) gauge theory with g adjoint hypermultiplets appears at the singularity. The new massless states correspond to solitons wrapped about the collapsing cycles, and their dynamics is described by a twisted supersymmetric gauge theory on C x R4. We reproduce this result from an analysis of the S-dual D-manifold. We check that the predictions made by this model about the nature of the Higgs branch, the monodromy of period integrals, and the asymptotics of the one-loop topological amplitude are in agreement with geometrical computations. In one of our examples we find that the singularity occurs at strong coupling in the heterotic dual proposed by Kachru and Vafa. (orig.)

  15. Little string theory and heterotic/type II duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Fiol, Bartomeu; Kutasov, David; Sahakyan, David A.

    2004-02-01

    Little string theory (LST) is a still somewhat mysterious theory that describes the dynamics near a certain class of time-like singularities in string theory. In this paper we discuss the topological version of LST, which describes topological strings near these singularities. For (5+1)-dimensional LSTs with sixteen supercharges, the topological version may be described holographically in terms of the N=4 topological string (or the N=2 string) on the transverse part of the near-horizon geometry of NS5-branes. We show that this topological string can be used to efficiently compute the half-BPS F4 terms in the low-energy effective action of the LST. Using the strong-weak coupling string duality relating type IIA strings on K3 and heterotic strings on T4, the same terms may also be computed in the heterotic string near a point of enhanced gauge symmetry. We study the F4 terms in the heterotic string and in the LST, and show that they have the same structure, and that they agree in the cases for which we compute both of them. We also clarify some additional issues, such as the definition and role of normalizable modes in holographic linear dilaton backgrounds, the precise identifications of vertex operators in these backgrounds with states and operators in the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory that arises in the low energy limit of LST, and the normalization of two-point functions.

  16. Uncertainty quantification for proton-proton fusion in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B; Ekström, A; Forssén, C; Platter, L

    2016-01-01

    We compute the $S$-factor of the proton-proton ($pp$) fusion reaction using chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and perform a rigorous uncertainty analysis of the results. We quantify the uncertainties due to (i) the computational method used to compute the $pp$ cross section in momentum space, (ii) the statistical uncertainties in the low-energy coupling constants of $\\chi$EFT, (iii) the systematic uncertainty due to the $\\chi$EFT cutoff, and (iv) systematic variations in the database used to calibrate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We also examine the robustness of the polynomial extrapolation procedure, which is commonly used to extract the threshold $S$-factor and its energy-derivatives. By performing a statistical analysis of the polynomial fit of the energy-dependent $S$-factor at several different energy intervals, we eliminate a systematic uncertainty that can arise from the choice of the fit interval in our calculations. In addition, we explore the s...

  17. A Modular Type-checking algorithm for Type Theory with Singleton Types and Proof Irrelevance

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Andreas; Pagano, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    We define a logical framework with singleton types and one universe of small types. We give the semantics using a PER model; it is used for constructing a normalisation-by-evaluation algorithm. We prove completeness and soundness of the algorithm; and get as a corollary the injectivity of type constructors. Then we give the definition of a correct and complete type-checking algorithm for terms in normal form. We extend the results to proof-irrelevant propositions.

  18. Quantum Bianchi Type IX Cosmology in K-Essence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Garca, Abraham; Socorro, J.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2014-09-01

    We use one of the simplest forms of the K-essence theory and apply it to the anisotropic Bianchi type IX cosmological model, with a barotropic perfect fluid modeling the usual matter content. We show that the most important contribution of the scalar field occurs during a stiff matter phase. Also, we present a canonical quantization procedure of the theory which can be simplified by reinterpreting the scalar field as an exotic part of the total matter content. The solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation were found using the Bohmian formulation Bohm (Phys. Rev. 85(2):166, 1952) of quantum mechanics, employing the amplitude-real-phase approach Moncrief and Ryan (Phys. Rev. D 44:2375, 1991), where the ansatz for the wave function is of the form ?( ? ? )= ?( ?) W( ? ? ), where S is the superpotential function, which plays an important role in solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

  19. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  20. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Cvetic, Mirjam; /Pennsylvania U.; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  1. Church-style type theories over finitary weakly implicative logics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    B?hounek, Libor

    Vienna : Vienna University of Technology, 2014 - (Baaz, M.; Ciabattoni, A.; Hetzl, S.). s. 131-133 [LATD 2014. Logic, Algebra and Truth Degrees. 16.07.2014-19.07.2014, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA Mk ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA Mk EE2.3.30.0010 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : type theory * higher-order logic * weakly implicative logics * teorie typ? * logika vyho ?du * slab? implika?n logiky Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Compactifications of type IIB string theory and F-theory models using toric geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we focus on the toric construction of type IIB and F-theory models. After introducing the main concepts of type IIB orientifold and F-theory compactifications as well as their connection via the Sen limit, we provide the toric tools to explicitly construct and describe the manifolds involved in our setups. On the type IIB side, we study the 'Large Volume Scenario' on four-modulus, 'Swiss cheese' Calabi-Yau manifolds obtained from four-dimensional simplicial lattice polytopes. We thoroughly analyze the possibility of generating neutral, non-perturbative superpotentials from Euclidean D3-branes in the presence of chirally intersecting D7-branes. We find that taking proper account of the Freed-Witten anomaly on non-spin cycles and the Kaehler cone conditions imposes severe constraints on the models. Nevertheless, we are able to create setups where the constraints are solved, and up to three moduli are stabilized. In the case of F-theory compactifications, we make use of toric geometry to construct a class of grand unified theory (GUT) models in F-theory. The base manifolds are hypersurfaces of the four-dimensional projective space with toric point and curve blowups. The associated Calabi-Yau fourfolds are complete intersections of two hypersurfaces in the P[231] fibered toric sixfolds. We construct SO(10) GUT models on suitable divisors of the basis manifolds using the spectral cover construction. By means of abelian fluxes we break the SO(10) gauge group to SU(5)xU(1) which is interpreted as a flipped SU(5) model. With the GUT Higgses in this model it is possible to further break the gauge symmetry to the Standard Model. We present several phenomenologically attractive examples in detail. (author)

  3. Theory and Phenomenology of Type I strings and M-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, E A

    2000-01-01

    The physical motivations and the basic construction rules for Type I strings and M-theory compactifications are reviewed in light of the recent developments. The first part contains the basic theoretical ingredients needed for building four-dimensional supersymmetric models, models with broken supersymmetry and for computing low-energy actions and quantum corrections to them. The second part contains some phenomenological applications to brane world scenarios with low values of the string scale and large extra dimensions.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Theory and phenomenology of type I strings and M-theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Emilian

    2000-11-01

    The physical motivations and the basic construction rules for type I strings and M-theory compactifications are reviewed in the light of recent developments. The first part of this review contains the basic theoretical ingredients needed for building four-dimensional supersymmetric models, models with broken supersymmetry, and for computing low-energy actions and quantum corrections to these. The second part contains some phenomenological applications to brane world scenarios with low values of the string scale and large extra dimensions.

  5. Little String Theory and Heterotic/Type II Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Aharony, O; Kutasov, D; Sahakyan, D A; Aharony, Ofer; Fiol, Bartomeu; Kutasov, David; Sahakyan, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Little String Theory (LST) is a still somewhat mysterious theory that describes the dynamics near a certain class of time-like singularities in string theory. In this paper we discuss the topological version of LST, which describes topological strings near these singularities. For 5+1 dimensional LSTs with sixteen supercharges, the topological version may be described holographically in terms of the N=4 topological string (or the N=2 string) on the transverse part of the near-horizon geometry of NS5-branes. We show that this topological string can be used to efficiently compute the half-BPS F^4 terms in the low-energy effective action of the LST. Using the strong-weak coupling string duality relating type IIA strings on K3 and heterotic strings on T^4, the same terms may also be computed in the heterotic string near a point of enhanced gauge symmetry. We study the F^4 terms in the heterotic string and in the LST, and show that they have the same structure, and that they agree in the cases for which we compute...

  6. Geometry of model building in type IIB superstring theory and F-theory compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis is devoted to the study and geometrical description of type IIB superstring theory and F-theory model building. After a concise exposition of the basic concepts of type IIB flux compactifications, we explain their relation to F-theory. Moreover, we give a brief introduction to toric geometry focusing on the construction and the analysis of compact Calabi-Yau (CY) manifolds, which play a prominent role in the compactification of extra spatial dimensions. We study the 'Large Volume Scenario' on explicit new compact four-modulus CY manifolds. We thoroughly analyze the possibility of generating neutral non-perturbative superpotentials from Euclidean D3-branes in the presence of chirally intersecting D7-branes. We find that taking proper account of the Freed-Witten anomaly on non-spin cycles and of the Kaehler cone conditions imposes severe constraints on the models. Furthermore, we systematically construct a large number of compact CY fourfolds that are suitable for F-theory model building. These elliptically fibered CYs are complete intersections of two hypersurfaces in a six-dimensional ambient space. We first construct three-dimensional base manifolds that are hypersurfaces in a toric ambient space. We find that elementary conditions, which are motivated by F-theory GUTs (Grand Unified Theory), lead to strong constraints on the geometry, which significantly reduce the number of suitable models. We work out several examples in more detail. At the end, we focus on the complex moduli space of CY threefolds. It is a known result that infinite sequences of type IIB flux vacua with imaginary self-dual flux can only occur in so-called D-limits, corresponding to singular points in complex structure moduli space. We refine this no-go theorem by demonstrating that there are no infinite sequences accumulating to the large complex structure point of a certain class of one-parameter CY manifolds. We perform a similar analysis for conifold points and for the decoupling limit, obtaining identical results. Furthermore, we establish the absence of infinite sequences in a D-limit corresponding to the large complex structure limit of a two-parameter CY. We corroborate our results with a numerical study ofthe sequences. (author)

  7. Type II fuzzy systems for amyloid plaque segmentation in transgenic mouse brains for Alzheimer's disease quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying A? concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

  8. Quantification and monosaccharide composition of hemicelluloses from different plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schdel, Christina; Blchl, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Hoch, Gnter

    2010-01-01

    Hemicelluloses are the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose. So far, the chemical heterogeneity of cell-wall hemicelluloses and the relatively large sample-volume required in existing methods represent major obstacles for large-scale, cross-species analyses of this important plant compound. Here, we apply a new micro-extraction method to analyse hemicelluloses and the ratio of 'cellulose and lignin' to hemicelluloses in different tissues of 28 plant species comprising four plant functional types (broad-leaved trees, conifers, grasses and herbs). For this study, the fiber analysis after Van Soest was modified to enable the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative measurements of hemicelluloses in small sample volumes. Total hemicellulose concentrations differed markedly among functional types and tissues with highest concentration in sapwood of broad-leaved trees (31% d.m. in Fraxinus excelsior) and lowest concentration between 10 and 15% d.m. in leaves and bark of woody species as well as in roots of herbs. As for total hemicellulose concentrations, plant functional types and tissues exhibited characteristic ratios between the sum of cellulose plus lignin and hemicelluloses, with very high ratios (>4) in bark of trees and low ratios (<2) in all investigated leaves. Additional HPLC analyses of hydrolysed hemicelluloses showed xylose to be the dominant hemicellulose monosaccharide in tissues of broad-leaved trees, grasses and herbs while coniferous species showed higher amounts of arabinose, galactose and mannose. Overall, the micro-extraction method permitted for the simultaneous determination of hemicelluloses of various tissues and plant functional types which exhibited characteristic hemicellulose concentrations and monosaccharide patterns. PMID:19926487

  9. A new type of phase transition in gravitational theories

    CERN Document Server

    Camanho, Xian O; Gomberoff, Andres; Giribet, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    We set forth a new type of phase transition that might take place in gravitational theories whenever higher-curvature corrections are considered. It can be regarded as a sophisticated version of the Hawking-Page transition, mediated by the nucleation of a bubble in anti-de Sitter space. The bubble hosts a black hole in its interior, and separates two spacetime regions with different effective cosmological constants. We compute the free energy of this configuration and compare it with that of thermal anti-de Sitter space. The result suggests that a phase transition actually occurs above certain critical temperature, ultimately changing the value of the cosmological constant. We discuss the consistency of the thermodynamic picture and its possible relevance in the context of AdS/CFT.

  10. Aspects of moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Shaaban; Nassar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We review moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory compactification with fluxes. We focus on the KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS). We show that the predicted soft SUSY breaking terms in KKLT model are not phenomenological viable. In LVS, the following result for scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear term is obtained: $m_0 =m_{1/2}= - A_0=m_{3/2}$, which may account for Higgs mass limit if $m_{3/2} \\sim {\\cal O}(1.5)$ TeV. However, in this case the relic abundance of the lightest neutralino can not be consistent with the measured limits. We also study the cosmological consequences of moduli stabilization in both models. In particular, the associated inflation models such as racetrack inflation and K\\"ahler inflation are analyzed. Finally the problem of moduli destabilization and the effect of string moduli backreaction on the inflation models are discussed.

  11. On axionic dark matter in Type IIA string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Honecker, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate viable scenarios with various axions in the context of supersymmetric field theory and in globally consistent D-brane models. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry is associated with an anomalous U(1) symmetry, which acquires mass at the string scale but remains as a perturbative global symmetry at low energies. The origin of the scalar Higgs-axion potential from F-, D- and soft breaking terms is derived, and two Standard Model examples of global intersecting D6-brane models in Type II orientifolds are presented, which differ in the realisation of the Higgs sector and in the hidden sector, the latter of which is of particluar importance for the soft supersymmetry breaking terms.

  12. String Scattering from D-branes in Type 0 Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Garousi, M R

    1999-01-01

    We derive fully covariant expressions for all two-point scattering amplitudes involving closed string tachyon and massless strings from Dirichlet brane in type 0 theories. The amplitude for two massless D-brane fluctuations to produce closed string tachyon is also evaluated. We then examine in detail these string scattering amplitudes in order to extract world-volume couplings of the tachyon with itself and with massless fields on a D-brane. We find that the tachyon appears as an overall coupling function in the Born-Infeld action. For D3-brane, the coupling function is the same as the tachyon coupling function to the Ramond-Ramond field in the bulk space. Hence, the effective Yang-Mills coupling is slightly different from the one suggested in hep-th/9812089.

  13. Comparison between magnetic force microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction for ferrite quantification in type 321 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several analytical techniques that are currently available can be used to determine the spatial distribution and amount of austenite, ferrite and precipitate phases in steels. The application of magnetic force microscopy, in particular, to study the local microstructure of stainless steels is beneficial due to the selectivity of this technique for detection of ferromagnetic phases. In the comparison of Magnetic Force Microscopy and Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction for the morphological mapping and quantification of ferrite, the degree of sub-surface measurement has been found to be critical. Through the use of surface shielding, it has been possible to show that Magnetic Force Microscopy has a measurement depth of 105140 nm. A comparison of the two techniques together with the depth of measurement capabilities are discussed. - Highlights: MFM used to map distribution and quantify ferrite in type 321 stainless steels. MFM results compared with EBSD for same region, showing good spatial correlation. MFM gives higher area fraction of ferrite than EBSD due to sub-surface measurement. From controlled experiments MFM depth sensitivity measured from 105 to 140 nm. A correction factor to calculate area fraction from MFM data is estimated

  14. Comparison between magnetic force microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction for ferrite quantification in type 321 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.D., E-mail: Xander.Warren@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom); Harniman, R.L. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1 TS (United Kingdom); Collins, A.M. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1 TS (United Kingdom); Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, Nanoscience and Quantum Information Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom); Davis, S.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1 TS (United Kingdom); Younes, C.M. [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom); Flewitt, P.E.J. [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom); School of Physics, HH Wills Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom); Scott, T.B. [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Several analytical techniques that are currently available can be used to determine the spatial distribution and amount of austenite, ferrite and precipitate phases in steels. The application of magnetic force microscopy, in particular, to study the local microstructure of stainless steels is beneficial due to the selectivity of this technique for detection of ferromagnetic phases. In the comparison of Magnetic Force Microscopy and Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction for the morphological mapping and quantification of ferrite, the degree of sub-surface measurement has been found to be critical. Through the use of surface shielding, it has been possible to show that Magnetic Force Microscopy has a measurement depth of 105140 nm. A comparison of the two techniques together with the depth of measurement capabilities are discussed. - Highlights: MFM used to map distribution and quantify ferrite in type 321 stainless steels. MFM results compared with EBSD for same region, showing good spatial correlation. MFM gives higher area fraction of ferrite than EBSD due to sub-surface measurement. From controlled experiments MFM depth sensitivity measured from 105 to 140 nm. A correction factor to calculate area fraction from MFM data is estimated.

  15. Quantification of stress history in type 304L stainless steel using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five Type 304L stainless steel specimens were subjected to incrementally increasing values of plastic strain. At each value of strain, the associated static stress was recorded and the specimen was subjected to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) using the Doppler Broadening method. A calibration curve for the 'S' parameter as a function of stress was developed based on the five specimens. Seven different specimens (blind specimens labeled B1-B7) of 304L stainless steel were subjected to values of stress inducing plastic deformation. The values of stress ranged from 310 to 517 MPa. The seven specimens were subjected to PAS post-loading using the Doppler Broadening method, and the results were compared against the developed curve from the previous five specimens. It was found that a strong correlation exists between the 'S' parameter, stress, and strain up to a strain value of 15%, corresponding to a stress value of 500 MPa, beyond which saturation of the 'S' parameter occurs. Research Highlights: ? Specimens were initially in an annealed/recrystallized condition. ? Calibration results indicate positron annihilation measurements yield correlation. ? Deformation produced by cold work was likely larger than the maximum strain.

  16. In vivo quantification of brain injury in adult Niemann-Pick Disease Type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Crespy, Lydie; Rico, Audrey; Faivre, Anthony; Soulier, Elisabeth; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Kaphan, Elsa; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Development of surrogate markers is necessary to assess the potential efficacy of new therapeutics in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NP-C). In the present study, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, a quantitative MRI imaging technique sensitive to subtle brain microstructural changes, was applied in two patients suffering from adult NP-C. Statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each patient's MTR maps with those of a group of 34 healthy controls to quantify and localize the extent of brain injury of each patient. Using this method, pathological changes were evidenced in the cerebellum, the thalami and the lenticular nuclei in both patients and also in the fronto-temporal cortices in the patient with the worse functional deficit. In addition, white matter changes were located in the midbrain, the cerebellum and the fronto-temporal lobes in the patient with the higher level of disability and in only one limited periventricular white matter region in the other patient. A 6-month follow-up was performed in the patient with the lower functional deficit and evidenced significant extension of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) injuries during the following period (14% of increased injury for GM and 53% for WM). This study demonstrates that significant brain injury related to clinical deficit can be assessed in vivo in adult NP-C using MTR imaging. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that MTR imaging may be a relevant candidate for the development of biomarker in NP-C. PMID:21397539

  17. Quantification of stress history in type 304L stainless steel using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Thomas W., E-mail: Thomas.Walters@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415-6188 (United States); Walters, Leon C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States); Schoen, Marco P.; Naidu, D. Subbaram [Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Avenue, Pocatello, ID, 83201 (United States); Dickerson, Charles [Positron Systems, Inc., 1500 Alvin Ricken Dr., Pocatello, ID, 83201-2783 (United States); Perrenoud, Ben C. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415-6188 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Five Type 304L stainless steel specimens were subjected to incrementally increasing values of plastic strain. At each value of strain, the associated static stress was recorded and the specimen was subjected to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) using the Doppler Broadening method. A calibration curve for the 'S' parameter as a function of stress was developed based on the five specimens. Seven different specimens (blind specimens labeled B1-B7) of 304L stainless steel were subjected to values of stress inducing plastic deformation. The values of stress ranged from 310 to 517 MPa. The seven specimens were subjected to PAS post-loading using the Doppler Broadening method, and the results were compared against the developed curve from the previous five specimens. It was found that a strong correlation exists between the 'S' parameter, stress, and strain up to a strain value of 15%, corresponding to a stress value of 500 MPa, beyond which saturation of the 'S' parameter occurs. Research Highlights: {yields} Specimens were initially in an annealed/recrystallized condition. {yields} Calibration results indicate positron annihilation measurements yield correlation. {yields} Deformation produced by cold work was likely larger than the maximum strain.

  18. Type IIA flux compactifications. Vacua, effective theories and cosmological challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, we studied a number of type IIA SU(3)-structure compactifications with 06-planes on nilmanifolds and cosets, which are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the low energy effective theory. In particular we calculated the mass spectrum of the light scalar modes, using N = 1 supergravity techniques. For the torus and the Iwasawa solution, we have also performed an explicit Kaluza-Klein reduction, which led to the same result. For the nilmanifold examples we have found that there are always three unstabilized moduli corresponding to axions in the RR sector. On the other hand, in the coset models, except for SU(2) x SU(2), all moduli are stabilized. We discussed the Kaluza-Klein decoupling for the supersymmetric AdS vacua and found that it requires going to the Nearly-Calabi Yau limited. We searched for non-trivial de Sitter minima in the original flux potential away from the AdS vacuum. Finally, in chapter 7, we focused on a family of three coset spaces and constructed non-supersymmetric vacua on them. (orig.)

  19. Type IIA flux compactifications. Vacua, effective theories and cosmological challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koers, Simon

    2009-07-30

    In this thesis, we studied a number of type IIA SU(3)-structure compactifications with 06-planes on nilmanifolds and cosets, which are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the low energy effective theory. In particular we calculated the mass spectrum of the light scalar modes, using N = 1 supergravity techniques. For the torus and the Iwasawa solution, we have also performed an explicit Kaluza-Klein reduction, which led to the same result. For the nilmanifold examples we have found that there are always three unstabilized moduli corresponding to axions in the RR sector. On the other hand, in the coset models, except for SU(2) x SU(2), all moduli are stabilized. We discussed the Kaluza-Klein decoupling for the supersymmetric AdS vacua and found that it requires going to the Nearly-Calabi Yau limited. We searched for non-trivial de Sitter minima in the original flux potential away from the AdS vacuum. Finally, in chapter 7, we focused on a family of three coset spaces and constructed non-supersymmetric vacua on them. (orig.)

  20. On SYM theory and all order Bulk Singularity Structures of BPS Strings in type II theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The complete form of the S-matrix elements of three supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM), namely a transverse scalar field, two world volume gauge fields and a Potential $C_{n-1}$ Ramond-Ramond (RR) form field has been investigated. Basically, in order to find out an infinite number of $t,s, (t+s+u)$ channel bulk singularity structures of that particular mixed closed-open amplitude, we employ all the conformal field theory techniques to $$ and explore all the entire correlation functions as well as all order $\\alpha'$ contact interactions of these SYM couplings. The comparisons with the other symmetric analysis $$ and $$ are also carried out in detail. Various couplings from pull-Back of branes, Myers terms and several generalized Bianchi identities should be taken into account to be able to reconstruct all order $\\alpha'$ bulk singularities of type IIB(IIA) superstring theory. Finally, we make a comment on how to derive without any ambiguity all order $\\alpha'$ contact terms of those elements of the S-matrix that...

  1. Type-Token Dichotomy in the Identity Theory of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Dr. Shanjendu

    2014-01-01

    Identity theory of mind occupies an important place in the history of philosophy of mind. According to his theory mental events are nothing but physical events in the brain. This theory came into existence as a reaction of behaviourism and developed by U. T. Place, J. J. C. Smart, H. Feigl and others. But there is a debate among the profounder of the theory and this is- whether it is said about concrete particulars, (e.g., individual instances of occurring in particular subject at particular ...

  2. A Nominal Theory of Objects with Dependent Types

    OpenAIRE

    Odersky, Martin; Cremet, Vincent; Rckl, Christine; Zenger, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    We design and study newObj, a calculus and dependent type system for objects and classes which can have types as members. Type members can be aliases, abstract types, or new types. The type system can model the essential concepts of Java's inner classes as well as virtual types and family polymorphism found in BETA or gbeta. It can also model most concepts of SML-style module systems, including sharing constraints and higher-order functors, but excluding applicative functors. The type system ...

  3. Approximate Newton-type methods via theory of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Chui Ying; Leong, Wah June

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possible use of control theory, particularly theory on optimal control to derive some numerical methods for unconstrained optimization problems. Based upon this control theory, we derive a Levenberg-Marquardt-like method that guarantees greatest descent in a particular search region. The implementation of this method in its original form requires inversion of a non-sparse matrix or equivalently solving a linear system in every iteration. Thus, an approximation of the proposed method via quasi-Newton update is constructed. Numerical results indicate that the new method is more effective and practical.

  4. Screening for multiple phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor drugs in dietary supplement materials by flow injection mass spectrometry and their quantification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fenhong; El-Demerdash, Aref; Lee, Shwn-Ji Susie H

    2012-11-01

    A flow injection tandem mass spectrometry method (FI-MS/MS) has been developed to detect enzyme phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, sildenafil, and vardenafil. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to detect the drugs and product ion ratios were used for identification. FI-MS/MS was used for semi-quantification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for further confirmation and quantification. One of 13 samples has been found to be adulterated with prescription levels of tadalafil and also low level of sildenafil. The method can be used for screening large numbers of herbal products for adulteration since it takes less than 1 min without chromatographic separation on a column. PMID:22695818

  5. The ultimate speed implied by theories of Weber's type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As in the last few years there has been a renewed interest in the laws of Ampere for the force between current elements and of Weber for the force between charges, we analyze the limiting velocity which appears in Weber's law. Then we make the same analysis for Phipps' potential and for generalizations of it. Comparing the results with the relativistic calculation, we obtain that these theories can yield c for the ultimate speed of the charges or for the ultimate relative speed between the charges but not for both simultaneously, as in the case in the special theory of relativity. 59 refs., 2 figs

  6. Non-perturbative states in type II superstring theory from classical spinning membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Brugues, J; Russo, J G; Brugues, Jan; Rojo, Joan; Russo, Jorge G.

    2004-01-01

    We find a new family of exact solutions in membrane theory, representing toroidal membranes spinning in several planes. They have energy square proportional to the sum of the different angular momenta, generalizing Regge-type string solutions to membrane theory. By compactifying the eleven dimensional theory on a circle and on a torus, we identify a family of new non-perturbative states of type IIA and type IIB superstring theory (which contains the perturbative spinning string solutions of type II string theory as a particular case). The solution represents a spinning bound state of D branes and fundamental strings. Then we find similar solutions for membranes on $AdS_7\\times S^4$ and $AdS_4\\times S^7$. We also consider the analogous solutions in SU(N) matrix theory, and compute the energy. They can be interpreted as rotating open strings with D0 branes attached to their endpoints.

  7. Properties of vacuum and brane spectrum of Type IIB string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Obikhod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available F-theory has been receiving more attention in the past few years because its rich structure allows to solve many problems of the Standard Model and Grand Unification Theory. This theory is also important because of the necessity to solve the problem of vacuum stability. A simpler solution of F-theory is used to describe the Type IIB string theory. For the classification of D-brane charges in superstring theory of Type IIB is applied K-theory. This approach provides an access to gauge fields connected with vector bundles, classified by K-theory. This technique implements the resolution of issues related to the structure of scales and hierarchies, the gauge group and charged matter content.

  8. A Matrix Model for Heterotic $Spin(32)/Z_2$ and Type I String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We consider Heterotic string theories in the DLCQ. We derive that the matrix model of the Spin(32)/$Z_2$ Heterotic theory is the theory living on N D-strings in type I wound on a circle with no Spin(32)/$Z_2$ Wilson line on the circle. This is an O(N) gauge theory. We rederive the matrix model for the $\\e8$ Heterotic string theory, explicitly taking care of the Wilson line around the lightlike circle. The result is the same theory as for Spin(32)/$Z_2$ except that now there ...

  9. Quantification of genetically modified soybeans using a combination of a capillary-type real-time PCR system and a plasmid reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Akie; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hisayuki; Hino, Akihiro; Esaka, Muneharu; Maitani, Tamio

    2006-04-01

    Because the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved genetically modified varieties in many countries, there is a need for a rapid and useful method of GMO quantification in food samples. In this study, a rapid detection system was developed for Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) quantification using a combination of a capillary-type real-time PCR system, a LightCycler real-time PCR system, and plasmid DNA as the reference standard. In addition, we showed for the first time that the plasmid and genomic DNA should be similar in the established detection system because the PCR efficiencies of using plasmid DNA and using genomic DNA were not significantly different. The conversion factor (Cf) to calculate RRS content (%) was further determined from the average value analyzed in three laboratories. The accuracy and reproducibility of this system for RRS quantification at a level of 5.0% were within a range from 4.46 to 5.07% for RRS content and within a range from 2.0% to 7.0% for the relative standard deviation (RSD) value, respectively. This system rapidly monitored the labeling system and had allowable levels of accuracy and precision. PMID:16636447

  10. Initial layer theory and model equations of Volterra type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated here that there exist initial layers to singularly perturbed Volterra equations whose thicknesses are not of order of magnitude of 0(?), ? ? 0. It is also shown that the initial layer theory is extremely useful because it allows one to construct the approximate solution to an equation, which is almost identical to the exact solution. (author)

  11. Sex and Theories of Deviance: Toward a Functional Theory of Deviant Type-Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that the continuing failure to consider women has critically weakened contemporary criminal deviance theory, examines the major paradigms in criminal deviance, argues that the inclusion of sex as a variable has more or less disastrous consequences for those paradigms, and argues that the primary purpose of labeling theory is to detect

  12. On axionic dark matter in Type IIA string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Honecker, Gabriele; Staessens, Wieland

    2013-01-01

    We investigate viable scenarios with various axions in the context of supersymmetric field theory and in globally consistent D-brane models. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry is associated with an anomalous U(1) symmetry, which acquires mass at the string scale but remains as a perturbative global symmetry at low energies. The origin of the scalar Higgs-axion potential from F-, D- and soft breaking terms is derived, and two Standard Model examples of global intersecting D6-brane mod...

  13. A matrix model for heterotic Spin(32)/Z2 and type I string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider heterotic string theories in the DLCQ. We derive that the matrix model of the Spin(32)/Z2 heterotic theory is the theory living on N D-strings in type I wound on a circle with no Spin(32)/Z2 Wilson line on the circle. This is an O(N) gauge theory. We rederive the matrix model for the E8xE8 heterotic string theory, explicitly taking care of the Wilson line around the lightlike circle. The result is the same theory as for Spin(32)/Z2 except that now there is a Wilson line on the circle. We also see that the integer N labeling the sector of the O(N) matrix model is not just the momentum around the lightlike circle, but a shifted momentum depending on the Wilson line. We discuss the aspect of level matching, GSO projections and why, from the point of view of matrix theory the E8xE8 theory, and not the Spin(32)/Z2, develops an 11th dimension for strong coupling. Furthermore a matrix theory for type I is derived. This is again the O(N) theory living on the D-strings of type I. For small type I coupling the system is 0+1-dimensional quantum mechanics

  14. Quantification of the N-terminal propeptide of human procollagen type I (PINP): comparison of ELISA and RIA with respect to different molecular forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Hansen, M; Brandt, J; Rasmussen, H B; Jensen, P B; Teisner, B

    1998-01-01

    This paper compares the results of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) quantification by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PINP in serum from a patient with uremic hyperparathyroidism was measured in RIA and ELISA to 20 micrograms l-1 and 116...... PINP when analysed in a direct ELISA. It is concluded that the major difference in the ELISA and RIA results is due to assay efficacy with respect to the low molecular weight form of PINP. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Jan-12...

  15. Development of Primer-Probe Energy Transfer real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balint, Adam; Tenk, Mikls; Deim, Zoltn; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, se; Csagola, Attila; Tuboly, Tams; Farsang, Attila; Berg, Mikael; Belak, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay, based on Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET), was developed to improve the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PVC2). PCV2 is recognised as the essential infectious agent in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and has been associated...... in different organs. The data obtained in this study correlate with those described earlier; namely, the viral load in 1 ml plasma and in 500 ng tissue DNA exceeds 10(7) copies in the case of PMWS. The results indicate that the new assay provides a specific, sensitive and robust tool for the improved...

  16. Small instantons, del Pezzo surfaces and type I' theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small instantons of exceptional groups arise geometrically by a collapsing del Pezzo surface in a CY. We use this to explain the physics of a 4-brane probe in type I' compactification to nine dimensions. (orig.)

  17. Four types of coping with COPD-induced breathlessness in daily living: a grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    COPD predominantly cope with breathlessness during daily living. We chose a multimodal grounded theory design that holds the opportunity to combine qualitative and quantitative data to capture and explain the multidimensional coping behaviour among poeple with COPD. The participants' main concern in...... comprised distrinctive physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial features constituting coping-type-specific indicators. In theory, four predominant coping types with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial properties are observed among people with COPD. The four coping types...

  18. Algebraic theory of type-and-effect systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kammar, Ohad

    2014-01-01

    We present a general semantic account of Gifford-style type-and-effect systems. These type systems provide lightweight static analyses annotating program phrases with the sets of possible computational effects they may cause, such as memory access and modification, exception raising, and non-deterministic choice. The analyses are used, for example, to justify the program transformations typically used in optimising compilers, such as code reordering and inlining. Despite their ...

  19. Quantification and Domain Restriction in Basque

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria, Urtzi

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to contribute to the understanding of the internal structure of Basque quantification in particular and natural language quantification in general within the framework of Generalized Quantifier Theory. The proposal put forward in it demonstrates that the standard analysis of Generalized Quantifiers is correct and that it can account for quantification in natural languages, pace alternative analyses that argue for a revision. Assuming that quantification i...

  20. Surveying problem solution with theory and objective type questions

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, AM

    2005-01-01

    The book provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of the various principles and methods for solving problems in land surveying. Each chapter starts with basic concepts and definitions, then solution of typical field problems and ends with objective type questions. The book explains errors in survey measurements and their propagation. Survey measurements are detailed next. These include horizontal and vertical distance, slope, elevation, angle, and direction. Measurement using stadia tacheometry and EDM are then highlighted, followed by various types of levelling problems. Traversing is then explained, followed by a detailed discussion on adjustment of survey observations and then triangulation and trilateration.

  1. Photometric colors of late-type giants: theory versus observations

    OpenAIRE

    Kucinskas, A; Hauschildt, P. H.; Ludwig, H. -G; Brott, I; Vansevicius, V.; Lindegren, L.; Tanabe, T.; Allard, F.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the current status in the theoretical modeling of the spectral properties of late-type giants, we provide a comparison of synthetic photometric colors of late-type giants (calculated with PHOENIX, MARCS and ATLAS model atmospheres) with observations, at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Overall, there is a good agreement between observed and synthetic colors, and synthetic colors and published Teff-color relations, both at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Deviations from the observed trends ...

  2. A Matrix Model for Heterotic $Spin(32)/Z_2$ and Type I String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krogh, M

    1999-01-01

    We consider Heterotic string theories in the DLCQ. We derive that the matrix model of the Spin(32)/$Z_2$ Heterotic theory is the theory living on N D-strings in type I wound on a circle with no Spin(32)/$Z_2$ Wilson line on the circle. This is an O(N) gauge theory. We rederive the matrix model for the the lightlike circle. The result is the same theory as for Spin(32)/$Z_2$ except that now there is a Wilson line on the circle. We also see that the integer N labeling the sector of the O(N) matrix model is not just the momentum around the lightlike circle, but a shifted momentum depending on the Wilson line. We discuss the aspect of level matching, GSO projections and why, from the point of view of matrix theory the $\\e8$ theory, and not the Spin(32)/$Z_2$, develops an 11'th dimension for strong coupling. Furthermore a matrix theory for type I is derived. This is again the O(N) theory living on the D-strings of type I. For small type I coupling the system is 0+1 dimensional quantum mechanics.

  3. On the Nonlinear Theory of Viscoelasticity of Differential Type

    OpenAIRE

    Pucci, Edvige; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    We consider nonlinear viscoelastic materials of differential type and for some special models we derive exact solutions of initial boundary value problems. These exact solutions are used to investigate the reasons of non-existence of global solutions for such equations.

  4. Natural dark matter from type I string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study neutralino dark matter within a semi-realistic type I string model, where supersymmetry breaking arises from F-terms of moduli fields parameterised in terms of Goldstino angles, which automatically gives rise to non-universal soft third sfamily and gaugino masses. We study the fine-tuning sensitivities for dark matter and electroweak symmetry breaking across the parameter space of the type I string model, and compare the results to a similar analysis in the non-universal MSSM. Within the type I string model we find that neutralino dark matter can be naturally implemented in the ?-tilde bulk region, the Z0 resonance region and the maximally tempered Bino/Wino/Higgsino region, in agreement with the results of the non-universal MSSM analysis. We also find that in the type I string model the 'well-tempered' Bino/Wino region is less fine-tuned than in the MSSM, whereas the ?-tilde co-annihilation region exhibits a significantly higher degree of fine-tuning than in the MSSM

  5. On M-theory and the symmetries of type II string effective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the ''ordinary'' Scherk-Schwarz dimensional reduction of the bosonic sector of the low energy effective action of a hypothetical M-theory on S1 x S1?T2. We thus obtain the low energy effective actions of type IIA string theory in both ten and nine space-time dimensions. We point out how to obtain the O(1,1) invariance of the NS-NS sector of the string effective action correctly in nine dimensions. We dimensionally reduce the type IIB string effective action on S1 and show that the resulting nine-dimensional theory can be mapped, purely from the bosonic consideration, exactly to the type IIA theory by an O(1,1) or Buscher's T-duality transformations. We then give a dynamical argument, in analogy with that for the type IIB theory in ten dimensions, to show how an S-duality in the type IIA theory can be understood from the underlying nine-dimensional theory by compactifying M-theory on a T-dual torus T2. (orig.)

  6. Eady Solitary Waves: A Theory of Type B Cyclogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsudera, Humio

    1994-11-01

    Localized baroclinic instability in a weakly nonlinear, long-wave limit using an Eady model is studied. The resulting evolution equations have a form of the KdV type, including extra terms representing linear coupling. Baroclinic instability is triggered locally by the collision between two neutral solitary waves (one trapped at the upper boundary and the other at the lower boundary) if their incident amplitudes are sufficiently large. This characteristic is explained from the viewpoint of resonance when the relative phase speed, which depends on the amplitudes, is less than a critical value. The upper and lower disturbances grow in a coupled manner (resembling a normal-mode structure) initially, but they reverse direction slowly as the amplitudes increase, and eventually separate from each other.The motivation of this study is to investigate a type of extratropical cyclogenesis that involves a preexisting upper trough (termed as Type B development) from the viewpoint of resonant solitary waves. Two cases are of particular interest. First, the author examines a case where an upper disturbance preexists over an undisturbed low-level waveguide. The solitary waves exhibit behavior similar to that conceived by Hoskins et al. for Type B development; the lower disturbance is forced one sidedly by a preexisting upper disturbance initially, but in turn forces the latter once the former attains a sufficient amplitude, thus resulting in mutual reinforcement. Second, if a weak perturbation exists at the surface ahead of the preexisting strong upper disturbance, baroclinic instability is triggered when the two waves interact. Even though the amplitude of the lower disturbance is initially much weaker, it is intensified quickly and catches up with the amplitude of the upper disturbance, so that the coupled vertical structure resembles that of an unstable normal mode eventually. These results describe the observed behavior in Type B atmospheric cyclogenesis quite well.

  7. Applications of differential sensitivity theory for extremum-type responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed sensitivity theory for nonlinear systems with responses defined at critical points, e.g. maxima, minima, or saddle points, of a function of the system's state variables and parameters is applied to a protected transient with scram on high power level in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The single-phase segment of the fast reactor safety code MELT-III B is used to model this transient. Two responses of practical importance, viz. The maximum fuel temperature in the hot channel, and the maximum normalized reactor power level, are considered. For the purposes of sensitivity analysis, a complete characterization of such responses requires consideration of both the numerical value of the response at the maximum, and the location in phase-space where the maximum occurs. This is because variations in the system parameters alter not only the value at this maximum but also alter the location of the maximum in phase-space

  8. Cosmic web-type classification using decision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leclercq, Florent; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a decision criterion for segmenting the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments and clusters) on the basis of their respective probabilities and the strength of data constraints. Our approach is inspired by an analysis of games of chance where the gambler only plays if a positive expected net gain can be achieved based on some degree of privileged information. The result is a general solution for classification problems in the face of uncertainty, including the option of not committing to a class for a candidate object. As an illustration, we produce high-resolution maps of web-type constituents in the nearby Universe as probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey main galaxy sample. Other possible applications include the selection and labeling of objects in catalogs derived from astronomical survey data.

  9. Cosmic web-type classification using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, F.; Jasche, J.; Wandelt, B.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We propose a decision criterion for segmenting the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters) on the basis of their respective probabilities and the strength of data constraints. Methods: Our approach is inspired by an analysis of games of chance where the gambler only plays if a positive expected net gain can be achieved based on some degree of privileged information. Results: The result is a general solution for classification problems in the face of uncertainty, including the option of not committing to a class for a candidate object. As an illustration, we produce high-resolution maps of web-type constituents in the nearby Universe as probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey main galaxy sample. Other possible applications include the selection and labelling of objects in catalogues derived from astronomical survey data.

  10. Types of two-dimensional $N = 4$ superconformal ?eld theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abbas Ali

    2003-12-01

    Various types of $N = 4$ superconformal symmetries in two dimensions are considered. It is proposed that apart from the well-known cases of $SU(2)$ and $SU(2)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$, their KacMoody symmetry can also be $SU(2)\\times (U(1))^{4}$. Operator product expansions for the last case are derived. A complete free ?eld realization for the same is obtained.

  11. Counting BPS Blackholes in Toroidal Type II String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan; Moore, Gregory; Strominger, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    We derive a $U$-duality invariant formula for the degeneracies of BPS multiplets in a D1-D5 system for toroidal compactification of the type II string. The elliptic genus for this system vanishes, but it is found that BPS states can nevertheless be counted using a certain topological partition function involving two insertions of the fermion number operator. This is possible due to four extra toroidal U(1) symmetries arising from a Wigner contraction of a large $\\CN=4$ algeb...

  12. Godel Type Metrics in Einstein-Aether Theory II: Nonflat Background in Arbitrary Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gurses, Metin

    2015-01-01

    It was previously proved that the G\\"{o}del-type metrics with flat three-dimensional background metric solve exactly the field equations of the Einstein-Aether theory in four dimensions. We generalize this result by showing that the stationary G\\"{o}del-type metrics with nonflat background in $D$ dimensions solve exactly the field equations of the Einstein-Aether theory. The reduced field equations are the $(D-1)$-dimensional Euclidean Ricci-flat and the $(D-1)$-dimensional source-free Maxwell equations, and the parameters of the theory are left free except $c_{1}-c_{3}=1$. We give a method to produce exact solutions of the Einstein-Aether theory from the G\\"{o}del-type metrics in $D$ dimensions. By using this method, we present explicit exact solutions to the theory by considering the particular cases: ($D-1$)-dimensional Euclidean flat, conformally flat, and Tangherlini backgrounds.

  13. Gdel-type Spacetimes in Induced Matter Gravity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carrion, H L; Teixeira, A F F

    1999-01-01

    A five-dimensional (5D) generalized Gdel-type manifolds are examined in the light of the equivalence problem techniques, as formulated by Cartan. The necessary and sufficient conditions for local homogeneity of these 5D manifolds are derived. The local equivalence of these homogeneous Riemannian manifolds is studied. It is found that they are characterized by three essential parameters $k$, $m^2$ and $\\omega$: identical triads $(k, m^2, \\omega)$ correspond to locally equivalent 5D manifolds. An irreducible set of isometrically nonequivalent 5D locally homogeneous Riemannian generalized Gdel-type metrics are exhibited. A classification of these manifolds based on the essential parameters is presented, and the Killing vector fields as well as the corresponding Lie algebra of each class are determined. It is shown that the generalized Gdel-type 5D manifolds admit maximal group of isometry $G_r$ with $r=7$, $r=9$ or $r=15$ depending on the essential parameters $k$, $m^2$ and $\\omega$. The breakdown of causa...

  14. Lifshitz-type SU(N) lattice gauge theory in five dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    We present a lattice formulation of non-Abelian Lifshitz-type gauge theories. Due to anisotropic scaling of space and time, the theory is asymptotically free even in five dimensions. We show results of Monte Carlo simulations that suggest a smooth approach to the continuum limit.

  15. Ginzburg-Landau-type theory of spin superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, X C; Sun, Qing-feng

    2013-01-01

    Spin superconductivity is a recently proposed analogue of conventional charge superconductivity, in which spin currents flow without dissipation but charge currents do not. Here we derive a universal framework for describing the properties of a spin superconductor along similar lines to the Ginzburg-Landau equations that describe conventional superconductors, and show that the second of these Ginzburg-Landau-type equations is equivalent to a generalized London equation. Just as the GL equations enabled researchers to explore the behaviour of charge superconductors, our Ginzburg-Landau-type equations enable us to make a number of non-trivial predictions about the potential behaviour of putative spin superconductor. They enable us to calculate the super spin current in a spin superconductor under a uniform electric field or that induced by a thin conducting wire. Moreover, they allow us to predict the emergence of new phenomena, including the spin-current Josephson effect in which a time-independent magnetic field induces a time-dependent spin current. PMID:24335888

  16. Theory of zeolite supralattices: Se in zeolite Linde type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study theoretically properties of Se clusters in zeolites, and choose zeolite Linde type A (LTA) as a prototype system. The geometries of free-space Se clusters are first determined, and we report the energetics and electronic and vibrational properties of these clusters. The work on clusters includes an investigation of the energetics of C3-C1 defect formation in Se rings and chains. The electronic properties of two Se crystalline polymorphs, trigonal Se and -monoclinic Se, are also determined. Electronic and vibrational properties of the zeolite LTA are investigated. Next we investigate the electronic and optical properties of ring-like Se clusters inside the large -cages of LTA. We find that Se clusters inside cages of silaceous LTA have very little interaction with the zeolite, and that the HOMO-LUMO gaps (HOMO standing for highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO for lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) are nearly those of the isolated cluster. The HOMO-LUMO gaps of Se6, Se8, and Se12 are found to be similar, which makes it difficult to identify them experimentally by absorption spectroscopy. We find that the zeolite/Se8 nanocomposite is lower in energy than the two separated systems. We also investigate two types of infinite chain encapsulated in LTA. Finally, we carry out finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations for an encapsulated Se12 cluster, which shows cluster melting and formation of nanoscale Se droplets in the?-cages of LTA. (author)

  17. Weyl's Predicative Classical Mathematics as a Logic-Enriched Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robin

    2008-01-01

    We construct a logic-enriched type theory LTTW that corresponds closely to the predicative system of foundations presented by Hermann Weyl in Das Kontinuum. We formalise many results from that book in LTTW, including Weyl's definition of the cardinality of a set and several results from real analysis, using the proof assistant Plastic that implements the logical framework LF. This case study shows how type theory can be used to reprezsent a non-constructive foundation for mathematics.

  18. Denotation of syntax and metaprogramming in contextual modal type theory (CMTT)

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Murdoch

    2012-01-01

    The modal logic S4 can be used via a Curry-Howard style correspondence to obtain a lambda-calculus. Modal (boxed) types are intuitively interpreted as `closed syntax of the calculus'. This lambda-calculus is called modal type theory --- this is the basic case of a more general contextual modal type theory, or CMTT. CMTT has never been given a denotational semantics in which modal types are given denotation as closed syntax. We show how this can indeed be done, with a twist. We also use the denotation to prove some properties of the system.

  19. Comparison between magnetic force microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction for ferrite quantification in type 321 stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A D; Harniman, R L; Collins, A M; Davis, S A; Younes, C M; Flewitt, P E J; Scott, T B

    2015-01-01

    Several analytical techniques that are currently available can be used to determine the spatial distribution and amount of austenite, ferrite and precipitate phases in steels. The application of magnetic force microscopy, in particular, to study the local microstructure of stainless steels is beneficial due to the selectivity of this technique for detection of ferromagnetic phases. In the comparison of Magnetic Force Microscopy and Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction for the morphological mapping and quantification of ferrite, the degree of sub-surface measurement has been found to be critical. Through the use of surface shielding, it has been possible to show that Magnetic Force Microscopy has a measurement depth of 105-140 nm. A comparison of the two techniques together with the depth of measurement capabilities are discussed. PMID:25195013

  20. The Classification of Guns Type Using Image Recognition Theory

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Kulthon Kasemsan

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop the Guns Type and Models Classification (GTMC) system using image recognition theory. It is expected that this study can serve as a guide for law enforcement agencies or at least serve as the catalyst for a similar type of research. Master image storage and image recognition are the two main processes. The procedures involved original images, scaling, gray scale, canny edge detector, SUSAN corner detector, block matching template, and finally gun types recogniti...

  1. A note on half-supersymmetric bound states in M-theory and type IIA

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Henric

    2001-01-01

    By using O(7,7) transformations, to deform D6-branes, we obtain half-supersymmetric bound state solutions of type IIA supergravity, containing D6, D4, D2, D0, F1-branes and waves. We lift the solutions to M-theory which gives half-supersymmetric M-theory bound states, e.g. KK6-M5-M5-M5-M2-M2-M2-MW. We also take near horizon limits for the type IIA solutions, which gives supergravity duals of 7-dimensional non-commutative open string theory (with space-time and space-space no...

  2. Type-I D-branes in an H-flux and twisted KO-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten has argued that charges of type-I D-branes in the presence of an H-flux, take values in twisted KO-theory. We begin with the study of real bundle gerbes and their holonomy. We then introduce the notion of real bundle gerbe KO-theory which we establish is a geometric realization of twisted KO-theory. We examine the relation with twisted K-theory, the Chern character and provide some examples. We conclude with some open problems. (author)

  3. Development of Primer-Probe Energy Transfer real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balint, Adam; Tenk, Mikls

    2009-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay, based on Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET), was developed to improve the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PVC2). PCV2 is recognised as the essential infectious agent in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and has been associated with other disease syndromes such as porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) and porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Since circoviruses commonly occur in the pig populations and there is a correlation between the severity of the disease and the viral load in the organs and blood, it is important not only to detect PCV2 but also to determine the quantitative aspects of viral load. The PriProET real-time PCR assay described in this study was tested on various virus strains and clinical forms of PMWS in order to investigate any correlation between the clinical signs and viral loads in different organs. The data obtained in this study correlate with those described earlier; namely, the viral load in 1ml plasma and in 500 ng tissue DNA exceeds 10(7) copies in the case of PMWS. The results indicate that the new assay provides a specific, sensitive and robust tool for the improved detection and quantification of PCV2.

  4. A note on half-supersymmetric bound states in M-theory and type IIA

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, H

    2002-01-01

    By using O(7,7) transformations, to deform D6-branes, we obtain half-supersymmetric bound state solutions of type IIA supergravity, containing D6, D4, D2, D0, F1-branes and waves. We lift the solutions to M-theory which gives half-supersymmetric M-theory bound states, e.g. KK6-M5-M5-M5-M2-M2-M2-MW. We also take near horizon limits for the type IIA solutions, which gives supergravity duals of 7-dimensional non-commutative open string theory (with space-time and space-space non-commutativity), non-commutative Yang-Mills theory (with space-space and light-like non-commutativity) and an open D4-brane theory.

  5. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  6. Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric Stueckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence of chiral charged zero modes on M5-instantons in backgrounds with G4 flux are discussed and compared with the type IIB results. The dimensional reduction of the democratic formulation of M-theory is presented in the appendix.

  7. Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenaventura Kerstan, Max Bromo

    2013-11-13

    We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric Stueckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence of chiral charged zero modes on M5-instantons in backgrounds with G{sub 4} flux are discussed and compared with the type IIB results. The dimensional reduction of the democratic formulation of M-theory is presented in the appendix.

  8. Digital games for type 1 and type 2 diabetes: underpinning theory with three illustrative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Gammon, Shauna; Dixon, Mavis C; MacRury, Sandra M; Fergusson, Michael J; Miranda Rodrigues, Francisco; Mourinho Baptista, Telmo; Yang, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Digital games are an important class of eHealth interventions in diabetes, made possible by the Internet and a good range of affordable mobile devices (eg, mobile phones and tablets) available to consumers these days. Gamifying disease management can help children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes to better cope with their lifelong condition. Gamification and social in-game components are used to motivate players/patients and positively change their behavior and lifestyle. In this paper, we start by presenting the main challenges facing people with diabetes-children/adolescents and adults-from a clinical perspective, followed by three short illustrative examples of mobile and desktop game apps and platforms designed by Ayogo Health, Inc. (Vancouver, BC, Canada) for type 1 diabetes (one example) and type 2 diabetes (two examples). The games target different age groups with different needs-children with type 1 diabetes versus adults with type 2 diabetes. The paper is not meant to be an exhaustive review of all digital game offerings available for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but rather to serve as a taster of a few of the game genres on offer today for both types of diabetes, with a brief discussion of (1) some of the underpinning psychological mechanisms of gamified digital interventions and platforms as self-management adherence tools, and more, in diabetes, and (2) some of the hypothesized potential benefits that might be gained from their routine use by people with diabetes. More research evidence from full-scale evaluation studies is needed and expected in the near future that will quantify, qualify, and establish the evidence base concerning this gamification potential, such as what works in each age group/patient type, what does not, and under which settings and criteria. PMID:25791276

  9. Cartan's equations define a topological field theory of the BF type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartan's first and second structure equations together with first and second Bianchi identities can be interpreted as equations of motion for the tetrad, the connection and a set of two-form fields TI and RJI. From this viewpoint, these equations define by themselves a field theory. Restricting the analysis to four-dimensional spacetimes (keeping gravity in mind), it is possible to give an action principle of the BF type from which these equations of motion are obtained. The action turns out to be equivalent to a linear combination of the Nieh-Yan, Pontrjagin, and Euler classes, and so the field theory defined by the action is topological. Once Einstein's equations are added, the resulting theory is general relativity. Therefore, the current results show that the relationship between general relativity and topological field theories of the BF type is also present in the first-order formalism for general relativity

  10. Cartan's equations define a topological field theory of the BF type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Vladimir; Montesinos, Merced

    2007-11-01

    Cartan’s first and second structure equations together with first and second Bianchi identities can be interpreted as equations of motion for the tetrad, the connection and a set of two-form fields TI and RJI. From this viewpoint, these equations define by themselves a field theory. Restricting the analysis to four-dimensional spacetimes (keeping gravity in mind), it is possible to give an action principle of the BF type from which these equations of motion are obtained. The action turns out to be equivalent to a linear combination of the Nieh-Yan, Pontrjagin, and Euler classes, and so the field theory defined by the action is topological. Once Einstein’s equations are added, the resulting theory is general relativity. Therefore, the current results show that the relationship between general relativity and topological field theories of the BF type is also present in the first-order formalism for general relativity.

  11. Comparison of constructive multi-typed theory with subsystems of second order arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Kachapova, Farida

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an axiomatic theory BT for constructive mathematics. BT has a predicative comprehension axiom for a countable number of set types and usual combinatorial operations. BT has intuitionistic logic, is consistent with classical logic and has such constructive features as consistency with formal Church thesis, and existence and disjunction properties. BT is mutually interpretable with a so called theory of arithmetical truth PATr and with a second-order arith...

  12. Abelian gauge invariance of the WZ-type coupling in ABJM theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Jang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We construct the interaction terms between the worldvolume fields of multiple M2-branes and 3-form gauge field of 11-dimensional supergravity, in the context of ABJM theory. The obtained WessZumino-type coupling is simultaneously invariant under the UL(NUR(N non-Abelian gauge transformation of the ABJM theory and the Abelian gauge transformation of the 3-form field in 11-dimensional supergravity.

  13. A COSSERAT-TYPE PLATE THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION TO CARBON NANOTUBE MICROSTRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif Selmi; Hedi Hassis; Issam Doghri; Hatem Zenzri

    2014-01-01

    The predictive capabilities of plate and shell theories greatly depend on their underlying kinematic assumptions. In this study, we develop a Cosserat-type elastic plate theory which accounts for rotations around the normal to the mid-surface plane (so-called drilling rotations). Internal loads, equilibrium equations, boundary conditions and constitutive equations are derived. The case of a Single Walled carbon Nanotube (SWNT) modelled as a Cosserat medium is taken here as a reference example...

  14. Frobenius type and CV-structures for Donaldson-Thomas theory and a convergence property

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We rephrase some well-known results in Donaldson-Thomas theory in terms of (formal families of) Frobenius type and CV-structures on a vector bundle in the sense of Hertling. We study these structures in an abstract setting, and prove a convergence result which is relevant to the case of triangulated categories. An application to physical field theory is also briefly discussed.

  15. Nonperturbative type IIB model building in the F-theory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation is concerned with the topic of non-perturbative string theory, which is generally considered to be the most promising approach to a consistent description of quantum gravity. The five known 10-dimensional perturbative string theories are all interconnected by numerous dualities, such that an underlying non-perturbative 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, is postulated. Due to several technical obstacles, little is known about the fundamental objects in this theory. There exists an alternative non-perturbative description to type IIB string theory, namely F-theory. Here the SL(2;Z) self-duality of IIB theory is geometrized in the form of an elliptic fibration over the space-time. Moreover, higher-dimensional objects like 7-branes are included via singularities into the geometric picture. This formally elegant description, however, requires significant technical effort for the construction of suitable compactification geometries, as many different aspects necessarily have to be dealt with at the same time. On the other hand, the generation of essential GUT building blocks like certain Yukawa couplings or spinor representations is easier compared to perturbative string theory. The goal of this study is therefore to formulate a unified theory within the framework of F-theory, that satisfies basic phenomenological constraints. Within this thesis, at first E3-brane instantons in type IIB string theory - 4-dimensional objects that are entirely wrapped around the invisible dimensions of space-time - are matched with M5-branes in F-theory. Such objects are of great importance in the generation of critical Yukawa couplings or the stabilization of the free parameters of a theory. Certain properties of M5-branes then allow to derive a new criterion for E3-branes to contribute to the superpotential. In the aftermath of this analysis, several compactification geometries are constructed and checked for basic properties that are relevant for semi-realistic unified model building. An important aspect is the proper handling of the gauge flux on the 7-branes. Via the spectral cover description - which at first requires further refinements - chiral matter can be generated and the unified gauge group can be broken to the Standard Model. Ultimately, in this thesis an explicit unified model based on the gauge group SU(5) is constructed within the F-theory framework, such that an acceptable phenomenology and the observed three chiral matter generations are obtained. (orig.)

  16. Nonperturbative type IIB model building in the F-theory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurke, Benjamin Helmut Friedrich

    2011-02-28

    This dissertation is concerned with the topic of non-perturbative string theory, which is generally considered to be the most promising approach to a consistent description of quantum gravity. The five known 10-dimensional perturbative string theories are all interconnected by numerous dualities, such that an underlying non-perturbative 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, is postulated. Due to several technical obstacles, little is known about the fundamental objects in this theory. There exists an alternative non-perturbative description to type IIB string theory, namely F-theory. Here the SL(2;Z) self-duality of IIB theory is geometrized in the form of an elliptic fibration over the space-time. Moreover, higher-dimensional objects like 7-branes are included via singularities into the geometric picture. This formally elegant description, however, requires significant technical effort for the construction of suitable compactification geometries, as many different aspects necessarily have to be dealt with at the same time. On the other hand, the generation of essential GUT building blocks like certain Yukawa couplings or spinor representations is easier compared to perturbative string theory. The goal of this study is therefore to formulate a unified theory within the framework of F-theory, that satisfies basic phenomenological constraints. Within this thesis, at first E3-brane instantons in type IIB string theory - 4-dimensional objects that are entirely wrapped around the invisible dimensions of space-time - are matched with M5-branes in F-theory. Such objects are of great importance in the generation of critical Yukawa couplings or the stabilization of the free parameters of a theory. Certain properties of M5-branes then allow to derive a new criterion for E3-branes to contribute to the superpotential. In the aftermath of this analysis, several compactification geometries are constructed and checked for basic properties that are relevant for semi-realistic unified model building. An important aspect is the proper handling of the gauge flux on the 7-branes. Via the spectral cover description - which at first requires further refinements - chiral matter can be generated and the unified gauge group can be broken to the Standard Model. Ultimately, in this thesis an explicit unified model based on the gauge group SU(5) is constructed within the F-theory framework, such that an acceptable phenomenology and the observed three chiral matter generations are obtained. (orig.)

  17. Real Separated Algebraic Curves, Quadrature Domains, Ahlfors Type Functions and Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yakubovich, D V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to inter-relate several algebraic and analytic objects, such as real-type algebraic curves, quadrature domains, functions on them and rational matrix functions with special properties, and some objects from Operator Theory, such as vector Toeplitz operators and subnormal operators. Our tools come from operator theory, but some of our results have purely algebraic formulation. We make use of Xia's theory of subnormal operators and of the previous results by the author in this direction. We also correct (in Section 5) some inaccuracies in two papers by the author in Revista Matematica Iberoamericana (1998).

  18. Conference on Geometric Analysis &Conference on Type Theory, Homotopy Theory and Univalent Foundations : Extended Abstracts Fall 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Paul; Gambino, Nicola; Kock, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The two parts of the present volume contain extended conference abstracts corresponding to selected talks given by participants at the "Conference on Geometric Analysis" (thirteen abstracts) and at the "Conference on Type Theory, Homotopy Theory and Univalent Foundations" (seven abstracts), both held at the Centre de Recerca Matemtica (CRM) in Barcelona from July 1st to 5th, 2013, and from September 23th to 27th, 2013, respectively. Most of them are brief articles, containing preliminary presentations of new results not yet published in regular research journals. The articles are the result of a direct collaboration between active researchers in the area after working in a dynamic and productive atmosphere. The first part is about Geometric Analysis and Conformal Geometry; this modern field lies at the intersection of many branches of mathematics (Riemannian, Conformal, Complex or Algebraic Geometry, Calculus of Variations, PDE's, etc) and relates directly to the physical world, since many natural phenomena...

  19. How to obtain a covariant Breit type equation from relativistic Constraint Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that, by an appropriate modification of the structure of the interaction potential, the Breit equation can be incorporated into a set of two compatible manifestly covariant wave equations, derived from the general rules of Constraint Theory. The complementary equation to the covariant Breit type equation determines the evolution law in the relative time variable. The interaction potential can be systematically calculated in perturbation theory from Feynman diagrams. The normalization condition of the Breit wave function is determined. The wave equation is reduced, for general classes of potential, to a single Pauli-Schroedinger type equation. (author). 27 refs

  20. Preclinical evaluation and quantification of [18F]MK-9470 as a radioligand for PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [18F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist for the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor allowing its use in PET imaging. We characterized the kinetics of [18F]MK-9470 and evaluated its ability to quantify CB1 receptor availability in the rat brain. Dynamic small-animal PET scans with [18F]MK-9470 were performed in Wistar rats on a FOCUS-220 system for up to 10 h. Both plasma and perfused brain homogenates were analysed using HPLC to quantify radiometabolites. Displacement and blocking experiments were done using cold MK-9470 and another inverse agonist, SR141716A. The distribution volume (VT) of [18F]MK-9470 was used as a quantitative measure and compared to the use of brain uptake, expressed as SUV, a simplified method of quantification. The percentage of intact [18F]MK-9470 in arterial plasma samples was 80 23 % at 10 min, 38 30 % at 40 min and 13 14 % at 210 min. A polar radiometabolite fraction was detected in plasma and brain tissue. The brain radiometabolite concentration was uniform across the whole brain. Displacement and pretreatment studies showed that 56 % of the tracer binding was specific and reversible. VT values obtained with a one-tissue compartment model plus constrained radiometabolite input had good identifiability (?10 %). Ignoring the radiometabolite contribution using a one-tissue compartment model alone, i.e. without constrained radiometabolite input, overestimated the [18F]MK-9470 VT, but was correlated. A correlation between [18F]MK-9470 VT and SUV in the brain was also found (R 2 = 0.26-0.33; p ? 0.03). While the presence of a brain-penetrating radiometabolite fraction complicates the quantification of [18F]MK-9470 in the rat brain, its tracer kinetics can be modelled using a one-tissue compartment model with and without constrained radiometabolite input. (orig.)

  1. Quantification, organ-specific accumulation and intracellular localization of type II H(+)-pyrophosphatase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segami, Shoji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Sato, Masa H; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2010-08-01

    Most plants have two types of H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatases (H(+)-PPases), I and II, which differ in primary sequence and K(+) dependence of enzyme function. Arabidopsis thaliana has three genes for H(+)-PPases: one for type I and two for type II. The type I H(+)-PPase requires K(+) for maximal enzyme activity and functions together with H(+)-ATPase in vacuolar membranes. The physiological role of the type II enzyme, which does not require K(+), is not clear. We focused on the type II enzymes (AtVHP2;1 and AtVHP2;2) of A. thaliana. Total amounts of AtVHP2s were quantified immunochemically using a specific antibody and determined to be 22 and 12 ng mg(-1) of total protein in the microsomal fractions of suspension-cultured cells and young roots, respectively, and the values are approximately 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively, of the vacuolar H(+)-PPase. In plants, AtVHP2s were detected immunochemically in all tissues except mature leaves, and were abundant in roots and flowers. The intracellular localization of AtVHP2s in suspension cells was determined by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and immunoblotting. Comparison with a number of marker proteins revealed localization in the Golgi apparatus and the trans-Golgi network. These results suggest that the type II H(+)-PPase functions as a proton pump in the Golgi and related vesicles in young tissues, although its content is very low compared with the type I enzyme. PMID:20605924

  2. Quantification of the types of water in Eudragit RLPO polymer and the kinetics of water loss using FTIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirayavaraporn, Chompak; Rades, Thomas; Gordon, Keith C; Tucker, Ian G

    2013-01-01

    Coalescence of polymer particles in polymer matrix tablets influences drug release. The literature has emphasized that coalescence occurs above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer and that water may plasticize (lower Tg) the polymer. However, we have shown previously that nonplasticizing water also influences coalescence of Eudragit RLPO; so there is a need to quantify the different types of water in Eudragit RLPO. The purpose of this study was to distinguish the types of water ...

  3. Cosmic string solution in a Born-Infeld type theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Advances in the formal structure of string theory point to the emergence, and necessity, of a scalar-tensorial theory of gravity. It seems that, at least at high energy scales, the Einstein's theory is not enough to explain the gravitational phenomena. In other words, the existence of a scalar (gravitational) field acting as a mediator of the gravitational interaction together with the usual purely rank-2 tensorial field is, indeed, a natural prediction of unification models as supergravity, superstrings and M-theory. This type of modified gravitation was first introduced in a different context in the 60's in order to incorporate the Mach's principle into relativity, but nowadays it acquired different sense in cosmology and gravity theories. Although such unification theories are the most acceptable, they all exist in higher dimensional spaces. The compactification from these higher dimensions to the 4-dimensional physics is not unique and there exist many effective theories of gravity which come from the unification process. Each of them must, of course, satisfy some predictions. Here, in this paper, we will deal with one of them. The so-called NDL theory. One important assumption in General Relativity is that all field interact in the same way with gravity. This is the so called Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP). It is well known, with good accuracy, that this is true when we concern with matter to matter interaction, i.e, the Weak Equivalence Principle(WEP) is tested. But, until now, there is no direct observational confirmation of this affirmation to the gravity to gravity interaction. In an extension of the field theoretical description of General Relativity constructed by is used to propose an alternative field theory of gravity. In this theory gravitons propagate in a different spacetime. The velocity of propagation of the gravitational waves in this theory does not coincide with the General Relativity predictions. (author)

  4. Cosmic string solution in a Born-Infeld type theory of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, W.J. da [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Naves de Oliveira, A.L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Rio Paranaiba, MG (Brazil); Guimaraes, M.E.X. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Full text. Advances in the formal structure of string theory point to the emergence, and necessity, of a scalar-tensorial theory of gravity. It seems that, at least at high energy scales, the Einstein's theory is not enough to explain the gravitational phenomena. In other words, the existence of a scalar (gravitational) field acting as a mediator of the gravitational interaction together with the usual purely rank-2 tensorial field is, indeed, a natural prediction of unification models as supergravity, superstrings and M-theory. This type of modified gravitation was first introduced in a different context in the 60's in order to incorporate the Mach's principle into relativity, but nowadays it acquired different sense in cosmology and gravity theories. Although such unification theories are the most acceptable, they all exist in higher dimensional spaces. The compactification from these higher dimensions to the 4-dimensional physics is not unique and there exist many effective theories of gravity which come from the unification process. Each of them must, of course, satisfy some predictions. Here, in this paper, we will deal with one of them. The so-called NDL theory. One important assumption in General Relativity is that all field interact in the same way with gravity. This is the so called Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP). It is well known, with good accuracy, that this is true when we concern with matter to matter interaction, i.e, the Weak Equivalence Principle(WEP) is tested. But, until now, there is no direct observational confirmation of this affirmation to the gravity to gravity interaction. In an extension of the field theoretical description of General Relativity constructed by is used to propose an alternative field theory of gravity. In this theory gravitons propagate in a different spacetime. The velocity of propagation of the gravitational waves in this theory does not coincide with the General Relativity predictions. (author)

  5. Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kerstan, Max

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric St\\"uckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence o...

  6. Bianchi Type-I, V and VIo models in modified generalized scalartensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Singh; R Chaubey

    2007-08-01

    In modified generalized scalartensor (GST) theory, the cosmological term is a function of the scalar field and its derivatives $\\dot{\\phi}^{2}$. We obtain exact solutions of the field equations in Bianchi Type-I, V and VIo spacetimes. The evolution of the scale factor, the scalar field and the cosmological term has been discussed. The Bianchi Type-I model has been discussed in detail. Further, Bianchi Type-V and VIo models can be studied on the lines similar to Bianchi Type-I model.

  7. What does it take for a specific prospect theory type household to engage in risky investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Hlouskova, Jaroslava; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This research note examines the conditions which will induce a prospect theory type investor, whose reference level is set by 'playing it safe', to invest in a risky asset. The conditions indicate that this type of investor requires a large equity premium to invest in risky assets. However, once she does invest because of a large risk premium, she becomes aggressive and buys/sells till an externally imposed upper/lower bound is reached.

  8. What does it take for a specific prospect theory type household to engage in risky investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Hlouskova, Jaroslava; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This research note examines the conditions which will induce a prospect theory type investor, whose reference level is set by playing it safe, to invest in a risky asset. The conditions indicate that this type of investor requires a large equity premium to invest in risky assets. However, once she does invest because of a large risk premium, she becomes aggressive and buys/sells till an externally imposed upper/lower bound is reached.

  9. The effective theory of type IIA AdS4 compactifications on nilmanifolds and cosets

    CERN Document Server

    Caviezel, Claudio; Kors, Simon; Lst, Dieter; Tsimpis, Dimitrios; Zagermann, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We consider string theory compactifications of the form AdS4 x M6 with orientifold six-planes, where M6 is a six-dimensional compact space that is either a nilmanifold or a coset. For all known solutions of this type we obtain the four-dimensional N=1 low energy effective theory by computing the superpotential, the Kaehler potential and the mass spectrum for the light moduli. For the nilmanifold examples we perform a cross-check on the result for the mass spectrum by calculating it alternatively from a direct Kaluza-Klein reduction and find perfect agreement. We show that in all but one of the coset models all moduli are stabilized at the classical level. As an application we show that all but one of the coset models can potentially be used to bypass a recent no-go theorem against inflation in type IIA theory.

  10. Universal Properties of Type IIB and F-theory Flux Compactifications at Large Complex Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, M C David

    2015-01-01

    We consider flux compactifications of type IIB string theory and F-theory in which the respective superpotentials at large complex structure are dominated by cubic or quartic terms in the complex structure moduli. In this limit, the low-energy effective theory for the complex structure and axio-dilaton sector exhibits universal properties that are insensitive to the details of the compactification manifold or the flux configuration. We show that there are no vacua in this region and the spectrum of the Hessian matrix is highly peaked and consists only of three distinct eigenvalues ($0$, $2m_{3/2}^2$ and $8m_{3/2}^2$), independently of the number of moduli. We briefly comment on how the inclusion of K\\"ahler moduli affect these findings. Our results generalise those of Brodie & Marsh [1], in which these universal properties were found in a subspace of the large complex structure limit of type IIB compactifications.

  11. Preschoolers' Generation of Different Types of Counterfactual Statements and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Turley-Ames, Kandi Jo

    2004-01-01

    Two studies examined associations between theory of mind performance and counterfactual thinking using both antecedent and consequent counterfactual tasks. Moreover, the studies examined children's abilities to generate different types of counterfactual statements in terms of direction and structure. Participants were 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old

  12. T-duality in type II string theory via noncommutative geometry and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief survey on how noncommutative and nonassociative geometry appears naturally in the study of T-duality in type II string theory, is essentially a transcript of my talks given at the 21st Nishinomiya-Yukawa Memorial Symposium on Theoretical Physics: Noncommutative Geometry and Quantum Spacetime in Physics, Japan, 11-15 November 2006. (author)

  13. Localized energy associated with Bianchi-Type VI universe in $f(R)$ theory of gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Korunur, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, focusing on one of the most popular problems in modern gravitation theories, we consider generalized Lanndau-Liftshitz energy-momentum relation to calculate energy distribution of the Bianchi-Type VI spacetime in $f(R)$ gravity. Additionally, the results are specified by using some well-known $f(R)$-gravity models.

  14. Quantification of the types of water in Eudragit RLPO polymer and the kinetics of water loss using FTIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirayavaraporn, Chompak; Rades, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coalescence of polymer particles in polymer matrix tablets influences drug release. The literature has emphasized that coalescence occurs above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer and that water may plasticize (lower Tg) the polymer. However, we have shown previously that nonplasticizing water also influences coalescence of Eudragit RLPO; so there is a need to quantify the different types of water in Eudragit RLPO. The purpose of this study was to distinguish the types of water present in Eudragit RLPO polymer and to investigate the water loss kinetics for these different types of water. Eudragit RLPO was stored in tightly closed chambers at various relative humidities (0, 33, 56, 75, and 94%) until equilibrium was reached. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-DRIFTS was used to investigate molecular interactions between water and polymer, and water loss over time. Using a curve fitting procedure, the water region (3100-3,700 cm(-1)) of the spectra was analyzed, and used to identify water present in differing environments in the polymer and to determine the water loss kinetics upon purging the sample with dry compressed air. It was found that four environments can be differentiated (dipole interaction of water with quaternary ammonium groups, water cluster, and water indirectly and directly binding to the carbonyl groups of the polymer) but it was not possible to distinguish whether the different types of water were lost at different rates. It is suggested that water is trapped in the polymer in different forms and this should be considered when investigating coalescence of polymer matrices.

  15. Mapping and Quantification of Land Area and Cover Types with LandsatTM in Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    J Hj. Kamaruzaman,; I Mohd Hasmadi,

    2009-01-01

    Information about current land cover type is essential at a certain level to ensure the optimum use of the land resources. Several approaches can be used to estimate land cover area, where remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) is among the method. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate how reliable these technologies in preparing information about land cover in Carey Island, Selangor of Peninsular Malaysia. Erdas Imagine 9.1 was used in digital image processing. A p...

  16. Experimental quantification of dynamic forces and shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings under several contact conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact forces enable the hysteresis loops to be computed and analyzed. Consequently, the contact forces are plotted against the local deformation in order to assess the contact force loss during the impacts. T...

  17. E$_{6(6)}$ Exceptional Field Theory: Review and Embedding of Type IIB

    CERN Document Server

    Baguet, Arnaud; Samtleben, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We review E$_{6(6)}$ exceptional field theory with a particular emphasis on the embedding of type IIB supergravity, which is obtained by picking the GL$(5)\\times {\\rm SL}(2)$ invariant solution of the section constraint. We work out the precise decomposition of the E$_{6(6)}$ covariant fields on the one hand and the Kaluza-Klein-like decomposition of type IIB supergravity on the other. Matching the symmetries, this allows us to establish the precise dictionary between both sets of fields. Finally, we establish on-shell equivalence. In particular, we show how the self-duality constraint for the four-form potential in type IIB is reconstructed from the duality relations in the off-shell formulation of the E$_{6(6)}$ exceptional field theory.

  18. Identification of enzymes and quantification of metabolic fluxes in the wild type and in a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Carlsen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Two alpha-amylase-producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae, a wild-type strain and a recombinant containing additional copies of the alpha-amylase gene, were characterized,vith respect to enzyme activities, localization of enzymes to the mitochondria or cytosol, macromolecular composition, and metabolic fluxes through the central metabolism during glucose-limited chemostat cultivations. Citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD) activities were found only in the mitochondria, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP) activities were found only in the cytosol, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, malate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) activities were found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol, The measured biomass components and ash could account for 95% (wt/wt) of the biomass. The protein and RNA contents increased linearly with increasing specific growth rate, but the carbohydrate and chitin contents decreased. A metabolic model consisting of 69 fluxes and 59 intracellular metabolites was used to calculate the metabolic fluxes through the central metabolism at several specific growth rates, with ammonia or nitrate as the nitrogen source. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway increased with increasing specific growth rate. The fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway were 15 to 26% higher for the recombinant strain than for the wild-type strain.

  19. Precision Automation of Cell Type Classification and Sub-Cellular Fluorescence Quantification from Laser Scanning Confocal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Hardy C.; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Fischer, Urs

    2016-01-01

    While novel whole-plant phenotyping technologies have been successfully implemented into functional genomics and breeding programs, the potential of automated phenotyping with cellular resolution is largely unexploited. Laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to close this gap by providing spatially highly resolved images containing anatomic as well as chemical information on a subcellular basis. However, in the absence of automated methods, the assessment of the spatial patterns and abundance of fluorescent markers with subcellular resolution is still largely qualitative and time-consuming. Recent advances in image acquisition and analysis, coupled with improvements in microprocessor performance, have brought such automated methods within reach, so that information from thousands of cells per image for hundreds of images may be derived in an experimentally convenient time-frame. Here, we present a MATLAB-based analytical pipeline to (1) segment radial plant organs into individual cells, (2) classify cells into cell type categories based upon Random Forest classification, (3) divide each cell into sub-regions, and (4) quantify fluorescence intensity to a subcellular degree of precision for a separate fluorescence channel. In this research advance, we demonstrate the precision of this analytical process for the relatively complex tissues of Arabidopsis hypocotyls at various stages of development. High speed and robustness make our approach suitable for phenotyping of large collections of stem-like material and other tissue types. PMID:26904081

  20. Quantification of zinc atoms in a surface alloy on copper in an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuld, Sebastian; Moses, Poul Georg; Sehested, Jens; Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel.1 Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a pr...... systems where metalsupport interactions are important, and this work generally addresses the role of the carrier and the nature of the interactions between carrier and metal in heterogeneous catalysts.......Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel.1 Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a...... promoter for this type of catalyst is still under intense debate.2 Structural changes that are strongly dependent on the pretreatment method have now been observed for an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst. A combination of chemisorption, reaction, and spectroscopic techniques provides a...

  1. Quantification of zinc atoms in a surface alloy on copper in an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuld, Sebastian; Moses, Poul Georg; Sehested, Jens; Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel. Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a pro...... where metal-support interactions are important, and this work generally addresses the role of the carrier and the nature of the interactions between carrier and metal in heterogeneous catalysts.......Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel. Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a...... promoter for this type of catalyst is still under intense debate. Structural changes that are strongly dependent on the pretreatment method have now been observed for an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst. A combination of chemisorption, reaction, and spectroscopic techniques provides a consistent...

  2. Quantification of zinc atoms in a surface alloy on copper in an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuld, Sebastian; Moses, Poul Georg

    2014-01-01

    Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel. Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a promoter for this type of catalyst is still under intense debate. Structural changes that are strongly dependent on the pretreatment method have now been observed for an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst. A combination of chemisorption, reaction, and spectroscopic techniques provides a consistent picture of surface alloying between copper and zinc. This analysis enables a reinterpretation of the methods that have been used for the determination of the Cu surface area and provides an opportunity to independently quantify the specific Cu and Zn areas. This method may also be applied to other systems where metal-support interactions are important, and this work generally addresses the role of the carrier and the nature of the interactions between carrier and metal in heterogeneous catalysts.

  3. Quantification of zinc atoms in a surface alloy on copper in an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuld, Sebastian; Conradsen, Christian; Moses, Poul Georg; Chorkendorff, Ib; Sehested, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel. Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a promoter for this type of catalyst is still under intense debate. Structural changes that are strongly dependent on the pretreatment method have now been observed for an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst. A combination of chemisorption, reaction, and spectroscopic techniques provides a consistent picture of surface alloying between copper and zinc. This analysis enables a reinterpretation of the methods that have been used for the determination of the Cu surface area and provides an opportunity to independently quantify the specific Cu and Zn areas. This method may also be applied to other systems where metal-support interactions are important, and this work generally addresses the role of the carrier and the nature of the interactions between carrier and metal in heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:24764288

  4. Two-dimensional nonlocal heating theory of planar-type inductively coupled plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional heating theory of planar-type inductively coupled plasma (ICP) discharge is developed. The theory includes the anomalous skin effect with an arbitrary value of electron collision frequency and source current. Based on the uniqueness theorem of wave equation, wave excitation by the source current is determined. With the calculated electromagnetic fields, plasma resistance is expressed as a function of various parameters such as plasma density np, electron temperature Te, radius of chamber R, length of plasma Lp, shielding cap length Ls, electron collision frequency ?, excitation frequency ?, and the position and size of the antenna coil. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. A fast-slow dynamical systems theory for the Kuramoto type phase model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Slemrod, Marshall

    We present a fast-slow dynamical systems theory for the Kuramoto type phase model. When the order parameters are frozen, the fast system consists of independent oscillator equations, whereas the slow system describes the evolution of order parameters. We average out the slow system over the fast manifold to derive a weak form of an amplitude-angle coupled system for the evolution of Kuramoto's order parameters. This yields the slow evolution of order parameters to be constant values which gives a rigorous proof to Kuramoto's original assumption in his self-consistent mean-field theory.

  6. The Classification of Guns Type Using Image Recognition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Kulthon Kasemsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to develop the Guns Type and Models Classification (GTMC system using image recognition theory. It is expected that this study can serve as a guide for law enforcement agencies or at least serve as the catalyst for a similar type of research. Master image storage and image recognition are the two main processes. The procedures involved original images, scaling, gray scale, canny edge detector, SUSAN corner detector, block matching template, and finally gun types recognition. Of the 505 images, 80 were control or master images, and 425 were experimental images of the eight gun types. The finding from the experiment indicated that the GTMC was able to classify the images of the semi-automatic gun with the highest accuracy of 99.06 percent, and the average accurate gun image classification was 81.25 percent respectively.

  7. The structure of the R8 term in type IIB string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the structure of the on-shell linearized superspace of type IIB supergravity, we argue that there is a non-BPS 16 derivative interaction in the effective action of type IIB string theory of the form (t8t8R4)2, which we call the R8 interaction. It lies in the same supermultiplet as the G8R4 interaction. Using the KawaiLewellenTye relation, we analyze the structure of the tree level eight-graviton scattering amplitude in the type IIB theory, which leads to the R8 interaction at the linearized level. This involves an analysis of color-ordered multi-gluon disc amplitudes in the type I theory, which shows an intricate pole structure and transcendentality consistent with various other interactions. Considerations of S-duality show that the R8 interaction receives non-analytic contributions in the string coupling at one and two loops. Apart from receiving perturbative contributions, we show that the R8 interaction receives a non-vanishing contribution in the one D-instanton-anti-instanton background at leading order in the weak coupling expansion. (paper)

  8. Preclinical evaluation and quantification of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 as a radioligand for PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteels, Cindy [K.U. Leuven, University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel; Laere, Koen van [K.U. Leuven, University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); Celen, Sofie; Bormans, Guy [K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist for the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor allowing its use in PET imaging. We characterized the kinetics of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 and evaluated its ability to quantify CB1 receptor availability in the rat brain. Dynamic small-animal PET scans with [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 were performed in Wistar rats on a FOCUS-220 system for up to 10 h. Both plasma and perfused brain homogenates were analysed using HPLC to quantify radiometabolites. Displacement and blocking experiments were done using cold MK-9470 and another inverse agonist, SR141716A. The distribution volume (V{sub T}) of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 was used as a quantitative measure and compared to the use of brain uptake, expressed as SUV, a simplified method of quantification. The percentage of intact [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 in arterial plasma samples was 80 {+-} 23 % at 10 min, 38 {+-} 30 % at 40 min and 13 {+-} 14 % at 210 min. A polar radiometabolite fraction was detected in plasma and brain tissue. The brain radiometabolite concentration was uniform across the whole brain. Displacement and pretreatment studies showed that 56 % of the tracer binding was specific and reversible. V{sub T} values obtained with a one-tissue compartment model plus constrained radiometabolite input had good identifiability ({<=}10 %). Ignoring the radiometabolite contribution using a one-tissue compartment model alone, i.e. without constrained radiometabolite input, overestimated the [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 V{sub T}, but was correlated. A correlation between [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 V{sub T} and SUV in the brain was also found (R {sup 2} = 0.26-0.33; p {<=} 0.03). While the presence of a brain-penetrating radiometabolite fraction complicates the quantification of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 in the rat brain, its tracer kinetics can be modelled using a one-tissue compartment model with and without constrained radiometabolite input. (orig.)

  9. Heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B: Quantification by dynamic CTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

  10. Experimental quantification of dynamic forces and shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings under several contact conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact forces enable the hysteresis loops to be computed and analyzed. Consequently, the contact forces are plotted against the local deformation in order to assess the contact force loss during the impacts. The shaft motion during contact with the backup bearing is verified with a two-sided spectrum analyses. The analyses show that by use of a conventional annular guide, the shaft undergoes a direct transition from normal operation to a full annular backward whirling state for the case of external excitation. However, in a self-excited vibration case, where the speed is gradually increased and decreased through the first critical speed, the investigation revealed that different paths initiated the onset of backward whip and whirling motion. In order to improve the whirling and the full annular contact behavior, an unconventional pinned backup bearing is realized. The idea is to utilize pin connections that center the rotor during impacts and prevent the shaft from entering a full annular contact state. The experimental results show that the shaft escapes the pins and returns to a normal operational condition during an impact event. 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B: Quantification by dynamic CTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tim F. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ganten, Maria-Katharina [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.ganten@dkfz.de; Boeckler, Dittmar [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: dittmar.boeckler@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Geisbuesch, Philipp [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: philipp.geisbuesch@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: h.vontengg@dkfz.de

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 {+-} 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 {+-} 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

  12. A COSSERAT-TYPE PLATE THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION TO CARBON NANOTUBE MICROSTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Selmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predictive capabilities of plate and shell theories greatly depend on their underlying kinematic assumptions. In this study, we develop a Cosserat-type elastic plate theory which accounts for rotations around the normal to the mid-surface plane (so-called drilling rotations. Internal loads, equilibrium equations, boundary conditions and constitutive equations are derived. The case of a Single Walled carbon Nanotube (SWNT modelled as a Cosserat medium is taken here as a reference example. Material parameters are identi?ed and the proposed theory is used to solve analytically the problem of a polymer-SWNT composite tube under torsion. Predictions such as an absolute size effect are compared to those of the classical Cauchy-de Saint-Venant results.

  13. WKB - type approximations in the theory of vacuum particle creation in strong fields

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyansky, S A; Panferov, A D; Prozorkevich, A V; Blaschke, D; Juchnowski, L

    2014-01-01

    Within the theory of vacuum creation of an $e^{+}e^{-}$ - plasma in the strong electric fields acting in the focal spot of counter-propagating laser beams we compare predictions on the basis of different WKB-type approximations with results obtained in the framework of a strict kinetic approach. Such a comparison demonstrates a considerable divergence results. We analyse some reasoning for this observation and conclude that WKB-type approximations have an insufficient foundation for QED in strong nonstationary fields. The results obtained in this work on the basis of the kinetic approach are most optimistic for the observation of an $e^{+}e^{-}$ - plasma in the range of optical and x-ray laser facilities. We discuss also the influence of unphysical features of non-adiabatic field models on the reliability of predictions of the kinetic theory.

  14. Theory and Observations of Type I X-Ray Bursts from Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L

    2000-01-01

    I review our understanding of the thermonuclear instabilities on accreting neutron stars that produce Type I X-Ray bursts. I emphasize those observational and theoretical aspects that should interest the broad audience of this meeting. The easily accessible timescales of the bursts (durations of tens of seconds and recurrence times of hours to days) allow for a very stringent comparison to theory. The largest discrepancy (which was found with EXOSAT observations) is the accretion rate dependence of the Type I burst properties. Bursts become less frequent and energetic as the global accretion rate increases, just the opposite of what the spherical theory predicts. I present a resolution of this issue by taking seriously the observed dependence of the burning area on the global accretion rate, which implies that as the accretion rate increases, the accretion rate per unit area decreases. This resurrects the unsolved problem of knowing where the freshly accreted material accumulates on the star, equally relevant...

  15. Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voigt Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA. LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity. Conclusions We show that the natural system encoded in SPI-1 only produces high titers of secreted protein for 4-8 hours when the natural psicA promoter is used to drive expression. Secretion efficiency can be high, but declines for charged or large sequences. A quantitative characterization of these constraints will facilitate the effective use and engineering of this system.

  16. The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor in the two-group transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor is solved for the first time in the two group neutron transport theory, by singular eingenfunctions expansion, the singular integrals obtained through continuity conditions of angular distributions at the interface are regularized by a recently proposed method. The result is a coupled system of regular integral equations for the expansion coefficients, this system is solved by an ordinary interactive method. Numerical results that can be utilized as a comparative standard for aproximation methods, are presented

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Dietary Behaviour in Type 2 Diabetic Women, Using a Behaviour Change Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Didarloo, A.; D. Shojaeizadeh1; asl, R. Gharaaghaji; Niknami, S.; A. Khorami

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed...

  18. The epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory with Wilson-type fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division

    2009-11-15

    In this proceeding contribution we report on the ongoing effort to simulate Wilson-type fermions in the so called epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory (cPT).We present results for the chiral condensate and the pseudoscalar decay constant obtained with Wilson twisted mass fermions employing two lattice spacings, two different physical volumes and several quark masses. With this set of simulations we make a first attempt to estimate the systematic uncertainties. (orig.)

  19. Type I Superconductivity upon Monopole Condensation in Seiberg-Witten Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vainshtein, A.; Yung, A.

    2000-01-01

    We study the confinement scenario in N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory near the monopole point upon breaking of N=2 supersymmetry by the adjoint matter mass term. We confirm claims made previously that the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen string near the monopole point fails to be a BPS state once next-to-leading corrections in the adjoint mass parameter taken into account. Our results shows that type I superconductivity arises upon monopole condensation. This conclusion allows ...

  20. Some properties of the Cauchy-type integral for the Laplace vector fields theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the analog of the Cauchy-type integral for the Laplace vector fields theory in case of a piece-wise Liapunov surface of integration and we prove the Sokhotski-Plemelj theorem for it as well as the necessary and sufficient condition for the possibility to extend a given Hoelder function from such a surface up to a Laplace vector field. Formula for the square of the singular Cauchy-type integral is given. The proofs of all these facts are based on intimate relations between Laplace vector held and some versions of quaternionic analysis

  1. Specimens: "most of" generic NPs in a contextually flexible type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Retor, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to compute the meanings associated to sentences with generic NPs corresponding to the most of generalized quantifier. We call these generics specimens and they resemble stereotypes or prototypes in lexical semantics. The meanings are viewed as logical formulae that can be thereafter interpreted in your favorite models. We rather depart from the dominant Fregean single untyped universe and go for type theory with hints from Hilbert epsilon calculus and from medieval philosophy. Our type theoretic analysis bears some resemblance with on going work in lexical semantics. Our model also applies to classical examples involving a class (or a generic element of this class) which is provided by the context. An outcome of this study is that, in the minimalism-contextualism debate, if one adopts a type theoretical view, terms encode the purely semantic meaning component while their typing is pragmatically determined.

  2. Resonant modal group theory of membrane-type acoustical metamaterials for low-frequency sound attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng

    2015-09-01

    In order to overcome the influence of the structural resonance on the continuous structures and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure which can effectively isolate the low-frequency noises, an elastic membrane structure was proposed. In the low-frequency range below 500 Hz, the sound transmission loss (STL) of this membrane type structure is greatly higher than that of the current sound insulation material EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copo) of vehicle, so it is possible to replace the EVA by the membrane-type metamaterial structure in practice engineering. Based on the band structure, modal shapes, as well as the sound transmission simulation, the sound insulation mechanism of the designed membrane-type acoustic metamaterials was analyzed from a new perspective, which had been validated experimentally. It is suggested that in the frequency range above 200 Hz for this membrane-mass type structure, the sound insulation effect was principally not due to the low-level locally resonant mode of the mass block, but the continuous vertical resonant modes of the localized membrane. So based on such a physical property, a resonant modal group theory is initially proposed in this paper. In addition, the sound insulation mechanism of the membrane-type structure and thin plate structure were combined by the membrane/plate resonant theory.

  3. Optimal Uncertainty Quantification

    CERN Document Server

    Owhadi, Houman; Sullivan, Timothy John; McKerns, Mike; Ortiz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We propose a rigorous framework for Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) in which the UQ objectives and the assumptions/information set are brought to the forefront. This framework, which we call \\emph{Optimal Uncertainty Quantification} (OUQ), is based on the observation that, given a set of assumptions and information about the problem, there exist optimal bounds on uncertainties: these are obtained as extreme values of well-defined optimization problems corresponding to extremizing probabilities of failure, or of deviations, subject to the constraints imposed by the scenarios compatible with the assumptions and information. In particular, this framework does not implicitly impose inappropriate assumptions, nor does it repudiate relevant information. Although OUQ optimization problems are extremely large, we show that under general conditions, they have finite-dimensional reductions. As an application, we develop \\emph{Optimal Concentration Inequalities} (OCI) of Hoeffding and McDiarmid type. Surprisingly, contr...

  4. Type synthesis for 4-DOF parallel press mechanism using GF set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Gao, Feng; Meng, Xiangdun; Guo, Weizhong

    2015-07-01

    Parallel mechanisms is used in the large capacity servo press to avoid the over-constraint of the traditional redundant actuation. Currently, the researches mainly focus on the performance analysis for some specific parallel press mechanisms. However, the type synthesis and evaluation of parallel press mechanisms is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) press mechanisms. The type synthesis of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms is carried out based on the generalized function(GF) set theory. Five design criteria of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms are firstly proposed. The general procedure of type synthesis of parallel press mechanisms is obtained, which includes number synthesis, symmetrical synthesis of constraint GF sets, decomposition of motion GF sets and design of limbs. Nine combinations of constraint GF sets of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms, ten combinations of GF sets of active limbs, and eleven combinations of GF sets of passive limbs are synthesized. Thirty-eight kinds of press mechanisms are presented and then different structures of kinematic limbs are designed. Finally, the geometrical constraint complexity( GCC), kinematic pair complexity( KPC), and type complexity( TC) are proposed to evaluate the press types and the optimal press type is achieved. The general methodologies of type synthesis and evaluation for parallel press mechanism are suggested.

  5. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this P-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with D78, DK01 or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day I post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8 p.i. for D78. Importantly, the primers set were specific as the D78 primer set gave no amplification of F52/70 and DK01 and the DK01 primer set gave no amplification of D78, thus DK01 and D78 could be quantified simultaneously in dually infected chickens by use of these two set of primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies.

  6. A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

  7. Canonical BF-type topological field theory and fractional statistics of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider BF-type topological field theory coupled to non-dynamical particle and string sources on spacetime manifolds of the form R1xM 3, where M 3 is a 3-manifold without boundary. Canonical quantization of the theory is carried out in the hamiltonian formalism and explicit solutions of the Schroedinger equation are obtained. We show that the Hilbert space is finite dimensional and the physical states carry a one-dimensional projective representation of the local gauge symmetries. When M 3 is homologically non-trivial the wavefunctions in addition carry a multi-dimensional projective representation, in terms of the linking matrix of the homology cycles of M 3, of the discrete group of large gauge transformations. The wavefunctions also carry a one-dimensional representation of the non-trivial linking of the particle trajectories and string surfaces in M 3. This topological field theory therefore provides a phenomenological generalization of anyons to (3+1) dimensions where the holonomies representing fractional statistics arise from the adiabatic transport of particles around strings. We also discuss a duality between large gauge transformations and these linking operations around the homology cycles of M 3, and show that this canonical quantum field theory provides novel quantum representations of the cohomology of M 3 and its associated motion group. ((orig.))

  8. Social cognitive theory correlates of moderate-intensity exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Valerie J; Petosa, R L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify social cognitive theory (SCT) correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise (MVPA) among adults with type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes (N=181) participated in the study. Participants were recruited through ResearchMatch.org to complete an online survey. The survey used previously validated instruments to measure dimensions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations, the physical environment, and minutes of MVPA per week. Spearman Rank Correlations were used to determine the relationship between SCT variables and MVPA. Classification and Regression Analysis using a decision tree model was used to determine the amount of variance in MVPA explained by SCT variables. Due to low levels of vigorous activity, only moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) was analyzed. SCT variables explained 42.4% of the variance in MIE. Self-monitoring, social support from family, social support from friends, and self-evaluative outcome expectations all contributed to the variability in MIE. Other contributing variables included self-reward, task self-efficacy, social outcome expectations, overcoming barriers, and self-efficacy for making time for exercise. SCT is a useful theory for identifying correlates of MIE among adults with type 2 diabetes. The SCT correlates can be used to refine diabetes education programs to target the adoption and maintenance of regular exercise. PMID:25753761

  9. Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect ?uid cosmological model in bimetric theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Katore; R S Rane; K S Wankhade

    2011-04-01

    Bianchi type-I massive string cosmological model for perfect ?uid distribution in the presence of magnetic ?eld is investigated in Rosens [Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 4, 435 (1973)] bimetric theory of gravitation. To obtain the deterministic model in terms of cosmic time, we have used the condition $A = (B C)^n$, where n is a constant, between the metric potentials. The magnetic ?eld is due to the electric current produced along the -axis with in?nite electrical conductivity. Some physical and geometrical properties of the exhibited model are discussed and studied.

  10. Comment on the one-loop finiteness in type-I superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the Pauli-Villars method, one-loop divergence of the 4-point amplitude in SO(N) type-I superstring theory is studied. If one assigns the equal mass to the Pauli-Villars regulators appearing in the planar and nonorientable diagrams, the one-loop finiteness does not hold for N = 32. From the present view point, the principal-part prescription by Green and Schwarz corresponds to the different regulator mass assignment for the planar and nonorientable diagrams. (author)

  11. Type I superconductivity upon monopole condensation in Seiberg-Witten theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainshtein, A. E-mail: vainshtein@mnhep1.hep.umn.edu; Yung, A

    2001-10-29

    We study the confinement scenario in N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory near the monopole point upon breaking of N=2 supersymmetry by the adjoint matter mass term. We confirm claims made previously that the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen string near the monopole point fails to be a BPS state once next-to-leading corrections in the adjoint mass parameter taken into account. Our results shows that type I superconductivity arises upon monopole condensation. This conclusion allows us to make qualitative predictions on the structure of the hadron mass spectrum near the monopole point.

  12. Clumpy Langmuir waves in type III radio sources - Comparison of stochastic-growth theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed comparisons are made between the Langmuir-wave properties predicted by the recently developed stochastic-growth theory of type III sources and those observed by the plasma wave experiment on ISEE 3, after correcting for the main instrumental and selection effects. Analysis of the observed field-strength distribution confirms the theoretically predicted form and implies that wave growth fluctuates both spatially and temporally in sign and magnitude, leading to an extremely clumpy distribution of fields. A cutoff in the field-strength distribution is seen at a few mV/m, corresponding to saturation via nonlinear effects. Analysis of the size distribution of Langmuir clumps yields results in accord with those obtained in earlier work and with the size distribution of ambient density fluctuations in the solar wind. This confirms that the inhomogeneities in the Langmuir growth rate are determined by the density fluctuations and that these fluctuations persist during type III events.

  13. Bianchi type-III models with anisotropic dark energy in Brans-Dicke-Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, Ines G.; Jawad, Abdul

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the Bianchi type-III metric (which is a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic) in the framework of a newly proposed Brans-Dicke-Rastall theory of gravitation by Carams et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 74:3145, 2014. In this scenario, we obtain the generalized form of the anisotropy parameter of the expansion, the dynamically anisotropic equation of state parameter, and a dynamical energy density in the presence of a single diagonal imperfect fluid. By assuming the anisotropy of the fluid, and exponential and power-law volumetric expansions, we find the exact solutions of the Brans-Dicke-Rastall field equations. We examine the isotropy of the fluid, of space, and of the expansion of the universe. It is observed that the universe can approach the isotropy monotonically even in the presence of an anisotropic fluid. We also note that the strong anisotropy observed in RG, respectively, is diminished considerably in the Rastall theory and Brans-Dicke-Rastall theory because of the influence of the parameters and.

  14. The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy. PMID:25270249

  15. Mild to severe social fears: ranking types of feared social situations using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders, and is associated with long term impairment, distress and vulnerability to secondary disorders. Certain types of social fears are more common than others, with public speaking fears typically the most prevalent in epidemiological surveys. The distinction between performance- and interaction-based fears has been the focus of long-standing debate in the literature, with evidence performance-based fears may reflect more mild presentations of social anxiety. This study aims to explicitly test whether different types of social fears differ in underlying social anxiety severity using item response theory techniques. Different types of social fears were assessed using items from three different structured diagnostic interviews in four different epidemiological surveys in the United States (n=2261, n=5411) and Australia (n=1845, n=1497); and ranked using 2-parameter logistic item response theory models. Overall, patterns of underlying severity indicated by different fears were consistent across the four samples with items functioning across a range of social anxiety. Public performance fears and speaking at meetings/classes indicated the lowest levels of social anxiety, with increasing severity indicated by situations such as being assertive or attending parties. Fears of using public bathrooms or eating, drinking or writing in public reflected the highest levels of social anxiety. Understanding differences in the underlying severity of different types of social fears has important implications for the underlying structure of social anxiety, and may also enhance the delivery of social anxiety treatment at a population level. PMID:24873885

  16. On the effective theory of type II string compactifications on nilmanifolds and coset spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we analyzed a large number of type IIA strict SU(3)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O6/D6-sources, as well as type IIB static SU(2)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O5/O7-sources. Restricting to structures and fluxes that are constant in the basis of left-invariant one-forms, these models are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory. The six-dimensional compact manifolds we studied in this thesis are nilmanifolds based on nilpotent Lie-algebras, and, on the other hand, coset spaces based on semisimple and U(1)-groups, which admit a left-invariant strict SU(3)- or static SU(2)-structure. In particular, from the set of 34 distinct nilmanifolds we identified two nilmanifolds, the torus and the Iwasawa manifold, that allow for an AdS4, N = 1 type IIA strict SU(3)-structure solution and one nilmanifold allowing for an AdS4, N = 1 type IIB static SU(2)-structure solution. From the set of all the possible six-dimensional coset spaces, we identified seven coset spaces suitable for strict SU(3)-structure compactifications, four of which also allow for a static SU(2)-structure compactification. For all these models, we calculated the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory using N = 1 supergravity techniques. In order to write down the most general four-dimensional effective action, we also studied how to classify the different disconnected ''bubbles'' in moduli space. (orig.)

  17. On the effective theory of type II string compactifications on nilmanifolds and coset spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviezel, Claudio

    2009-07-30

    In this thesis we analyzed a large number of type IIA strict SU(3)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O6/D6-sources, as well as type IIB static SU(2)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O5/O7-sources. Restricting to structures and fluxes that are constant in the basis of left-invariant one-forms, these models are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory. The six-dimensional compact manifolds we studied in this thesis are nilmanifolds based on nilpotent Lie-algebras, and, on the other hand, coset spaces based on semisimple and U(1)-groups, which admit a left-invariant strict SU(3)- or static SU(2)-structure. In particular, from the set of 34 distinct nilmanifolds we identified two nilmanifolds, the torus and the Iwasawa manifold, that allow for an AdS{sub 4}, N = 1 type IIA strict SU(3)-structure solution and one nilmanifold allowing for an AdS{sub 4}, N = 1 type IIB static SU(2)-structure solution. From the set of all the possible six-dimensional coset spaces, we identified seven coset spaces suitable for strict SU(3)-structure compactifications, four of which also allow for a static SU(2)-structure compactification. For all these models, we calculated the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory using N = 1 supergravity techniques. In order to write down the most general four-dimensional effective action, we also studied how to classify the different disconnected ''bubbles'' in moduli space. (orig.)

  18. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrdinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential applications for the analysis, engineering and management of physical and biological systems and properties, and the consequences for the organization of transdisciplinary research and the scientific curriculum in the context of the SYSTEMOSCOPE Consortium research and development agenda. PMID:17991513

  19. A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of 'lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them - the method of 'Kaehler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading {alpha}'-correction - allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the Kaehler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume. (orig.)

  20. On gradient enriched elasticity theories: A reply to "Comment on 'On non-singular crack fields in Helmholtz type enriched elasticity theories' " and important theoretical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Markus; Agiasofitou, Eleni; Polyzos, Demosthenes

    2015-01-01

    The Comment by Aifantis that criticizes the article 'On non-singular crack fields in Helmholtz type enriched elasticity theories' [Lazar, M., Polyzos, D., 2014. Int. J. Solids Struct. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2014.01.002] is refuted by means of clear and straightforward arguments. Important theoretical aspects of gradient enriched elasticity theories which emerge in this work are also discussed.

  1. On heterotic orbifolds, M-theory and type I' brane engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horava-Witten M-theory ? heterotic string duality poses special problems for the twisted sectors of heterotic orbifolds. In our previous paper we explained how in M theory the twisted states couple to gauge fields apparently living on M9 branes at both ends of the eleventh dimension at the same time. The resolution involves 7D gauge fields which live on fixed planes of the (T4/IZN)x(IS1/IZ2)xIR5,1 orbifold and lock onto the 10D gauge fields along the intersection planes. The physics of such intersection planes does not follow directly from the M theory but there are stringent kinematic constraints due to duality and local consistency, which allowed us to deduce the local fields and the boundary conditions at each intersection. In this paper we explain various phenomena at the intersection planes in terms of duality between Horava-Witten and tI superstring theories. The orbifold fixed planes are dual to stacks of D6 branes, the M9 planes are dual to Ori orientifold planes accompanied by D8 branes, and the intersections are dual to brane junctions. We engineer several junction types which lead to distinct patterns of 7D/10D gauge field locking, 7D symmetry breaking and/or local 6D fields. Another aspect of brane engineering is putting the junctions together; sometimes, the combined effect is rather spectacular from the HW point of view and the quantum numbers of some twisted states have to 'bounce' off both ends of the eleventh dimension before their heterotic identity becomes clear. Some models involve D6/Ori junctions where the string coupling diverges towards the orientifold plane. We use the heterotic?HW?I' duality to predict what should happen at such junctions. For example, pinning down an NS5 half-brane to a definite location on a ?=? Ori plane requires precisely four D6 branes. (author)

  2. Bianchi Type-II, VIII & IX Perfect Fluid Cosmological Models in Brans Dicke Theory of Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Velagapudi Uma Maheswara Rao; Mandangi Vijaya Santhi

    2011-01-01

    Field equations in the presence of perfect fluid distribution are obtained in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke[1] with the aid of Bianchi type-II, VIII & IX metrics. Exact prefect fluid Bianchi type- IX cosmological model is presented since other models doesnt exist in Brans-Dicke scalar tensor theory of gravitation. Some physical properties of the model are also discussed.

  3. Comparison of Two High-Throughput Assays for Quantification of Adenovirus Type 5 Neutralizing Antibodies in a Population of Donors in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qiang; Nie, Jianhui; Huang, Weijin; Meng, Shufang; Yuan, Baozhu; Gao, Dongying; Xu, Xuemei; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence of various levels of Adenovirus serotype 5 neutralizing antibodies (Ad5NAb) is thought to contribute to the inconsistent clinical results obtained from vaccination and gene therapy studies. Currently, two platforms based on high-throughput technology are available for Ad5NAb quantification, chemiluminescence- and fluorescence-based assays. The aim of this study was to compare the results of two assays in the seroepidemiology of Ad5NAb in a local population of donors. M...

  4. Quantification analysis of CT of ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early symptoms in patients with ovarian tumors are usually few and nonspecific. CT is often very helpful in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors. Although it is difficult to identify normal ovaries, it is usually possible to diagnose ovarian lesions on CT, because with few exceptions they show tumorous enlargement. We can even estimate the histology in typical cases such as dermoid cysts or some types of cystadenomas. However, estimation of histology is difficult in many cases. Tumors other than those of ovarian origin can occur in the pelvis and require differentiation. Ovarian tumors have a close relationship with the uterus and broad ligaments, and make contact with as least one side of the pelvic wall. Enhanced CT with contrast media may facilitate differentiation between pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma uteri and ovarian tumor, because the former shows intense enhancement as a uterine body; the latter is less intense. Thus, we have little difficulty in differentiating between tumors of ovarian origin and those of other origins. Our problem is differentiating between malignant and benign ovarian tumors, and clarification of their histology. In this study, we devised a decision flow chart to attain an accurate diagnosis. In part, we have utilized Hayashi's quantification theory II, a multiple regression analysis where predictive variables are categorical and outside criteria are classificatory. Hayashi stated that the aim of multi-dimensional quantification is to synthetically form numerical representation of intercorrelated patterns to maximize the efficiency of classification, i.e. the success rate of prediction. Thus, quantification of patterns is thought to be effective in facilitating image diagnosis such as CT and minimizing errors. (author)

  5. Bianchi type I anisotropic universe and stability interacting ghost dark energy in Brans-Dicke theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hossienkhani, Hossien

    2016-01-01

    A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type I universe has been studied with the ghost dark energy (GDE) in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. For this purpose, we use the squared sound speed $v_s^2$ whose sign determines the stability of the model. At first, we obtain the equation of state parameter, $\\omega_\\Lambda$, the deceleration parameter $q$ and the evolution equation of the ghost dark energy. Then, we extend our study to the case of ghost dark energy in a non-isotropic and Brans-Dicke framework and find out that the transition of $\\omega_\\Lambda$ to the phantom regime can be more easily accounted for than when it is restored into the Einstein field equations. Our numerical result show the effects of the interaction and anisotropic on the evolutionary behaviour the ghost dark energy models. In conclusion, we find evidence that the ghost dark energy in BD theory can lead to a stable universe favored by observations at the present time.

  6. Mirage models confront the LHC. II. Flux-stabilized type IIB string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Bryan L.; Nelson, Brent D.

    2014-04-01

    We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3-and D7-brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kähler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3-branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3-and D7-branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with Planck observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at √s =8 TeV and the LUX dark matter detection experiment are discussed. The discovery prospects for the remaining parameter space at dark matter direct-detection experiments are described, and signatures for detection of superpartners at the LHC with √s =14 TeV are analyzed.

  7. Mirage Models Confront the LHC: II. Flux-Stabilized Type IIB String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider Type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru, et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3 and D7 brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kahler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3 branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3 and D7 branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with PLANCK observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at 8 TeV center-of-mass energies, an...

  8. Bianchi type I Universe and instability of new agegraphic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, V.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) in a Bianchi type-I metric (which is a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic) in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. For this purpose, we use the squared sound speed vs2 whose sign determines the stability of the model. We explore the stability of this model in the presence/absence of interaction between dark energy and dark matter in both flat and non-isotropic geometry. The equation of state and the deceleration parameter of the new agegraphic dark energy in a anisotropic Universe is obtained. We show that the combination of Brans-Dicke field and new agegraphic dark energy can accommodate ω_{\\varLambda}=-1 crossing for the equation of state of noninteracting dark energy. When an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is taken into account, the transition of ω_{\\varLambda} to phantom regime can be more easily accounted when the Einstein field equations is being resort. In conclusion, we find evidences that the new agegraphic dark energy in BD theory can not lead to a stable Universe favored by observations at the present time. The anisotropy of the Universe decreases and the Universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW Universe accommodating the present acceleration.

  9. Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Behaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to conduct reasoning on descriptions obtained in order to automatically adapt the resources to a learner according to his preferences. We rely on the model MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for the consideration of learning styles of learners as a criterion for adaptation.

  10. Spectroscopic and Density Functional Theory Studies of a New Rosane Type Diterpenoid from Stachys parviflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A rosane type diterpenoid has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Stachys parviflora. The structure elucidation was based primarily on 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques including correlation spectroscopy (COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY. Density functional theory calculations have been performed to gain insight into the geometric, electronic and spectroscopic properties of the isolated diterpenoid. The geometries, vibrational spectrum and electronic properties were modeled at B3LYP/6-31G(d and the theoretical data correlated nicely with the experimental values. Simulated chemical shifts at B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p showed much better correlation with the experimental chemical shifts, compared to B3LYP/6-31G(d and WP04/6-31G(d.

  11. The Bianchi type-V Dark Energy Cosmology in Self Interacting Brans Dicke Theory of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, J K

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a spatially homogeneous and totally anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological model within the framework of self interacting Brans Dicke theory of gravity in the background of anisotropic dark energy (DE) with variable equation of state (EoS) parameter and constant deceleration parameter. Constant deceleration parameter leads to two models of universe, i.e. power law model and exponential model. EoS parameter {\\omega} and its existing range for the models is in good agreement with the most recent observational data. We notice that {\\omega} given by (37) i.e {\\omega}(t) = log(k1t) is more suitable in explaining the evolution of the universe. The physical behaviors of the solutions have also been discussed using some physical quantities. Finally, we observe that despite having several prominent features, both of the DE models discussed fail in details.

  12. Topological and geometrical quantum computation in cohesive Khovanov homotopy type theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Juan

    2015-05-01

    The recently proposed Cohesive Homotopy Type Theory is exploited as a formal foundation for central concepts in Topological and Geometrical Quantum Computation. Specifically the Cohesive Homotopy Type Theory provides a formal, logical approach to concepts like smoothness, cohomology and Khovanov homology; and such approach permits to clarify the quantum algorithms in the context of Topological and Geometrical Quantum Computation. In particular we consider the so-called "open-closed stringy topological quantum computer" which is a theoretical topological quantum computer that employs a system of open-closed strings whose worldsheets are open-closed cobordisms. The open-closed stringy topological computer is able to compute the Khovanov homology for tangles and for hence it is a universal quantum computer given than any quantum computation is reduced to an instance of computation of the Khovanov homology for tangles. The universal algebra in this case is the Frobenius Algebra and the possible open-closed stringy topological quantum computers are forming a symmetric monoidal category which is equivalent to the category of knowledgeable Frobenius algebras. Then the mathematical design of an open-closed stringy topological quantum computer is involved with computations and theorem proving for generalized Frobenius algebras. Such computations and theorem proving can be performed automatically using the Automated Theorem Provers with the TPTP language and the SMT-solver Z3 with the SMT-LIB language. Some examples of application of ATPs and SMT-solvers in the mathematical setup of an open-closed stringy topological quantum computer will be provided.

  13. Delimited continuations in natural language: quantification and polarity sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, C

    2004-01-01

    Making a linguistic theory is like making a programming language: one typically devises a type system to delineate the acceptable utterances and a denotational semantics to explain observations on their behavior. Via this connection, the programming language concept of delimited continuations can help analyze natural language phenomena such as quantification and polarity sensitivity. Using a logical metalanguage whose syntax includes control operators and whose semantics involves evaluation order, these analyses can be expressed in direct style rather than continuation-passing style, and these phenomena can be thought of as computational side effects.

  14. Prospects of using the second-order perturbation theory of the MP2 type in the theory of electron scattering by polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So far the second-order perturbation theory has been only applied to the hydrogen molecule. No application was attempted for another molecule, probably because of technical difficulties of such calculations. The purpose of this contribution is to show that the calculations of this type are now feasible on larger polyatomic molecules even on commonly used computers

  15. LRS Bianchi type -V cosmology with heat flow in scalar: tensor theory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.P., Singh.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a spatially homogeneous locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type -V perfect fluid model with heat conduction in scalar tensor theory proposed by Saez and Ballester. The field equations are solved with and without heat conduction by using a law of variation for the m [...] ean Hubble parameter, which is related to the average scale factor of metric and yields a constant value for the deceleration parameter. The law of variation for the mean Hubble parameter generates two types of cosmologies one is of power -law form and second the exponential form. Using these two forms singular and non -singular solutions are obtained with and without heat conduction. We observe that a constant value of the deceleration parameter is reasonable a description of the different phases of the universe. We arrive to the conclusion that the universe decelerates for positive value of deceleration parameter where as it accelerates for negative one. The physical constraints on the solutions of the field equations, and, in particular, the thermodynamical laws and energy conditions that govern such solutions are discussed in some detail.The behavior of the observationally important parameters like expansion scalar, anisotropy parameter and shear scalar is considered in detail.

  16. Understanding physical activity intentions among French Canadians with type 2 diabetes: an extension of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Godin Gaston; Boudreau Franois

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Regular physical activity is considered a cornerstone for managing type 2 diabetes. However, in Canada, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet national physical activity recommendations. When designing a theory-based intervention, one should first determine the key determinants of physical activity for this population. Unfortunately, there is a lack of information on this aspect among adults with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to f...

  17. Holographic-Type Gravitation via Non-Differentiability in Weyl-Dirac Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Pricop; Mugur R?ut; Zoltan Borsos; Anca Baciu; Maricel Agop

    2013-01-01

    In the Weyl-Dirac non-relativistic hydrodynamics approach, the non-linear interaction between sub-quantum level and particle gives non-differentiable properties to the space. Therefore, the movement trajectories are fractal curves, the dynamics are described by a complex speed field and the equation of motion is identified with the geodesics of a fractal space which corresponds to a Schrodinger non-linear equation. The real part of the complex speed field assures, through a quantification co...

  18. Campbelling-type theory of fission chamber signals generated by neutron chains in a multiplying medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pl, L.; Pzsit, I.

    2015-09-01

    The signals of fission chambers are usually evaluated with the help of the co-called Campbelling techniques. These are based on the Campbell theorem, which states that if the primary incoming events, generating the detector pulses, are independent, then relationships exist between the moments of various orders of the signal in the current mode. This gives the possibility to determine the mean value of the intensity of the detection events, which is proportional to the static flux, from the higher moments of the detector current, which has certain advantages. However, the main application area of fission chambers is measurements in power reactors where, as is well known, the individual detection events are not independent, due to the branching character of the neutron chains (neutron multiplication). Therefore it is of interest to extend the Campbelling-type theory for the case of correlated neutron events. Such a theory could address two questions: partly, to investigate the bias when the traditional Campbell techniques are used for correlated incoming events; and partly, to see whether the correlation properties of the detection events, which carry information on the multiplying medium, could be extracted from the measurements. This paper is devoted to the investigation of these questions. The results show that there is a potential possibility to extract the same information from fission chamber signals in the current mode as with the Rossi- or Feynman-alpha methods, or from coincidence and multiplicity measurements, which so far have required detectors working in the pulse mode. It is also shown that application of the standard Campbelling techniques to neutron detection in multiplying systems does not lead to an error for estimating the stationary flux as long as the detector is calibrated in in situ measurements.

  19. Search of unified theory of basic types of elementary particle interactions. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made at evolving a renormalized theory unifying the electromagnetic interactions theory and the weak interactions theory. The theory is based on the principle of the gauge symmetry and the idea of its spontaneous breaking. Feynman and Gell-Mann suggested a universal four-fermion theory completed with an intermediate boson theory. In order that the theory be renormalized it should be based on a suitable group of local gauge symmetries. All weak interactions comprised in the universal four-fermion theory are correctly described by a gauge theory based on weak isotopic symmetry. When also the phase symmetry is introduced, the photon can be included in the gauge theory suggested. In addition to vector bosons and fermions, the Higgs boson with a zero spin is present in the theory. The theory unifying weak and electromagnetic interactions was proposed by Weinberg and Salam and is confirmed by experiments and new discoveries. Another attempt includes the establishment of a theory unifying the said interactions with strong interactions, the so-called grand unification. The task here consists in finding such a symmetry group which would include as special cases of transformations symmetries corresponding to strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. Group SU(5) seems to be a suitable group for this unification. (M.D.)

  20. Non-perturbative black holes in Type-IIA String Theory versus the No-Hair conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain the first black hole solution to Type-IIA String Theory compactified on an arbitrary self-mirror CalabiYau manifold in the presence of non-perturbative quantum corrections. Remarkably enough, the solution involves multivalued functions, which could lead to a violation of the No-Hair conjecture. We discuss how String Theory forbids such scenario. However, the possibility still remains open in the context of four-dimensional ungauged Supergravity. (paper)

  1. The D^6 R^4 term in type IIB string theory on T^2 and U-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Anirban

    2007-01-01

    We propose a manifestly U-duality invariant modular form for the D^6 R^4 interaction in the effective action of type IIB string theory compactified on T^2. It receives perturbative contributions upto genus three, as well as non-perturbative contributions from D-instantons and (p,q) string instantons wrapping T^2. Our construction is based on constraints coming from string perturbation theory, U-duality, the decompactification limit to ten dimensions, and the equality of the perturbative part of the amplitude in type IIA and type IIB string theories. Using duality, parts of the perturbative amplitude are also shown to match exactly the results obtained from eleven dimensional supergravity compactified on T^3 at one loop. We also obtain parts of the genus one and genus k amplitudes for the D^{2k} R^4 interaction for arbitrary k > 3. We enhance a part of this amplitude to a U-duality invariant modular form.

  2. Delayed fragmentation and optimized isolation width settings for improvement of protein identification and accuracy of isobaric mass tag quantification on Orbitrap-type mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Sweetman, Gavain; Askenazi, Manor; Marto, Jarrod A; Lang, Manja; Zinn, Nico; Bantscheff, Marcus

    2011-12-01

    Fragmentation of multiple peptides in a single tandem mass scan impairs accuracy of isobaric mass tag based quantification. Consequently, practitioners aim at fragmenting peptide ions with the highest possible purity without compromising on sensitivity and coverage achieved in the experiment. Here we report the first systematic study optimizing delayed fragmentation options on Orbitrap instruments. We demonstrate that by delaying peptide fragmentation to occur closer to the apex of the chromatographic peak in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) experiments cofragmentation is reduced by 2-fold and peptides are fragmented with 2.8-fold better signal-to-noise ratios. This results in significantly improved accuracy of isobaric mass tag quantification. Further, we measured cofragmentation dependence on isolation width. In comparison to Orbitrap XL instruments the reduced space charging in the Orbitrap Velos enables isolation widths as narrow as 1 Th without impairing coverage, thus substantially reducing cofragmentation. When delayed peptide fragmentation and narrow isolation width settings were both applied, cofragmentation-induced ratio compression could be reduced by 32% on a log2 scale under otherwise identical conditions. PMID:22017476

  3. Itinerant type many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Keiichiro

    2004-09-01

    Itinerant type quantum many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions (PSPTs) are reviewed in close connection with various recent experimental results related to this new optical phenomenon. There are two key concepts: the hidden multi-stability of the ground state, and the proliferations of optically excited states. Taking the ionic (I) rarr neutral (N) phase transition in the organic charge transfer (CT) crystal, TTF-CA, as a typical example for this type of transition, we, at first, theoretically show an adiabatic path which starts from CT excitons in the I-phase, but finally reaches an N-domain with a macroscopic size. In connection with this I-N transition, the concept of the initial condition sensitivity is also developed so as to clarify experimentally observed nonlinear characteristics of this material. In the next, using a more simplified model for the many-exciton system, we theoretically study the early time quantum dynamics of the exciton proliferation, which finally results in the formation of a domain with a large number of excitons. For this purpose, we derive a stepwise iterative equation to describe the exciton proliferation, and clarify the origin of the initial condition sensitivity. Possible differences between a photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and an equilibrium phase at high temperatures are also clarified from general and conceptional points of view, in connection with recent experiments on the photo-induced phase transition in an organo-metallic complex crystal. It will be shown that the photo-induced phase can make a new interaction appear as a broken symmetry only in this phase, even when this interaction is almost completely hidden in all the equilibrium phases, such as the ground state and other high-temperature phases. The relation between the photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and the hysteresis induced nonequilibrium one is also qualitatively discussed. We will be concerned with a macroscopic parity violation and a ferro- (or super-para-) electricity, induced by a photogenerated electron in the perovskite type quantum dielectric SrTiO3. The photogenerated electron in the 3d band of Ti is assumed to couple weakly, but quadratically, with soft-anharmonic T1u phonons, and strongly but linearly to the breathing (A1g) type high energy phonons. These two types of electron-phonon coupling result in two types of polarons, a super-para-electric (SPE) large polaron with a quasi-global parity violation, and an off-centre type self-trapped polaron with only a local parity violation. This SPE large polaron, being equal to a charged and conductive ferroelectric domain, greatly enhances both the quasi-static electric susceptibility and the electronic conductivity. We also briefly review recent successes to observe the PSPTs more directly by using x-ray measurements.

  4. Improved BCS-type pairing for the relativistic mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A density-dependent ? interaction (DDDI) is proposed in the formalism of BCS-type pairing correlations for exotic nuclei whose Fermi surfaces are close to the threshold of the unbound state. It provides the possibility to pick up those states whose wave functions are concentrated in the nuclear region by making the pairing matrix elements state dependent. On this basis, the energy level distributions, occupations, and ground-state properties are self-consistently studied in the RMF theory with deformation. Calculations are performed for the Sr isotopic chain. A good description of the total energy per nucleon, deformations, two-neutron separation energies and isotope shift from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line is found. Especially, by comparing the single-particle structure from the DDDI pairing interaction with that from the constant pairing interaction for a very neutron-rich nucleus it is demonstrated that the DDDI pairing method improves the treatment of the pairing in the continuum. (orig.)

  5. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  6. From Peierls brackets to a generalized Moyal bracket for type-I gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, G; Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2006-01-01

    In the space-of-histories approach to gauge fields and their quantization, the Maxwell, Yang--Mills and gravitational field are well known to share the property of being type-I theories, i.e. Lie brackets of the vector fields which leave the action functional invariant are linear combinations of such vector fields, with coefficients of linear combination given by structure constants. The corresponding gauge-field operator in the functional integral for the in-out amplitude is an invertible second-order differential operator. For such an operator, we consider advanced and retarded Green functions giving rise to a Peierls bracket among group-invariant functionals. Our Peierls bracket is a Poisson bracket on the space of all group-invariant functionals in two cases only: either the gauge-fixing is arbitrary but the gauge fields lie on the dynamical sub-space; or the gauge-fixing is a linear functional of gauge fields, which are generic points of the space of histories. In both cases, the resulting Peierls bracke...

  7. The D^4 R^4 term in type IIB string theory on T^2 and U-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Anirban

    2007-01-01

    We propose a manifestly U-duality invariant modular form for the D^4 R^4 interaction in type IIB string theory compactified on T^2. It receives perturbative contributions upto two loops, and non-perturbative contributions from D-instantons and (p,q) string instantons wrapping T^2. We provide evidence for this modular form by showing that the coefficients at tree level and at one loop precisely match those obtained using string perturbation theory. Using duality, parts of the perturbative amplitude are also shown to match exactly the results obtained from eleven dimensional supergravity compactified on T^3 at one loop. Decompactifying the theory to nine dimensions, we obtain a U-duality invariant modular form, whose coefficients at tree level and at one loop agree with string perturbation theory.

  8. Kendall's Shape Statistics as a Classical Realization of Barbour-type Timeless Records Theory approach to Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    I already showed that Kendall's shape geometry work was the geometrical description of Barbour's relational mechanics' reduced configuration spaces (alias shape spaces). I now describe the extent to which Kendall's subsequent statistical application to such as the `standing stones problem' realizes further ideas along the lines of Barbour-type timeless records theories, albeit just at the classical level.

  9. De-Sitter Type of Cosmological Model in n-Dimensional Space-Time-Mass (STM) Theory of Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Khadekar, G S; Patki, Vrishali

    2002-01-01

    Exact solution are obtained for a homogeneous spacially isotropic cosmological model in a matter free space with or without cosmological consant for a n-dimensional Kaluza-Klein type of metric in the rest mass varying theory of gravity proposed by Wesson[1983]. The behavior of the model is discussed.

  10. Non-Abelian dual superconductivity in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory: dual Meissner effect and type of the vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru

    2013-01-01

    We have proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement in the SU(3) Yang-Mills (YM) theory, and have given numerical evidences for the restricted-field dominance and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension by applying a new formulation of the YM theory on a lattice. To establish the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement, we have observed the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory by measuring the chromoelectric flux created by the quark-antiquark source, and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole currents induced around the flux. We conclude that the dual superconductivity of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory is strictly the type I and that this type of dual superconductivity is reproduced by the restricted field and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole part, in sharp contrast to the SU(2) case: the border of type I and type II.

  11. Theory and experiment of an inertia-type vertical isolation system for seismic protection of equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lyan-Ywan; Chen, Pei-Rong; Pong, Kuan-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Although it has been proven that seismic isolation is an effective technology for seismic protection of structures and equipment, most existing isolation systems are for mitigating horizontal ground motions, and in practice there are very few vertical isolation systems. Part of the reason is due to the conflict with regard to the demand for isolation stiffness. In other words, a vertical isolation system must have sufficient vertical rigidity to sustain the weight of the isolated object, while it must also have sufficient flexibility in order to elongate the vibration period under seismic excitation. In order to overcome this difficulty, a novel system is proposed in this study, called an inertia-type vertical isolation system (IVIS). The primary difference between the IVIS and a traditional system is that the former has an additional leverage mechanism with a counterweight. The counterweight will provide a static uplifting force and an extra dynamic inertia force, such that the effective vertical stiffness of the IVIS becomes higher in its static state and lower in the dynamic one. The theory underlying the IVIS is developed and verified experimentally by a seismic simulation test in this work. The results show that the IVIS leads to a less static settlement and at the same time a lower effective isolation frequency. The test results also demonstrate that the isolator displacement demand of the IVIS is only about 30-40 percent that of the traditional one in all kinds of earthquakes. With regard to the reduction of acceleration response, the IVIS is particularly effective for near-fault earthquakes or near-resonant excitations, but is less effective for far-field earthquakes with more high-frequency contents, as compared with the traditional system.

  12. Advances in type-2 fuzzy sets and systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry; Tahayori, Hooman

    2013-01-01

    This book explores recent developments in the theoretical foundations and novel applications of general and interval type-2 fuzzy sets and systems, including: algebraic properties of type-2 fuzzy sets, geometric-based definition of type-2 fuzzy set operators, generalizations of the continuous KM algorithm, adaptiveness and novelty of interval type-2 fuzzy logic controllers, relations between conceptual spaces and type-2 fuzzy sets, type-2 fuzzy logic systems versus perceptual computers; modeling human perception of real world concepts with type-2 fuzzy sets, different methods for generating membership functions of interval and general type-2 fuzzy sets, and applications of interval type-2 fuzzy sets to control, machine tooling, image processing and diet.  The applications demonstrate the appropriateness of using type-2 fuzzy sets and systems in real world problems that are characterized by different degrees of uncertainty.

  13. Bianchi Type-II String Cosmological Model with Magnetic Field in Scalar-tensor Theory of Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N. K.; Singh, J. K.

    2015-03-01

    The spatially homogeneous and totally anisotropic Bianchi type-II cosmological solutions of massive strings have been investigated in the presence of the magnetic field in the framework of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation formulated by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). With the help of special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) string cosmological model is obtained in this theory. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

  14. Bianchi type-II String Cosmological Model with Magnetic Field in Scale-Covariant Theory of Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N. K.; Singh, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    The spatially homogeneous and totally anisotropic Bianchi type-II cosmological solutions of massive strings have been investigated in the presence of the magnetic field in the framework of scale-covariant theory of gravitation formulated by Canuto et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 429, 1977). With the help of special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (Nuovo Cimento 74, 182, 1983) string cosmological model is obtained in this theory. We use the power law relation between scalar field ? and scale factor R to find the solutions. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

  15. Brane webs in the presence of an $O5^-$-plane and 4d class S theories of type D

    CERN Document Server

    Zafrir, Gabi

    2016-01-01

    In this article we conjecture a relationship between 5d SCFT's, that can be engineered by 5-brane webs in the presence of an $O5^-$-plane, and 4d class S theories of type D. The specific relation is that compactification on a circle of the former leads to the latter. We present evidence for this conjecture. One piece of evidence, which is also an interesting application of this, is that it suggests identifications between different class S theories. This can in turn be tested by comparing their central charges.

  16. Quantification of Endogenous Retinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Maureen A.; Napoli, Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Numerous physiological processes require retinoids, including development, nervous system function, immune responsiveness, proliferation, differentiation, and all aspects of reproduction. Reliable retinoid quantification requires suitable handling and, in some cases, resolution of geometric isomers that have different biological activities. Here we describe procedures for reliable and accurate quantification of retinoids, including detailed descriptions for handling retinoids, preparing stand...

  17. Cosmological solution of Bianchi type I in a new theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a homogeneous, plane-symmetric, matter-free solution to a new theory of gravitation. In the limit of large t, the solution goes over into the plane-symmetric Kasner metric of general relativity

  18. Two types of conservation laws. Connection of physical fields with material systems. Peculiarities of field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    Historically it happen so that in branches of physics connected with field theory and of physics of material systems (continuous media) the concept of "conservation laws" has a different meaning. In field theory "conservation laws" are those that claim the existence of conservative physical quantities or objects. These are conservation laws for physical fields. In contrast to that in physics (and mechanics) of material systems the concept of "conservation laws" relates to co...

  19. Spectral analysis of polynomial potentials and its relation with ABJ/M-type theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain a general class of polynomial potentials for which the Schroedinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We provide a proof of the discreteness of the spectrum of the associated Schroedinger operators. This is the first step in order to analyze BLG and ABJM supersymmetric theories from a non-perturbative point of view.

  20. Microscopic entropy of the most general BPS black hole for type II/M-theory on torii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present dissertation we review the statistical computation of the entropy for the most general static BPS black hole solution in the framework of toroidally compactified type II/M-theory. This achievement is inscribed within a research project aimed to the study of the microscopic properties of this kind of solutions in relation to U-duality invariants (e.g. the entropy) computed on the corresponding macroscopic (supergravity) description. (orig.)

  1. Bianchi type-III minimally interacting holographic dark energy model with linearly varying deceleration parameter in Brans-Dicke theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, M.; Reddy, D. R. K.; Rao, V. U. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the minimally interacting fields; matter and holographic dark energy components in Bianchi type-III space-time in the frame work of Brans-Dicke (Phys. Rev. 125:961, 1961) scalar-tensor theory of gravitation. We present a Bianchi type-III holographic dark energy model with the help of linearly varying deceleration parameter proposed by Akarsu and Dereli (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 51:612, 2012). Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

  2. Weyl-Titchmarsh Theory and Borg-Marchenko-type Uniqueness Results for CMV Operators with Matrix-Valued Verblunsky Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Stephen; Zinchenko, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    We prove local and global versions of Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems for half-lattice and full-lattice CMV operators (CMV for Cantero, Moral, and Velazquez) with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients. While our half-lattice results are formulated in terms of matrix-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh functions, our full-lattice results involve the diagonal and main off-diagonal Green's matrices. We also develop the basics of Weyl-Titchmarsh theory for CMV operators with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients as this is of independent interest and an essential ingredient in proving the corresponding Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems.

  3. Comparison of Two High-Throughput Assays for Quantification of Adenovirus Type 5 Neutralizing Antibodies in a Population of Donors in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Nie, Jianhui; Huang, Weijin; Meng, Shufang; Yuan, Baozhu; Gao, Dongying; Xu, Xuemei; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence of various levels of Adenovirus serotype 5 neutralizing antibodies (Ad5NAb) is thought to contribute to the inconsistent clinical results obtained from vaccination and gene therapy studies. Currently, two platforms based on high-throughput technology are available for Ad5NAb quantification, chemiluminescence- and fluorescence-based assays. The aim of this study was to compare the results of two assays in the seroepidemiology of Ad5NAb in a local population of donors. Methodology/Principal Findings The fluorescence-based neutralizing antibody detection test (FRNT) using recombinant Ad5-EGFP virus and the chemiluminescence-based neutralizing antibody test (CLNT) using Ad5-Fluc were developed and standardized for detecting the presence of Ad5NAb in serum samples from the population of donors in Beijing and Anhui provinces, China. First, the overall percentage of people positive for Ad5NAb performed by CLNT was higher than that obtained by FRNT (85.4 vs 69.9%, p<0.001). There was an 84.5% concordance between the two assays for the 206 samples tested (144 positive in both assays and 30 negative in both assays). All 32 discordant sera were CLNT-positive/FRNT-negative and were confirmed positive by western blot. Secondly, for all 144 sera positive by both assays, the two assays showed high correlation (r = 0.94, p<0.001) and close agreement (mean difference: 0.395 log10, 95% CI: −0.054 log10 to 0.845 log10). Finally, it was found by both assays that there was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender (p = 0.503 vs 0.818, for two assays); however, age range (p = 0.049 vs 0.010) and geographic origin (p = 0.007 vs 0.011) were correlated with Ad5NAb prevalence in northern regions of China. Conclusion The CLNT assay was relatively more simple and had higher sensitivity than the FRNT assay for determining Ad5NAb titers. It is strongly suggested that the CLNT assay be used for future epidemiological studies of Ad5NAb in other localities. PMID:22655054

  4. Device independent entanglement quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hofmann, Martin; Guehne, Otfried [Theoretische Quantenoptik, Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Liang, Yeong-Cherng [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Most experiments require a rather precise characterization of the employed equipment or of the underlying model generating the data. However and presumably quite surprising at first, many tasks in quantum information processing can be made completely independent of this necessity. This has become the beauty of device independence, and there is a variety of tasks which have been investigated more thoroughly recently, including, for instance, different entanglement verification schemes or witnesses of the underlying quantum dimension. We present a method for device independent entanglement quantification for the bi- and multipartite case, which directly provides non-trivial information about the underlying quantum dimension or the type of entanglement. This becomes possible by a novel technique to device independently characterize correlations if the quantum state has for instance a positive partial transpose or a biseparable structure. With this technique we additionally derive bounds on the maximal violation of a Bell inequality if the underlying state is PPT (and thus bound) entangled, which provides new insights into the bipartite Peres conjecture.

  5. Communication: Cosolvency and cononsolvency explained in terms of a Flory-Huggins type theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2015-10-01

    Standard Flory-Huggins (FH) theory is utilized to describe the enigmatic cosolvency and cononsolvency phenomena for systems of polymers dissolved in mixed solvents. In particular, phase boundaries (specifically upper critical solution temperature spinodals) are calculated for solutions of homopolymers B in pure solvents and in binary mixtures of small molecule liquids A and C. The miscibility (or immiscibility) patterns for the ternary systems are classified in terms of the FH binary interaction parameters {???} and the ratio r = ?A/?C of the concentrations ?A and ?C of the two solvents. The trends in miscibility are compared to those observed for blends of random copolymers (AxC1-x) with homopolymers (B) and to those deduced for A/B/C solutions of polymers B in liquid mixtures of small molecules A and C that associate into polymeric clusters {ApCq}i, (i = 1, 2, , ?). Although the classic FH theory is able to explain cosolvency and cononsolvency phenomena, the theory does not include a consideration of the mutual association of the solvent molecules and the competitive association between the solvent molecules and the polymer. These interactions can be incorporated in refinements of the FH theory, and the present paper provides a foundation for such extensions for modeling the rich thermodynamics of polymers in mixed solvents.

  6. On a $p$-Laplacian type of evolution system and applications to the Bean model in the type-II superconductivity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, H M

    1998-01-01

    We study the Cauchy problem for an $p$-Laplacian type of evolution system ${\\mathbf H}_{t}+\\g [ | \\g {\\mathbf H}|^{p-2} \\g {\\mathbf H}|]={\\mathbf F}$. This system governs the evolution of a magnetic field ${\\bf H}$, where the current displacement is neglected and the electrical resistivity is assumed to be some power of the current density. The existence, uniqueness and regularity of solutions to the system are established. Furthermore, it is shown that the limit solution as the power $p\\rightarrow \\infty$ solves the problem of Bean's model in the type-II superconductivity theory. The result provides us information about how the superconductor material under the external force to become the normal conductor and vice visa. It also provides an effective method to find numerical solutions to Bean's model.

  7. BPS-type equations in the non-anticommutative N=2 supersymmetric U(1) gauge theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ketov, Sergei V.; Sasaki, Shin(Department of Physics, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, 252-0373, JAPAN)

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the equations of motion in the four-dimensional non-anticommutative N=2 supersymmetric U(1) gauge field theory, in the search for BPS configurations. The BPS-like equations, generalizing the abelian (anti)self-duality conditions, are proposed. We prove full solvability of our BPS-like equations, as well their consistency with the equations of motion. Certain restrictions on the allowed scalar field values are also found. Surviving supersymmetry is briefly discussed too.

  8. The double Mellin-Barnes type integrals and their applications to convolution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hai, Nguyen Thanh

    1992-01-01

    This book presents new results in the theory of the double Mellin-Barnes integrals popularly known as the general H-function of two variables.A general integral convolution is constructed by the authors and it contains Laplace convolution as a particular case and possesses a factorization property for one-dimensional H-transform. Many examples of convolutions for classical integral transforms are obtained and they can be applied for the evaluation of series and integrals.

  9. On Heisenberg's algebra of field theory and vector type fibre spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalization of commutation relations between the elements of Lie's algebra related to the Poincare group and the operators of boson fields is presented. The elements of Heisenberg's algebra of boson field theory are considered as geometrical objects related to the differentiable manifold of space-like hyperplanes of Minkowski space. This permits to obtain the commutation relations using fibre spaces and similar constructions. (D.Gy.)

  10. Classical Morse theory revisited I -- Backward $\\lambda$-Lemma and homotopy type

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Joa

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a tool, dynamical thickening, which overcomes the infamous discontinuity of the gradient flow endpoint map near non-degenerate critical points. More precisely, we interpret the stable foliations of certain Conley pairs $(N,L)$, established in [4], as a \\emph{dynamical thickening of the stable manifold}. As a first application and to illustrate efficiency of the concept we reprove a fundamental theorem of classical Morse theory, Milnor's homotopical cell attachme...

  11. Investigation of the association of growth rate in grower-finishing pigs with the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, MaiBritt; Dahl, Jan; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bkbo, Poul; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Jensen, Tim Kre; Sthl, Marie; Larsen, Lars Erik; Angen, ystein

    2013-01-01

    . Clinical data, blood and faecal samples were serially collected from the 60 selected piglets every second week in the observation period. In the killed pigs serum was examined for antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and procine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and in addition PCV2 viral DNA content...

  12. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne; Kusk, M.; Zhang, M.F.; Jorgensen, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...

  13. Demographic and Motivation Differences Among Online Sex Offenders by Type of Offense: An Exploration of Routine Activities Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between online sexual offenders' demographic background and characteristics indicative of motivation and offense type. Specifically, we investigate whether these characteristics can distinguish different online sexual offender groups from one another as well as inform routine activity theorists on what potentially motivates perpetrators. Using multinomial logistic regression, this study found that online sexual offenders' demographic backgrounds and characteristics indicative of motivation do vary by offense types. Two important implications of this study are that the term "online sexual offender" encompasses different types of offenders, including some who do not align with mainstream media's characterization of "predators," and that the potential offender within routine activity theory can be the focus of empirical investigation rather than taken as a given in research. PMID:26480242

  14. Quantification of AS and AR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Yatin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE is routinely used in valvular surgery in most institutions. The popularity of TEE stems from the fact that it can supplement or confirm information gained from other methods of evaluation or make completely independant diagnoses. Quantitative and qualitative assessment permits informed decisions regarding surgical intervention, type of intervention, correction of inadequate surgical repair and re-operation for complications. This review summarizes the various methods for quantification of aortic regurgitation and stenosis on TEE. The application of Doppler echo (pulsed wave, continuous wave and color with two-dimensional echo allows the complete evaluation of AV lesions.

  15. A calculation methodology applied for fuel management in PWR type reactors using first order perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to obtain a strategy coherent with the available instruments and that could be implemented with future developments. A calculation methodology was developed for fuel reload in PWR reactors, which evolves cell calculation with the HAMMER-TECHNION code and neutronics calculation with the CITATION code.The management strategy adopted consists of fuel element position changing at the beginning of each reactor cycle in order to decrease the radial peak factor. The bi-dimensional, two group First Order perturbation theory was used for the mathematical modeling. (L.C.J.A.)

  16. Nonlocal theory of drift type waves in a collisionless dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlocal theory is formulated to study drift waves in a collisionless multicomponent (dusty) plasma in a sheared slab geometry. The dynamics of dust particles and ions are treated by fluid models, whereas the electrons are assumed to follow the Boltzmann distribution. It is found that the usual stability of drift waves in a sheared slab geometry is destroyed by the presence of dust particles. A drift wave is excited which propagates with a new characteristic frequency modified by dust particles. This result is similar to our earlier work for the collisional dusty plasma [Chakraborty et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 1514 (2001)

  17. Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

    CERN Document Server

    Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

  18. Massless particles, orthosymplectic symmetry and another type of Kaluza-Klein theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superalgebra osp(8/1) is intimately related to the twistor program. Its most singular representation has the following property: restricted to the conformal subalgebra it contains each and every massless representation exactly once. In other words, one irreducible representation of osp(8/1) describes all massless particles with maximal efficiency. It is believed that such unification is required if massless fields of high spins are to have self-consistent interactions. There are other reasons for studying massless particles of all spins simultaneously. There is a very appealing model in which massless particles are viewed as states of two so(3,2) singletons. The astounding fact is that all free two-singleton states are precisely massless. The most singular representation of osp(8/2) is irreducible on osp(8/1) and completely determined by the latter representation. It finds direct application in supergravity theories. The most interesting Sp(8/R) homogeneous space is 10-dimensional. The action of the conformal subgroup leaves invariant a unique 4-dimensional submanifold that can be identified with space time. Kaluza-Klein expansion of the scalar field on 10-space, around this 4-dimensional manifold, leads to a field theory of massless particles with all integer spins on space time. A supersymmetric extension is also possible. (Auth.)

  19. Elliptic Sn-type solutions fluctuations in theory ??4 in a finite domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some years ago Dashen, Hasslacher, and Neveu (DHN) studied the quantum fluctuations of a kind and the quantum corrections to its energy in a infinity domain in (1+1) dimensional space-time. In this work we calculate the quantum fluctuations for classical solutions more general than Kink, which are named Elliptic sn-type solutions. We obtain a differential equation of second order with five regular singular points usually known by Fuchsian equation. The solutions of this type equation known as Generalised Lame Functions, are usually given by Riemann's P-Functions. These solutions presented some difficulties in order to determine the radiative corrections for the Elliptic sn-type solutions. (author)

  20. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces

    OpenAIRE

    Sthl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej stergaard; Angen, ystein

    2011-01-01

    Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 ...

  1. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sthl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej stergaard; Angen, ystein

    2011-01-01

    Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R2 above 0.99...

  2. Is the term "type-1.5 superconductivity" warranted by Ginzburg-Landau theory?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, V.G.; Schmalian, J.

    2011-01-03

    It is shown that within the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) approximation the order parameters {Delta}{sub 1}(r,T) and {Delta}{sub 2}(r,T) in two-band superconductors vary on the same length scale, the difference in zero-T coherence lengths {zeta}{sub 0{nu}} {approx} {h_bar}{nu}{sub F}/{Delta}{sub {nu}}(0), {nu} = 1,2 notwithstanding. This amounts to a single physical GL parameter {kappa} and the classic GL dichotomy: {kappa} < 1/{radical}2 for type I and {kappa} > 1/{radical}2 for type II.

  3. Quantification of the flux tubes and the stability of stripe pattern in the intermediate state of a type-1 superconducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Flux tubes with various vorticities are observed in the intermediate state of a type-1 superconducting film. The stability of stripe pattern is probed under the drive of ac field. The stripe patterns represent a more stable state compared with flux tube state. All the stripe patterns have very close energy. - Abstract: The intermediate state in a type-1 superconducting Pb film is studied by using the scanning Hall probe microscopy, which shows quantized flux tubes with distinct flux density. The vorticity of flux tubes are quantified using the monopole model. It is found that the vorticity of the flux tubes can be tuned by using flux expulsion process under different magnetic field and temperatures. The stability of stipe patterns at high fields is studied with new stripe patterns formed after shaking with ah ac field. No flux tube is observed even after shaking with intense ac fields. All the results suggests the stripe patterns have very close energy, which is much favorable than the flux tube state

  4. Quantification of the flux tubes and the stability of stripe pattern in the intermediate state of a type-1 superconducting film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Junyi; Gutierrez, Joffre; Cuppens, Jo; Moshchalkov, Victor V., E-mail: Victor.Moshchalkov@fys.kuleuven.be

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: Flux tubes with various vorticities are observed in the intermediate state of a type-1 superconducting film. The stability of stripe pattern is probed under the drive of ac field. The stripe patterns represent a more stable state compared with flux tube state. All the stripe patterns have very close energy. - Abstract: The intermediate state in a type-1 superconducting Pb film is studied by using the scanning Hall probe microscopy, which shows quantized flux tubes with distinct flux density. The vorticity of flux tubes are quantified using the monopole model. It is found that the vorticity of the flux tubes can be tuned by using flux expulsion process under different magnetic field and temperatures. The stability of stipe patterns at high fields is studied with new stripe patterns formed after shaking with ah ac field. No flux tube is observed even after shaking with intense ac fields. All the results suggests the stripe patterns have very close energy, which is much favorable than the flux tube state.

  5. Introduction to string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open and closed boson theories are discussed in a classical framework, highlighting the physical interpretation of conformal symmetry and the Virasoro (1970) algebra. The quantification of bosonic strings is done within the old covariant operational formalism. This method is much less elegant and powerful than the BRST quantification, but it quickly reveals the physical content of quantum theory. Generalization to theories with fermionic degrees of freedom is introduced: the Neveu-Schartz (1971) and Ramond (1971) models, their reduced supersymmetry (two dimensions) and the Gliozzi, Scherk and Olive (1977) projection which leads to a supersymmetry theory in the usual meaning of the term

  6. Minimally interacting holographic dark energy model in Bianchi type-III universe in Brans-Dicke theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, S.; Ramesh, G.

    2015-10-01

    A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III universe filled with two minimally interacting fields is investigated: matter and holographic dark energy components in the framework of the Brans-Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961) theory of gravitation. To obtain determinate solutions of the field equations we have used (i) scalar expansion proportional to the shear scalar and (ii) special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (Nuovo Comento B 74:182, 1983). Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

  7. Unified theory of mixed state Hall effect in type-II superconductors: Scaling behavior and sign reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the normal core model of Bardeen and Stephen and by taking into account both the backflow effect and thermal fluctuations, we have developed a unified theory for the flux motion, particularly for the mixed state Hall effect in type-II superconductors. Both the puzzling scaling behavior and the anomalous sign reversal of the Hall effect have been demonstrated rigorously and naturally. We show that our results successfully explain all essential features of experiments on the mixed state Hall resistivity observed in high-Tc superconductors

  8. The classical Yang-Baxter equation and the associated Yangian symmetry of gauged WZW-type theories

    CERN Document Server

    Itsios, Georgios; Siampos, Konstantinos; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We construct the Lax-pair, the classical monodromy matrix and the corresponding solution of the Yang-Baxter equation, for a class of integrable gauged WZW-type theories interpolating between the WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the principal chiral model for a simple group. We derive in full detail the Yangian algebra using two independent methods: by computing the algebra of the non-local charges and alternatively through an expansion of the Maillet brackets for the monodromy matrix. As a byproduct, we also provide a detailed general proof of the Serre relations for the Yangian symmetry.

  9. Five Dimensional Bianchi Type-V Space-Time in f (R,T Theory of Gravityw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ladke,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the spatially homogeneous anisotropic Bianchi type-V universe in f(R,T theory of gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We assume the variation law of mean Hubble parameter and constant deceleration parameter to find two different five dimensional exact solutions of the modified field equations. The first solution yields a singular model for n ? 0 while the second gives a nonsingular model for n ? 0. The physical quantities are discussed for both models in future evolution of the universe.

  10. New Weyl-type vacuum space-time of Einstein's gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Weyl-type space-time, solutions of the Einstein equations are found which satisfy the casuality conditions as the Lichtenstein theorem and the asymptotic boundary conditions. The new solutions contain as a special case the Schwarzschild and the Voorhees solutions and can be considered, like the Voorhees solutions, as the exterior space time of a static axially symmetric body

  11. Fixed point theory for compact absorbing contractions in extension type spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Donal ORegan

    2010-01-01

    Several new fixed point results for self maps in extension type spaces are presented in this paper. In particular we discuss compact absorbing contractions.Son presentados en este artculo varios resultados nuevos de punto fijo para autoaplicaciones en espacios de tipo extensin. En particular discutimos contracciones compactas absorbentes.

  12. Investigating Strength and Frequency Effects in Recognition Memory Using Type-2 Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Philip A.; Perfect, Timothy J.; Bruno, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Criterion- versus distribution-shift accounts of frequency and strength effects in recognition memory were investigated with Type-2 signal detection receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, which provides a measure of metacognitive monitoring. Experiment 1 demonstrated a frequency-based mirror effect, with a higher hit rate and lower

  13. Quantum mechanical analysis on faujasite-type molecular sieves by using fermi dirac statistics and quantum theory of dielectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied Faujasite type molecular sieves by using Fermi Dirac statistics and the quantum theory of dielectricity. We developed an empirical relationship for quantum capacitance which follows an inverse Gaussian profile in the frequency range of 66 Hz - 3 MHz. We calculated quantum capacitance, sample crystal momentum, charge quantization and quantized energy of Faujasite type molecular sieves in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz - 10/sup 4/ MHz. Our calculations for diameter of sodalite and super-cages of Faujasite type molecular sieves are in agreement with experimental results reported in this manuscript. We also calculated quantum polarizability, quantized molecular field, orientational polarizability and deformation polarizability by using experimental results of Ligia Frunza etal. The phonons are over damped in the frequency range 0.1 Hz - 10 kHz and become a source for producing cages in the Faujasite type molecular sieves. Ion exchange recovery processes occur due to over damped phonon excitations in Faujasite type molecular sieves and with increasing temperatures. (author)

  14. Chern-Simons and Born-Infeld gravity theories and Maxwell algebras type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K.; Penafiel, D.M.; Rodriguez, E.K.; Salgado, P. [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2014-02-15

    Recently it was shown that standard odd- and even-dimensional general relativity can be obtained from a (2n + 1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the B{sub 2n+1} algebra and from a (2n)-dimensional Born-Infeld Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra L{sup B{sub 2}{sub n}{sub +}{sub 1}}, respectively. Very recently, it was shown that the generalized Inoenue-Wigner contraction of the generalized AdS-Maxwell algebras provides Maxwell algebras of types M{sub m} which correspond to the so-called B{sub m} Lie algebras. In this article we report on a simple model that suggests a mechanism by which standard odd-dimensional general relativity may emerge as the weak coupling constant limit of a (2p + 1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the Maxwell algebra type M{sub 2m+1}, if and only if m ? p. Similarly, we show that standard even-dimensional general relativity emerges as the weak coupling constant limit of a (2p)-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra L{sup M{sub 2}{sub m}} of theMaxwell algebra type, if and only if m ? p. It is shown that when m < p this is not possible for a (2p+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the M{sub 2m+1} and for a (2p)-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under the L{sup M{sub 2}{sub m}} algebra. (orig.)

  15. The quality of Mueller type functionals in reduced density matrix functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced density matrix functional theory, which uses the one-body density matrix as its fundamental variable, provides a powerful tool for the description of many-electron systems. While the kinetic energy is known exactly as a functional of the one-body density matrix the correlation energy needs to be approximated. Most approximations that are currently employed are modifications of the Mueller functional. The adiabatic extension of these functionals into the time-dependent domain proofs problematic because it leads to time-independent occupation numbers. We assess the general quality of these approximations for an exactly solvable two-electron system as well as for calculations of the fundamental gap. In addition, we address the impact of those functionals for excited state properties in optics

  16. A New Survey of types of Uncertainties in Nonlinear System with Fuzzy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mohammadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to introduce a new framework to handle both uncertainty and time in spatial domain. The application of the fuzzy temporal constraint network (FTCN method is proposed for representation and reasoning of uncertain temporal data. A brief introduction of the fuzzy sets theory is followed by description of the FTCN method with its main algorithms. The paper then discusses the issues of incorporating fuzzy approach into current spatio-temporal processing framework. The general temporal data model is extended to accommodate uncertainties with temporal data and relationships among events. A theoretical FTCN process of fuzzy transition for the imprecise information is introduced with an example. A summary of the paper is given together with outlining some contributions of the paper and future research directions.

  17. Extension Theory and Krein-type Resolvent Formulas for Nonsmooth Boundary Value Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abels, Helmut; Grubb, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The theory of selfadjoint extensions of symmetric operators, and more generally the theory of extensions of dual pairs, was implemented some years ago for boundary value problems for elliptic operators on smooth bounded domains. Recently, the questions have been taken up again for nonsmooth domains. In the present work we show that pseudodifferential methods can be used to obtain a full characterization, including Kre?n resolvent formulas, of the realizations of nonselfadjoint second-order operators on View the MathML sourceC32+? domains; more precisely, we treat domains with View the MathML sourceBp,232-smoothness and operators with View the MathML sourceHq1-coefficients, for suitable p>2(n?1)p>2(n?1) and q>nq>n. The advantage of the pseudodifferential boundary operator calculus is that the operators are represented by a principal part and a lower-order remainder, leading to regularity results; in particular we analyze resolvents, Poisson solution operators and Dirichlet-to-Neumann operators in this way, also in Sobolev spaces of negative order.

  18. Modeling the size dependent pull-in instability of beam-type NEMS using strain gradient theory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ali, Koochi; Hamid M., Sedighi; Mohamadreza, Abadyan.

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that size dependency of materials characteristics, i.e. size-effect, often plays a significant role in the performance of nano-structures. Herein, strain gradient continuum theory is employed to investigate the size dependent pull-in instability of beam-type nano-electromechani [...] cal systems (NEMS). Two most common types of NEMS i.e. nano-bridge and nano-cantilever are considered. Effects of electrostatic field and dispersion forces i.e. Casimir and van der Waals (vdW) attractions have been considered in the nonlinear governing equations of the systems. Two different solution methods including numerical and Rayleigh-Ritz have been employed to solve the constitutive differential equations of the system. Effect of dispersion forces, the size dependency and the importance of coupling between them on the instability performance are discussed.

  19. Nonlinear Spinor Fields in LRS Bianchi type-I spacetime: Theory and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Within the scope of a LRS Bianchi type-I cosmological model we study the role of the nonlinear spinor field in the evolution of the Universe. In doing so we consider a polynomial type of nonlinearity that describes different stages of the evolution. Finally we also use the observational data to fix the problem parameters that match best with the real picture of the evolution. The assessment of the age of the Universe in case of the soft beginning of expansion (initial speed of expansion in a point of singularity is equal to zero) the age was found 15 billion years, whereas in case of the hard beginning (nontrivial initial speed) it was found that the Universe is 13.7 billion years old.

  20. Generic Investigations on Transport Theory Modelling of High Temperature Reactors of Pebble Bed Type

    OpenAIRE

    Sureda Sureda, Antonio Jaime

    2008-01-01

    The GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit = Company for Plant and Reactor Safety) maintains and further develops the code system DORT-TD/HERMIX-DIREKT, which is a complex tool for the simulation of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics transients and accident scenarios of high-temperature gas cooled reactors of pebble bed type. With this tool, GRS takes part in the international benchmark activity "OECD/NEA PBMR400 Transient Benchmark”, which aims at the simulation of transient...

  1. A constrained theory of non-BCS type superconductivity in gapped Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Vivek M

    2011-01-01

    We show that gapped Graphene, with a local constraint that current arising from the two valley fermions are exactly equal, shows a non-BCS type superconductivity. Unlike the conventional mechanisms, this superconductivity phenomenon does not require any pairing. We estimate the critical temperature for superconducting-to-normal transition via Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism, and find that it is proportional to the gap.

  2. Theory of the normal modes of vibrations in the lanthanide type crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the lanthanide type crystals, a vast and rich, though incomplete amount of experimental data has been accumulated, from linear and non linear optics, during the last decades. The main goal of the current research work is to report a new methodology and strategy to put forward a more representative approach to account for the normal modes of vibrations for a complex N-body system. For illustrative purposes, the chloride lanthanide type crystals Cs2NaLnCl6 have been chosen and we develop new convergence tests as well as a criterion to deal with the details of the F-matrix (potential energy matrix). A novel and useful concept of natural potential energy distributions (NPED) is introduced and examined throughout the course of this work. The diagonal and non diagonal contributions to these NPED-values, are evaluated for a series of these crystals explicitly. Our model is based upon a total of seventy two internal coordinates and ninety eight internal Hooke type force constants. An optimization mathematical procedure is applied with reference to the series of chloride lanthanide crystals and it is shown that the strategy and model adopted is sound from both a chemical and a physical viewpoints. We can argue that the current model is able to accommodate a number of interactions and to provide us with a very useful physical insight. The limitations and advantages of the current model and the most likely sources for improvements are discussed in detail.

  3. Uncertainty quantification of effective nuclear interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, R Navarro; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    We give a brief review on the development of phenomenological NN interactions and the corresponding quantification of statistical uncertainties. We look into the uncertainty of effective interactions broadly used in mean field calculations through the Skyrme parameters and effective field theory counter-terms by estimating both statistical and systematic uncertainties stemming from the NN interaction. We also comment on the role played by different fitting strategies on the light of recent developments.

  4. Recent progress on Kubas-type hydrogen-storage nanomaterials: from theories to experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, ChiHye; Ihm, Jisoon; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2015-06-01

    Transition-metal (TM) atoms are known to form TM-H2 complexes, which are collectively called Kubas dihydrogen complexes. The TM-H2 complexes are formed through the hybridization of the TM d orbitals with the H2 ? and ?* orbitals. The adsorption energy of H2 molecules in the TM-H2 complexes is usually within the range of energy required for reversible H2 storage at room temperature and ambient pressure (-0.4 ~ -0.2 eV/H2). Thus, TM-H2 complexes have been investigated as potential Kubas-type hydrogen-storage materials. Recently, TM-decorated nanomaterials have attracted much attention because of their promising high capacity and reversibility as Kubas-type hydrogen-storage materials. The hydrogen storage capacity of TM-decorated nanomaterials is expected to be as large as ~9 wt%, which is suitable for certain vehicular applications. However, in the TM-decorated nanostructures, the TM atoms prefer to form clusters because of the large cohesive energy (approximately 4 eV), which leads to a significant reduction in the hydrogen-storage capacity. On the other hand, Ca atoms can form complexes with H2 molecules via Kubas-like interactions. Ca atoms attached to nanomaterials have been reported to be able to adsorb as many H2 molecules as TM atoms. Ca atoms tend to cluster less because of the small cohesive energy of bulk Ca (1.83 eV), which is much smaller than those of bulk TMs. These observations suggest thatKubas interactions can occur in d orbital-free elements, thereby making Ca a more suitable element for attracting H2 in hydrogen-storage materials. Recently, Kubas-type TM-based, hydrogen- stor ge materials were experimentally synthesized, and the Kubas-type interactions were measured to be stronger than the van der Waals interactions. In this review, the recent progress of Kubas-type hydrogen- storage materials will be discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints.

  5. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.7910(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. PMID:26267890

  6. Introduction to uncertainty quantification

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, T J

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification is a topic of increasing practical importance at the intersection of applied mathematics, statistics, computation, and numerous application areas in science and engineering. This text provides a framework in which the main objectives of the field of uncertainty quantification are defined, and an overview of the range of mathematical methods by which they can be achieved. Complete with exercises throughout, the book will equip readers with both theoretical understanding and practical experience of the key mathematical and algorithmic tools underlying the treatment of uncertainty in modern applied mathematics. Students and readers alike are encouraged to apply the mathematical methods discussed in this book to their own favourite problems to understand their strengths and weaknesses, also making the text suitable as a self-study. This text is designed as an introduction to uncertainty quantification for senior undergraduate and graduate students with a mathematical or statistical back...

  7. A theory of cerebellar cortex and adaptive motor control based on two types of universal function approximation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masahiko

    2016-03-01

    Lesions of the cerebellum result in large errors in movements. The cerebellum adaptively controls the strength and timing of motor command signals depending on the internal and external environments of movements. The present theory describes how the cerebellar cortex can control signals for accurate and timed movements. A model network of the cerebellar Golgi and granule cells is shown to be equivalent to a multiple-input (from mossy fibers) hierarchical neural network with a single hidden layer of threshold units (granule cells) that receive a common recurrent inhibition (from a Golgi cell). The weighted sum of the hidden unit signals (Purkinje cell output) is theoretically analyzed regarding the capability of the network to perform two types of universal function approximation. The hidden units begin firing as the excitatory inputs exceed the recurrent inhibition. This simple threshold feature leads to the first approximation theory, and the network final output can be any continuous function of the multiple inputs. When the input is constant, this output becomes stationary. However, when the recurrent unit activity is triggered to decrease or the recurrent inhibition is triggered to increase through a certain mechanism (metabotropic modulation or extrasynaptic spillover), the network can generate any continuous signals for a prolonged period of change in the activity of recurrent signals, as the second approximation theory shows. By incorporating the cerebellar capability of two such types of approximations to a motor system, in which learning proceeds through repeated movement trials with accompanying corrections, accurate and timed responses for reaching the target can be adaptively acquired. Simple models of motor control can solve the motor error vs. sensory error problem, as well as the structural aspects of credit (or error) assignment problem. Two physiological experiments are proposed for examining the delay and trace conditioning of eyelid responses, as well as saccade adaptation, to investigate this novel idea of cerebellar processing. PMID:26799130

  8. Six-Dimensional Superconformal Theories and their Compactifications from Type IIA Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Rota, Andrea; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    We describe three analytic classes of infinitely many AdSd supersymmetric solutions of massive IIA supergravity, for d =7 ,5 ,4 . The three classes are related by simple universal maps. For example, the AdS7M3 solutions (where M3 is topologically S3 ) are mapped to AdS5?2M3' , where ?2 is a Riemann surface of genus g ?2 and the metric on M3' is obtained by distorting M3 in a certain way. The solutions can have localized D6 or O6 sources, as well as an arbitrary number of D8-branes. The AdS7 case (previously known only numerically) is conjecturally dual to an NS5-D6-D8 system. The field theories in three and four dimensions are not known, but their number of degrees of freedom can be computed in the supergravity approximation. The AdS4 solutions have numerical "attractor" generalizations that might be useful for flux compactification purposes.

  9. Investigation of the association of growth rate in grower-finishing pigs with the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, Maibritt; Dahl, Jan; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bkbo, Poul; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Jensen, Tim K; Sthl, Marie; Larsen, Lars E; Angen, Oystein

    2013-01-01

    As a part of a prospective cohort study in four herds, a nested case control study was carried out. Five slow growing pigs (cases) and five fast growing pigs (controls) out of 60 pigs were selected for euthanasia and laboratory examination at the end of the study in each herd. A total of 238 pigs, all approximately 12 weeks old, were included in the study during the first week in the grower-finisher barn. In each herd, approximately 60 pigs from four pens were individually ear tagged. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 6-8 weeks observation period. Clinical data, blood and faecal samples were serially collected from the 60 selected piglets every second week in the observation period. In the killed pigs serum was examined for antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and procine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and in addition PCV2 viral DNA content was quantified. In faeces the quantity of LI cells/g faeces and number of PCV2 copies/g faeces was measured by qPCR. The objective of the study was to examine if growth rate in grower-finishing pig is associated with the detection of LI and PCV2 infection or clinical data. This study has shown that diarrhoea is a significant risk factor for low growth rate and that one log(10) unit increase in LI load increases the odds ratio for a pig to have a low growth rate by 2.0 times. Gross lesions in the small intestine and LI load>log(10)6/g were significant risk factors for low growth. No association between PCV2 virus and low growth was found. PMID:22854321

  10. Investigation of the association of growth rate in grower-finishing pigs with the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, MaiBritt

    2013-01-01

    As a part of a prospective cohort study in four herds, a nested case control study was carried out. Five slow growing pigs (cases) and five fast growing pigs (controls) out of 60 pigs were selected for euthanasia and laboratory examination at the end of the study in each herd. A total of 238 pigs, all approximately 12 weeks old, were included in the study during the first week in the growerfinisher barn. In each herd, approximately 60 pigs from four pens were individually ear tagged. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 68 weeks observation period. Clinical data, blood and faecal samples were serially collected from the 60 selected piglets every second week in the observation period. In the killed pigs serum was examined for antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and procine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and in addition PCV2 viral DNA content was quantified. In faeces the quantity of LI cells/g faeces and number of PCV2 copies/g faeces was measured by qPCR. The objective of the study was to examine if growth rate in grower-finishing pig is associated with the detection of LI and PCV2 infection or clinical data. This study has shown that diarrhoea is a significant risk factor for low growth rate and that one log10 unit increase in LI load increases the odds ratio for a pig to have a low growth rate by 2.0 times. Gross lesions in the small intestine and LI load > log10 6/g were significant risk factors for low growth. No association between PCV2 virus and low growth was found.

  11. TH-C-19A-09: Quantification of Transmission and Backscatter Factors as a function of Distance to Inhomogeneity Interface for Three Types of Surgical Implant Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D; Mills, M; Wang, B [University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Carbon fiber materials have been increasingly used clinically, mainly in orthopedics, as an alternative to metallic implants because of their minimal artifacts on CT and MRI images. This study characterizes the transmission and backscatter property of carbon fiber plates (CarboFix Orthopedics, Herzeliya, Israel) with measurements for radiation therapy applications, and compares them to traditional Stainless Steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) metal materials. Methods: For the transmission measurements, 1-mm-thick test plate was placed upstream from a plane parallel Markus chamber, separated by various thicknesses of polystyrene plates in 0.5 cm increments between 0 and 5 cm. With this setup, we quantified the radiation transmission as a function of distance to the inhomogeneity interface. The LINAC source to detector distance was maintained at 100 cm and 200 MU was delivered for each measurement. Two 3-cm solid water phantoms were placed at the top and bottom to provide build up. All the measurements were performed for 6 MV and 18 MV photons. The backscatter measurements had the identical setup, except that the test plate was downstream of the chamber from radiation. Results: The carbon fiber plates did not introduce any measureable inhomogeneity effect on the transmission and backscatter factor because of its low atomic number. In contrast, traditional metal implant materials caused up to 15% dose difference at upstream and 25% backscatter at downstream from radiation. Such differences decrease as the distance to the inhomogeneity interface increases and become unmeasurable at distance of 3 cm and 1 cm for upstream and downstream, respectively. Conclusion: A new type of carbon fiber implant plate was evaluated and found to have minimal inhomogeneity effect in MV radiation beams. Patients would benefit from a carbon based implant over metal for radiation therapy due to their minimal backscatter and imaging artifacts.

  12. Analytical validation of an immunoassay for the quantification of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in feline blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainville, Celine A; Clark, Genevieve H; Esty, Katherine J; Foster, William M; Hanscom, Jancy L; Hebert, Kelly J; Lyons, Helen R

    2015-07-01

    The measurement of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker for heart stress detectable in blood, has been shown to have clinical utility in cats with heart disease. A second-generation feline enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Cardiopet proBNP, IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine) was developed to measure NT-proBNP in routine feline plasma or serum samples with improved analyte stability. Results of the analytical validation for the second-generation assay are presented. Analytic sensitivity was 10 pmol/l. Accuracy of 103.5% was determined via serial dilutions of 6 plasma samples. Coefficients of variation for intra-assay, interassay, and total precision were in the ranges of 1.6-6.3%, 4.3-8.8%, and 10.1-15.1%, respectively. Repeatability across 2 lots for both serum and plasma had an average coefficient of determination (r(2)) of 0.99 and slope of 1.11. Stability of the analyte was found to be high. In serum samples held at 4C for 24-72 hr, the mean percent recovery from time zero was ?99%. In serum samples held at 25C for 24 hr, the mean percent recovery from time zero was 91.9%, and for 48 hr, 85.6%. A method comparison of the first- and second-generation assays with a clinically characterized population of cats revealed no difference in the tests' ability to differentiate levels of NT-proBNP between normal cats and cats with occult cardiomyopathy (P < 0.001). Results from our study validate that the second-generation feline Cardiopet proBNP assay can measure NT-proBNP in routine feline plasma and serum samples with accuracy and precision. PMID:26077545

  13. TH-C-19A-09: Quantification of Transmission and Backscatter Factors as a function of Distance to Inhomogeneity Interface for Three Types of Surgical Implant Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Carbon fiber materials have been increasingly used clinically, mainly in orthopedics, as an alternative to metallic implants because of their minimal artifacts on CT and MRI images. This study characterizes the transmission and backscatter property of carbon fiber plates (CarboFix Orthopedics, Herzeliya, Israel) with measurements for radiation therapy applications, and compares them to traditional Stainless Steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) metal materials. Methods: For the transmission measurements, 1-mm-thick test plate was placed upstream from a plane parallel Markus chamber, separated by various thicknesses of polystyrene plates in 0.5 cm increments between 0 and 5 cm. With this setup, we quantified the radiation transmission as a function of distance to the inhomogeneity interface. The LINAC source to detector distance was maintained at 100 cm and 200 MU was delivered for each measurement. Two 3-cm solid water phantoms were placed at the top and bottom to provide build up. All the measurements were performed for 6 MV and 18 MV photons. The backscatter measurements had the identical setup, except that the test plate was downstream of the chamber from radiation. Results: The carbon fiber plates did not introduce any measureable inhomogeneity effect on the transmission and backscatter factor because of its low atomic number. In contrast, traditional metal implant materials caused up to 15% dose difference at upstream and 25% backscatter at downstream from radiation. Such differences decrease as the distance to the inhomogeneity interface increases and become unmeasurable at distance of 3 cm and 1 cm for upstream and downstream, respectively. Conclusion: A new type of carbon fiber implant plate was evaluated and found to have minimal inhomogeneity effect in MV radiation beams. Patients would benefit from a carbon based implant over metal for radiation therapy due to their minimal backscatter and imaging artifacts

  14. Integrating theory and data to create an online self-management programme for adults with type 2 diabetes: HeLP-Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingshuk Pal

    2015-10-01

    This protocol demonstrates a multi-disciplinary approach to combining evidence from multiple sources to create ’HeLP-Diabetes’: a theory and evidence based online self-management intervention for adults with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Theory of superfluid states with singlet and triplet types of pairing in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of investigation of superfluid states in a two-component Fermi liquid in the framework of the Fermi liquid approach. Particular attention is paid to superfluid states in nuclear matter which are characterized by the superposition of singlet and triplet types of pairing in spin and isospin spaces. The authors have formulated the basic points of the Fermi liquid approach which are used in the study of superfluidity in nuclear matter with the superposition of singlet and triplet types of pairing. Derivation of the system of self-consistency equations and their solution are presented. For concrete calculations the interaction in the Skyrme model is taken. Using this model the conditions for the existence of the considered states are determined. These conditions impose certain constraints on the potential of interaction and on the density of particles in the system. It is shown that the states with a complete set of nonzero order parameters are realized only in a narrow density range, whose width and position in the density scale depend on the choice of a particular Skyrme force. Considered are 18 different parameterizations, and indicated is for which of them the studied types of superfluid states may appear The problem of stability of the states with superposition of singlet and triplet types of pairing is studied. It is shown that the lowest value of the thermodynamic potential corresponds to purely triplet states, then in order of increasing there are the thermodynamic potential of purely singlet states, and mixed singlet-triplet states. The case of unitary states is considered separately. For these states the solutions of the self-consistency equations are analyzed too. The density range for these states is defined and it is shown that this range is different than from that which corresponds to the nonunitary states. In addition, studied is the problem of the existence of unitary superfluid states with the superposition of singlet and triplet superfluidity in the case of asymmetrical nuclear matter. It is shown that the appearance of asymmetry causes the unitarity of superfluid states in nuclear matter to be broken.

  16. Theory of the beta-type Organic Superconductivity under Uniaxial Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Takeo; Onari, Seiichiro; Ito,Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the shift of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) under uniaxial compression in beta-type organic superconductors, beta-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 and beta-(BDA-TTP)2X[X=SbF6,AsF6], in order to clarify the electron correlation, the spin frustration and the effect of dimerization. The transfer integrals are calculated by the extended Huckel method assuming the uniaxial strain and the superconducting state mediated by the spin fluctuation is solved using E...

  17. Experimento para quantificar a eficincia de asperso de lquidos: aplicao em distribuidores espinha de peixe / Liquid aspersion efficiency quantification experiment: application in ladder-type distributors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marlene Silva de, Moraes; Jos Renato Baptista de, Lima; Deovaldo de, Moraes Jnior; Luis Renato Bastos, Lia; Sandro Megale, Pizzo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto descreve um equipamento na escala-piloto e um mtodo simples para comparar a eficincia de distribuidores de lquido. A tcnica consiste basicamente em analisar a massa do lquido coletado em 21 tubos verticais de 52mm de dimetro interno e 800 mm de comprimento dispostos em arranjo [...] quadrtico colocados abaixo do distribuidor. Uma manta acrlica que no dispersa o lquido com 50 mm de espessura foi fixada entre o distribuidor e o banco de tubos para evitar respingos. Como exemplo de aplicao foram realizados ensaios com nove distribuidores do tipo espinha de peixe de 4 tubos paralelos cada, para uma coluna com 400 mm de dimetro. Variaram-se o nmero (n) de furos (95, 127 e 159 furos/m), o dimetro (d) dos furos (2, 3 e 4 mm) e as vazes (q) de (1,2; 1,4 e 1,6m/h). A melhor eficincia de espalhamento pelo menor desvio-padro foi obtida com n de 159, d de 2 e q de 1,4 indicando as limitaes de regras prticas de projeto. A presso (p), na entrada do distribuidor, para essa condio, foi de apenas 51000 Pa (0,51 kgf/cm) e a velocidade mdia (v) em cada orifcio foi de 6,3 m/s. Abstract in english This paper describes a device developed on the pilot scale and a simple approach to compare liquid distributor efficiencies. The technique consists basically of analyzing the mass of the liquid collected in 21 vertical pipes measuring 52 mm in internal diameter and 800 mm in length placed in a quadr [...] atic arrangement and positioned below the distributor. A 50 mm thick acrylic blanket that does not disperse liquids was placed between the distributor and the pipe bank to avoid splashes. Assays were carried out with ladder-type distributors equipped with 4 parallel pipes each for a column measuring 400 mm in diameter as an example of the application. The number (n) of orifices (95, 127, and 159 orifices/m), orifice diameter (d) (2, 3, and 4 mm) and the flowrate (q) (1.2; 1.4; and 1.6 m3/h) were varied. The best spread efficiency, which presented the lowest standard deviation, was achieved with 159 orifices, 2 mm and 1.4 m/h. The pressure (p) at the distributor's inlet for this condition was only 51000 Pa (0.51 kgf/cm), while the average velocity (v) was 6.3 m/s in each orifice. These results show some limitations of the practical rules used in distributor designs.

  18. Experimento para quantificar a eficincia de asperso de lquidos: aplicao em distribuidores espinha de peixe Liquid aspersion efficiency quantification experiment: application in ladder-type distributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Silva de Moraes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto descreve um equipamento na escala-piloto e um mtodo simples para comparar a eficincia de distribuidores de lquido. A tcnica consiste basicamente em analisar a massa do lquido coletado em 21 tubos verticais de 52mm de dimetro interno e 800 mm de comprimento dispostos em arranjo quadrtico colocados abaixo do distribuidor. Uma manta acrlica que no dispersa o lquido com 50 mm de espessura foi fixada entre o distribuidor e o banco de tubos para evitar respingos. Como exemplo de aplicao foram realizados ensaios com nove distribuidores do tipo espinha de peixe de 4 tubos paralelos cada, para uma coluna com 400 mm de dimetro. Variaram-se o nmero (n de furos (95, 127 e 159 furos/m, o dimetro (d dos furos (2, 3 e 4 mm e as vazes (q de (1,2; 1,4 e 1,6m/h. A melhor eficincia de espalhamento pelo menor desvio-padro foi obtida com n de 159, d de 2 e q de 1,4 indicando as limitaes de regras prticas de projeto. A presso (p, na entrada do distribuidor, para essa condio, foi de apenas 51000 Pa (0,51 kgf/cm e a velocidade mdia (v em cada orifcio foi de 6,3 m/s.This paper describes a device developed on the pilot scale and a simple approach to compare liquid distributor efficiencies. The technique consists basically of analyzing the mass of the liquid collected in 21 vertical pipes measuring 52 mm in internal diameter and 800 mm in length placed in a quadratic arrangement and positioned below the distributor. A 50 mm thick acrylic blanket that does not disperse liquids was placed between the distributor and the pipe bank to avoid splashes. Assays were carried out with ladder-type distributors equipped with 4 parallel pipes each for a column measuring 400 mm in diameter as an example of the application. The number (n of orifices (95, 127, and 159 orifices/m, orifice diameter (d (2, 3, and 4 mm and the flowrate (q (1.2; 1.4; and 1.6 m3/h were varied. The best spread efficiency, which presented the lowest standard deviation, was achieved with 159 orifices, 2 mm and 1.4 m/h. The pressure (p at the distributor's inlet for this condition was only 51000 Pa (0.51 kgf/cm, while the average velocity (v was 6.3 m/s in each orifice. These results show some limitations of the practical rules used in distributor designs.

  19. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sthl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko

    2011-01-01

    Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R2 above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4- qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six log units for F18-qPCR and three log units for Bpilo-qPCR in spiked feces. When measured on pure DNA from the reference strains used in spiking experiments, the respective log ranges were: seven units for Bpilo-qPCR, Laws-qPCR and F18-qPCR and six log units for F4-qPCR. This shows the importance of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive than the earlier used method due to improvements in DNA extraction. In addition, as samples were not analysed for all four pathogen agents by traditional diagnostic methods, many samples were found positive for agents that were not expected on the basis of age and case history. The use of quantitative PCR tests for diagnosis of enteric diseases provides new possibilities for veterinary diagnostics. The parallel simultaneous analysis for several bacteria in multi-qPCR and the determination of the quantities of the infectious agents increases the information obtained from the samples and the chance for obtaining a relevant diagnosis.

  20. Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on AdS3 S3 M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisertde Leeuw construction. (paper)

  1. Flexural wave band gaps in metamaterial beams with membrane-type resonators: theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xiao, Yong; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with flexural wave band gaps in metamaterial beams with membrane-type resonators. The proposed membrane-type resonator consists of a tensioned elastic membrane and a mass block attached to the center of the membrane. Numerical models based on finite element method are presented to predict the dispersion relation, band gaps and eigen-modes. It has shown that the metamaterial beams exhibit unique wave physics. A broad Bragg band gap (BBG) and two low-frequency locally resonant band gaps (LRBGs) can be observed due to the structural periodicity and locally resonant behavior respectively. The first LRBG can be ascribed to the combined resonance of the membranes and the masses, while the second LRBG is caused by the resonance of the membranes. The study of the effective property shows that negative mass density occurs in the LRBGs. The effects of membrane tension and mass magnitude (the weight of mass block) on the LRBGs are further analyzed. It is shown that both the two LRBGs move to high-frequency with the increase of the membrane tension. However, as the mass magnitude increases, the first LRBG moves to low-frequency and the second LRBG almost remains unchanged. It is further demonstrated that, when a larger unit cell with multiple kinds of masses (a larger unit cell incorporating multiple basic unit cells but with different weights of mass blocks within each basic unit cell) are used, the first LRBG can be broadened, which can be employed to achieve broadband vibration attenuation. Moreover, experimental measurements of vibration transmittance are conducted to validate the theoretical predictions. Good agreements between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions are observed.

  2. Quantification of protein carbonylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Nancy B; Levine, Rodney L

    2013-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is the most commonly used measure of oxidative modification of proteins. It is most often measured spectrophotometrically or immunochemically by derivatizing proteins with the classical carbonyl reagent 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). We present protocols for the derivatization and quantification of protein carbonylation with these two methods, including a newly described dot blot with greatly increased sensitivity. PMID:23296665

  3. Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

  4. Type Ia Supernovae and their Environment: Theory and Applications to SN 2014J

    CERN Document Server

    Dragulin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE (Supernovae Progenitor Interaction Calculator for parameterized Environments, available on request), assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Pi-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia (SN~Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For M_Ch explosions,the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM l...

  5. Type Ia Supernovae and Their Environment:Theory and Applications to SN 2014J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragulin, Paul; Hoeflich, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE, assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Π-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For MCh explosions, the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across, surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM lines Doppler shifted by 10–100 km s‑1, and equivalent widths of ≈100 mÅ and ≈1 mÅ in cases of ambient environments with constant density and produced by prior mass loss, respectively. For SN2014J, both mergers and MCh mass explosions have been suggested based on radio and narrow lines. As a consistent and most likely solution, we find an AD wind running into an environment produced by the red giant wind of the progenitor during the pre-WD stage, and a short delay, 0.013–1.4 Myr, between the WD formation and the explosion. Our framework may be applied more generally to stellar winds and star formation feedback in large scale galactic evolution simulations.

  6. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  7. Effective field theory of modified gravity on the spherically symmetric background: leading order dynamics and the odd-type perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We consider perturbations of a static and spherically symmetric background endowed with a metric tensor and a scalar field in the framework of the effective field theory of modified gravity. We employ the previously developed 2+1+1 canonical formalism of a double Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) decomposition of space-time, which singles out both time and radial directions. Our building block is a general gravitational action that depends on scalar quantities constructed from the 2+1+1 canonical variables and the lapse. Variation of the action up to first-order in perturbations gives rise to three independent background equations of motion, as expected from spherical symmetry. The dynamical equations of linear perturbations follow from the second-order Lagrangian after a suitable gauge fixing. We derive conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities for the odd-type perturbations. We show that our results not only incorporates those derived in the most general scalar-tensor theories with second...

  8. Magnetism in olivine-type LiCo1-xFexPO4 cathode materials: bridging theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Gershinsky, Yelena; Kosa, Monica; Dixit, Mudit; Zitoun, David; Major, Dan Thomas

    2015-11-18

    In the current paper, we present a non-aqueous sol-gel synthesis of olivine type LiCo1-xFexPO4 compounds (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00). The magnetic properties of the olivines are measured experimentally and calculated using first-principles theory. Specifically, the electronic and magnetic properties are studied in detail with standard density functional theory (DFT), as well as by including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which couples the spin to the crystal structure. We find that the Co(2+) ions exhibit strong orbital moment in the pure LiCoPO4 system, which is partially quenched upon substitution of Co(2+) by Fe(2+). Interestingly, we also observe a non-negligible orbital moment on the Fe(2+) ion. We underscore that the inclusion of SOC in the calculations is essential to obtain qualitative agreement with the observed effective magnetic moments. Additionally, Wannier functions were used to understand the experimentally observed rising trend in the Nel temperature, which is directly related to the magnetic exchange interaction paths in the materials. We suggest that out of layer M-O-P-O-M magnetic interactions (J?) are present in the studied materials. The current findings shed light on important differences observed in the electrochemistry of the cathode material LiCoPO4 compared to the already mature olivine material LiFePO4. PMID:26548581

  9. Representation of the Kaellen-Wilhelmsson type for vacuum expectations of field operator products of the scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For vacuum expectations of field operator products of free scalar field theory, called Wightman functionals - Wsub(n) an integral representation of the Kallen-Wilhelmsson type is obtained, where Wsub(2n) (xi) is expressed by singular functions ?sup(+)sub(n+1)(xi; asub(sl)). By the simplicity of the investigated model the weight bunction of representation G(asub(sl)) is identical to unity. Especially simple representation is obtained for W4 and W6 because in this case ?3+ and ?4+ are expressed directly by the Hankel 3d kind dunctions. An integral representation of Wsub(2n) as compared with the expression obtained by the Wick theorem has a more symmetric Lorentz-invariant form; it is also convenient for examining the local commutativity, an axiom which is not taken into account when deriving the Kallen-Willhelmsson representation

  10. Band-gap corrected density functional theory calculations for InAs/GaSb type II superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    We performed pseudopotential based density functional theory (DFT) calculations for GaSb/InAs type II superlattices (T2SLs), with bandgap errors from the local density approximation mitigated by applying an empirical method to correct the bulk bandgaps. Specifically, this work (1) compared the calculated bandgaps with experimental data and non-self-consistent atomistic methods; (2) calculated the T2SL band structures with varying structural parameters; (3) investigated the interfacial effects associated with the no-common-atom heterostructure; and (4) studied the strain effect due to lattice mismatch between the two components. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying the DFT method to more exotic heterostructures and defect problems related to this material system.

  11. The classical Yang–Baxter equation and the associated Yangian symmetry of gauged WZW-type theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsios, Georgios, E-mail: gitsios@upatras.gr [Department of Mathematics, University of Patras, 26110 Patras (Greece); Sfetsos, Konstantinos, E-mail: ksfetsos@phys.uoa.gr [Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15771 Athens (Greece); Siampos, Konstantinos, E-mail: konstantinos.siampos@umons.ac.be [Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Torrielli, Alessandro, E-mail: a.torrielli@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    We construct the Lax-pair, the classical monodromy matrix and the corresponding solution of the Yang–Baxter equation, for a two-parameter deformation of the Principal chiral model for a simple group. This deformation includes as a one-parameter subset, a class of integrable gauged WZW-type theories interpolating between the WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the principal chiral model. We derive in full detail the Yangian algebra using two independent methods: by computing the algebra of the non-local charges and alternatively through an expansion of the Maillet brackets for the monodromy matrix. As a byproduct, we also provide a detailed general proof of the Serre relations for the Yangian symmetry.

  12. Expertise and gambling: using type 2 signal detection theory to investigate differences between regular gamblers and nongamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueddeke, Sara E; Higham, Philip A

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation into how individuals make decisions under uncertainty when faced with different payout structures in the context of gambling. Type 2 signal detection theory was utilized to compare sensitivity to bias manipulations between regular nonproblem gamblers and nongamblers in a novel probability-based gambling task. The results indicated that both regular gamblers and nongamblers responded to the changes of rewards for correct responses (Experiment 1) and penalties for errors (Experiment 2) in setting their gambling criteria, but that regular gamblers were more sensitive to these manipulations of bias. Regular gamblers also set gambling criteria that were more optimal. The results are discussed in terms of an expertise-transference hypothesis. PMID:21846266

  13. The role of the l1-norm in quantum information theory and two types of the Yang-Baxter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the l1-norm in the Yang-Baxter system has been studied through Wigner's D-functions, where l1-norm means ?i|Ci| for |?) = ?iCi|?i) with |?i) being the orthonormal basis. It is shown that the existing two types of braiding matrices, which can be viewed as particular solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation (YBE) with different spectral parameters can be unified in the 2D YBE. We prove that the maximum of the l1-norm is connected with the maximally entangled states and topological quantum field theory with two-component anyons, while the minimum leads to the deformed permutation related to the familiar integrable models.

  14. Bianchi type-II, VIII and IX cosmological models in a modified theory of gravity with variable \\varLambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Y.; Rao, V. U. M.; Vijaya Santhi, M.

    2016-02-01

    Spatially homogeneous Bianchi type-II, VIII and IX perfect fluid cosmological models in f(R,T) modified theory of gravity have been investigated for a special choice of f(R,T)=f1(R)+f2(T) with f1(R)=?1R and f2(T)=?2T. This special choice leads to a cosmological constant \\varLambda, which depends on stress energy tensor of matter source. To get the deterministic model of Universe, we assume that the expansion scalar (?) in the model is proportional to shear scalar (?). This condition leads to relation between metric potentials, which yields a time dependent deceleration parameter. Various physical and geometrical features of the models are also discussed.

  15. Band-gap corrected density functional theory calculations for InAs/GaSb type II superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong

    2014-12-01

    We performed pseudopotential based density functional theory (DFT) calculations for GaSb/InAs type II superlattices (T2SLs), with bandgap errors from the local density approximation mitigated by applying an empirical method to correct the bulk bandgaps. Specifically, this work (1) compared the calculated bandgaps with experimental data and non-self-consistent atomistic methods; (2) calculated the T2SL band structures with varying structural parameters; (3) investigated the interfacial effects associated with the no-common-atom heterostructure; and (4) studied the strain effect due to lattice mismatch between the two components. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying the DFT method to more exotic heterostructures and defect problems related to this material system.

  16. The classical YangBaxter equation and the associated Yangian symmetry of gauged WZW-type theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct the Lax-pair, the classical monodromy matrix and the corresponding solution of the YangBaxter equation, for a two-parameter deformation of the Principal chiral model for a simple group. This deformation includes as a one-parameter subset, a class of integrable gauged WZW-type theories interpolating between the WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the principal chiral model. We derive in full detail the Yangian algebra using two independent methods: by computing the algebra of the non-local charges and alternatively through an expansion of the Maillet brackets for the monodromy matrix. As a byproduct, we also provide a detailed general proof of the Serre relations for the Yangian symmetry

  17. Theory, design, and simulation of LINA: A path forward for QCA-type nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Loyd Reed, IV

    The past 50 years have seen exponential advances in digital integrated circuit technologies which has facilitated an explosion of uses and functionality. Although this rate (generally referred to as "Moore's Law") cannot be sustained indefinitely, significant advances will remain possible even after current technologies reach fundamental limits. However if these further advances are to be realized, nanoelectronics designs must be developed that provide significant improvements over, the currently-utilized, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistor based integrated circuits. One promising nanoelectronics paradigm to fulfill this function is Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA). QCA provides the possibility of THz switching, molecular scaling, and provides particular applicability for advanced logical constructs such as reversible logic and systolic arrays within the paradigm. These attributes make QCA an exciting prospect; however, current fabrication technology does not exist which allows for the fabrication of reliable electronic QCA circuits which operate at room-temperature. Furthermore, a plausible path to fabrication of circuitry on the very large scale integration (VLSI) level with QCA does not currently exist. This has caused doubts to the viability of the paradigm and questions to its future as a suitable nanoelectronic replacement to CMOS. In order to resolve these issues, research was conducted into a new design which could utilize key attributes of QCA while also providing a means for near-term fabrication of reliable room-temperature circuits and a path forward for VLSI circuits. The result of this research, presented in this dissertation, is the Lattice-based Integrated-signal Nanocellular Automata (LINA) nanoelectronics paradigm. LINA designs are based on QCA and provide the same basic functionality as traditional QCA. LINA also retains the key attributes of THz switching, scalability to the molecular level, and ability to utilize advanced logical constructs which are crucial to the QCA proposals. However, LINA designs also provide significant improvements over traditional QCA. For example, the continuous correction of faults, due to LINA's integrated-signal approach, provides reliability improvements to enable room-temperature operation with cells which are potentially up to 20nm and fault tolerance to layout, patterning, stray-charge, and stuck-at-faults. In terms of fabrication, LINA's lattice-based structure allows precise relative placement through the use of self-assembly techniques seen in current nanoparticle research. LINA also allows for large enough wire and logic structures to enable use of widely available photo-lithographical patterning technologies. These aspects of the LINA designs, along with power, timing, and clocking results, have been verified through the use of new and/or modified simulation tools specifically developed for this purpose. To summarize, the LINA designs and results, presented in this dissertation, provide a path to realization of QCA-type VLSI nanoelectronic circuitry. Furthermore, they offer a renewed viability of the paradigm to replace CMOS and advance computing technologies beyond the next decade.

  18. Rotating strings and D2-branes in type IIA reduction of M-theory on G2 manifold and their semiclassical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider rotating strings and D2-branes on type IIA background, which arises as dimensional reduction of M-theory on manifold of G2 holonomy, dual to N = 1 gauge theory in four dimensions. We obtain exact solutions and explicit expressions for the conserved charges. By taking the semiclassical limit, we show that the rotating strings can reproduce only one type of semiclassical behavior, exhibited by rotating M2-branes on G2 manifolds. Our further investigation leads to the conclusion that the rotating D2-branes reproduce two types of the semiclassical energy-charge relations known for membranes in eleven dimensions

  19. Tarde's idea of quantification

    OpenAIRE

    LATOUR, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Even though Tarde is said to have had a literary view of social science, he himself was deeply involved in statistics (especially criminal statistics) and took an essentially quantitative view of social phenomena. What is so paradoxical in his view of quantification is that it relies not only on the aggregates but also on the individual element. The paper reviews this paradox, the reason why Tarde was son intent on finding a quantitative grasp for establishing the social sciences and relates ...

  20. Disease quantification in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Sren; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very useful in quantifying disease severity, they require an extensive clinical experience and carry a risk of subjectivity. We explore the opportunity to use in vivo near-infrared (NIR) spectra as an objecti...

  1. Topic-Focus Structure and Quantification of Dou 'all'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonho Shin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a type of dou quantification found in wh-questions such as ta dou mai le shenme? What are all the things that he bought? This type is different from the well-known dou quantification in that the leftness condition cannot be applied to the former. I propose that the former type of quantification is subject to the topic-focus structure rather than to the syntactic structure, which means that the domain of the quantification is determined in relation to 'old' and 'new' information of a sentence. Sentences including dou can be divided into topic and focus, and each part is mapped onto the restrictor and the nuclear scope in a tripartite structure of dou quantification. This analysis accounts for the reason why a list answer is appropriate to questions with dou, why wh-words in the questions cannot be quantity expressions, and why wh-words should either have a plural interpretation or take the plural form. This analysis also explains the distribution of dou, i.e., dou should c-command a focused phrase. Finally, I point out that the analysis can extend to declaratives which are rare but still observable, and that the two types of dou quantification can arise simultaneously.

  2. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by e...

  3. Quantification of quadriceps and hamstring antagonist activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kellis, E.; ??????, ?.

    2010-01-01

    The coactivation of hamstrings and quadriceps, and its relation to knee joint stability and cruciate ligament loading, have been extensively examined over the last decades. The purpose of this review is to present findings on the quantification of antagonist activation around the knee. Coactivation of the quadriceps and hamstrings during many activities has been examined using electromyography (EMG). However, there are several factors that affect antagonist EMG activity, such as the type of m...

  4. Transparent quantification into hyperintensional contexts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Du, M.; Jespersen, Bjorn

    London : College Publications, 2011 - (Peli, M.; Pun?och?, V.), s. 81-97 ISBN 978-1-84890-038-7. [LOGICA 2010. Hejnice (CZ), 21.06.2010-25.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : hyperintensions * type theory * Transparant intensional logic * propositional attitudes Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Low energy expansion of the four-particle genus-one amplitude in type II superstring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Michael B; Vanhove, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A diagrammatic expansion of coefficients in the low-momentum expansion of the genus-one four-particle amplitude in type II superstring theory is developed. This is applied to determine coefficients up to order s^6R^4 (where s is a Mandelstam invariant and R^4 the linearized super-curvature), and partial results are obtained beyond that order. This involves integrating powers of the scalar propagator on a toroidal world-sheet, as well as integrating over the modulus of the torus. At any given order in s the coefficients of these terms are given by rational numbers multiplying multiple zeta values (or Euler--Zagier sums) that, up to the order studied here, reduce to products of Riemann zeta values. We are careful to disentangle the analytic pieces from logarithmic threshold terms, which involves a discussion of the conditions imposed by unitarity. We further consider the compactification of the amplitude on a circle of radius r, which results in a plethora of terms that are power-behaved in r. These coefficient...

  6. Consistency of the phenomenological theories of wave-type heat transport with the hydrodynamics of a phonon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various phenomenological theories of wave-type heat transport, which can be interpreted as the models of an isotropic rigid heat conductor with an internal vector state variable, have been proposed in the literature with the objective to describe the second sound propagation in dielectric crystals. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relation between these phenomenological approaches and the phonon gas hydrodynamics. The four-moment phonon gas hydrodynamics based on the maximum entropy closure of the moment equations with nonlinear isotropic phonon dispersion relation is considered for this purpose. We reformulate the equations of this hydrodynamics in terms of energy and quasi-momentum as the primitive fields and subsequently demonstrate that, from the macroscopic point of view, they can be understood as describing the reference model of an isotropic rigid heat conductor with quasi-momentum playing the role of the internal vector state variable. This model is determined by the entropy function and the additional scalar potential, but if the finite domain of phonon wave vectors is approximated by the whole space, the additional potential can be expressed in terms of the entropy function and its first derivatives. Then the transformation of primitive fields and the expansion of thermodynamic potentials in powers of the square of quasi-momentum enable us to compare the reference model with the models proposed earlier in the literature. It is shown that the previous models require some subtle modifications in order to achieve full consistency with phonon gas hydrodynamics.

  7. A critical examination of the predictive capabilities of a new type of general laminated plate theory in the inelastic response regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Todd O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a new type of general, multiscale plate theory was developed for application to the analysis of the history-dependent response of laminated plates (Williams). In particular, the history-dependent behavior in a plate was considered to arise from both delamination effects as well as history-dependent material point responses (such as from viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, damage, etc.). The multiscale nature of the theoretical framework is due to the use of a superposition of both general global and local displacement effects. Using this global-local displacement field the governing equations of the theory are obtained by satisfying the governing equations of nonlinear continuum mechanics referenced to the initial configuration. In order to accomplish the goal of conducting accurate analyses in the history-dependent response regimes the formulation of the theory has been carried out in a sufficiently general fashion that any cohesive zone model (CZM) and any history-dependent constitutive model for a material point can be incorporated into the analysis without reformulation. Recently, the older multiscale theory of Williams has been implemented into the finite element (FE) framework by Mourad et al. and the resulting capabilities where used to shown that in a qualitative sense it is important that the local fields be accurately obtained in order to correctly predict even the overall response characteristics of a laminated plate in the inelastic regime. The goal of this work is to critically examine the predictive capabilities of this theory, as well as the older multiscale theory of Williams and other types of laminated plate theories, with recently developed exact solutions for the response of inelastic plates in cylindrical bending (Williams). These exact solutions are valid for both nonlinear CZMs as well as inelastic material responses obtained from different constitutive theories. In particular, the accuracy with which the different plate theories predict the local and global responses are considered.

  8. Towards an integrative account of social cognition: marrying theory of mind and interactionism to study the interplay of Type 1 and Type 2 processes

    OpenAIRE

    VivianBohl; Woutervan den Bos

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theory of mind accounts of social cognition have been at the basis of most studies in the social cognitive neurosciences. However, in recent years, the need to go beyond traditional theory of mind accounts for understanding real life social interactions has become all the more pressing. At the same time it remains unclear whether alternative accounts, such as interactionism, can yield a sufficient description and explanation of social interactions. We argue that instead of conside...

  9. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    Karunamuni Nandini; Trinh Linda; Courneya Kerry S; Plotnikoff Ronald C; Sigal Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random na...

  10. Quantification in echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, Hendrikus H M; Mischi, Massimo; Grouls, Rene J E; Jansen, Annemiek; van Dantzig, Jan-Melle; Peels, Kathinka

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, more than 2200 Swan Ganz catheters were used annually in the operating rooms (OR) and intensive care unit (ICU) of the Catharina Hospital in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. After cardiologists who were specialists in echocardiography (ECHO) trained anesthesiologists in ECHO, the need for these catheters in cardiac and noncardiac surgery was reduced. Initially intended as a local teaching project, an ECHO teaching compact disk (CD) was produced during the training and distributed later worldwide, thanks to a positive review in a major anesthesiology publication. By reducing the number of Swan Ganz catheters, the hospital could finance and acquire two echocardiography machines for the OR and ICU. The availability of these machines resulted in a further reduction of the number of Swan Ganz catheters. However, the need for quantification (eg, measurements of cardiac output) remained. During the creation of the ECHO teaching CD, the idea was born to apply indicator-dilution principles on injected echo contrast. This study was performed in cooperation with the Signal Processing Department of the Eindhoven University of Technology. Advanced signal processing and modelling were used to develop algorithms to enable quantification of intrapulmonary blood volume, ejection-fraction, and flow from the transesophageal echocardiography approach. These quantitative measurements, which can be performed on an outpatient basis, may become a real asset in cardiology, anesthesiology, and intensive care. PMID:16703235

  11. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  12. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP's cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs

  13. Surface complexes of acetate on edge surfaces of 2:1 type phyllosilicate: Insights from density functional theory calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiandong; Lu, Xiancai; Wang, Rucheng; Zhou, Huiqun; Xu, Shijin

    2008-12-01

    To explore the complexation mechanisms of carboxylate on phyllosilicate edge surfaces, we simulate acetate complexes on the (0 1 0) type edge of pyrophyllite by using density functional theory method. We take into account the intrinsic long-range order and all the possible complex sets under common environments. This study discloses that H-bonding interactions occur widely and play important roles in both inner-sphere and outer-sphere fashions. In inner-sphere complexes, one acetate C-O bond elongates to form a covalent bond with surface Al atom; the other C-O either forms a covalent bond with Al or interacts with surface hydroxyls via H-bonds. In outer-sphere complexes, the acetate can capture a proton from the surface groups to form an acid molecule. For the groups of both substrate and ligand, the variations in geometrical parameters caused by H-bonding interactions depend on the role it plays (i.e., proton donor or acceptor). By comparing the edge structures before and after interaction, we found that the carboxylate binding can modify the surface structures. In the inner-sphere complexes, the exposed Al atom can be stabilized by a single acetate ion through either monodentate or bidentate schemes, whereas the Al atoms complexing both an acetate and a hydroxyl may significantly deviate outwards from the bulk equilibrium positions. In the outer-sphere complexes, some H-bondings are strong enough to polarize the metal-oxygen bonds and therefore distort the local coordination structure of metal in the substrate, which may make the metal susceptible to release.

  14. A cluster randomised pragmatic trial applying Self-determination theory to type 2 diabetes care in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juul Lise

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment recommendations for prevention of type 2 diabetes complications often require radical and life-long health behaviour changes. Observational studies based on Self-determination theory (SDT propose substantial factors for the maintenance of behaviour changes and concomitant well-being, but experimental research is needed to develop and evaluate SDT-based interventions. The aims of this paper were to describe 1 the design of a trial assessing the effectiveness of a training course for practice-nurses in autonomy support on patient-perceived motivation, HbA1, cholesterol, and well-being among a diabetes population, 2 the actual intervention to a level of detail that allows its replication, and 3 the connection between SDT recommendations for health care-provider behaviour and the content of the training course. Methods/Design The study is a cluster-randomised pragmatic trial including 40 Danish general practices with nurse-led diabetes consultations, and the associated diabetes population. The diabetes population was identified by registers (n = 4034. The intervention was a 16-hour course with interactive training for practice nurses. The course was delivered over 4 afternoons at Aarhus University and one 1/2 hour visit to the practice by one of the course-teachers over a period of 10 months (0, 2, 5, 10 mths.. The intervention is depicted by a PaT Plot showing the timeline and the characteristics of the intervention components. Effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed on the diabetes populations with regard to well-being (PAID, SF-12, HbA1c- and cholesterol-levels, perceived autonomy support (HCCQ, type of motivation (TSRQ, and perceived competence for diabetes care (PCD 15-21 months after the core course; the completion of the second course afternoon. Data will be retrieved from registers and by questionnaires. Discussion Challenges and advantages of the pragmatic design are discussed. In a real-world setting, this study will determine the impact on motivation, HbA1c, cholesterol, and well-being for people with diabetes by offering a training course in autonomy support to practice-nurses from general practices with nurse-led consultations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01187069

  15. Prospects of using the second-order perturbation theory of the MP2 type in the theory of electron scattering by polyatomic molecules.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?rsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 191, ?. 2015 (2015), s. 191-192. ISSN 1551-7616 R&D Projects: GA Mk OC09079; GA Mk(CZ) OC10046; GA ?R GA202/08/0631 Grant ostatn: COST(XE) CM0805; COST(XE) CM0601 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electron-scattering * calculation of cross sections * second-order perturbation theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  16. XPS quantification of the hetero-junction interface energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Quantum entrapment or polarization dictates the performance of dopant, impurity, interface, alloy and compounds. ? Interface bond energy, energy density, and atomic cohesive energy can be determined using XPS and our BOLS theory. ? Presents a new and reliable method for catalyst design and identification. ? Entrapment makes CuPd to be a p-type catalyst and polarization derives AgPd as an n-type catalyst. - Abstract: We present an approach for quantifying the heterogeneous interface bond energy using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Firstly, from analyzing the XPS core-level shift of the elemental surfaces we obtained the energy levels of an isolated atom and their bulk shifts of the constituent elements for reference; then we measured the energy shifts of the specific energy levels upon interface alloy formation. Subtracting the referential spectrum from that collected from the alloy, we can distil the interface effect on the binding energy. Calibrated based on the energy levels and their bulk shifts derived from elemental surfaces, we can derive the bond energy, energy density, atomic cohesive energy, and free energy at the interface region. This approach has enabled us to clarify the dominance of quantum entrapment at CuPd interface and the dominance of polarization at AgPd and BeW interfaces, as the origin of interface energy change. Developed approach not only enhances the power of XPS but also enables the quantification of the interface energy at the atomic scale that has been an issue of long challenge.

  17. A Leonard-Sanders-Budiansky-Koiter-Type Nonlinear Shell Theory with a Hierarchy of Transverse-Shearing Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed exposition on a refined nonlinear shell theory suitable for nonlinear buckling analyses of laminated-composite shell structures is presented. This shell theory includes the classical nonlinear shell theory attributed to Leonard, Sanders, Koiter, and Budiansky as an explicit proper subset. This approach is used in order to leverage the exisiting experience base and to make the theory attractive to industry. In addition, the formalism of general tensors is avoided in order to expose the details needed to fully understand and use the theory. The shell theory is based on "small" strains and "moderate" rotations, and no shell-thinness approximations are used. As a result, the strain-displacement relations are exact within the presumptions of "small" strains and "moderate" rotations. The effects of transverse-shearing deformations are included in the theory by using analyst-defined functions to describe the through-the-thickness distributions of transverse-shearing strains. Constitutive equations for laminated-composite shells are derived without using any shell-thinness approximations, and simplified forms and special cases are presented.

  18. On a singular Fredholm-type integral equation arising in N=2 super-Yang-Mills theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Franco, E-mail: ferrari@fermi.fiz.univ.szczecin.pl [Institute of Physics and CASA, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70451 Szczecin (Poland); Piatek, Marcin, E-mail: piatek@fermi.fiz.univ.szczecin.pl [Institute of Physics and CASA, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70451 Szczecin (Poland); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-08

    In this work we study the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the Nekrasov instanton partition function of Yang-Mills field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and gauge group SU(N{sub c}). The theories are coupled with N{sub f} flavors of fundamental matter. The equation that determines the density of eigenvalues at the leading order in the saddle-point approximation is exactly solved when N{sub f}=2N{sub c}. The dominating contribution to the instanton free energy is computed. The requirement that this energy is finite imposes quantization conditions on the parameters of the theory that are in agreement with analogous conditions that have been derived in previous works. The instanton energy and thus the instanton contribution to the prepotential of the gauge theory is computed in closed form.

  19. On a singular Fredholm-type integral equation arising in N=2 super-YangMills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study the NekrasovShatashvili limit of the Nekrasov instanton partition function of YangMills field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and gauge group SU(Nc). The theories are coupled with Nf flavors of fundamental matter. The equation that determines the density of eigenvalues at the leading order in the saddle-point approximation is exactly solved when Nf=2Nc. The dominating contribution to the instanton free energy is computed. The requirement that this energy is finite imposes quantization conditions on the parameters of the theory that are in agreement with analogous conditions that have been derived in previous works. The instanton energy and thus the instanton contribution to the prepotential of the gauge theory is computed in closed form.

  20. The relationship of theory of mind and executive functions to symptom type and severity in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Robert M; TAGERFLUSBERG, HELEN

    2004-01-01

    Although neurocognitive impairments in theory of mind and in executive functions have both been hypothesized to play a causal role in autism, there has been little research investigating the explanatory power of these impairments with regard to autistic symptomatology. The present study examined the degree to which individual differences in theory of mind and executive functions could explain variations in the severity of autism symptoms. Participants included 31 verbal, school-aged children ...

  1. El Naschie's ? (?) space-time, hydrodynamic model of scale relativity theory and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalization of the Nottale's scale relativity theory is elaborated: the generalized Schroedinger equation results as an irrotational movement of Navier-Stokes type fluids having an imaginary viscosity coefficient. Then ? simultaneously becomes wave-function and speed potential. In the hydrodynamic formulation of scale relativity theory, some implications in the gravitational morphogenesis of structures are analyzed: planetary motion quantizations, Saturn's rings motion quantizations, redshift quantization in binary galaxies, global redshift quantization etc. The correspondence with El Naschie's ? (?) space-time implies a special type of superconductivity (El Naschie's superconductivity) and Cantorian-fractal sequences in the quantification of the Universe

  2. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to increased emissions unless we improve production efficiencies and management. Developing countries currently account for about three-quarters of direct emissions and are expected to be the most rapidly growing emission sources in the future (FAO 2011). Reducing agricultural emissions and increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and biomass has the potential to reduce agriculture's contribution to climate change by 5.5-6.0 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq)/year. Economic potentials, which take into account costs of implementation, range from 1.5 to 4.3 GT CO2eq/year, depending on marginal abatement costs assumed and financial resources committed, with most of this potential in developing countries (Smith et al 2007). The opportunity for mitigation in agriculture is thus significant, and, if realized, would contribute to making this sector carbon neutral. Yet it is only through a robust and shared understanding of how much carbon can be stored or how much CO2 is reduced from mitigation practices that informed decisions can be made about how to identify, implement, and balance a suite of mitigation practices as diverse as enhancing soil organic matter, increasing the digestibility of feed for cattle, and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applications. Only by selecting a portfolio of options adapted to regional characteristics and goals can mitigation needs be best matched to also serve rural development goals, including food security and increased resilience to climate change. Expansion of agricultural land also remains a major contributor of greenhouse gases, with deforestation, largely linked to clearing of land for cultivation or pasture, generating 80% of emissions from developing countries (Hosonuma et al 2012). There are clear opportunities for these countries to address mitigation strategies from the forest and agriculture sector, recognizing that agriculture plays a large role in economic and development potential. In this context, multiple development goals can be reinforced by specific climate funding granted on the basis of multiple benefits and synergies, for instance through currently negotiated mechanisms such as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) (REDD+, Kissinger et al 2012). 3. Challenges to quantifying GHG information for the agricultural sector The quantification of GHG emissions from agriculture is fundamental to identifying mitigation solutions that are consistent with the goals of achieving greater resilience in production systems, food security, and rural welfare. GHG emissions data are already needed for such varied purposes as guiding national planning for low-emissions development, generating and trading carbon credits, certifying sustainable agriculture practices, informing consumers' choices with regard to reducing their carbon footprints, assessing product supply chains, and supporting farmers in adopting less carbon-intensive farming practices. Demonstrating the robustness, feasibility, and cost effectiveness of agricultural GHG inventories and monitoring is a necessary technical foundation for including agriculture in the international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and is needed to provide robust data and methodology platforms for global corporate supply-chain initiatives (e.g., SAFA, FAO 2012). Given such varied drivers for GHG reductions, there are a number of uses for agricultural GHG information, including (1) reporting and accounting at the national or company level, (2) land-use planning and management to achieve specific objectives, (3) monitoring and evaluating impact of management, (4) developing a credible and thus tradable offset credit, and (5) research and capacity development. The information needs for these uses is likely to differ in the required level of certainty, scale of analysis, and need for comparability across systems or repeatability over time, and they may depend on whether descriptive trends are sufficient or an understanding of drivers and causes are needed. While there are certainly similar needs across uses and users, the necessary methods, data, and models for quantifying GHGs may vary. Common challenges for quantification noted in an informal survey of users of GHG information by Olander et al (2013) include the following. 3.1. Need for user-friendly methods that work across scales, regions, and systems Much of the data gathered and models developed by the research community provide high confidence in data or indicators computed at one place or for one issue, thus they are relevant for only specific uses, not transparent, or not comparable. These research approaches need to be translated to practitioners though the development of farmer friendly, transparent, comparable, and broadly applicable methods. Many users noted the need for quantification data and methods that work and are accurate across region and scales. One of the interviewed users, Charlotte Streck, summed it up nicely: 'A priority would be to produce comparable datasets for agricultural GHG emissions of particular agricultural practices for a broad set of countries ... with a gradual increase in accuracy'. 3.2. Need for lower cost, feasible approaches Concerns about cost and complexity of existing quantification methods were raised by a number of users interviewed in the survey. In the field it is difficult to measure changes in GHGs from agricultural management due to spatial and temporal variability, and the scale of the management-induced changes relative to background pools and fluxes. Many users noted data gaps and inconsistencies and insufficient technical capacity and infrastructure to generate necessary information, particularly in developing countries. The need for creative approaches for data collection and analysis, such as crowd sourcing and mobile technology, were noted. 3.3. Need for methods that can crosswalk between emission-reduction strategy and inventories or reporting A few users emphasized the need for information and quantification approaches that cannot only track GHGs but also help with strategic planning on what to grow where and when to maximize mitigation and adaptation benefits. Methods need to incorporate the quantification context, taking into account climate impacts, viability, and cost of management options. Thus, data and methods are needed that integrate climate impacts into models used to assess the potential and costs of GHG mitigation strategies. 3.4. Need for confidence thresholds and rules that are appropriate for use Users noted that national inventories through the UNFCCC or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) require 95% confidence, while some offset market standards leave confidence levels to the discretion of the developer, using discounts in value for greater uncertainty. Nonetheless, these standards tend to have expectations of 20% confidence or better. In fact, both regulatory and voluntary reporting suffer from large uncertainties in the underlying activity data as well as in emission factors. In some circumstances emissions factors may add as much as 50-150% uncertainty to GHG estimates (IPCC 2006). Uncertainty clearly needs to be assessed in implementing projects and programs. In some cases there are uncertainty thresholds, while in others uncertainty is assessed and used as part of the quantification process. What is not always clear is where uncertainty thresholds are necessary to maintain the usefulness of the information and where they are hindering early progress. 3.5. Easily understood and common metrics for policy and market users Inventories usually track tons of CO2 equivalents, while supply-chain and corporate reporting are more likely to track efficiency metrics, such as GHG emissions per unit of product; offsets protocols may combine both approaches. As demand for food rises, efficiency of production becomes an increasingly important metric, even if total CO2 equivalents need to be tracked in parallel to assess climate impacts. For livestock systems it is unclear which metrics are most important to track, GHGs per unit of meat or milk or perhaps per calorie? Different metrics are likely needed for different uses. 3.6. Capacity development in developing countries There is need to improve on the current lack of capacities to monitor land use and land-use change and their associated GHG emissions and removals for national inventories (UNFCCC 2008, Romijn et al 2012). Since there are ongoing efforts to improve, data, methods and capacities for monitoring forests in the context of REDD+ (Herold and Skutsch 2011), synergies should be sought to use and build upon joint data sources and approaches, such as remote sensing, field inventories, crowd sourcing. and human capacities to estimate and report on GHG balance in both forests and agriculture. A number of specific objectives to meet these challenges are discussed in this special issue. Improve the accuracy of emissions factors across regional differences. Improve national inventory data of management activities, crop type and variety, and livestock breeds. Use historical data and data collection over time to show trends. Test the extent of model applications through field validation (e.g., can they be used in regions with less data?). Enhance technical capacity and infrastructure for data acquisition and for application of mitigation strategies in field programs. Increase understanding of which mitigation practices result in more resilient systems. Improve understanding of the GHG tradeoffs of expanding fertilizer use. While data sources and methods are improving and research and operational monitoring are increasing, the international community can be strategic in targeting support for this work and coordinating data and information collection to move toward revised good practice guidelines that would address the particular circumstances and practices dominant in developing countries. 4. Current data infrastructure and systems supporting GHG quantification in the agricultural sector To understand the challenges facing GHG quantification it is helpful to understand the existing supporting infrastructure and systems for quantification. The existing and developing structures for national and local data acquisition and management are the foundation for the empirical and process-based models used by most countries and projects currently quantifying agricultural greenhouse gases. Direct measurement can be used to complement and supplement such models, but this is not yet sufficient by itself given costs, complexities, and uncertainties. One of the primary purposes of data acquisition and quantification is for national-level inventories and planning. For such efforts countries are conducting national-level collection of activity data (who is doing which agricultural practices where) and some are also developing national or regional-level emissions factors. Infrastructure that supports these efforts includes intergovernmental panels, global alliances, and data-sharing networks. Multilateral data sharing for applications, such as the FAO Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) (FAO 2012), the IPCC Emission Factor Database (IPCC 2012), and UNFCCC national inventories (UNFCCC 2012), are building greater consistency and standardization by using global standards such as the IPCC's Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (e.g., IPCC 1996, 2003, 2006). There is also work on common quantification methods and accounting, for example agreed on global warming potentials for different contributing gases and GHG quantification methodologies for projects (e.g., the Verified Carbon Standard Sustainable Agricultural Land Management [SALM] protocol, VCS 2011). Other examples include the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (2012) and GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) (USDA Agricultural Research Service 2011), which aim to improve consistency of field measurement and data collection for soil carbon sequestration and soil nitrous oxide fluxes. Often these national-level activity data and emissions factors are the basis for regional and smaller-scale applications. Such data are used for model-based estimates of changes in GHGs at a project or regional level (Olander et al 2011). To complement national data for regional-, landscape-, or field-level applications, new data are often collected through farmer knowledge or records and field sampling. Ideally such data could be collected in a standardized manner, perhaps through some type of crowd sourcing model to improve regional—and national—level data, as well as to improve consistency of locally collected data. Data can also be collected by companies working with agricultural suppliers and in country networks, within efforts aimed at understanding firm and product (supply-chain) sustainability and risks (FAO 2009). Such data may feed into various certification processes or reporting requirements from buyers. Unfortunately, this data is likely proprietary. A new process is needed to aggregate and share private data in a way that would not be a competitive concern so such data could complement or supplement national data and add value. A number of papers in this focus issue discuss issues surrounding quantification methods and systems at large scales, global and national levels, while others explore landscape- and field-scale approaches. A few explore the intersection of top-down and bottom-up data measurement and modeling approaches. 5. The agricultural greenhouse gas quantification project and ERL focus issue Important land management decisions are often made with poor or few data, especially in developing countries. Current systems for quantifying GHG emissions are inadequate in most low-income countries, due to a lack of funding, human resources, and infrastructure. Most non-Annex 1 countries reporting agricultural emissions to the UNFCCC have used only Tier I default emissions factors (Nihart 2012, unpublished data), yet default numbers are based on a very limited number of studies. Furthermore, most non-Annex I countries have reported their National Communications only one or two times in the period 1990-2010. China, for instance, has not submitted agricultural inventory data since 1994. As we move toward the next IPCC assessment report on climate change and while UNFCCC negotiations give greater attention to the role of agriculture within international agreements, it is valuable to understand our current and potential near-term capacity to quantify and track emissions and assess mitigation potential in the agriculture sector, providing countries—especially least developed countries (LDCs)—with the information they need to promote and implement actions that, while conducive to mitigation, are also consistent with their rural development and food security goals. The purpose of this focus issue is to improve the knowledge and practice of quantifying GHG emissions from agriculture around the globe. The issue discusses methodological, data, and capacity gaps and needs across scales of quantification, from global and national-scale inventories to landscape- and farm-scale measurement. The inherent features of agriculture and especially smallholder farming have made quantification expensive and complicated, as farming systems and farmers' practices are diverse and impermanent and exhibit high temporal and spatial variability. Quantifying the emissions of the complex crop livestock or diverse cropping systems that characterize smallholder systems presents particular challenges. New ideas, methods, and uses of technology are needed to address these challenges. Many papers in this special issue synthesize the state of the art in their respective fields, analyze gaps, identify innovations, and make recommendations for improving quantification. Special attention is given to methods appropriate to low-income countries, where strategies are needed for getting robust data with extremely limited resources in order to support national mitigation planning within widely accepted standards and thus provide access to essential international support, including climate funding. Managing agricultural emissions needs to occur in tandem with managing for agricultural productivity, resilience to climate change, and ecosystem impacts. Management decisions and priorities will require measures and information that identify GHG efficiencies in production and reduce inputs without reducing yields, while addressing climate resilience and maintaining other essential environmental services, such as water quality and support for pollinators. Another set of papers in this issue considers the critical synergies and tradeoffs possible between these multiple objectives of mitigation, resilience, and production efficiency to help us understand how we need to tackle these in our quantification systems. Significant capacity to quantify greenhouse gases is already built, and with some near-term strategic investment, could become an increasingly robust and useful tool for planning and development in the agricultural sector around the world. Acknowledgments The Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security Program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the Technical Working Group on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (T-AGG) at Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have come together to guide the development of this focus issue and associated activities and papers, given their common desire to improve our understanding of the state of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification and to advance ideas for building data and methods that will help mitigation policy and programs move forward around the world. We thank the David and Lucile Packard Foundation for their support of this initiative. The project has been developed with guidance from an esteemed steering group of experts and users of mitigation information (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/international-project). Many of the papers in this issue were commissioned. Authors of each of the commissioned papers met with guest editors at FAO in Rome in April 2012 to further develop their ideas, synthesize state of the art knowledge and generate new ideas (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/events-and-presentations). Additional interesting and important research has come forward through the general call for papers and has been incorporated into this issue. References CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security) 2011 Victories for food and farming in Durban climate deals Press Release 13 December 2011 (http://ccafs.cgiar.org/news/press-releases/victories-food-and-farming-durban-climate-deals) FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 2009 Expert consultation on GHG emissions and mitigation potentials in the agricultural, forestry and fisheries sectors (Rome: FAO) FAO 2011 Linking Sustainability and Climate Financing: Implications for Agriculture (Rome: FAO) FAO 2012 FAOSTAT online database (http://faostat.fao.org/) Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases 2012 www.globalresearchalliance.org/ Herold M and Skutsch M 2011 Monitoring, reporting and verification for national REDD+ programmes: two proposals Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014002 Hosonuma N, Herold M, De Sy V, De Fries R S, Brockhaus M, Verchot L, Angelsen A and Romijn E 2012 An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries Environ. Res. Lett. 7 044009 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) IPCC 2003 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (Hayama: IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme) IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme ed H S Eggleston et al (Hayama: IGES) IPCC 2012 IPCC Emission Factor Database (EFDB) (www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/EFDB/main.php) Kissinger G, Herold M and De Sy V 2012 Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation: A Synthesis Report for REDD+ Policymakers (Vancouver: Lexeme Consulting) (www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/tackling-climate-change/international-climate-change/6316-drivers-deforestation-report.pdf) Murphy D, McCandless M and Drexhage J 2010 Expanding Agriculture's Role in the International Climate Change Regime: Capturing the Opportunities (Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development) Nihart A 2012 unpublished data Olander L, Wollenberg L and Van de Bogert A 2013 Understanding the users and uses of agricultural greenhouse gas information CCAFS/NI T-AGG Report (in progress) Olander L P and Haugen-Kozyra K with contributions from Del Grosso S, Izaurralde C, Malin D, Paustian K and Salas W 2011 Using Biogeochemical Process Models to Quantify Greenhouse Gas Mitigation from Agricultural Management Projects (Durham, NC: Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University) (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/using-biogeochemical-process) Romijn J E, Herold M, Kooistra L, Murdiyarso D and Verchot L 2012 Assessing capacities of non-Annex I countries for national forest monitoring in the context of REDD+ Environ. Sci. Policy 20 33-48 Smith P et al 2007 Agriculture Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ed B Metz, O R Davidson, P R Bosch, R Dave and L A Meyer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Smith P et al 2008 Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363 789-813 UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) 2008 Financial support provided by the Global Environment Facility for the preparation of National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention FCCC/SBI/2008/INF.10 (http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2008/sbi/eng/inf10.pdf) UNFCCC 2012 GHG Data from UNFCCC (http://unfccc.int/ghg_data/ghg_data_unfccc/items/4146.php) USDA (US Department of Agriculture) 2011 Agricultural Research Service (www.ars.usda.gov/research/programs/programs.htm?np_code=204&docid=17271) VCS (Verified Carbon Standard) 2011 New Methodology: VM0017 Sustainable Agricultural Land Management (http://v-c-s.org/SALM_methodology_approved) * We dedicate this special issue to the memory of Daniel Martino, a generous leader in greenhouse gas quantification and accounting from agriculture, land-use change, and forestry.

  3. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantificationIn this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  4. Training load quantification in triathlon

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO CEJUELA ANTA; JONATHAN ESTEVE-LANAO

    2011-01-01

    There are different Indices of Training Stress of varying complexity, to quantification Training load. Examples include the training impulse (TRIMP), the session (RPE), Lucias TRIMP or Summated Zone Score. But the triathlon, a sport to be combined where there are interactions between different segments, is a complication when it comes to quantify the training. The aim of this paper is to review current methods of quantification, and to propose a scale to quantify the training load in triathl...

  5. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston Marie; Dijkstra Rob; Bosch Marije; Francis Jill J; Eccles Martin P; Hrisos Susan; Grol Richard; Kaner Eileen FS; Steen Ian N

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team mana...

  6. Application of the perturbation theory-differential formalism-for sensitivity analysis in steam generators of PWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An homogeneous model which simulates the stationary behavior of steam generators of PWR type reactors and uses the differential formalism of perturbation theory for analysing sensibility of linear and non-linear responses, is presented. The PERGEVAP computer code to calculate the temperature distribution in the steam generator and associated importance function, is developed. The code also evaluates effects of the thermohydraulic parameter variation on selected functionals. The obtained results are compared with results obtained by GEVAP computer code . (M.C.K.)

  7. Uncertainty quantification and stochastic modeling with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Souza de Cursi, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a relatively new research area which describes the methods and approaches used to supply quantitative descriptions of the effects of uncertainty, variability and errors in simulation problems and models. It is rapidly becoming a field of increasing importance, with many real-world applications within statistics, mathematics, probability and engineering, but also within the natural sciences. Literature on the topic has up until now been largely based on polynomial chaos, which raises difficulties when considering different types of approximation and does no

  8. RCF4: Inconsistent Quantification

    CERN Document Server

    Pfender, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We exhibit canonical Choice maps within categorical theories of Primitive Recursion, of partially defined PR maps, as well as for classical, quantifier defined PR theories, and show incompatibility of these choice sections in the latter theories, with (iterative) finite-descent property of omega^omega, namely within a ``minimal'' such quantor defined Arithmetic, Q. This is to give inconsistency of ZF, and even of first order set theory 1ZF strengthened by well-order property of omega^omega. The argument is iterative evaluation of PR map codes, which gets epimorphic defined-arguments enumeration by above finite-descent property. This enumeration is turned into a retraction by AC, with PR section in Q^+ = Q+wo(omega^omega), and so makes the evaluation a PR map. But the latter is excluded by Ackermann's result that such (diagonalised) evaluation grows faster than any PR map within any consistent frame. Keywords: quantifiers, first order arithmetics, recursion, AC, sections and retractions, primitive recursive ev...

  9. String Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    1998-10-01

    Volume 2: Superstring Theory and Beyond, begins with an introduction to supersymmetric string theories and goes on to a broad presentation of the important advances of recent years. The book first introduces the type I, type II, and heterotic superstring theories and their interactions. It then goes on to present important recent discoveries about strongly coupled strings, beginning with a detailed treatment of D-branes and their dynamics, and covering string duality, M-theory, and black hole entropy, and discusses many classic results in conformal field theory. The final four chapters are concerned with four-dimensional string theories, and have two goals: to show how some of the simplest string models connect with previous ideas for unifying the Standard Model; and to collect many important and beautiful general results on world-sheet and spacetime symmetries.

  10. Uncertainty Quantification in Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, K.; Safta, C.; Berry, R.; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H.

    2011-12-01

    We address challenges that sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification methods face when dealing with complex computational models. In particular, climate models are computationally expensive and typically depend on a large number of input parameters. We consider the Community Land Model (CLM), which consists of a nested computational grid hierarchy designed to represent the spatial heterogeneity of the land surface. Each computational cell can be composed of multiple land types, and each land type can incorporate one or more sub-models describing the spatial and depth variability. Even for simulations at a regional scale, the computational cost of a single run is quite high and the number of parameters that control the model behavior is very large. Therefore, the parameter sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation face significant difficulties for climate models. This work employs several algorithmic avenues to address some of the challenges encountered by classical uncertainty quantification methodologies when dealing with expensive computational models, specifically focusing on the CLM as a primary application. First of all, since the available climate model predictions are extremely sparse due to the high computational cost of model runs, we adopt a Bayesian framework that effectively incorporates this lack-of-knowledge as a source of uncertainty, and produces robust predictions with quantified uncertainty even if the model runs are extremely sparse. In particular, we infer Polynomial Chaos spectral expansions that effectively encode the uncertain input-output relationship and allow efficient propagation of all sources of input uncertainties to outputs of interest. Secondly, the predictability analysis of climate models strongly suffers from the curse of dimensionality, i.e. the large number of input parameters. While single-parameter perturbation studies can be efficiently performed in a parallel fashion, the multivariate uncertainty analysis requires a large number of training runs, as well as an output parameterization with respect to a fast-growing spectral basis set. To alleviate this issue, we adopt the Bayesian view of compressive sensing, well-known in the image recognition community. The technique efficiently finds a sparse representation of the model output with respect to a large number of input variables, effectively obtaining a reduced order surrogate model for the input-output relationship. The methodology is preceded by a sampling strategy that takes into account input parameter constraints by an initial mapping of the constrained domain to a hypercube via the Rosenblatt transformation, which preserves probabilities. Furthermore, a sparse quadrature sampling, specifically tailored for the reduced basis, is employed in the unconstrained domain to obtain accurate representations. The work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's CSSEF (Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future) program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed. ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 203–212. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Carlson, Gregory N. 1977. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.Carlson, Gregory N. 1984. ‘Thematic roles and their role in semantic interpretation’. Linguistics 22: 259–279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ling.1984.22.3.259Champollion, Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Champollion, Lucas, Tauberer, Josh & Romero, Maribel. 2007. ‘The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical software for natural language semantics’. In Tracy Holloway King & Emily Bender (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks(GEAF 2007 Workshop’, Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.Condoravdi, Cleo. 2002. ‘Punctual until as a scalar NPI’. In Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (eds. ‘The nature of the word’, 631–654. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Csirmaz, Aniko. 2006. ‘Aspect, Negation and Quantifiers’. In Liliane Haegeman, Joan Maling, James McCloskey & Katalin E. Kiss (eds. ‘Event Structure And The Left Periphery’, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol. 68, 225–253. SpringerNetherlands.Davidson, Donald. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In Nicholas Rescher (ed. ‘The logic of decision and action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.de Swart, Henriëtte. 1996. ‘Meaning and use of not . . . until’. Journal of Semantics 13: 221–263.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/13.3.221de Swart, Henriëtte & Molendijk, Arie. 1999. ‘Negation and the temporal structure of narrative discourse’. Journal of Semantics 16: 1–42.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/16.1.1Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel.Eckardt, Regine. 2010. ‘A Logic for Easy Linking Semantics’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 274–283. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14287-1_28Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2002. ‘UNTIL, aspect and negation: A novel argument for two untils’. In ‘Semantics and linguistic theory (SALT’, vol. 12, 84–103.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Stokhof, Martin. 1990. ‘Dynamic Montague grammar’. In Lászlo Kálman & Lászlo Polos (eds. ‘Papers from the Second Symposium on Logic and Language’, Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.Hendriks, Herman. 1993. Studied flexibility. Ph.D. thesis, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.Jacobson, Pauline. 1999. ‘Towards a variable-free semantics’. Linguistics and Philosophy 117–184.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005464228727Krifka, Manfred. 1989. ‘Nominal reference, temporal constitution and quantification in event semantics’. In Renate Bartsch, Johan van Benthem & P. van Emde Boas (eds. ‘Semantics and contextual expression’, 75–115. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris.Krifka, Manfred. 1998. ‘The origins of telicity’. In Susan Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and grammar’, 197–235. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Krifka, Manfred. 1999. ‘At Least Some Determiners Aren’t Determiners’. In K. Turner (ed. ‘The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface from Different Points of View’, 257–291. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.Landman, Fred. 1996. ‘Plurality’. In Shalom Lappin (ed. ‘Handbook of Contemporary Semantics’, 425–457. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.Landman, Fred. 2000. Events and plurality: The Jerusalem lectures. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.May, Robert. 1985. Logical form: Its structure and derivation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Parsons, Terence. 1990. Events in the semantics of English. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Partee, Barbara H. 1973. ‘Some structural analogies between tenses and pronouns in English’. The Journal of Philosophy 70: 601–609.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2025024Partee, Barbara H. 1987. ‘Noun phrase interpretation and type-shifting principles’. In Jeroen Groenendijk, Dick de Jongh & Martin Stokhof (eds. ‘Studies in Discourse Representation Theory and the Theory of Generalized Quanti?ers’, 115–143. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris.Rathert, Monika. 2004. Textures of time. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.Smith, Steven Bradley. 1975. Meaning and negation. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton.von Stechow, Arnim. 2009. ‘Tenses in compositional semantics’. In Wolfgang Klein & Ping Li (eds. ‘The expression of time’, 129–166. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.Winter, Yoad & Zwarts, Joost. 2011. ‘Event semantics and Abstract Categorial Grammar’. In Makoto Kanazawa, Marcus Kracht & Hiroyuki Seki (eds. ‘Proceedings of Mathematics of Language 12’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science / Lecture Notes in Arti?cial Intelligence, vol. 6878, 174–191. Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer.Zucchi, Sandro & White, Michael. 2001. ‘Twigs, sequences and the temporal constitution of predicates’. Linguistics and Philosophy 24: 187–222.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005690022190

  12. Shielding Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion N.Chiuta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper determines relations for shieldingeffectiveness relative to several variables, includingmetal type, metal properties, thickness, distance,frequency, etc. It starts by presenting some relationshipsregarding magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fieldsas a pertinent background to understanding and applyingfield theory. Since literature about electromagneticcompatibility is replete with discussions about Maxwellequations and field theory only a few aspects arepresented.

  13. Perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

  14. Categorization of the sumptom thoracic pain type isquemic in the woman to the light the theory of unpleasant symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    CORTÉS CASTRO, LUIS ALBERTO

    2010-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the first cause of mortality among Colombia's female population (1) and constitutes a health problem that implies deterioration of the quality of life of this group. The objective of this study was to categorize the ischemic thoracic pain in women in light of the theory Of Unpleasant Symptoms. The study was designed to be descriptiveexploratory with a qualitativequantitative approach. The information was collected by means of a semistructured interview and sampl...

  15. Application of perturbation theory to sensitivity calculations of PWR type reactor cores using the two-channel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity calculations are very important in design and safety of nuclear reactor cores. Large codes with a great number of physical considerations have been used to perform sensitivity studies. However, these codes need long computation time involving high costs. The perturbation theory has constituted an efficient and economical method to perform sensitivity analysis. The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (matricial formalism) to a simplified model of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) analysis to perform sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of enthalpy and coolant velocity with respect to coolant density and hot channel area were developed from the proposed model. The CASNUR.FOR code to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients was written in Fortran. The comparison between results obtained from the matricial formalism of perturbation theory with those obtained directly from the proposed model makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Density functional theory of simple polymers in a slit pore. II. The role of compressibility and field type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple tangent, hard site chains near a hard wall are modeled with a density functional (DF) theory that uses the direct correlation function, c(r), as its ''input.'' Two aspects of this DF theory are focused upon: (1) the consequences of variations in c(r)'s detailed form; and (2) the correct way to introduce c(r) into the DF formalism. The most important aspect of c(r) is found to be its integrated value, c(0). Indeed, it appears that, for fixed c(0), all reasonable guesses of the detailed shape of c(r) result in surprisingly similar density distributions, ?(r). Of course, the more accurate the c(r), the better the ?(r). As long as the length scale introduced by c(r) is roughly the hard site diameter and as long as the solution remains liquid-like, the ?(r) is found to be in good agreement with simulation results. The c(r) is used in DF theory to calculate the medium-induced potential, UM(r), from the density distribution, ?(r). The form of UM(r) can be chosen to be one of a number of different forms. It is found that the forms for UM(r)which yield the most accurate results for the wall problem are also those which were suggested as accurate in previous, related studies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow in SaezBallester theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shri Ram; M Zeyauddin; C P Singh

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the variation law for Hubble's parameter with average scale factor in a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V space-time model, which yields constant value of the deceleration parameter. We derive two laws of variation of the average scale factor with cosmic time, one is of power-law type and the other is of exponential form. Exact solutions of Einstein field equations with perfect fluid and heat conduction are obtained for Bianchi type-V space-time in these two types of cosmologies. In the cosmology with the power-law, the solutions correspond to a cosmological model which starts expanding from the singular state with positive deceleration parameter. In the case of exponential cosmology, we present an accelerating non-singular model of the Universe. We find that the constant value of deceleration parameter is reasonable for the present day Universe and gives an appropriate description of evolution of Universe. We have also discussed different types of physical and kinematical behaviour of the models in these two types of cosmologies.

  18. Uncertainty quantification in hybrid dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Tuhin; Pasini, Jos Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above methods are demonstrated on example problems.

  19. Uncertainty Quantification in Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Tuhin

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above method...

  20. Effectiveness of a brief theory-based health promotion intervention among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Lise; Andersen, Vibeke Just; Arnoldsen, Jette; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of a brief theory-based health promotion intervention delivered in the community on health behaviour and diabetes-related risk factors among Danish adults at high risk of diabetes. METHODS: A randomised trial was conducted among 127 individuals aged 28 to 70 with fasting plasma glucose: 6.1-6.9mmol/l and/or HbA1c: 6.0-<6.5% (42-<48mmol/mol) recruited from general practice in Holstebro, Denmark. Participants were randomised to a control group or to receive the intervent...

  1. The Types of Axisymmetric Exact Solutions Closely Related to n-SOLITONS for Yang-Mills Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zai Zhe

    In this letter, we point out that if a symmetric 22 real matrix M(?,z) obeys the Belinsky-Zakharov equation and |det(M)|=1, then an axisymmetric Bogomol'nyi field exact solution for the Yang-Mills-Higgs theory can be given. By using the inverse scattering technique, some special Bogomol'nyi field exact solutions, which are closely related to the true solitons, are generated. In particular, the Schwarzschild-like solution is a two-soliton-like solution.

  2. Study on exploration theory and SAR technology for interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit and its application in Eastern Jungar Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Started with analyzing the features of metallogenetic epoch and space distribution of typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit both in China and abroad and their relations of basin evolution, the authors have proposed the idea that the last unconformity mainly controls the metallogenetic epoch and the strength of structure activity after the last unconformity determines the deposit space. An exploration theory with the kernel from new events to the old one is put forward. The means and method to use SAR technology to identify ore-controlling key factors are discussed. An application study in Eastern Jungar Basin is performed

  3. Calculation of FayetIliopoulos D-term in type I string theory revisited: T{sup 6}/Z{sub 3} orbifold case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoyama, H., E-mail: itoyama@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University (Japan); Osaka City University Advanced Mathematical Institute (OCAMI), 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yano, Kohei, E-mail: kyano@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University (Japan)

    2013-12-18

    The string one-loop computation of the FayetIliopoulos D-term in type I string theory in the case of T{sup 6}/Z{sub 3} orbifold compactification associated with annulus (planar) and the Mbius strip string worldsheet diagrams is reexamined. The mass extracted from the sum of these amplitudes through a limiting procedure is found to be non-vanishing, which is contrary to the earlier computation. The sum can be made finite by a rescaling of the modular parameter in the closed string channel.

  4. Analysis of New Type Air-conditioning for Loom Based on CFD Simulation and Theory of Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiliang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on theory of statistics, main factors affecting effects of loom workshops large and small zone ventilation using the CFD simulation in this paper. Firstly, four factors and three levels of orthogonal experimental table is applied to CFD simulation, the order from major to minor of four factors is obtained, which can provide theoretical basis for design and operation. Then single-factor experiment method is applied to CFD simulation, certain factor changing can be obtained with best levels of other factors. Base on above recommend parameters, CFD software is applied to simulate relative humid and PMV on the loom. Lastly, comparison of simulation results and experiment is used to verify feasibility of simulation results.

  5. A recipe for EFT uncertainty quantification in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of effective field theory (EFT) methods to nuclear systems provides the opportunity to rigorously estimate the uncertainties originating in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Yet this is just one source of uncertainty in the observables predicted by calculations based on nuclear EFTs. We discuss the goals of uncertainty quantification in such calculations and outline a recipe to obtain statistically meaningful error bars for their predictions. We argue that the different sources of theory error can be accounted for within a Bayesian framework, as we illustrate using a toy model. (paper)

  6. A recipe for EFT uncertainty quantification in nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnstahl, R. J.; Phillips, D. R.; Wesolowski, S.

    2015-03-01

    The application of effective field theory (EFT) methods to nuclear systems provides the opportunity to rigorously estimate the uncertainties originating in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Yet this is just one source of uncertainty in the observables predicted by calculations based on nuclear EFTs. We discuss the goals of uncertainty quantification in such calculations and outline a recipe to obtain statistically meaningful error bars for their predictions. We argue that the different sources of theory error can be accounted for within a Bayesian framework, as we illustrate using a toy model.

  7. Quantification of natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

  8. Behavior of a Bianchi Type I Universe in Einstein-Cartan theory using the improved energy-momentum tensor with spin density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this treatise is to examine the behavior of a standard Bianchi Type I universe modeled as a fluid with expansion, shear, and vorticity and to see what effects torsion has on the behavior of the model. It is shown that a generalized (or power law) inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a cosmology modeled as a Bianchi Type I anisotropic model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory with the improved Stress-Energy-Momentum-Tensor (SEMT) with spin density of Ray and Smalley. This is made explicit by analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially-dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear allipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation

  9. First-order theory of electrical focusing in cyclotron-type two-dimensional lenses with static and time-varying potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential distribution in cyclotron-type gaps with liner (outer electrodes at ground potential) is determined via Schwarz-Christoffel transformation as well as by computer analysis (relaxation method). First-order focusing formulas for both static as well as time-varying potentials are derived. In addition exact calculations were carried out by direct numerical integration of the equations of motion with a computer program. The numerical data permitted an accurate evaluation of the validity of the analytical approximation as well as further improvement of the theoretical formulas. Focusing relations are presented in a generalized form which shows the scaling laws and is readily applicable to different types of particles, energies or lens geometries. As an example, the theory is applied in the axial motion of ions in a cyclotron

  10. Quantified PIRT and Uncertainty Quantification for Computer Code Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hu

    This study is intended to investigate and propose a systematic method for uncertainty quantification for the computer code validation application. Uncertainty quantification has gained more and more attentions in recent years. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the use of realistic best estimate (BE) computer code to follow the rigorous Code Scaling, Application and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology. In CSAU, the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) was developed to identify important code uncertainty contributors. To support and examine the traditional PIRT with quantified judgments, this study proposes a novel approach, the Quantified PIRT (QPIRT), to identify important code models and parameters for uncertainty quantification. Dimensionless analysis to code field equations to generate dimensionless groups (pi groups) using code simulation results serves as the foundation for QPIRT. Uncertainty quantification using DAKOTA code is proposed in this study based on the sampling approach. Nonparametric statistical theory identifies the fixed number of code run to assure the 95 percent probability and 95 percent confidence in the code uncertainty intervals.

  11. Black Holes in type IIA String on Calabi-Yau Threefolds with Affine ADE Geometries and q-Deformed 2d Quiver Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Laamara, R A; Drissi, L B; Saidi, E H

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by studies on 4d black holes and q-deformed 2d Yang Mills theory, and borrowing ideas from compact geometry of the blowing up of affine ADE singularities, we build a class of local Calabi-Yau threefolds (CY^{3}) extending the local 2-torus model \\mathcal{O}(m)\\oplus \\mathcal{O}(-m)\\to T^{2\\text{}} considered in hep-th/0406058 to test OSV conjecture. We first study toric realizations of T^{2} and then build a toric representation of X_{3} using intersections of local Calabi-Yau threefolds \\mathcal{O}(m)\\oplus \\mathcal{O}(-m-2)\\to \\mathbb{P}^{1}. We develop the 2d \\mathcal{N}=2 linear \\sigma-model for this class of toric CY^{3}s. Then we use these local backgrounds to study partition function of 4d black holes in type IIA string theory and the underlying q-deformed 2d quiver gauge theories. We also make comments on 4d black holes obtained from D-branes wrapping cycles in \\mathcal{O}(\\mathbf{m}) \\oplus \\mathcal{O}(\\mathbf{-m-2}%) \\to \\mathcal{B}_{k} with \\mathbf{m=}(m_{1},...,m_{k}) a k-dim integer vec...

  12. Type-1.5 superconductivity in multiband systems: Magnetic response, broken symmetries and microscopic theory - A brief overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaev, E., E-mail: babaev1@physics.umass.edu [Department of Theoretical Physics, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SE 10691 (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Carlstroem, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SE 10691 (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Garaud, J. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Silaev, M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SE 10691 (Sweden); Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Speight, J.M. [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    A conventional superconductor is described by a single complex order parameter field which has two fundamental length scales, the magnetic field penetration depth {lambda} and the coherence length {xi}. Their ratio {kappa} determines the response of a superconductor to an external field, sorting them into two categories as follows; type-I when {kappa}<1/{radical}(2) and type-II when {kappa}>1/{radical}(2). We overview here multicomponent systems which can possess three or more fundamental length scales and allow a separate 'type-1.5' superconducting state when, e.g. in two-component case {xi}{sub 1}<{radical}(2){lambda}<{xi}{sub 2}. In that state, as a consequence of the extra fundamental length scale, vortices attract one another at long range but repel at shorter ranges. As a consequence the system should form an additional Semi-Meissner state which properties we discuss below. In that state vortices form clusters in low magnetic fields. Inside the cluster one of the component is depleted and the superconductor-to-normal interface has negative energy. In contrast the current in second component is mostly concentrated on the cluster's boundary, making the energy of this interface positive. Here we briefly overview recent developments in Ginzburg-Landau and microscopic descriptions of this state.

  13. Dynamic behaviors of spin-1/2 bilayer system within Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the effective-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erta?, Mehmet; Kantar, Ersin, E-mail: ersinkantar@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) and dynamic phase diagrams of the kinetic spin-1/2 bilayer system in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the effective-field theory with correlations for the ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM), antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) and antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams for the amplitude of the oscillating field versus temperature were presented. The results are compared with the results of the same system within Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: The Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber dynamics based on EFT. The time variations of average order parameters to find phases are studied. The dynamic phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. The system displays the critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.

  14. Dynamic behaviors of spin-1/2 bilayer system within Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) and dynamic phase diagrams of the kinetic spin-1/2 bilayer system in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the effective-field theory with correlations for the ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM), antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) and antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams for the amplitude of the oscillating field versus temperature were presented. The results are compared with the results of the same system within Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory. - Highlights: The Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber dynamics based on EFT. The time variations of average order parameters to find phases are studied. The dynamic phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. The system displays the critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior

  15. Initial growth mechanism of atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide using cyclopentadienyl-type precursor: A density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Guangfen [College of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China); Ren, Jie, E-mail: renjie@fudan.edu.cn [College of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China); Zhang, Shaowen [College of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The initial reaction mechanism of atomic layer deposited TiO{sub 2} thin film on the silicon surface using Cp*Ti(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3} as the metal precursor has been investigated by using the density functional theory. We find that Cp*Ti(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3} adsorbed state can be formed via the hydrogen bonding interaction between CH{sub 3}O ligands and the Si-OH sites, which is in good agreement with the quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) experimental observations. Moreover, the desorption of adsorbed Cp*Ti(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3} is favored in the thermodynamic equilibrium state. The elimination reaction of CH{sub 3}OH can occur more readily than that of Cp*H during the Cp*Ti(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3} pulse. This conclusion is also confirmed by the QMS experimental results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial reaction mechanism of atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cp*Ti(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3} absorbed state on silicon surface is formed by hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The elimination of CH{sub 3}OH occurs more readily than that of Cp*H in Cp*Ti(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cp*Ti(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3} adsorbs on silicon surface via the CH{sub 3}O ligand.

  16. Preference for a vanishingly small cosmological constant in supersymmetric vacua in a Type IIB string theory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the probability distribution P(?) of the cosmological constant ? in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. We show that, as we sweep through the quantized flux values in this flux compactification, P(?) behaves divergent at ?=0? and the median magnitude of ? drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h2,1 increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the probability of having a positive Hessian (mass-squared matrix) approaches unity as h2,1 increases

  17. Generation of non-classical correlated photon pairs via a ladder-type atomic configuration: theory and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~107/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R=48+-12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, the powers of pumps. We also make a theoretical analysis in detail and the theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with our experimental results.

  18. The theory of the measurement of the London penetration depth in uniaxial type II superconductors by muon spin rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of anisotropy on the measurement, by muon spin rotation, of the London penetration depth in the high Tc uniaxial type II superconductors is considered in detail. Expressions are derived which will allow the principal penetration depths, ?1 and ?2, to be determined using measurements of the ?SR line width from single crystals. For polycrystalline, powder or sintered, samples an expression is derived which will allow an effective penetration depth, ?eff, to be determined from the measured ?SR line width. Further, it is shown that for all anisotropy ratios, ?2/?1, greater than five ?1 ? 0.81?eff. (author)

  19. Exact solutions of Bianchi-type I and V spacetimes in the f(R) theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the crucial phenomenon of the expansion of the universe has been discussed. For this purpose, we study the vacuum solutions of Bianchi-type I and V spacetimes in the framework of f(R) gravity. In particular, we find two exact solutions in each case using the variation law of Hubble parameter. These solutions correspond to two models of the universe. The first solution gives a singular model, while the second solution provides a non-singular model. The physical behavior of these models is discussed. Moreover, the function of the Ricci scalar is evaluated for both models in each case.

  20. Behaviour of a fibre-type thermal insulation for high temperature reactors under rapid depressurization; theory and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depressurization behaviour of a fibre-type thermal insulation has been investigated both by measurements with air and helium and with numerical models. A simple lumped parameter model has been used to reproduce the measured transients for air as well as for helium. All the experimental data have been obtained with reasonable accuracy by fitting two empirical parameters, the effective surfaces of the flow through the venting holes and the flow through the perforated tube. It is remarkable that the same parameters reproduce the experimental data for such different gases as air and helium. The dependence of the depressurization behaviour on the different parameters has been treated by a dimensional analysis. (Auth.)

  1. Electronic structure of cage-type ternaries ARu2Al10 – Theory and XPS experiment (A = Ce and U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Electronic structures of (U;Ce)Ru2Al10 probed by X-ray photoemission and ab initio. ► Good agreement between valence-band XPS and calculated (within LDA) spectra. ► More itinerant character of the U 5f than Ce 4f electrons in these compounds. ► Reduced Fermi surface of CeRu2Al10 compared with the U-based system. -- Abstract: The electronic structure of the isomorphic, orthorhombic URu2Al10 and CeRu2Al10 aluminides have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ab initio calculations using the fully relativistic full-potential local-orbital (FPLO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The calculated data of the former system revealed fairly sharp triple-peaks of the U 5f states around the Fermi level (EF) and a large broad contribution from the Ru 4d states expanded from EF to about 6.5 eV of binding energy. Although the size and positions of the Ru 4d bands for the latter compound are quite similar to those of the U-based one, the double Ce 4f sharp peaks are placed almost completely above EF underlying their mostly localized character. We have also analyzed the Fermi surfaces (FSs) in these two aluminides. The calculated results of both ternaries were then compared with our experimental XPS data for URu2Al10 and with such data for CeRu2Al10 available in the literature. The results are in fairly good agreement between the theory and experiment. Especially, the fact that the spectrum weight of the Ce 4f electrons below EF turned out to be very much reduced, reflecting rather a small f–c hybridization of these electrons compared to considerably larger one in the U-based compound

  2. Stellar convection theory. III - Dynamical coupling of the two convection zones in A-type stars by penetrative motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J.; Toomre, J.; Zahn, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal convection occurring over many density scale heights in an A-type star outer envelope, encompassing both the hydrogen and helium convectively unstable zones, is examined by means of anelastic modal equations. The single-mode anelastic equations for such compressible convection display strong overshooting of the motions into adjacent radiative zones, which would preclude diffusive separation of elements in the supposedly quiescent region between the two unstable zones. In addition, the anelastic solutions reveal that the two zones of convective instability are dynamically coupled by the overshooting motions. The two solutions that the nonlinear single-mode equations admit for the same horizontal wavelength are distinguished by the sense of the vertical velocity at the center of the three-dimensional cell. It is suggested that strong horizontal shear flows should be present just below the surface of the star, and that the large-scale motions extending into the stable atmosphere would appear mainly as horizontal flows.

  3. Topological Galois Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Caramello, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an abstract topos-theoretic framework for building Galois-type theories in a variety of different mathematical contexts; such theories are obtained from representations of certain atomic two-valued toposes as toposes of continuous actions of a topological group. Our framework subsumes in particular Grothendieck's Galois theory and allows to build Galois-type equivalences in new contexts, such as for example graph theory and finite group theory.

  4. Automated quantification and analysis of mandibular asymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    We present an automated method of spatially detailed 3D asymmetry quantification in mandibles extracted from CT and apply it to a population of infants with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS). An atlas-based method employing non-rigid registration of surfaces is used for determining deformation fields, thereby establishing detailed anatomical point correspondence between subjects as well as between points on the left and right side of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP). Asymmetry is defined in terms of the vector between a point and the corresponding anatomical point on the opposite side of the MSP after mirroring the mandible across the MSP. A principal components analysis of asymmetry characterizes the major types of asymmetry in the population, and successfully separates the asymmetric UCS mandibles from a number of less asymmetric mandibles from a control population.

  5. Object Oriented Design Security Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Suhel Ahmad Khan

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of security at early phase produces a significant improvement to understand the management of security artifacts for best possible results. The proposed study discusses a systematic approach to quantify security based on complexity factors which having impact on security attributes. This paper provides a road-map to researchers and software practitioner to assess, and preferably, quantify software security in design phase. A security assessment through complexity framework (SVD...

  6. An uncertainty inventory demonstration - a primary step in uncertainty quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Issac F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2009-01-01

    Tools, methods, and theories for assessing and quantifying uncertainties vary by application. Uncertainty quantification tasks have unique desiderata and circumstances. To realistically assess uncertainty requires the engineer/scientist to specify mathematical models, the physical phenomena of interest, and the theory or framework for assessments. For example, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) specifically identifies uncertainties using probability theory, and therefore, PRA's lack formal procedures for quantifying uncertainties that are not probabilistic. The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) proceeds by ranking phenomena using scoring criteria that results in linguistic descriptors, such as importance ranked with words, 'High/Medium/Low.' The use of words allows PIRT to be flexible, but the analysis may then be difficult to combine with other uncertainty theories. We propose that a necessary step for the development of a procedure or protocol for uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the application of an Uncertainty Inventory. An Uncertainty Inventory should be considered and performed in the earliest stages of UQ.

  7. Toward a theory of distinct types of "impulsive" behaviors: A meta-analysis of self-report and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Leigh; Markon, Kristian E; Clark, Lee Anna

    2014-03-01

    Impulsivity is considered a personality trait affecting behavior in many life domains, from recreational activities to important decision making. When extreme, it is associated with mental health problems, such as substance use disorders, as well as with interpersonal and social difficulties, including juvenile delinquency and criminality. Yet, trait impulsivity may not be a unitary construct. We review commonly used self-report measures of personality trait impulsivity and related constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), plus the opposite pole, control or constraint. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these scales comprise 3 distinct factors, each of which aligns with a broad, higher order personality factor-Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality/Sensation Seeking. Moreover, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness comprise 2 correlated but distinct subfactors: Disinhibition versus Constraint and Conscientiousness/Will versus Resourcelessness. We also review laboratory tasks that purport to measure a construct similar to trait impulsivity. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these tasks constitute 4 factors (Inattention, Inhibition, Impulsive Decision-Making, and Shifting). Although relations between these 2 measurement models are consistently low to very low, relations between both trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks and daily-life impulsive behaviors are moderate. That is, both independently predict problematic daily-life impulsive behaviors, such as substance use, gambling, and delinquency; their joint use has incremental predictive power over the use of either type of measure alone and furthers our understanding of these important, problematic behaviors. Future use of confirmatory methods should help to ascertain with greater precision the number of and relations between impulsivity-related components. PMID:24099400

  8. Stellar convection theory. III. Dynamical coupling of the two convection zones in A -type stars by penetrative motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelastic modal equations are used to examine thermal convection occurring over many density scale heights in the entire outer envelope of an A-type star, encompassing both the hydrogen and helium convectively unstable zones. Single-mode anelastic solutions for such compressible convection display strong overshooting of the motions into adjacent radiative zones. Such mixing would preclude diffusive separation of elements in the supposedly quiescent region between the two unstable zones. Indeed, the anelastic solutions reveal that the two zones of convective instability are dynamically coupled by the overshooting motions. The nonlinear single-mode equations admit two solutions for the same horizontal wavelength, and these are distinguished by the sense of the vertical velocity at the center of the three-dimensional cell. The upward directed flows experience large pressure effects when they penetrate into regions where the vertical scale height has become small compared to their horizontal scale. The fluctuating pressure can modify the density fluctuations so that the sense of the buoyancy force is changed, with buoyancy braking actually achieved near the top of the convection zone, even though the mean stratification is still superadiabatic. The pressure and buoyancy work there serves to decelerate the vertical motions and deflect them laterally, leading to strong horizontal shearing motions. Thus the shallow but highly unstable hydrogen ionization zone may serve to prevent convection with a horizontal scale comparable to supergranulation from getting through into the atmosphere with any significant portion of its original momentum. This suggests that strong horizontal shear flows should be present just below the surface of the star, and similarly that strong horizontal shear flows should be present just below the surface of the star, and similarly that the large-scale motions extending into the stable atmosphere would appear mainly as horizontal flows

  9. Scale Theory and Metal-Insulator Transition in Metallic N-Type Inp Semiconductor at Very Low Temperatures with Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    El kaaouachi, A.; Abdia, R.; Nafidi, A.; Zatni, A.; Sahsah, H.; Biskupski, G.

    2010-04-01

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) induced by magnetic field, in barely metallic and compensated n-type InP has been analyzed using a scale theory. The experiments were carried out at low temperature in the range (4.2-0.066 K) and in magnetic field up to 11 T. We have determined the magnetic field for which the conductivity changes from the metallic behaviour to insulator regime. On the metallic side of the MIT, the electrical conductivity is found to obey ? = ?0+mT1/2 down to 66 mK. The zero-temperature conductivity can be described by scaling laws. Physical explanation to the temperature dependence of the conductivity is given in metallic side of the MIT using a competition between different characteristic scale lengths involved in the mechanisms of conduction, like correlation length and interaction length.

  10. Dynamic magnetic properties in the kinetic Ising ferromagnet on triangular lattice within the effective-field theory and using Glauber-type stochastic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erta?, Mehmet; Kantar, Ersin; Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Keskin, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic magnetic properties in the kinetic Ising ferromagnet on a triangular lattice are studied within the effective-field theory with correlations and using Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. In particular, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters and thermal behaviors of the dynamic total magnetizations and present the dynamic phase diagrams. The tricritical point, the triple point and zero critical end point as well as reentrant behaviors are found in the dynamic phase diagrams. We also study the dynamic hysteresis behaviors of the system. When the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single hysteresis loop as well as S-shaped thin loops and elliptical shapes are observed for various values of the physical parameters. Results are compared with some other dynamic studies and quantitatively good agreement is found.

  11. Droplet digital PCR for absolute quantification of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutirrez-Aguirre, Ion; Ra?ki, Nejc; Dreo, Tanja; Ravnikar, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The recent advent of different digital PCR (dPCR) platforms is enabling the expansion of this technology for research and diagnostic applications worldwide. The main principle of dPCR, as in other PCR-based methods including quantitative PCR (qPCR), is the specific amplification of a nucleic acid target. The distinctive feature of dPCR is the separation of the reaction mixture into thousands to millions of partitions which is followed by a real time or end point detection of the amplification. The distribution of target sequences into partitions is described by the Poisson distribution, thus allowing accurate and absolute quantification of the target from the ratio of positive against all partitions at the end of the reaction. This omits the need to use reference materials with known target concentrations and increases the accuracy of quantification at low target concentrations compared to qPCR. dPCR has also shown higher resilience to inhibitors in a number of different types of samples. In this chapter we describe the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) workflow for the detection and quantification of pathogens using the droplet digital Bio-Rad platform QX100. We present as an example the quantification of the quarantine plant pathogenic bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. PMID:25981265

  12. Medicin volumtrica de grasa visceral abdominal con resonancia magntica y su relacin con antropometra, en una poblacin diabtica / Quantification of visceral adipose tissue using magnetic resonance imaging compared with anthropometry, in type 2 diabetic patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristbal, Serrano Garca; Francisco, Barrera; Pilar, Labb; Jessica, Liberona; Marco, Arrese; Pablo, Irarrzabal; Cristin, Tejos; Sergio, Uribe.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with the development of metabolic diseases. Anthropometry is one of the methods used to quantify it. aim: to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and anthropometric [...] indexes, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in type 2 diabetic patients (DM2). Patients and Methods: Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients aged 55 to 78 years (15 females) and weighting 61.5 to 97 kg, were included. The patients underwent MRI examination on a Philips Intera 1.5T MR scanner. The MRI protocol included a spectral excitation sequence centered at the fat peak. The field of view included from L4-L5 to the diaphragmatic border. VAT was measured using the software Image J. Weight, height, BMI, WC and body fat percentage (BF%), derived from the measurement offour skinfolds with the equation of Durnin and Womersley, were also measured. The association between MRIVAT measurement and anthropometry was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Mean VAT was 2478 758 ml, mean BMI29.5 4.7 kg/m, and mean WC was 100 9.7 cm. There was a poor correlation between VAT, BMI (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.56). Conclusions: BMI and WC are inaccurate predictors of VAT volume in type 2 diabetic patients.

  13. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  14. Quantification of Information in a One-Way Plant-to-Animal Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurance R. Doyle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate possible broader applications of information theory to the quantification of non-human communication systems, we apply calculations of information entropy to a simple chemical communication from the cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum to the wasp (Cardiochiles nigriceps studied by DeMoraes et al. The purpose of this chemical communication from cotton plants to wasps is presumed to be to allow the predatory wasp to more easily obtain the location of its preferred preyone of two types of parasitic herbivores feeding on the cotton plants. Specification of the plant-eating herbivore feeding on it by the cotton plants allows preferential attraction of the wasps to those individual plants. We interpret the emission of nine chemicals by the plants as individual signal differences, (depending on the herbivore type, to be detected by the wasps as constituting a nine-signal one-way communication system across kingdoms (from the kingdom Plantae to the kingdom Animalia. We use fractional differences in the chemical abundances, (emitted as a result of the two herbivore types, to calculate the Shannon information entropic measures (marginal, joint, and mutual entropies, as well as the ambiguity, etc. of the transmitted message. We then compare these results with the subsequent behavior of the wasps, (calculating the equivocation in the message reception, for possible insights into the history and actual working of this one-way communication system.

  15. Quantification of radiation transformation frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of late lethal mutations in many of the progeny of cells which survive ionizing radiation seriously affects the quantification of transformation frequencies following irradiation. Lethal mutations are particularly relevant where focal assays are used or where transformations are scored following serial passaging of survivors. This paper examines the influence of lethal mutations on the radiation transformation dose response curve for two typical assays, viz. a C3H 10T1/2 focal assay and a primary thyroid serial subculture assay. (author)

  16. Mathematical Models in Schema Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical schema theory is developed. This theory has three roots: brain theory schemas, grid automata, and block-shemas. In Section 2 of this paper, elements of the theory of grid automata necessary for the mathematical schema theory are presented. In Section 3, elements of brain theory necessary for the mathematical schema theory are presented. In Section 4, other types of schemas are considered. In Section 5, the mathematical schema theory is developed...

  17. Quantification of uncertainties of water vapour column retrievals using future instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Diedrich, H.; Preusker, R.; Lindstrot, R.; J Fischer

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a quantification of uncertainties of water vapour retrievals based on near infrared measurements of upcoming instruments. The concepts of three scheduled spectrometer were taken into account: OLCI (Ocean and Land Color Instrument) on Sentinel-3, METimage on MetOp (Meteorological Operational Satellite) and FCI (Flexible Combined Imager) on MTG (Meteosat Third Generation). Optimal estimation theory was used to estimate th...

  18. Mathematical model for biomolecular quantification using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based signal intensity distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palla, Mirko; Bosco, Filippo Giacomo; Yang, Jaeyoung; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Alstrm, Tommy Sonne; Schmidt, Michael Stenbak; Lin, Qiao; Ju, Jingyue; Boisen, Anja

    This paper presents the development of a novel statistical method for quantifying trace amounts of biomolecules by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using a rigorous, single molecule (SM) theory based mathematical derivation. Our quantification framework could be generalized for planar S...

  19. A pH and solvent optimized reverse-phase ion-paring-LCMS/MS method that leverages multiple scan-types for targeted absolute quantification of intracellular metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Gangoiti, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of intracellular biochemistry is needed to accurately understand, model, and manipulate metabolism for industrial and therapeutic applications. Quantitative metabolomics has been driven by advances in analytical instrumentation and can add valuable knowledge to the understanding of intracellular metabolism. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS and LCMS/MS) has become a reliable means with which to quantify a multitude of intracellular metabolites in parallel with great specificity and accuracy. This work details a method that builds and extends upon existing reverse phase ion-paring liquid chromatography methods for separation and detection of polar and anionic compounds that comprise key nodes of intracellular metabolism by optimizing pH and solvent composition. In addition, the presented method utilizes multiple scan types provided by hybrid instrumentation to improve confidence in compound identification. The developed method was validated for a broad coverage of polar and anionic metabolites of intracellular metabolism

  20. Quantification of wastewater sludge dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Samuel J; Studer, Lindsay J; Dixon, David R; Hillis, Peter; Rees, Catherine A; Wall, Rachael C; Cavalida, Raul G; Usher, Shane P; Stickland, Anthony D; Scales, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Quantification and comparison of the dewatering characteristics of fifteen sewage sludges from a range of digestion scenarios are described. The method proposed uses laboratory dewatering measurements and integrity analysis of the extracted material properties. These properties were used as inputs into a model of filtration, the output of which provides the dewatering comparison. This method is shown to be necessary for quantification and comparison of dewaterability as the permeability and compressibility of the sludges varies by up to ten orders of magnitude in the range of solids concentration of interest to industry. This causes a high sensitivity of the dewaterability comparison to the starting concentration of laboratory tests, thus simple dewaterability comparison based on parameters such as the specific resistance to filtration is difficult. The new approach is demonstrated to be robust relative to traditional methods such as specific resistance to filtration analysis and has an in-built integrity check. Comparison of the quantified dewaterability of the fifteen sludges to the relative volatile solids content showed a very strong correlation in the volatile solids range from 40 to 80%. The data indicate that the volatile solids parameter is a strong indicator of the dewatering behaviour of sewage sludges. PMID:26003332

  1. Lax-Phillips scattering theory with perturbations of the type: V(x)=(φ(x))/|x|β, where β=2-(n)/s, φ is an element of Ls(Rn), s > 2 and s ≥ (n)/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scattering theory for the wave equation with compactly supported perturbations was developed by Lax-Phillips in 1967. Using Enss approach, Phillips developed a Lax-Phillips scattering theory with short range perturbations of the type: V(x)=o((1)/|x|β), β > 2. In this paper we develop a scattering theory for more general perturbations, i.e. for V(x)=(φ(x))/|x|β, where β=2-(n)/s, φ is an element of Ls(Rn), s > 2 and s ≥ (n)/2. Refs

  2. Cuantificacin del carbono almacenado en formaciones vegetales amaznicas en "CICRA", Madre de Dios (Per) / Quantification of the carbon storage in amazon vegetation types at "CICRA", Madre de Dios (Peru)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Martel; Lianka, Cairampoma.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La llanura amaznica peruana se caracteriza por la presencia de mltiples formaciones vegetales. stas cada vez reciben mayor impacto por actividades antropognicas tales como la minera y tala. Todo esto, sumado al cambio climtico global, genera desconcierto sobre el futuro de los bosques. La iden [...] tificacin de los niveles de almacenamiento de carbono en reas boscosas, y especficamente en cada formacin vegetal, permitira un mejor manejo de las zonas de conservacin, as como identificar las reas potenciales que serviran para el financiamiento de la absorcin de carbono y otros servicios ambientales. El presente estudio fue desarrollado en la estacin Biolgica del Centro de Investigacin y Capacitacin Ro Los Amigos (CICRA). En el CICRA se identificaron tres formaciones vegetales principales, el bosque de terraza, el bosque inundable y el aguajal. Siendo los bosques de terraza los de mayor extensin y mayor cantidad de carbono acumulado. Como resultado se valoriz la vegetacin presente en el CICRA, en alrededor de 11 millones de dlares americanos. El ingreso a la oferta de los bonos de carbono promovera la conservacin de los bosques. Abstract in english The Peruvian Amazon Basin is characterized by the presence of multiple vegetation types. They are being given great impact by human activities such as mining and, logging. All this, coupled with global climate change, creates confusion about the future of our forests. The identification of levels of [...] carbon storage in forested areas, and specifically in each vegetation type, would allow better management of conservation areas, and then identify potential areas that could serve to finance carbon sequestration and other environmental services. This study was conducted at the Biological Station for Research and Training Center Rio Los Amigos (CICRA, Spanish acronym). At the station three main formations were identified, alluvial terrace forests, flood terrace forests and Mauritia swamps. The alluvial terrace forest presents the most extensive area and the highest amount of carbon stored. As result, CICRA vegetations were valued at approx. 11 millions U.S. dollars. Admission to the supply of carbon credits could promote Amazon forest conservation.

  3. Quantum probability theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rdei, Mikls; Summers, Stephen Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The mathematics of classical probability theory was subsumed into classical measure theory by Kolmogorov in 1933. Quantum theory as nonclassical probability theory was incorporated into the beginnings of noncommutative measure theory by von Neumann in the early thirties, as well. To precisely this end, von Neumann initiated the study of what are now called von Neumann algebras and, with Murray, made a first classification of such algebras into three types. The nonrelativisti...

  4. Detection and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Dialysates

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Denoroy, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive analytical methods are needed for the separation and quantification of neurotransmitters obtained in microdialysate studies. This unit describes methods that permit quantification of nanomolar concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (high-pressure liquid chromatography electrochemical detection), acetylcholine (HPLC-coupled to an enzyme reactor), and amino acids (HPLC-fluorescence detection; capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection).

  5. The necessity of operational risk management and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu Teodora Cristina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the fact that performant strategies of the financial institutions have programmes and management procedures for the banking risks, which have as main objective to minimize the probability of risk generation and the bank’s potential exposure, this paper wants to present the operational risk management and quantification methods. Also it presents the modality of minimum capital requirement for the operational risk. Therefore, the first part presents the conceptual approach of the operational risks through the point of view of the financial institutions exposed to this type of risk. The second part describes the management and evaluation methods for the operational risk. The final part of this article presents the approach assumed by a financial institution with a precise purpose: the quantification of the minimum capital requirements of the operational risk.

  6. Assessment of Factors Affecting Self-Care Behavior Among Women With Type 2 Diabetes in Khoy City Diabetes Clinic Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hajizadeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies show that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating complications is continuous self-care. This study aimed to determine factors affecting self-care behavior of diabetic women in Khoy City, Iran based the extended theory of reasoned action (ETRA. Materials and Methods: A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy City in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the relevant variables (diabetes knowledge, personal beliefs, subjective norm, self-efficacy and behavioral intention, and self-care behavior based on ETRA. Reliability and validity of the instruments were determined prior to the study. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the SPSS-version 16 software.Results: Based on the data obtained, the proposed model could predict and explain 41% and 26.2% of the variance of behavioral intention and self-care, respectively, in women with type-2 diabetes. The data also indicated that among the constructs of the model perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor for intention for self-care behavior. This construct affected both directly and indirectly self-care behavior. The next strongest predictors were attitudes, social pressures, social norms, and intervals between visiting patients by the treating team.Conclusion: The proposed model can predict self-care behavior very well. Thus, it may form the basis for educational interventions aiming at promoting self-care and, ultimately, controlling diabetes.

  7. Rate theory modeling of defect evolution under cascade damage conditions: the influence of vacancy-type cascade remnants and application to the defect production characterization by microstructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent computational and experimental studies have confirmed that high energy cascades produce clustered defects of both vacancy- and interstitial-types as well as isolated point defects. However, the production probability, configuration, stability and other characteristics of the cascade clusters are not well understood in spite of the fact that clustered defect production would substantially affect the irradiation-induced microstructures and the consequent property changes in a certain range of temperatures and displacement rates. In this work, a model of point defect and cluster evolution in irradiated materials under cascade damage conditions was developed by combining the conventional reaction rate theory and the results from the latest molecular dynamics simulation studies. This paper provides a description of the model and a model-based fundamental investigation of the influence of configuration, production efficiency and the initial size distribution of cascade-produced vacancy clusters. In addition, using the model, issues on characterizing cascade-induced defect production by microstructural analysis will be discussed. In particular, the determination of cascade vacancy cluster configuration, surviving defect production efficiency and cascade-interaction volume is attempted by analyzing the temperature dependence of swelling rate and loop growth rate in austenitic steels and model alloys. (author)

  8. ["A Little Bit of Switzerland, a Little Bit of Kosovo". Swiss Immigrants from Former Yugoslavia with Type 2 Diabetes. A Qualitative Study' in Analogy to Grounded Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, A; Mischke, C

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is on the increase among the Swiss immigrants. The cultural background of patients presents new linguistic and sociocultural barriers and gains in importance for health care. In order to develop patient-centred care, it is necessary to focus on different sociocultural aspects in everyday life and experiences of immigrants from the former republics of Yugoslavia with diabetes who have rarely been studied in Switzerland. Based on these insights the needs for counselling can be identified and nursing interventions can be designed accordingly. Using the Grounded Theory approach, 5 interviews were analysed according to the Corbin and Strauss coding paradigm. The central phenomenon found is the experience to live in 2 different cultures. The complexity arises from the tension living in 2 cultural backgrounds at the same time. It turns out that in the country of origin the immigrants adjust their disease management. The changing daily rhythm and the more traditional role model affect aspects of their disease management such as diet and/or drug therapy. The different strategies impact the person's roles, emotions, their everyday lives and their families. It provides an insight into the perspective of Swiss immigrants from the former republics of Yugoslavia suffering from diabetes. Many questions are still unanswered and further research will be required. PMID:26270044

  9. Secular Dynamics of S-type Planetary Orbits in Binary Star Systems: Applicability Domains of First- and Second-Order Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade-Ines, Eduardo; Michtchenko, Tatiana; Robutel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the secular dynamics of planets on S-type coplanar orbits in tight binary systems, based on first- and second-order analytical models, and compare their predictions with full N-body simulations. The perturbation parameter adopted for the development of these models depends on the masses of the stars and on the semimajor axis ratio between the planet and the binary. We show that each model has both advantages and limitations. While the first-order analytical model is algebraically simple and easy to implement, it is only applicable in regions of the parameter space where the perturbations are sufficiently small. The second-order model, although more complex, has a larger range of validity and must be taken into account for dynamical studies of some real exoplanetary systems such as $\\gamma$-Cephei and HD 41004A. However, in some extreme cases, neither of these analytical models yields quantitatively correct results, requiring either higher-order theories or direct numerical simulations. Finally, we ...

  10. The thermodynamic, electronic and elastic properties of the early-transition-metal diborides with AlB{sub 2}-type structure: A density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xuewen, E-mail: xuxuewen@hebut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei Univeristy of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Fu, Kun, E-mail: fukun@hebut.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Hebei Univeristy of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yu, Man, E-mail: 781092332@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei Univeristy of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Lu, Zunming, E-mail: luzm@hebut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei Univeristy of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Zhang, Xinghua, E-mail: zhangxinghua@hebut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei Univeristy of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liu, Guodong, E-mail: gdliu1978@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei Univeristy of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Tang, Chengchun, E-mail: tangcc@hebut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei Univeristy of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: The thermodynamic characters of TMB{sub 2} have been firstly studied using the QHA method. WB{sub 2} and TaB{sub 2} are good candidates for the structural application at high temperature. Most of the early-transition-metal diborides cannot be easily machined. The correlations between elastic constants and VECs of TMB{sub 2} have been discussed. - Abstract: The thermodynamic, electronic and elastic properties of a class of early-transition-metal diborides (TMB{sub 2}, TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W) with AlB{sub 2}-type structure have been investigated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model and the ab initio calculation based on the density functional theory, respectively. According to the characters of temperature dependent bulk modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion, the TMB{sub 2} compounds can be divided into three groups. The results also indicate that 4d- and 5d-TMB{sub 2} compounds are good high-temperature structural materials. The five independent stiffness coefficients, bulk and shear moduli of the diborides are obtained and well agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The correlations between elastic properties and electronic structure are discussed in detail. Due to the high values of hardness, the VIB-transition-metal diborides with relatively high B/G and B/C{sub 44} ratios are still difficult to machine with usual methods.

  11. The thermodynamic, electronic and elastic properties of the early-transition-metal diborides with AlB2-type structure: A density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: The thermodynamic characters of TMB2 have been firstly studied using the QHA method. WB2 and TaB2 are good candidates for the structural application at high temperature. Most of the early-transition-metal diborides cannot be easily machined. The correlations between elastic constants and VECs of TMB2 have been discussed. - Abstract: The thermodynamic, electronic and elastic properties of a class of early-transition-metal diborides (TMB2, TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W) with AlB2-type structure have been investigated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model and the ab initio calculation based on the density functional theory, respectively. According to the characters of temperature dependent bulk modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion, the TMB2 compounds can be divided into three groups. The results also indicate that 4d- and 5d-TMB2 compounds are good high-temperature structural materials. The five independent stiffness coefficients, bulk and shear moduli of the diborides are obtained and well agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The correlations between elastic properties and electronic structure are discussed in detail. Due to the high values of hardness, the VIB-transition-metal diborides with relatively high B/G and B/C44 ratios are still difficult to machine with usual methods

  12. Identification of Important Chemical Features of 11?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type1 Inhibitors: Application of Ligand Based Virtual Screening and Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Woo Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 11-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11HSD1 regulates the conversion from inactive cortisone to active cortisol. Increased cortisol results in diabetes, hence quelling the activity of 11HSD1 has been thought of as an effective approach for the treatment of diabetes. Quantitative hypotheses were developed and validated to identify the critical chemical features with reliable geometric constraints that contribute to the inhibition of 11HSD1 function. The best hypothesis, Hypo1, which contains one-HBA; one-Hy-Ali, and two-RA features, was validated using Fischers randomization method, a test and a decoy set. The well validated, Hypo1, was used as 3D query to perform a virtual screening of three different chemical databases. Compounds selected by Hypo1 in the virtual screening were filtered by applying Lipinskis rule of five, ADMET, and molecular docking. Finally, five hit compounds were selected as virtual novel hit molecules for 11HSD1 based on their electronic properties calculated by Density functional theory.

  13. Identification of important chemical features of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 inhibitors: application of ligand based virtual screening and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Meganathan, Chandrasekaran; Sohn, Young-Sik; Namadevan, Sundaraganesan; Lee, Keun Woo

    2012-01-01

    11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 (11?HSD1) regulates the conversion from inactive cortisone to active cortisol. Increased cortisol results in diabetes, hence quelling the activity of 11?HSD1 has been thought of as an effective approach for the treatment of diabetes. Quantitative hypotheses were developed and validated to identify the critical chemical features with reliable geometric constraints that contribute to the inhibition of 11?HSD1 function. The best hypothesis, Hypo1, which contains one-HBA; one-Hy-Ali, and two-RA features, was validated using Fischer's randomization method, a test and a decoy set. The well validated, Hypo1, was used as 3D query to perform a virtual screening of three different chemical databases. Compounds selected by Hypo1 in the virtual screening were filtered by applying Lipinski's rule of five, ADMET, and molecular docking. Finally, five hit compounds were selected as virtual novel hit molecules for 11?HSD1 based on their electronic properties calculated by Density functional theory. PMID:22606035

  14. Thermal expansion of mullite-type Bi2Al4O9: A study by X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangir Murshed, M.; Mendive, Cecilia B.; Curti, Mariano; ehovi?, Malik; Friedrich, Alexandra; Fischer, Michael; Gesing, Thorsten M.

    2015-09-01

    Polycrystalline Bi2Al4O9 powder samples were synthesized using the glycerine method. Single crystals were produced from the powder product in a Bi2O3 melt. The lattice thermal expansion of the mullite-type compound was studied using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). The metric parameters were modeled using Grneisen approximation for the zero pressure equation of state, where the temperature-dependent vibrational internal energy was calculated from the Debye characteristic frequency. Both the first-order and second-order Grneisen approximations were applied for modeling the volumetric expansion, and the second-order approach provided physically meaningful axial parameters. The phonon density of states as well as phonon dispersion guided to set the characteristic frequency for simulation. The experimental infrared and Raman phonon bands were compared with those calculate from the DFT calculations. Selective Raman modes were analyzed for the thermal anharmonic behaviors using simplified Klemens model. The respective mode Grneisen parameters were calculated from the pressure-dependent Raman spectra.

  15. Accessible quantification of multiparticle entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Cianciaruso, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is a key ingredient for quantum technologies and a fundamental signature of quantumness in a broad range of phenomena encompassing many-body physics, thermodynamics, cosmology, and life sciences. For arbitrary multiparticle systems, the quantification of entanglement typically involves hard optimisation problems, and requires demanding tomographical techniques. In this paper we show that such difficulties can be overcome by developing an experimentally friendly method to evaluate measures of multiparticle entanglement via a geometric approach. The method provides exact analytical results for a relevant class of mixed states of $N$ qubits, and computable lower bounds to entanglement for any general state. For practical purposes, the entanglement determination requires local measurements in just three settings for any $N$. We demonstrate the power of our approach to quantify multiparticle entanglement in $N$-qubit bound entangled states and other states recently engineered in laboratory using quant...

  16. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team management of chronic disease such as diabetes, however, the application of such models is less well established. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors underlying health professional teams' clinical management of diabetes using a psychological model of human behaviour. Methods A predictive questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB investigated health professionals' (HPs' cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes and intentions about the provision of two aspects of care for patients with diabetes: prescribing statins and inspecting feet. General practitioners and practice nurses in England and the Netherlands completed parallel questionnaires, cross-validated for equivalence in English and Dutch. Behavioural data were practice-level patient-reported rates of foot examination and use of statin medication. Relationships between the cognitive antecedents of behaviour proposed by the TPB and healthcare teams' clinical behaviour were explored using multiple regression. Results In both countries, attitude and subjective norm were important predictors of health professionals' intention to inspect feet (Attitude: beta = .40; Subjective Norm: beta = .28; Adjusted R2 = .34, p 2 = .40, p Conclusion Using the TPB, we identified modifiable factors underlying health professionals' intentions to perform two clinical behaviours, providing a rationale for the development of targeted interventions. However, we did not observe a relationship between health professionals' intentions and our proxy measure of team behaviour. Significant methodological issues were highlighted concerning the use of models of individual behaviour to explain behaviours performed by teams. In order to investigate clinical behaviours performed by teams it may be necessary to develop measures that reflect the collective cognitions of the members of the team to facilitate the application of these theoretical models to team behaviours.

  17. Quantification of Flow Structures in Syntectonic Magmatic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruhl, J. H.; Gerik, A.

    2007-12-01

    Fabrics of syntectonic magmatic rocks provide important information on melt emplacement and crystallization conditions and, consequently, information on state and development of certain parts of the continental crust. Therefore, detailed studies on magmatic fabrics and, specifically, their quantification is a necessary prerequisite for any more detailed study. Fabric anisotropy and heterogeneity are fundamental properties of magmatic rocks. Their quantification can be performed by recently developed modified methods of fractal geometry. (i) A modified Cantor-dust method leads to a direction-related fractal dimension and, consequently, to quantification of fabric anisotropy. (ii) A modified perimeter method allows determination of fractal dimensions of complex curves in relation to their average orientations. (iii) A combination of box-counting method with kriging results in a contour map of the box-counting dimension, revealing the local fabric heterogeneity. (iv) A combination of method iii and a modified Cantor-dust method leads to mapping of fabric anisotropy (Kruhl et al. 2004, Peternell et al. subm.). Automation of these methods allows fast recording, generation of large data sets and the application of quantification methods on large areas (Gerik & Kruhl subm.). It leads to a precision of fabric analysis, not obtainable by manual execution of methods. Specifically, the direction-related Cantor-dust method has proven useful for analyzing magmatic flow structures and quantifying the intensity of flow. Application of this method to different types of syntectonic magmatic rocks will be presented and discussed. References: Gerik, A. & Kruhl, J.H.: Towards automated pattern quantification: time-efficient assessment of anisotropy of 2D pattern with AMOCADO. Computers & Geosciences (subm.). Kruhl, J.H., Andries, F., Peternell, M. & Volland, S. 2004: Fractal geometry analyses of rock fabric anisotropies and inhomogeneities. In: Kolymbas, D. (ed.), Fractals in Geotechnical Engineering, Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and Tunnelling, 9, Logos, Berlin, 115-135. Peternell, M., Bitencourt, M.F. & Kruhl, J.H.: New methods for large-scale rock fabric quantification - the Piquiri Syenite Massif, Southern Brazil. Journal of Structural Geology (subm.)

  18. Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeon Sik; Min, Jung Joon; Lee, Byeong Il [Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Seo [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Tak, Yoon O; Choi, Heung Kook; Lee, Ju Young [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

  19. Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

  20. A shear deformable theory of laminated composite shallow shell-type panels and their response analysis. I - Free vibration and buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librescu, L.; Khdeir, A. A.; Frederick, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the substantiation of a shear deformable theory of cross-ply laminated composite shallow shells. While the developed theory preserves all the advantages of the first order transverse shear deformation theory it succeeds in eliminating some of its basic shortcomings. The theory is further employed in the analysis of the eigenvibration and static buckling problems of doubly curved shallow panels. In this context, the state space concept is used in conjunction with the Levy method, allowing one to analyze these problems in a unified manner, for a variety of boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented and some pertinent conclusions are formulated.

  1. Multiplexed protein quantification with barcoded hydrogel microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, David C; Chapin, Stephen C; Doyle, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of graphically encoded hydrogel microparticles for the sensitive and high-throughput multiplexed detection of clinically relevant protein panels in complex media. Combining established antibody capture techniques with advances in both microfluidic synthesis and analysis, we detected 1-8 pg/mL amounts of three cytokines (interleuken-2, interleuken-4, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) in single and multiplexed assays without the need for filtration or blocking agents. A range of hydrogel porosities was investigated to ensure rapid diffusion of targets and reagents into the particle as well as to maintain the structural integrity of particles during rinsing procedures and high-velocity microfluidic scanning. Covalent incorporation of capture antibodies using a heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) linker enabled one-step synthesis and functionalization of particles using only small amounts of valuable reagents. In addition to the use of three separate types of single-probe particles, the flexibility of the stop-flow lithography (SFL) method was leveraged to spatially segregate the three probes for the aforementioned target set on an individual encoded particle, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of single-particle diagnostic panels. This study establishes the gel-particle platform as a versatile tool for the efficient quantification of protein targets and significantly advances efforts to extend the advantages of both hydrogel substrates and particle-based arrays to the field of clinical proteomics. PMID:21142122

  2. Dempster-Shafer theory and connections to information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Joseph S. J.

    2013-05-01

    The Dempster-Shafer theory is founded on probability theory. The entire machinery of probability theory, and that of measure theory, is at one's disposal for the understanding and the extension of the Dempster-Shafer theory. It is well known that information theory is also founded on probability theory. Claude Shannon developed, in the 1940's, the basic concepts of the theory and demonstrated their utility in communications and coding. Shannonian information theory is not, however, the only type of information theory. In the 1960's and 1970's, further developments in this field were made by French and Italian mathematicians. They developed information theory axiomatically, and discovered not only the Wiener- Shannon composition law, but also the hyperbolic law and the Inf-law. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the mathematical connections between the Dempster Shafer theory and the various types of information theory. A simple engineering example will be used to demonstrate the utility of the concepts.

  3. Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT: A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkett Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

  4. e/a classification of HumeRothery Rhombic Triacontahedron-type approximants based on all-electron density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, U; Inukai, M; Sato, H; Zijlstra, E S; Lin, Q

    2014-05-16

    There are three key electronic parameters in elucidating the physics behind the HumeRothery electron concentration rule: the square of the Fermi diameter (2kF)2, the square of the critical reciprocal lattice vector and the electron concentration parameter or the number of itinerant electrons per atom e/a. We have reliably determined these three parameters for 10 Rhombic Triacontahedron-type 2/12/12/1 (N?=?680) and 1/11/11/1 (N?=?160162) approximants by making full use of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave-Fourier band calculations based on all-electron density-functional theory. We revealed that the 2/12/12/1 approximants Al13Mg27Zn45 and Na27Au27Ga31 belong to two different sub-groups classified in terms of equal to 126 and 109 and could explain why they take different e/a values of 2.13 and 1.76, respectively. Among eight 1/11/11/1 approximants Al3Mg4Zn3, Al9Mg8Ag3, Al21Li13Cu6, Ga21Li13Cu6, Na26Au24Ga30, Na26Au37Ge18, Na26Au37Sn18 and Na26Cd40Pb6, the first two, the second two and the last four compounds were classified into three sub-groups with ?=?50, 46 and 42; and were claimed to obey the e/a?=?2.30, 2.102.15 and 1.701.80 rules, respectively.

  5. An investigation of psychological distress among patients with Type 2 diabetes considered in the light of the scope of Conservation of Resources theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi GEK YORULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes is an important disease with an every day increasing prelevance. Diabetes patients experience psychological problems as well as physical problems which may negatively influence treatment process. If the psychological distress level of patients and related factors were determined, more healthy physical treatments could be carried out. For this reason, the aim of this study was to assess anxiety, depression and psychological distress (total score of anxiety+depression and the related factors (i.e., ways of coping, perceived social support, self efficiency in relation to diabetes, expressed emotions, and loss of resources among patients with Type 2 diabetes in the light of the scope of Conservation of Resources theory. Patients and Methods: Sociodemographic and Illness Information form and also six different scales about psychological distress and related factors were administered to 116 diabetes patients. To investigate the relationship between the variables the independent samples t test, regression and correlation analysis were performed. Results: It was found that nearly half of the diabetes patients exprienced high levels of anxiety and depression. More importantly, it was observed that helplessness coping and resource loss were positively related to all psychological problems. However, optimistic coping was negatively associated with such psychological problems. In addition, it was indicated that increased emotional over-involvement domain of expressed emotion was only associated with decrease in general psychological distress. Conclusion: It was found that resource loss, coping strategies and expressed emotions were found to be related to psychological distress. It was suggested that psychological intervention programs should focus on issues identified in this study.

  6. Superspace conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  7. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  8. Nonrelativistic superstring theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a supersymmetric version of the critical nonrelativistic bosonic string theory [B. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. D 76, 106007 (2007).] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc conformal field theory (CFT) which is the super partner of the ?? CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are nonchiral. We further consider noncritical generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical nonrelativistic string theory and the lightlike linear dilaton theory

  9. Matrix Theory on Non-Orientable Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, Gysbert

    1997-01-01

    We construct the Matrix theory descriptions of M-theory on the Mobius strip and the Klein bottle. In a limit, these provide the matrix string theories for the CHL string and an orbifold of type IIA string theory.

  10. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda, the article introduces a key literature from philosophy of science about the structure of theory, and particularly about the way even natural science uses theory very differently from what IRs mainstream thinks - and much more like the way Waltz wants his theory used.

  11. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Summary: Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas--liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  12. Thermal behavior of dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations of a cylindrical Ising nanotube in an oscillating magnetic field within the effective-field theory and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram, E-mail: bayram.deviren@nevsehir.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2012-02-20

    The dynamical aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanotube in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and Glauber-type stochastic approach. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, dynamic total magnetization, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature of dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures and compensation behaviors. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and core, i.e., five different types of compensation behaviors in the Nel classification nomenclature exist in the system. -- Highlights: ? Kinetic cylindrical Ising nanotube is investigated using the effective-field theory. ? The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ? The effects of the exchange interactions have been studied in detail. ? Five different types of compensation behaviors have been found. ? Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on ratio of physical parameters.

  13. Thermal behavior of dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations of a cylindrical Ising nanotube in an oscillating magnetic field within the effective-field theory and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamical aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanotube in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and Glauber-type stochastic approach. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, dynamic total magnetization, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature of dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures and compensation behaviors. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and core, i.e., five different types of compensation behaviors in the Nel classification nomenclature exist in the system. -- Highlights: ? Kinetic cylindrical Ising nanotube is investigated using the effective-field theory. ? The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ? The effects of the exchange interactions have been studied in detail. ? Five different types of compensation behaviors have been found. ? Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on ratio of physical parameters.

  14. Uncertainty Quantification in Aerodynamics Simulations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The objective of the proposed work (Phases I and II) is to develop uncertainty quantification methodologies and software suitable for use in CFD simulations of...

  15. Mathematical Models in Schema Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, M

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical schema theory is developed. This theory has three roots: brain theory schemas, grid automata, and block-shemas. In Section 2 of this paper, elements of the theory of grid automata necessary for the mathematical schema theory are presented. In Section 3, elements of brain theory necessary for the mathematical schema theory are presented. In Section 4, other types of schemas are considered. In Section 5, the mathematical schema theory is developed. The achieved level of schema representation allows one to model by mathematical tools virtually any type of schemas considered before, including schemas in neurophisiology, psychology, computer science, Internet technology, databases, logic, and mathematics.

  16. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by different methods have become increasingly important for various applications at the cellular level. In order to understand how these nanostructures “behave” and for studying their internalization kinetics, several attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic pH-dependent dye pHrodo™ Red, covalently bound to the aminosilane surface. Time-lapse live imaging of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells interacting with the labeled iron nanowires is performed for 24 hours. As the pHrodo™ Red conjugated nanowires are non-fluorescent outside the cells but fluoresce brightly inside, internalized nanowires are distinguished from non-internalized ones and their behavior inside the cells can be tracked for the respective time length. A machine learning-based computational framework dedicated to automatic analysis of live cell imaging data, Cell Cognition, is adapted and used to classify cells with internalized and non-internalized nanowires and subsequently determine the uptake percentage by cells at different time points. An uptake of 85 % by HCT 116 cells is observed after 24 hours incubation at NW-to-cell ratios of 200. While the approach of using pHrodo™ Red for internalization studies is not novel in the literature, this study reports for the first time the utilization of a machine-learning based time-resolved automatic analysis pipeline for quantification of nanowire uptake by cells. This pipeline has also been used for comparison studies with nickel nanowires coated with APTES and labeled with pHrodo™ Red, and another cell line derived from the cervix carcinoma, HeLa. It has thus the potential to be used for studying the interaction of different types of nanostructures with potentially any live cell types.

  17. Vague quantification in the scientific journal article

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, David

    2014-01-01

    Bien que lcriture scientifique soit en gnral considre prcise, elle contient un nombre significatif dexemples de quantification imprcise. Ltude dun petit corpus de six articles de recherche scientifique dmontre que les expressions constitues uniquement de mots sont distribues diffremment par rapport aux expressions comprenant des chiffres. Dans certains cas, limprcision est compense lintrieur mme du texte. Lusage de la quantification imprcise est li au phnomne de h...

  18. Tractability of Theory Patching

    CERN Document Server

    Argamon-Engelson, S

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of `theory patching', in which we are given a domain theory, some of whose components are indicated to be possibly flawed, and a set of labeled training examples for the domain concept. The theory patching problem is to revise only the indicated components of the theory, such that the resulting theory correctly classifies all the training examples. Theory patching is thus a type of theory revision in which revisions are made to individual components of the theory. Our concern in this paper is to determine for which classes of logical domain theories the theory patching problem is tractable. We consider both propositional and first-order domain theories, and show that the theory patching problem is equivalent to that of determining what information contained in a theory is `stable' regardless of what revisions might be performed to the theory. We show that determining stability is tractable if the input theory satisfies two conditions: that revisions to each theory compone...

  19. Uncertainty Quantification in Solidification Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezi, K.; Krane, M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Numerical models have been used to simulate solidification processes, to gain insight into physical phenomena that cannot be observed experimentally. Often validation of such models has been done through comparison to a few or single experiments, in which agreement is dependent on both model and experimental uncertainty. As a first step to quantifying the uncertainty in the models, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were performed on a simple steady state 1D solidification model of continuous casting of weld filler rod. This model includes conduction, advection, and release of latent heat was developed for use in uncertainty quantification in the calculation of the position of the liquidus and solidus and the solidification time. Using this model, a Smolyak sparse grid algorithm constructed a response surface that fit model outputs based on the range of uncertainty in the inputs to the model. The response surface was then used to determine the probability density functions (PDF's) of the model outputs and sensitivities of the inputs. This process was done for a linear fraction solid and temperature relationship, for which there is an analytical solution, and a Scheil relationship. Similar analysis was also performed on a transient 2D model of solidification in a rectangular domain.

  20. A Theory of Noninterference for the ?-Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafa, Silvia; Rossi, Sabina

    We develop a theory of noninterference for a typed version of the ?-calculus where types are used to assign secrecy levels to channels. We provide two equivalent characterizations of noninterference based on a typed behavioural equivalence relative to a security level ?, which captures the idea of external observers of level ?. The first characterization involves a universal quantification over all the possible active attacks, i.e., malicious processes which interact with the system possibly leaking secret information. The second definition of noninterference is expressed in terms of an unwinding condition, which deals with so-called passive attacks trying to infer confidential information just by observing the behaviour of the system. This unwinding-based characterization naturally leads to efficient methods for the verification and construction of (compositional) secure systems. Furthermore, we characterize noninterference in terms of bisimulation-like (partial) equivalence relations in the style of a stream of similar studies for other process calculi (e.g., CCS and CryptoSPA) and languages (e.g., imperative and multi-threaded languages).

  1. One-step RT-droplet digital PCR: a breakthrough in the quantification of waterborne RNA viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ra?ki, Nejc; Morisset, Dany; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Ravnikar, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Water contamination by viruses has an increasing worldwide impact on human health, and has led to requirements for accurate and quantitative molecular tools. Here, we report the first one-step reverse-transcription droplet digital PCR-based absolute quantification of a RNA virus (rotavirus) in different types of surface water samples. This quantification method proved to be more precise and more tolerant to inhibitory substances than the benchmarking reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-qP...

  2. Uncertainty Quantification for Safeguards Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the scientific method requires all calculated and measured results to be accompanied by a description that meets user needs and provides an adequate statement of the confidence one can have in the results. The scientific art of generating quantitative uncertainty statements is closely related to the mathematical disciplines of applied statistics, sensitivity analysis, optimization, and inversion, but in the field of non-destructive assay, also often draws heavily on expert judgment based on experience. We call this process uncertainty quantification, (UQ). Philosophical approaches to UQ along with the formal tools available for UQ have advanced considerably over recent years and these advances, we feel, may be useful to include in the analysis of data gathered from safeguards instruments. This paper sets out what we hope to achieve during a three year US DOE NNSA research project recently launched to address the potential of advanced UQ to improve safeguards conclusions. By way of illustration we discuss measurement of uranium enrichment by the enrichment meter principle (also known as the infinite thickness technique), that relies on gamma counts near the 186 keV peak directly from 235U. This method has strong foundations in fundamental physics and so we have a basis for the choice of response model although in some implementations, peak area extraction may result in a bias when applied over a wide dynamic range. It also allows us to describe a common but usually neglected aspect of applying a calibration curve, namely the error structure in the predictors. We illustrate this using a combination of measured data and simulation. (author)

  3. Identification and Quantification of Carbonate Species Using Rock-Eval Pyrolysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pillot D.; Deville E.; Prinzhofer A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new reliable and rapid method to characterise and quantify carbonates in solid samples based on monitoring the CO2 flux emitted by progressive thermal decomposition of carbonates during a programmed heating. The different peaks of destabilisation allow determining the different types of carbonates present in the analysed sample. The quantification of each peak gives the respective proportions of these diffe...

  4. Ex vivo activity quantification in micrometastases at the cellular scale using the ?-camera technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chouin, Nicolas; Lindegren, Sture

    2013-01-01

    Targeted ?-therapy (TAT) appears to be an ideal therapeutic technique for eliminating malignant circulating, minimal residual, or micrometastatic cells. These types of malignancies are typically infraclinical, complicating the evaluation of potential treatments. This study presents a method of ex vivo activity quantification with an ?-camera device, allowing measurement of the activity taken up by tumor cells in biologic structures a few tens of microns.

  5. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    nl, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure. PMID:26595290

  6. A PCR-based tool for cultivation-independent detection and quantification of Metarhizium clade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Rehner, S A; Widmer, F; Enkerli, J

    2011-10-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and sister species are some of the most widely used biological control agents for insects. Availability of specific monitoring and quantification tools are essential for the investigation of environmental factors influencing their environmental distribution. Naturally occurring as well as released Metarhizium strains in the environment traditionally are monitored with cultivation-dependent techniques. However, specific detection and quantification may be limited due to the lack of a defined and reliable detection range of such methods. Cultivation-independent PCR-based detection and quantification tools offer high throughput analyses of target taxa in various environments. In this study a cultivation-independent PCR-based method was developed, which allows for specific detection and quantification of the defined Metarhizium clade 1, which is formed by the species Metarhizium majus, Metarhizium guizhouense, Metarhizium pingshaense, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium robertsii and Metarhiziumbrunneum, formerly included in the M. anisopliae cryptic species complex. This method is based on the use of clade-specific primers, i.e. Ma 1763 and Ma 2097, that are positioned within the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster, respectively. BLAST similarity searches and empirical specificity tests performed on target and non-target species, as well as on bulk soil DNA samples, demonstrated specificity of this diagnostic tool for the targeted Metarhizium clade 1. Testing of the primer pair in qPCR assays validated the diagnostic method for specific quantification of Metarhizium clade 1 in complex bulk soil DNA samples that significantly correlated with cultivation-dependent quantification. The new tool will allow for highly specific and rapid detection and quantification of the targeted Metarhizium clade 1 in the environment. Habitat with high Metarhizium clade 1 densities can then be analyzed for habitat preferences in greater detail using cultivation-dependent techniques and genetic typing of isolates. PMID:21821039

  7. Damage quantification of shear buildings using deflections obtained by modal flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a damage quantification method for shear buildings using the damage-induced inter-storey deflections (DI-IDs) estimated by the modal flexibilities from ambient vibration measurements. This study intends to provide a basis for the damage quantification problem of more complex building structures by investigating a rather idealized type of structures, shear buildings. Damage in a structure represented by loss of stiffness generally induces additional deflection, which may contain essential information about the damage. From an analytical investigation, the general equation of damage quantification by the damage-induced deflection is proposed and its special case for shear buildings is also proposed based on the damage-induced inter-storey deflection. The proposed damage quantification method is advantageous compared to conventional FE updating approaches since the number of variables in the optimization problem is only dependent on the complexity of damage parametrization, not on the complexity of the structure. For this reason, the damage quantification for shear buildings is simplified to a form that does not require any FE updating. Numerical and experimental studies on a five-storey shear building were carried out for two damage scenarios with 10% column EI reductions. From the numerical study, it was found that the lower four natural frequencies and mode shapes were enough to make errors in the deflection estimation and the damage quantification below 1%. From the experimental study, deflections estimated by the modal flexibilities were found to agree well with the deflections obtained from static push-over tests. Damage quantifications by the proposed method were also found to agree well with true amounts of damage obtained from static push-over tests

  8. Inverse problems Tikhonov theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    Inverse problems arise in practical applications whenever one needs to deduce unknowns from observables. This monograph is a valuable contribution to the highly topical field of computational inverse problems. Both mathematical theory and numerical algorithms for model-based inverse problems are discussed in detail. The mathematical theory focuses on nonsmooth Tikhonov regularization for linear and nonlinear inverse problems. The computational methods include nonsmooth optimization algorithms, direct inversion methods and uncertainty quantification via Bayesian inference. The book offers a c

  9. D. M. Armstrong on the Identity Theory of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Shanjendu Nath

    2013-01-01

    The Identity theory of mind occupies an important place in the history of philosophy. This theory is one of the important representations of the materialistic philosophy. This theory is known as "Materialist Monist Theory of Mind". Sometimes it is called "Type Physicalism", "Type Identity" or "Type-Type Theory" or "Mind-Brain Identity Theory". This theory appears in the philosophical domain as a reaction to the failure of Behaviourism. A number of philosophers developed this theory and among...

  10. Synthesis of nanodiamond derivatives carrying amino functions and quantification by a modified Kaiser test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Jarre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanodiamonds functionalized with different organic moieties carrying terminal amino groups have been synthesized. These include conjugates generated by Diels–Alder reactions of ortho-quinodimethanes formed in situ from pyrazine and 5,6-dihydrocyclobuta[d]pyrimidine derivatives. For the quantification of primary amino groups a modified photometric assay based on the Kaiser test has been developed and validated for different types of aminated nanodiamond. The results correspond well to values obtained by thermogravimetry. The method represents an alternative wet-chemical quantification method in cases where other techniques like elemental analysis fail due to unfavourable combustion behaviour of the analyte or other impediments.

  11. Coding Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lint, J.H. van; Nieuwland, G.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Coding theory lies naturally at the intersection of a large number of disciplines in pure and applied mathematics: algebra and number theory, probability theory and statistics, communication theory, discrete mathematics and combinatorics, complexity theory, and statistical physics. The workshop on coding theory covered many facets of the recent research advances.

  12. WaveletQuant, an improved quantification software based on wavelet signal threshold de-noising for labeled quantitative proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative proteomics technologies have been developed to comprehensively identify and quantify proteins in two or more complex samples. Quantitative proteomics based on differential stable isotope labeling is one of the proteomics quantification technologies. Mass spectrometric data generated for peptide quantification are often noisy, and peak detection and definition require various smoothing filters to remove noise in order to achieve accurate peptide quantification. Many traditional smoothing filters, such as the moving average filter, Savitzky-Golay filter and Gaussian filter, have been used to reduce noise in MS peaks. However, limitations of these filtering approaches often result in inaccurate peptide quantification. Here we present the WaveletQuant program, based on wavelet theory, for better or alternative MS-based proteomic quantification. Results We developed a novel discrete wavelet transform (DWT and a 'Spatial Adaptive Algorithm' to remove noise and to identify true peaks. We programmed and compiled WaveletQuant using Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition. We then incorporated the WaveletQuant program in the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP, a commonly used open source proteomics analysis pipeline. Conclusions We showed that WaveletQuant was able to quantify more proteins and to quantify them more accurately than the ASAPRatio, a program that performs quantification in the TPP pipeline, first using known mixed ratios of yeast extracts and then using a data set from ovarian cancer cell lysates. The program and its documentation can be downloaded from our website at http://systemsbiozju.org/data/WaveletQuant.

  13. Accurate material quantification in dual energy CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Gilad; Thran, Axel; Katchalski, Tsvi

    2012-03-01

    Clinical CT applications such as oncology follow-up using iodine maps require accurate contrast agent (CA) quantification within the patient. Unfortunately, due to beam hardening, the quantification of CA materials like iodine in dual energy systems can vary for different patient sizes and surrounding composition. In this paper we present a novel method that handles this problem which takes into account properly the CA energy dependent attenuation profile. Our method is applicable for different dual energy scanners, e.g. fast kVp switching or dual layer detector array and is fully compatible with image domain material analysis. In this paper we explain the concept of so called landmarks used by our method, and give the mathematical formulation of how to calculate them. We demonstrate by scans of various phantom shapes and by simulations, the robustness and the accuracy of the iodine concentration quantification obtained by our method.

  14. Comparison of five DNA quantification methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hedman, Johannes; Niedersttter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Morling, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Six commercial preparations of human genomic DNA were quantified using five quantification methods: UV spectrometry, SYBR-Green dye staining, slot blot hybridization with the probe D17Z1, Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit and RB1 rt-PCR. All methods measured higher DNA concentrations than...... expected based on the information by the manufacturers. UV spectrometry, SYBR-Green dye staining, slot blot and RB1 rt-PCR gave 39, 27, 11 and 12%, respectively, higher concentrations than expected based on the manufacturers' information. The DNA preparations were quantified using the Quantifiler Human DNA...... Quantification kit in two experiments. The measured DNA concentrations with Quantifiler were 125 and 160% higher than expected based on the manufacturers' information. When the Quantifiler human DNA standard (Raji cell line) was replaced by the commercial human DNA preparation G147A (Promega) to generate the DNA...

  15. Quantification of nerolidol in mouse plasma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Alexandre Yukio; Sussmann, Rodrigo Antonio Ceschini; Kimura, Emilia Akemi; Cassera, Maria Belen; Katzin, Alejandro Miguel

    2015-07-10

    Nerolidol is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene found in the essential oils of many types of flowers and plants. It is frequently used in cosmetics, as a food flavoring agent, and in cleaning products. In addition, nerolidol is used as a skin penetration enhancer for transdermal delivery of therapeutic drugs. However, nerolidol is hemolytic at low concentrations. A simple and fast GC-MS method was developed for preliminary quantification and assessment of biological interferences of nerolidol in mouse plasma after oral dosing. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.010-5 ?g/mL nerolidol in mouse plasma with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.99. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.0017 and 0.0035 ?g/mL, respectively. The optimized method was successfully applied to the quantification of nerolidol in mouse plasma. PMID:25880240

  16. Quantification of brain lipids by FTIR spectroscopy and partial least squares regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreissig, Isabell; Machill, Susanne; Salzer, Reiner; Krafft, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Brain tissue is characterized by high lipid content. Its content decreases and the lipid composition changes during transformation from normal brain tissue to tumors. Therefore, the analysis of brain lipids might complement the existing diagnostic tools to determine the tumor type and tumor grade. Objective of this work is to extract lipids from gray matter and white matter of porcine brain tissue, record infrared (IR) spectra of these extracts and develop a quantification model for the main lipids based on partial least squares (PLS) regression. IR spectra of the pure lipids cholesterol, cholesterol ester, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, galactocerebroside and sulfatide were used as references. Two lipid mixtures were prepared for training and validation of the quantification model. The composition of lipid extracts that were predicted by the PLS regression of IR spectra was compared with lipid quantification by thin layer chromatography.

  17. Techniques for quantification of liver fat in risk stratification of diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty liver disease plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Accurate techniques for detection and quantification of liver fat are essential for clinical diagnostics. Chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a simple approach to quantify liver fat content. Liver fat quantification using chemical shift-encoded MRI is influenced by several bias factors, such as T2* decay, T1 recovery and the multispectral complexity of fat. The confounder corrected proton density fat fraction is a simple approach to quantify liver fat with comparable results independent of the software and hardware used. The proton density fat fraction is an accurate biomarker for assessment of liver fat. An accurate and reproducible quantification of liver fat using chemical shift-encoded MRI requires a calculation of the proton density fat fraction. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of DNA and RNA quantification methods suitable for parameter estimation in metabolic modeling of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mey, Marjan; Lequeux, Gaspard; Maertens, Jo; De Maeseneire, Sofie; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-06-15

    Recent developments in cellular and molecular biology require the accurate quantification of DNA and RNA in large numbers of samples at a sensitivity that enables determination on small quantities. In this study, five current methods for nucleic acid quantification were compared: (i) UV absorbance spectroscopy at 260 nm, (ii) colorimetric reaction with orcinol reagent, (iii) colorimetric reaction based on diphenylamine, (iv) fluorescence detection with Hoechst 33258 reagent, and (v) fluorescence detection with thiazole orange reagent. Genomic DNA of three different microbial species (with widely different G+C content) was used, as were two different types of yeast RNA and a mixture of equal quantities of DNA and RNA. We can conclude that for nucleic acid quantification, a standard curve with DNA of the microbial strain under study is the best reference. Fluorescence detection with Hoechst 33258 reagent is a sensitive and precise method for DNA quantification if the G+C content is less than 50%. In addition, this method allows quantification of very low levels of DNA (nanogram scale). Moreover, the samples can be crude cell extracts. Also, UV absorbance at 260 nm and fluorescence detection with thiazole orange reagent are sensitive methods for nucleic acid detection, but only if purified nucleic acids need to be measured. PMID:16545766

  19. Uncertainty quantification metrics for whole product life cycle cost estimates in aerospace innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, O.; Shehab, E.; Erkoyuncu, J.

    2015-08-01

    The lack of defensible methods for quantifying cost estimate uncertainty over the whole product life cycle of aerospace innovations such as propulsion systems or airframes poses a significant challenge to the creation of accurate and defensible cost estimates. Based on the axiomatic definition of uncertainty as the actual prediction error of the cost estimate, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of metrics used for the uncertainty quantification of cost estimates based on a literature review, an evaluation of publicly funded projects such as part of the CORDIS or Horizon 2020 programs, and an analysis of established approaches used by organizations such NASA, the U.S. Department of Defence, the ESA, and various commercial companies. The metrics are categorized based on their foundational character (foundations), their use in practice (state-of-practice), their availability for practice (state-of-art) and those suggested for future exploration (state-of-future). Insights gained were that a variety of uncertainty quantification metrics exist whose suitability depends on the volatility of available relevant information, as defined by technical and cost readiness level, and the number of whole product life cycle phases the estimate is intended to be valid for. Information volatility and number of whole product life cycle phases can hereby be considered as defining multi-dimensional probability fields admitting various uncertainty quantification metric families with identifiable thresholds for transitioning between them. The key research gaps identified were the lacking guidance grounded in theory for the selection of uncertainty quantification metrics and lacking practical alternatives to metrics based on the Central Limit Theorem. An innovative uncertainty quantification framework consisting of; a set-theory based typology, a data library, a classification system, and a corresponding input-output model are put forward to address this research gap as the basis for future work in this field.

  20. Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nicolas Kaufmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

  1. Trace elements quantification in Portuguese red wines

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Susana Isabel Barros dos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize Portuguese red wines in terms of trace elements composition. The wines were chosen so that all the country was represented and studied. For trace elements quantification (As, Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb) were tested various sample treatments including for all trace elements: acid digestion or presence and absence of spike. The need for H2O2 addition in order to oxidize organic compounds was analyzed for Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb. Quantification of all trace el...

  2. From M-theory to F-theory, with Branes

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Clifford V

    1997-01-01

    A duality relationship between certain brane configurations in type IIA and type IIB string theory is explored by exploiting the geometrical origins of each theory in M-theory. The configurations are dual ways of realising the non-perturbative dynamics of a four dimensional N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory with four or fewer favours of fermions in the fundamental, and the spectral curve which organizes these dynamics plays a prominent role in each case. This is an illus...

  3. El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} space-time, hydrodynamic model of scale relativity theory and some applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agop, M. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece) and Department of Physics, Technical Gh., Asachi University, Iasi 700050 (Romania)]. E-mail: magop@phys.tuiasi.ro; Nica, P. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece); Department of Physics, Technical Gh., Asachi University, Iasi 700050 (Romania); Ioannou, P.D. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece); Malandraki, Olga [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece); Gavanas-Pahomi, I. [Department of Physics, Technical Gh., Asachi University, Iasi 700050 (Romania)

    2007-12-15

    A generalization of the Nottale's scale relativity theory is elaborated: the generalized Schroedinger equation results as an irrotational movement of Navier-Stokes type fluids having an imaginary viscosity coefficient. Then {psi} simultaneously becomes wave-function and speed potential. In the hydrodynamic formulation of scale relativity theory, some implications in the gravitational morphogenesis of structures are analyzed: planetary motion quantizations, Saturn's rings motion quantizations, redshift quantization in binary galaxies, global redshift quantization etc. The correspondence with El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} space-time implies a special type of superconductivity (El Naschie's superconductivity) and Cantorian-fractal sequences in the quantification of the Universe.

  4. Mssbauer spectroscopy, nuclear inelastic scattering and density functional theory studies on oxobridged iron complexes and their reaction under Gif-type conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation comprises studies of the Gif reaction of trinuclear oxobridged iron complexes aimed at predicting the intermediates formed during the Gif reaction. The experimental techniques used in these studies were 57Fe transmission Mssbauer spectroscopy and synchrotron-based nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS). Quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory were also used to interpret the experimental results. Because NIS has rarely been applied to study catalytic r...

  5. Quantification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Representing Distinct Genotypes and Isolated from Domestic and Wildlife Animal Species by Use of an Automatic Liquid Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Abendao, Naiara; Sevilla, Iker; Prieto, Jos M.; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramon A.; Alonso-Hearn, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of 11 clinical strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from domestic (cattle, sheep, and goat) and wildlife (fallow deer, deer, wild boar, and bison) animal species in an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960) was accomplished. The strains were previously isolated and typed using IS1311 PCR followed by restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA) into type C, S, or B. A strain-specific quantification curve was generated for each M. avium subsp....

  6. Matrix string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Mathematics; Verlinde, E. [TH-Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universtity of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verlinde, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states. (orig.).

  7. Matrix String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.

    1997-01-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  8. Introduction to superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2009-07-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

  9. Introduction to superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS5 x S5. (author)

  10. Matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states. (orig.)

  11. Uncovering the underlying physical mechanisms of biological systems via quantification of landscape and flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Xiakun, Chu; Zhiqiang, Yan; Xiliang, Zheng; Kun, Zhang; Feng, Zhang; Han, Yan; Wei, Wu; Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we explore the physical mechanisms of biological processes such as protein folding and recognition, ligand binding, and systems biology, including cell cycle, stem cell, cancer, evolution, ecology, and neural networks. Our approach is based on the landscape and flux theory for nonequilibrium dynamical systems. This theory provides a unifying principle and foundation for investigating the underlying mechanisms and physical quantification of biological systems. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21190040, 11174105, 91225114, 91430217, and 11305176) and Jilin Province Youth Foundation, China (Grant No. 20150520082JH).

  12. Quantifications and Modeling of Human Failure Events in a Fire PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung-Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    USNRC and EPRI developed guidance, 'Fire Human Reliability Analysis Guidelines, NUREG-1921', for estimating human error probabilities (HEPs) for HFEs under fire conditions. NUREG-1921 classifies HFEs into four types associated with the following human actions: - Type 1: New and existing Main Control Room (MCR) actions - Type 2: New and existing ex-MCR actions - Type 3: Actions associated with using alternate shutdown means (ASD) - Type 4: Actions relating to the error of commissions (EOCs) or error of omissions (EOOs) as a result of incorrect indications (SPI) In this paper, approaches for the quantifications and modeling of HFEs related to Type 1, 2 and 3 human actions are introduced. This paper introduced the human reliability analysis process for a fire PSA of Hanul Unit 3. A multiplier of 10 was used to re-estimate the HEPs for the preexisting internal human actions. The HEPs for all ex- MCR actions were assumed to be one. New MCR human actions were quantified using the scoping analysis method of NUREG-1921. If the quantified human action were identified to be risk-significant, detailed approaches (modeling and quantification) were used for incorporating fire situations into them. Multiple HFEs for single human action were defined and they were separately and were separately quantified to incorporate the specific fire situations into them. From this study, we can confirm that the modeling as well as quantifications of human actions is very important to appropriately treat them in PSA logic structures.

  13. Quantifications and Modeling of Human Failure Events in a Fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    USNRC and EPRI developed guidance, 'Fire Human Reliability Analysis Guidelines, NUREG-1921', for estimating human error probabilities (HEPs) for HFEs under fire conditions. NUREG-1921 classifies HFEs into four types associated with the following human actions: - Type 1: New and existing Main Control Room (MCR) actions - Type 2: New and existing ex-MCR actions - Type 3: Actions associated with using alternate shutdown means (ASD) - Type 4: Actions relating to the error of commissions (EOCs) or error of omissions (EOOs) as a result of incorrect indications (SPI) In this paper, approaches for the quantifications and modeling of HFEs related to Type 1, 2 and 3 human actions are introduced. This paper introduced the human reliability analysis process for a fire PSA of Hanul Unit 3. A multiplier of 10 was used to re-estimate the HEPs for the preexisting internal human actions. The HEPs for all ex- MCR actions were assumed to be one. New MCR human actions were quantified using the scoping analysis method of NUREG-1921. If the quantified human action were identified to be risk-significant, detailed approaches (modeling and quantification) were used for incorporating fire situations into them. Multiple HFEs for single human action were defined and they were separately and were separately quantified to incorporate the specific fire situations into them. From this study, we can confirm that the modeling as well as quantifications of human actions is very important to appropriately treat them in PSA logic structures

  14. HPC Analytics Support. Requirements for Uncertainty Quantification Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purohit, Sumit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, Luke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report outlines techniques for extending benchmark generation products so they support uncertainty quantification by benchmarked systems. We describe how uncertainty quantification requirements can be presented to candidate analytical tools supporting SPARQL. We describe benchmark data sets for evaluating uncertainty quantification, as well as an approach for using our benchmark generator to produce data sets for generating benchmark data sets.

  15. Automated quantification and analysis of mandibular asymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.; Larsen, P.; lafsdttir, Hildur; Hansen, I. V.; Hove, H. D.; Christensen, L.; Rueckert, D.; Kreiborg, S.

    We present an automated method of spatially detailed 3D asymmetry quantification in mandibles extracted from CT and apply it to a population of infants with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS). An atlas-based method employing non-rigid registration of surfaces is used for determining deformation...

  16. Cues, quantification, and agreement in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Darren; Bulkes, Nyssa Z

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors that affect the comprehension of subject-verb agreement in English, using quantification as a window into the relationship between morphosyntactic processes in language production and comprehension. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read sentences with grammatical and ungrammatical verbs, in which the plurality of the subject noun phrase was either doubly marked (via overt plural quantification and morphological marking on the noun) or singly marked (via only plural morphology on the noun). Both acceptability judgments and the ERP data showed heightened sensitivity to agreement violations when quantification provided an additional cue to the grammatical number of the subject noun phrase, over and above plural morphology. This is consistent with models of grammatical comprehension that emphasize feature prediction in tandem with cue-based memory retrieval. Our results additionally contrast with those of prior studies that showed no effects of plural quantification on agreement in language production. These findings therefore highlight some nontrivial divergences in the cues and mechanisms supporting morphosyntactic processing in language production and comprehension. PMID:25987192

  17. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  18. Recurrence quantification analysis in Liu's attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrence Quantification Analysis is used to detect transitions chaos to periodical states or chaos to chaos in a new dynamical system proposed by Liu et al. This system contains a control parameter in the second equation and was originally introduced to investigate the forming mechanism of the compound structure of the chaotic attractor which exists when the control parameter is zero

  19. Noninvasive Quantification of Pancreatic Fat in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lingvay, Ildiko; Esser, Victoria; Legendre, Jaime L.; Price, Angela L; Wertz, Kristen M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Zhang, Song; Unger, Roger H.; Szczepaniak, Lidia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a tool for non-invasive quantification of pancreatic triglyceride (TG) content and to measure the pancreatic TG content in a diverse human population with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) and glucose control.

  20. Practical communication theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adamy, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Practical Communication Theory, 2nd edition enables practicing engineers and technicians to quickly and easily generate the answers to real-world problems encountered in specifying, testing, and fielding any type of systems that involve radio propagation.