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1

Quantum Theory without Quantification  

CERN Document Server

After having explained Samuel Clarke's conception of the new philosophy of physical reality, we will treat the electron field in this context as a field modifying the void. From this we will be able to derive the so-called quantum rules just from Noether's theorem on conserved currents. Thus quantum theory appears as a kind of nonlocal field theory, in fact a new theory.

Piron, Constantin

1996-01-01

2

Inductive types in homotopy type theory  

CERN Multimedia

Homotopy type theory is an interpretation of Martin-L\\"of's constructive type theory into abstract homotopy theory. There results a link between constructive mathematics and algebraic topology, providing topological semantics for intensional systems of type theory as well as a computational approach to algebraic topology via type theory-based proof assistants such as Coq. The present work investigates inductive types in this setting. Modified rules for inductive types, including types of well-founded trees, or W-types, are presented, and the basic homotopical semantics of such types are determined. Proofs of all results have been formally verified by the Coq proof assistant, and the proof scripts for this verification form an essential component of this research.

Awodey, Steve; Sojakova, Kristina

2012-01-01

3

On Irrelevance and Algorithmic Equality in Predicative Type Theory  

CERN Document Server

Dependently typed programs contain an excessive amount of static terms which are necessary to please the type checker but irrelevant for computation. To separate static and dynamic code, several static analyses and type systems have been put forward. We consider Pfenning's type theory with irrelevant quantification which is compatible with a type-based notion of equality that respects eta-laws. We extend Pfenning's theory to universes and large eliminations and develop its meta-theory. Subject reduction, normalization and consistency are obtained by a Kripke model over the typed equality judgement. Finally, a type-directed equality algorithm is described whose completeness is proven by a second Kripke model.

Abel, Andreas

2012-01-01

4

Causality in Time Series: Its Detection and Quantification by Means of Information Theory.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

information theoryKód oboru RIV: BD - Teorie informace http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/schindler-causality in time series its detection and quantification by means of information theory.pdf

Hlavá?ková-Schindler, Kate?ina

5

Treatise on Intuitionistic Type Theory  

CERN Document Server

Intuitionistic type theory can be described, somewhat boldly, as a partial fulfillment of the dream of a universal language for science. This book expounds several aspects of intuitionistic type theory, such as the notion of set, reference vs. computation, assumption, and substitution. Moreover, the book includes philosophically relevant sections on the principle of compositionality, lingua characteristica, epistemology, propositional logic, intuitionism, and the law of excluded middle. Ample historical references are given throughout the book.

Granstrom, Johan Georg

2011-01-01

6

Dissipative relativistic fluid theories of divergence type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the theories of dissipative relativistic fluids in which all of the dynamical equations can be written as total-divergence equations. Extending the analysis of Liu, Mueller, and Ruggeri, we find the general theory of this type. We discuss various features of these theories, including the causality of the full nonlinear evolution equations and the nature and stability of the equilibrium states

1990-03-15

7

Quantification of Uncertainties in Nuclear Density Functional theory  

CERN Document Server

Reliable predictions of nuclear properties are needed as much to answer fundamental science questions as in applications such as reactor physics or data evaluation. Nuclear density functional theory is currently the only microscopic, global approach to nuclear structure that is applicable throughout the nuclear chart. In the past few years, a lot of effort has been devoted to setting up a general methodology to assess theoretical uncertainties in nuclear DFT calculations. In this paper, we summarize some of the recent progress in this direction. Most of the new material discussed here will be be published in separate articles.

Schunck, N; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S

2014-01-01

8

Aspects of type $0$ string theory  

CERN Document Server

A construction of compact tachyon-free orientifolds of the non-supersymmetric Type 0B string theory is presented. Moreover, we study effective non-supersymmetric gauge theories arising on self-dual D3-branes in Type 0B orbifolds and orientifolds.

Blumenhagen, R; Kumar, A; Lüst, Dieter

2000-01-01

9

Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA from dried plasma spots collected on filter paper.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess dried plasma spots (DPSs) as a source of material for virus quantification, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels were quantified in matched DPS and liquid plasma samples from 73 infected patients, including 5 neonates and 4 adult patients with acute HIV-1 infection. Quantifications were performed by commercially available assays (NASBA [nucleic acid sequence-based amplification] or Amplicor, or both). There was a strong correlation between HIV-1 RNA levels in plasm...

Cassol, S.; Gill, M. J.; Pilon, R.; Cormier, M.; Voigt, R. F.; Willoughby, B.; Forbes, J.

1997-01-01

10

Transcriptional regulatory network refinement and quantification through kinetic modeling, gene expression microarray data and information theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression microarray and other multiplex data hold promise for addressing the challenges of cellular complexity, refined diagnoses and the discovery of well-targeted treatments. A new approach to the construction and quantification of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs is presented that integrates gene expression microarray data and cell modeling through information theory. Given a partial TRN and time series data, a probability density is constructed that is a functional of the time course of transcription factor (TF thermodynamic activities at the site of gene control, and is a function of mRNA degradation and transcription rate coefficients, and equilibrium constants for TF/gene binding. Results Our approach yields more physicochemical information that compliments the results of network structure delineation methods, and thereby can serve as an element of a comprehensive TRN discovery/quantification system. The most probable TF time courses and values of the aforementioned parameters are obtained by maximizing the probability obtained through entropy maximization. Observed time delays between mRNA expression and activity are accounted for implicitly since the time course of the activity of a TF is coupled by probability functional maximization, and is not assumed to be proportional to expression level of the mRNA type that translates into the TF. This allows one to investigate post-translational and TF activation mechanisms of gene regulation. Accuracy and robustness of the method are evaluated. A kinetic formulation is used to facilitate the analysis of phenomena with a strongly dynamical character while a physically-motivated regularization of the TF time course is found to overcome difficulties due to omnipresent noise and data sparsity that plague other methods of gene expression data analysis. An application to Escherichia coli is presented. Conclusion Multiplex time series data can be used for the construction of the network of cellular processes and the calibration of the associated physicochemical parameters. We have demonstrated these concepts in the context of gene regulation understood through the analysis of gene expression microarray time series data. Casting the approach in a probabilistic framework has allowed us to address the uncertainties in gene expression microarray data. Our approach was found to be robust to error in the gene expression microarray data and mistakes in a proposed TRN.

Tuncay Kagan

2007-01-01

11

Vortex-type solutions in ABJM theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We review our recent investigations on vortex type-solutions in ABJM theory without and with mass deformation. By imposing suitable supersymmetric conditions, we obtain vortex-type half-BPS equations and also its energy bound. For the undeformed ABJM theory, the resulting half-BPS equation is the same as that in SYM theory. For the mass-deformed ABJM theory, the half-BPS equations for U(2)×U(2) case reduce to the vortex equation in Maxwell-Higgs theory, which supports static regular multi-vortex solutions. In U(N)×U(N) case with N > 2 we obtain the nonabelian vortex equation of Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with a suitable ansatz. We also discuss less supersymmetric cases.

Kim, Chanju

2012-02-01

12

Vortex-type solutions in ABJM theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review our recent investigations on vortex type-solutions in ABJM theory without and with mass deformation. By imposing suitable supersymmetric conditions, we obtain vortex-type half-BPS equations and also its energy bound. For the undeformed ABJM theory, the resulting half-BPS equation is the same as that in SYM theory. For the mass-deformed ABJM theory, the half-BPS equations for U(2)×U(2) case reduce to the vortex equation in Maxwell-Higgs theory, which supports static regular multi-vortex solutions. In U(N)×U(N) case with N > 2 we obtain the nonabelian vortex equation of Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with a suitable ansatz. We also discuss less supersymmetric cases.

2012-02-08

13

Type II string theory and modularity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper, in a sense, completes a series of three papers. In the previous two, we have explored the possibility of refining the K-theory partition function in type II string theories using elliptic cohomology. In the present paper, we make that more concrete by defining a fully quantized free field theory based on elliptic cohomology of 10-dimensional spacetime. Moreover, we describe a concrete scenario how this is related to compactification of F-theory on an elliptic curve leading to IIA and IIB theories. We propose an interpretation of the elliptic curve in the context of elliptic cohomology. We discuss the possibility of orbifolding of the elliptic curves and derive certain properties of F-theory. We propose a link of this to type IIB modularity, the structure of the topological lagrangian of M-theory, and Witten's index of loop space Dirac operators. The discussion suggests a S{sup 1}-lift of type IIB and an F-theoretic model for type I obtained by orbifolding that for type IIB.

Kriz, Igor [Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Sati, Hisham [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

2005-08-01

14

Internalising modified realisability in constructive type theory  

CERN Document Server

A modified realisability interpretation of infinitary logic is formalised and proved sound in constructive type theory (CTT). The logic considered subsumes first order logic. The interpretation makes it possible to extract programs with simplified types and to incorporate and reason about them in CTT.

Palmgren, E

2005-01-01

15

Quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Proviral DNA by Using TaqMan Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A protocol for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA with the TaqMan technology was developed and validated. The assay was specific for HIV-1, with an analytic sensitivity of 10 copies and a linear dynamic range of >6 logs. Viral RNA levels, when at a stable state, were highly correlated with proviral DNA levels in 80 specimens of 18 HIV-infected children.

Zhao, Yuqi; Yu, Min; Miller, Johann W.; Chen, Mingzhong; Bremer, Eric G.; Kabat, William; Yogev, Ram

2002-01-01

16

Applicability of Information Theory to the Quantification of Responses to Anthropogenic Noise by Southeast Alaskan Humpback Whales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assess the effectiveness of applying information theory to the characterization and quantification of the affects of anthropogenic vessel noise on humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae vocal behavior in and around Glacier Bay, Alaska. Vessel noise has the potential to interfere with the complex vocal behavior of these humpback whales which could have direct consequences on their feeding behavior and thus ultimately on their health and reproduction. Humpback whale feeding calls recorded during conditions of high vessel-generated noise and lower levels of background noise are compared for differences in acoustic structure, use, and organization using information theoretic measures. We apply information theory in a self-referential manner (i.e., orders of entropy to quantify the changes in signaling behavior. We then compare this with the reduction in channel capacity due to noise in Glacier Bay itself treating it as a (Gaussian noisy channel. We find that high vessel noise is associated with an increase in the rate and repetitiveness of sequential use of feeding call types in our averaged sample of humpback whale vocalizations, indicating that vessel noise may be modifying the patterns of use of feeding calls by the endangered humpback whales in Southeast Alaska. The information theoretic approach suggested herein can make a reliable quantitative measure of such relationships and may also be adapted for wider application to many species where environmental noise is thought to be a problem.

J. Ellen Blue

2008-05-01

17

Multi-level Contextual Type Theory  

CERN Document Server

Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable ...

Boespflug, Mathieu; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.3

2011-01-01

18

Percolation and sieving segregation patterns: Quantification, mechanistic theory, model development and validation, and application  

Science.gov (United States)

The general goal of this research was to study percolation and sieving segregation patterns---quantification, mechanistic theory, model development and validation of particulate materials. A second generation primary segregation shear cell (PSSC-II) was designed and fabricated to model the sieving and percolation segregation mechanisms of particulate materials. Two test materials used in this research were spherical shaped glass beads (denoted as G) and irregular shaped mash poultry feed (denoted as F), which are considered as representatives of ideal and real world materials, respectively. The PSSC-II test results showed that there is a linear relationship between normalized segregation rate (NSR) and absolute size or size ratio for GG and FG combinations; whereas, linear relationship does not hold for FF and GF combinations although the effect of absolute size and size ratio on NSR were significant (P defined as the ratio of collected fines mass to feed fines mass divided by total time. Furthermore, comparisons between these four combinations showed that, compared with coarse particle properties, fine particle properties other than size including density, surface texture, and electrostatic charges of a binary mixture play a dominant role on NSR. For instance, the higher density and smoother surface of fine glass beads lead to a NSR for GG and FG combinations much greater compared with fine feed particles with lower density and rough surface texture for FF and GF combinations. Additionally, the irregular shaped coarse bed of particles (higher porosity) cause higher segregation potential of fines compared with spherical shaped coarse particles with lower porosity. A mechanistic theory-based segregation model (denoted as MTB model) for GG and FG combinations was developed using mechanics, dimensional analysis, and linear regression methods. The MTB model, for the first time, successfully correlated the effect of particle size, density, and shape to segregation potential of binary mixtures in one quantitative equation. Furthermore, the MTB model has the potential to accommodate additional effects such as surface texture and electrostatic charge to generalize the model. Finally, as a case study, effect of feed particle segregation on bird performance was performed to examine the effectiveness of the research results. The results showed that, due to bird selection behavior and particle segregation, birds did not sufficiently consume those nutrients that are contained in smaller feed particles (<1,180 mum). The results of feed particle size and nutrients analysis verified the above observations. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Tang, Pingjun

19

Quality Control Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Viral Load Quantification Assays: Results from an International Collaboration on HIV-2 Infection in 2006?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RNA quantification assays used in nine laboratories of the ACHIEV2E (A Collaboration on HIV-2 Infection) study group were evaluated. In a blinded experimental design, laboratories quantified three series of aliquots of an HIV-2 subtype A strain, each at a different theoretical viral load. Quantification varied between laboratories, and international standardization of quantification assays is strongly needed.

Damond, Florence; Benard, Antoine; Ruelle, Jean; Alabi, Abraham; Kupfer, Bernd; Gomes, Perpetua; Rodes, Berta; Albert, Jan; Bo?ni, Ju?rg; Garson, Jeremy; Ferns, Bridget; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Genevie?ve; Brun-vezinet, Franc?oise

2008-01-01

20

Quality control assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) viral load quantification assays: results from an international collaboration on HIV-2 infection in 2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RNA quantification assays used in nine laboratories of the ACHI(E)V(2E) (A Collaboration on HIV-2 Infection) study group were evaluated. In a blinded experimental design, laboratories quantified three series of aliquots of an HIV-2 subtype A strain, each at a different theoretical viral load. Quantification varied between laboratories, and international standardization of quantification assays is strongly needed. PMID:18434556

Damond, Florence; Benard, Antoine; Ruelle, Jean; Alabi, Abraham; Kupfer, Bernd; Gomes, Perpetua; Rodes, Berta; Albert, Jan; Böni, Jürg; Garson, Jeremy; Ferns, Bridget; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Geneviève; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Theory of type IV dm bursts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of fine structures in continuum radio emission from the Sun is important to probe the physics of radio sources and of flares in particular. In this light the existing fine structure theories are reviewed and an application to a radio flare is given. (Auth.)

1979-08-10

22

Isotropization of Bianchi type models in string effective theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using scaled variables we are able to integrate an equation valid for isotropic and anisotropic Bianchi type I, V, IX models in Brans-Dicke theory. We specialize our analysis for the case in which {omega} = - 1 that corresponds to string effective theories. In these theories we analyze the possibility that anisotropic models asymptotically isotropize, and/or possess inflationary properties. Additionally, a new solution of curve (k {ne} O) Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmologies is discussed. (Author)

Cervantes C, J.L.; Rodriguez M, M.A.; Nahmad, M. [Dep. de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jorge@nuclear.inin.mx

2003-07-01

23

Gravitational anomaly cancellation in type I superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By explicit calculations we show that the gravitational anomaly of type I superstring theory vanishes at the string level. There are contributions from four topologically different diagrams to the anomaly: annulus, Moebius strip, torus, and Klein bottle. We explicitly show how the non-trivial cancellation occurs between the open (annulus and Moebius strip) and closed (Klein bottle) sectors. The anomaly of the torus diagram has the same form of type II superstring theory and vanishes because of the modular invariance. (orig.)

1988-01-11

24

Revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts to date to obtain the shape of the beam forming electrodes of various Pierce-type electron guns are briefly discussed with emphasis on the many discrepansis in the results of previous works. A revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns is proposed. The shapes of the beam-forming electrodes for all known configurations of Pierce guns were computed on the basis of the proposed theory. (orig.)

1982-12-01

25

Gravitational anomaly cancellation in type I superstring theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By explicit calculations we show that the gravitational anomaly of type I superstring theory vanishes at the string level. There are contributions from four topologically different diagrams to the anomaly: annulus, Moebius strip, torus, and Klein bottle. We explicitly show how the non-trivial cancellation occurs between the open (annulus and Moebius strip) and closed (Klein bottle) sectors. The anomaly of the torus diagram has the same form of type II superstring theory and vanishes because of the modular invariance.

Hayashi, Masahito; Kawamotu, Noboru; Kuramoto, Tetsuji; Shigemoto, Kazuyasu

1988-01-11

26

Vortex-type Half-BPS Solitons in ABJM Theory  

CERN Document Server

We study Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory without and with mass deformation. It is shown that maximally supersymmetry preserving, D-term, and F-term mass deformations of single mass parameter are equivalent. We obtain vortex-type half-BPS equations and the corresponding energy bound. For the undeformed ABJM theory, the resulting half-BPS equation is the same as that in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and no finite energy regular BPS solution is found. For the mass-deformed ABJM theory, the half-BPS equations for U(2)xU(2) case reduce to the vortex equation in Maxwell-Higgs theory, which supports static regular multi-vortex solutions. In U(N)xU(N) case with N>2 the nonabelian vortex equation of Yang-Mills-Higgs theory is obtained.

Kim, Chanju; Kwon, O-Kab; Nakajima, Hiroaki

2009-01-01

27

Stereomicroscopic imaging technique for the quantification of cold flow in drug-in-adhesive type of transdermal drug delivery systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold flow is a phenomenon occurring in drug-in-adhesive type of transdermal drug delivery systems (DIA-TDDS) because of the migration of DIA coat beyond the edge. Excessive cold flow can affect their therapeutic effectiveness, make removal of DIA-TDDS difficult from the pouch, and potentially decrease available dose if any drug remains adhered to pouch. There are no compendial or noncompendial methods available for quantification of this critical quality attribute. The objective was to develop a method for quantification of cold flow using stereomicroscopic imaging technique. Cold flow was induced by applying 1 kg force on punched-out samples of marketed estradiol DIA-TDDS (model product) stored at 25°C, 32°C, and 40°C/60% relative humidity (RH) for 1, 2, or 3 days. At the end of testing period, dimensional change in the area of DIA-TDDS samples was measured using image analysis software, and expressed as percent of cold flow. The percent of cold flow significantly decreased (p < 0.001) with increase in size of punched-out DIA-TDDS samples and increased (p < 0.001) with increase in cold flow induction temperature and time. This first ever report suggests that dimensional change in the area of punched-out samples stored at 32°C/60%RH for 2 days applied with 1 kg force could be used for quantification of cold flow in DIA-TDDS. PMID:24585397

Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Katragadda, Usha; Khan, Mansoor A

2014-05-01

28

Non-critical type 0 string theories and their field theory duals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we continue the study of the non-critical type 0 string and its field theory duals. We begin by reviewing some facts and conjectures about these theories. We move on to our proposal for the type 0 effective action in any dimension, its RR fields and their Chern-Simons couplings. We then focus on the case without compact dimensions and study its field theory duals. We show that one can parameterize all dual physical quantities in terms of a finite number of unknown parameters. By making some further assumptions on the tachyon couplings, one can still make some 'model independent' statements

1999-08-23

29

Models of Particle Physics from Type Iib String Theory and F-Theory a Review  

Science.gov (United States)

We review particle physics model building in type IIB string theory and F-theory. This is a region in the landscape where in principle many of the key ingredients required for a realistic model of particle physics can be combined successfully. We begin by reviewing moduli stabilization within this framework and its implications for supersymmetry breaking. We then review model building tools and developments in the weakly coupled type IIB limit, for both local D3-branes at singularities and global models of intersecting D7-branes. Much of recent model building work has been in the strongly coupled regime of F-theory due to the presence of exceptional symmetries which allow for the construction of phenomenologically appealing Grand Unified Theories. We review both local and global F-theory model building starting from the fundamental concepts and tools regarding how the gauge group, matter sector and operators arise, and ranging to detailed phenomenological properties explored in the literature.

Maharana, Anshuman; Palti, Eran

2013-03-01

30

The Fayet-Iliopoulos term in Type-I string theory and M-theory  

CERN Document Server

The magnitude of the Fayet-Iliopoulos term is calculated for compactifications of Type-I string theory and Horava-Witten M-theory in which there exists a pseudo-anomalous U(1)_X. Contrary to various conjectures, it is found that in leading order in the perturbative expansion around the weakly-coupled M-theory or Type-I limits, a result identical to that of the weakly-coupled E_8xE_8 heterotic string is obtained. The result is independent of the values chosen for the Type-I string scale or the size of the M-theory 11th dimension, only depending upon Newton's constant and the unified gauge coupling.

March-Russell, John David

1998-01-01

31

Intensional type theory with guarded recursive types qua fixed points on universes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Guarded recursive functions and types are useful for giving semantics to advanced programming languages and for higher-order programming with infinite data types, such as streams, e.g., for modeling reactive systems. We propose an extension of intensional type theory with rules for forming fixed points of guarded recursive functions. Guarded recursive types can be formed simply by taking fixed points of guarded recursive functions on the universe of types. Moreover, we present a general model construction for constructing models of the intensional type theory with guarded recursive functions and types. When applied to the groupoid model of intensional type theory with the universe of small discrete groupoids, the construction gives a model of guarded recursion for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between fixed points of functions on the universe of types and fixed points of (suitable) operators on types. In particular, we find that the functor category from the preordered set of natural numbers to the category of groupoids is a model of intensional type theory with guarded recursive types.

Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

2013-01-01

32

Multivariate Bonferroni-type inequalities theory and applications  

CERN Document Server

Multivariate Bonferroni-Type Inequalities: Theory and Applications presents a systematic account of research discoveries on multivariate Bonferroni-type inequalities published in the past decade. The emergence of new bounding approaches pushes the conventional definitions of optimal inequalities and demands new insights into linear and Fréchet optimality. The book explores these advances in bounding techniques with corresponding innovative applications. It presents the method of linear programming for multivariate bounds, multivariate hybrid bounds, sub-Markovian bounds, and bounds using Hamil

Chen, John

2014-01-01

33

Calabi-Yau compactifications of type IIB superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from a non-self-dual action for ten dimensional type IIB supergravity this theory is compactified on a Calabi-Yau 3-fold and 4- fold. The compactification are thereby performed in the limit, in which the volumina of the manifolds are large against the string scale

2001-01-01

34

Uncertainty Propagation and Quantification using Constrained Coupled Adaptive Forward-Inverse Schemes: Theory and Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of implementation and execution of numerous subsurface energy technologies such shale gas extraction, geothermal energy, underground coal gasification rely on detailed characterization of the geology and the subsurface properties. For example, spatial variability of subsurface permeability controls multi-phase flow, and hence impacts the prediction of reservoir performance. Subsurface properties can vary significantly over several length scales making detailed subsurface characterization unfeasible if not forbidden. Therefore, in common practices, only sparse measurements of data are available to image or characterize the entire reservoir. For example pressure, P, permeability, k, and production rate, Q, measurements are only available at the monitoring and operational wells. Elsewhere, the spatial distribution of k is determined by various deterministic or stochastic interpolation techniques and P and Q are calculated from the governing forward mass balance equation assuming k is given at all locations. Several uncertainty drivers, such as PSUADE, are then used to propagate and quantify the uncertainty (UQ) of quantities (variable) of interest using forward solvers. Unfortunately, forward-solver techniques and other interpolation schemes are rarely constrained by the inverse problem itself: given P and Q at observation points determine the spatially variable map of k. The approach presented here, motivated by fluid imaging for subsurface characterization and monitoring, was developed by progressively solving increasingly complex realistic problems. The essence of this novel approach is that the forward and inverse partial differential equations are the interpolator themselves for P, k and Q rather than extraneous and sometimes ad hoc schemes. Three cases with different sparsity of data are investigated. In the simplest case, a sufficient number of passive pressure data (pre-production pressure gradients) are given. Here, only the inverse hyperbolic equation for the distribution of k is solved, provided that Cauchy data are appropriately assigned. In the next stage, only a limited number of passive measurements are provided. In this case, the forward and inverse PDEs are solved simultaneously. This is accomplished by adding regularization terms and filtering the pressure gradients in the inverse problem. Both the forward and the inverse problem are either simultaneously or sequentially coupled and solved using implicit schemes, adaptive mesh refinement, Galerkin finite elements. The final case arises when P, k, and Q data only exist at producing wells. This exceedingly ill posed problem calls for additional constraints on the forward-inverse coupling to insure that the production rates are satisfied at the desired locations. Results from all three cases are presented demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed approach and, more importantly, providing some insights into the consequences of data under sampling, uncertainty propagation and quantification. We illustrate the advantages of this novel approach over the common UQ forward drivers on several subsurface energy problems in either porous or fractured or/and faulted reservoirs. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

2013-12-01

35

Formation of social types in the theory of Orrin Klapp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theory of Orrin Klapp about social types draws attention to important functions that these types have within certain societies as well as that it is preferable to take them into consideration if our goal is more complete knowledge of that society. For Klapp, social types are important social symbols, which in an interesting way reflect society they are part of and for that reason this author dedicates his work to considering their meanings and social functions. He thinks that we can not understand a society without the knowledge about the types with which its members are identified and which serve them as models in their social activity. Hence, these types have cognitive value since, according to Klapp, they assist in perception and "contain the truth", and therefore the knowledge of them allows easier orientation within the social system. Social types also offer insight into the scheme of the social structure, which is otherwise invisible and hidden, but certainly deserves attention if we wish clearer picture about social relations within specific community. The aim of this work is to present this very interesting and inspirative theory of Orrin Klapp, pointing out its importance but also its weaknesses which should be kept in mind during its application in further research.

Trifunovi? Vesna

2007-01-01

36

Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2012-03-15

37

Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S4. (orig.)

2012-01-01

38

Lifshitz-type Quantum Field Theories in Particle Physics  

CERN Document Server

This introduction to Lifshitz-type field theories reviews some of its aspects in Particle Physics. Attractive features of these models are described with different examples, as the improvement of graphs convergence, the introduction of new renormalizable interactions, dynamical mass generation, asymptotic freedom, and other features related to more specific models. On the other hand, problems with the expected emergence of Lorentz symmetry in the IR are discussed, related to the different effective light cones seen by different particles when they interact.

Alexandre, Jean

2011-01-01

39

On global anomalies in type IIB string theory  

CERN Document Server

We study global gravitational anomalies in type IIB string theory with nontrivial middle cohomology. This requires the study of the action of diffeomorphisms on this group. Several results and constructions, including some recent vanishing results via elliptic genera, make it possible to consider this problem. Along the way, we describe in detail the intersection pairing and the action of diffeomorphisms, and highlight the appearance of various structures, including the Rochlin invariant and its variants on the mapping torus.

Sati, Hisham

2011-01-01

40

Special functions, KZ type equations and Representation theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is a set of lecture notes of my course "Special functions, KZ type equations, and representation theory" given at MIT during the spring semester of 2002. The notes do not contain new results, and are an exposition (mostly without proofs) of various published results in this area, illustrated by the simplest nontrivial examples. Some references are given at the end of each lecture, but their list is not complete; the reader is referred to the original articles fo...

Varchenko, Alexander

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Deliverables: a categorical approach to program development in type theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis considers the problem of program correctness within a rich theory of dependent types, the Extended Calculus of Constructions (ECC). This system contains a powerful programming language of higher-order primitive recursion and higher-order intuitionistic logic. It is supported by Pollack's versatile LEGO implementation, which I use extensively to develop the mathematical constructions studied here. I systematically investigate Burstall's notion of deliverable, that is, a program...

Mckinna, James H.

1992-01-01

42

Predictions for orientifold field theories from type 0{sup '} string theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two predictions about finite-N non-supersymmetric 'orientifold field theories' are made by using the dual type 0{sup '} string theory on C{sup 3}/Z{sub 2}xZ{sub 2} orbifold singularity. First, the mass ratio between the lowest pseudoscalar and scalar color-singlets is estimated to be equal to the ratio between the axial anomaly and the scale anomaly at strong coupling, M{sub -}/M{sub +}{approx}C{sub -}/C{sub +}. Second, the ratio between the domain wall tension and the value of the quark condensate is computed.

Armoni, Adi [Department of Physics, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Imeroni, Emiliano [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.imeroni@phys.uu.nl

2005-12-29

43

On Heterotic Orbifolds, M Theory and Type I' Brane Engineering  

CERN Multimedia

Horava--Witten M theory -- heterotic string duality poses special problems for the twisted sectors of heterotic orbifolds. In [1] we explained how in M theory the twisted states couple to gauge fields apparently living on M9 branes at both ends of the eleventh dimension at the same time. The resolution involves 7D gauge fields which live on fixed planes of the (T^4/Z_N) x (S^1/Z_2) x R^{5,1} orbifold and lock onto the 10D gauge fields along the intersection planes. The physics of such intersection planes does not follow directly from the M theory but there are stringent kinematic constraints due to duality and local consistency, which allowed us to deduce the local fields and the boundary conditions at each intersection. In this paper we explain various phenomena at the intersection planes in terms of duality between HW and type I' superstring theories. The orbifold fixed planes are dual to stacks of D6 branes, the M9 planes are dual to O8 orientifold planes accompanied by D8 branes, and the intersections are...

Gorbatov, E; Sonnenschein, J; Theisen, Stefan J; Yankielowicz, Shimon

2002-01-01

44

A rapid chemiluminescent slot blot immunoassay for the detection and quantification of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E, in cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, rapid, cost-effective in vitro slot blot immunoassay was developed for the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) in cultures. Culture supernatants of 36 strains of clostridia, including 12 strains of Clostridium botulinum type E, 12 strains of other C. botulinum neurotoxin serotypes, and 12 strains of other clostridial species were tested. Samples containing BoNT/E were detected using affinity-purified polyclonal rabbit antisera prepared against BoNT/E with subsequent detection of secondary antibodies using chemiluminescence. All strains of C. botulinum type E tested positive, while all non C. botulinum type E strains tested negative. The sensitivity of the slot blot immunoassay for detection of BoNT/E was approximately four mouse lethal doses (MLD). The intensity of chemiluminescence was directly correlated with the concentration of BoNT/E up to 128 MLD, allowing quantification of BoNT/E between 4 and 128 MLD. The slot blot immunoassay was compared to the mouse bioassay for detection of BoNT/E using cultures derived from fish samples inoculated with C. botulinum type E, and cultures derived from naturally contaminated environmental samples. A total of 120 primary enrichment cultures derived from fish samples, of which 103 were inoculated with C. botulinum type E, and 17 were uninoculated controls, were assayed. Of the 103 primary enrichment cultures derived from inoculated fish samples, all were positive by mouse bioassay, while 94 were also positive by slot blot immunoassay, resulting in a 7.5% false-negative rate. All 17 primary enrichment cultures derived from the uninoculated fish samples were negative by both mouse bioassay and slot blot immunoassay. A total of twenty-six primary enrichment cultures derived from environmental samples were tested by mouse bioassay and slot blot immunoassay. Of 13 primary enrichment cultures positive by mouse bioassay, 12 were also positive by slot blot immunoassay, resulting in a 3.8% false-negative rate. All 13 primary enrichment cultures that tested negative by mouse bioassay also tested negative by slot blot immunoassay. The slot blot immunoassay could be used routinely as a positive screen for BoNT/E in primary enrichment cultures, and could be used as a replacement for the mouse bioassay for pure cultures. PMID:15878402

Cadieux, Brigitte; Blanchfield, Burke; Smith, James P; Austin, John W

2005-05-01

45

D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Cvetic, Mirjam; /Pennsylvania U.; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

2009-06-19

46

Quantum Bianchi Type IX Cosmology in K-Essence Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We use one of the simplest forms of the K-essence theory and apply it to the anisotropic Bianchi type IX cosmological model, with a barotropic perfect fluid modeling the usual matter content. We show that the most important contribution of the scalar field occurs during a stiff matter phase. Also, we present a canonical quantization procedure of the theory which can be simplified by reinterpreting the scalar field as an exotic part of the total matter content. The solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation were found using the Bohmian formulation Bohm (Phys. Rev. 85(2):166, 1952) of quantum mechanics, employing the amplitude-real-phase approach Moncrief and Ryan (Phys. Rev. D 44:2375, 1991), where the ansatz for the wave function is of the form ?(? ? )=?(?)W(? ? ) e^{- S(ell ^{? })},, where S is the superpotential function, which plays an important role in solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Espinoza-García, Abraham; Socorro, J.; Pimentel, Luis O.

2014-04-01

47

Leptogenesis in unified theories with Type II see-saw  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In some classes of flavour models based on unified theories with a type I see-saw mechanism, the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino is in conflict with the lower bound from the requirement of successful thermal leptogenesis. We investigate how lifting the absolute neutrino mass scale by adding a type II see-saw contribution proportional to the unit matrix can solve this problem. Generically, lifting the neutrino mass scale increases the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino while the decay asymmetry is enhanced and washout effects are reduced, relaxing the lower bound on the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino from thermal leptogenesis. For instance in classes of unified theories where the lightest right-handed neutrino dominates the type I see-saw contribution, we find that thermal leptogenesis becomes possible if the neutrino mass scale is larger than about 0.15 eV, making this scenario testable by neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in the near future

2006-01-01

48

The Biequivalence of Locally Cartesian Closed Categories and Martin-L\\"of Type Theories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seely's paper "Locally cartesian closed categories and type theory" contains a well-known result in categorical type theory: that the category of locally cartesian closed categories is equivalent to the category of Martin-L\\"of type theories with Pi-types, Sigma-types and extensional identity types. However, Seely's proof relies on the problematic assumption that substitution in types can be interpreted by pullbacks. Here we prove a corrected version of Seely's theorem: that...

Clairambault, Pierre; Dybjer, Peter

2011-01-01

49

Type II Superstring Field Theory: Geometric Approach and Operadic Description  

CERN Document Server

We outline the construction of type II superstring field theory leading to a geometric and algebraic BV master equation, analogous to Zwiebach's construction for the bosonic string. The construction uses the small Hilbert space. Elementary vertices of the non-polynomial action are described with the help of a properly formulated minimal area problem. They give rise to an infinite tower of superstring field products defining a $\\mathcal{N}=1$ generalization of a loop homotopy Lie algebra, the genus zero part generalizing a homotopy Lie algebra. Finally, we give an operadic interpretation of the construction.

Jurco, Branislav

2013-01-01

50

Serre-Tate Theory for Moduli Spaces of PEL Type  

CERN Document Server

The main goal of this paper is to generalize Serre-Tate theory of "ordinary" local moduli to Shimura varieties of PEL type. To this end we develop a generalized notion of ordinariness, we prove a number of basic results about this, and we study the formal deformations of ordinary objects. In general, the formal deformation spaces get a new "group-like" structure that we call a "cascade". Further the paper contains some results on automorphisms of p-kernel group schemes, on the Ekedahl-Oort stratification of PEL moduli spaces, and an application of our results to the study of congruence relations.

Moonen, B J J

2002-01-01

51

Flux vacua in DBI type Einstein-Maxwell theory  

CERN Document Server

We study compactification of extra dimensions in a theory of Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) type gravity. We investigate the solution for Minkowski spacetime with an $S^2$ extra space as well as that for de Sitter spacetime ($S^4$) with an $S^2$ extra space. They are derived by the efective potential method in the presence of the magnetic flux on the extra sphere. We also consider the higher dimensional generalization of the solutions. We find that, in a certain model, the radius of the extra space has a minimum value independent of the higher-dimensional Newton constant in weak-field limit.

Maki, Takuya; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

2011-01-01

52

Quantification of age-related changes in the structure model type and trabecular thickness of human tibial cancellous  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Structure model type and trabecular thickness are important characteristics in describing cancellous bone architecture. It has been qualitatively observed that a radical change of trabeculae from plate-like to rod-like occurs in aging, bone remodeling, and osteoporosis. Thickness of trabeculae has traditionally been measured using model-based histomorphometric methods on two-dimensional (2-D) sections. However, no quantitative study has been published based on three-dimensional (3-D) methods on the age-related changes in structure model type and trabecular thickness for human peripheral (tibial) cancellous bone. In this study, 160 human proximal tibial cancellous bone specimens from 40 normal donors, aged 16 to 85 years, were collected. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned, then the micro-CT images were segmented using optimal thresholds. From accurate 3-D data sets, structure model type and trabecular thickness were quantified by means of novel 3-D methods. Structure model type was assessed by calculating the structure model index (SMI). The SMI was quantified based on a differential analysis of the triangulated bone surface of a structure. This technique allows quantification of structure model type, such as plate, rod objects, or mixture of plates or rods. Trabecular thickness is calculated directly from 3-D images, which is especially important for an a priori unknown or changing structure. Furthermore, 2-D trabecular thickness was also calculated based on the plate model. Our results showed that structure model type changed towards more rod-like in the elderly, and that trabecular thickness declined significantly with age. These changes become significant after 80 years of age for human tibial cancellous bone, whereas both properties seem to remain relatively unchanged between 20 and 80 years. Although a fairly close relationship was seen between 3-D trabecular thickness and 2-D trabecular thickness, real 3-D trabecular thickness was significantly underestimated using 2-D method.

Ding, Ming; Hvid, I

2000-01-01

53

Radiochemical Separation and Quantification of Tritium in Metallic Radwastes Generated from CANDU Type NPP - 13279  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a destructive quantification method of 3H in low and intermediate level radwastes, bomb oxidation, sample oxidation, and wet oxidation methods have been introduced. These methods have some merits and demerits in the radiochemical separation of 3H radionuclides. That is, since the bomb oxidation and sample oxidation methods are techniques using heating at high temperature, the separation methods of the radionuclides are relatively simple. However, since 3H radionuclide has a property of being diffused deeply into the inside of metals, 3H which is distributed on the surface of the metals can only be extracted if the methods are applied. As an another separation method, the wet oxidation method makes 3H oxidized with an acidic solution, and extracted completely to an oxidized HTO compound. However, incomplete oxidized 3H compounds, which are produced by reactions of acidic solutions and metallic radwastes, can be released into the air. Thus, in this study, a wet oxidation method to extract and quantify the 3H radionuclide from metallic radwastes was established. In particular, a complete extraction method and complete oxidation method of incomplete chemical compounds of 3H using a Pt catalyst were studied. The radioactivity of 3H in metallic radwastes is extracted and measured using a wet oxidation method and liquid scintillation counter. Considering the surface dose rate of the sample, the appropriate size of the sample was determined and weighed, and a mixture of oxidants was added to a 200 ml round flask with 3 tubes. The flask was quickly connected to the distilling apparatus. 20 mL of 16 wt% H2SO4 was given into the 200-ml round flask through a dropping funnel while under stirring and refluxing. After dropping, the temperature of the mixture was raised to 96 deg. C and the sample was leached and oxidized by refluxing for 3 hours. At that time, the incomplete oxidized 3H compounds were completely oxidized using the Pt catalysts and produced a stable HTO compound. After that, about a 20 ml solution was distilled in the separation apparatus, and the distillate was mixed with an ultimagold LLT as a cocktail solution. The solution in the vial was left standing for at least 24 hours. The radioactivity of 3H was counted directly using a liquid scintillation analyzer (Packard, 2500 TR/AB, Alpha and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analyzer). (authors)

2013-02-24

54

Radiochemical Separation and Quantification of Tritium in Metallic Radwastes Generated from CANDU Type NPP - 13279  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a destructive quantification method of {sup 3}H in low and intermediate level radwastes, bomb oxidation, sample oxidation, and wet oxidation methods have been introduced. These methods have some merits and demerits in the radiochemical separation of {sup 3}H radionuclides. That is, since the bomb oxidation and sample oxidation methods are techniques using heating at high temperature, the separation methods of the radionuclides are relatively simple. However, since {sup 3}H radionuclide has a property of being diffused deeply into the inside of metals, {sup 3}H which is distributed on the surface of the metals can only be extracted if the methods are applied. As an another separation method, the wet oxidation method makes {sup 3}H oxidized with an acidic solution, and extracted completely to an oxidized HTO compound. However, incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds, which are produced by reactions of acidic solutions and metallic radwastes, can be released into the air. Thus, in this study, a wet oxidation method to extract and quantify the {sup 3}H radionuclide from metallic radwastes was established. In particular, a complete extraction method and complete oxidation method of incomplete chemical compounds of {sup 3}H using a Pt catalyst were studied. The radioactivity of {sup 3}H in metallic radwastes is extracted and measured using a wet oxidation method and liquid scintillation counter. Considering the surface dose rate of the sample, the appropriate size of the sample was determined and weighed, and a mixture of oxidants was added to a 200 ml round flask with 3 tubes. The flask was quickly connected to the distilling apparatus. 20 mL of 16 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was given into the 200-ml round flask through a dropping funnel while under stirring and refluxing. After dropping, the temperature of the mixture was raised to 96 deg. C and the sample was leached and oxidized by refluxing for 3 hours. At that time, the incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds were completely oxidized using the Pt catalysts and produced a stable HTO compound. After that, about a 20 ml solution was distilled in the separation apparatus, and the distillate was mixed with an ultimagold LLT as a cocktail solution. The solution in the vial was left standing for at least 24 hours. The radioactivity of {sup 3}H was counted directly using a liquid scintillation analyzer (Packard, 2500 TR/AB, Alpha and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analyzer). (authors)

Ahn, H.J.; Choi, K.C.; Choi, K.S.; Park, T.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-330 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

55

Threshold anomalies in Horava-Lifshitz-type theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently the study of threshold kinematic requirements for particle-production processes has played a very significant role in the phenomenology of theories with departures from Poincare symmetry. We here specialize these threshold studies to the case of a class of violations of Poincare symmetry which has been much discussed in the literature on Horava-Lifshitz scenarios. These involve modifications of the energy-momentum ('dispersion') relation that may be different for different types of particles, but always involve even powers of energy-momentum in the correction terms. We establish the requirements for compatibility with the observed cosmic-ray spectrum, which is sensitive to the photopion-production threshold. We find that the implications for the electron-positron pair-production threshold are rather intriguing, in light of some recent studies of TeV emissions by Blazars. Our findings should also provide additional motivation for examining the fate of the law of energy-momentum conservation in Horava-Lifshitz-type theories.

2010-03-29

56

Development and analytical evaluation of a spectrophotometric procedure for the quantification of different types of phosphorus in meat products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus is an important natural nutrient, but high dietary phosphorus intake, including that sourced from added preservatives, is of great concern in renal patients. In this context a reliable analytical method able to quantify differential phosphorus in food could be a valuable tool for monitoring diet composition This paper presents a novel analytical procedure to quantify the following kinds of phosphorus in cooked ham: total (TP), inorganic (IP), from phospholipids (PL), and from phosphoproteins (PP). This technique is based on a suitable sample preparation followed by spectrophotometric analyses. Analytical performances of each method were evaluated, taking advantage also of food industry certified material and in-house reference samples. Limit of detection and limit of quantification values for TP, IP, PP-derived, and PL-derived phosphorus were 13 and 37, 11 and 33, 2 and 20, and 6 and 16 mg P/100 g fresh mass, respectively. Similar results were obtained when this procedure was used to quantify different types of phosphorus present in cooked ham samples. In conclusion, this procedure is effective for quantifying the content of different types of phosphorus present in cooked ham, which can be contributed by different phosphorus-containing ingredients and additives. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that simultaneous determination of TP, IP, PL, and PP in cooked ham has been reported. PMID:24437945

Benini, Omar; Saba, Alessandro; Ferretti, Valerio; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Cupisti, Adamasco

2014-02-12

57

Type II fuzzy systems for amyloid plaque segmentation in transgenic mouse brains for Alzheimer's disease quantification  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying A? concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

2014-03-01

58

THE TOTAL DNA QUANTIFICATION FOR THREE TYPES OF TISSUE FROM CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We established the total DNA quantity and the variability intervals for three types of tissue (muscle, liver and spleen from five individuals of Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, to characterize this species from the point of view of this parameter.

Zenovia Olteanu

2005-08-01

59

Species-independent bioassay for sensitive quantification of antiviral type I interferons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Studies of the host response to infection often require quantitative measurement of the antiviral type I interferons (IFN-?/?) in biological samples. The amount of IFN is either determined via its ability to suppress a sensitive indicator virus, by an IFN-responding reporter cell line, or by ELISA. These assays however are either time-consuming and lack convenient readouts, or they are rather insensitive and restricted to IFN from a particular host speci...

Kuri Thomas; Habjan Matthias; Penski Nicola; Weber Friedemann

2010-01-01

60

Real-time quantification of wild-type contaminants in glyphosate tolerant soybean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Trait purity is a key factor for the successful utilization of biotech varieties and is currently assessed by analysis of individual seeds or plants. Here we propose a novel PCR-based approach to test trait purity that can be applied to bulk samples. To this aim the insertion site of a transgene is characterized and the corresponding sequence of the wild-type (wt) allele is used as diagnostic target for amplification. As a demonstration, we developed a rea...

Battistini Elena; Noli Enrico

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Application of multiple scattering theory to spark chamber type detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering is given which is intended primarily for application to particle tracks in ?-ray spark chamber telescopes but which may be applicable in other detector systems. This treatment provides for situations where particles may have large angles with respect to the detector axis, for non-homogeneous scattering material of different types, and localized in discrete zones at arbitrarily locations. The analysis is developed in terms of generalized scattering parameters to accommodate a variety of observational techniques. The final section includes the results of applying the theory to samples of Monte Carlo-generated tracks in a specific spark chamber configuration as a check on the validity of the calculation. (orig.)

1984-03-01

62

Application of multiple scattering theory to spark chamber type detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering is given which is intended primarily for application to particle tracks in ..gamma..-ray spark chamber telescopes but which may be applicable in other detector systems. This treatment provides for situations where particles may have large angles with respect to the detector axis, for non-homogeneous scattering material of different types, and localized in discrete zones at arbitrary locations. The analysis is developed in terms of generalized scattering parameters to accommodate a variety of observational techniques. The final section includes the results of applying the theory to samples of Monte Carlo-generated tracks in a specific spark chamber configuration as a check on the validity of the calculation.

Bertsch, D.L. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center)

1984-03-01

63

On axionic dark matter in Type IIA string theory  

CERN Document Server

We investigate viable scenarios with various axions in the context of supersymmetric field theory and in globally consistent D-brane models. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry is associated with an anomalous U(1) symmetry, which acquires mass at the string scale but remains as a perturbative global symmetry at low energies. The origin of the scalar Higgs-axion potential from F-, D- and soft breaking terms is derived, and two Standard Model examples of global intersecting D6-brane models in Type II orientifolds are presented, which differ in the realisation of the Higgs sector and in the hidden sector, the latter of which is of particluar importance for the soft supersymmetry breaking terms.

Honecker, Gabriele

2014-01-01

64

String Scattering from D-branes in Type 0 Theories  

CERN Document Server

We derive fully covariant expressions for all two-point scattering amplitudes involving closed string tachyon and massless strings from Dirichlet brane in type 0 theories. The amplitude for two massless D-brane fluctuations to produce closed string tachyon is also evaluated. We then examine in detail these string scattering amplitudes in order to extract world-volume couplings of the tachyon with itself and with massless fields on a D-brane. We find that the tachyon appears as an overall coupling function in the Born-Infeld action. For D3-brane, the coupling function is the same as the tachyon coupling function to the Ramond-Ramond field in the bulk space. Hence, the effective Yang-Mills coupling is slightly different from the one suggested in hep-th/9812089.

Garousi, M R

1999-01-01

65

Detection and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A by a Novel Rapid In Vitro Fluorimetric Assay? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A), the most poisonous substance known to humans, is a potential bioterrorism agent. The light-chain protein induces a flaccid paralysis through cleavage of the 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein (SNAP-25), involved in acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. BoNT/A is widely used as a therapeutic agent and to reduce wrinkles. The toxin is used at very low doses, which have to be accurately quantified. With this aim, internally quenched fluores...

Poras, Herve?; Ouimet, Tanja; Orng, Sou-vinh; Fournie?-zaluski, Marie-claude; Popoff, Michel R.; Roques, Bernard P.

2009-01-01

66

Quantification of stress history in type 304L stainless steel using positron annihilation spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five Type 304L stainless steel specimens were subjected to incrementally increasing values of plastic strain. At each value of strain, the associated static stress was recorded and the specimen was subjected to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) using the Doppler Broadening method. A calibration curve for the 'S' parameter as a function of stress was developed based on the five specimens. Seven different specimens (blind specimens labeled B1-B7) of 304L stainless steel were subjected to values of stress inducing plastic deformation. The values of stress ranged from 310 to 517 MPa. The seven specimens were subjected to PAS post-loading using the Doppler Broadening method, and the results were compared against the developed curve from the previous five specimens. It was found that a strong correlation exists between the 'S' parameter, stress, and strain up to a strain value of 15%, corresponding to a stress value of 500 MPa, beyond which saturation of the 'S' parameter occurs. Research Highlights: ? Specimens were initially in an annealed/recrystallized condition. ? Calibration results indicate positron annihilation measurements yield correlation. ? Deformation produced by cold work was likely larger than the maximum strain.

2011-04-01

67

Quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA Levels in Plasma by Using Small-Volume-Format Branched-DNA Assays  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have developed small-volume (50 or 250 ?l)-format branched-DNA assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA for use with specimens in which the volume is limited and/or a high viral load is anticipated. These formats exhibited good correlation with the standard 1-ml format; high specificity, reproducibility, and linearity; and no significant difference in the quantification of HIV-1 subtypes.

Yeghiazarian, Torange; Zhao, Yuqi; Read, Stanley E.; Kabat, William; Li, Xiaoyi; Hamren, Sarah J.; Sheridan, Patrick J.; Wilber, Judith C.; Chernoff, David N.; Yogev, Ram

1998-01-01

68

Type IIA flux compactifications. Vacua, effective theories and cosmological challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis, we studied a number of type IIA SU(3)-structure compactifications with 06-planes on nilmanifolds and cosets, which are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the low energy effective theory. In particular we calculated the mass spectrum of the light scalar modes, using N = 1 supergravity techniques. For the torus and the Iwasawa solution, we have also performed an explicit Kaluza-Klein reduction, which led to the same result. For the nilmanifold examples we have found that there are always three unstabilized moduli corresponding to axions in the RR sector. On the other hand, in the coset models, except for SU(2) x SU(2), all moduli are stabilized. We discussed the Kaluza-Klein decoupling for the supersymmetric AdS vacua and found that it requires going to the Nearly-Calabi Yau limited. We searched for non-trivial de Sitter minima in the original flux potential away from the AdS vacuum. Finally, in chapter 7, we focused on a family of three coset spaces and constructed non-supersymmetric vacua on them. (orig.)

2009-01-01

69

Type IIA flux compactifications. Vacua, effective theories and cosmological challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis, we studied a number of type IIA SU(3)-structure compactifications with 06-planes on nilmanifolds and cosets, which are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the low energy effective theory. In particular we calculated the mass spectrum of the light scalar modes, using N = 1 supergravity techniques. For the torus and the Iwasawa solution, we have also performed an explicit Kaluza-Klein reduction, which led to the same result. For the nilmanifold examples we have found that there are always three unstabilized moduli corresponding to axions in the RR sector. On the other hand, in the coset models, except for SU(2) x SU(2), all moduli are stabilized. We discussed the Kaluza-Klein decoupling for the supersymmetric AdS vacua and found that it requires going to the Nearly-Calabi Yau limited. We searched for non-trivial de Sitter minima in the original flux potential away from the AdS vacuum. Finally, in chapter 7, we focused on a family of three coset spaces and constructed non-supersymmetric vacua on them. (orig.)

Koers, Simon

2009-07-30

70

Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of a specific MMP-9 mediated degradation fragment of type III collagen--A novel biomarker of atherosclerotic plaque remodeling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Degradation of collagen in the arterial wall by matrix metalloproteinases is the hallmark of atherosclerosis. We have developed an ELISA for the quantification of type III collagen degradation mediated by MMP-9 in urine.

Barascuk, Natasha; Vassiliadis, Efstathios

2011-01-01

71

Type II branes from brane-antibrane in M-theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss in a systematic way all the possible realisations of branes of M and type II theories as topological solitons of a brane-antibrane system. The classification of all the possibilities, consistent with the structure of the theory, is achieved by studying the Wess-Zumino terms in the worldvolume effective actions of the branes of M-theory and their reductions

2000-05-29

72

Quantification of proviral DNA load of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtypes A and B using real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV-2 infection is confined mostly to West Africa. Seven HIV-2 subtypes have so far been described; only HIV-2 subtypes A and B are prevalent, the others being considered self-limiting infections at the epidemiological level. The main limitation for the HIV-2 DNA proviral quantification is the lack of HIV-2 DNA standard. We designed and tested a new HIV-2 primer couple that amplifies both the HIV-2 ROD strain and HIV-1 LAV/BRU strain. These HIV-2 primers were used to quantified an HIV-2 standard comparatively to a standard widely used in proviral DNA HIV-1 quantification, i.e., the 8E5 cell line transfected by a single defective integrated provirus of HIV-1 BRU/LAV by cell. The primers and probe used to quantify HIV-2 DNA are located in a long terminal repeat (LTR) region with low variability. These primers amplify both HIV-2 subtypes A and B. The relevance of the follow-up of the infected patients by the quantification of the proviral DNA HIV-2 is currently studied. PMID:16061978

Gueudin, Marie; Damond, Florence; Simon, François

2005-01-01

73

Toward a Practical Type Theory for Recursive Modules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Module systems for languages with complex type systems, such as Standard ML, often lack the ability to express mutually recursive type and function dependencies across module boundaries. Previous work by Crary, Harper and Puri set out a type-theoretic fou...

D. R. Dreyer K. Crary R. Harper

2001-01-01

74

Detection and Quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 p24 Antigen in Dried Whole Blood and Plasma on Filter Paper Stored under Various Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by an assay measuring heat-dissociated (HD) p24 antigen (Ag) in specimens of whole blood and plasma stored on filter paper, and of plasma stored in tubes, was compared to HIV-1 RNA plasma levels determined by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The stability of p24 Ag on filter paper under conditions simulating specimen transport was also evaluated. The HD p24 Ag in both plasma and whole-blood specimens stored on filter p...

Li, Chung-chen; Seidel, Kristy D.; Coombs, Robert W.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

2005-01-01

75

A ground many-valued type theory and its extensions.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Linz : Johannes Kepler Universität, 2014 - (Flaminio, T.; Godo, L.; Gottwald, S.; Klement, E.). s. 15-18[Linz Seminar on Fuzzy Set Theory /35./. 18.02.2014-22.02.2014, Linz]Grant CEP: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0010Institucionální podpora: RVO:67985807

B?hounek, Libor

76

Initial layer theory and model equations of Volterra type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is demonstrated here that there exist initial layers to singularly perturbed Volterra equations whose thicknesses are not of order of magnitude of 0(?), ? ? 0. It is also shown that the initial layer theory is extremely useful because it allows one to construct the approximate solution to an equation, which is almost identical to the exact solution. (author)

2003-01-01

77

Operator phases in BF-type topological field theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the presence of operator phases in topological field theories whose classical action is given by Tr[BandF]. These phases are given by the ?-function of certain first order operators which appear in a one-loop analysis. Using general arguments, we show that there is no phase for these theories when the spacetime dimension is even, and by explicit computation in three dimensions, we find a phase which violates one of the local symmetries of the classical action. Although the calculation is performed in the background field formalism with a gauge which is covariant with respect to all local symmetries, we nevertheless find an anomalous contribution to the phase which is of the form Tr[BandBandB]. (orig.)

1991-08-01

78

The Mathematical Structure of Theories of Semigeostrophic Type  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past twenty years, semigeostrophic equations have become a prominent model for describing certain atmospheric motions on a synoptic scale, including the presence of fronts. Theoretical studies of them have revealed Hamiltonian features, and novel numerical methods, motivated by the need to improve weather forecasts, have been explored. A shallow-water theory analogue has been used as a paradigm for some aspects. This paper sets out to uncover the mathematical structure of the semigeostrophic equations that has been essential to finding solutions and developing numerical techniques. We study the shallow-water and atmospheric theories side-by-side, and we introduce a generalized form which encapsulates the differences between them. When the Coriolis parameter, f, is a constant, it is found that a lift transformation is at the heart of the theory, and the consequences of this are developed. When f is not a constant, the role of the lift transformation is, in some respects, looser; we explore the extent to which it still offers a worthwhile guide. In particular, it can be viewed as motivating a generalization of the geostrophic momentum transformation for planetary semigeostrophic equations. The paper is broadly self-contained, and it takes account of several different strands in the existing literature.

Roulstone, I.; Sewell, M. J.

1997-12-01

79

A syntactic theory of type generativity and sharing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a purely syntactic account of type generativity and sharing --- two key mechanisms in the Standard ML module system --- and shows its equivalence with the traditional stamp-based description of these mechanisms. This syntactic description recasts the Standard ML module system in a more abstract, type-theoretic framework.

Leroy, Xavier

1995-01-01

80

Effects of drying and comminution type on the quantification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in a homogenised gasworks soil and the implications for human health risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigates the effect of nine physical treatment types comprising a serial combination of three drying (air, freeze and oven) and two comminution (milling and sieving) methods on the quantification of PAH in a soil sample from a former gasworks. Results show that treatment type has a significant effect on PAH concentration (p?0.05). Naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene concentrations were significantly higher for air drying and freeze drying treatments than for oven drying. It is suggested that naphthalene and similarly volatile PAH losses were greater for oven drying due to the application of fanned warm air which is thought to cause volatilisation. Analytical precision was significantly improved for milled samples compared with sieved samples. The reason milling results in greater precision is assigned to the improved solvent extraction efficiency when natural grain size is altered due to crushing. The analytical data were compared to residential generic assessment criteria (GAC) used for risk-based land management. It was shown that the naphthalene GAC was lower than all freeze drying and air drying concentrations but was within the oven drying concentration range, illustrating that a false negative could be concluded during risk evaluation is oven dried data were used. Overall, it is recommended that air drying or freeze drying is a better choice than oven drying if the quantification of low molecular weight PAH forms an important objective of sample characterisation for risk-based land management, otherwise freeze drying and milling is recommended. PMID:24997944

Beriro, Darren J; Vane, Christopher H; Cave, Mark R; Nathanail, C Paul

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Substructural Simple Type Theories for Separation and In-place Update  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis studies two substructural simple type theories, extending the "separation" and "number-of-uses" readings of the basic substructural simply typed lambda-calculus with exchange. The first calculus, lambda_sep, extends the alpha lambda-calculus of O'Hearn and Pym by directly considering the representation of separation in a type system. We define type contexts with separation relations and introduce new type constructors of separated products and separated funct...

Atkey, Robert

2006-01-01

82

Brans-Dicke-type theories and avoidance of the cosmological singularity  

CERN Multimedia

A point of view, based on a postulate about the physical equivalence of conformal representations of a given physical situation in Brans-Dicke-type theories of gravitation is presented, that automatically solves the discussion about the physical equivalence of Jordan frame and Einstein frame formulations of scalar-tensor theory. The cosmological consequences of this viewpoint for general relativity are studied, and its implications for the low-energy limit of string theory outlined.

Quirós, I; Cardenas, R; Quiros, Israel; Bonal, Rolando; Cardenas, Rolando

2000-01-01

83

Dynamical study of the hyperextended scalar-tensor theory in the empty Bianchi type I model  

CERN Document Server

The dynamics of the hyperextended scalar-tensor theory in the empty Bianchi type I model is investigated. We describe a method giving the sign of the first and second derivatives of the metric functions whatever the coupling function. Hence, we can predict if a theory gives birth to expanding, contracting, bouncing or inflationary cosmology. The dynamics of a string inspired theory without antisymetric field strength is analysed. Some exact solutions are found.

Fay, S

2000-01-01

84

Dynamical study of the hyperextended scalar-tensor theory in the empty Bianchi type I model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dynamics of the hyperextended scalar-tensor theory in the empty Bianchi type I model is investigated. We describe a method giving the sign of the first and second derivatives of the metric functions whatever the coupling function. Hence, we can predict if a theory gives birth to expanding, contracting, bouncing or inflationary cosmology. The dynamics of a string inspired theory without antisymetric field strength is analysed. Some exact solutions are found.

Fay, Stephane

2003-01-01

85

Dynamical study of the hyperextended scalar-tensor theory in the empty Bianchi type I model  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics of the hyperextended scalar-tensor theory in the empty Bianchi type I model is investigated. We describe a method giving the sign of the first and second derivatives of the metric functions whatever the coupling function. Hence, we can predict whether a theory gives birth to an expanding, contracting, bouncing or inflationary cosmology. The dynamics of a string-inspired theory without an antisymmetric field strength is analysed. Some exact solutions are found.

Fay, Stéphane

2000-04-01

86

Photometric colors of late-type giants: theory versus observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess the current status in the theoretical modeling of the spectral properties of late-type giants, we provide a comparison of synthetic photometric colors of late-type giants (calculated with PHOENIX, MARCS and ATLAS model atmospheres) with observations, at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Overall, there is a good agreement between observed and synthetic colors, and synthetic colors and published Teff-color relations, both at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Deviations from the observed trends ...

Kucinskas, A.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Ludwig, H. -g; Brott, I.; Vansevicius, V.; Lindegren, L.; Tanabe, T.; Allard, F.

2005-01-01

87

Applications of differential sensitivity theory for extremum-type responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recently developed sensitivity theory for nonlinear systems with responses defined at critical points, e.g. maxima, minima, or saddle points, of a function of the system's state variables and parameters is applied to a protected transient with scram on high power level in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The single-phase segment of the fast reactor safety code MELT-III B is used to model this transient. Two responses of practical importance, viz. The maximum fuel temperature in the hot channel, and the maximum normalized reactor power level, are considered. For the purposes of sensitivity analysis, a complete characterization of such responses requires consideration of both the numerical value of the response at the maximum, and the location in phase-space where the maximum occurs. This is because variations in the system parameters alter not only the value at this maximum but also alter the location of the maximum in phase-space

1982-01-01

88

Type-II defects in the super-Liouville theory  

CERN Document Server

The introduction of type-II defects is discussed under the Lagrangian formalism and Lax representation for the N=1 super-Liouville model. We derive a new kind of super-Backlund transformation for the model and show explicitly the conservation of the modified energy and momentum, as well as supercharge.

Aguirre, A R

2013-01-01

89

Eady Solitary Waves: A Theory of Type B Cyclogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Localized baroclinic instability in a weakly nonlinear, long-wave limit using an Eady model is studied. The resulting evolution equations have a form of the KdV type, including extra terms representing linear coupling. Baroclinic instability is triggered locally by the collision between two neutral solitary waves (one trapped at the upper boundary and the other at the lower boundary) if their incident amplitudes are sufficiently large. This characteristic is explained from the viewpoint of resonance when the relative phase speed, which depends on the amplitudes, is less than a critical value. The upper and lower disturbances grow in a coupled manner (resembling a normal-mode structure) initially, but they reverse direction slowly as the amplitudes increase, and eventually separate from each other.The motivation of this study is to investigate a type of extratropical cyclogenesis that involves a preexisting upper trough (termed as Type B development) from the viewpoint of resonant solitary waves. Two cases are of particular interest. First, the author examines a case where an upper disturbance preexists over an undisturbed low-level waveguide. The solitary waves exhibit behavior similar to that conceived by Hoskins et al. for Type B development; the lower disturbance is forced one sidedly by a preexisting upper disturbance initially, but in turn forces the latter once the former attains a sufficient amplitude, thus resulting in mutual reinforcement. Second, if a weak perturbation exists at the surface ahead of the preexisting strong upper disturbance, baroclinic instability is triggered when the two waves interact. Even though the amplitude of the lower disturbance is initially much weaker, it is intensified quickly and catches up with the amplitude of the upper disturbance, so that the coupled vertical structure resembles that of an unstable normal mode eventually. These results describe the observed behavior in Type B atmospheric cyclogenesis quite well.

Mitsudera, Humio

1994-11-01

90

Addendum D. Neutrino-electron scattering in Fermi-type theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Appendix D presents a detailed calculation of the differential and integral cross sections of the process of elastic neutrino-electron scattering, this in the lowest order of the perturbation series expansion within the Fermi-type theory. The angular distribution is shown to be isotropic. Asymptotic formulas for the integral cross section are derived for high energies. The formulas demonstrate that in the Fermi-type theory, the cross section increases with energy beyond any limit. (Z.J.)

1993-01-01

91

Development of Primer-Probe Energy Transfer real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A real-time PCR assay, based on Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET), was developed to improve the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PVC2). PCV2 is recognised as the essential infectious agent in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and has been associated with other disease syndromes such as porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) and porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Since circoviruses commonly occur in the pig populations and there is a correlation between the severity of the disease and the viral load in the organs and blood, it is important not only to detect PCV2 but also to determine the quantitative aspects of viral load. The PriProET real-time PCR assay described in this study was tested on various virus strains and clinical forms of PMWS in order to investigate any correlation between the clinical signs and viral loads in different organs. The data obtained in this study correlate with those described earlier; namely, the viral load in 1ml plasma and in 500 ng tissue DNA exceeds 10(7) copies in the case of PMWS. The results indicate that the new assay provides a specific, sensitive and robust tool for the improved detection and quantification of PCV2.

Balint, Adam; Tenk, M

2009-01-01

92

Type-I D-branes in an H-flux and twisted KO-theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Witten has argued that charges of type-I D-branes in the presence of an H-flux, take values in twisted KO-theory. We begin with the study of real bundle gerbes and their holonomy. We then introduce the notion of real bundle gerbe KO-theory which we establish is a geometric realization of twisted KO-theory. We examine the relation with twisted K-theory, the Chern character and provide some examples. We conclude with some open problems. (author)

2003-11-01

93

On the Conformal Field Theory Duals of type IIA AdS_4 Flux Compactifications  

CERN Document Server

We study the conformal field theory dual of the type IIA flux compactification model of DeWolfe, Giryavets, Kachru and Taylor, with all moduli stabilized. We find its central charge and properties of its operator spectrum. We concentrate on the moduli space of the conformal field theory, which we investigate through domain walls in the type IIA string theory. The moduli space turns out to consist of many different branches. We use Bezout's theorem and Bernstein's theorem to enumerate the different branches of the moduli space and estimate their dimension.

Aharony, Ofer; Berkooz, Micha

2008-01-01

94

Supergravity as generalised geometry I: type II theories  

Science.gov (United States)

We reformulate ten-dimensional type II supergravity as a generalised geometrical analogue of Einstein gravity, defined by an O(9, 1) × O(1 , 9) ? O(10 , 10) × {mathbb{R}+ } structure on the generalised tangent space. Using the notion of generalised connection and torsion, we introduce the analogue of the Levi-Civita connection, and derive the corresponding tensorial measures of generalised curvature. We show how, to leading order in the fermion fields, these structures allow one to rewrite the action, equations of motion and supersymmetry variations in a simple, manifestly Spin(9 , 1) × Spin(1 , 9)-covariant form. The same formalism also describes d-dimensional compactifications to flat space.

Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles; Waldram, Daniel

2011-11-01

95

Supergravity as Generalised Geometry I: Type II Theories  

CERN Document Server

We reformulate ten-dimensional type II supergravity as a generalised geometrical analogue of Einstein gravity, defined by an $O(9,1)\\times O(1,9)\\subset O(10,10)\\times\\bbR^+$ structure on the generalised tangent space. Using the notion of generalised connection and torsion, we introduce the analogue of the Levi-Civita connection, and derive the corresponding tensorial measures of generalised curvature. We show how, to leading order in the fermion fields, these structures allow one to rewrite the action, equations of motion and supersymmetry variations in a simple, manifestly $\\Spin(9,1)\\times\\Spin(1,9)$-covariant form.

Coimbra, André; Waldram, Daniel

2011-01-01

96

Theory of zeolite supralattices: Se in zeolite Linde type A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study theoretically properties of Se clusters in zeolites, and choose zeolite Linde type A (LTA) as a prototype system. The geometries of free-space Se clusters are first determined, and we report the energetics and electronic and vibrational properties of these clusters. The work on clusters includes an investigation of the energetics of C3-C1 defect formation in Se rings and chains. The electronic properties of two Se crystalline polymorphs, trigonal Se and -monoclinic Se, are also determined. Electronic and vibrational properties of the zeolite LTA are investigated. Next we investigate the electronic and optical properties of ring-like Se clusters inside the large -cages of LTA. We find that Se clusters inside cages of silaceous LTA have very little interaction with the zeolite, and that the HOMO-LUMO gaps (HOMO standing for highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO for lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) are nearly those of the isolated cluster. The HOMO-LUMO gaps of Se6, Se8, and Se12 are found to be similar, which makes it difficult to identify them experimentally by absorption spectroscopy. We find that the zeolite/Se8 nanocomposite is lower in energy than the two separated systems. We also investigate two types of infinite chain encapsulated in LTA. Finally, we carry out finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations for an encapsulated Se12 cluster, which shows cluster melting and formation of nanoscale Se droplets in the?-cages of LTA. (author)

2001-11-19

97

Photometric colors of late-type giants: theory versus observations  

CERN Multimedia

To assess the current status in the theoretical modeling of the spectral properties of late-type giants, we provide a comparison of synthetic photometric colors of late-type giants (calculated with PHOENIX, MARCS and ATLAS model atmospheres) with observations, at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Overall, there is a good agreement between observed and synthetic colors, and synthetic colors and published Teff-color relations, both at [M/H]=0.0 and -2.0. Deviations from the observed trends in Teff-color planes are generally within \\pm 150K (or less) in the effective temperature range Teff=3500-4800K. Synthetic colors calculated with different stellar atmosphere models typically agree to ~100K, within a large range of effective temperatures and gravities. Some discrepancies are seen in the Teff-(B-V) plane below Teff~3800K at [M/H]=0.0, due to difficulties in reproducing the 'turn-off' to the bluer colors which is seen in the observed data at Teff~3600K. Note that at [M/H]=-2.0 effective temperatures given by the scale of Alo...

Kucinskas, A; Ludwig, H G; Brott, I; Vansevicius, V; Lindegren, L; Tanabé, T; Allard, F

2005-01-01

98

Gauged supergravity from type IIB string theory on Y^{p,q} manifolds  

CERN Multimedia

We first construct a consistent Kaluza-Klein reduction ansatz for type IIB theory compactified on Sasaki-Einstein manifolds Y^{p,q} with Freund-Rubin 5-form flux giving rise to minimal N=2 gauged supergravity in five dimensions. We then investigate the R-charged black hole solution in this gauged supergravity, and in particular study its thermodynamics. Based on the gauge theory/string theory correspondence, this non-extremal geometry is dual to finite temperature strongly coupled four-dimensional conformal gauge theory plasma with a U(1)_R-symmetry charge chemical potential. We study transport properties of the gauge theory plasma and show that the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in this plasma is universal. We further conjecture that the universality of shear viscosity of strongly coupled gauge theory plasma extends to nonzero R-charge chemical potential.

Buchel, A; Buchel, Alex; Liu, James T.

2006-01-01

99

Vortex-type half-BPS solitons in Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory without and with mass deformation. It is shown that maximally supersymmetry preserving, D-term, and F-term mass deformations of single mass parameter are equivalent. We obtain vortex-type half-BPS equations and the corresponding energy bound. For the undeformed ABJM theory, the resulting half-BPS equation is the same as that in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and no finite energy regular BPS solution is found. For the mass-deformed ABJM theory, the half-BPS equations for U(2)xU(2) case reduce to the vortex equation in Maxwell-Higgs theory, which supports static regular multivortex solutions. In U(N)xU(N) case with N>2 the non-Abelian vortex equation of Yang-Mills-Higgs theory is obtained.

2009-08-15

100

Theory of zeolite supralattices: Se in zeolite Linde type A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study theoretically properties of Se clusters in zeolites, and choose zeolite Linde type A (LTA) as a prototype system. The geometries of free-space Se clusters are first determined, and we report the energetics and electronic and vibrational properties of these clusters. The work on clusters includes an investigation of the energetics of C{sub 3}-C{sub 1} defect formation in Se rings and chains. The electronic properties of two Se crystalline polymorphs, trigonal Se and -monoclinic Se, are also determined. Electronic and vibrational properties of the zeolite LTA are investigated. Next we investigate the electronic and optical properties of ring-like Se clusters inside the large -cages of LTA. We find that Se clusters inside cages of silaceous LTA have very little interaction with the zeolite, and that the HOMO-LUMO gaps (HOMO standing for highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO for lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) are nearly those of the isolated cluster. The HOMO-LUMO gaps of Se{sub 6}, Se{sub 8}, and Se{sub 12} are found to be similar, which makes it difficult to identify them experimentally by absorption spectroscopy. We find that the zeolite/Se{sub 8} nanocomposite is lower in energy than the two separated systems. We also investigate two types of infinite chain encapsulated in LTA. Finally, we carry out finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations for an encapsulated Se{sub 12} cluster, which shows cluster melting and formation of nanoscale Se droplets in the{alpha}-cages of LTA. (author)

Demkov, Alexander A. [Physical Sciences Research Laboratories, Motorola Incorporated, Tempe, AZ (United States); Sankey, Otto F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

2001-11-19

 
 
 
 
101

Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric Stueckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence of chiral charged zero modes on M5-instantons in backgrounds with G{sub 4} flux are discussed and compared with the type IIB results. The dimensional reduction of the democratic formulation of M-theory is presented in the appendix.

Buenaventura Kerstan, Max Bromo

2013-11-13

102

Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric Stueckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence of chiral charged zero modes on M5-instantons in backgrounds with G4 flux are discussed and compared with the type IIB results. The dimensional reduction of the democratic formulation of M-theory is presented in the appendix.

2013-01-01

103

Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric St¨uckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We

2013-01-01

104

Spectrum to all orders of Polchinski-Strominger {Effective} String Theory of Polyakov-Liouville Type  

CERN Document Server

The spectrum of a Polchinski-Strominger type effective string theory, extended to all orders, herein called an effective string theory of the \\emph{Polyakov-Liouville Type} (for obvious reasons) is investigated to all orders in the small parameter $R^{-1}$. Here $R$ is the length of the \\emph{closed} string. It is established that to \\emph{all orders} the spectrum of this theory is \\emph{identical} to that of the free bosonic string theory. While the latter is consistent only in the critical dimension $D_c=26$, the PS- type effective string theories are by construction consistent in \\emph{all} dimensions. This work extends earlier results by Drummond, and, by Hari Dass and Matlock to order $R^{-3}$. When combined with Drummond's results about absence of candidate actions at orders $R^{-4},R^{-5}$, our results imply that the spectrum of \\emph{all} effective string theories coincides with that of free bosonic string theories to order $R^{-5}$. This agrees with the recent results by Aharony and Karzbrun. Our wor...

Dass, N D Hari; Bharadwaj, Yashas

2009-01-01

105

Nonperturbative type IIB model building in the F-theory framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation is concerned with the topic of non-perturbative string theory, which is generally considered to be the most promising approach to a consistent description of quantum gravity. The five known 10-dimensional perturbative string theories are all interconnected by numerous dualities, such that an underlying non-perturbative 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, is postulated. Due to several technical obstacles, little is known about the fundamental objects in this theory. There exists an alternative non-perturbative description to type IIB string theory, namely F-theory. Here the SL(2;Z) self-duality of IIB theory is geometrized in the form of an elliptic fibration over the space-time. Moreover, higher-dimensional objects like 7-branes are included via singularities into the geometric picture. This formally elegant description, however, requires significant technical effort for the construction of suitable compactification geometries, as many different aspects necessarily have to be dealt with at the same time. On the other hand, the generation of essential GUT building blocks like certain Yukawa couplings or spinor representations is easier compared to perturbative string theory. The goal of this study is therefore to formulate a unified theory within the framework of F-theory, that satisfies basic phenomenological constraints. Within this thesis, at first E3-brane instantons in type IIB string theory - 4-dimensional objects that are entirely wrapped around the invisible dimensions of space-time - are matched with M5-branes in F-theory. Such objects are of great importance in the generation of critical Yukawa couplings or the stabilization of the free parameters of a theory. Certain properties of M5-branes then allow to derive a new criterion for E3-branes to contribute to the superpotential. In the aftermath of this analysis, several compactification geometries are constructed and checked for basic properties that are relevant for semi-realistic unified model building. An important aspect is the proper handling of the gauge flux on the 7-branes. Via the spectral cover description - which at first requires further refinements - chiral matter can be generated and the unified gauge group can be broken to the Standard Model. Ultimately, in this thesis an explicit unified model based on the gauge group SU(5) is constructed within the F-theory framework, such that an acceptable phenomenology and the observed three chiral matter generations are obtained. (orig.)

2011-01-01

106

Hamiltonian BRST deformation of a class of n-dimensional BF-type theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consistent hamiltonian interactions that can be added to an abelian free BF-type class of theories in any n?4 spacetime dimensions are constructed in the framework of the hamiltonian BRST deformation based on cohomological techniques. The resulting model is an interacting field theory in higher dimensions with an open algebra of on-shell reducible first-class constraints. We argue that the hamiltonian couplings are related to a natural structure of Poisson manifold on the target space. (author)

2003-01-01

107

The general vacuum Bianchi type-V solution in the Brans-Dicke theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general Brans-Dicke theory Bianchi type-V vacuum solution, which is more complex than the general relativity theory (GRT) solution, has been derived. If n = 0, i.e. phi' = 0, the general GRT given by Joseph is obtained. The special case 2m = -n reduces to the k = 1 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker vacuum solution. The sourceless scalar field phi = phi(3) is dynamically an essential factor since it influences the anisotropic expansion of the model. (U.K.)

1984-01-01

108

Quantum-defect theory for $-1/r^4$ type of interactions  

CERN Document Server

We present a quantum-defect theory (QDT) for the $-1/r^4$ type of long-range potential, as a foundation for a systematic understanding of charge-neutral quantum systems such as ion-atom, ion-molecule, electron-atom, and positron-atom interactions. The theory incorporates both conceptual and mathematical advances since earlier formulations of the theory. It also includes more detailed discussions of the concept of resonance spectrum and its representations, universal properties in charge-neutral quantum systems, and the QDT description of scattering resonances that is applicable to any $-1/r^n$ potential with $n>2$.

Gao, Bo

2013-01-01

109

Real Separated Algebraic Curves, Quadrature Domains, Ahlfors Type Functions and Operator Theory  

CERN Multimedia

The aim of this paper is to inter-relate several algebraic and analytic objects, such as real-type algebraic curves, quadrature domains, functions on them and rational matrix functions with special properties, and some objects from Operator Theory, such as vector Toeplitz operators and subnormal operators. Our tools come from operator theory, but some of our results have purely algebraic formulation. We make use of Xia's theory of subnormal operators and of the previous results by the author in this direction. We also correct (in Section 5) some inaccuracies in two papers by the author in Revista Matematica Iberoamericana (1998).

Yakubovich, D V

2005-01-01

110

Preclinical evaluation and quantification of [18F]MK-9470 as a radioligand for PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in rat brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[18F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist for the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor allowing its use in PET imaging. We characterized the kinetics of [18F]MK-9470 and evaluated its ability to quantify CB1 receptor availability in the rat brain. Dynamic small-animal PET scans with [18F]MK-9470 were performed in Wistar rats on a FOCUS-220 system for up to 10 h. Both plasma and perfused brain homogenates were analysed using HPLC to quantify radiometabolites. Displacement and blocking experiments were done using cold MK-9470 and another inverse agonist, SR141716A. The distribution volume (VT) of [18F]MK-9470 was used as a quantitative measure and compared to the use of brain uptake, expressed as SUV, a simplified method of quantification. The percentage of intact [18F]MK-9470 in arterial plasma samples was 80 ± 23 % at 10 min, 38 ± 30 % at 40 min and 13 ± 14 % at 210 min. A polar radiometabolite fraction was detected in plasma and brain tissue. The brain radiometabolite concentration was uniform across the whole brain. Displacement and pretreatment studies showed that 56 % of the tracer binding was specific and reversible. VT values obtained with a one-tissue compartment model plus constrained radiometabolite input had good identifiability (?10 %). Ignoring the radiometabolite contribution using a one-tissue compartment model alone, i.e. without constrained radiometabolite input, overestimated the [18F]MK-9470 VT, but was correlated. A correlation between [18F]MK-9470 VT and SUV in the brain was also found (R 2 = 0.26-0.33; p ? 0.03). While the presence of a brain-penetrating radiometabolite fraction complicates the quantification of [18F]MK-9470 in the rat brain, its tracer kinetics can be modelled using a one-tissue compartment model with and without constrained radiometabolite input. (orig.)

2012-09-01

111

Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric St\\"uckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence o...

Kerstan, Max

2014-01-01

112

Type II theories compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds in the presence of background fluxes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compactifications of type II theories on Calabi-Yau threefolds including electric and magnetic background fluxes are discussed. We derive the bosonic part of the four-dimensional low energy effective action and show that it is a non-canonical N=2 supergravity which includes a massive two-form. The symplectic invariance of the theory is maintained as long as the flux parameters transform as a symplectic vector and a massive two-form which couples to both electric and magnetic field strengths is present. The mirror symmetry between type IIA and type IIB compactified on mirror manifolds is shown to hold for RR fluxes at the level of the effective action. We also compactify type IIA in the presence of NS three-form flux but the mirror symmetry in this case remains unclear.

Louis, Jan E-mail: j.louis@physik.uni-halle.de; Micu, Andrei E-mail: micu@physik.uni-halle.de

2002-07-22

113

Evaluation of Periods via Fibrations in Seiberg-Witten Theories and in Type-II String  

CERN Document Server

We show how to evaluate the periods in Seiberg-Witten theories and in K3-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds by using fibrations of the theories. In the Seiberg-Witten theories, it is shown that the dual pair of fields can be constructed from the classical fields in a simple form. As for Calabi-Yau manifolds which are fibrations of K3 surface, we obtain the solutions of the Picard-Fuchs equations from the periods of K3 surface. By utilizing the expression of periods for two-parameter models of type-II string, we derive the solutions of the Picard-Fuchs equations around the points of enhanced gauge symmetry and show a simple connection to the SU(2) Seiberg-Witten theory.

Suzuki, H

1997-01-01

114

The iteration formula of the Maslov-type index theory with applications to nonlinear Hamiltonian systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the iteration formula of the Maslov-type index theory for linear Hamiltonian systems with continuous periodic and symmetric coefficients is established. This formula yields a new method to determine the minimality of the period for solutions of nonlinear autonomous Hamiltonian systems via their Maslov-type indices. Applications of this formula give new results on the existence of periodic solutions with prescribed minimal period for such systems. (author). 40 refs

1994-01-01

115

Ginzburg-Landau-type theory of antiphase boundaries in polytwinned structures  

CERN Document Server

The conventional Landau-Ginzburg theory of interphase boundaries is generalized to the case of not small values of order parameters, with application to polytwinned structures characteristic of cubic-tetragonal-type phase transitions. Explicit expressions for the structure and energy of antiphase boundaries via the functions entering the free energy functional are given. A peculiar dependence of equilibrium orientations of antiphase boundaries on the interaction type is predicted, and it qualitatively agrees with available experimental data

Vaks, V G

2001-01-01

116

On theory of chemical evolution of neutral comets of a Halley type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical theory of neutral chemical evolution atmospheres of comets, type of Gallea comet is presented, iced kernels which basically consist from ice water. The hydrogen atoms distribution law which photo dissociation molecules of water starting appears in result from a kernel under influence of short-wave Sun radiations, such types of comets were found in atmospheres and realization opportunity of this law is shown

1993-01-01

117

Compactification of type IIB string theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study compactifications of type IIB supergravity on Calabi-Yau threefolds. The resulting low energy effective Lagrangian is displayed in the large volume limit and its symmetry properties - with specific emphasis on the SL(2,Z)- are discussed. The explicit map to type IIA string theory compactified on a mirror Calabi-Yau is derived. We argue that strong coupling effects on the world-sheet break the SL(2,Z)

2000-03-13

118

The effective theory of type IIA AdS4 compactifications on nilmanifolds and cosets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider string theory compactifications of the form AdS4xM6 with orientifold six-planes, where M6 is a six-dimensional compact space that is either a nilmanifold or a coset. For all known solutions of this type we obtain the four-dimensional N=1 low-energy effective theory by computing the superpotential, the Kaehler potential and the mass spectrum for the light moduli. For the nilmanifold examples we perform a cross-check on the result for the mass spectrum by calculating it alternatively from a direct Kaluza-Klein reduction and find perfect agreement. We show that in all but one of the coset models all moduli are stabilized at the classical level. As an application we show that all but one of the coset models can potentially be used to bypass a recent no-go theorem against inflation in type IIA theory.

2009-01-21

119

$R^4$ Couplings in M and Type II Theories on Calabi-Yau spaces  

CERN Document Server

We discuss several implications of $R^4$ couplings in M theory when compactified on Calabi-Yau (CY) manifolds. In particular, these couplings can be predicted by supersymmetry from the mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons couplings in five dimensions and are related to the one-loop holomorphic anomaly in four dimensional N=2 theories. We find a new contribution to the Einstein term in five dimensions proportional to the Euler number of the internal CY threefold, which corresponds to a one-loop correction of the hypermultiplet geometry. This correction is reproduced by a direct computation in type II string theories. Finally, we discuss a universal non-perturbative correction to the type IIB hyper-metric.

Antoniadis, Ignatios; Minasian, R; Narain, Kumar S

1997-01-01

120

R4 couplings in M- and type II theories on Calabi-Yau spaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss several implications of R4 couplings in M-theory when compactified on Calabi-Yau (CY) manifolds. In particular, these couplings can be predicted by supersymmetry from the mixed gauge-gravitational Chern-Simons couplings in five dimensions and are related to the one-loop holomorphic anomaly in four-dimensional N=2 theories. We find a new contribution to the Einstein term in five dimensions proportional to the Euler number of the internal CY threefold, which corresponds to a one-loop correction of the hypermultiplet geometry. This correction is reproduced by a direct computation in type II string theories. Finally, we discuss a universal non-perturbative correction to the type IIB hyper-metric. (orig.)

1997-12-15

 
 
 
 
121

Modular invariance and the gravitational anomaly in type II superstring theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By explicit calculations we show that the one-loop parity-violating amplitude with six external gravitons is modular invariant and finite. As a natural consequence of the modular invariance and double periodicity of the amplitude with respect to torus parameters, the gravitational anomaly of type II superstring theory vanishes.

Hayashi, Masahito; Kawamoto, Noboru; Kuramoto, Tetsuji; Shigemoto, Kazuyasu

1987-12-07

122

A phenomenological theory of nonlinear saturation of drift wave type instability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A phenomenologically motivated theory of nonlinear saturation of drift wave type instabilities is presented. While density gradient flattening is the physical saturation mechanism for collisional drift wave, that for trapped electron mode is found to be both density and electron temperature gradient flattening. The importance of inclusion of radially nonlocal structure in the nonlinear analysis is demonstrated. (author)

1986-01-01

123

Isotropization of Bianchi type models and a new FRW solution in Brans-Dicke theory  

CERN Multimedia

Using scaled variables we are able to integrate an equation valid for isotropic and anisotropic Bianchi type I, V, IX models in Brans-Dicke (BD) theory. We analyze known and new solutions for these models in relation with the possibility that anisotropic models asymptotically isotropize, and/or possess inflationary properties. In particular, a new solution of curve ($k\

Cervantes-Cota, J L; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Nahmad, Marcos

2001-01-01

124

Ehlers-type transformation for SL(2,C) self-dual equations of gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The symmetry of the stationary vacuum Einstein equations under the group SL(2, R) is extended to a symmetry of SL(2, C) self-dual equations of gauge theory. For a dual parametrization of Yang's R gauge, three independent infinitesimal changes under an Ehlers-type transformation are derived. (orig.)

1983-05-01

125

Comment on ''Proof of one-loop finiteness of type-I SO(32) superstring theory''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reviewing a proof by Clavelli, we find that the parity-conserving one-loop divergences of type-I SO(N) superstring theory with an arbitrary number of external gauge bosons cancel for N = 8 rather than for N = 32

1986-11-15

126

Modular invariance and the gravitational anomaly in type II superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By explicit calculations we show that the one-loop parity-violating amplitude with six external gravitons is modular invariant and finite. As a natural consequence of the modular invariance and double periodicity of the amplitude with respect to torus parameters, the gravitational anomaly of type II superstring theory vanishes. (orig.)

1987-12-07

127

Parity-violating one-loop six-point function in type-I superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluate in closed form the parity-violating one-loop six-point function with external gauge bosons in type-I superstring theory. The amplitude is proven finite for arbitrary internal symmetry. The axial-vector anomaly is obtained for general internal symmetry and is shown to vanish in the case of SO(32)

1987-03-15

128

Proof of one-loop finiteness of type-I SO(32) superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We prove, in the Lorentz-covariant formulation of the type-I superstring theory, that the parity-conserving one-loop amplitudes with arbitrary numbers of external gauge bosons are finite if the internal-symmetry group is SO(32)

1986-02-15

129

Parity-violating one-loop function in lower-dimensional type-I string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The parity-violating one-loop functions with three and four external gauge bosons accompanied by five external massless scalars in lower-dimensional type-I string theory are evaluated in closed form. The finiteness and anomaly freedom of the amplitudes are also proved independent of the internal symmetry

1989-05-15

130

Phase and interface behaviors in type-I and type-V Lennard-Jones mixtures: Theory and simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

Density gradient theory (DGT) and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to predict subcritical phase and interface behaviors in type-I and type-V equal-size Lennard-Jones mixtures. Type-I mixtures exhibit a continuum critical line connecting their pure critical components, which implies that their subcritical phase equilibria are gas liquid. Type-V mixtures are characterized by two critical lines and a heteroazeotropic line. One of the two critical lines begins at the more volatile pure component critical point up to an upper critical end point and the other one comes from the less volatile pure component critical point ending at a lower critical end point. The heteroazeotropic line connects both critical end points and is characterized by gas-liquid-liquid equilibria. Therefore, subcritical states of this type exhibit gas-liquid and gas-liquid-liquid equilibria. In order to obtain a correct characterization of the phase and interface behaviors of these types of mixtures and to directly compare DGT and MD results, the global phase diagram of equal-size Lennard-Jones mixtures has been used to define the molecular parameters of these mixtures. According to our results, DGT and MD are two complementary methodologies able to obtain a complete and simultaneous prediction of phase equilibria and their interfacial properties. For the type of mixtures analyzed here, both approaches have shown excellent agreement in their phase equilibrium and interface properties in the full concentration range.

Mejía, Andrés; Pàmies, Josep C.; Duque, Daniel; Segura, Hugo; Vega, Lourdes F.

2005-07-01

131

Quantification of the types of water in Eudragit RLPO polymer and the kinetics of water loss using FTIR  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Coalescence of polymer particles in polymer matrix tablets influences drug release. The literature has emphasized that coalescence occurs above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer and that water may plasticize (lower Tg) the polymer. However, we have shown previously that nonplasticizing water also influences coalescence of Eudragit RLPO; so there is a need to quantify the different types of water in Eudragit RLPO. The purpose of this study was to distinguish the types of water present in Eudragit RLPO polymer and to investigate the water loss kinetics for these different types of water. Eudragit RLPO was stored in tightly closed chambers at various relative humidities (0, 33, 56, 75, and 94%) until equilibrium was reached. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-DRIFTS was used to investigate molecular interactions between water and polymer, and water loss over time. Using a curve fitting procedure, the water region (3100-3,700 cm(-1)) of the spectra was analyzed, and used to identifywater present in differing environments in the polymer and to determine the water loss kinetics upon purging the sample with dry compressed air. It was found that four environments can be differentiated (dipole interaction of water with quaternary ammonium groups, water cluster, and water indirectly and directly binding to the carbonyl groups of the polymer) but it was not possible to distinguish whether the different types of water were lost at different rates. It is suggested that water is trapped in the polymer in different forms and this should be considered when investigating coalescence of polymer matrices.

Pirayavaraporn, Chompak; Rades, Thomas

2013-01-01

132

Intra-Assay Performance Characteristics of Five Assays for Quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in Plasma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three kits (Roche AMPLICOR human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] Monitor, Chiron enhanced-sensitivity bDNA, and Organon Teknika NASBA HIV-1 QT) and two in-house assays (from National Genetics Institute and Baylor College of Medicine) were compared with a blinded panel. The results were evaluated as to intra-assay sensitivity, precision, and ability to detect differences in a dilution series.

Lin, Hsiang Ju; Pedneault, Louise; Hollinger, F. Blaine

1998-01-01

133

Type II solar radio bursts: 2. Detailed comparison of theory with observations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the second in a two paper series, we quantitatively compare a detailed theory for type II solar radio bursts with observations and extract the parameters of the associated shocks. We use the techniques and assessment parameters developed and demonstrated in the companion paper for artificial data sets and solar wind models. Here we investigate three relatively well-observed type II events with estimates of shock parameters from LASCO/SOHO observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) or other data. Using these parameters we obtain reasonable qualitative and semiquantitative agreement (25-40% correlations) between the theory and observed dynamic spectra. Then, using an iterative downhill simplex method with two assessment parameters, we extract model shock parameters that increase the agreement between theory and observation in terms of relative flux levels, spectral intensifications and drift rates. The extracted parameters agree qualitatively and semiquantitatively with the parameters (speed, size and expansion index) estimated from CME observations for one of the studied events. The extracted parameters agree qualitatively with the remaining two events and yield new initial shock speeds. The agreement between this multiprocess theory and observations is promising for these first quantitative comparisons performed here. Quantitatively, the bulk of the radio emission agrees to within 5 to 10 dB with observations, with the theory typically overpredicting the intensity of bright spots in the dynamic spectra. The methods and analyses presented here show potential for the remote inference of CME-driven shock parameters and the prediction of radio and space weather events.

Hillan, D. S.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

2012-06-01

134

A proof of the Nekrasov-type formula for E-string theory  

CERN Document Server

We give a proof of the Nekrasov-type formula proposed by one of the authors for the Seiberg-Witten prepotential for the E-string theory on R^4 x T^2. We take the thermodynamic limit of the Nekrasov-type formula following the example of Nekrasov-Okounkov and reproduce the Seiberg-Witten description of the prepotential. The Seiberg-Witten curve obtained directly from the Nekrasov-type formula is of genus greater than one. We find that this curve is transformed into the known elliptic curve by a simple map. We consider the cases in which the low energy theory has E_8, E_7+A_1 or E_6+A_2 as a global symmetry.

Ishii, Takenori

2013-01-01

135

Higher order curvature terms in Born-Infeld type brane theories  

CERN Document Server

The field equations associated to Born-Infeld type brane theories are studied by using an auxiliary variables method. This approach hinges on the fact that the expressions defining the physical and geometrical quantities describing the worldvolume are varied independently. The general structure of the Born-Infeld type theories for branes contains the square root of a determinant of a combined matrix between the induced metric on the worldvolume swept out by the brane and a symmetric/antisymmetric tensor depending of gauge, matter or extrinsic curvature terms taking place on the worldvolume. The higher order curvature terms appearing in the determinant form come to play as competition with other effective brane models. Additionally, we suggest a Born-Infeld-Einstein type action for branes where the higher order curvature content is provided by the worldvolume Ricci tensor. This action provide an alternative description of the dynamics of braneworld scenarios.

Rojas, Efrain

2010-01-01

136

Quantification of the N-terminal propeptide of human procollagen type I (PINP): comparison of ELISA and RIA with respect to different molecular forms.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper compares the results of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) quantification by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PINP in serum from a patient with uremic hyperparathyroidism was measured in RIA and ELISA to 20 micrograms l-1 and 116 micrograms l-1 and the corresponding concentrations in dialysis fluid were 94.5 micrograms l-1 and 140 micrograms l-1, respectively. PINP antigen appears in two distinct peaks following size chromatography and the two peak fractions display immunological identity and identical M(r)'s (27 kDa: SDS-PAGE). Analysis of fractions from size separated amniotic fluid, serum and dialysis fluid demonstrated that the RIA failed to measure the low molecular weight form of PINP. However, the anti-PINP supplied with the RIA-kit and the anti-PINP applied in the ELISA reacted equally well with both molecular forms of PINP when analysed in a direct ELISA. It is concluded that the major difference in the ELISA and RIA results is due to assayefficacy with respect to the low molecular weight form of PINP. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Jan-12

Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Hansen, M

1998-01-01

137

Quantification of zinc atoms in a surface alloy on copper in an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel.1 Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2 O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a promoter for this type of catalyst is still under intense debate.2 Structural changes that are strongly dependent on the pretreatment method have now been observed for an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst. A combination of chemisorption, reaction, and spectroscopic techniques provides a consistent picture of surface alloying between copper and zinc. This analysis enables a reinterpretation of the methods that have been used for the determination of the Cu surface area and provides an opportunity to independently quantify the specific Cu and Zn areas. This method may also be applied to other systems where metal-support interactions are important, and this work generally addresses the role of the carrier and the nature of the interactions between carrier and metal in heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:24764288

Kuld, Sebastian; Conradsen, Christian; Moses, Poul Georg; Chorkendorff, Ib; Sehested, Jens

2014-06-01

138

Quantification of zinc atoms in a surface alloy on copper in an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel. Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a promoter for this type of catalyst is still under intense debate. Structural changes that are strongly dependent on the pretreatment method have now been observed for an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst. A combination of chemisorption, reaction, and spectroscopic techniques provides a consistent picture of surface alloying between copper and zinc. This analysis enables a reinterpretation of the methods that have been used for the determination of the Cu surface area and provides an opportunity to independently quantify the specific Cu and Zn areas. This method may also be applied to other systems where metal-support interactions are important, and this work generally addresses the role of the carrier and the nature of the interactions between carrier and metal in heterogeneous catalysts.

Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; Chorkendorff, Ib

2014-01-01

139

One-loop gauge anomaly in type-I superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vanishing of the hexagon gauge anomaly of type-I superstring was shown previously by Green and Schwarz in the case that the gauge group is SO(32). The result, as well as the finiteness of the one-loop amplitude, makes the superstring theory a candidate for the unified theory including gravity. The vanishing of the gauge anomaly can be established for all N-point functions. The one-loop gauge anomaly is shown to be absent if the gauge group is SO(32). (orig.)

1986-12-11

140

Preclinical evaluation and quantification of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 as a radioligand for PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in rat brain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

[{sup 18}F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist for the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor allowing its use in PET imaging. We characterized the kinetics of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 and evaluated its ability to quantify CB1 receptor availability in the rat brain. Dynamic small-animal PET scans with [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 were performed in Wistar rats on a FOCUS-220 system for up to 10 h. Both plasma and perfused brain homogenates were analysed using HPLC to quantify radiometabolites. Displacement and blocking experiments were done using cold MK-9470 and another inverse agonist, SR141716A. The distribution volume (V{sub T}) of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 was used as a quantitative measure and compared to the use of brain uptake, expressed as SUV, a simplified method of quantification. The percentage of intact [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 in arterial plasma samples was 80 {+-} 23 % at 10 min, 38 {+-} 30 % at 40 min and 13 {+-} 14 % at 210 min. A polar radiometabolite fraction was detected in plasma and brain tissue. The brain radiometabolite concentration was uniform across the whole brain. Displacement and pretreatment studies showed that 56 % of the tracer binding was specific and reversible. V{sub T} values obtained with a one-tissue compartment model plus constrained radiometabolite input had good identifiability ({<=}10 %). Ignoring the radiometabolite contribution using a one-tissue compartment model alone, i.e. without constrained radiometabolite input, overestimated the [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 V{sub T}, but was correlated. A correlation between [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 V{sub T} and SUV in the brain was also found (R {sup 2} = 0.26-0.33; p {<=} 0.03). While the presence of a brain-penetrating radiometabolite fraction complicates the quantification of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 in the rat brain, its tracer kinetics can be modelled using a one-tissue compartment model with and without constrained radiometabolite input. (orig.)

Casteels, Cindy [K.U. Leuven, University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel; Laere, Koen van [K.U. Leuven, University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); Celen, Sofie; Bormans, Guy [K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium)

2012-09-15

 
 
 
 
141

A COSSERAT-TYPE PLATE THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION TO CARBON NANOTUBE MICROSTRUCTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The predictive capabilities of plate and shell theories greatly depend on their underlying kinematic assumptions. In this study, we develop a Cosserat-type elastic plate theory which accounts for rotations around the normal to the mid-surface plane (so-called drilling rotations. Internal loads, equilibrium equations, boundary conditions and constitutive equations are derived. The case of a Single Walled carbon Nanotube (SWNT modelled as a Cosserat medium is taken here as a reference example. Material parameters are identified and the proposed theory is used to solve analytically the problem of a polymer-SWNT composite tube under torsion. Predictions such as an absolute size effect are compared to those of the classical Cauchy-de Saint-Venant results.

Abdellatif Selmi

2014-01-01

142

Type IIB string theory on AdS5 x Tnn'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study Kaluza-Klein spectrum of type IIB string theory compactified on AdS5 x Tnn' in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence. We examine some of the modes of the complexified 2 form potential as an example and show that for the states at the bottom of the Kaluza-Klein tower the corresponding d=4 boundary field operators have rational conformal dimensions. The masses of some of the fermionic modes in the bottom of each tower as functions of the R charge in the boundary conformal theory are also rational. Furthermore the modes in the bottom of the towers originating from q forms on T11 can be put in correspondence with the BRS cohomology classes of the c = 1 non critical string theory with ghost number q. (author)

1999-01-01

143

Type IIA/M-theory Moduli fixing in a Class of Orientifold Models  

CERN Document Server

We present the study of type II A flux vacua and their M-theory duals for compactification on a class of Calabi-Yau orientifolds. The Kahler potential is derived from toroidal compactifications and the superpotential contains a contribution from non-Abelian gauge degrees of freedoms. We obtain complete stabilisation of the moduli. We found one supersymmetric minimum and several non supersymmetric ones. Consistency of the analysis constrains the parameters of the models in a finite region containing a finite, although very large, number of flux vacua. From the M-theory side, we found some differences in the distributions of the physical quantities with respect to the M-theory ensemble studied by Acharya et al. In particular, it is easier to find small supersymmetry breaking scale.

Milanesi, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

144

Experimental quantification of dynamic forces and shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings under several contact conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact forces enable the hysteresis loops to be computed and analyzed. Consequently, the contact forces are plotted against the local deformation in order to assess the contact force loss during the impacts. The shaft motion during contact with the backup bearing is verified with a two-sided spectrum analyses. The analyses show that by use of a conventional annular guide, the shaft undergoes a direct transition from normal operation to a full annular backward whirling state for the case of external excitation. However, in a self-excited vibration case, where the speed is gradually increased and decreased through the first critical speed, the investigation revealed that different paths initiated the onset of backward whip and whirling motion. In order to improve the whirling and the full annular contact behavior, an unconventional pinned backup bearing is realized. The idea is to utilize pin connections that center the rotor during impacts and prevent the shaft from entering a full annular contact state. The experimental results show that the shaft escapes the pins and returns to a normal operational condition during an impact event.

Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar F.

2013-10-01

145

Quantification of Proviral Load of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Subtypes A and B Using Real-Time PCR  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed and evaluated a new method to quantify human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) proviral DNA based on LightCycler real-time PCR. The assay has a detection limit of 5 copies/105 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and is insensitive to HIV-2 strain variability: HIV-2 subtypes A and B are both recognized and quantified. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation range from 16 to 40% for high provirus concentrations (5 × 105 copies) and from 41 to 39% for low concentrations (5 copies). We used this method to compare the proviral DNA load and viral RNA load in plasma with clinical and immunological status for 29 patients infected by HIV-2 (subtype A in 17 and subtype B in 12). The proviral load (median, 201 copies/105 PBMC) was similar to that reported for HIV-1 infection. The median proviral loads did not correlate with the CD4+ cell count categories and were as follows for CD4+ cell counts of >400, 200 to 400, and <200 cells/mm3, respectively: 121 copies/105 PBMC (n = 8; range, <5 to 712 copies/105 PBMC); 114 copies/105 PBMC (n = 9; range, <5 to 1,907 copies/105 PBMC); and 285 copies/105 PBMC (n = 12; range, 53 to 2,524 copies/105 PBMC). Proviral load did not correlate with plasma HIV-2 RNA positivity. As HIV-2 is considered to replicate less efficiently than HIV-1, these high proviral loads might be explained by the proliferation of infected cells.

Damond, Florence; Descamps, Diane; Farfara, Isabelle; Telles, Jean Noel; Puyeo, Sophie; Campa, Pauline; Lepretre, Annie; Matheron, Sophie; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Simon, Francois

2001-01-01

146

Quantification of proviral load of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtypes A and B using real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed and evaluated a new method to quantify human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) proviral DNA based on LightCycler real-time PCR. The assay has a detection limit of 5 copies/10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and is insensitive to HIV-2 strain variability: HIV-2 subtypes A and B are both recognized and quantified. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation range from 16 to 40% for high provirus concentrations (5 x 10(5) copies) and from 41 to 39% for low concentrations (5 copies). We used this method to compare the proviral DNA load and viral RNA load in plasma with clinical and immunological status for 29 patients infected by HIV-2 (subtype A in 17 and subtype B in 12). The proviral load (median, 201 copies/10(5) PBMC) was similar to that reported for HIV-1 infection. The median proviral loads did not correlate with the CD4(+) cell count categories and were as follows for CD4(+) cell counts of >400, 200 to 400, and <200 cells/mm(3), respectively: 121 copies/10(5) PBMC (n = 8; range, <5 to 712 copies/10(5) PBMC); 114 copies/10(5) PBMC (n = 9; range, <5 to 1,907 copies/10(5) PBMC); and 285 copies/10(5) PBMC (n = 12; range, 53 to 2,524 copies/10(5) PBMC). Proviral load did not correlate with plasma HIV-2 RNA positivity. As HIV-2 is considered to replicate less efficiently than HIV-1, these high proviral loads might be explained by the proliferation of infected cells. PMID:11724830

Damond, F; Descamps, D; Farfara, I; Telles, J N; Puyeo, S; Campa, P; Leprêtre, A; Matheron, S; Brun-Vezinet, F; Simon, F

2001-12-01

147

Chiral resonant solitons in Chern–Simons theory and Broer–Kaup type new hydrodynamic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We reduce chiral solitons in quantum potential from Chern–Simons theory of anyons. ? We examine corresponding family of integrable resonant DNLS models. ? Models admit the second non-Madelung hydrodynamic representation. ? New hydrodynamic systems of the Broer–Kaup type are derived. ? Soliton interactions in these systems show the resonant character. - Abstract: New Broer–Kaup type systems of hydrodynamic equations are derived from the derivative reaction–diffusion systems arising in SL(2, R) Kaup–Newell hierarchy, represented in the non-Madelung hydrodynamic form. A relation with the problem of chiral solitons in quantum potential as a dimensional reduction of 2 + 1 dimensional Chern–Simons theory for anyons is shown. By the Hirota bilinear method, soliton solutions are constructed and the resonant character of soliton interaction is found.

2012-08-01

148

Numerical knot invariants of finite type from Chern-Simons perturbation theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chern-Simons gauge theory for compact semisimple groups is analyzed from a perturbation theory point of view. The general form of the perturbative series expansion of a Wilson line is presented in terms of the Casimir operators of the gauge group. From this expansion new numerical knot invariants are obtained. These knot invariants turn out to be of finite type (Vassiliev invariants) and to possess an integral representation. Using known results about Jones, HOMFLY, Kauffman and Akutsu-Wadati polynomial invariants these new knot invariants are computed up to type six for all prime knots up to six crossings. Our results suggest that these knot invariants can be normalized in such a way that they are integer-valued. ((orig.))

1995-01-16

149

Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA. LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity. Conclusions We show that the natural system encoded in SPI-1 only produces high titers of secreted protein for 4-8 hours when the natural psicA promoter is used to drive expression. Secretion efficiency can be high, but declines for charged or large sequences. A quantitative characterization of these constraints will facilitate the effective use and engineering of this system.

Voigt Christopher A

2010-10-01

150

The epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory with Wilson-type fermions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this proceeding contribution we report on the ongoing effort to simulate Wilson-type fermions in the so called epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory (cPT).We present results for the chiral condensate and the pseudoscalar decay constant obtained with Wilson twisted mass fermions employing two lattice spacings, two different physical volumes and several quark masses. With this set of simulations we make a first attempt to estimate the systematic uncertainties. (orig.)

Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division

2009-11-15

151

On the effective theory of type IIA AdS_4 compactifications  

CERN Multimedia

This is a summary of arXiv:0806.3458, where the low energy effective theory of type IIA AdS_4 N=1 flux compactifications on nilmanifolds and cosets has been analyzed. We compute the superpotential, the K\\"ahler potential and the mass spectrum for the light moduli. For the nilmanifold examples we perform a cross-check on the result for the mass spectrum by calculating it from a direct Kaluza-Klein reduction.

Kors, Simon

2008-01-01

152

The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor in the two-group transport theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor is solved for the first time in the two group neutron transport theory, by singular eingenfunctions expansion, the singular integrals obtained through continuity conditions of angular distributions at the interface are regularized by a recently proposed method. The result is a coupled system of regular integral equations for the expansion coefficients, this system is solved by an ordinary interactive method. Numerical results that can be utilized as a comparative standard for aproximation methods, are presented

1978-04-01

153

Cut Elimination in the Intuitionistic Theory of Types with Axioms and Rewriting Cuts, Constructively  

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We give a fully constructive semantic proof of cut elimination for intuitionistic type theory with axioms. The problem here, as with the original Takeuti conjecture, is that the impredicativity of the formal system involved makes it impossible to define a semantics along conventional lines, in the absence, a priori, of cut, or to prove completeness by induction on subformula structure. In addition, unlike semantic proofs by Tait, Takahashi, and Andrews of variants of the Takeuti conjecture, o...

Hermant, Olivier; Lipton, James

2008-01-01

154

Transient theory of double slope floating cum tilted - wick type solar still  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A double slope floating cum tilted-wick solar still has been fabricated and transient theory of floating cum tilted-wick type solar still has been proposed. Analytical expressions have been derived for the different temperatures components of the proposed system. For elocution of the analytical results, numerical calculations have been carried out using the meteorological parameters for a typical summer day in Coimbatore. Analytical expression results are found to be in the close agreement with the experimental results. (authors)

2011-01-01

155

Quantification of margins and uncertainties: Alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy in conjunction with the national security laboratories (i.e., Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories) initiated development of a process designated Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) for the use of risk assessment methodologies in the certification of the reliability and safety of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. A previous presentation, 'Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties: Conceptual and Computational Basis,' describes the basic ideas that underlie QMU and illustrates these ideas with two notional examples that employ probability for the representation of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. The current presentation introduces and illustrates the use of interval analysis, possibility theory and evidence theory as alternatives to the use of probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in QMU-type analyses. The following topics are considered: the mathematical structure of alternative representations of uncertainty, alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses involving only epistemic uncertainty, and alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses involving a separation of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Analyses involving interval analysis, possibility theory and evidence theory are illustrated with the same two notional examples used in the presentation indicated above to illustrate the use of probability to represent aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses.

2011-09-01

156

S-matrix elements and closed string tachyon couplings in type 0 theory  

CERN Document Server

In type 0 theory, we have written various sphere level 4-point functions involving the closed string tachyon in the universal form, e.g. independent of tachyon mass. The leading terms of these S-matrix elements are in full agreement with the type 0 effective action. They also fix the form of the tachyon potential up to $T^4$ term, and the form of the RR coefficient function $f(T)$ up to $T^2$ term. The exact form of the latter function have been found from dimensional reduction and T-duality to be $e^{\\pm T/2}$.

Garousi, M R

2003-01-01

157

Spatially Homogeneous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model in the Scale-Covariant Theory of Gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V spacetime filled with a perfect fluid in the framework of the scale-covariant theory of gravitation proposed by Canuto et al. By applying the law of variation for Hubble's parameter, exact solutions of the field equations are obtained, which correspond to the model of the universe having a big-bang type singularity at the initial time t = 0. The cosmological model, evolving from the initial singularity, expands with power-law expansion and gives essentially an empty space for a large time. The physical and dynamical properties of the model are also discussed. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

2009-08-01

158

Four types of coping with COPD-induced breathlessness in daily living: a grounded theory study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Coping with breathlessness is a complex and multidimensional challenge for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and involves interacting physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial dimensions. The aim of this study was to explore how people with moderate to most severe COPD predominantly cope with breathlessness during daily living. We chose a multimodal grounded theory design that holds the opportunity to combine qualitative and quantitative data to capture and explain the multidimensional coping behaviour among poeple with COPD. The participants' main concern in coping with breathlessness appeared to be an endless striving to economise on resources in an effort to preserve their integrity. In this integrity-preserving process, four predominant coping types emerged and were labelled: `Overrater´, `Challenger´, `Underrater´, and `Leveller´. Each coping type comprised distrinctive physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial features constituting coping-type-specific indicators. In theory, four predominant coping types with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial properties are observed among people with COPD. The four coping types seem to constitute a coping trajectory. This hypothesis should be further tested in a longitudinal study.

Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald

2013-01-01

159

Specimens: "most of" generic NPs in a contextually flexible type theory  

CERN Document Server

This paper proposes to compute the meanings associated to sentences with generic NPs corresponding to the most of generalized quantifier. We call these generics specimens and they resemble stereotypes or prototypes in lexical semantics. The meanings are viewed as logical formulae that can be thereafter interpreted in your favorite models. We rather depart from the dominant Fregean single untyped universe and go for type theory with hints from Hilbert epsilon calculus and from medieval philosophy. Our type theoretic analysis bears some resemblance with on going work in lexical semantics. Our model also applies to classical examples involving a class (or a generic element of this class) which is provided by the context. An outcome of this study is that, in the minimalism-contextualism debate, if one adopts a type theoretical view, terms encode the purely semantic meaning component while their typing is pragmatically determined.

Retoré, Christian

2011-01-01

160

Stringy unification of type IIA and IIB supergravities under N=2D=10 supersymmetric double field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To the full order in fermions, we construct D=10 type II supersymmetric double field theory. We spell the precise N=2 supersymmetry transformation rules as for 32 supercharges. The constructed action unifies type IIA and IIB supergravities in a manifestly covariant manner with respect to O(10,10) T-duality and a pair of local Lorentz groups, or Spin(1,9)×Spin(9,1), besides the usual general covariance of supergravities or the generalized diffeomorphism. While the theory is unique, the solutions are twofold. Type IIA and IIB supergravities are identified as two different types of solutions rather than two different theories

2013-06-10

 
 
 
 
161

Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this beta-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with D78, DK01 or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day 1 post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8 p.i. for D78. Importantly, the primers set were specific as the D78 primer set gave no amplification of F52/70 and DK01 and the DK01 primer set gave no amplification of D78, thus DK01 and D78 could be quantified simultaneously in dually infected chickens by use of these two set of primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies. PMID:16678230

Li, Y P; Handberg, K J; Kabell, S; Kusk, M; Zhang, M F; Jørgensen, P H

2007-02-01

162

Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this P-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with D78, DK01 or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day I post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8 p.i. for D78. Importantly, the primers set were specific as the D78 primer set gave no amplification of F52/70 and DK01 and the DK01 primer set gave no amplification of D78, thus DK01 and D78 could be quantified simultaneously in dually infected chickens by use of these two set of primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies.

Li, Yiping; Kabell, Susanne

2007-01-01

163

Type II Solar Radio Bursts : Extraction of Shock Parameters and Detailed Comparison of Theory with Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

We use the current interplanetary type II theory and a data-driven solar wind model to simulate dynamic spectra of type II bursts. We start by developing techniques and performance metrics for extraction of shock parameters from artificial data sets. An iterative downhill simplex method is used, which compares two dynamic spectra and quantitatively assesses and then improves the agreement using two performance metrics; the first is based on the correlation function and the second is based on a normalized difference. By maximizing the agreement we are able to extract the input model shock parameters to within 30% or better when using model solar winds of increasing complexity. When using a realistic solar wind model, the parameters are recovered very accurately, generally to within a few percent of the correct solution. We then quantitatively compare the theory with observations and extract the parameters of the shocks for three well observed type II events. We first obtain good qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement (40-50% correlations) between the predicted and observed dynamic spectra using estimates of shock parameters from LASCO/SOHO coronal mass ejections (CME) observations. The iterative downhill simplex method with the two assessment parameters then extracts model shock parameters that increase the agreement between theory and observation in terms of relative flux levels, spectral intensifications, and drift rates. The shock parameters agree qualitatively and semi-quantitatively with those estimated from CME observations (speed, size and expansion index) for two events. Quantitatively, the simulated radio emission is typically overpredicted for each event by around 5 dB. Analysis of the third event leads to improved agreement for only a range of times and frequencies in the dynamic spectra, and leads to an implausible shock size. The theory and methods show great potential for space weather prediction and remote inference of CME-driven shock parameters.

Hillan, D.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.

2010-12-01

164

Equations of Associativity in Two-Dimensional Topological Field Theory as Integrable Hamiltonian Nondiagonalizable Systems of Hydrodynamic Type  

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Equations of associativity in two-dimensional topological field theory (they are known also as the Witten-Dijkgraaf-H.Verlinde-E.Verlinde (WDVV) system) are represented as an example of the general theory of integrable Hamiltonian nondiagonalizable (i.e., do not possessing Riemann invariants) systems of hydrodynamic type. A corresponding local nondegenerate Hamiltonian structure of hydrodynamic type (Poisson bracket of Dubrovin-Novikov type) is found. For n=3 the equations o...

Mokhov, Oleg; Ferapontov, Eugene

1995-01-01

165

Canonical BF-type topological field theory and fractional statistics of strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider BF-type topological field theory coupled to non-dynamical particle and string sources on spacetime manifolds of the form R1xM 3, where M 3 is a 3-manifold without boundary. Canonical quantization of the theory is carried out in the hamiltonian formalism and explicit solutions of the Schroedinger equation are obtained. We show that the Hilbert space is finite dimensional and the physical states carry a one-dimensional projective representation of the local gauge symmetries. When M 3 is homologically non-trivial the wavefunctions in addition carry a multi-dimensional projective representation, in terms of the linking matrix of the homology cycles of M 3, of the discrete group of large gauge transformations. The wavefunctions also carry a one-dimensional representation of the non-trivial linking of the particle trajectories and string surfaces in M 3. This topological field theory therefore provides a phenomenological generalization of anyons to (3+1) dimensions where the holonomies representing fractional statistics arise from the adiabatic transport of particles around strings. We also discuss a duality between large gauge transformations and these linking operations around the homology cycles of M 3, and show that this canonical quantum field theory provides novel quantum representations of the cohomology of M 3 and its associated motion group. ((orig.))

1995-03-20

166

Up-type quark masses in SU(5) F-theory models  

CERN Document Server

F-theory SU(5) unification has been proposed as a scenario where the mass of the top quark is naturally large, as opposed to type II SU(5) models. We analyze this claim from the viewpoint of local SU(5) F-theory models, by explicitly computing the 10 x 10 x 5 Yukawa couplings that are developed in the vicinity of an E6 singularity. Realizing this singularity via T-branes allows for a non-trivial mass for the top quark, while lighter generations of up-type quarks still have vanishing Yukawa couplings. Nevertheless, we show that by taking instanton effects into account non-vanishing Yukawas are induced for all U-quark families, together with a hierarchical structure at the level of the superpotential. Finally, by solving for internal wavefunction profiles we compute physical U-quark Yukawa couplings and show that this F-theory scenario allows to describe the measured top quark mass, as well as the observed quotients of U-quark masses.

Font, Anamaría; Regalado, Diego; Zoccarato, Gianluca

2013-01-01

167

Up-type quark masses in SU(5) F-theory models  

Science.gov (United States)

F-theory SU(5) unification has been proposed as a scenario where the mass of the top quark is naturally large, as opposed to type II SU(5) models. We analyze this claim from the viewpoint of local SU(5) F-theory models, by explicitly computing the 10 × 10 × 5 Yukawa couplings that are developed in the vicinity of an E 6 singularity. Realizing this singularity via T-branes allows for a non-trivial mass for the top quark, while lighter generations of up-type quarks still have vanishing Yukawa couplings. Nevertheless, we show that by taking instanton effects into account non-vanishing Yukawas are induced for all U-quark families, together with a hierarchical structure at the level of the superpotential. Finally, by solving for internal wavefunction profiles we compute physical U-quark Yukawa couplings and show that this F-theory scenario allows to describe the measured top quark mass, as well as the observed quotients of U-quark masses.

Font, A.; Marchesano, F.; Regalado, D.; Zoccarato, G.

2013-11-01

168

Towards an integrative account of social cognition: marrying theory of mind and interactionism to study the interplay of Type 1 and Type 2 processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional theory of mind accounts of social cognition have been at the basis of most studies in the social cognitive neurosciences. However, in recent years, the need to go beyond traditional theory of mind accounts for understanding real life social interactions has become all the more pressing. At the same time it remains unclear whether alternative accounts, such as interactionism, can yield a sufficient description and explanation of social interactions. We argue that instead of considering theory of mind and interactionism as mutually exclusive opponents, they should be integrated into a more comprehensive account of social cognition. We draw on dual process models of social cognition that contrast two different types of social cognitive processing. The first type (labelled Type 1 refers to processes that are fast, efficient, stimulus-driven, and relatively inflexible. The second type (labelled Type 2 refers to processes that are relatively slow, cognitively laborious, flexible, and may involve conscious control. We argue that while interactionism captures aspects of social cognition mostly related to Type 1 processes, theory of mind is more focused on those based on Type 2 processes. We suggest that real life social interactions are rarely based on either Type 1 or Type 2 processes alone. On the contrary, we propose that in most cases both types of processes are simultaneously involved and that social behaviour may be sustained by the interplay between these two types of processes. Finally, we discuss how the new integrative framework can guide experimental research on social interaction.

VivianBohl

2012-10-01

169

A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor  

In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

Bianchi Granato, Danilo

2012-05-01

170

Towards reduction of type II theories on SU(3) structure manifolds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We revisit the reduction of type II supergravity on SU(3) structure manifolds conjectured to lead to gauged N = 2 supergravity in 4 dimensions. The reduction proceeds by expanding the invariant 2- and 3-forms of the SU(3) structure as well as the gauge potentials of the type II theory in the same set of forms, the analogues of harmonic forms in the case of Calabi-Yau reductions. By focussing on the metric sector, we arrive at a list of constraints these expansion forms should satisfy to yield a base point independent reduction. Identifying these constraints is a first step towards a first-principles reduction of type II on SU(3) structure manifolds

2007-03-01

171

Towards reduction of type II theories on SU(3) structure manifolds  

CERN Document Server

We revisit the reduction of type II supergravity on SU(3) structure manifolds, conjectured to lead to gauged N=2 supergravity in 4 dimensions. The reduction proceeds by expanding the invariant 2- and 3-forms of the SU(3) structure as well as the gauge potentials of the type II theory in the same set of forms, the analogues of harmonic forms in the case of Calabi-Yau reductions. By focussing on the metric sector, we arrive at a list of constraints these expansion forms should satisfy to yield a base point independent reduction. Identifying these constraints is a first step towards a first-principles reduction of type II on SU(3) structure manifolds.

Kashani-Poor, A K; Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; Minasian, Ruben

2007-01-01

172

Localized modes in type II and heterotic singular Calabi-Yau conformal field theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider type II and heterotic string compactifications on an isolated singularity in the noncompact Gepner model approach. The conifold-type ADE noncompact Calabi-Yau threefolds, as well as the ALE twofolds, are modeled by a tensor product of the SL(2, R)/U(1) Kazama-Suzuki model and an N = 2 minimal model. Based on the string partition functions on these internal Calabi-Yaus previously obtained by Eguchi and Sugawara, we construct new modular invariant, space-time supersymmetric partition functions for both type II and heterotic string theories, where the GSO projection is performed before the continuous and discrete state contributions are separated. We investigate in detail the massless spectra of the localized modes. In particular, we propose an interesting three generation model, in which each flavor is in the 27 + 1 representation of E6 and localized on a four-dimensional space-time residing at the tip of the cigar.

2008-11-01

173

Axion-dilaton-modulus gravity theory of Brans-Dicke-type and conformal symmetry  

CERN Multimedia

Conformal symmetry is investigated within the context of axion-dilaton-modulus theory of gravity of Brans-Dicke-type. A distinction is made between general conformal symmetry and invariance under transformations of the physical units. The conformal degree of symmetry of the theory is studied when quantum fermion (lepton) modes with electromagnetic interaction are considered. Based on the requirement of invariance of the physical laws under general transformations of the units of measure, arguments are given that point at a matter action with non-minimal coupling of the dilaton to the matter fields as the most viable description of the world within the context of the model studied. The geometrical implications of the results obtained are discussed.

Quirós, I

2000-01-01

174

On power-type cosmological solutions of the Brans-Dicke theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of power-type cosmological solutions of the Brans-Dicke theory (BDT) is carried out. The observed data testify to the fact that the real Universe, beginning from the stage preceding nucleon synthesis and up-to nowadays, should be described either by Friedman or cosmological solutions in the form of rather similar to them. In the BDT such solutions are those, which transfer at free parameter values ? ? infinity into Friedman ones. The rest solutions can be considered as nonphysical ones. The BDT is shown to disagree fully with the Mach principle

1985-01-01

175

Bianchi type-II Bulk viscous string cosmological model in self-creation theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic LRS Bianchi type-II space-time is considered in the frame work of second self-creation theory of gravitation proposed by Barber (Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 14:117, 1982) in the presence of bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. A determinate solution of the field equations is presented using special variation for Hubble's parameter given by Berman (Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) and some physically plausible conditions. The solution represents a bulk viscous string model in the second self-creation cosmology. We have also discussed some physical and kinematical properties of the model.

Reddy, D. R. K.; Bhaskara Rao, M. P. V. V.; Sobhan Babu, K.

2014-05-01

176

Comment on the one-loop finiteness in type-I superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using the Pauli-Villars method, one-loop divergence of the 4-point amplitude in SO(N) type-I superstring theory is studied. If one assigns the equal mass to the Pauli-Villars regulators appearing in the planar and nonorientable diagrams, the one-loop finiteness does not hold for N = 32. From the present view point, the principal-part prescription by Green and Schwarz corresponds to the different regulator mass assignment for the planar and nonorientable diagrams. (author)

1986-01-01

177

Scalar-type gravitational wave emission from gravitational collapse in Brans-Dicke theory: Detectability by a laser interferometer  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the possibility of obtaining evidence for scalar-tensor theories of gravity by laser interferometric gravitational wave observatories (e.g., LIGO), we perform numerical simulations of the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric dust fluid and investigate the waveform and amplitude of scalar-type gravitational waves (SGW's) in the Brans-Dicke theory, which is one of the simplest scalar-tensor theories. We find that in the case of the dust collapse of mass ~10Msolar and initial radius ~100-1000 km, the emitted SGW's have a maximum amplitude ~10-22(500/?)(10 Mpc/R) and a characteristic frequency ~40-1000 Hz. This means that if the gravity theory is the Brans-Dicke theory with ?Brans-Dicke theory like in the Einstein theory, and outside the black hole, the Brans-Dicke scalar field seems to become constant. These results support the cosmic censorship conjecture.

Shibata, Masaru; Nakao, Kenichi; Nakamura, Takashi

1994-12-01

178

Clumpy Langmuir waves in type III radio sources - Comparison of stochastic-growth theory with observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed comparisons are made between the Langmuir-wave properties predicted by the recently developed stochastic-growth theory of type III sources and those observed by the plasma wave experiment on ISEE 3, after correcting for the main instrumental and selection effects. Analysis of the observed field-strength distribution confirms the theoretically predicted form and implies that wave growth fluctuates both spatially and temporally in sign and magnitude, leading to an extremely clumpy distribution of fields. A cutoff in the field-strength distribution is seen at a few mV/m, corresponding to saturation via nonlinear effects. Analysis of the size distribution of Langmuir clumps yields results in accord with those obtained in earlier work and with the size distribution of ambient density fluctuations in the solar wind. This confirms that the inhomogeneities in the Langmuir growth rate are determined by the density fluctuations and that these fluctuations persist during type III events.

Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

1993-01-01

179

Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential applications for the analysis, engineering and management of physical and biological systems and properties, and the consequences for the organization of transdisciplinary research and the scientific curriculum in the context of the SYSTEMOSCOPE Consortium research and development agenda. PMID:17991513

Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

2008-05-01

180

Mild to severe social fears: Ranking types of feared social situations using item response theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders, and is associated with long term impairment, distress and vulnerability to secondary disorders. Certain types of social fears are more common than others, with public speaking fears typically the most prevalent in epidemiological surveys. The distinction between performance- and interaction-based fears has been the focus of long-standing debate in the literature, with evidence performance-based fears may reflect more mild presentations of social anxiety. This study aims to explicitly test whether different types of social fears differ in underlying social anxiety severity using item response theory techniques. Different types of social fears were assessed using items from three different structured diagnostic interviews in four different epidemiological surveys in the United States (n=2261, n=5411) and Australia (n=1845, n=1497); and ranked using 2-parameter logistic item response theory models. Overall, patterns of underlying severity indicated by different fears were consistent across the four samples with items functioning across a range of social anxiety. Public performance fears and speaking at meetings/classes indicated the lowest levels of social anxiety, with increasing severity indicated by situations such as being assertive or attending parties. Fears of using public bathrooms or eating, drinking or writing in public reflected the highest levels of social anxiety. Understanding differences in the underlying severity of different types of social fears has important implications for the underlying structure of social anxiety, and may also enhance the delivery of social anxiety treatment at a population level. PMID:24873885

Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

On the effective theory of type II string compactifications on nilmanifolds and coset spaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis we analyzed a large number of type IIA strict SU(3)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O6/D6-sources, as well as type IIB static SU(2)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O5/O7-sources. Restricting to structures and fluxes that are constant in the basis of left-invariant one-forms, these models are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory. The six-dimensional compact manifolds we studied in this thesis are nilmanifolds based on nilpotent Lie-algebras, and, on the other hand, coset spaces based on semisimple and U(1)-groups, which admit a left-invariant strict SU(3)- or static SU(2)-structure. In particular, from the set of 34 distinct nilmanifolds we identified two nilmanifolds, the torus and the Iwasawa manifold, that allow for an AdS4, N = 1 type IIA strict SU(3)-structure solution and one nilmanifold allowing for an AdS4, N = 1 type IIB static SU(2)-structure solution. From the set of all the possible six-dimensional coset spaces, we identified seven coset spaces suitable for strict SU(3)-structure compactifications, four of which also allow for a static SU(2)-structure compactification. For all these models, we calculated the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory using N = 1 supergravity techniques. In order to write down the most general four-dimensional effective action, we also studied how to classify the different disconnected ''bubbles'' in moduli space. (orig.)

2009-01-01

182

Hints for Off-Shell Mirror Symmetry in type II/F-theory Compactifications  

CERN Document Server

We perform a Hodge theoretic study of parameter dependent families of D-branes on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds in type II and F-theory compactifcations. Starting from a geometric Gauss-Manin connection for B type branes we study the integrability and flatness conditions. The B model geometry defines an interesting ring structure of operators. For the mirror A model this indicates the existence of an open-string extension of the so-called A model connection, whereas the discovered ring structure should be part of the open-string A model quantum cohomology. We obtain predictions for genuine Ooguri-Vafa invariants for Lagrangian branes on the quintic in P4 that pass some non-trivial consistency checks. We discuss the lift of the brane compactifications to F-theory on Calabi-Yau 4-folds and the effective couplings in the effective supergravity action as determined by the N = 1 special geometry of the open-closed deformation space.

Alim, Murad; Jockers, Hans; Mayr, Peter; Mertens, Adrian; Soroush, Masoud

2009-01-01

183

Formation of different types of energy contacts in sandy soils in the framework of the physicochemical theory of effective stresses ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????-?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors examine the applicability of the physicochemical theory of effective stresses to sandy soils. It is proven that the above theory may be furthered by the argument that all three types of energy contacts, including coagulatory, transient and phase contacts, are present in sandy soils. Coagulatory contact predominates over the other three types of contact. The authors provide their findings in terms of morphological peculiarities attributable to genetic differences of quaternary sand...

Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich; Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich; Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatolevna

2012-01-01

184

Optimizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence for direct trace element quantification in proteins I: Influence of sample homogeneity and reflector type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence (?XRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results

2008-12-01

185

(NS5,Dp) and (NS5,D(p+2),Dp) bound states of type IIB and type IIA string theories  

CERN Multimedia

Starting from the (q,p) 5-brane solution of type IIB string theory, we here construct the low energy configuration corresponding to (NS5,Dp)-brane bound states (for $0\\leq p\\leq 4$) using the T-duality map between type IIB and type IIA string theories. We use the SL(2,Z) symmetry on the type IIB bound state (NS5,D3) to construct (NS5,D5,D3) bound state. We then apply T-duality transformation again on this state to construct the bound states of the form (NS5,D(p+2),Dp) (for $0\\leq p\\leq 2$) of both type IIB and type IIA string theories. We give the tension formula for these states and show that they form non-threshold bound states. All these states preserve half of the space-time supersymmetries of string theories. We also briefly discuss the ODp-limits corresponding to (NS5,Dp) bound state solutions.

Mitra, I; Mitra, Indranil; Roy, Shibaji

2001-01-01

186

Type IIB String Backgrounds on Parallelizable PP-Waves and Conformal Liouville Theory  

CERN Multimedia

The scope of this work concerns the adaptation of the parallelizability pp-wave (Ppp-wave) process to D=10 type IIB string backgrounds in the presence of the non-trivial anti-self dual R-R 5-form $\\QTR{cal}{F}$. This is important in the sense that it gives rise to some unsuspected properties. In fact, exact solutions of type IIB string backgrounds on Ppp-waves are discussed. For the $u$-dependence of the dilaton field $\\Phi $, we establish explicitly a correspondence between type IIB supergravity equations of motion and 2d-conformal Liouville field theory. We show also that the corresponding conserved conformal current $T(\\Phi)$ coincides exactly with the trace of the symmetric matrix $\\mu_{ij}$ appearing in the quadratic front factor $F=\\mu _{ij}x^{i}x^{j}$ of the Ppp-wave. Furthermore, we consider the transverse space dependence of the dilaton $\\Phi $ and show that the supergravity equations are easily solved for the linear realization of the dilaton field. Other remarkable properties related to this case a...

Hssaini, M

2003-01-01

187

Engineering of Quantum Hall Effect from Type IIA String Theory on The K3 Surface  

CERN Multimedia

Using D-brane configurations on the K3 surface, we give six dimensional type IIA stringy realizations of the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) in 1+2 dimensions. Based on the vertical and horizontal lines of the K3 Hodge diamond, we engineer two different stringy realizations. The vertical line presents a realization in terms of D2 and D6-branes wrapping the K3 surface. The horizontal one is associated with hierarchical stringy descriptions obtained from a quiver gauge theory living on a stack of D4-branes wrapping intersecting 2-spheres embedded in the K3 surface with deformed singularities. These geometries are classified by three kinds of the Kac-Moody algebras: ordinary, i.e finite dimensional, affine and indefinite. We find that no stringy QHE in 1+2 dimensions can occur in the quiver gauge theory living on intersecting 2-spheres arranged as affine Dynkin diagrams. Stringy realizations of QHE can be done only for the finite and indefinite geometries. In particular, the finite Lie algebras give models with fracti...

Belhaj, Adil

2010-01-01

188

Brane Curvature Corrections to the $\\mathcal{N}=1$ Type II/F-theory Effective Action  

CERN Document Server

We initiate a study of corrections to the K\\"{a}hler potential of $\\mathcal{N}=1$ type II/F-theory compactifications that arise from curvature terms in the action of D-branes and orientifold planes. We first show that a recently proposed correction, which was argued to appear at order $\\alpha^{\\prime 2}g_s$ and be proportional to the intersection volume of D7-branes and O7-planes, is an artifact of an inconvenient field basis in the dual M-theory frame and can be removed by a field redefinition. We then analyze to what extent curvature terms in the DBI and WZ action may still lead to corrections of a similar kind and identify two general mechanisms that can potentially modify the volume dependence of the K\\"{a}hler potential in the presence of D-branes and O-planes. The first mechanism is related to an induced Einstein-Hilbert term on warped brane worldvolumes, which leads to a shift in the classical volume of the compactification manifold. The resulting corrections are generic and can appear at one-loop orde...

Junghans, Daniel

2014-01-01

189

Mirage Models Confront the LHC: II. Flux-Stabilized Type IIB String Theory  

CERN Document Server

We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider Type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru, et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3 and D7 brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kahler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3 branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3 and D7 branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with PLANCK observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at 8 TeV center-of-mass energies, an...

Kaufman, Bryan

2013-01-01

190

Mirage models confront the LHC. II. Flux-stabilized type IIB string theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3-and D7-brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kähler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3-branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3-and D7-branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with Planck observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at ?s =8 TeV and the LUX dark matter detection experiment are discussed. The discovery prospects for the remaining parameter space at dark matter direct-detection experiments are described, and signatures for detection of superpartners at the LHC with ?s =14 TeV are analyzed.

Kaufman, Bryan L.; Nelson, Brent D.

2014-04-01

191

Bianchi type-III bulk viscous string cosmological model in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III space-time is considered in the framework of a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961) in the presence of bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. We have found a determinate solution of the field equations using the plausible physical conditions (i) a barotropic equation state for the pressure and density, (ii) special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (Nuovo Cimento B74:182, 1983), (iii) shear scalar is proportional to scalar expansion and (iv) the trace of the energy tensor of the fluid vanishes. We have also assumed that bulk viscous pressure is proportional to energy density. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are, also, discussed.

Vidya Sagar, T.; Purnachandra Rao, C.; Bhuvana Vijaya, R.; Reddy, D. R. K.

2014-01-01

192

Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to conduct reasoning on descriptions obtained in order to automatically adapt the resources to a learner according to his preferences. We rely on the model MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for the consideration of learning styles of learners as a criterion for adaptation.

Amel Behaz

2012-01-01

193

Conformally de Sitter space from anisotropic SD3-brane of type IIB string theory  

CERN Document Server

We construct a four dimensional de Sitter space upto a conformal transformation by compactifying the anisotropic SD3-brane solution of type IIB string theory on a six dimensional product space of the form $H_5 \\times S^1$, where $H_5$ is a five dimensional hyperbolic space and $S^1$ is a circle. The radius of the hyperbolic space is chosen to be constant. The radius of the circle and the dilaton in four dimensions are time dependent and not constant in general. By different choices of parameters characterizing the SD3-brane solution either the dilaton or the radius of the circle can be made constant but not both. The form-field is also non-vanishing in general, but it can be made to vanish without affecting the solution. This construction might be useful for a better understanding of dS/CFT correspondence as well as for cosmology.

Roy, Shibaji

2014-01-01

194

Type II/F-theory Superpotentials with Several Deformations and N=1 Mirror Symmetry  

CERN Document Server

We present a detailed study of D-brane superpotentials depending on several open and closed-string deformations. The relative cohomology group associated with the brane defines a generalized hypergeometric GKZ system which determines the off-shell superpotential and its analytic properties under deformation. Explicit expressions for the N=1 superpotential for families of type II/F-theory compactifications are obtained for a list of multi-parameter examples. Using the Hodge theoretic approach to open-string mirror symmetry, we obtain new predictions for integral disc invariants in the A model instanton expansion. We study the behavior of the brane vacua under extremal transitions between different Calabi-Yau spaces and observe that the web of Calabi-Yau vacua remains connected for a particular class of branes.

Alim, Murad; Jockers, Hans; Mayr, Peter; Mertens, Adrian; Soroush, Masoud

2010-01-01

195

Casimir energy of Higgs-field configurations in a Coleman-Weinberg-type theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Casimir energy, the quantum correction part of the energy, of a class of space-dependent scalar field configurations is examined in a Coleman-Weinberg-type lambdaphi4 theory in the d-dimensional regularization scheme. For the cases when the scalar field is dependent on only one space coordinate and partially excludes its fluctuations from a region of space, we develop formulas effective for evaluating the full one-loop Casimir energy. As an application, we evaluate a simple case and find that the Casimir energy yields the familiar quantum correction to the volume energy, an extra surface energy whose coefficient is finite for d or =5 are due to sharp boundaries of the configuration

1984-04-15

196

Topic-Focus Structure and Quantification of Dou 'all'  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines a type of dou quantification found in wh-questions such as ta dou mai le shenme? ‘What are all the things that he bought?’ This type is different from the well-known dou quantification in that the leftness condition cannot be applied to the former. I propose that the former type of quantification is subject to the topic-focus structure rather than to the syntactic structure, which means that the domain of the quantification is determined in relation to 'old' and 'new' ...

2007-01-01

197

Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear. PMID:24792441

Chaira, Tamalika

2014-06-01

198

LRS Bianchi type -V cosmology with heat flow in scalar: tensor theory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper we present a spatially homogeneous locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type -V perfect fluid model with heat conduction in scalar tensor theory proposed by Saez and Ballester. The field equations are solved with and without heat conduction by using a law of variation for the m [...] ean Hubble parameter, which is related to the average scale factor of metric and yields a constant value for the deceleration parameter. The law of variation for the mean Hubble parameter generates two types of cosmologies one is of power -law form and second the exponential form. Using these two forms singular and non -singular solutions are obtained with and without heat conduction. We observe that a constant value of the deceleration parameter is reasonable a description of the different phases of the universe. We arrive to the conclusion that the universe decelerates for positive value of deceleration parameter where as it accelerates for negative one. The physical constraints on the solutions of the field equations, and, in particular, the thermodynamical laws and energy conditions that govern such solutions are discussed in some detail.The behavior of the observationally important parameters like expansion scalar, anisotropy parameter and shear scalar is considered in detail.

C.P., Singh.

199

Non-perturbative black holes in Type-IIA String Theory vs. the No-Hair conjecture  

CERN Document Server

We obtain the first black hole solution to Type-IIA String Theory compactified on an arbitrary self-mirror Calabi Yau manifold in the presence of non-perturbative quantum corrections. Remarkably enough, the solution involves multivalued functions, which could lead to a violation of the No-Hair conjecture. We discuss how String Theory forbids such secenario. However the possibility still remains open in the context of four-dimensional ungauged Supergravity.

Bueno, Pablo

2013-01-01

200

Theory of flux cutting and flux transport at the critical current of a type-II superconducting cylindrical wire  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I introduce a critical-state theory incorporating both flux cutting and flux transport to calculate the magnetic-field and current-density distributions inside a type-II superconducting cylinder at its critical current in a longitudinal applied magnetic field. The theory is an extension of the elliptic critical-state model introduced by Romero-Salazar and Perez-Rodriguez. The vortex dynamics depend in detail upon two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting (\\rho_\\...

Clem, John R.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Screening for and validated quantification of phenethylamine-type designer drugs and mescaline in human blood plasma by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, several newer designer drugs of the so-called 2C series such as 2C-D, 2C-E, 2C-P, 2C-B, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, and 2C-T-7 have entered the illicit drug market as recreational drugs. Some fatal intoxications involving 2C-T-7 have been reported. Only scarce data have been published about analyses of these substances in human blood and/or plasma. This paper describes a method for screening and simultaneous quantification of the above-mentioned compounds and their analog mescaline in human blood plasma. The analytes were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode, after mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (HCX) and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines. Validation data for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 were unacceptable. For all other analytes, the method was linear from 5 to 500 microg/L and the data for accuracy (bias) and precision (coefficient of variation) were within the acceptance limits of +/-15% and <15%, respectively (within +/-20% and <20% near the limit of quantification of 5 microg/L). PMID:15827969

Habrdova, Vilma; Peters, Frank T; Theobald, Denis S; Maurer, Hans H

2005-06-01

202

All order $\\alpha'$ higher derivative corrections to non-BPS branes of type IIB Super string theory  

CERN Multimedia

By dealing with the evaluation of string theory correlators of $$, the complete and closed form of the amplitude of two fermion fields, one tachyon and one closed string Ramond-Ramond field in type IIB super string theory is found. Specifically by comparing infinite tachyon poles in field theory amplitude with infinite tachyon poles of the S-matrix of string amplitude (for $p+1=n$ case), all the infinite higher derivative corrections of two tachyons and two fermions (in type IIB) to all orders of $\\alpha'$ have been discovered. Using these new couplings, we are able to produce infinite $t'+s'+u$-channel tachyon poles of string theory in field theory. Due to internal degrees of freedom of fermions and tachyon (Chan-Paton factors) we comment that, neither there should be single $s,t-$channel fermion (tachyon pole) nor their infinite poles. Due to internal CP factor we also discover that there is no coupling between two closed string Ramond-Ramond field and one tachyon in type II super string theory. Taking into...

Hatefi, Ehsan

2013-01-01

203

Axioms of Hamilton theories of general type including classical and quantum ones as particular cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The set of Axoims of the Hamiltonian theory is constructed in the form which is valid for classical and quantum theoris as well. These Axioms define the algebra with two multiplication operations called the free Hamiltonian algebra. Classical and quantum theoris are derived as factor algebras corresponding to different equivalence relations. The Axioms admits essentially new Hamiltonian theories with the nonassociative multiplication of the observables

1975-12-01

204

Exceptional Field Theory I: $E_{6(6)}$ covariant Form of M-Theory and Type IIB  

CERN Document Server

We present the details of the recently constructed $E_{6(6)}$ covariant extension of 11-dimensional supergravity. This theory requires a 5+27 dimensional spacetime in which the `internal' coordinates transform in the $\\bar{\\bf 27}$ of $E_{6(6)}$. All fields are $E_{6(6)}$ tensors and transform under (gauged) internal generalized diffeomorphisms. The `Kaluza-Klein' vector field acts as a gauge field for the $E_{6(6)}$ covariant `E-bracket' rather than a Lie bracket, requiring the presence of two-forms akin to the tensor hierarchy of gauged supergravity. We construct the complete and unique action that is gauge invariant under generalized diffeomorphisms in the internal and external coordinates. The theory is subject to covariant section constraints on the derivatives, implying that only a subset of the extra 27 coordinates is physical. We give two solutions of the section constraints: the first preserves GL(6) and embeds the action of the complete (i.e. untruncated) 11-dimensional supergravity; the second pres...

Hohm, Olaf

2013-01-01

205

Semi-quantification of endolymphatic size on MR imaging after intravenous injection of single-dose gadodiamide. Comparison between two types of processing strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many inner ear disorders, including Meniere's disease, are believed to be based on endolymphatic hydrops. We evaluated a newly proposed method for semi-quantification of endolymphatic size in patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops that uses 2 kinds of processed magnetic resonance (MR) images. Twenty-four consecutive patients underwent heavily T2-weighted (hT2W) MR cisternography (MRC), hT2W 3-dimensional (3D) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) with inversion time of 2250 ms (positive perilymph image, PPI), and hT2W-3D-IR with inversion time of 2050 ms (positive endolymph image, PEI) 4 hours after intravenous administration of single-dose gadolinium-based contrast material (IV-SD-GBCM). Two images were generated using 2 new methods to process PPI, PEI, and MRC. Three radiologists contoured the cochlea and vestibule on MRC, copied regions of interest (ROIs) onto the 2 kinds of generated images, and semi-quantitatively measured the size of the endolymph for the cochlea and vestibule by setting a threshold pixel value. Each observer noted a strong linear correlation between endolymphatic size of both the cochlea and vestibule of the 2 kinds of generated images. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.783, 0.734, and 0.800 in the cochlea and 0.924, 0.930, and 0.933 in the vestibule (P<0.001, for all). In both the cochlea and vestibule, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no statistically significant difference between observers. Use of the 2 kinds of generated images generated from MR images obtained 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM might enable semi-quantification of endolymphatic size with little observer dependency. (author)

2013-12-01

206

Theory of mind and cognitive processes in aging and Alzheimer type dementia: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Theory of mind (ToM) performance in aging and dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) has been a growing interest of researchers and recently, theoretical trends in ToM development have led to a focus on determining the cognitive skills involved in ToM performance. The aim of the present review is to answer three main questions: How is ToM assessed in aging and DAT? How does ToM performance evolve in aging and DAT? Do cognitive processes influence ToM performance in aging and DAT? Method: A systematic review was conducted to provide a targeted overview of recent studies relating ToM performance with cognitive processes in aging and DAT. Results: Results suggest a decrease in ToM performance, more pronounced in complex ToM tasks. Moreover, the review points up the strong involvement of executive functions, especially inhibition, and reasoning skills in ToM task achievement. Conclusion: Current data suggest that the structure of ToM tasks itself could lead to poor performance, especially in populations with reduced cognitive abilities. PMID:24697253

Sandoz, Mélanie; Démonet, Jean-François; Fossard, Marion

2014-09-01

207

Calabi-Yau compactifications of type IIB superstring theory; Calabi-Yau Kompaktifizierungen von Typ IIB Superstringtheorie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting from a non-self-dual action for ten dimensional type IIB supergravity this theory is compactified on a Calabi-Yau 3-fold and 4- fold. The compactification are thereby performed in the limit, in which the volumina of the manifolds are large against the string scale.

Boehm, R.

2001-07-01

208

De-Sitter Type of Cosmological Model in n-Dimensional Space-Time-Mass (STM) Theory of Gravitation  

CERN Multimedia

Exact solution are obtained for a homogeneous spacially isotropic cosmological model in a matter free space with or without cosmological consant for a n-dimensional Kaluza-Klein type of metric in the rest mass varying theory of gravity proposed by Wesson[1983]. The behavior of the model is discussed.

Khadekar, G S; Patki, Vrishali

2002-01-01

209

Bianchi type-III bulk viscous cosmic string model in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III space-time is considered in the presence of bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings in the frame work of a scalar-tensor theory of gravity proposed by Saez and Ballester (in Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). We have obtained a determinate solution of the field equations of this theory, using (i) a barotropic equation of state for the pressure and density and (ii) the bulk viscous pressure is proportional to the energy density. Some physical properties of the model are also discussed.

Vidyasagar, T.; Purnachandra Rao, C.; Bhuvana Vijaya, R.; Reddy, D. R. K.

2014-01-01

210

Metaontology and the problem of quantification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This text is concerned with the latest philosophical discipline - metaontology - which main objective is to examine traditional metaphysics and ontological sentences which it includes, as well as with its main theories pluralism, realism and skepticism. While first two of these theories try to provide more or less acceptable arguments in their favor, and show that quantification is justified, it will be shown that they make crucial mistake by neglecting problem of ontological commitment, which is, basically, main source of all metaphysical issues. I shall try to put forward advantages of skepticism over these rival theories, and why one should embrace it in metaontology.

Man?i? Željko

2009-01-01

211

Landauer-type transport theory for interacting quantum wires Application to carbon nanotube Y junctions  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a Landauer-like theory for nonlinear transport in networks of one-dimensional interacting quantum wires (Luttinger liquids). A concrete example of current experimental focus is given by carbon nanotube Y junctions. Our theory has three basic ingredients that allow to explicitly solve this transport problem: (i) radiative boundary conditions to describe the coupling to external leads, (ii) the Kirchhoff node rule describing charge conservation, and (iii) density matching conditions at every node.

Chen, S; Egger, R

2002-01-01

212

Exact solutions of the Hyperextended Scalar Tensor theory with potential in the Bianchi type I model  

CERN Document Server

The Hyperextended Scalar Tensor theory with a potential is defined by three free functions: the gravitational function, the Brans-Dicke coupling function and the potential. Starting from the expression of the 3-volume and the potential as function of the proper time, we determine the exact solutions of this theory. We study two important cases corresponding to power and exponential laws for the 3-volume and the potential.

Fay, S

2001-01-01

213

Exact solutions of the Hyperextended Scalar Tensor theory with potential in the Bianchi type I model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Hyperextended Scalar Tensor theory with a potential is defined by three free functions: the gravitational function, the Brans-Dicke coupling function and the potential. Starting from the expression of the 3-volume and the potential as function of the proper time, we determine the exact solutions of this theory. We study two important cases corresponding to power and exponential laws for the 3-volume and the potential.

Fay, Stephane

2003-01-01

214

Spectral analysis of polynomial potentials and its relation with ABJ/M-type theories  

CERN Document Server

We obtain a general class of polynomials for which the Schrodinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We provide a proof of the discreteness of the spectrum of the associated Schrodinger operators. This a a first step in order to analyze BLG and ABJM supersymmetric theories from a non-perturbative point of view.

del Moral, M P García; Navarro, L; A., A J Pérez; Restuccia, A

2009-01-01

215

Spectral analysis of polynomial potentials and its relation with ABJ/M-type theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We obtain a general class of polynomial potentials for which the Schroedinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We provide a proof of the discreteness of the spectrum of the associated Schroedinger operators. This is the first step in order to analyze BLG and ABJM supersymmetric theories from a non-perturbative point of view.

2010-11-01

216

Bonnor-type Black Dihole Solution in Brans-Dicke-Maxwell Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was originally thought that Bonnor's solution in Einstein-Maxwell theory describes a singular point-like magnetic dipole. Lately, however, it has been demonstrated that indeed it may describe a black {\\it dihole}, i.e., a pair of static, oppositely-charged extremal black holes with regular horizons. Motivated particularly by this new interpretation, in the present work, the construction and extensive analysis of a solution in the context of the Brans-Dicke-Maxwell theory ...

Kim, Hongsu; Lee, Hyung Mok

2004-01-01

217

Advances in type-2 fuzzy sets and systems theory and applications  

CERN Multimedia

This book explores recent developments in the theoretical foundations and novel applications of general and interval type-2 fuzzy sets and systems, including: algebraic properties of type-2 fuzzy sets, geometric-based definition of type-2 fuzzy set operators, generalizations of the continuous KM algorithm, adaptiveness and novelty of interval type-2 fuzzy logic controllers, relations between conceptual spaces and type-2 fuzzy sets, type-2 fuzzy logic systems versus perceptual computers; modeling human perception of real world concepts with type-2 fuzzy sets, different methods for generating membership functions of interval and general type-2 fuzzy sets, and applications of interval type-2 fuzzy sets to control, machine tooling, image processing and diet.  The applications demonstrate the appropriateness of using type-2 fuzzy sets and systems in real world problems that are characterized by different degrees of uncertainty.

Mendel, Jerry; Tahayori, Hooman

2013-01-01

218

Inflation and Singularity of a Bianchi Type-VII0 Universe with a Dirac Field in the Einstein—Cartan Theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss Bianchi type-VII0 cosmology with a Dirac field in the Einstein—Cartan (E-C) theory and obtain the equations of the Dirac and gravitational fields in the E-C theory. A Bianchi type-VII0 inflationary solution is found. When (3)/16S2 - ?2 > 0, the Universe may avoid singularity. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

2011-08-01

219

Bianchi type- I, III, V, VIo and Kantowski-Sachs models in scalar-tensor theories with dynamic cosmological constant  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a time-dependent cosmological constant is considered in a family of scalar-tensor theories. The Bianchi type I, III, V, VIo and Kantowski-Sachs models for vacuum and perfect fluid matter are found. The gravitational constant decreases with time so that these models satisfy the Dirac hypothesis. The “cosmological constant” also decreases with time, therefore it can have a very small value at the present time.

Singh, T.; Chaubey, R.

2008-12-01

220

Bianchi type-I model with cosmological constant in a generalized scalar-tensor theory of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bianchi type-I cosmological models are discussed in the Bergmann-Wagoner-Nordtvedt scalar-tensor theory where both the so-called cosmological constant ? and the coupling parameter ? are taken to be functions of the scalar field phi. Exact solutions are obtained in Dicke's revised units assuming a very simple relationship between ? and phi. The properties of the models are discussed in special cases

1985-12-15

 
 
 
 
221

Bianchi type-VI0 bulk viscous string cosmological model in Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we derive Brans-Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124, 925 (1961)) field equations with the help of a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-VI0 metric, in the presence of a bulk viscous fluid, containing one-dimensional cosmic strings. A cosmological model, which represents a bulk viscous string universe in this theory of gravitation, is obtained using some plausible physical conditions. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Vidyasagar, T.; Naidu, R. L.; Bhuvana Vijaya, R.; Reddy, D. R. K.

2014-02-01

222

Weyl-Titchmarsh Theory and Borg-Marchenko-type Uniqueness Results for CMV Operators with Matrix-Valued Verblunsky Coefficients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove local and global versions of Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems for half-lattice and full-lattice CMV operators (CMV for Cantero, Moral, and Velazquez) with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients. While our half-lattice results are formulated in terms of matrix-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh functions, our full-lattice results involve the diagonal and main off-diagonal Green's matrices. We also develop the basics of Weyl-Titchmarsh theory for CMV operators with mat...

Clark, Stephen; Gesztesy, Fritz; Zinchenko, Maxim

2010-01-01

223

Weyl-Titchmarsh Theory and Borg-Marchenko-type Uniqueness Results for CMV Operators with Matrix-Valued Verblunsky Coefficients  

CERN Document Server

We prove local and global versions of Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems for half-lattice and full-lattice CMV operators (CMV for Cantero, Moral, and Velazquez) with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients. While our half-lattice results are formulated in terms of matrix-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh functions, our full-lattice results involve the diagonal and main off-diagonal Green's matrices. We also develop the basics of Weyl-Titchmarsh theory for CMV operators with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients as this is of independent interest and an essential ingredient in proving the corresponding Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems.

Clark, Stephen; Zinchenko, Maxim

2010-01-01

224

Affine Toda field theories related to Coxeter groups of noncrystallographic type  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose affine Toda field theories related to the noncrystallographic Coxeter groups H{sub 2},H{sub 3} and H{sub 4}. The classical mass spectrum, the classical three-point couplings and the one-loop corrections to the mass renormalisation are determined. The construction is carried out by means of a reduction procedure from crystallographic to noncrystallographic Coxeter groups. The embedding structure explains for various affine Toda field theories that their particles can be organised in pairs, such that their relative masses differ by the golden ratio.

Fring, Andreas [Centre for Mathematical Science, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.fring@city.ac.uk; Korff, Christian [Centre for Mathematical Science, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.korff@city.ac.uk

2005-11-28

225

School Type and Academic Culture: Evidence for the Differentiation-Polarization Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Several decades ago it was shown that the differentiation of pupils into tracks and streams led to a polarization into "anti-school" and "pro-school" cultures. Support for this differentiation-polarization theory is mainly based on case studies. This paper presents findings of a quantitative study in Belgium (Flanders). Attention is given to the…

Van Houtte, Mieke

2006-01-01

226

Statistical mechanics of cracks. Dualities in supersymmetric field theories. Orientifolds of Type IIB strings with discrete B flux  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first part of this thesis we study a class of models for brittle fracture: elastic theory models which allow for cracks but not for plastic flow. We show that these models exhibit, at all finite temperatures, a transition to fracture under applied load. We study this transition at low temperature for small tension. We discuss the appropriate thermodynamic limit of these theories: a large class of boundary conditions is identified for which the energy release for a crack becomes independent of the macroscopic shape of the material. We prove that the energy release in an isotropically stretched material due to the creation of an arbitrary curvy cut is the same to cubic order as the energy release for the straight cut with the same end points. We find the normal modes and the energy spectrum for crack shape fluctuations and for crack surface phonons, under a uniform isotropic tension. For small uniform isotropic tension in two dimensions we calculate the essential singularity associated with fracturing the material in a saddle point approximation including quadratic fluctuations. We calculate the asymptotic ratio of the high-order elastic coefficients of the inverse bulk modulus and argue that the result is unchanged by nonlinearities. In the second part of this thesis we study dualities in supersymmetric field theories. We derive S-dualities in scale invariant N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories by embedding those theories in asymptotically free theories with higher rank gauge groups. We proceed then to study ``ultrastrong'' coupling points in scale- invariant N = 2 gauge theories. Using the low-energy field theory arguments we relate these theories to other known N = 2 CFT. Finally, we argue that the topology of the quantum coupling space and the low energy effective action on the Coulomb branch of scale invariant N = 2 SU(n) gauge theories pick out a preferred nonperturbative definition of the gauge coupling up to non-singular holomorphic reparameterization. In the third part of this thesis we discuss orientifolds of Type IIB strings with quantized B-flux. First, we consider anomaly cancelations in Type IIB orientifolds on T4/ZN , N = 2, 4, with quantized NS-NS sector background B-flux. We identify the twisted sector R-R scalars and tensor multiplets with Green-Schwarz interactions responsible for this cancelation. We present an explicit construction of the models and argue that consistence with 2b/2 multiplicity of 59-sector states requires a modification of the relation between the 1-loop channel and a tree channel modulus for the 59-cylinder amplitudes. We then extend analysis to the four dimensional Type IIB orientifolds on T6/Z6 with NS-NS sector background B-flux. We provide an explicit construction of these four dimensional vacua and show that all gauge anomalies cancel. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Buchel, Alexander Sergeevich

227

A unified U3 gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions with six quark-flavours and lepton-types  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated by a desire to attempt a unified description of some recently observed phenomena such as the unusual events in the deep underground experiments at Kolar, the dilepton events initiated by high energy laboratory neutrino beams, the possible production of a new heavy lepton in e+ e- annihilation along with the conventional weak interaction processes, a U3 gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is proposed. The theory makes use of six flavours of quarks (Charm, Taste and Grace plus the three old SU3 flavours), each in three colours, and correspondingly six lepton-types. The introduction of the corresponding fermions, and their assignement to representations of the proposed U3 group, is dictated by the stringent requirements of attaining an anomaly free renormalizable gauge theory and of ensuring that the neutral currents turn out strangeness-preserving. A spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking mechanism is employed to generate the mechanical masses of the vector gauge-bosons of the theory (other than the photon) and of the quarks and the leptons. Diagonalisation of the quark mass matrix so generated enables a neutral introduction of mixing angles including the Cabibbo-angle. (author)

1976-11-01

228

Assessment of an improved multiaxial strength theory based on creep-rupture data for type 316 stainless steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new multiaxial strength theory incorporating three independent stress parameters was developed and reported by the author in 1984. It was formally incorporated into ASME Code Case N47-29 in 1990. In the earlier paper, the new model was shown to provide significantly more accurate stress-rupture life predictions than the classical theories of von Mises, Tresca, and Rankine, for type 304 stainless steel tested at 593 C under different biaxial stress states. Further assessments for other alloys are showing similar results. The current paper provides additional results for type 316 stainless steel specimens tested at 600 C under tension-tension and tension-compression stress states and shows 2-3 orders of magnitude reduction in the scatter in predicted versus observed lives. A key feature of the new theory, which incorporates the maximum deviatoric stress, the first invariant of the stress tensor, and the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor, is its ability to distinguish between life under tensile versus compressive stress states.

Huddleston, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-05-01

229

Assessment of an improved multiaxial strength theory based on creep-rupture data for type 316 stainless steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new multiaxial strength theory incorporating three independent stress parameters was developed and reported by the author in 1984. It was formally incorporated into ASME Code Case N47-29 in 1990. In the earlier paper, the new model was shown to provide significantly more accurate stress-rupture life predictions, than the classical theories of von Mises, Tresca, and Rankine, for the type 304 stainless steel tested at 593{degrees}C under different biaxial stress states. Further assessments for other alloys are showing similar results. The current paper provides additional results for type 316 stainless steel specimens tested at 600{degrees}C under tension-tension and tension-compression stress states and shows 2--3 orders of magnitude reduction in the scatter in predicted versus observed lives. A key feature of the new theory, which incorporates the maximum deviatoric stress, the first invariant of the stress tensor, and the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor, is its ability to distinguish between life under tensile versus compressive stress states.

Huddleston, R.L.

1992-05-01

230

Assessment of an improved multiaxial strength theory based on creep-rupture data for type 316 stainless steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new multiaxial strength theory incorporating three independent stress parameters was developed and reported by the author in 1984. It was formally incorporated into ASME Code Case N47-29 in 1990. In the earlier paper, the new model was shown to provide significantly more accurate stress-rupture life predictions, than the classical theories of von Mises, Tresca, and Rankine, for the type 304 stainless steel tested at 593{degrees}C under different biaxial stress states. Further assessments for other alloys are showing similar results. The current paper provides additional results for type 316 stainless steel specimens tested at 600{degrees}C under tension-tension and tension-compression stress states and shows 2--3 orders of magnitude reduction in the scatter in predicted versus observed lives. A key feature of the new theory, which incorporates the maximum deviatoric stress, the first invariant of the stress tensor, and the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor, is its ability to distinguish between life under tensile versus compressive stress states.

Huddleston, R.L.

1992-01-01

231

On Two Complementary Types of Total Time Derivative in Classical Field Theories and Maxwell's Equations  

CERN Document Server

Close insight into mathematical and conceptual structure of classical field theories shows serious inconsistencies in their common basis. In other words, we claim in this work to have come across two severe mathematical blunders in the very foundations of theoretical hydrodynamics. One of the defects concerns the traditional treatment of time derivatives in Eulerian hydrodynamic description. The other one resides in the conventional demonstration of the so-called Convection Theorem. Both approaches are thought to be necessary for cross-verification of the standard differential form of continuity equation. Any revision of these fundamental results might have important implications for all classical field theories. Rigorous reconsideration of time derivatives in Eulerian description shows that it evokes Minkowski metric for any flow field domain without any previous postulation. Mathematical approach is developed within the framework of congruences for general 4-dimensional differentiable manifold and the final...

Smirnov-Rueda, R

2005-01-01

232

Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to c...

Amel Behaz; Mahieddine Djoudi

2012-01-01

233

On stability of solutions of the string type in classical gauge field theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Models with broken gauge symmetry are described, which possess energetically stable classical solutions of the endless string type. Breaking of the string is not forbidden by any topological restrictions. Methods of stabilizing finite strings arising as a result of breaking the endless strings of the type described by the external forces is discussed

1977-06-01

234

Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)  

CERN Document Server

Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

2011-01-01

235

Quantification of oxidative single-base and intrastrand cross-link lesions in unmethylated and CpG-methylated DNA induced by Fenton-type reagents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methylation of cytosine at CpG sites in mammalian cells plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Here, we assessed the formation of single-nucleobase lesions and intrastrand cross-link lesions (i.e. G[8-5]C, C[5-8]G, mC[5m-8]G, and G[8-5m]mC, where ‘mC’ represents 5-methylcytosine) in unmethylated and the corresponding CpG-methylated synthetic double-stranded DNA upon treatment with Fenton-type reagents [i.e. H2O2, ascorbate together with Cu(II) or Fe(II)]....

2007-01-01

236

Evaluation of bioavailability of three types of IFNbeta in multiple sclerosis patients by a new quantitative-competitive-PCR method for MxA quantification.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intracellular expression of human myxovirus protein A (MxA) is exclusively induced by type I IFNs (IFNalpha,beta,omega) or by some viruses and it is strongly increased under IFN treatment. We set up an internally controlled quantitative-competitive polymerase chain reaction (qc-PCR) that quantifies MxA mRNA expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Our qc-PCR is accurate because the mean ratio of copy number estimated by qc-PCR to that quantified spectrophotometrically is ...

2001-01-01

237

Massless particles, orthosymplectic symmetry and another type of Kaluza-Klein theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The superalgebra osp(8/1) is intimately related to the twistor program. Its most singular representation has the following property: restricted to the conformal subalgebra it contains each and every massless representation exactly once. In other words, one irreducible representation of osp(8/1) describes all massless particles with maximal efficiency. It is believed that such unification is required if massless fields of high spins are to have self-consistent interactions. There are other reasons for studying massless particles of all spins simultaneously. There is a very appealing model in which massless particles are viewed as states of two so(3,2) singletons. The astounding fact is that all free two-singleton states are precisely massless. The most singular representation of osp(8/2) is irreducible on osp(8/1) and completely determined by the latter representation. It finds direct application in supergravity theories. The most interesting Sp(8/R) homogeneous space is 10-dimensional. The action of the conformal subgroup leaves invariant a unique 4-dimensional submanifold that can be identified with space time. Kaluza-Klein expansion of the scalar field on 10-space, around this 4-dimensional manifold, leads to a field theory of massless particles with all integer spins on space time. A supersymmetric extension is also possible. (Auth.)

1986-01-01

238

Extension Theory and Krein-type Resolvent Formulas for Nonsmooth Boundary Value Problems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theory of selfadjoint extensions of symmetric operators, and more generally the theory of extensions of dual pairs, was implemented some years ago for boundary value problems for elliptic operators on smooth bounded domains. Recently, the questions have been taken up again for nonsmooth domains, with results first on $C^{1,1}$-domains for symmetric or smooth second-order operators, and next on quasi-convex Lipschitz domains for the selfadjoint realizations of the Laplacian. In the present work we show that pseudodifferential methods can be used to obtain a full characterization, including Kre\\u\\i{}n resolvent formulas, of the realizations of nonselfadjoint second-order operators on $C^{\\frac32+\\varepsilon }$ domains; more precisely, we treat domains with $B^\\frac32_{p,2}$-smoothness and operators with $H^1_q$-coefficients, for suitable $p>2(n-1)$ and $q>n$. The advantage of the pseudodifferential boundary operator calculus is that the operators are represented by a principal part and a lower-order remainder, leading to regularity results; in particular we analyze resolvents, Poisson solution operators and Dirichlet-to-Neumann operators in this way, also in Sobolev spaces of negative order. Some unbounded domains are allowed.

Grubb, Gerd; Abels, Helmut

2014-01-01

239

Conformally reduced WZNW theory, new extended chiral algebras and their associated today type integrable systems: Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors propose and analyse a large class of conformal reductions Cons[g(H,d)] of WZNW theory based on the integral gradations of the underlying Lie algebra g. The W-bases of the associated W-algebras W[g(H,d)] are constructed under the generalized Drinfeld-Sokolov gauge which the authors call O'Raifeartaigh gauge of the constrained Kac-Moody currents, and the equations of motion of the extended Toda type integrable systems corresponding to these Walgebras are derived

1993-01-01

240

Calculation of Fayet–Iliopoulos D-term in type I string theory revisited: T6/Z3 orbifold case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The string one-loop computation of the Fayet–Iliopoulos D-term in type I string theory in the case of T6/Z3 orbifold compactification associated with annulus (planar) and the Möbius strip string worldsheet diagrams is reexamined. The mass extracted from the sum of these amplitudes through a limiting procedure is found to be non-vanishing, which is contrary to the earlier computation. The sum can be made finite by a rescaling of the modular parameter in the closed string channel

2013-12-18

 
 
 
 
241

On a phase transition of a Kosterlitz-thouless-type in the d=4, U(1)-lattice gauge theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The d=4, U(1)-lattice gauge theory with the Villain action may be represented as a locally neutral gas of topological (plaquette) charges which interact via a logarithmically confining potential, is shown. Using this representation a renormalization group analysis to show the existence of a phase transition of the Kosterlitz-Thouless-type was performed. An improved hierarchical version of the model which displays (unlike the usual Migdal-Kadanoff approach) a stable line of gaussian fixed points at low temperatures, which should correspond to the usual deconfining region of these systems is presented. (Author)

1986-01-01

242

Chern-Simons and Born-Infeld gravity theories and Maxwell algebras type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently it was shown that standard odd- and even-dimensional general relativity can be obtained from a (2n + 1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the B2n+1 algebra and from a (2n)-dimensional Born-Infeld Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra LB2n+1, respectively. Very recently, it was shown that the generalized Inoenue-Wigner contraction of the generalized AdS-Maxwell algebras provides Maxwell algebras of types Mm which correspond to the so-called Bm Lie algebras. In this article we report on a simple model that suggests a mechanism by which standard odd-dimensional general relativity may emerge as the weak coupling constant limit of a (2p + 1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the Maxwell algebra type M2m+1, if and only if m ? p. Similarly, we show that standard even-dimensional general relativity emerges as the weak coupling constant limit of a (2p)-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra LM2m of theMaxwell algebra type, if and only if m ? p. It is shown that when m 2m+1 and for a (2p)-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under the LM2m algebra. (orig.)

2014-02-01

243

Parametric images of central-type benzodiazepine receptor binding and ligand transport by two SPECT scans of {sup 123}I-iomazenil. Relative quantification without blood data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parametric images of intrasubject distribution of the central-type benzodiazepine receptor binding and ligand transport were determined from two SPECT images after an intravenous bolus injection of {sup 123}I-iomazenil in six healthy volunteers and five patients by using a table look-up procedure based on a 3-compartment, 2-parameter kinetic model. Individual arterial input functions were estimated by calibrating a standardized input function with the injected dose to avoid blood sampling. The parametric images without blood data provided the same information as those determined by using measured arterial input function. A simulation study suggested that this method gave relatively small error as long as true receptor binding and ligand transport did not differ from each other in a large extent. The present method may be practical in clinical settings. (author)

Onishi, Yoshihiro [Nihon Medi-Physics Co. Ltd., Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Fumiko; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Ishizu, Koichi; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji; Mukai, Takao

1996-09-01

244

Quantum mechanical analysis on faujasite-type molecular sieves by using fermi dirac statistics and quantum theory of dielectricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied Faujasite type molecular sieves by using Fermi Dirac statistics and the quantum theory of dielectricity. We developed an empirical relationship for quantum capacitance which follows an inverse Gaussian profile in the frequency range of 66 Hz - 3 MHz. We calculated quantum capacitance, sample crystal momentum, charge quantization and quantized energy of Faujasite type molecular sieves in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz - 10/sup 4/ MHz. Our calculations for diameter of sodalite and super-cages of Faujasite type molecular sieves are in agreement with experimental results reported in this manuscript. We also calculated quantum polarizability, quantized molecular field, orientational polarizability and deformation polarizability by using experimental results of Ligia Frunza etal. The phonons are over damped in the frequency range 0.1 Hz - 10 kHz and become a source for producing cages in the Faujasite type molecular sieves. Ion exchange recovery processes occur due to over damped phonon excitations in Faujasite type molecular sieves and with increasing temperatures. (author)

2012-04-01

245

Phenomenological theory of size effects in ultrafine ferroelectric particles (PbTiO_3-type)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new phenomenological model is proposed and discussed to study the size effects on phase transitions in PbTiO_3-type ferroelectric particles. This model, by taking size effects on the phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire coefficients into consideration, can successfully explain the size effects on Curie temperature, c/a ratio, thermal and dielectric properties of lead-titanate-type ferroelectric particles. Theoretical and experimental results for PbTiO_3 fine particles are also compared and discussed. The relationship between the current model and the model of Zhong et al (Phys. Rev. B 50, 698 (1994)) is also presented. (authors)

1998-01-01

246

On higher derivative corrections to Wess-Zumino and Tachyonic actions in type II super string theory  

CERN Multimedia

By evaluating in detail the string scattering amplitude, we investigate various interactions of two massless scalars, one tachyon and one closed string Ramond-Ramond field in type II super string theory. In particular we find two scalar field and two tachyon couplings to all orders of $\\alpha'$ up to on-shell ambiguity. We then obtain the momentum expansion of this amplitude and using these infinite couplings we find that infinite tachyon poles of S-matrix element of this amplitude for the $p=n$ case to all orders of $\\alpha'$ are precisely equal to the infinite tachyon poles of the field theory. In addition to confirming the couplings of closed string field to the world-volume gauge field and scalar fields involving commutators, we also propose an extension of the Wess-Zumino action which naturally reproduces these new couplings in field theory such that they could be confirmed with direct S-matrix computations. Finally we show that the infinite massless poles and the contact terms of this amplitude for the ...

Hatefi, Ehsan

2012-01-01

247

A New Survey of types of Uncertainties in Nonlinear System with Fuzzy Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to introduce a new framework to handle both uncertainty and time in spatial domain. The application of the fuzzy temporal constraint network (FTCN method is proposed for representation and reasoning of uncertain temporal data. A brief introduction of the fuzzy sets theory is followed by description of the FTCN method with its main algorithms. The paper then discusses the issues of incorporating fuzzy approach into current spatio-temporal processing framework. The general temporal data model is extended to accommodate uncertainties with temporal data and relationships among events. A theoretical FTCN process of fuzzy transition for the imprecise information is introduced with an example. A summary of the paper is given together with outlining some contributions of the paper and future research directions.

Fereshteh Mohammadi

2013-03-01

248

Theory of light-matter interactions in cascade and diamond type atomic ensembles  

CERN Document Server

In this thesis, we investigate the quantum mechanical interaction of light with matter in the form of a gas of ultracold atoms: the atomic ensemble. We present a theoretical analysis of two problems, which involve the interaction of quantized electromagnetic fields (called signal and idler) with the atomic ensemble (i) cascade two-photon emission in an atomic ladder configuration, and (ii) photon frequency conversion in an atomic diamond configuration. The motivation of these studies comes from potential applications in long-distance quantum communication where it is desirable to generate quantum correlations between telecommunication wavelength light fields and ground level atomic coherences. We develop a theory of correlated signal-idler pair correlation. The analysis is complicated by the possible generation of multiple excitations in the atomic ensemble. An analytical treatment is given in the limit of a single excitation assuming adiabatic laser excitations. The analysis predicts superradiant timescales ...

Jen, Hsiang-Hua

2011-01-01

249

The Coulomb Phase in N=1 Gauge Theories With a LG-Type Superpotenetial  

CERN Multimedia

We consider N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories with a simple classical gauge group, one adjoint $\\Phi, N_f$ pairs ($Q_i,\\tilde{Q_i}$) of (fundamental, anti-fundamental) and a tree-level superpotential with terms of the Landau-Ginzburg form $\\tilde{Q}_i\\Phi^lQ_j$. The quantum moduli space of these models includes a Coulomb branch. We find hyperelliptic curves that encode the low energy effective gauge coupling for the groups SO(N_c) and USp(N_c) (the corresponding curve for SU(N_c) is already known). As a consistency check, we derive the sub-space of some vacua with massless dyons via confining phase superpotentials. We also discuss the existence and nature of the non-trivial superconformal points appearing when singularities merge in the Coulomb branch.

Giveon, Amit; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Giveon, Amit; Pelc, Oskar; Rabinovici, Eliezer

1997-01-01

250

Ultrasensitive Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus A1762T/G1764A Mutant by a SimpleProbe PCR Using a Wild-Type-Selective PCR Blocker and a Primer-Blocker-Probe Partial-Overlap Approach ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrying the A1762T/G1764A double mutation in the basal core promoter (BCP) region is associated with HBe antigen seroconversion and increased risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Quantification of the mutant viruses may help in predicting the risk of HCC. However, the viral genome tends to have nucleotide polymorphism, which makes it difficult to design hybridization-based assays including real-time PCR. Ultrasensitive quantification of the muta...

2011-01-01

251

AdS3 xw (S3 x S3 x S1) solutions of type IIB string theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyse a recently constructed class of local solutions of type IIB supergravity that consist of a warped product of AdS3 with a sevendimensional internal space. In one duality frame the only other nonvanishing fields are the NS three-form and the dilaton. We analyse in detail how these local solutions can be extended to globally well-defined solutions of type IIB string theory, with the internal space having topology S3 x S3 x S1 and with properly quantised three-form flux. We show that many of the dual (0,2) SCFTs are exactly marginal deformations of the (0,2) SCFTs whose holographic duals are warped products of AdS3 with seven-dimensional manifolds of topology S3 x S2 x T2. (orig.)

2008-01-01

252

Theory of Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz Numbers for the Algebraic Functions of Cyclotomic Type  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we anounce some results obtained for certain algebraic functions, which we call of cyclotomic type. The main results give quite resemble theorems to von Staudt-Clausen's theorem and Kummer's congruence for the Bernoulli numbers and to such theorems for Hurwitz numbers.

Ônishi, Y

2003-01-01

253

Chern-Simons and Born-Infeld gravity theories and Maxwell algebras type  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently it was shown that standard odd- and even-dimensional general relativity can be obtained from a (2n + 1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the B{sub 2n+1} algebra and from a (2n)-dimensional Born-Infeld Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra L{sup B{sub 2}{sub n}{sub +}{sub 1}}, respectively. Very recently, it was shown that the generalized Inoenue-Wigner contraction of the generalized AdS-Maxwell algebras provides Maxwell algebras of types M{sub m} which correspond to the so-called B{sub m} Lie algebras. In this article we report on a simple model that suggests a mechanism by which standard odd-dimensional general relativity may emerge as the weak coupling constant limit of a (2p + 1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the Maxwell algebra type M{sub 2m+1}, if and only if m ? p. Similarly, we show that standard even-dimensional general relativity emerges as the weak coupling constant limit of a (2p)-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra L{sup M{sub 2}{sub m}} of theMaxwell algebra type, if and only if m ? p. It is shown that when m < p this is not possible for a (2p+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the M{sub 2m+1} and for a (2p)-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under the L{sup M{sub 2}{sub m}} algebra. (orig.)

Concha, P.K.; Penafiel, D.M.; Rodriguez, E.K.; Salgado, P. [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

2014-02-15

254

On Ruedenberg's integral approximations and their unrestricted and combined use in molecular orbital theories of Hartree-Fock type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ruedenberg's well-known letter of 1951 contains two implications which still have been employed so far in numerical computations: (1) Whenever all types of attraction and repulsion integrals are subject to the Ruedenberg approximations in its simplest form partially known already from Mulliken, the attractive, the Coulomb, as well as the exchange part of the restricted Hartree-Fock-Roothaan equation can be led back to the calculation of corresponding diagonal elements, only. Using Ruedenberg's more elaborate concepts, which are invariant with respect to the rotation of local coordinate axes, the complete Fock-matrix representation can be constructed equivalently from only its own diagonal blocks, each belonging to one atom. Similar formulas are valid for the unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory of Pople and Nesbet. (2) If, however, one prefers to calculate all types of one- and two-center integrals exactly as suggested in Ruedenberg's headline, the original simplicity of both representations is lost. Instead, one is led to more complicated expressions, which arise from the fact that Ruedenberg's integral formulas, when applied to certain kinds of three-center repulsion integrals, imply considerable oversimplifications. In spite of this critical result, Ruedenberg's ideas offer an extension together with an interpretation of the semiempirical Wolfsberg and Helmholz recipe (better known from Hoffmann's extended Hueckel theory), on the one hand, and of the neglect of differential overlap schemes ZDO and NDDO, on the other, from a common point of view

2000-01-15

255

Investigation of the association of growth rate in grower-finishing pigs with the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a part of a prospective cohort study in four herds, a nested case control study was carried out. Five slow growing pigs (cases) and five fast growing pigs (controls) out of 60 pigs were selected for euthanasia and laboratory examination at the end of the study in each herd. A total of 238 pigs, all approximately 12 weeks old, were included in the study during the first week in the grower-finisher barn. In each herd, approximately 60 pigs from four pens were individually ear tagged. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 6-8 weeks observation period. Clinical data, blood and faecal samples were serially collected from the 60 selected piglets every second week in the observation period. In the killed pigs serum was examined for antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and procine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and in addition PCV2 viral DNA content was quantified. In faeces the quantity of LI cells/g faeces and number of PCV2 copies/g faeces was measured by qPCR. The objective of the study was to examine if growth rate in grower-finishing pig is associated with the detection of LI and PCV2 infection or clinical data. This study has shown that diarrhoea is a significant risk factor for low growth rate and that one log(10) unit increase in LI load increases the odds ratio for a pig to have a low growth rate by 2.0 times. Gross lesions in the small intestine and LI load>log(10)6/g were significant risk factors for low growth. No association between PCV2 virus and low growth was found. PMID:22854321

Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, Maibritt; Dahl, Jan; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bækbo, Poul; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Jensen, Tim K; Ståhl, Marie; Larsen, Lars E; Angen, Oystein

2013-01-01

256

Evaluation of the VACUTAINER PPT Plasma Preparation Tube for Use with the Bayer VERSANT Assay for Quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA  

Science.gov (United States)

Separation and storage of plasma within 2 h of phlebotomy is required for the VACUTAINER PPT Plasma Preparation Tube (PPT) versus 4 h for the predecessor VACUTAINER EDTA tube for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (HIVL) testing by the VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 assay (branched DNA). The 2-h limit for PPT imposes time constraints for handling and transporting to the testing laboratory. This study compares HIVL reproducibility from matched blood in EDTA tubes and PPTs and between PPT pairs following processing within 4 h of phlebotomy, stability of plasma HIV-1 RNA at 24- and 72-h room temperature storage in the tube, and comparative labor and supply requirements. Blood from 159 patients was collected in paired tubes (EDTA/PPT or PPT/PPT): 86 paired EDTA tubes and PPTs were processed 4 h following phlebotomy and their HIVLs were compared, 42 paired PPT/PPT pairs were analyzed for intertube HIVL reproducibility, and 31 PPT/PPT pairs were analyzed for HIV-1 RNA stability by HIVL. Labor and supply requirements were compared between PPT and EDTA tubes. PPTs produce results equivalent to standard EDTA tube results when processed 4 h after phlebotomy. PPT intertube analyte results are reproducible. An average decrease of 13% and 37% in HIVL was observed in PPT plasma after 24 and 72 h of room temperature storage, respectively; thus, plasma can be stored at room temperature up to 24 h in the original tube. PPTs offer labor and supply savings over EDTA tubes.

Elbeik, Tarek; Nassos, Patricia; Kipnis, Patricia; Haller, Barbara; Ng, Valerie L.

2005-01-01

257

Theory of persistent, p-type, metallic conduction in c-GeTe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been known for over twenty years that rhombohedral c-germanium telluride is predicted to be a narrow gap semiconductor. However, it always displays p-type metallic conduction. This behaviour is also observed in other chalcogenide materials, including Ge2Sb2Te5, commonly used for optically and electrically switched, non-volatile memory, and so is of great interest. We present a theoretical study of the electronic structure of the perfect crystal and of the formation energies of germanium/tellurium vacancy and antisite defects in rhombohedral germanium telluride. We find that germanium vacancies are by far the most readily formed defect, independent of Fermi level and of growth ambient. Moreover, we predict that the perfect crystal is thermodynamically unstable. Thus, the predicted large equilibrium densities of the germanium vacancy of ?5 x 1019 cm-3 results in a partially filled valence band and in the observed p-type conductivity. (letter to the editor)

2005-08-17

258

On importance of higher non-linear interactions in the theory of type II incommensurate systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reveal that the role of the higher non-linear local interactions in the conventional theoretical models developed to describe phase transitions in type II incommensurate systems is underestimated. Their consistent consideration in the thermodynamic potential expansion allows one to remove key contradictions in explanation of the experimental data for ferroelectric Sn{sub 2}P{sub 2}Se{sub 6} in the vicinity of the modulated-commensurate phase transition point.

Korda, V.Yu., E-mail: kvyu@kipt.kharkov.ua [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Berezovsky, S.V.; Molev, A.S. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Korda, L.P. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Akademicheskaya St., Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Klepikov, V.F. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine)

2013-09-15

259

On importance of higher non-linear interactions in the theory of type II incommensurate systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reveal that the role of the higher non-linear local interactions in the conventional theoretical models developed to describe phase transitions in type II incommensurate systems is underestimated. Their consistent consideration in the thermodynamic potential expansion allows one to remove key contradictions in explanation of the experimental data for ferroelectric Sn2P2Se6 in the vicinity of the modulated-commensurate phase transition point

2013-09-15

260

Renormalizations and Rigidity Theory for Circle Homeomorphisms with Singularities of the Break Type  

Science.gov (United States)

Circle homeomorphisms with singularities of the break type are considered in the case when rotation numbers have periodic continued fraction expansion. We establish hyperbolicity for renormalizations and then use it in order to prove the following rigidity result. Namely, we show that any two homeomorphisms with a single break point are smoothly conjugate to each other provided they have the same quadratic irrational rotation number and the same ``size'' of a break.

Khanin, K.; Khmelev, D.

 
 
 
 
261

To Theory One Class Linear Model Noclassical Volterra Type Integral Equation with Left Boundary Singular Point  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we investigate one class of Volterra type integral equation, in model case, when kernels have first order fixed singularity and logarithmic singularity. In detail study the case, when n = 3. In depend of the signs parameters solution to this integral equation can contain three arbitrary constants, two arbitrary constants, one constant and may have unique solution. In the case when general solution of integral equation contains arbitrary constants, ...

Nusrat Rajabov

2013-01-01

262

Chern-Simons and Born-Infeld gravity theories and Maxwell algebras type  

CERN Document Server

Recently was shown that standard odd and even-dimensional General Relativity can be obtained from a $(2n+1)$-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the $B_{2n+1}$ algebra and from a $(2n)$-dimensional Born-Infeld Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra $\\cal{L}^{B_{2n+1}}$ respectively. Very Recently, it was shown that the generalized In\\"on\\"u-Wigner contraction of the generalized AdS-Maxwell algebras provides Maxwell algebras types $\\cal{M}_{m}$ which correspond to the so called $B_{m}$ Lie algebras. In this article we report on a simple model that suggests a mechanism by which standard odd-dimensional General Relativity may emerge as a weak coupling constant limit of a $(2p+1)$-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the Maxwell algebra type $\\cal{M}_{2m+1}$, if and only if $m\\geq p$. Similarly, we show that standard even-dimensional General Relativity emerges as a weak coupling constant limit of a $(2p)$-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra $\\cal{L}...

Concha, P K; Rodríguez, E K; Salgado, P

2014-01-01

263

The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 10(2) bacteria/g feces for Bpilo-qPCR and Laws-qPCR, 10(3)CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R(2) above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4-qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six log units for F18-qPCR and three log units for Bpilo-qPCR in spiked feces. When measured on pure DNA from the reference strains used in spiking experiments, the respective log ranges were: seven units for Bpilo-qPCR, Laws-qPCR and F18-qPCR and six log units for F4-qPCR. This shows the importance of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive than the earlier used method due to improvements in DNA extraction. In addition, as samples were not analysed for all four pathogen agents by traditional diagnostic methods, many samples were found positive for agents that were not expected on the basis of age and case history. The use of quantitative PCR tests for diagnosis of enteric diseases provides new possibilities for veterinary diagnostics. The parallel simultaneous analysis for several bacteria in multi-qPCR and the determination of the quantities of the infectious agents increases the information obtained from the samples and the chance for obtaining a relevant diagnosis. PMID:21530108

Ståhl, M; Kokotovic, B; Hjulsager, C K; Breum, S Ø; Angen, Ø

2011-08-01

264

Experimento para quantificar a eficiência de aspersão de líquidos: aplicação em distribuidores espinha de peixe Liquid aspersion efficiency quantification experiment: application in ladder-type distributors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente texto descreve um equipamento na escala-piloto e um método simples para comparar a eficiência de distribuidores de líquido. A técnica consiste basicamente em analisar a massa do líquido coletado em 21 tubos verticais de 52mm de diâmetro interno e 800 mm de comprimento dispostos em arranjo quadrático colocados abaixo do distribuidor. Uma manta acrílica que não dispersa o líquido com 50 mm de espessura foi fixada entre o distribuidor e o banco de tubos para evitar respingos. Como exemplo de aplicação foram realizados ensaios com nove distribuidores do tipo espinha de peixe de 4 tubos paralelos cada, para uma coluna com 400 mm de diâmetro. Variaram-se o número (n de furos (95, 127 e 159 furos/m², o diâmetro (d dos furos (2, 3 e 4 mm e as vazões (q de (1,2; 1,4 e 1,6m³/h. A melhor eficiência de espalhamento pelo menor desvio-padrão foi obtida com n de 159, d de 2 e q de 1,4 indicando as limitações de regras práticas de projeto. A pressão (p, na entrada do distribuidor, para essa condição, foi de apenas 51000 Pa (0,51 kgf/cm² e a velocidade média (v em cada orifício foi de 6,3 m/s.This paper describes a device developed on the pilot scale and a simple approach to compare liquid distributor efficiencies. The technique consists basically of analyzing the mass of the liquid collected in 21 vertical pipes measuring 52 mm in internal diameter and 800 mm in length placed in a quadratic arrangement and positioned below the distributor. A 50 mm thick acrylic blanket that does not disperse liquids was placed between the distributor and the pipe bank to avoid splashes. Assays were carried out with ladder-type distributors equipped with 4 parallel pipes each for a column measuring 400 mm in diameter as an example of the application. The number (n of orifices (95, 127, and 159 orifices/m², orifice diameter (d (2, 3, and 4 mm and the flowrate (q (1.2; 1.4; and 1.6 m3/h were varied. The best spread efficiency, which presented the lowest standard deviation, was achieved with 159 orifices, 2 mm and 1.4 m³/h. The pressure (p at the distributor's inlet for this condition was only 51000 Pa (0.51 kgf/cm², while the average velocity (v was 6.3 m/s in each orifice. These results show some limitations of the practical rules used in distributor designs.

Marlene Silva de Moraes

2008-03-01

265

The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R2 above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4- qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six log units for F18-qPCR and three log units for Bpilo-qPCR in spiked feces. When measured on pure DNA from the reference strains used in spiking experiments, the respective log ranges were: seven units for Bpilo-qPCR, Laws-qPCR and F18-qPCR and six log units for F4-qPCR. This shows the importance of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive than the earlier used method due to improvements in DNA extraction. In addition, as samples were not analysed for all four pathogen agents by traditional diagnostic methods, many samples were found positive for agents that were not expected on the basis of age and case history. The use of quantitative PCR tests for diagnosis of enteric diseases provides new possibilities for veterinary diagnostics. The parallel simultaneous analysis for several bacteria in multi-qPCR and the determination of the quantities of the infectious agents increases the information obtained from the samples and the chance for obtaining a relevant diagnosis.

Ståhl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko

2011-01-01

266

Experimento para quantificar a eficiência de aspersão de líquidos: aplicação em distribuidores espinha de peixe / Liquid aspersion efficiency quantification experiment: application in ladder-type distributors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente texto descreve um equipamento na escala-piloto e um método simples para comparar a eficiência de distribuidores de líquido. A técnica consiste basicamente em analisar a massa do líquido coletado em 21 tubos verticais de 52mm de diâmetro interno e 800 mm de comprimento dispostos em arranjo [...] quadrático colocados abaixo do distribuidor. Uma manta acrílica que não dispersa o líquido com 50 mm de espessura foi fixada entre o distribuidor e o banco de tubos para evitar respingos. Como exemplo de aplicação foram realizados ensaios com nove distribuidores do tipo espinha de peixe de 4 tubos paralelos cada, para uma coluna com 400 mm de diâmetro. Variaram-se o número (n) de furos (95, 127 e 159 furos/m²), o diâmetro (d) dos furos (2, 3 e 4 mm) e as vazões (q) de (1,2; 1,4 e 1,6m³/h). A melhor eficiência de espalhamento pelo menor desvio-padrão foi obtida com n de 159, d de 2 e q de 1,4 indicando as limitações de regras práticas de projeto. A pressão (p), na entrada do distribuidor, para essa condição, foi de apenas 51000 Pa (0,51 kgf/cm²) e a velocidade média (v) em cada orifício foi de 6,3 m/s. Abstract in english This paper describes a device developed on the pilot scale and a simple approach to compare liquid distributor efficiencies. The technique consists basically of analyzing the mass of the liquid collected in 21 vertical pipes measuring 52 mm in internal diameter and 800 mm in length placed in a quadr [...] atic arrangement and positioned below the distributor. A 50 mm thick acrylic blanket that does not disperse liquids was placed between the distributor and the pipe bank to avoid splashes. Assays were carried out with ladder-type distributors equipped with 4 parallel pipes each for a column measuring 400 mm in diameter as an example of the application. The number (n) of orifices (95, 127, and 159 orifices/m²), orifice diameter (d) (2, 3, and 4 mm) and the flowrate (q) (1.2; 1.4; and 1.6 m3/h) were varied. The best spread efficiency, which presented the lowest standard deviation, was achieved with 159 orifices, 2 mm and 1.4 m³/h. The pressure (p) at the distributor's inlet for this condition was only 51000 Pa (0.51 kgf/cm²), while the average velocity (v) was 6.3 m/s in each orifice. These results show some limitations of the practical rules used in distributor designs.

Moraes, Marlene Silva de; Lima, José Renato Baptista de; Moraes Júnior, Deovaldo de; Lia, Luis Renato Bastos; Pizzo, Sandro Megale.

267

Electron interactions and transport theory in n-type silicon and HCP metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron interactions with impurities, phonons, and other elections are studied in a calculation of linear screening and electron mobility in n-type silicon. The dielectric function is calculated at non-zero temperatures in both the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjoelander (STLS) approximation. Significant differences are found at non-zero temperatures between exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation for electron-impurity scattering in the RPA Born approximation and the less accurate memory function formula for the electrical resistivity. RPA screening of impurity potentials combined with exact phase shift cross-sections yield electron mobilities in n-type silicon at 300K and 77K that agree more closely with experiment than more simple models. The electron-electron differential scattering rate in Born approximation is derived in terms of the nonequilibrium electron density-density correlation function and is evaluated in RPA to determine expressions for the inelastic electron lifetime and the Boltzmann equation collision term. The plasmon-pole contribution to the structure factor is found to be strongly damped in n-type silicon. The Fermi-surface density of states of Drudge Plasma frequency tensor are calculated for 14 metallic elements with hcp structures. By comparison with measured anisotropic resistivity components, electron-phonon coupling constants ?tr are extracted which compare reasonably well with ? from Tc for the ten superconducting elements. For Sc and Y, ?tr is sufficiently high (0.5-0.6) to require spin-fluctuation suppression of Tc. Resistivity anisotropy is moderately well accounted for by anisotropy of the Drude plasma frequency, except for the sp elements, which have significant scattering anisotropy. A systematic onset of open-quotes resistivity saturationclose quotes is found when the mean free path l?10 angstrom

1992-01-01

268

A Pieri-type formula for the K-theory of a flag manifold  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We derive explicit Pieri-type multiplication formulas in the Grothendieck ring of a flag variety. These expand the product of an arbitrary Schubert class and a special Schubert class in the basis of Schubert classes. These special Schubert classes are indexed by a cycle which has either the form (k-p+1,k-p+2,...,k+1) or the form (k+p,k+p-1,...,k), and are pulled back from a Grassmannian projection. Our formulas are in terms of certain labeled chains in the k-Bruhat order on ...

Lenart, Cristian; Sottile, Frank

2004-01-01

269

To Theory One Class Linear Model Noclassical Volterra Type Integral Equation with Left Boundary Singular Point  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we investigate one class of Volterra type integral equation, in model case, when kernels have first order fixed singularity and logarithmic singularity. In detail study the case, when n = 3. In depend of the signs parameters solution to this integral equation can contain three arbitrary constants, two arbitrary constants, one constant and may have unique solution. In the case when general solution of integral equation contains arbitrary constants, we stand and investigate different boundary value problems, when conditions are given in singular point. Besides for considered integral equation, the solution found cane represented in generalized power series. Some results obtained in the general model case.

Nusrat Rajabov

2013-08-01

270

Topic-Focus Structure and Quantification of Dou 'all'  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines a type of dou quantification found in wh-questions such as ta dou mai le shenme? ‘What are all the things that he bought?’ This type is different from the well-known dou quantification in that the leftness condition cannot be applied to the former. I propose that the former type of quantification is subject to the topic-focus structure rather than to the syntactic structure, which means that the domain of the quantification is determined in relation to 'old' and 'new' information of a sentence. Sentences including dou can be divided into topic and focus, and each part is mapped onto the restrictor and the nuclear scope in a tripartite structure of dou quantification. This analysis accounts for the reason why a list answer is appropriate to questions with dou, why wh-words in the questions cannot be quantity expressions, and why wh-words should either have a plural interpretation or take the plural form. This analysis also explains the distribution of dou, i.e., dou should c-command a focused phrase. Finally, I point out that the analysis can extend to declaratives which are rare but still observable, and that the two types of dou quantification can arise simultaneously.

Joonho Shin

2007-06-01

271

Theory of persistent, p-type, metallic conduction in c-GeTe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been known for over twenty years that rhombohedral c-germanium telluride is predicted to be a narrow gap semiconductor. However, it always displays p-type metallic conduction. This behaviour is also observed in other chalcogenide materials, including Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, commonly used for optically and electrically switched, non-volatile memory, and so is of great interest. We present a theoretical study of the electronic structure of the perfect crystal and of the formation energies of germanium/tellurium vacancy and antisite defects in rhombohedral germanium telluride. We find that germanium vacancies are by far the most readily formed defect, independent of Fermi level and of growth ambient. Moreover, we predict that the perfect crystal is thermodynamically unstable. Thus, the predicted large equilibrium densities of the germanium vacancy of {approx}5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} results in a partially filled valence band and in the observed p-type conductivity. (letter to the editor)

Edwards, Arthur H [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, KAFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Pineda, Andrew C [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, KAFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Schultz, Peter A [Multiscale Computational Materials Methods, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1110, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1110 (United States); Martin, Marcus G [Multiscale Computational Materials Methods, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1110, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1110 (United States); Thompson, Aidan P [Multiscale Computational Materials Methods, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1110, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1110 (United States); Hjalmarson, Harold P [Multiscale Computational Materials Methods, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, MS 1110, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1110 (United States)

2005-08-17

272

Quantification of code uncertainties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of so-called best-estimate (BE) codes aims at providing sufficient evidence that they can be used reliably and accurately enough within their intended ranges of application for realistic prediction of the behaviour of nuclear power plants during various accident and transient conditions. Until now the assessment has been essentially qualitative, with only minor exceptions. Only recently there has been increasing demand for quantification of the uncertainties, especially in conjunction with efforts to allow use of the BE codes (instead of the conservative ''evaluation model'' EM codes) in licensing analyses, and to achieve a corresponding reduction in the safety margins where considered excessive. However, quantification of code uncertainties is an extremely complex task, and it has become evident that there will always be an element of subjective judgment involved. This paper will focus on description and comparison of three major methodologies developed for code uncertainty quantification: one by AEA Technology, UK, another by GRS, Germany, and the third (CSAU) by USNRC, USA. The European methods are quite similar, but differ distinctly from the American method. While sensitivity studies for production of model parameter uncertainties are essential in the former, and comparisons with experimental data serve to check the validity of the results, comparisons of code predictions with integral test data are central to the latter. The role of subjective judgment is smallest in the GRS method. (author). 10 figs., 4 refs

1992-01-01

273

Quantification of quadriceps and hamstring antagonist activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The coactivation of hamstrings and quadriceps, and its relation to knee joint stability and cruciate ligament loading, have been extensively examined over the last decades. The purpose of this review is to present findings on the quantification of antagonist activation around the knee. Coactivation of the quadriceps and hamstrings during many activities has been examined using electromyography (EMG). However, there are several factors that affect antagonist EMG activity, such as the type of m...

Kellis, E.; ???????, ?.

2010-01-01

274

Flux-induced Soft Terms on Type IIB/F-theory Matter Curves and Hypercharge Dependent Scalar Masses  

CERN Document Server

Closed string fluxes induce generically SUSY-breaking soft terms on supersymmetric type IIB orientifold compactifications with D3/D7 branes. This was studied in the past by inserting those fluxes on the DBI+CS actions for adjoint D3/D7 fields, where D7-branes had no magnetic fluxes. In the present work we generalise those computations to the phenomenologically more relevant case of chiral bi-fundamental fields laying at 7-brane intersections and F-theory local matter curves. We also include the effect of 7-brane magnetic flux as well as more general closed string backgrounds, including the effect of distant (anti-)D3-branes. We discuss several applications of our results. We find that squark/slepton masses become in general flux-dependent in F-theory GUT's. Hypercharge-dependent non-universal scalar masses with a characteristic sfermion hierarchy m_E^2 < m_L^2 < m_Q^2 < m_D^2 < m_U^2 are obtained. There are also flavor-violating soft terms both for matter fields living at intersecting 7-branes or ...

Camara, Pablo G; Valenzuela, Irene

2014-01-01

275

Effective field theory of modified gravity on the spherically symmetric background: leading order dynamics and the odd-type perturbations  

CERN Document Server

We consider perturbations of a static and spherically symmetric background endowed with a metric tensor and a scalar field in the framework of the effective field theory of modified gravity. We employ the previously developed 2+1+1 canonical formalism of a double Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) decomposition of space-time, which singles out both time and radial directions. Our building block is a general gravitational action that depends on scalar quantities constructed from the 2+1+1 canonical variables and the lapse. Variation of the action up to first-order in perturbations gives rise to three independent background equations of motion, as expected from spherical symmetry. The dynamical equations of linear perturbations follow from the second-order Lagrangian after a suitable gauge fixing. We derive conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities for the odd-type perturbations. We show that our results not only incorporates those derived in the most general scalar-tensor theories with second...

Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

2014-01-01

276

Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. J. [Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Seoul National Univ., Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. W. [Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engr, Dongguk Univ., Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-Do, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, G. C. [Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Seoul National Univ., Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

277

Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

2012-06-24

278

Fitting the Lin-Shu-type density-wave theory for our own Galaxy  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of spiral structure in rapidly and differentially rotating disc galaxies is currently attributed to the phenomenon of unstable (that is to say, growing) Lin-Shu compression-type waves, or density waves, rotating at a constant angular velocity around the system's centre. It is important that when a density-wave structure is present in a galaxy, the gravitational field of the spiral arms will systematically deflect the motion of gas and young stars away from their mean circular rotation, and point masses in such a model react by streaming motions that are of spiral shape too. We examine the kinematics of Milky Way's 233 Cepheid stars on the assumption that the system is subject to moderately growing spiral density waves by taking into account small-amplitude perturbations of the Galactic gravitational potential. Using Cepheid line-of-sight velocities, we propose new estimates of the parameters of solar motion and Galactic rotation corrected for the effects of density waves, the radial and azimuthal components of systematic stellar motion due to the spiral arms as well as the dynamical parameters of the waves. A basis is given for preferring the dominant one-armed spiral structure in the solar neighbourhood of the Galaxy.

Griv, Evgeny; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Jiang, Ing-Guey

2013-08-01

279

Bianchi type-V bulk viscous string cosmological model in Saez-Ballester scalar-tensor theory of gravitation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological model is considered in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (in Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986) when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. The field equations being highly non-linear, we obtain a determinate solution using the plausible physical conditions (i) the scalar of expansion of the space-time is proportional to shear scalar (ii) the baratropic equation of state for pressure and density and (iii) the bulk viscous pressure is proportional to the energy density. It is interesting to observe that cosmic strings do not survive in this model. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Reddy, D. R. K.; Naidu, R. L.; Sobhan Babu, K.; Dasu Naidu, K.

2014-01-01

280

Conformally de Sitter space from anisotropic space-like D3-brane of type IIB string theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We construct a four-dimensional de Sitter space up to a conformal transformation by compactifying the anisotropic SD3-brane solution of type IIB string theory on a six-dimensional product space of the form H5×S1, where H5 is a five-dimensional hyperbolic space and S1 is a circle. The radius of the hyperbolic space is chosen to be constant. The radius of the circle and the dilaton in four dimensions are time dependent and not constant in general. By different choices of parameters characterizing the SD3-brane solution, either the dilaton or the radius of the circle can be made constant but not both. The form field is also nonvanishing in general, but it can be made to vanish without affecting the solution. This construction might be useful for a better understanding of dS/CFT correspondence as well as for cosmology.

Roy, Shibaji

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Theory, design, and simulation of LINA: A path forward for QCA-type nanoelectronics  

Science.gov (United States)

The past 50 years have seen exponential advances in digital integrated circuit technologies which has facilitated an explosion of uses and functionality. Although this rate (generally referred to as "Moore's Law") cannot be sustained indefinitely, significant advances will remain possible even after current technologies reach fundamental limits. However if these further advances are to be realized, nanoelectronics designs must be developed that provide significant improvements over, the currently-utilized, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistor based integrated circuits. One promising nanoelectronics paradigm to fulfill this function is Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA). QCA provides the possibility of THz switching, molecular scaling, and provides particular applicability for advanced logical constructs such as reversible logic and systolic arrays within the paradigm. These attributes make QCA an exciting prospect; however, current fabrication technology does not exist which allows for the fabrication of reliable electronic QCA circuits which operate at room-temperature. Furthermore, a plausible path to fabrication of circuitry on the very large scale integration (VLSI) level with QCA does not currently exist. This has caused doubts to the viability of the paradigm and questions to its future as a suitable nanoelectronic replacement to CMOS. In order to resolve these issues, research was conducted into a new design which could utilize key attributes of QCA while also providing a means for near-term fabrication of reliable room-temperature circuits and a path forward for VLSI circuits. The result of this research, presented in this dissertation, is the Lattice-based Integrated-signal Nanocellular Automata (LINA) nanoelectronics paradigm. LINA designs are based on QCA and provide the same basic functionality as traditional QCA. LINA also retains the key attributes of THz switching, scalability to the molecular level, and ability to utilize advanced logical constructs which are crucial to the QCA proposals. However, LINA designs also provide significant improvements over traditional QCA. For example, the continuous correction of faults, due to LINA's integrated-signal approach, provides reliability improvements to enable room-temperature operation with cells which are potentially up to 20nm and fault tolerance to layout, patterning, stray-charge, and stuck-at-faults. In terms of fabrication, LINA's lattice-based structure allows precise relative placement through the use of self-assembly techniques seen in current nanoparticle research. LINA also allows for large enough wire and logic structures to enable use of widely available photo-lithographical patterning technologies. These aspects of the LINA designs, along with power, timing, and clocking results, have been verified through the use of new and/or modified simulation tools specifically developed for this purpose. To summarize, the LINA designs and results, presented in this dissertation, provide a path to realization of QCA-type VLSI nanoelectronic circuitry. Furthermore, they offer a renewed viability of the paradigm to replace CMOS and advance computing technologies beyond the next decade.

Hook, Loyd Reed, IV

282

Quantification of degenerative arthropathies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoarthritis as well as rheumatoid arthritis lead to chronical progessive destruction of diseased joints. As aggressive new treatments need to be evaluated, plenty of (semi-)quantitative methods for the radiological joint evaluation had been developed. They lack sufficient reproducibility due to their low objectivity. Modern approaches of computerassisted radiological quantification should increase the reproducibility and efficiency of radiological scoring. Automatically calculated, computerassisted measurements of joint space, cartilage- and synovial volume, periarticular assessment of bone mineral density and quantitative analysis of the subchondral plate will have major impact on the radiological routine of the future. (orig.)

2000-12-01

283

Self-organized criticality as Witten-type topological field theory with spontaneously broken Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here, a scenario is proposed, according to which a generic self-organized critical (SOC) system can be looked upon as a Witten-type topological field theory (W-TFT) with spontaneously broken Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry. One of the conditions for the SOC is the slow driving noise, which unambiguously suggests Stratonovich interpretation of the corresponding stochastic differential equation (SDE). This, in turn, necessitates the use of Parisi-Sourlas-Wu stochastic quantization procedure, which straightforwardly leads to a model with BRST-exact action, i.e., to a W-TFT. In the parameter space of the SDE, there must exist full-dimensional regions where the BRST symmetry is spontaneously broken by instantons, which in the context of SOC are essentially avalanches. In these regions, the avalanche-type SOC dynamics is liberated from overwise a rightful dynamics-less W-TFT, and a Goldstone mode of Fadeev-Popov ghosts exists. Goldstinos represent moduli of instantons (avalanches) and being gapless are responsible for the critical avalanche distribution in the low-energy, long-wavelength limit. The above arguments are robust against moderate variations of the SDE's parameters and the criticality is 'self-tuned'. The proposition of this paper suggests that the machinery of W-TFTs may find its applications in many different areas of modern science studying various physical realizations of SOC. It also suggests that there may in principle exist a connection between some SOC's and the concept of topological quantum computing.

2011-05-01

284

Self-Organized Criticality as Witten-type Topological Field Theory with Spontaneously Broken BRST-Symmetry  

CERN Multimedia

Here we propose a scenario according to which a generic self-organized critical (SOC) system can be looked upon as a Witten-type topological field theory (W-TFT) with spontaneously broken BRST-symmetry. One of the conditions for the SOC is the slow external driving that unambiguously suggests the Stratanovich interpretation of noise in the corresponding stochastic differential equation (SDE). This necessitates the use of the Parisi-Wu quantization of the SDE leading to a model with a BRST-exact action, \\emph i.e., to a W-TFT. For a general SDE with a mixed-type drift term (Langevin + Hamilton parts), the BRST-symmetry is spontaneously broken and there is the Goldstone mode of Fadeev-Popov ghosts. In the low-energy/long-wavelength limit, the ghosts represent instanton/avalanche modulii and being gapless are responsible for the critical distribution of avalanches. The above arguments are robust against a moderate variation of the SDE's parameters and the criticality is "self-tuned". Our proposition suggests tha...

Ovchinnikov, Igor V

2011-01-01

285

Effects of humic acid on DNA quantification with Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit and short tandem repeat amplification efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correct DNA quantification is an essential part to obtain reliable STR typing results. Forensic DNA analysts often use commercial kits for DNA quantification; among them, real-time-based DNA quantification kits are most frequently used. Incorrect DNA quantification due to the presence of PCR inhibitors may affect experiment results. In this study, we examined the alteration degree of DNA quantification results estimated in DNA samples containing a PCR inhibitor by using a Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit. For experiments, we prepared approximately 0.25 ng/?l DNA samples containing various concentrations of humic acid (HA). The quantification results were 0.194-0.303 ng/?l at 0-1.6 ng/?l HA (final concentration in the Quantifiler reaction) and 0.003-0.168 ng/?l at 2.4-4.0 ng/?l HA. Most DNA quantity was undetermined when HA concentration was higher than 4.8 ng/?l HA. The C (T) values of an internal PCR control (IPC) were 28.0-31.0, 36.5-37.1, and undetermined at 0-1.6, 2.4, and 3.2 ng/?l HA. These results indicate that underestimated DNA quantification results may be obtained in the DNA sample with high C (T) values of IPC. Thus, researchers should carefully interpret the DNA quantification results. We additionally examined the effects of HA on the STR amplification by using an Identifiler® kit and a MiniFiler™ kit. Based on the results of this study, it is thought that a better understanding of various effects of HA would help researchers recognize and manipulate samples containing HA. PMID:21912926

Seo, Seung Bum; Lee, Hye Young; Zhang, Ai Hua; Kim, Hye Yeon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Soong Deok

2012-11-01

286

Level 2 probabilistic event analyses and quantification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper an example of quantification of a severe accident phenomenological event is given. The performed analysis for assessment of the probability that the debris released from the reactor vessel was in a coolable configuration in the lower drywell is presented. It is also analysed the assessment of the type of core/concrete attack that would occur. The coolability of the debris ex-vessel evaluation by an event in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Containment Event Tree (CET) and a detailed Decomposition Event Tree (DET) developed to aid in the quantification of this CET event are considered. The headings in the DET selected to represent plant physical states (e.g., reactor vessel pressure at the time of vessel failure) and the uncertainties associated with the occurrence of critical physical phenomena (e.g., debris configuration in the lower drywell) considered important to assessing whether the debris was coolable or not coolable ex-vessel are also discussed

2003-10-20

287

A note on teleparallel Killing vector fields in Bianchi type VIII and IX space—times in teleparallel theory of gravitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we classify Bianchi type VIII and IX space—times according to their teleparallel Killing vector fields in the teleparallel theory of gravitation by using a direct integration technique. It turns out that the dimensions of the teleparallel Killing vector fields are either 4 or 5. From the above study we have shown that the Killing vector fields for Bianchi type VIII and IX space—times in the context of teleparallel theory are different from that in general relativity. (general)

2011-07-01

288

Type D assessment in patients with chronic heart failure and peripheral arterial disease: evaluation of the experimental DS(3) scale using item response theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type D personality refers to a clustering of 2 stable personality traits, namely negative affectivity and social inhibition. Currently Type D is standardly assessed using the DS14. An experimental Type D personality scale, the DS((3)), was developed to examine an avenue for assessing Type D more efficiently. The DS((3)) differs from the DS14 in its use of a 3-point Likert scale to rate responses, use of all negatively worded items, and a rearranged presentation of items. This article examines the psychometric properties of this questionnaire by examining its dimensionality, item and scale properties, and cutoff scores to screen for Type D personality. Data from 2 clinical samples were analyzed using item response theory. The results suggest that the DS((3)) is a potentially suitable instrument for Type D assessment. It has high reliability, and Type D personality classification based on this scale corresponds well with the current standard Type D assessment based on the DS14. PMID:22339314

Emons, Wilco H M; Mols, Floortje; Pelle, Aline; Smolderen, Kim G; Denollet, Johan

2012-01-01

289

Self-organized criticality as Witten-type topological field theory with spontaneously broken Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, a scenario is proposed, according to which a generic self-organized critical (SOC) system can be looked upon as a Witten-type topological field theory (W-TFT) with spontaneously broken Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry. One of the conditions for the SOC is the slow driving noise, which unambiguously suggests Stratonovich interpretation of the corresponding stochastic differential equation (SDE). This, in turn, necessitates the use of Parisi-Sourlas-Wu stochastic quantization procedure, which straightforwardly leads to a model with BRST-exact action, i.e., to a W-TFT. In the parameter space of the SDE, there must exist full-dimensional regions where the BRST symmetry is spontaneously broken by instantons, which in the context of SOC are essentially avalanches. In these regions, the avalanche-type SOC dynamics is liberated from overwise a rightful dynamics-less W-TFT, and a Goldstone mode of Fadeev-Popov ghosts exists. Goldstinos represent moduli of instantons (avalanches) and being gapless are responsible for the critical avalanche distribution in the low-energy, long-wavelength limit. The above arguments are robust against moderate variations of the SDE’s parameters and the criticality is “self-tuned.” The proposition of this paper suggests that the machinery of W-TFTs may find its applications in many different areas of modern science studying various physical realizations of SOC. It also suggests that there may in principle exist a connection between some SOC‘s and the concept of topological quantum computing.

Ovchinnikov, Igor V.

2011-05-01

290

Self-organized criticality as Witten-type topological field theory with spontaneously broken Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, a scenario is proposed, according to which a generic self-organized critical (SOC) system can be looked upon as a Witten-type topological field theory (W-TFT) with spontaneously broken Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry. One of the conditions for the SOC is the slow driving noise, which unambiguously suggests Stratonovich interpretation of the corresponding stochastic differential equation (SDE). This, in turn, necessitates the use of Parisi-Sourlas-Wu stochastic quantization procedure, which straightforwardly leads to a model with BRST-exact action, i.e., to a W-TFT. In the parameter space of the SDE, there must exist full-dimensional regions where the BRST symmetry is spontaneously broken by instantons, which in the context of SOC are essentially avalanches. In these regions, the avalanche-type SOC dynamics is liberated from overwise a rightful dynamics-less W-TFT, and a Goldstone mode of Fadeev-Popov ghosts exists. Goldstinos represent moduli of instantons (avalanches) and being gapless are responsible for the critical avalanche distribution in the low-energy, long-wavelength limit. The above arguments are robust against moderate variations of the SDE's parameters and the criticality is "self-tuned." The proposition of this paper suggests that the machinery of W-TFTs may find its applications in many different areas of modern science studying various physical realizations of SOC. It also suggests that there may in principle exist a connection between some SOC's and the concept of topological quantum computing. PMID:21728512

Ovchinnikov, Igor V

2011-05-01

291

Is string theory a theory of strings?  

CERN Document Server

Recently a great deal of evidence has been found indicating that type IIA string theory compactified on K3 is equivalent to heterotic string theory compactified on T^4. Under the transformation which relates the two theories, the roles of fundamental and solitonic string solutions are interchanged. In this letter we show that there exists a solitonic membrane solution of the heterotic string theory which becomes a singular solution of the type IIA theory, and should therefore be interpreted as a fundamental membrane in the latter theory. We speculate upon the implications that the complete type IIA theory is a theory of membranes, as well as strings.

Johnson, C V; Khuri, R R; Myers, R C; Johnson, Clifford V; Kaloper, Nemanja; Khuri, Ramzi R; Myers, Robert C

1996-01-01

292

Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 i...

2008-01-01

293

Quantification of phosphorus in single cells using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphorus abundance was quantified in individual phytoplankton cells by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and compared with bulk spectrophotometric measurements to confirm accuracy of quantification. Figures of merit for P quantification on three different types of transmission electron microscopy grids are compared to assess possible interferences.

2010-01-01

294

Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

Pike, Gary R.

2006-01-01

295

Surface complexes of acetate on edge surfaces of 2:1 type phyllosilicate: Insights from density functional theory calculation  

Science.gov (United States)

To explore the complexation mechanisms of carboxylate on phyllosilicate edge surfaces, we simulate acetate complexes on the (0 1 0) type edge of pyrophyllite by using density functional theory method. We take into account the intrinsic long-range order and all the possible complex sets under common environments. This study discloses that H-bonding interactions occur widely and play important roles in both inner-sphere and outer-sphere fashions. In inner-sphere complexes, one acetate C-O bond elongates to form a covalent bond with surface Al atom; the other C-O either forms a covalent bond with Al or interacts with surface hydroxyls via H-bonds. In outer-sphere complexes, the acetate can capture a proton from the surface groups to form an acid molecule. For the groups of both substrate and ligand, the variations in geometrical parameters caused by H-bonding interactions depend on the role it plays (i.e., proton donor or acceptor). By comparing the edge structures before and after interaction, we found that the carboxylate binding can modify the surface structures. In the inner-sphere complexes, the exposed Al atom can be stabilized by a single acetate ion through either monodentate or bidentate schemes, whereas the Al atoms complexing both an acetate and a hydroxyl may significantly deviate outwards from the bulk equilibrium positions. In the outer-sphere complexes, some H-bondings are strong enough to polarize the metal-oxygen bonds and therefore distort the local coordination structure of metal in the substrate, which may make the metal susceptible to release.

Liu, Xiandong; Lu, Xiancai; Wang, Rucheng; Zhou, Huiqun; Xu, Shijin

2008-12-01

296

A cluster randomised pragmatic trial applying Self-determination theory to type 2 diabetes care in general practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment recommendations for prevention of type 2 diabetes complications often require radical and life-long health behaviour changes. Observational studies based on Self-determination theory (SDT propose substantial factors for the maintenance of behaviour changes and concomitant well-being, but experimental research is needed to develop and evaluate SDT-based interventions. The aims of this paper were to describe 1 the design of a trial assessing the effectiveness of a training course for practice-nurses in autonomy support on patient-perceived motivation, HbA1, cholesterol, and well-being among a diabetes population, 2 the actual intervention to a level of detail that allows its replication, and 3 the connection between SDT recommendations for health care-provider behaviour and the content of the training course. Methods/Design The study is a cluster-randomised pragmatic trial including 40 Danish general practices with nurse-led diabetes consultations, and the associated diabetes population. The diabetes population was identified by registers (n = 4034. The intervention was a 16-hour course with interactive training for practice nurses. The course was delivered over 4 afternoons at Aarhus University and one 1/2 hour visit to the practice by one of the course-teachers over a period of 10 months (0, 2, 5, 10 mths.. The intervention is depicted by a PaT Plot showing the timeline and the characteristics of the intervention components. Effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed on the diabetes populations with regard to well-being (PAID, SF-12, HbA1c- and cholesterol-levels, perceived autonomy support (HCCQ, type of motivation (TSRQ, and perceived competence for diabetes care (PCD 15-21 months after the core course; the completion of the second course afternoon. Data will be retrieved from registers and by questionnaires. Discussion Challenges and advantages of the pragmatic design are discussed. In a real-world setting, this study will determine the impact on motivation, HbA1c, cholesterol, and well-being for people with diabetes by offering a training course in autonomy support to practice-nurses from general practices with nurse-led consultations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01187069

Juul Lise

2011-11-01

297

Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

Padovani, Luca

2011-01-01

298

Shrinking Magnetic Vortices in V3Si due to Delocalized Quasiparticle Core States: Confirmation of the Microscopic Theory of Type-II Superconductivity  

CERN Document Server

A key ingredient missing from the much relied upon macroscopic Ginzburg-Landau theory is the quasiparticle excitations. As a result, the GL description of the vortex lattice in a type-II superconductor does not account for the electronic structure of the magnetic vortices. Here we report experimental results on the conventional type-II superconductor V3Si that provide clear evidence for changes to the inner structure of a vortex due to the delocalization of bound quasiparticle core states. A consequence is that even for simple type-II superconductors, the full microscopic theory is necessary to physically describe the vortex lattice. This detail is a potential explanation for many experimental anomalies.

Sonier, J E; Miller, R I; Boaknin, E; Taillefer, L; Kiefl, R F; Brewer, J H; Poon, K F; Brewer, J D

2004-01-01

299

Understanding the p-Type Conduction Properties of the Transparent Conducting Oxide CuBO2: A Density Functional Theory Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CuCrO2 is the most promising Cu-based delafossite for p-type optoelectronic devices. Despite this, little is known about the p-type conduction mechanism of this material, with both CuI/CuII and CrIII/CrIV hole mechanisms being proposed. In this article we examine the electronic structure, thermodynamic stability and the p-type defect chemistry of this ternary compound using density functional theory with three different approaches to the exchange and correlation; the generalized-gradient-appr...

2009-01-01

300

Tritium quantification in metallic samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ITER radwastes are generated from various facilities, which are Tokamak, hot cell building, RWB, and tritium plant building during operation and maintenance of ITER. The treatment systems of the radwastes are for long half lives intermediate radawstes (Type B radwastes generated in Tokamak), the radwastes including pure tritium (from tritium plant and fuel), and low level solid and liquid radwastes (Type A radwastes). The radwastes are required to be analyzed for radionuclide inventory before the radwastes will be stored at ITER hot cell facilities for 20 year according to the ITER policy. Especially, tritium shall be analyzed because of its concentration in the waste potentially higher than the Type B tritium criterion. There are several destructive or non-destructive methods for assay of tritium in metallic samples. A nondestructive method generally adopts high-sensitive photo film along with {beta} - particle detection technique. Other non-destructive ones are the Radiography (RG) technique in which it applies the magnetic microscope and radioluminography (RLG) based on the photo stimulated luminescence (PSL). In destructive analysis methods, electrochemical layer-by-layer etching (ELLE) and chemical acid dissolution or chemical acid leaching method (CAD of CAL) have known as mostly common techniques. The CAD or CAL technique as a destructive method has a merit of accurate analytical result and convenient test method compared to above nondestructive methods. Accordingly, it is considered that CAL method is the most suitable for tritium quantification. CAL method has already been developed in Nuclear Chemistry Research Division (NCRD). However, some metallic samples need to be analyzed for improvement of analytical reliability of CAL method. Considering tritium concentration in ITER radwastes, radwastes of CANDU type NPP was selected as a proper sample, since ITER sample has 10{sup -9} Bq/g of radioactivity. Compared to samples in PWR and BWR NPP, tritium concentration in the coolant of Korean CANDU NPP has been reported to have a concentration of 0.1 MBq/m{sup 3} during 2000 {approx} 2006, whereas the case of Korean PWR NPP was about 0.003 MBq/m{sup 3} in the same time frame. The samples aimed at this project for tritium measurement are pressure tubes irradiated by nuclear fuels of CANDU type Korean NPP, which had been used for supporting nuclear fuel bundles. Although the CANDU samples are difficult to be directly compared to ITER metallic radwastes, they were prepared for evaluation of application of CAL method

Ahn, Hong Joo; Yun, Myung Hee; Park, Jong Ho; Yeon, Jei Won; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

 
 
 
 
301

Nitrogen quantification with SNMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma-based secondary neutral mass spectrometry (plasma SNMS) is a powerful analytical method for determining the elemental concentrations of almost any kind of material at low cost by using a cheap quadrupole mass filter. However, a quadrupole-based mass spectrometer is limited to nominal mass resolution. Atomic signals are sometimes superimposed by molecular signals (2 or 3 atomic clusters such as CH +, CH 2+ or metal oxide clusters) and/or intensities of double-charged species. Especially in the case of nitrogen several interferences can impede the quantification. This article reports on methods to recognize and deconvolute superpositions of N + with CH 2+, Li 2+, and Si 2+ at mass 14 D (Debye) occurring during analysis of organic and inorganic substances. The recognition is based on the signal pattern of N +, Li +, CH +, and Si +. The latter serve as indicators for a probable interference of molecular or double-charged species with N on mass 14 D. The subsequent deconvolution use different shapes of atomic and cluster kinetic energy distributions (kEDs) to determine the quantities of the intensity components by a linear fit of N + and non-atomic kEDs obtained from several organic and inorganic standards into the measured kED. The atomic intensity fraction yields a much better nitrogen concentration than the total intensity of mass 14 D after correction.

Goschnick, J.; Natzeck, C.; Sommer, M.

1999-04-01

302

Quantification of informed opinion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this session, Quantification of Informed Opinion, is to provide the statistician with a better understanding of this important area. The NRC uses informed opinion, sometimes called engineering judgment or subjective judgment, in many areas. Sometimes informed opinion is the only source of information that exists, especially in phenomenological areas, such as steam explosions, where experiments are costly and phenomena are very difficult to measure. There are many degrees of informed opinion. These vary from the weatherman who makes predictions concerning relatively high probability events with a large data base to the phenomenological expert who must use his intuition tempered with basic knowledge and little or no measured data to predict the behavior of events with a low probability of occurrence. The first paper in this session provides the reader with an overview of the subject area. The second paper provides some aspects that must be considered in the collection of informed opinion to improve the quality of the information. The final paper contains an example of the use of informed opinion in the area of seismic hazard characterization. These papers should be useful to researchers and statisticians who need to collect and use informed opinion in their work

1985-07-01

303

Vortex-antivortex pair in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Type-II quantum lattice gas as a nonlinear ?4 theory of a complex field  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a type-II quantum algorithm for superfluid dynamics, used to numerically predict solutions of the GP equation for a complex scalar field (spinless bosons) in ?4 theory. The GP equation is a long wavelength effective field theory of a microscopic quantum lattice gas with nonlinear state reduction. The quantum lattice gas algorithm for modeling the dynamics of the one-body BEC state in 3+1 dimensions is presented. To demonstrate the method's strength as a computational physics tool, a difficult situation of filamentary singularities is simulated, the dynamics of solitary vortex-antivortex pairs, which are a basic building block of morphologies of quantum turbulence.

Yepez, J.; Vahala, G.; Vahala, L.

2009-04-01

304

A Leonard-Sanders-Budiansky-Koiter-Type Nonlinear Shell Theory with a Hierarchy of Transverse-Shearing Deformations  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed exposition on a refined nonlinear shell theory suitable for nonlinear buckling analyses of laminated-composite shell structures is presented. This shell theory includes the classical nonlinear shell theory attributed to Leonard, Sanders, Koiter, and Budiansky as an explicit proper subset. This approach is used in order to leverage the exisiting experience base and to make the theory attractive to industry. In addition, the formalism of general tensors is avoided in order to expose the details needed to fully understand and use the theory. The shell theory is based on "small" strains and "moderate" rotations, and no shell-thinness approximations are used. As a result, the strain-displacement relations are exact within the presumptions of "small" strains and "moderate" rotations. The effects of transverse-shearing deformations are included in the theory by using analyst-defined functions to describe the through-the-thickness distributions of transverse-shearing strains. Constitutive equations for laminated-composite shells are derived without using any shell-thinness approximations, and simplified forms and special cases are presented.

Nemeth, Michael P.

2013-01-01

305

Exact solutions of the hyperextended scalar-tensor theory with potential in the Bianchi type I model  

Science.gov (United States)

The hyperextended scalar-tensor theory with a potential is defined by three free functions: the gravitational function, the Brans-Dicke coupling function and the potential. Starting from the expression of the 3-volume and the potential as a function of the proper time, we determine the exact solutions of this theory. We study two important cases corresponding to power and exponential laws for the 3-volume and the potential.

Fay, Stéphane

2001-01-01

306

The relationship of theory of mind and executive functions to symptom type and severity in children with autism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although neurocognitive impairments in theory of mind and in executive functions have both been hypothesized to play a causal role in autism, there has been little research investigating the explanatory power of these impairments with regard to autistic symptomatology. The present study examined the degree to which individual differences in theory of mind and executive functions could explain variations in the severity of autism symptoms. Participants included 31 verbal, school-aged children ...

Joseph, Robert M.; Tager–flusberg, Helen

2004-01-01

307

Perturbation theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

1978-08-16

308

Finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS4xCP3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS4xCP3, which is the string dual of the recently constructed N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory of Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena (ABJM theory). The string states we consider are in the RxS2xS2 subspace of AdS4xCP3 with an angular momentum J on CP3 being large. We compute the finite-size corrections using two different methods, one is to consider curvature corrections to the Penrose limit giving an expansion in 1/J, the other by considering a low energy expansion in ?'=?/J2 of the string theory sigma-model, ? being the 't Hooft coupling of the dual ABJM theory. For both methods there are interesting issues to deal with. In the near-pp-wave method there is a 1/?(J) interaction term for which we use zeta-function regularization in order to compute the 1/J correction to the energy. For the low energy sigma-model expansion we have to take into account a non-trivial coupling to a non-dynamical transverse direction. We find agreement between the two methods. At order ?' and ?'2, for small ?', our results are analogous to the ones for the SU(2) sector in type IIB string theory on AdS5xS5. Instead at order ?'3 there are interactions between the two two-spheres. We compare our results with the recently proposed all-loop Bethe ansatz of Gromov and Vieira and find agreement

2009-03-21

309

Quantification of Line Tracking Solutions for Automotive Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike line tracking in automotive painting applications, line tracking for automotive general assembly applications requires position tracking in order to perform assembly operations to a required assembly tolerance. Line tracking quantification experiments have been designed and conducted for a total of 16 test cases for two line tracking scenarios with three types of line tracking solutions: encoder based tracking, encoder plus static vision based tracking, and the analog sensor-based tracking for general assembly robotic automation. This chapter presents the quantification results, identifies key performance drivers, and illustrates their implications for automotive assembly applications.

Shi, Jane; Rourke, Rick F.; Groll, Dave; Tavora, Peter W.

310

Dynamic behaviors of spin-1/2 bilayer system within Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the effective-field theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic phase transitions (DPTs) and dynamic phase diagrams of the kinetic spin-1/2 bilayer system in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field are studied by using Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the effective-field theory with correlations for the ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM), antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) and antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams for the amplitude of the oscillating field versus temperature were presented. The results are compared with the results of the same system within Glauber-type stochastic dynamics based on the mean-field theory.

Erta?, Mehmet; Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa

2014-05-01

311

Assessment of Factors Affecting Self-Care Behavior Among Women With Type 2 Diabetes in Khoy City Diabetes Clinic Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Many studies show that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating complications is continuous self-care. This study aimed to determine factors affecting self-care behavior of diabetic women in Khoy City, Iran based the extended theory of reasoned action (ETRA). Materials and Methods: A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy City in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran participated in the study. Appropriate instruments w...

Alireza Didarloo; Davood Shojaeizadeh; Hasan Eftekhar Ardebili; Shamseddin Niknami; Ebrahim Hajizadeh; Mohammad Alizadeh

2011-01-01

312

An Ambrosetti-Prodi-type problem for an elliptic system of equations via monotone iteration method and Leray-Schauder degree theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we employ the Monotone Iteration Method and the Leray-Schauder Degree Theory to study an ℝ2-parametrized system of elliptic equations. We obtain a curve dividing the plane into two regions. Depending on which region the parameter is, the system will or will not have solutions. This is an Ambrosetti-Prodi-type problem for a system of equations.

Morais Filho, D. C.

1996-01-01

313

An Ambrosetti-Prodi-type problem for an elliptic system of equations via monotone iteration method and Leray-Schauder degree theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we employ the Monotone Iteration Method and the Leray-Schauder Degree Theory to study an ℝ2-parametrized system of elliptic equations. We obtain a curve dividing the plane into two regions. Depending on which region the parameter is, the system will or will not have solutions. This is an Ambrosetti-Prodi-type problem for a system of equations.

D. C. de Morais Filho

1996-01-01

314

Prediction of Self-Management Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action along with Self-Efficacy (ETRA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Continuous performing of diabetes self-care behaviors was shown to be an effective strategy tocontrol diabetes and to prevent or reduce its- related complications. This study aimed to investigate predictors ofself-care behavior based on the extended theory of reasoned action by self efficacy (ETRA) among women withtype 2 diabetes in Iran.Methods: A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran using the nonprobabilitysampling was enrolled. ...

Ar, Didarloo; Shojaeizadeh, D.; Gharaaghaji Asl, R.; Habibzadeh, H.; Sh Niknami; Pourali, R.

2012-01-01

315

Application of the perturbation theory-differential formalism-for sensitivity analysis in steam generators of PWR type nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An homogeneous model which simulates the stationary behavior of steam generators of PWR type reactors and uses the differential formalism of perturbation theory for analysing sensibility of linear and non-linear responses, is presented. The PERGEVAP computer code to calculate the temperature distribution in the steam generator and associated importance function, is developed. The code also evaluates effects of the thermohydraulic parameter variation on selected functionals. The obtained results are compared with results obtained by GEVAP computer code . (M.C.K.)

1987-01-01

316

Finite-temperature time-dependent effective theory for the Goldstone field in a BCS-type superfluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We extend to finite temperature the time-dependent effective theory for the Goldstone field (the phase of the pair field) ? which is appropriate for a superfluid containing one species of fermions with s-wave interactions, described by the BCS Lagrangian. We show that, when Landau damping is neglected, the effective theory can be written as a local time-dependent nonlinear Schroedinger Lagrangian which preserves the Galilean invariance of the zero-temperature effective theory and is identified with the superfluid component. We then calculate the relevant Landau terms that are nonlocal and that destroy the Galilean invariance. We show that the retarded ? propagator (in momentum space) can be well represented by two poles in the lower-half frequency plane, describing damping with a predicted temperature, frequency, and momentum dependence. It is argued that the real parts of the Landau terms can be approximately interpreted as contributing to the normal fluid component

2000-09-01

317

A recipe for EFT uncertainty quantification in nuclear physics  

CERN Document Server

The application of effective field theory (EFT) methods to nuclear systems provides the opportunity to rigorously estimate the uncertainties originating in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Yet this is just one source of uncertainty in the observables predicted by calculations based on nuclear EFTs. We discuss the goals of uncertainty quantification in such calculations and outline a recipe to obtain statistically meaningful error bars for their predictions. We argue that the different sources of theory error can be accounted for within a Bayesian framework, as we illustrate using a toy model.

Furnstahl, R J; Wesolowski, S

2014-01-01

318

Renormalisation des theories de champs non commutatives  

Science.gov (United States)

Very high energy physics needs a coherent description of the four fundamental forces. Non-commutative geometry is a promising mathematical framework which already allowed to unify the general relativity and the standard model, at the classical level, thanks to the spectral action principle. Quantum field theories on non-commutative spaces is a first step towards the quantification of such a model. These theories can't be obtained simply by writing usual field theory on non-commutative spaces. Such attempts exhibit indeed a new type of divergencies, called ultraviolet/infrared mixing, which prevents renormalisability. H. Grosse and R. Wulkenhaar showed, with an example, that a modification of the propagator may restore renormalisability. This thesis aims at studying the generalization of such a method. We studied two different models which allowed to specify certain aspects of non-commutative field theory. In x space, the major technical difficulty is due to oscillations in the interaction part. We generalized the results of T. Filk in order to exploit such oscillations at best. We were then able to distinguish between two mixings, renormalizable or not. We also bring the notion of orientability to light : the orientable non-commutative Gross-Neveu model is renormalizable without any modification of its propagator. The adaptation of multi-scale analysis to the matrix basis emphasized the importance of dual graphs and represents a first step towards a formulation of field theory independent of the underlying space.

Vignes-Tourneret, Fabien

2006-12-01

319

Black holes in type IIA string on Calabi-Yau threefolds with affine ADE geometries and q-deformed 2d quiver gauge theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated by studies on 4d black holes and q-deformed 2d Yang-Mills theory, and borrowing ideas from compact geometry of the blowing up of affine ADE singularities, we build a class of local Calabi-Yau threefolds (CY3) extending the local 2-torus model O(m)+O(-m)->T2 considered in [C. Gomez, S. Montanez, A comment on quantum distribution functions and the OSV conjecture, hep-th/0608162] to test OSV conjecture. We first study toric realizations of T2 and then build a toric representation of X3 using intersections of local Calabi-Yau threefolds O(m)+O(-m-2)->P1. We develop the 2d N=2 linear ?-model for this class of toric CY3s. Then we use these local backgrounds to study partition function of 4d black holes in type IIA string theory and the underlying q-deformed 2d quiver gauge theories. We also make comments on 4d black holes obtained from D-branes wrapping cycles in O(m)+O(-m-2)->Bk with m=(m1,...,mk) a k-dim integer vector and Bk a compact complex one dimension base consisting of the intersection of k 2-spheres Si2 with generic intersection matrix Iij. We give as well the explicit expression of the q-deformed path integral measure of the partition function of the 2d quiver gauge theory in terms of Iij. A comment on the link between our analysis and the construction of [N. Caporaso, M. Cirafici, L. Griguolo, S. Pasquetti, D. Seminara, R.J. Szabo, Topological strings, two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory and Chern-Simons theory on torus bundles, hep-th/0609129] is also given

2007-08-06

320

Theory of The Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz Numbers for The Algebraic Functions of Cyclotomic Type and The Universal Bernoulli Numbers  

CERN Document Server

Hurwitz numbers are the Laurent coefficients of an elliptic function $\\wp(u)$ of cyclotomic type, and they are natural generalization of the Bernoulli numbers. This paper gives new generalization of Bernoulli and Hurwitz numbers for higher genus cases. They satisfy completely von Staudt-Clausen type theorem, an extension of von Staudt second theorem, and Kummer type congruence relation. The present paper is revised and combined version of math.NT/0304377 and math.NT/0312178 containing many numerical examples.

Ônishi, Y

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Analytical theory for the nonlinear optical response of a Kerr-type standing-wave cavity side-coupling to a MIM waveguide.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, an analytical theory to describe the nonlinear dynamic response characteristics of a typical SPP waveguide-cavity structure formed by a Kerr-type standing-wave cavity side-coupling to a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide is proposed by combining the temporal coupled mode theory and the Kerr nonlinearity. With the analytical theory, the optical bistability with the hysteresis behavior is successfully predicted, and the optical bistability evolutions and its dynamic physical mechanism are also phenomenologically analyzed. Moreover, the influence of the quality factors Q? and Q? on the first-turnning point (FTP) power of optical bistability and the bistable region width, the approaches to decrease the FTP power and to broaden the bistable region are also discussed in detail with our analytical theory. This work can help us understand the physical mechanism of the nonlinear dynamical response at nanoscale, and may be useful to design nonlinear nanophotonic systems for applications in ultra-compact all-optical devices and storages. PMID:24104281

Liu, Ye; Zhou, Fei; Mao, Qinghe

2013-10-01

322

Selection rules, RR couplings on non-BPS branes and their all order $\\alpha'$-corrections in type IIA(B) super string theories  

CERN Multimedia

By computing three and four point functions of non-BPS scattering amplitudes, including a closed string Ramond-Ramond (RR), gauge/scalar and tachyon in type IIA (IIB) super string theories, we discover a unique expansion for tachyon amplitudes in both non-BPS and D-brane anti D-brane formalism. Based on remarks on Chan-Paton factors and arXiv:1304.3711, we propose selection rules for all non-BPS scattering amplitudes of type II super string theory. These selection rules, rule out various non-BPS higher point correlation functions of the string theory. The amplitudes of a closed string RR, one tachyon, one scalar field $$ and a closed string RR, one tachyon, one scalar and one gauge field $$ and their all order $\\alpha'$ higher derivative corrections have been explored. Having used some of the new Wess-Zumino terms, tachyonic DBI action, this universal tachyon expansion and the proposed selection rule, we are able to produce infinite number of $u'$- channel tachyon and $t$- channel massless scalar poles of $$ ...

Hatefi, Ehsan

2013-01-01

323

Quantification of natural phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

1997-01-01

324

Type II/F-theory superpotentials and Ooguri-Vafa invariants of compact Calabi-Yau threefolds with three deformations  

Science.gov (United States)

We calculate the D-brane superpotentials for two Calabi-Yau manifolds with three deformations by the generalized hypergeometric GKZ systems, which give rise to the flux superpotentials 𝒲GVW of the dual F-theory compactification on the relevant Calabi-Yau fourfolds in the weak decoupling limit. We also compute the Ooguri-Vafa invariants from A-model expansion with mirror symmetry, which are related to the open Gromov-Witten invariants.

Xu, Feng-Jun; Yang, Fu-Zhong

2014-04-01

325

Application of perturbation theory to sensitivity calculations of PWR type reactor cores using the two-channel model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity calculations are very important in design and safety of nuclear reactor cores. Large codes with a great number of physical considerations have been used to perform sensitivity studies. However, these codes need long computation time involving high costs. The perturbation theory has constituted an efficient and economical method to perform sensitivity analysis. The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (matricial formalism) to a simplified model of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) analysis to perform sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of enthalpy and coolant velocity with respect to coolant density and hot channel area were developed from the proposed model. The CASNUR.FOR code to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients was written in Fortran. The comparison between results obtained from the matricial formalism of perturbation theory with those obtained directly from the proposed model makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

1988-01-01

326

Predictive Game Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

Wolpert, David H.

2005-01-01

327

Type II/F-theory Superpotentials and Ooguri-Vafa Invariants of Compact Calabi-Yau Threefolds with Three Deformations  

CERN Document Server

We construct the generalized hypergeometric GKZ systems for two Calabi-Yau manifolds with three parameters and D-branes wrapped on divisors with single open-string moduli, respectively, and further calculate the D-brane superpotentials which give rise to the flux superpotentials $\\mathcal{W}_{GVW}$ of the dual F-theory compactification on the relevant Calabi-Yau fourfolds in the weak decoupling limit. We also compute the Ooguri-Vafa invariants from A-model expansion with mirror symmetry, which are related to the open Gromov-Witten invariants.

Xu, Feng-Jun

2012-01-01

328

Study on exploration theory and SAR technology for interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit and its application in Eastern Jungar Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Started with analyzing the features of metallogenetic epoch and space distribution of typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit both in China and abroad and their relations of basin evolution, the authors have proposed the idea that the last unconformity mainly controls the metallogenetic epoch and the strength of structure activity after the last unconformity determines the deposit space. An exploration theory with the kernel from new events to the old one is put forward. The means and method to use SAR technology to identify ore-controlling key factors are discussed. An application study in Eastern Jungar Basin is performed

2001-08-01

329

Calculation of Fayet–Iliopoulos D-term in type I string theory revisited: T{sup 6}/Z{sub 3} orbifold case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The string one-loop computation of the Fayet–Iliopoulos D-term in type I string theory in the case of T{sup 6}/Z{sub 3} orbifold compactification associated with annulus (planar) and the Möbius strip string worldsheet diagrams is reexamined. The mass extracted from the sum of these amplitudes through a limiting procedure is found to be non-vanishing, which is contrary to the earlier computation. The sum can be made finite by a rescaling of the modular parameter in the closed string channel.

Itoyama, H., E-mail: itoyama@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University (Japan); Osaka City University Advanced Mathematical Institute (OCAMI), 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yano, Kohei, E-mail: kyano@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University (Japan)

2013-12-18

330

Direct qPCR quantification of unprocessed forensic casework samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current short tandem repeat (STR) typing workflow for forensic casework samples involves sample collection, sample screening, DNA extraction, DNA qPCR quantification and STR amplification. Although very effective and powerful, this workflow still has room for improvements. For example, the screening assays in practice do not provide DNA related information and also do not work with touch DNA samples, which make up of the majority of the property crime samples. It is known that not all DNA samples have equal probative values. Considering the DNA backlog situation crime laboratories face today, an effective screening tool would be highly desirable. It would allow forensic scientists to prioritize the DNA samples so that the limited resources would be first spent on samples that would have better chances of producing informative STR profiles. qPCR assay does provide DNA quantity and gender information and would be an ideal screening tool. However, prior to quantification, sample extraction and purification are required. By the time a DNA sample is ready for qPCR quantification, time and resources have already been spent on samples that should have been given low priority or excluded from further processing if DNA quantity and gender information were known. To overcome this problem, a direct quantification technology is developed to allow qPCR quantification of casework samples without the need for DNA extraction and purification. The key to a direct qPCR assay is the PE-Swab, a novel sample collection device. A small sample punch can be generated from a PE-Swab and placed in a qPCR reaction for quantification. After optimizing the punch size and the quantification software baseline setting, accurate DNA quantification can be obtained from a sample without the need to carry out DNA extraction and purification. Proof of concept studies were done with low lever touch samples as well as blood samples. The PE-Swab also allows direct STR amplification of casework samples without the need for DNA extraction. Besides its potential as a screening tool, the direct qPCR assay can also be used to normalize the DNA input for a direct STR amplification reaction. The feasibility of the direct qPCR/direct STR amplification workflow was demonstrated with touch DNA samples and blood stain samples. PMID:24705062

Liu, Jason Yingjie

2014-07-01

331

Review of Hydroelasticity Theories  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS) are reviewed and discussed in details. Special emphasis is placed on papers from China and Japan (in native languages) as these papers are not generally publicly known in the rest of the world.

Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng

2006-01-01

332

Automated quantification and analysis of mandibular asymmetry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present an automated method of spatially detailed 3D asymmetry quantification in mandibles extracted from CT and apply it to a population of infants with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS). An atlas-based method employing non-rigid registration of surfaces is used for determining deformation fields, thereby establishing detailed anatomical point correspondence between subjects as well as between points on the left and right side of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP). Asymmetry is defined in terms of the vector between a point and the corresponding anatomical point on the opposite side of the MSP after mirroring the mandible across the MSP. A principal components analysis of asymmetry characterizes the major types of asymmetry in the population, and successfully separates the asymmetric UCS mandibles from a number of less asymmetric mandibles from a control population.

Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.

2010-01-01

333

Viscosity solutions for partial differential equations with Neumann type boundary conditions and some aspects of Aubry-Mather theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We study partial differential inequalities (PDI) of the type where NK([dot operator]) is the normal cone to the set K. We prove existence of a constant such that the PDI of Hamilton-Jacobi type has a unique (global) Lipschitz viscosity solution. We provide a formula to calculate this constant. Moreover, we define a subset of K such that any two solutions of the previous PDI which coincide on will coincide on K. Our paper generalizes results of the case without boundary conditions for convex Hamiltonians obtained by LEC. Evans and A. Fathi.

Serea, Oana-Silvia

2007-12-01

334

Black Holes in type IIA String on Calabi-Yau Threefolds with Affine ADE Geometries and q-Deformed 2d Quiver Gauge Theories  

CERN Multimedia

Motivated by studies on 4d black holes and q-deformed 2d Yang Mills theory, and borrowing ideas from compact geometry of the blowing up of affine ADE singularities, we build a class of local Calabi-Yau threefolds (CY^{3}) extending the local 2-torus model \\mathcal{O}(m)\\oplus \\mathcal{O}(-m)\\to T^{2\\text{}} considered in hep-th/0406058 to test OSV conjecture. We first study toric realizations of T^{2} and then build a toric representation of X_{3} using intersections of local Calabi-Yau threefolds \\mathcal{O}(m)\\oplus \\mathcal{O}(-m-2)\\to \\mathbb{P}^{1}. We develop the 2d \\mathcal{N}=2 linear \\sigma-model for this class of toric CY^{3}s. Then we use these local backgrounds to study partition function of 4d black holes in type IIA string theory and the underlying q-deformed 2d quiver gauge theories. We also make comments on 4d black holes obtained from D-branes wrapping cycles in \\mathcal{O}(\\mathbf{m}) \\oplus \\mathcal{O}(\\mathbf{-m-2}%) \\to \\mathcal{B}_{k} with \\mathbf{m=}(m_{1},...,m_{k}) a k-dim integer vec...

Laamara, R A; Drissi, L B; Saidi, E H

2006-01-01

335

Ubiquitous V-shape density of states in mixed state of clean limit type II superconductors; STM experiment and theory  

CERN Document Server

It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the low energy density of states $N(E)$ is described by a singular V-shape form $N(E)=N_0(H)+\\alpha |E|+O(E^2)$ for all clean superconductors in a vortex state, irrespective of the underlying gap structure. The linear term $\\alpha |E|$ which has been not recognized so far is obtained by exactly evaluating the vortex contribution. Based on microscopic Eilenberger theory $N(E)$ is evaluated for isotropic gap, line and point node gaps to yield a V-shape $N(E)$. STS-STM experiments on NbSe$_2$ and YNi$_2$B$_2$C give direct evidence for this. We provide arguments on significance of this finding and on relevance to other experiments.

Nakai, N; Ichioka, M; Hess, H F; Uchiyama, K; Nishimori, H; Kaneko, S; Nishida, N; Machida, K

2006-01-01

336

Quantification of confocal images of biofilms grown on irregular surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial biofilms grow on many types of surfaces, including flat surfaces such as glass and metal and irregular surfaces such as rocks, biological tissues and polymers. While laser scanning confocal microscopy can provide high-resolution images of biofilms grown on any surface, quantification of biofilm-associated bacteria is currently limited to bacteria grown on flat surfaces. This can limit researchers studying irregular surfaces to qualitative analysis or quantification of only the total bacteria in an image. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm called modified connected volume filtration (MCVF) to quantify bacteria grown on top of an irregular surface that is fluorescently labeled or reflective. Using the MCVF algorithm, two new quantification parameters are introduced. The modified substratum coverage parameter enables quantification of the connected-biofilm bacteria on top of the surface and on the imaging substratum. The utility of MCVF and the modified substratum coverage parameter were shown with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on human airway epithelial cells. A second parameter, the percent association, provides quantified data on the colocalization of the bacteria with a labeled component, including bacteria within a labeled tissue. The utility of quantifying the bacteria associated with the cell cytoplasm was demonstrated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilms grown on cervical epithelial cells. This algorithm provides more flexibility and quantitative ability to researchers studying biofilms grown on a variety of irregular substrata. PMID:24632515

Sommerfeld Ross, Stacy; Tu, Mai Han; Falsetta, Megan L; Ketterer, Margaret R; Kiedrowski, Megan R; Horswill, Alexander R; Apicella, Michael A; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Fiegel, Jennifer

2014-05-01

337

Black holes in type IIA string on Calabi-Yau threefolds with affine ADE geometries and q-deformed 2d quiver gauge theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivated by studies on 4d black holes and q-deformed 2d Yang-Mills theory, and borrowing ideas from compact geometry of the blowing up of affine ADE singularities, we build a class of local Calabi-Yau threefolds (CY{sup 3}) extending the local 2-torus model O(m)+O(-m)->T{sup 2} considered in [C. Gomez, S. Montanez, A comment on quantum distribution functions and the OSV conjecture, hep-th/0608162] to test OSV conjecture. We first study toric realizations of T{sup 2} and then build a toric representation of X{sub 3} using intersections of local Calabi-Yau threefolds O(m)+O(-m-2)->P{sup 1}. We develop the 2d N=2 linear {sigma}-model for this class of toric CY{sup 3}s. Then we use these local backgrounds to study partition function of 4d black holes in type IIA string theory and the underlying q-deformed 2d quiver gauge theories. We also make comments on 4d black holes obtained from D-branes wrapping cycles in O(m)+O(-m-2)->B{sub k} with m=(m{sub 1},...,m{sub k}) a k-dim integer vector and B{sub k} a compact complex one dimension base consisting of the intersection of k 2-spheres S{sub i}{sup 2} with generic intersection matrix I{sub ij}. We give as well the explicit expression of the q-deformed path integral measure of the partition function of the 2d quiver gauge theory in terms of I{sub ij}. A comment on the link between our analysis and the construction of [N. Caporaso, M. Cirafici, L. Griguolo, S. Pasquetti, D. Seminara, R.J. Szabo, Topological strings, two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory and Chern-Simons theory on torus bundles, hep-th/0609129] is also given.

Ahl Laamara, R. [Lab/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco) and GNPHE, Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies, Siege focal: FS, Rabat (Morocco)]. E-mail: ahllaamara@gmail.com; Belhaj, A. [Lab/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco) and GNPHE, Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies, Siege focal: FS, Rabat (Morocco) and Virtual African Centre for Basic Science and Technology, Focal point, Lab/UFR-PHE, FSR (Morocco) and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: belhaj@unizar.es; Drissi, L.B. [Lab/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco) and GNPHE, Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies, Siege focal: FS, Rabat (Morocco)]. E-mail: lbdrissi@gmail.com; Saidi, E.H. [Lab/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco) and GNPHE, Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies, Siege focal: FS, Rabat (Morocco) and Virtual African Centre for Basic Science and Technology, Focal point, Lab/UFR-PHE, FSR (Morocco) and Academie Hassan II des Sciences and Techniques, College Physique-Chimie (Morocco)]. E-mail: h-saidi@fsr.ac.ma

2007-08-06

338

Clar theory extended for polyacenes and beyond.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extension of Clar's classical sextet ideas is presented to allow resonance-based weak-pairing long bonds. As the prototypic illustration, the theory is developed in the context of polyacenes, where this extension is needed to properly understand what goes on in this sort of polymer, whose radicality increases with chain length. A quantification of these novel Clar-sextic ideas is made, and detailed computational results are reported for the polyacenes even to the limit of arbitrary long chains. Resonance energies, bond lengths, and local (ring) aromaticity indices are addressed. It is emphasized that weak pairing is not at all unique to the polyacenes, but also applies whenever there are suitable boundaries (say of the "zig-zag" type) on general grapheneic structures-thereby readily explaining novel features of different boundaries. PMID:24840951

Bhattacharya, Debojit; Panda, Anirban; Misra, Anirban; Klein, Douglas J

2014-06-19

339

Information Theory Filters for Wavelet Packet Coefficient Selection with Application to Corrosion Type Identification from Acoustic Emission Signals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The damage caused by corrosion in chemical process installations can lead to unexpected plant shutdowns and the leakage of potentially toxic chemicals into the environment. When subjected to corrosion, structural changes in the material occur, leading to energy releases as acoustic waves. This acoustic activity can in turn be used for corrosion monitoring, and even for predicting the type of corrosion. Here we apply wavelet packet decomposition to extract features from acoustic emission signals. We then use the extracted wavelet packet coefficients for distinguishing between the most important types of corrosion processes in the chemical process industry: uniform corrosion, pitting and stress corrosion cracking. The local discriminant basis selection algorithm can be considered as a standard for the selection of the most discriminative wavelet coefficients. However, it does not take the statistical dependencies between wavelet coefficients into account. We show that, when these dependencies are ignored, a lower accuracy is obtained in predicting the corrosion type. We compare several mutual information filters to take these dependencies into account in order to arrive at a more accurate prediction.

Marc M. Van Hulle

2011-05-01

340

Absolute quantification for small-animal PET  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantification is important in preclinical PET studies. To achieve absolute quantification, an accurate reconstruction algorithm is necessary. Such an algorithm includes corrections for different effects such as geometric sensitivity of the scanner, detection efficiency, attenuation, scatter and random coincidences. In this work we present a method for performing absolute quantification on the LabPET system. All acquisitions were done on a GE Triumph system. This tri-modality system consists ...

Keereman, Vincent; Holen, Roel; Vanhove, Christian; Mollet, Pieter; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Quantification of Information in a One-Way Plant-to-Animal Communication System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to demonstrate possible broader applications of information theory to the quantification of non-human communication systems, we apply calculations of information entropy to a simple chemical communication from the cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum to the wasp (Cardiochiles nigriceps studied by DeMoraes et al. The purpose of this chemical communication from cotton plants to wasps is presumed to be to allow the predatory wasp to more easily obtain the location of its preferred prey—one of two types of parasitic herbivores feeding on the cotton plants. Specification of the plant-eating herbivore feeding on it by the cotton plants allows preferential attraction of the wasps to those individual plants. We interpret the emission of nine chemicals by the plants as individual signal differences, (depending on the herbivore type, to be detected by the wasps as constituting a nine-signal one-way communication system across kingdoms (from the kingdom Plantae to the kingdom Animalia. We use fractional differences in the chemical abundances, (emitted as a result of the two herbivore types, to calculate the Shannon information entropic measures (marginal, joint, and mutual entropies, as well as the ambiguity, etc. of the transmitted message. We then compare these results with the subsequent behavior of the wasps, (calculating the equivocation in the message reception, for possible insights into the history and actual working of this one-way communication system.

Laurance R. Doyle

2009-08-01

342

Preference for a vanishingly small cosmological constant in supersymmetric vacua in a Type IIB string theory model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the probability distribution P(?) of the cosmological constant ? in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. We show that, as we sweep through the quantized flux values in this flux compactification, P(?) behaves divergent at ?=0? and the median magnitude of ? drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h2,1 increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the probability of having a positive Hessian (mass-squared matrix) approaches unity as h2,1 increases

2013-06-25

343

BCS-type mean-field theory for t-J model in su(2|1) superalgebra representation  

CERN Document Server

A simple version of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type mean-fieldtheory for the t-J model is developed. The present approach rigorously treatsthe constraint of no doubly occupied states and invokes two local orderparameters to implement spontaneous breaking of the global U(1)\\times U(1)symmetry. This is achieved by identifying the Hubbard operators with generatorsof the su(2|1) superalgebra in the fundamental representation and employing theCP^{1|1} parameterization for dynamical variables. As a result, an improvedphase diagram T_c(\\delta) in the paramagnetic phase is obtained.

Kochetov, E A; Kochetov, Evgueny; Mierzejewski, Marcin

2000-01-01

344

An EPGPT-based approach for uncertainty quantification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) has been widely used by many scientific disciplines to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. This manuscript employs recent developments in GPT theory, collectively referred to as Exact-to-Precision Generalized Perturbation Theory (EPGPT), to enable uncertainty quantification for computationally challenging models, e.g. nonlinear models associated with many input parameters and many output responses and with general non-Gaussian parameters distributions. The core difference between EPGPT and existing GPT is in the way the problem is formulated. GPT formulates an adjoint problem that is dependent on the response of interest. It tries to capture via the adjoint solution the relationship between the response of interest and the constraints on the state variations. EPGPT recasts the problem in terms of a smaller set of what is referred to as the 'active' responses which are solely dependent on the physics model and the boundary and initial conditions rather than on the responses of interest. The objective of this work is to apply an EPGPT methodology to propagate cross-sections variations in typical reactor design calculations. The goal is to illustrate its use and the associated impact for situations where the typical Gaussian assumption for parameters uncertainties is not valid and when nonlinear behavior must be considered. To allow this demonstration, exaggerated variations will be employed to stimulate nonlinear behavior in simple prototypical neutronics models. (authors)

2012-04-15

345

Electronic structure of cage-type ternaries ARu2Al10 – Theory and XPS experiment (A = Ce and U)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Electronic structures of (U;Ce)Ru2Al10 probed by X-ray photoemission and ab initio. ? Good agreement between valence-band XPS and calculated (within LDA) spectra. ? More itinerant character of the U 5f than Ce 4f electrons in these compounds. ? Reduced Fermi surface of CeRu2Al10 compared with the U-based system. -- Abstract: The electronic structure of the isomorphic, orthorhombic URu2Al10 and CeRu2Al10 aluminides have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ab initio calculations using the fully relativistic full-potential local-orbital (FPLO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The calculated data of the former system revealed fairly sharp triple-peaks of the U 5f states around the Fermi level (EF) and a large broad contribution from the Ru 4d states expanded from EF to about 6.5 eV of binding energy. Although the size and positions of the Ru 4d bands for the latter compound are quite similar to those of the U-based one, the double Ce 4f sharp peaks are placed almost completely above EF underlying their mostly localized character. We have also analyzed the Fermi surfaces (FSs) in these two aluminides. The calculated results of both ternaries were then compared with our experimental XPS data for URu2Al10 and with such data for CeRu2Al10 available in the literature. The results are in fairly good agreement between the theory and experiment. Especially, the fact that the spectrum weight of the Ce 4f electrons below EF turned out to be very much reduced, reflecting rather a small f–c hybridization of these electrons compared to considerably larger one in the U-based compound

2013-03-25

346

Secret Symmetries of Type IIB Superstring Theory on AdS3 x S3 x M4  

CERN Document Server

We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two different secret symmetry generators which appear unrelated. One generator, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other generator is new and more elusive, and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.

Pittelli, Antonio; Wolf, Martin

2014-01-01

347

Structure and dynamics of Xn-type clusters (n = 3, 4, 6) from spontaneous symmetry breaking theory  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of three symmetries of nature, homogeneity and isotropy of space and indistinguishability of identical particles, we have found a group of coordinate transformations that leaves invariant the electronic energy and the potential energy of nuclei in every molecule subjected to no external fields. From these transformations we derived the formula for the dynamical representation and proved that every molecule has at least one Raman-active, totally symmetric normal mode of vibration. As an example, we studied stable configurations and dynamics of Xn-type molecules (clusters), n = 3, 4, 6, within symmetry-adapted, second-order expansion of the electronic energy with respect to nuclear coordinates, around the united atom. Within this approximation, for a positive coefficient in the expansion, a homonuclear three- (four-, six-) atomic cluster has a stable configuration of D3h (Td, Oh) symmetry. Our calculated mutual ratios of vibrational frequencies for clusters with these geometries are in reasonable agreement with experiment.

Damljanovi?, V.

2013-11-01

348

Object Oriented Design Security Quantification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantification of security at early phase produces a significant improvement to understand the management of security artifacts for best possible results. The proposed study discusses a systematic approach to quantify security based on complexity factors which having impact on security attributes. This paper provides a road-map to researchers and software practitioner to assess, and preferably, quantify software security in design phase. A security assessment through complexity framework (SVDF has been proposed in order to incorporate security to develop quality products. It may be used to benchmark software products according to their severity.

Suhel Ahmad Khan

2011-05-01

349

Galois theory in bicategories  

CERN Document Server

We develop a Galois (descent) theory for comonads within the framework of bicategories. We give generalizations of Beck's theorem and the Joyal-Tierney theorem. Many examples are provided, including classical descent theory, Hopf-Galois theory over Hopf algebras and Hopf algebroids, Galois theory for corings and group-corings, and Morita-Takeuchi theory for corings. As an application we construct a new type of comatrix corings based on (dual) quasi bialgebras.

Gomez-Torrecillas, Jose

2007-01-01

350

Computation of geometries and frequencies of singlet and triplet nitromethane with density functional theory byusing gaussian type orbitals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of the computational study of the structures, energies, dipole moments and IR spectra for a singlet and a triplet nitromethane are presented. Five different hybrids (BHandH, BHandHLYP, B3LYP, B3P86 and B3PW91), local (SVWN), and nonlocal (BLYP) DFT methods are used with various sizes of the gaussian type of basis set. The obtained results are compared to the HF, MP2, and MCSCF ab initio calculations, as well as, to the experimental results. Becke`s three functional based hybrid DFT methods outperform the following: the ab initio (HF, MP2 and MCSCF), the Becke`s half-and-half based DFT methods, and the local (SVWN or LSDA) and nonlocal (BLYP) DFT methods. The computed nitromethane geometry, the dipole moment, the energy difference, and the IR frequency are in extraordinary agreement with the experimental results. Thus, we are recommending the B3LYP and the B3PW91 as the methods of choice when the computational study of small {open_quotes}difficult{close_quotes} molecules is considered.

Jursic, B.S. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

351

Computation of geometries and frequencies of singlet and triplet nitromethane with density functional theory byusing gaussian type orbitals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the computational study of the structures, energies, dipole moments and IR spectra for a singlet and a triplet nitromethane are presented. Five different hybrids (BHandH, BHandHLYP, B3LYP, B3P86 and B3PW91), local (SVWN), and nonlocal (BLYP) DFT methods are used with various sizes of the gaussian type of basis set. The obtained results are compared to the HF, MP2, and MCSCF ab initio calculations, as well as, to the experimental results. Becke's three functional based hybrid DFT methods outperform the following: the ab initio (HF, MP2 and MCSCF), the Becke's half-and-half based DFT methods, and the local (SVWN or LSDA) and nonlocal (BLYP) DFT methods. The computed nitromethane geometry, the dipole moment, the energy difference, and the IR frequency are in extraordinary agreement with the experimental results. Thus, we are recommending the B3LYP and the B3PW91 as the methods of choice when the computational study of small open-quotes difficultclose quotes molecules is considered

1996-01-01

352

On Ruedenberg's integral approximations and their unrestricted and combined use in molecular orbital theories of Hartree-Fock type  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ruedenberg's well-known letter of 1951 contains two implications which still have been employed so far in numerical computations: (1) Whenever all types of attraction and repulsion integrals are subject to the Ruedenberg approximations in its simplest form partially known already from Mulliken, the attractive, the Coulomb, as well as the exchange part of the restricted Hartree-Fock-Roothaan equation can be led back to the calculation of corresponding diagonal elements, only. Using Ruedenberg's more elaborate concepts, which are invariant with respect to the rotation of local coordinate axes, the complete Fock-matrix representation can be constructed equivalently from only its own diagonal blocks, each belonging to one atom. Similar formulas are valid for the unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory of Pople and Nesbet. (2) If, however, one prefers to calculate all types of one- and two-center integrals exactly as suggested in Ruedenberg's headline, the original simplicity of both representations is lost. Instead, one is led to more complicated expressions, which arise from the fact that Ruedenberg's integral formulas, when applied to certain kinds of three-center repulsion integrals, imply considerable oversimplifications. In spite of this critical result, Ruedenberg's ideas offer an extension together with an interpretation of the semiempirical Wolfsberg and Helmholz recipe (better known from Hoffmann's extended Hueckel theory), on the one hand, and of the neglect of differential overlap schemes ZDO and NDDO, on the other, from a common point of view.

Koch, W.

2000-01-15

353

ACB-PCR quantification of somatic oncomutation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allele-specific competitive blocker-polymerase chain reaction (ACB-PCR) is a sensitive approach for the selective amplification of an allele. Using the ACB-PCR technique, hotspot point mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes (oncomutations) are being developed as quantitative biomarkers of cancer risk. ACB-PCR employs a mutant specific primer (with a 3'-penultimate mismatch relative to the mutant DNA sequence, but a double 3'-terminal mismatch relative to the wild-type DNA sequence) to selectively amplify rare mutant DNA molecules. A blocker primer (having a non-extendable 3'-end and with a 3'-penultimate mismatch relative to the wild-type DNA sequence, but a double 3'-terminal mismatch relative to the mutant DNA sequence) is included in ACB-PCR to selectively repress amplification from the abundant wild-type molecules. Consequently, ACB-PCR is capable of quantifying the level of a single basepair substitution mutation in a DNA population when present at a mutant:wild type ratio of 10(-5) or greater. Quantification of rare mutant alleles is achieved by parallel analysis of unknown samples and mutant fraction (MF) standards (defined mixtures of mutant and wild-type DNA sequences). The ability to quantify specific mutations with known association to cancer has several important applications, including evaluating the carcinogenic potential of chemical exposures in rodent models and in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This chapter provides a step-by-step description of the ACB-PCR methodology as it has been used to measure human KRAS codon 12 GGT to GAT mutation. PMID:24623241

Myers, Meagan B; McKinzie, Page B; Wang, Yiying; Meng, Fanxue; Parsons, Barbara L

2014-01-01

354

A New Theory of Content II: Model Theory and Some Alternatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a semantical model – theoretic account of (logical) content complementing the syntactically specified account of content developed in A New Theory of Content I, JPL 23: 596–620, 1994. Proofs of Completeness are given for both propositional and quantificational languages (without identity). Means for handling a quantificational language with identity are also explored. Finally, this new notion of content is compared, in respect of both logical properties and philosophic...

1997-01-01

355

Detection and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Dialysates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensitive analytical methods are needed for the separation and quantification of neurotransmitters obtained in microdialysate studies. This unit describes methods that permit quantification of nanomolar concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (high-pressure liquid chromatography electrochemical detection), acetylcholine (HPLC-coupled to an enzyme reactor), and amino acids (HPLC-fluorescence detection; capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection).

Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Denoroy, Luc

2009-01-01

356

The necessity of operational risk management and quantification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beginning with the fact that performant strategies of the financial institutions have programmes and management procedures for the banking risks, which have as main objective to minimize the probability of risk generation and the bank’s potential exposure, this paper wants to present the operational risk management and quantification methods. Also it presents the modality of minimum capital requirement for the operational risk. Therefore, the first part presents the conceptual approach of the operational risks through the point of view of the financial institutions exposed to this type of risk. The second part describes the management and evaluation methods for the operational risk. The final part of this article presents the approach assumed by a financial institution with a precise purpose: the quantification of the minimum capital requirements of the operational risk.

Barbu Teodora Cristina

2008-04-01

357

Design Theory in Information Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i theory for analysing and describing, (ii theory for understanding, (iii theory for predicting, (iv theory for explaining and predicting, and (v theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding and recognition of this type of theory in information systems indicates that further debate concerning its nature and role in our discipline is needed.

Shirley Gregor

2002-11-01

358

Comparative evaluation of NASBA HIV-1 RNA QT, AMPLICOR-HIV monitor, and QUANTIPLEX HIV RNA assay, three methods for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three commercial assays for quantifying plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA were evaluated. The assays differed in their sample volumes, the means of preparing samples, and methods of amplification and detection. Plasma samples were obtained from 36 HIV-1-infected patients representing all stages of HIV-1 infection and were analyzed as coded specimens. Measurement of HIV-1 RNA baseline levels revealed no significant difference in sensitivity between the three assays. The as...

Revets, H.; Marissens, D.; Wit, S.; Lacor, P.; Clumeck, N.; Lauwers, S.; Zissis, G.

1996-01-01

359

Medición volumétrica de grasa visceral abdominal con resonancia magnética y su relación con antropometría, en una población diabética / Quantification of visceral adipose tissue using magnetic resonance imaging compared with anthropometry, in type 2 diabetic patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with the development of metabolic diseases. Anthropometry is one of the methods used to quantify it. aim: to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and anthropometric [...] indexes, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in type 2 diabetic patients (DM2). Patients and Methods: Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients aged 55 to 78 years (15 females) and weighting 61.5 to 97 kg, were included. The patients underwent MRI examination on a Philips Intera® 1.5T MR scanner. The MRI protocol included a spectral excitation sequence centered at the fat peak. The field of view included from L4-L5 to the diaphragmatic border. VAT was measured using the software Image J®. Weight, height, BMI, WC and body fat percentage (BF%), derived from the measurement offour skinfolds with the equation of Durnin and Womersley, were also measured. The association between MRIVAT measurement and anthropometry was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Mean VAT was 2478 ± 758 ml, mean BMI29.5 ± 4.7 kg/m², and mean WC was 100 ± 9.7 cm. There was a poor correlation between VAT, BMI (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.56). Conclusions: BMI and WC are inaccurate predictors of VAT volume in type 2 diabetic patients.

Cristóbal, Serrano García; Francisco, Barrera; Pilar, Labbé; Jessica, Liberona; Marco, Arrese; Pablo, Irarrázabal; Cristián, Tejos; Sergio, Uribe.

360

Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec). These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Courneya, Kerry S; Trinh, Linda; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

Karunamuni Nandini

2008-12-01

362

Comparison of NucliSens and Amplicor Monitor Assays for Quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in Plasma of Persons with HIV-1 Subtype A Infection in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compared the sensitivity and accuracy of the NucliSens assay and those of both the standard and modified (addition of a new primer set, primer mix 1, supplied by Roche) Amplicor HIV Monitor assays to quantify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in persons infected with HIV-1 subtype A in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Seventy-one plasma samples from HIV-1-seropositive persons at different stages of HIV infection and 15 samples from HIV antibody-negative persons were analyzed. The H...

Nkengasong, John N.; Kalou, Mirielle; Maurice, Chantal; Bile, Celestin; Borget, Marie-yolande; Koblavi, Ste?phania; Boateng, Emmanuel; Sassan-morokro, Madeleine; Anatole-ehounou, Ekpini; Ghys, Peter; Greenberg, Alan E.; Wiktor, Stefan Z.

1998-01-01

363

Lax-Phillips scattering theory with perturbations of the type: V(x)=(?(x))/|x|"?, where ?=2-(n)/s, ? is an element of L"s(R"n), s > 2 and s ? (n)/2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scattering theory for the wave equation with compactly supported perturbations was developed by Lax-Phillips in 1967. Using Enss approach, Phillips developed a Lax-Phillips scattering theory with short range perturbations of the type: V(x)=o((1)/|x|"?), ? > 2. In this paper we develop a scattering theory for more general perturbations, i.e. for V(x)=(?(x))/|x|"?, where ?=2-(n)/s, ? is an element of L"s(R"n), s > 2 and s ? (n)/2. Refs

1990-01-01

364

Superspace conformal field theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2013-07-15

365

Topological Domain Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis presents Topological Domain Theory as a powerful and flexible framework for denotational semantics. Topological Domain Theory models a wide range of type constructions and can interpret many computational features. Furthermore, it has close connections to established frameworks for denotational semantics, as well as to well-studied mathematical theories, such as topology and computable analysis.

Battenfeld, Ingo

2008-01-01

366

Superspace conformal field theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

2013-01-01

367

Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 and an internal control on porcine semen samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A duplex real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and an exogenous internal positive control (IPC) in porcine semen samples was developed. The IPC was included to monitor DNA extraction and PCR inhibition and consisted of a mutated PCV2 plasmid clone which differed from the target PCV2 in the probe binding region and thus was detected by the use of a second probe with different end-labeling. The sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of the assay were validated by testing semen samples from 12 boars inoculated experimentally with PCV2, 10 boars infected naturally with PCV2, and 3 PCV2 negative control boars. The duplex qPCR assay was found to be more sensitive, specific, rapid, and repeatable than nested PCR (nPCR) methods for the detection of PCV2 DNA in semen. Analysis of separated semen fractions by the duplex qPCR assay showed PCV2 DNA to be present mainly in the cell fraction as opposed to the seminal plasma fraction which is in contrast to previous reports. The duplex qPCR assay was found to be a valuable tool for accurate and quantitative detection of PCV2 DNA in boar semen. PMID:18355929

Pal, N; Huang, Y W; Madson, D M; Kuster, C; Meng, X J; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

2008-05-01

368

Detection of weak D and D(VI) red cells in D-negative mixtures by flow cytometry: implications for feto-maternal haemorrhage quantification and D typing policies for newborns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitation of feto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH) by flow cytometry (FC) has been shown to be more accurate than the Kleihauer-Bekte test. Fetal cells will be predominately of R1r or R2r phenotype, with antigen site numbers per cell (SPC) of between 9900 and 16000. If the fetus is of weak D or partial D(VI) phenotype, fewer SPC will be present. Red cells from 20 adult weak D samples were mixed with rr red cells to give 1% mixes. Mixtures were stained and analysed by FC, using two different monoclonal reagents. The SPC of each sample was measured using SOL-ELSA with Scatchard plot analysis. 18 samples could not be distinguished and had <1000 SPC. Two samples that could be distinguished had 1350 and 3000 SPC. Red cells from seven samples of D(VI) were also analysed. None of these samples could be distinguished: SPC were all <1000. Although one of the reagents used reacts with D(VI) cells, quantitation of a D(VI) FMH would not be possible due to low SPC. The ability of fetal red cells with low Rh D SPC to cause immunization is questionable; failure to measure FMH in these cases is unlikely to cause clinical problems, as long as suitably sensitive serological reagents and techniques are used to type all weak D and D variant babies as Rh D positive, and thus ensure that the mother is given the appropriate dose of anti-D. PMID:10086805

Lloyd-Evans, P; Guest, A R; Voak, D; Scott, M L

1999-03-01

369

Quantification of perceived macro-uniformity  

Science.gov (United States)

Macro-uniformity refers to the subjective impression of overall uniformity in the print sample. By the efforts of INCITS W1.1 team, macro-uniformity is categorized into five types of attributes: banding, streaks, mottle, gradients, and moiré patterns, and the ruler samples are generated with perceptual scales. W1.1 macro-uniformity ruler is useful for judging the levels of print defect, but it is not an easy task to reproduce the samples having the same perceptual scales at different times in different places. An objective quantification method is more helpful and convenient for developers to analyze print quality and design printing system components. In this paper, we propose a method for measuring perceived macro-uniformity for a given print using a flat-bed scanner. First, banding, 2D noise, and gradients are separately measured, and they are converted to the perceptual scales based on subjective results of each attribute. The correlation coefficients between the measured values of the attributes and the perceptual scales are 0.92, 0.97, and 0.86, respectively. Another subjective test is performed to find the relationship between the overall macro-uniformity and the three attributes. The weighting factors are obtained by the experimental result, and the final macro-uniformity grade is determined by the weighted sums of each attribute.

Lee, Ki-Youn; Bang, Yousun; Choh, Heui-Keun

2011-01-01

370

Mathematical Models in Schema Theory  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, a mathematical schema theory is developed. This theory has three roots: brain theory schemas, grid automata, and block-shemas. In Section 2 of this paper, elements of the theory of grid automata necessary for the mathematical schema theory are presented. In Section 3, elements of brain theory necessary for the mathematical schema theory are presented. In Section 4, other types of schemas are considered. In Section 5, the mathematical schema theory is developed. The achieved level of schema representation allows one to model by mathematical tools virtually any type of schemas considered before, including schemas in neurophisiology, psychology, computer science, Internet technology, databases, logic, and mathematics.

Burgin, M

2005-01-01

371

Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. Methods The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall basement membrane layer continuity or lack thereof. Non-sinusoidal blood capillaries were further sub-classified as non-fenestrated or fenestrated based on the absence or presence of endothelial cells with fenestrations. The sinusoidal blood capillaries of the liver, myeloid (red bone marrow, and spleen were sub-classified as reticuloendothelial or non-reticuloendothelial based on the phago-endocytic capacity of the endothelial cells. Results The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across capillary walls of non-sinusoidal non-fenestrated blood capillaries is less than 1 nm for those with interendothelial cell clefts lined with zona occludens junctions (i.e. brain and spinal cord, and approximately 5 nm for those with clefts lined with macula occludens junctions (i.e. skeletal muscle. The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated blood capillaries with diaphragmed fenestrae ranges between 6 and 12 nm (i.e. exocrine and endocrine glands; whereas, the physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated capillaries with open 'non-diaphragmed' fenestrae is approximately 15 nm (kidney glomerulus. In the case of the sinusoidal reticuloendothelial blood capillaries of myeloid bone marrow, the transvascular transport of non-endogenous macromolecules larger than 5 nm into the bone marrow interstitial space takes place via reticuloendothelial cell-mediated phago-endocytosis and transvascular release, which is the case for systemic bone marrow imaging agents as large as 60 nm in diameter. Conclusions The physiologic upper limit of pore size in the capillary walls of most non-sinusoidal blood capillaries to the transcapillary passage of lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules ranges between 5 and 12 nm. Therefore, macromolecules larger than the physiologic upper limits of pore size in the non-sinusoidal blood capillary types generally do not accumulate within the respective tissue interstitial

Sarin Hemant

2010-08-01

372

Assessment of Factors Affecting Self-Care Behavior Among Women With Type 2 Diabetes in Khoy City Diabetes Clinic Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies show that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating complications is continuous self-care. This study aimed to determine factors affecting self-care behavior of diabetic women in Khoy City, Iran based the extended theory of reasoned action (ETRA. Materials and Methods: A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy City in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the relevant variables (diabetes knowledge, personal beliefs, subjective norm, self-efficacy and behavioral intention, and self-care behavior based on ETRA. Reliability and validity of the instruments were determined prior to the study. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the SPSS-version 16 software.Results: Based on the data obtained, the proposed model could predict and explain 41% and 26.2% of the variance of behavioral intention and self-care, respectively, in women with type-2 diabetes. The data also indicated that among the constructs of the model perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor for intention for self-care behavior. This construct affected both directly and indirectly self-care behavior. The next strongest predictors were attitudes, social pressures, social norms, and intervals between visiting patients by the treating team.Conclusion: The proposed model can predict self-care behavior very well. Thus, it may form the basis for educational interventions aiming at promoting self-care and, ultimately, controlling diabetes.

Ebrahim Hajizadeh

2011-11-01

373

Waltz's Theory of Theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as â??a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the â??fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda, the article introduces a key literature from philosophy of science about the structure of theory, and particularly about the way even natural science uses theory very differently from what IRs mainstream thinks - and much more like the way Waltz wants his theory used.

Wæver, Ole

2009-01-01

374

On the worldsheet theory of the type IIA {text{Ad}}{{text{S}}_4} × mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}_3} superstring  

Science.gov (United States)

We perform a detailed study of the type IIA superstring in {text{Ad}}{{text{S}}_4} × mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}_3} . After introducing suitable bosonic light-cone and fermionic kappa worldsheet gauges we derive the pure boson and fermion SU(2|2)×U(1) covariant light-cone Hamiltonian up to quartic order in fields. As a first application of our derivation we calculate energy shifts for string configurations in a closed fermionic subsector and successfully match these with a set of light-cone Bethe equations. We then turn to investigate the mismatch between the degrees of freedom of scattering states and oscillatory string modes. Since only light string modes appear as fundamental Bethe roots in the scattering theory, the physical role of the remaining 4 F + 4 B massive oscillators is rather unclear. By continuing a line of research initiated by Zarembo, we shed light on this question by calculating quantum corrections for the propagators of the bosonic massive fields. We show that, once loop corrections are incorporated, the massive coordinates dissolve in a continuum state of two light particles.

Sundin, Per

2010-04-01

375

Calculation of physical properties of the cubic perovskite-type oxide BiScO using the PP-PW method based on the DFT theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Various physical properties of the cubic perovskite-type oxide BiScO 3 have been investigated using the pseudo-potential plane-wave (PP-PW) method based on the density functional theory ( DFT). The computed equilibrium lattice parameters agree well with the available theoretical data. The elastic constants and their pressure dependence are predicted using the static finite strain technique. A set of isotropic elastic parameters and related properties, namely bulk and shear moduli, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, average sound velocity and Debye temperature are numerically estimated in the framework of the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation for BiScO 3 polycrystalline aggregate. The analysis of the site-projected l-decomposed density of states, charge transfer and charge density shows that bonding is predominantly of ionic nature. We distinguish hybridization between Sc-d states and O- p states in the valence bonding region. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the phononic effects are considered, the thermal effect on the lattice constant, bulk modulus, heat capacities and thermal expansion coefficient is calculated.

Ghebouli, M. A.; Ghebouli, B.; Fatmi, M.; Bouhemadou, A.

2011-06-01

376

Antibody-free PRISM-SRM for multiplexed protein quantification: Is this the new competition for immunoassays in bioanalysis?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highly sensitive technologies for multiplexed quantification of a large number of candidate proteins will play an increasingly important role in clinical biomarker discovery, systems biology, and general biomedical research. Herein we introduce the new PRISM-SRM technology, which represents a highly sensitive multiplexed quantification technology capable of simultaneous quantification of many low-abundance proteins without the need of affinity reagents. The versatility of antibody-free PRISM-SRM for quantifying various types of targets including protein isoforms, protein modifications, metabolites, and others, thus offering new competition with immunoassays.

Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun

2013-02-01

377

Quantification model for energy consumption in edification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment. The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.

La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m2 de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación. La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado. Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos numéricos que podrán ser comparados en otras tipologías y ámbitos geográficos, a la vez que permitirán analizar y precisar mejoras en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado por los diferentes materiales, subsistemas y elementos constructivos habitualmente utilizados en las tipologías edificatorias definidas.

Mercader, Mª P.

2012-12-01

378

Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT: A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

Birkett Nicholas

2010-01-01

379

Thermal behavior of dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations of a cylindrical Ising nanotube in an oscillating magnetic field within the effective-field theory and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamical aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanotube in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and Glauber-type stochastic approach. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, dynamic total magnetization, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature of dynamic transitions as well as to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures and compensation behaviors. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and core, i.e., five different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. -- Highlights: ? Kinetic cylindrical Ising nanotube is investigated using the effective-field theory. ? The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ? The effects of the exchange interactions have been studied in detail. ? Five different types of compensation behaviors have been found. ? Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on ratio of physical parameters.

2012-02-20

380

Quantification and Genotyping of Human Sapoviruses in the Llobregat River Catchment, Spain? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human sapoviruses (SaVs) were quantified and characterized in an 18-month survey conducted along the Llobregat river catchment area in Spain. Sample types included freshwater, untreated and treated wastewater, and drinking water. All genogroups were recovered, and a seasonal distribution was observed. This is the first report of SaV quantification and genotyping in the environment outside Japan.

Sano, Daisuke; Pe?rez-sautu, Unai; Guix, Susana; Pinto?, Rosa Maria; Miura, Takayuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Bosch, Albert

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

A new approach to the evaluation and quantification of human reliability in systems assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of human reliability considerations in risk assessment is considered. The shortcomings of existing approaches are discussed and the problems of data collection in this area are analysed. A new approach is proposed based on the use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory. Detailed procedures for applying this approach to the qualitative assessment of human reliability are given. Finally, the extension of the technique to quantification is discussed. (author)

1981-05-01

382

RNA-Skim: a rapid method for RNA-Seq quantification at transcript level  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivation: RNA-Seq technique has been demonstrated as a revolutionary means for exploring transcriptome because it provides deep coverage and base pair-level resolution. RNA-Seq quantification is proven to be an efficient alternative to Microarray technique in gene expression study, and it is a critical component in RNA-Seq differential expression analysis. Most existing RNA-Seq quantification tools require the alignments of fragments to either a genome or a transcriptome, entailing a time-consuming and intricate alignment step. To improve the performance of RNA-Seq quantification, an alignment-free method, Sailfish, has been recently proposed to quantify transcript abundances using all k-mers in the transcriptome, demonstrating the feasibility of designing an efficient alignment-free method for transcriptome quantification. Even though Sailfish is substantially faster than alternative alignment-dependent methods such as Cufflinks, using all k-mers in the transcriptome quantification impedes the scalability of the method. Results: We propose a novel RNA-Seq quantification method, RNA-Skim, which partitions the transcriptome into disjoint transcript clusters based on sequence similarity, and introduces the notion of sig-mers, which are a special type of k-mers uniquely associated with each cluster. We demonstrate that the sig-mer counts within a cluster are sufficient for estimating transcript abundances with accuracy comparable with any state-of-the-art method. This enables RNA-Skim to perform transcript quantification on each cluster independently, reducing a complex optimization problem into smaller optimization tasks that can be run in parallel. As a result, RNA-Skim uses a single thread on a commodity computer, which represents >100 speedup over the state-of-the-art alignment-based methods, while delivering comparable or higher accuracy. Availability and implementation: The software is available at http://www.csbio.unc.edu/rs. Contact: weiwang@cs.ucla.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei

2014-01-01

383

Quantification of Low Molecular Mass Compounds Using Thermostated Planar Chromatography  

Science.gov (United States)

Separation, detection, and quantification of selected low-molecular mass compounds involving planar chromatography working under temperature-controlled conditions has been described, focusing mainly on the author and co-workers approach. Particularly, basic theory concerning temperature effects in chromatography as well as construction of simple vertical and horizontal chamber units for thermostated thin-layer chromatography (TLC) are discussed from a practical point of view. Moreover, an advantage of microplanar chromatography for fast one- and two-dimensional separation of multicomponent samples, including plant extracts, over separation protocols achieved via regular size TLC as well as its column counterpart, namely high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is also demonstrated. Additionally, temperature effect that may significantly improve sensitivity, selectivity, and robustness of spots detection process performed by postrun derivatization with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) is reported along with selected applications.

Zarzycki, Pawe? K.

384

Splitting the Reference Time Temporal Anaphora and Quantification in DRT  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents an analysis of temporal anaphora in sentences which contain quantification over events, within the framework of Discourse Representation Theory. The analysis in (Partee 1984) of quantified sentences, introduced by a temporal connective, gives the wrong truth-conditions when the temporal connective in the subordinate clause is "before" or "after". This problem has been previously analyzed in (de Swart 1991) as an instance of the proportion problem, and given a solution from a Generalized Quantifier approach. By using a careful distinction between the different notions of reference time, based on (Kamp and Reyle 1993), we propose a solution to this problem, within the framework of DRT. We show some applications of this solution to additional temporal anaphora phenomena in quantified sentences.

Nelken, R; Nelken, Rani; Francez, Nissim

1995-01-01

385

Quantification of margins and uncertainties: A probabilistic framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) was originally introduced as a framework for assessing confidence in nuclear weapons, and has since been extended to more general complex systems. We show that when uncertainties are strictly bounded, QMU is equivalent to a graphical model, provided confidence is identified with reliability one. In the more realistic case that uncertainties have long tails, we find that QMU confidence is not always a good proxy for reliability, as computed from the graphical model. We explore the possibility of defining QMU in terms of the graphical model, rather than through the original procedures. The new formalism, which we call probabilistic QMU, or pQMU, is fully probabilistic and mathematically consistent, and shows how QMU may be interpreted within the framework of system reliability theory.

2011-09-01

386

Application of adaptive hierarchical sparse grid collocation to the uncertainty quantification of nuclear reactor simulators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent efforts in the application of uncertainty quantification to nuclear systems have utilized methods based on generalized perturbation theory and stochastic sampling. While these methods have proven to be effective they both have major drawbacks that may impede further progress. A relatively new approach based on spectral elements for uncertainty quantification is applied in this paper to several problems in reactor simulation. Spectral methods based on collocation attempt to couple the approximation free nature of stochastic sampling methods with the determinism of generalized perturbation theory. The specific spectral method used in this paper employs both the Smolyak algorithm and adaptivity by using Newton-Cotes collocation points along with linear hat basis functions. Using this approach, a surrogate model for the outputs of a computer code is constructed hierarchically by adaptively refining the collocation grid until the interpolant is converged to a user-defined threshold. The method inherently fits into the framework of parallel computing and allows for the extraction of meaningful statistics and data that are not within reach of stochastic sampling and generalized perturbation theory. This paper aims to demonstrate the advantages of spectral methods-especially when compared to current methods used in reactor physics for uncertainty quantification-and to illustrate their full potential. (authors)

2013-05-05

387

Pancreas++ : Automated Quantification of Pancreatic Islet Cells in Microscopy Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microscopic image analysis of pancreatic Islet of Langerhans morphology is crucial for the investigation of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Besides the general size of the islet, the percentage and relative position of glucagon-containing alpha-, and insulin-containing beta-cells is also important for pathophysiological analyses, especially in rodents. Hence, the ability to identify, quantify and spatially locate peripheral and ‘involuted’ alpha-cells in the islet core is an important analytical goal. There is a dearth of software available for the automated and sophisticated positional-quantification of multiple cell types in the islet core. Manual analytical methods for these analyses, while relatively accurate, can suffer from a slow throughput rate as well as user-based biases. Here we describe a newly developed pancreatic islet analytical software program, Pancreas++, which facilitates the fully-automated, non-biased, and highly reproducible investigation of islet area and alpha- and beta-cell quantity as well as position within the islet for either single or large batches of fluorescent images. We demonstrate the utility and accuracy of Pancreas++ by comparing its performance to other pancreatic islet size and cell type (alpha, beta quantification methods. Our Pancreas++ analysis was significantly faster than other methods, while still retaining low error rates and a high degree of result correlation with the manually generated reference standard.

StuartMaudsley

2013-01-01

388

Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

J. Nicolas Kaufmann

1998-06-01

389

Gyrotron theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gyrotron or electron-cyclotron-resonance-maser is a high-power microwave source in which the microwave field gains energy from a beam of relativistic electrons. At present time, the development is being stimulated by the demand for high-power microwave radiation to heat tokamak plasmas to fusion temperatures and by new radar applications. The heart of the device is a resonant cavity in a steady magnetic field. A hallow cylindrical beam of electrons gyrating about the magnetic field direction with relativistic energies enters the cavity and interacts with the microwave there. The microwave field gain energy from the electrons and a fraction of this energy leaves the cavity via the output waveguide. In this work, some general properties of relativistic coherent states of electrons moving in a steady and homo-geneous magnetic are presented and three types of eigenfunctions as solutions of the Klein-Gordon-Equation are considered. These eigenstates are multipletts. The multipletts are constructed as eigenstates of Johnson-Lippmann-Operators and the influence of the microwave field is investigated by perturbation theory. The resulting stability problem for perturbation theory is solved and the Floquet-Exponent is calculated to second order. By coupling the Klein-Gordon current with the wavefunction of photons, selections rules for the Redmond-Field can be derived. The expection values of light-emission are determined by using Fermis Golden Rule. A further purpose of this article is to show, that quantum theory is needed to derive correct results. (author)

1993-01-01

390

Finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3}, which is the string dual of the recently constructed N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory of Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena (ABJM theory). The string states we consider are in the RxS{sup 2}xS{sup 2} subspace of AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3} with an angular momentum J on CP{sup 3} being large. We compute the finite-size corrections using two different methods, one is to consider curvature corrections to the Penrose limit giving an expansion in 1/J, the other by considering a low energy expansion in {lambda}'={lambda}/J{sup 2} of the string theory sigma-model, {lambda} being the 't Hooft coupling of the dual ABJM theory. For both methods there are interesting issues to deal with. In the near-pp-wave method there is a 1/{radical}(J) interaction term for which we use zeta-function regularization in order to compute the 1/J correction to the energy. For the low energy sigma-model expansion we have to take into account a non-trivial coupling to a non-dynamical transverse direction. We find agreement between the two methods. At order {lambda}' and {lambda}'{sup 2}, for small {lambda}', our results are analogous to the ones for the SU(2) sector in type IIB string theory on AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. Instead at order {lambda}'{sup 3} there are interactions between the two two-spheres. We compare our results with the recently proposed all-loop Bethe ansatz of Gromov and Vieira and find agreement.

Astolfi, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia, Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)], E-mail: astolfi@pg.infn.it; Puletti, Valentina Giangreco M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: valentina.giangreco@fysast.uu.se; Grignani, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia, Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)], E-mail: gianluca.grignani@pg.infn.it; Harmark, Troels [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail: harmark@nbi.dk; Orselli, Marta [The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail: orselli@nbi.dk

2009-03-21

391

Matrix String Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

Dijkgraaf, R.; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.

1997-01-01

392

Matrix string theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states. (orig.).

Dijkgraaf, R. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Mathematics; Verlinde, E. [TH-Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universtity of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verlinde, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1997-09-01

393

Introduction to superstring theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

2009-07-01

394

Introduction to superstring theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS5 x S5. (author)

2009-01-12

395

Generativity and dynamic opacity for abstract types  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The standard formalism for explaining abstract types is existential quantification. While it provides a sufficient model for type abstraction in entirely statically typed languages, it proves to be too weak for languages enriched with forms of dynamic typing, where parametricity is violated. As an alternative approach to type abstraction that addresses this shortcoming we present a calculus for dynamic type generation. It features an explicit construct for generating new type names and relies...

Rossberg, Andreas

2003-01-01

396

Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to increased emissions unless we improve production efficiencies and management. Developing countries currently account for about three-quarters of direct emissions and are expected to be the most rapidly growing emission sources in the future (FAO 2011). Reducing agricultural emissions and increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and biomass has the potential to reduce agriculture's contribution to climate change by 5.5-6.0 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq)/year. Economic potentials, which take into account costs of implementation, range from 1.5 to 4.3 GT CO2eq/year, depending on marginal abatement costs assumed and financial resources committed, with most of this potential in developing countries (Smith et al 2007). The opportunity for mitigation in agriculture is thus significant, and, if realized, would contribute to making this sector carbon neutral. Yet it is only through a robust and shared understanding of how much carbon can be stored or how much CO2 is reduced from mitigation practices that informed decisions can be made about how to identify, implement, and balance a suite of mitigation practices as diverse as enhancing soil organic matter, increasing the digestibility of feed for cattle, and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applications. Only by selecting a portfolio of options adapted to regional characteristics and goals can mitigation needs be best matched to also serve rural development goals, including food security and increased resilience to climate change. Expansion of agricultural land also remains a major contributor of greenhouse gases, with deforestation, largely linked to clearing of land for cultivation or pasture, generating 80% of emissions from developing countries (Hosonuma et al 2012). There are clear opportunities for these countries to address mitigation strategies from the forest and agriculture sector, recognizing that agriculture plays a large role in economic and development potential. In this context, multiple development goals can be reinforced by specific climate funding granted on the basis of

Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

2013-03-01

397

Motivational predictors of increases in physical activity behaviour, health, and well-being among patients with Diabetes Mellitius Type 2 and cardiovascular disease:Testing self-determination theory in a randomized clincal trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A randomized clinical trial tested an experimental model and the self-determination theory (SDT) process model of changes in physical activity (PA) behaviour, health, and wellbeing. Adult patients (N=137) of both sexes, all diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease, were recruited to a one-year experiment. They were randomly assigned to an organized exercise intervention group or to a non-exercise control group. At baseline and after 12 months we measured the followin...

Healey, Jeanette

2013-01-01

398

Z Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the evidence for the existence of the topological string analogue of M-theory, which we call Z-theory. The corners of Z-theory moduli space correspond to the Donaldson-Thomas theory, Kodaira-Spencer theory, Gromov-Witten theory, and Donaldson-Witten theory. We discuss the relations of Z-theory with Hitchin's gravities in six and seven dimensions, and make our own proposal, involving spinor generalization of Chern-Simons theory of three-forms. Based on the talk at ...

Nekrasov, Nikita

2004-01-01

399

Entanglement in Theory Space  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a new concept of entanglement for quantum systems: entanglement in theory space. This is defined by decomposing a theory into two by an un-gauging procedure. We provide two examples where this newly-introduced entanglement is closely related with conventional geometric entropies: deconstruction and AGT-type correspondence.

Yamazaki, Masahito

2013-01-01

400

Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Gauge Theories of Gravitation  

CERN Document Server

During the last five decades, gravity, as one of the fundamental forces of nature, has been formulated as a gauge field theory of the Weyl-Cartan-Yang-Mills type. The resulting theory, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity, encompasses Einstein's gravitational theory as well as the teleparallel theory of gravity as subcases. In general, the spacetime structure is enriched by Cartan's torsion and the new theory can accommodate fermionic matter and its spin in a perfectly natural way. The present reprint volume contains articles from the most prominent proponents of the theory and is supplemented by detailed commentaries of the editors. This guided tour starts from special relativity and leads, in its first part, to general relativity and its gauge type extensions a la Weyl and Cartan. Subsequent stopping points are the theories of Yang-Mills and Utiyama and, as a particular vantage point, the theory of Sciama and Kibble. Later, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory and its generalizations are explored and specific topi...

Blagojevi?, Milutin

2012-01-01

402

Image quantification of high-throughput tissue microarray  

Science.gov (United States)

Tissue microarray (TMA) technology allows rapid visualization of molecular targets in thousands of tissue specimens at a time and provides valuable information on expression of proteins within tissues at a cellular and sub-cellular level. TMA technology overcomes the bottleneck of traditional tissue analysis and allows it to catch up with the rapid advances in lead discovery. Studies using TMA on immunohistochemistry (IHC) can produce a large amount of images for interpretation within a very short time. Manual interpretation does not allow accurate quantitative analysis of staining to be undertaken. Automatic image capture and analysis has been shown to be superior to manual interpretation. The aims of this work is to develop a truly high-throughput and fully automated image capture and analysis system. We develop a robust colour segmentation algorithm using hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) colour space to provide quantification of signal intensity and partitioning of staining on high-throughput TMA. Initial segmentation results and quantification data have been achieved on 16,000 TMA colour images over 23 different tissue types.

Wu, Jiahua; Dong, Junyu; Zhou, Huiyu

2006-03-01

403

Basic concepts in quantum information theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Quantum information theory provides a framework for the description of quantum systems and their applications in the context of quantum computation and quantum communication. Although several of the basic concepts on which such theory is built are reminiscent of those of (classical) Information Theory, the new rules provided by quantum mechanics introduce properties which have no classical counterpart and that are responsible for most of the applications. In particular, entangled states appear as one of the basic resources in this context. In this lecture I will introduce the basic concepts and applications in Quantum Information, particularly stressing the definition of entanglement, its quantification, and its applications. (author)

2005-05-20

404

Theory of the Transport and Optical Properties of Holes in a Two Band Model with Applications to P(+) - Arsenide and P-Type Gallium Arsenide/aluminum Gallium Arsenide Superlattices  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis consists of two parts: The first part extends previous theories of carrier transport, which assume no interaction between bands (e.g. carrier transport in a single band system or independent multi-band systems), to interacting two-band systems, as is the case for the valence bands of semiconductors. The theories developed in the first part treat transport phenomena by a combined semiclassical and quantum mechanical approach. A pair of semiclassical Boltzmann equations (SBE) are set up and solved using the concept of a relaxation time. In the treatment of ionized impurity scattering a method is developed to calculate phase shifts of particle wavefunctions resulting from intraband and interband scattering. An effective relaxation time method is presented for polar optical phonon scattering, as a relaxation time cannot be properly defined for non-randomizing inelastic scattering. The single-band quantum Boltzmann equation (QBE) is extended to ITBSs. The special case (homogeneous and steady state, with a low concentration of impurities) of ionized impurity scattering is considered. The correspondence between SBE and QBE is investigated for this case. As an application of these theories, numerical analyses are performed on carrier mobility in p-type GaAs over a range of hole densities (10^{17 }-10^{20} cm^{-3}) for two different temperatures, 77 K. and 300 K. The numerical results are in good agreement with experiment. In the second part of this dissertation, the existing theories of the electrical and optical properties of single/multi quantum well structures are revised to deal with p-type superlattices (SL) with two valence bands (heavy and light hold bands). These revised theories employ the effective mass formalism and take into account particle distribution, symmetry of the envelope functions, intersubband optical matrix elements. Theoretical analyses focus on the properties of p-type SL for infrared photodetectors. The electrical and optical properties of a p-type GaAs/AlGaAs SL are thoroughly investigated in terms of dopant configuration and density, taking into account many-body effects (including Hartree, exchange-correlation, depolarization, and exciton-like effects). It is shown that absorption coefficients of 3,000-5,000 cm^{-1} (single polarization) can be achieved for normal incident light by proper structural and doping design. This absorption value is significantly larger than for n-type SLs and, therefore, may allow normal incidence photodetectors to operate at 77 K instead of lower temperatures.

Kim, Byoung-Whi

405

Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogen...

Sarin Hemant

2010-01-01

406

A viscoplasticity theory based on total strian and overstress. The determination of the material functions for type 304 stainless steel and their use in a finite element model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A viscoplasticity theory which models rate effects, creep and relaxation without decomposing the infinitesimal strain tensor into time(rate)-independent and time(rate)-dependent parts is introduced. The constitutive equation is linear in the stress rate and the strain rate tensors and depends nonlinearly on the stress and the strain tensor through the overstress invariant. It is defined as the difference between the present stress tensor and the equilibrium stress tensor. The equilibrium stress tensor represents the stress response in infinitely slow loading. Relaxation (tests with zero strain rate) ultimately terminates at the equilibrium stress. The theory contains an initial elastic region with a smooth transition to rate(time)-dependent inelastic behavior. No yield surfaces are used. For cyclic loading a growth law for the equilibrium stress tensor must be specified. This growth law is still under development. For the implementation of the theory into a finite element code a forward gradient method is employed for the time integration. (orig./HP)

1981-08-21

407

Ring Theory  

CERN Document Server

The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

1988-01-01

408

Residual transglutaminase in collagen - effects, detection, quantification, and removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for microbial transglutaminase (mTG) from Streptomyces mobaraensis to overcome the lack of a quantification method for mTG. We further performed a detailed follow-on-analysis of insoluble porcine collagen type I enzymatically modified with mTG primarily focusing on residuals of mTG. Repeated washing (4 ×) reduced mTG-levels in the washing fluids but did not quantitatively remove mTG from the material (p < 0.000001). Substantial amounts of up to 40% of the enzyme utilized in the crosslinking mixture remained associated with the modified collagen. Binding was non-covalent as could be demonstrated by Western blot analysis. Acidic and alkaline dialysis of mTG treated collagen material enabled complete removal the enzyme. Treatment with guanidinium chloride, urea, or sodium chloride was less effective in reducing the mTG content. PMID:22079174

Schloegl, W; Klein, A; Fürst, R; Leicht, U; Volkmer, E; Schieker, M; Jus, S; Guebitz, G M; Stachel, I; Meyer, M; Wiggenhorn, M; Friess, W

2012-02-01

409

Optimisation of glycogen quantification in mixed microbial cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addressed the key factors affecting the extraction and quantification of glycogen from floccular and granular mixed microbial cultures collected from activated sludge, nutrient removal systems and photosynthetic consortiums: acid concentration, hydrolysis time and concentration of biomass in the hydrolysis. Response surface modelling indicated that 0.9 M HCl and a biomass concentration of 1 mg mL(-1) were optimal conditions for performing acid hydrolysis. Floccular samples only needed a 2-h hydrolysis time whereas granular samples required as much as 5 h. An intermediate 3 h yielded an error of 10% compared to the results obtained with the hydrolysis times specifically tailored to the type of biomass and can thus be recommended as a practical compromise. PMID:22717572

Lanham, Ana B; Ricardo, Ana R; Coma, Marta; Fradinho, Joana; Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

2012-08-01

410

Quantification of atherosclerosis with MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis is a major cause of death in the United States. A major limitation in the current treatment of atherosclerosis is the lack of a quantitative means to non-invasively evaluate the extent of the disease. Recent studies suggest that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has the potential for the detection of atherosclerotic plaque. It has been demonstrated that multi-dimensional pattern recognition can be applied to multi-pulse sequence MR images to identify different tissue types. The authors reported the identification of tissues involved in the atherosclerotic disease process, such as normal endothelium, smooth muscle, thrombus, fat or lipid, connective tissue and calcified plaque. The work reported in this abstract presents preliminary results of applying quantitative 3-D reconstruction to the problem of identifying and quantifying atherosclerotic plaque in vitro

1986-01-01

411

Quantification model for energy consumption in edification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologie...

Mercader, Mª P.; Olivares, M.; Rami?rez Arellano, A.

2012-01-01

412

Quantification noise in single cell experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In quantitative single-cell studies, the critical part is the low amount of nucleic acids present and the resulting experimental variations. In addition biological data obtained from heterogeneous tissue are not reflecting the expression behaviour of every single-cell. These variations can be derived from natural biological variance or can be introduced externally. Both have negative effects on the quantification result. The aim of this study is to make quantitative single-cell studies more t...

Reiter, M.; Kirchner, B.; Mu?ller, H.; Holzhauer, C.; Mann, W.; Pfaffl, M. W.

2011-01-01

413

New approach for the quantification of processed animal proteins in feed using light microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A revision of European Union's total feed ban on animal proteins in feed will need robust quantification methods, especially for control analyses, if tolerance levels are to be introduced, as for fishmeal in ruminant feed. In 2006, a study conducted by the Community Reference Laboratory for Animal Proteins in feedstuffs (CRL-AP) demonstrated the deficiency of the official quantification method based on light microscopy. The study concluded that the method had to be revised. This paper puts forward an improved quantification method based on three elements: (1) the preparation of permanent slides with an optical adhesive preserving all morphological markers of bones necessary for accurate identification and precision counting; (2) the use of a counting grid eyepiece reticle; and (3) new definitions for correction factors for the estimated portions of animal particles in the sediment. This revised quantification method was tested on feeds adulterated at different levels with bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) and fishmeal, and it proved to be effortless to apply. The results obtained were very close to the expected values of contamination levels for both types of adulteration (MBM or fishmeal). Calculated values were not only replicable, but also reproducible. The advantages of the new approach, including the benefits of the optical adhesive used for permanent slide mounting and the experimental conditions that need to be met to implement the new method correctly, are discussed. PMID:20432096

Veys, P; Baeten, V

2010-07-01

414

Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, the Climate Action Reserve (CAR, the CarbonFix Standard (CFS, and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature.

Sabine Henders

2012-01-01

415

Personality Theory and TESOL  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, it is argued, based on evidence from psychological literature, that there are three major approaches to the study of personality, namely (1) situationism, (2) interactionism, and (3) constructivism. It is also noticed that these approaches have resulted in the emergence of three major types of personality theories: (i) type…

Al Shalabi, M. Fadi; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2009-01-01

416

Information Theoretic Resources in Quantum Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resource identification and quantification is an essential element of both classical and quantum information theory. Entanglement is one of these resources, arising when quantum communication and nonlocal operations are expensive to perform. In the first part of this thesis we quantify the effective entanglement when operations are additionally restricted to account for both fundamental restrictions on operations, such as those arising from superselection rules, as well as experimental err...

Meznaric, Sebastian; Jaksch, Dieter

2013-01-01

417

A theory of piezoelectric laminates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theory of piezoelectric laminates is rationally derived from the three-dimensional Voigt theory of piezoelectricity. The present theory is a generalization to piezoelectric laminates of the Reissner-Mindlin-type layer-wise theory of elastic laminates. Both a differential formulation and a variational formulation of the piezoelectric laminate problem are presented. The proposed theory is adopted in the analysis of simple problems, in order to verify its effectiveness. The results it provides turn out to be in good agreement with the results supplied by the Voigt theory of piezoelectricity

1997-01-01

418

Automated and Adaptable Quantification of Cellular Alignment from Microscopic Images for Tissue Engineering Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cellular alignment plays a critical role in functional, physical, and biological characteristics of many tissue types, such as muscle, tendon, nerve, and cornea. Current efforts toward regeneration of these tissues include replicating the cellular microenvironment by developing biomaterials that facilitate cellular alignment. To assess the functional effectiveness of the engineered microenvironments, one essential criterion is quantification of cellular alignment. Therefore, there is a need f...

2011-01-01

419

Factors Influencing Self-Management Behavior in Type-2 Diabetes Patients: A Strategy Proposed to be Adopted When Planning Theory/Model Based Interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease. Diabetes patients should be fully familiar with the different dimensions of this chronic disease and possess the skills required for self-management and self-care. They should realize that each patient is a different case. It is to be noted that promoting self-management behavior is an essential component of case management in type-2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to assess self-management behavior of type-2 di...

Azar Tol; Gholamreza Sharifi Rad; Ahmad Ali Eslami; Fatemeh Alhani; Mohammad Reza Mohajeri Tehrani; Davoud Shojaeezadeh

2012-01-01