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1

Uncertainty quantification theory, implementation, and applications

The field of uncertainty quantification is evolving rapidly because of increasing emphasis on models that require quantified uncertainties for large-scale applications, novel algorithm development, and new computational architectures that facilitate implementation of these algorithms. Uncertainty Quantification: Theory, Implementation, and Applications provides readers with the basic concepts, theory, and algorithms necessary to quantify input and response uncertainties for simulation models arising in a broad range of disciplines. The book begins with a detailed discussion of applications where uncertainty quantification is critical for both scientific understanding and policy. It then covers concepts from probability and statistics, parameter selection techniques, frequentist and Bayesian model calibration, propagation of uncertainties, quantification of model discrepancy, surrogate model construction, and local and global sensitivity analysis. The author maintains a complementary web page where readers ca...

Smith, Ralph C

2014-01-01

2

Recurrence quantification analysis theory and best practices

The analysis of recurrences in dynamical systems by using recurrence plots and their quantification is still an emerging field. Over the past decades recurrence plots have proven to be valuable data visualization and analysis tools in the theoretical study of complex, time-varying dynamical systems as well as in various applications in biology, neuroscience, kinesiology, psychology, physiology, engineering, physics, geosciences, linguistics, finance, economics, and other disciplines. This multi-authored book intends to comprehensively introduce and showcase recent advances as well as established best practices concerning both theoretical and practical aspects of recurrence plot based analysis. Edited and authored by leading researcher in the field, the various chapters address an interdisciplinary readership, ranging from theoretical physicists to application-oriented scientists in all data-providing disciplines.

Jr, Jr; Marwan, Norbert

2015-01-01

3

Inductive types in homotopy type theory

Homotopy type theory is an interpretation of Martin-L\\"of's constructive type theory into abstract homotopy theory. There results a link between constructive mathematics and algebraic topology, providing topological semantics for intensional systems of type theory as well as a computational approach to algebraic topology via type theory-based proof assistants such as Coq. The present work investigates inductive types in this setting. Modified rules for inductive types, including types of well-founded trees, or W-types, are presented, and the basic homotopical semantics of such types are determined. Proofs of all results have been formally verified by the Coq proof assistant, and the proof scripts for this verification form an essential component of this research.

Awodey, Steve; Sojakova, Kristina

2012-01-01

4

Pure type systems arise as a generalisation of simply typed lambda calculus. The contemporary development of mathematics has renewed the interest in type theories, as they are not just the object of mere historical research, but have an active role in the development of computational science and core mathematics. It is worth exploring some of them in depth, particularly predicative Martin-L\\"of's intuitionistic type theory and impredicative Coquand's calculus of construction...

Guallart, Nino

2014-01-01

5

Type Classes for Mathematics in Type Theory

The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library of constructive analysis in which abstraction penalties inhibiting efficient computation are reduced to a minimum. The base of our development consists of type classes representing a standard algebraic hierarchy, as well as portions of category theory and universal algebra. On this foundation we build a set of mathematically sound abstract interfaces for different kinds of numbers, succinctly expressed using categorical language and universal algebra constructions. Strategic use of type classes lets us support these high...

Spitters, Bas

2011-01-01

6

Quantification of uncertainty of performance measures using graph theory

In this paper, the graph theory is used to quantify the uncertainty generated in performance measures during the process of performance measurement. A graph is developed considering all the sources of uncertainty present in this process and their relationship. The permanent function of the matrix associated with the graph is used as the basis for determining an uncertainty index.

Lopes, Isabel Da Silva; Sousa, Se?rgio; Nunes, Euse?bio P.

2013-01-01

7

Quantification of Uncertainties in Nuclear Density Functional theory

Reliable predictions of nuclear properties are needed as much to answer fundamental science questions as in applications such as reactor physics or data evaluation. Nuclear density functional theory is currently the only microscopic, global approach to nuclear structure that is applicable throughout the nuclear chart. In the past few years, a lot of effort has been devoted to setting up a general methodology to assess theoretical uncertainties in nuclear DFT calculations. In this paper, we summarize some of the recent progress in this direction. Most of the new material discussed here will be be published in separate articles.

Schunck, N; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S

2014-01-01

8

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression microarray and other multiplex data hold promise for addressing the challenges of cellular complexity, refined diagnoses and the discovery of well-targeted treatments. A new approach to the construction and quantification of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs is presented that integrates gene expression microarray data and cell modeling through information theory. Given a partial TRN and time series data, a probability density is constructed that is a functional of the time course of transcription factor (TF thermodynamic activities at the site of gene control, and is a function of mRNA degradation and transcription rate coefficients, and equilibrium constants for TF/gene binding. Results Our approach yields more physicochemical information that compliments the results of network structure delineation methods, and thereby can serve as an element of a comprehensive TRN discovery/quantification system. The most probable TF time courses and values of the aforementioned parameters are obtained by maximizing the probability obtained through entropy maximization. Observed time delays between mRNA expression and activity are accounted for implicitly since the time course of the activity of a TF is coupled by probability functional maximization, and is not assumed to be proportional to expression level of the mRNA type that translates into the TF. This allows one to investigate post-translational and TF activation mechanisms of gene regulation. Accuracy and robustness of the method are evaluated. A kinetic formulation is used to facilitate the analysis of phenomena with a strongly dynamical character while a physically-motivated regularization of the TF time course is found to overcome difficulties due to omnipresent noise and data sparsity that plague other methods of gene expression data analysis. An application to Escherichia coli is presented. Conclusion Multiplex time series data can be used for the construction of the network of cellular processes and the calibration of the associated physicochemical parameters. We have demonstrated these concepts in the context of gene regulation understood through the analysis of gene expression microarray time series data. Casting the approach in a probabilistic framework has allowed us to address the uncertainties in gene expression microarray data. Our approach was found to be robust to error in the gene expression microarray data and mistakes in a proposed TRN.

Tuncay Kagan

2007-01-01

9

Minimal types in super-dependent theories

We give necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for a theory definable in an o-minimal structure to interpret a real closed field. The proof goes through an analysis of thorn-minimal types in super-rosy dependent theories of finite rank. We prove that such theories are coordinatised by thorn-minimal types and that such a type is unstable if an only if every non-algebraic extension thereof is. We conclude that a type is stable if and only if it admits a coordinatisation in thorn-minimal stable types. We also show that non-trivial thorn-minimal stable types extend stable sets.

Hasson, Assaf

2007-01-01

10

On gauge theories of general type

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canonical transformations dependence of nonrenormalized effective action and generating functional vertex functions is studied. The effective action construction in gauge theories of general type is described

11

Minimal types in super-dependent theories

We give necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for a theory definable in an o-minimal structure to interpret a real closed field. The proof goes through an analysis of thorn-minimal types in super-rosy dependent theories of finite rank. We prove that such theories are coordinatised by thorn-minimal types and that such a type is unstable if an only if every non-algebraic extension thereof is. We conclude that a type is stable if and only if it admits a coordinatisation...

Hasson, Assaf; Onshuus, Alf

2007-01-01

12

Practicable theory of data types

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of ''data type'' provides a tool for defining static programing-language semantics as well as for organizing data during programing. A scheme is presented which unifies several aspects of type handling: abstract data types, generic variables, recursive (i.e., cyclic) structures, and mixed expressions. It is based on a precise definition and partial ordering of types and, it is believed, is efficiently implementable. Examples are given of advanced notation made possible by the scheme. 19 figures, 1 table.

Wells, M.B.; Hug, M.

1978-01-01

13

Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @i?a , where ?a is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that ?a receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic

Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

2014-01-01

14

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementasi penjaminan mutu akademik tentu saja berkaitan erat dengan pelaku utama proses akademik di sebuah perguruan tinggi, yaitu dosen. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan evaluasi kinerja dosen. Indeks kinerja dosen (IKD UIN terdiri dari tiga komponen penilaian, yaitu meliputi : Kehadiran mengajar dikelas (K1 sebesar 30%, Ketepatan waktu penyerahan nilai (K2 sebesar 30% dan Penilaian mahasiswa (K3 sebesar 40%. Selain penilaian mahasiswa yang bersifat kualitatif, IKD juga dipengaruhi oleh variabel kehadiran dosen dalam mengajar dan ketepatan penyerahan nilai, yang jelas terukur. Untuk menghubungkan antara faktor kualitatif dan kuantitatif, dapat digunakan fuzzy quantification theory I. Metode yang digunakan untuk pengambilan sampel data adalah multistage random sampling dan analisis data dengan fuzzy quantification theory untuk menentukan seberapa besar faktor-faktor kualitatif penilaian mahasiswa dan kehadiran dosen mempengaruhi prestasi nilai matakuliah mahasiswa UIN Sunan Kalijaga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Indeks kinerja dosen (hasil penilaian mahasiswa dan jumlah kehadiran mengajar dosen hanya mampu memberikan pengaruh terhadap prestasi nilai matakuliah mahasiswa Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Sunan Kalijaga sebesar 68,58 %. Disiplin terhadap ketepatan waktu kuliah dan kemampuan dosen untuk meningkatkan minat belajar mahasiswa memiliki pengaruh yang paling tinggi terhadap prestasi nilai matakuliah mahasiswa UIN Sunan Kalijaga. Pengaruh ini akan sangat kuat apabila kehadiran dosen mengajar lebih dari 10 kali.

Shofwatul ‘Uyun

2012-05-01

15

Constructing Recursion Operators in Intuitionistic Type Theory

Martin-L\\"of's Intuitionistic Theory of Types is becoming popular for formal reasoning about computer programs. To handle recursion schemes other than primitive recursion, a theory of well-founded relations is presented. Using primitive recursion over higher types, induction and recursion are formally derived for a large class of well-founded relations. Included are < on natural numbers, and relations formed by inverse images, addition, multiplication, and exponentiation of ...

Paulson, Lawrence C.

2000-01-01

16

Type II string theory and modularity

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper, in a sense, completes a series of three papers. In the previous two, we have explored the possibility of refining the K-theory partition function in type II string theories using elliptic cohomology. In the present paper, we make that more concrete by defining a fully quantized free field theory based on elliptic cohomology of 10-dimensional spacetime. Moreover, we describe a concrete scenario how this is related to compactification of F-theory on an elliptic curve leading to IIA and IIB theories. We propose an interpretation of the elliptic curve in the context of elliptic cohomology. We discuss the possibility of orbifolding of the elliptic curves and derive certain properties of F-theory. We propose a link of this to type IIB modularity, the structure of the topological lagrangian of M-theory, and Witten's index of loop space Dirac operators. The discussion suggests a S{sup 1}-lift of type IIB and an F-theoretic model for type I obtained by orbifolding that for type IIB.

Kriz, Igor [Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Sati, Hisham [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

2005-08-01

17

Semantics of Intensional Type Theory extended with Decidable Equational Theories

Incorporating extensional equality into a dependent intensional type system such as the Calculus of Constructions (CC) provides with stronger type-checking capabilities and makes the proof development closer to intuition. Since strong forms of extensionality generally leads to undecidable type-checking, it seems a reasonable trade-off to extend intensional equality with a decidable first-order theory, as experimented in earlier work on CoqMTU and its implementation CoqMT. In this work, Coq...

Wang, Qian; Barras, Bruno

2013-01-01

18

Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models; to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability; to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment; and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, w...

McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M; Nazarewicz, W

2015-01-01

19

Penner Type Ensemble for Gauge Theories Revisited

The Penner type beta-ensemble for Omega-deformed N=2 SU(2) gauge theory with two massless flavors arising as a limiting case from the AGT conjecture is considered. The partition function can be calculated perturbatively in a saddle-point approximation. A large N limit reproduces the gauge theory partition function expanded in a strong coupling regime, for any beta and beyond tree-level, confirming previous results obtained via special geometry and the holomorphic anomaly equation. The leading terms and gap of the gauge theory free energy at the monopole/dyon point follow as a corollary.

Krefl, Daniel

2012-01-01

20

Type II string theory and modularity

This paper, in a sense, completes a series of three papers. In the previous two hep-th/0404013, hep-th/0410293, we have explored the possibility of refining the K-theory partition function in type II string theories using elliptic cohomology. In the present paper, we make that more concrete by defining a fully quantized free field theory based on elliptic cohomology of 10-dimensional spacetime. Moreover, we describe a concrete scenario how this is related to compactification of F-theory on an elliptic curve leading to IIA and IIB theories. We propose an interpretation of the elliptic curve in the context of elliptic cohomology. We discuss the possibility of orbifolding of the elliptic curves and derive certain properties of F-theory. We propose a link of this to type IIB modularity, the structure of the topological Lagrangian of M-theory, and Witten's index of loop space Dirac operators. We also discuss possible implications of physics in twelve dimensions.

Kriz, I; Kriz, Igor; Sati, Hisham

2005-01-01

21

Predictions for orientifold field theories from type 0' string theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two predictions about finite-N non-supersymmetric 'orientifold field theories' are made by using the dual type 0' string theory on C3/Z2xZ2 orbifold singularity. First, the mass ratio between the lowest pseudoscalar and scalar color-singlets is estimated to be equal to the ratio between the axial anomaly and the scale anomaly at strong coupling, M-/M+?C-/C+. Second, the ratio between the domain wall tension and the value of the quark condensate is computed

22

Quantification of Spatial Parameters in 3D Cellular Constructs Using Graph Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multispectral three-dimensional (3D imaging provides spatial information for biological structures that cannot be measured by traditional methods. This work presents a method of tracking 3D biological structures to quantify changes over time using graph theory. Cell-graphs were generated based on the pairwise distances, in 3D-Euclidean space, between nuclei during collagen I gel compaction. From these graphs quantitative features are extracted that measure both the global topography and the frequently occurring local structures of the “tissue constructs.” The feature trends can be controlled by manipulating compaction through cell density and are significant when compared to random graphs. This work presents a novel methodology to track a simple 3D biological event and quantitatively analyze the underlying structural change. Further application of this method will allow for the study of complex biological problems that require the quantification of temporal-spatial information in 3D and establish a new paradigm in understanding structure-function relationships.

G. E. Plopper

2009-01-01

23

Applications of Jungian Type Theory to Counselor Education.

Describes Carl Jung's theory of psychological type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument to assess Jungian type. Cites sources of information on the research and application of the theory and the MBTI. Explores how knowledge of type theory can be useful to counselor educators. (Author)

Dilley, Josiah S.

1987-01-01

24

Three procedures for the quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA from plasma were compared at three laboratories. The comparison involved the Quantiplex branched DNA assay (version 1.0) by Chiron Diagnostics, the NASBA-QT assay by Organon Teknika, and the Amplicor Monitor assay by Roche Molecular Systems. The laboratories performed each of the three assays with the same sets of reconstructed HIV-1-infected human plasma samples, cross-sectionally collected clinical pl...

Schuurman, R.; Descamps, D.; Weverling, G. J.; Kaye, S.; Tijnagel, J.; Williams, I.; Leeuwen, R.; Tedder, R.; Boucher, C. A.; Brun-vezinet, F.; Loveday, C.

1996-01-01

25

We extract the statistical uncertainties for the pion-nucleon ($\\pi N$) low energy constants (LECs) up to fourth order $\\mathcal{O}(Q^4)$ in the chiral expansion of the nuclear effective Lagrangian. The LECs are optimized with respect to experimental scattering data. For comparison, we also present an uncertainty quantification that is based solely on \\pin{} scattering phase shifts. Statistical errors on the LECs are critical in order to estimate the subsequent uncertainties in \\textit{ab initio} modeling of light and medium mass nuclei which exploit chiral effective field theory. As an example of the this, we present the first complete predictions with uncertainty quantification of peripheral phase shifts of elastic proton-neutron scattering.

Wendt, K A; Ekström, A

2014-01-01

26

A bi-metric theory of Klein-Kaluza type

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A unified theory of Klein-Kaluza type with a de Sitter structure is considered. A condition binding the external and internal spaces reduces the Lagrangian of the theory to the Einstein Lagrangian plus a small quadratic term

27

Bimetric theory of Klein-Kaluza type

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A unified theory of Klein-Kaluza with a de Sitter structure is considered. A condition binding the external and internal spaces reduces the Lagrangian of the theory to the Einstein Lagrangian plus a small quadratic term.

Smrz, P.K. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. Dipartimentale di Fisica)

1984-03-05

28

We compare theory and experiment in the Casimir force measurement between gold surfaces performed with the atomic force microscope. Both random and systematic experimental errors are found leading to a total absolute error equal to 8.5 pN at 95% confidence. In terms of the relative errors, experimental precision of 1.75% is obtained at the shortest separation of 62 nm at 95% confidence level (at 60% confidence the experimental precision of 1% is confirmed at the shortest separation). An independent determination of the accuracy of the theoretical calculations of the Casimir force and its application to the experimental configuration is carefully made. Special attention is paid to the sample-dependent variations of the optical tabulated data due to the presence of grains, contribution of surface plasmons, and errors introduced by the use of the proximity force theorem. Nonmultiplicative and diffraction-type contributions to the surface roughness corrections are examined. The electric forces due to patch potent...

Chen, F; Mohideen, U; Mostepanenko, V M

2004-01-01

29

Cold flow is a phenomenon occurring in drug-in-adhesive type of transdermal drug delivery systems (DIA-TDDS) because of the migration of DIA coat beyond the edge. Excessive cold flow can affect their therapeutic effectiveness, make removal of DIA-TDDS difficult from the pouch, and potentially decrease available dose if any drug remains adhered to pouch. There are no compendial or noncompendial methods available for quantification of this critical quality attribute. The objective was to develop a method for quantification of cold flow using stereomicroscopic imaging technique. Cold flow was induced by applying 1 kg force on punched-out samples of marketed estradiol DIA-TDDS (model product) stored at 25°C, 32°C, and 40°C/60% relative humidity (RH) for 1, 2, or 3 days. At the end of testing period, dimensional change in the area of DIA-TDDS samples was measured using image analysis software, and expressed as percent of cold flow. The percent of cold flow significantly decreased (p TDDS samples and increased (p TDDS. PMID:24585397

Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Katragadda, Usha; Khan, Mansoor A

2014-05-01

30

Spin in kink-type field theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies some classical three-dimensional field theories for which the ranges of the field variables are a 3-sphere, a 2-sphere, the symplectic group, Sp(n), the special orthogonal group, SO(3), and the Ssub(4,1) space of general relativistic metrics. The main result is the proof that these theories admit half-odd-integer spin, so that the 1-kink states are classical analogs of fermion states. (author)

31

Motion in Bimetric Type Theories of Gravity

The problem of motion for different test particles, charged and spinning objects of constant spinning tensor in different versions of bimetric theory of gravity is obtained by deriving their corresponding path and path deviation equations, using a modified Bazanski in presence of Riemannian geometry. This method enables us to find path and path deviation equations of different objects orbiting very strong gravitational fields.

Kahil, M E

2015-01-01

32

Scattering theory for a Dirac type operator

We consider the scattering of time-harmonic acoustic waves by an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. Solving the scattering problem is equivalent to solving an analogue of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation. This can be achieved by applying the Riesz-Fredholm theory for compact operators.

Baaske, Franka; Bernstein, Swanhild

2012-11-01

33

A Goodwillie-type Theorem for Milnor K-Theory

Goodwillie's rational isomorphism between relative algebraic K-theory and relative cyclic homology, together with the lambda decomposition of cyclic homology, illustrates the close relationships among algebraic K-theory, cyclic homology, and differential forms. In this paper, I prove a Goodwillie-type theorem for relative Milnor $K$-theory, working over a very general class of commutative rings, defined via the stability criterion of Van der Kallen. Early results of Van der ...

Dribus, Benjamin F.

2014-01-01

34

Revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts to date to obtain the shape of the beam forming electrodes of various Pierce-type electron guns are briefly discussed with emphasis on the many discrepansis in the results of previous works. A revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns is proposed. The shapes of the beam-forming electrodes for all known configurations of Pierce guns were computed on the basis of the proposed theory. (orig.)

35

Revised theory of pierce-type electron guns

Attempts to date to obtain the shape of the beam forming electrodes of various Pierce-type electron guns are briefly discussed with emphasis on the many discrepancies in the results of previous works. A revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns is proposed. The shapes of the beam-forming electrodes for all known configurations of Pierce guns were computed on the basis of the proposed theory.

Sar-El, H. Z.

1982-12-01

36

Skeletal muscle contains various myofiber types closely associated with satellite stem cells, vasculature, and neurons, thus making it difficult to perform genetic or proteomic expression analysis with sufficient cellular specificity to resolve differences at the individual cell or myofiber type level. Here, we describe the combination of a simple histochemical method capable of simultaneously identifying Type I, IIA, IIB, and IIC myofibers followed by laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) to compare the expression profiles of individual fiber types, myonuclear domains, and satellite cells in frozen muscle sections of control and atrophied muscle. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) was used to verify the integrity of the cell-specific RNAs harvested after histologic staining, while qPCR for specific genes of interest was used to quantify atrophy-associated changes in mRNA. Our data demonstrate that the differential myofiber atrophy previously described by histologic means is related to differential expression of atrophy-related genes, such as MuRF1 and MAFbx (a.k.a. Atrogin-1), within different myofiber type populations. This spatially resolved molecular pathology (SRMP) technique allowed quantitation of atrophy-related gene products within individual fiber types that could not be resolved by expression analysis of the whole muscle. The present study demonstrates the importance of fiber type specific expression profiling in understanding skeletal muscle biology especially during muscle atrophy and provides a practical method of performing such research. PMID:23196635

Vanderburg, Charles R; Clarke, Mark S F

2013-03-01

37

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a destructive quantification method of 3H in low and intermediate level radwastes, bomb oxidation, sample oxidation, and wet oxidation methods have been introduced. These methods have some merits and demerits in the radiochemical separation of 3H radionuclides. That is, since the bomb oxidation and sample oxidation methods are techniques using heating at high temperature, the separation methods of the radionuclides are relatively simple. However, since 3H radionuclide has a property of being diffused deeply into the inside of metals, 3H which is distributed on the surface of the metals can only be extracted if the methods are applied. As an another separation method, the wet oxidation method makes 3H oxidized with an acidic solution, and extracted completely to an oxidized HTO compound. However, incomplete oxidized 3H compounds, which are produced by reactions of acidic solutions and metallic radwastes, can be released into the air. Thus, in this study, a wet oxidation method to extract and quantify the 3H radionuclide from metallic radwastes was established. In particular, a complete extraction method and complete oxidation method of incomplete chemical compounds of 3H using a Pt catalyst were studied. The radioactivity of 3H in metallic radwastes is extracted and measured using a wet oxidation method and liquid scintillation counter. Considering the surface dose rate of the sample, the appropriate size of the sample was determined and weighed, and a mixture of oxidants was added to a 200 ml round flask with 3 tubes. The flask was quickly connected to the distilling apparatus. 20 mL of 16 wt% H2SO4 was given into the 200-ml round flask through a dropping funnel while under stirring and refluxing. After dropping, the temperature of the mixture was raised to 96 deg. C and the sample was leached and oxidized by refluxing for 3 hours. At that time, the incomplete oxidized 3H compounds were completely oxidized using the Pt catalysts and produced a stable HTO compound. After that, about a 20 ml solution was distilled in the separation apparatus, and the distillate was mixed with an ultimagold LLT as a cocktail solution. The solution in the vial was left standing for at least 24 hours. The radioactivity of 3H was counted directly using a liquid scintillation analyzer (Packard, 2500 TR/AB, Alpha and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analyzer). (authors)

38

Phosphorus is an important natural nutrient, but high dietary phosphorus intake, including that sourced from added preservatives, is of great concern in renal patients. In this context a reliable analytical method able to quantify differential phosphorus in food could be a valuable tool for monitoring diet composition This paper presents a novel analytical procedure to quantify the following kinds of phosphorus in cooked ham: total (TP), inorganic (IP), from phospholipids (PL), and from phosphoproteins (PP). This technique is based on a suitable sample preparation followed by spectrophotometric analyses. Analytical performances of each method were evaluated, taking advantage also of food industry certified material and in-house reference samples. Limit of detection and limit of quantification values for TP, IP, PP-derived, and PL-derived phosphorus were 13 and 37, 11 and 33, 2 and 20, and 6 and 16 mg P/100 g fresh mass, respectively. Similar results were obtained when this procedure was used to quantify different types of phosphorus present in cooked ham samples. In conclusion, this procedure is effective for quantifying the content of different types of phosphorus present in cooked ham, which can be contributed by different phosphorus-containing ingredients and additives. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that simultaneous determination of TP, IP, PL, and PP in cooked ham has been reported. PMID:24437945

Benini, Omar; Saba, Alessandro; Ferretti, Valerio; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Cupisti, Adamasco

2014-02-12

39

Axion Inflation in Type II String Theory

Inflationary models driven by a large number of axion fields are discussed in the context of type IIB compactifications with N=1 supersymmetry. The inflatons arise as the scalar modes of the R-R two-forms evaluated on vanishing two-cycles in the compact geometry. The vanishing cycles are resolved by small two-volumes or NS-NS B-fields which sit together with the inflatons in the same supermultiplets. String world-sheets wrapping the vanishing cycles correct the metric of the...

Grimm, Thomas W.

2007-01-01

40

Type IIB String Theory, S-Duality, and Generalized Cohomology

In the presence of background Neveu-Schwarz flux, the description of the Ramond-Ramond fields of type IIB string theory using twisted K-theory is not compatible with S-duality. We argue that other possible variants of twisted K-theory would still not resolve this issue. We propose instead a possible path to a solution using elliptic cohomology. We also discuss T-duality relation of this to a previous proposal for IIA theory, and higher-dimensional limits.

Kriz, I; Kriz, Igor; Sati, Hisham

2004-01-01

41

Type IIB string theory, S-duality, and generalized cohomology

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the presence of background Neveu-Schwarz flux, the description of the Ramond-Ramond fields of type IIB string theory using twisted K-theory is not compatible with S-duality. We argue that other possible variants of twisted K-theory would still not resolve this issue. We propose instead a connection of S-duality with elliptic cohomology, and a possible T-duality relation of this to a previous proposal for IIA theory, and higher-dimensional limits. In the process, we obtain some other results which may be interesting on their own. In particular, we prove a conjecture of Witten that the 11-dimensional spin cobordism group vanishes on K(Z,6), which eliminates a potential new {theta}-angle in type IIB string theory.

Kriz, Igor [Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)]. E-mail: ikriz@umich.edu; Sati, Hisham [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia) and Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)]. E-mail: hsati@maths.adelaide.edu.au

2005-05-30

42

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying A? concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

2014-03-01

43

Introduction to type-2 fuzzy logic control theory and applications

Written by world-class leaders in type-2 fuzzy logic control, this book offers a self-contained reference for both researchers and students. The coverage provides both background and an extensive literature survey on fuzzy logic and related type-2 fuzzy control. It also includes research questions, experiment and simulation results, and downloadable computer programs on an associated website. This key resource will prove useful to students and engineers wanting to learn type-2 fuzzy control theory and its applications.

Mendel, Jerry M; Tan, Woei-Wan; Melek, William W; Ying, Hao

2014-01-01

44

Real-time quantification of wild-type contaminants in glyphosate tolerant soybean

Abstract Background Trait purity is a key factor for the successful utilization of biotech varieties and is currently assessed by analysis of individual seeds or plants. Here we propose a novel PCR-based approach to test trait purity that can be applied to bulk samples. To this aim the insertion site of a transgene is characterized and the corresponding sequence of the wild-type (wt) allele is used as diagnostic target for amplification. As a demonstration, we developed a rea...

Noli Enrico; Battistini Elena

2009-01-01

45

The concentration of peripheral type benzodiazepine binding sites (PTBS) in the brain parenchyma is greatly increased following brain lesions, reflecting the glial reaction and/or presence of hematogenous cells. Thus, PTBS density is a sensitive and reliable marker of brain injury in a large number of experimental models (ischemia, trauma, excitotoxic lesions, brain tumors) and equivalent human neuropathological conditions. PTBS density can be measured using specific radioligands and a conventional binding technique, or by quantitative autoradiography in tissue sections. PMID:18428526

Benavides, J; Dubois, A; Scatton, B

2001-05-01

46

Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A), the most poisonous substance known to humans, is a potential bioterrorism agent. The light-chain protein induces a flaccid paralysis through cleavage of the 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein (SNAP-25), involved in acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. BoNT/A is widely used as a therapeutic agent and to reduce wrinkles. The toxin is used at very low doses, which have to be accurately quantified. With this aim, internally quenched fluores...

Poras, Herve?; Ouimet, Tanja; Orng, Sou-vinh; Fournie?-zaluski, Marie-claude; Popoff, Michel R.; Roques, Bernard P.

2009-01-01

47

Gauge Fluxes in F-theory and Type IIB Orientifolds

We provide a detailed correspondence between G_4 gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications with SU(n) and SU(n)x(1) gauge symmetry and their Type IIB orientifold limit. Based on the resolution of the relevant F-theory Tate models we classify the factorisable G_4-fluxes and match them with the set of universal D5-tadpole free U(1)-fluxes in Type IIB. Where available, the global version of the universal spectral cover flux corresponds to Type IIB gauge flux associated with a massive diagonal U(1). In U(1)-restricted Tate models extra massless abelian fluxes exist which are associated with specific linear combinations of Type IIB fluxes. Key to a quantitative match between F-theory and Type IIB is a proper treatment of the conifold singularity encountered in the Sen limit of generic F-theory models. We also collect evidence that the Type IIB orientifold limit of the considered Tate models involves a non-trivial B-field and shed further light on the brane recombination process relating generic and U(1)-restricte...

Krause, Sven; Weigand, Timo

2012-01-01

48

The success of implementation and execution of numerous subsurface energy technologies such shale gas extraction, geothermal energy, underground coal gasification rely on detailed characterization of the geology and the subsurface properties. For example, spatial variability of subsurface permeability controls multi-phase flow, and hence impacts the prediction of reservoir performance. Subsurface properties can vary significantly over several length scales making detailed subsurface characterization unfeasible if not forbidden. Therefore, in common practices, only sparse measurements of data are available to image or characterize the entire reservoir. For example pressure, P, permeability, k, and production rate, Q, measurements are only available at the monitoring and operational wells. Elsewhere, the spatial distribution of k is determined by various deterministic or stochastic interpolation techniques and P and Q are calculated from the governing forward mass balance equation assuming k is given at all locations. Several uncertainty drivers, such as PSUADE, are then used to propagate and quantify the uncertainty (UQ) of quantities (variable) of interest using forward solvers. Unfortunately, forward-solver techniques and other interpolation schemes are rarely constrained by the inverse problem itself: given P and Q at observation points determine the spatially variable map of k. The approach presented here, motivated by fluid imaging for subsurface characterization and monitoring, was developed by progressively solving increasingly complex realistic problems. The essence of this novel approach is that the forward and inverse partial differential equations are the interpolator themselves for P, k and Q rather than extraneous and sometimes ad hoc schemes. Three cases with different sparsity of data are investigated. In the simplest case, a sufficient number of passive pressure data (pre-production pressure gradients) are given. Here, only the inverse hyperbolic equation for the distribution of k is solved, provided that Cauchy data are appropriately assigned. In the next stage, only a limited number of passive measurements are provided. In this case, the forward and inverse PDEs are solved simultaneously. This is accomplished by adding regularization terms and filtering the pressure gradients in the inverse problem. Both the forward and the inverse problem are either simultaneously or sequentially coupled and solved using implicit schemes, adaptive mesh refinement, Galerkin finite elements. The final case arises when P, k, and Q data only exist at producing wells. This exceedingly ill posed problem calls for additional constraints on the forward-inverse coupling to insure that the production rates are satisfied at the desired locations. Results from all three cases are presented demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed approach and, more importantly, providing some insights into the consequences of data under sampling, uncertainty propagation and quantification. We illustrate the advantages of this novel approach over the common UQ forward drivers on several subsurface energy problems in either porous or fractured or/and faulted reservoirs. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

2013-12-01

49

Quantification of aerosol type, and sources of aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain

Differences and similarities in aerosol characteristics, for the first time, over two environmentally distinct locations in Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) - Kanpur (KPR) (urban location) and Gandhi College (GC) (rural site) are examined. Aerosol optical depths (AODs) exhibit pronounced seasonal variability with higher values during winter and premonsoon. Aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) and Ångström exponent (?) are higher over GC than KPR indicating relatively higher fine mode aerosol concentration over GC. Higher FMF over GC is attributed to local biomass burning activities. Analysis of AOD spectra revealed that aerosol size distribution is dominated by wide range of fine mode fractions or mixture of modes during winter and postmonsoon, while during premonsoon and monsoon coarse mode aerosols are more abundant. Single scattering albedo (SSA) is lower over GC than KPR. SSA spectra reveals the abundance of fine mode (coarse mode) absorbing (scattering) aerosols during winter and postmonsoon (premonsoon and monsoon). Spectral SSA features reveal that OC contribution to enhanced absorption is negligible. Analysis shows that absorbing aerosols can be classified as Mostly Black Carbon (BC), and Mixed BC and Dust over IGP. Mixed BC and dust is always higher over KPR, while Mostly BC is higher over GC throughout the year. The amount of long range transported dust exhibits a gradient between KPR (higher) and GC (lower). Results on seasonally varying aerosol types, and absorbing aerosol types and their gradients over an aerosol hotspot are important to tune models and to reduce the uncertainty in radiative and climate impact of aerosols.

Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S.; Holben, B. N.; Tripathi, S. N.

2014-12-01

50

2-Furanmethanethiol, a compound contained in many kinds of food, was identified for the first time in five types of miso fermented soybean paste (red salty rice miso, thin-colored salty rice miso, weak salty rice miso, barley miso, and soy miso) by specific extraction of volatile thiols using p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. In the triangle test with red salty rice miso, which included a higher concentration of 2-furanmethanethiol, and thin-colored salty rice miso, which included a lower concentration of 2-furanmethanethiol, it was shown that the aroma of thin-colored salty rice miso was similar to that of red salty rice miso by adding 2-furanmethanethiol into thin-colored salty rice miso. In addition, a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) clearly shows that 2-furanmethanethiol contributed to the intensity of three odor qualities "thick, complex", "sweet", and "pleasant aroma like coffee beans" in six odor qualities and was a very important component of miso aroma. PMID:19231859

Ohata, Motoko; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Dubourdieu, Denis; Kubota, Kikue; Sugawara, Etsuko

2009-03-25

51

Morphology and hemodynamics in acute Stanford type B aortic dissection: quantification by MRI

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyse the flow characteristics in the true lumen and false lumen, and the relationship between the flow characteristics and the collapse degree of the true lumen using MRI. Methods: Eleven patients with acute Stanford type B aortic dissection were examined by true FISP, 3D CE MRA, PC cine MRI on a Siemens Sonata 1.5 T. Not only the quantitative data on the hemodynamics such as peak velocity, average velocity, average flow volume, forward volume, retrograde volume and net volume, and the area of the true lumen and false lumen can be acquired, but also the blood flow model, ie the velocity-mapping. Then we analysed the relationship between the flow characteristics and the collapse degree of the true lumen. Results: The average area of the false lumen in the proximal descending aorta (about 2 cm distal to the entry) was (8.10 ± 2.93) cm2, and (2.59 ± O.93)cm2 of the true lumen in the same slice (P0.05)from the average flow in the false lumen (37.62±24.58) ml/s. The velocity-mapping curve looked like same in the true and false lumen in this level. And in the abdominal aorta (about the level of the hepatic hilar), the average flow (10.46±5.57) cm/s was significantly lower (P< 0.05 )than in true lumen [(4.04±2.0.05 )than in true lumen [(4.04±2.96)cm/s]. At this level, the direction of blood flow in the true lumen was retrograde (upward)in the mid and late systolic phase in six patients, and normal in the diastolic phase and early systolic phase, that was to say, bidirectional blood flow can be caught in the true lumen of the abdominal aorta. The collapse degree of the true lumen was closely correlated with the the average velocity and the flow volume in the false lumen, and the coefficient correlation and P value were 0.931 and 0.000, 0.926 and 0.000 respectively. Conclusions: PC cine MRI can quantitatively measure the peak velocity, average velocity, average flow volume, forward volume, retrograde volume and net volume, and combined with 3D CE MRA can evaluate the collapse degree of the true lumen. It is important for clinical application in the diagnosis, therapeutic management and the therapeutic opportunity choice of the acute Stanford type B aortic dissection. (authors)

52

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five Type 304L stainless steel specimens were subjected to incrementally increasing values of plastic strain. At each value of strain, the associated static stress was recorded and the specimen was subjected to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) using the Doppler Broadening method. A calibration curve for the 'S' parameter as a function of stress was developed based on the five specimens. Seven different specimens (blind specimens labeled B1-B7) of 304L stainless steel were subjected to values of stress inducing plastic deformation. The values of stress ranged from 310 to 517 MPa. The seven specimens were subjected to PAS post-loading using the Doppler Broadening method, and the results were compared against the developed curve from the previous five specimens. It was found that a strong correlation exists between the 'S' parameter, stress, and strain up to a strain value of 15%, corresponding to a stress value of 500 MPa, beyond which saturation of the 'S' parameter occurs. Research Highlights: ? Specimens were initially in an annealed/recrystallized condition. ? Calibration results indicate positron annihilation measurements yield correlation. ? Deformation produced by cold work was likely larger than the maximum strain.

53

Species-independent bioassay for sensitive quantification of antiviral type I interferons

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the host response to infection often require quantitative measurement of the antiviral type I interferons (IFN-?/? in biological samples. The amount of IFN is either determined via its ability to suppress a sensitive indicator virus, by an IFN-responding reporter cell line, or by ELISA. These assays however are either time-consuming and lack convenient readouts, or they are rather insensitive and restricted to IFN from a particular host species. Results An IFN-sensitive, Renilla luciferase-expressing Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV-Ren was generated using reverse genetics. Human, murine and avian cells were tested for their susceptibility to RVFV-Ren after treatment with species-specific IFNs. RVFV-Ren was able to infect cells of all three species, and IFN-mediated inhibition of viral reporter activity occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The sensitivity limit was found to be 1 U/ml IFN, and comparison with a standard curve allowed to determine the activity of an unknown sample. Conclusions RVFV-Ren replicates in cells of several species and is highly sensitive to pre-treatment with IFN. These properties allowed the development of a rapid, sensitive, and species-independent antiviral assay with a convenient luciferase-based readout.

Penski Nicola

2010-02-01

54

A quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay with automated detection by nonradioactive hybridization was developed for the determination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA levels. This assay is based on the use of an external standard curve with an internal standard. The accuracy of quantification was verified by comparison with reference commercial tests, the Chiron branched-DNA and Roche AMPLICOR HIV MONITOR assays. This assay was able to quantify viremia in patients with C...

Trabaud, M. A.; Audoly, G.; Leriche, K.; Cotte, L.; Ritter, J.; Sepetjan, M.; Trepo, C.

1997-01-01

55

Two distinct aspects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) biopathology with important implications for the management of treated patients have emerged during the last decade: changes in relative viral fitness, and viral tropism. First, it has been observed that HIV-1 accumulates deleterious mutations leading to drug resistance and different degrees of reduction in relative fitness during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although the latter normally parallel a failure of ART resulting from selection of resistant mutants, the drop in viral replication capacity may be beneficial for the host. Moreover, specific antiviral compounds aimed at reducing viral fitness could be developed. Analysis of the determinants of viral fitness in highly evolving viral populations has shown that viral extinction may also be obtained by forcing highly dynamic viral populations through increased (lethal) mutagenesis that abolishes viral replication (violation of the error threshold). It could be of great interest in the near future to address this point with strategies specifically planned at the molecular level. Furthermore, diagnostic evaluation limited to the master sequence has low predictive value in rapidly evolving viral populations. These observations, together with the evidence that all of the methodologies currently used for fitness analysis have important limitations, strongly suggest that further research is warranted. This should use highly sensitive and flexible technologies to evaluate viral fitness directly in vivo or ex vivo, not only for the dominant mutants, but also for minority variants. Second, discovery of the two main co-receptors for HIV-1, CCR5 and CXCR4, has led to a better understanding of the interaction of the viral envelope with host cells and to the development of novel therapeutic agents that inhibit viral entry. In this perspective, analysis of HIV-1 tropism has acquired a major diagnostic role. PMID:20678176

Clementi, M; Lazzarin, A

2010-10-01

56

D-Branes in Type IIA and Type IIB Theories from Tachyon Condensation

In this paper we will construct all BPS and non-BPS D-branes in Type IIA and Type IIB theories from tachyon condensation. We also propose form of Wess-Zumino term for non-BPS D-brane and we will show that tachyon condensation in this term leads to standard Wess-Zumino term for BPS D-brane.

Kluson, J.

2000-01-01

57

On the Landau-Ginzburg type theory of quark confinement

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed investigation is presented for the interaction of 'magnetically' charged quarks in the vacuum of type II superconductivity (represented in a relativistic theory by a Higgs field). The analysis of confining forces is given in detail. Spin dependence, relationship to other confining mechanisms and first quantization are discussed. (Auth.)

58

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Degradation of collagen in the arterial wall by matrix metalloproteinases is the hallmark of atherosclerosis. We have developed an ELISA for the quantification of type III collagen degradation mediated by MMP-9 in urine.

Barascuk, Natasha; Vassiliadis, Efstathios

2011-01-01

59

A theory of solar type III radio bursts

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theory of type III bursts is reviewed. Energetic electrons propagating through the interplanetary medium are shown to excite the one dimensional oscillating two stream instability (OTSI). The OTSI is in turn stabilized by anomalous resistivity which completes the transfer of long wavelength Langmuir waves to short wavelengths, out of resonance with the electrons. The theory explains the small energy losses suffered by the electrons in propagating to 1 AU, the predominance of second harmonic radiation, and the observed correlation between radio and electron fluxes. (Auth.)

60

Formation of social types in the theory of Orrin Klapp

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theory of Orrin Klapp about social types draws attention to important functions that these types have within certain societies as well as that it is preferable to take them into consideration if our goal is more complete knowledge of that society. For Klapp, social types are important social symbols, which in an interesting way reflect society they are part of and for that reason this author dedicates his work to considering their meanings and social functions. He thinks that we can not understand a society without the knowledge about the types with which its members are identified and which serve them as models in their social activity. Hence, these types have cognitive value since, according to Klapp, they assist in perception and "contain the truth", and therefore the knowledge of them allows easier orientation within the social system. Social types also offer insight into the scheme of the social structure, which is otherwise invisible and hidden, but certainly deserves attention if we wish clearer picture about social relations within specific community. The aim of this work is to present this very interesting and inspirative theory of Orrin Klapp, pointing out its importance but also its weaknesses which should be kept in mind during its application in further research.

Trifunovi? Vesna

2007-01-01

61

Dilaton-driven brane inflation in type IIB string theory

We consider the cosmological evolution of the three-brane in the background of type IIB string theory. For two different backgrounds which give nontrivial dilaton profile we have derived the Friedman-like equations. These give the cosmological evolution which is similar to the one by matter density on the universe brane. The effective density blows up as we move towards the singularity showing the initial singularity problem. The analysis shows that when there is axion field...

Kim, Jin Young

2000-01-01

62

Universal Structure and a Categorical Framework for Type Theory

This thesis investigates the possibility of a computer checked language for categories with extra structure; the language is to describe objects and morphisms of those categories and to reason about them. We do so first by developing an abstract analysis of representability. This is followed by the investigation of a categorical framework for studying type theory. Our computer checked language therefore allows us to reason about the semantics of programming languages and models of logics. ...

Takeyama, Makoto

1995-01-01

63

Lifshitz-type Quantum Field Theories in Particle Physics

This introduction to Lifshitz-type field theories reviews some of its aspects in Particle Physics. Attractive features of these models are described with different examples, as the improvement of graphs convergence, the introduction of new renormalizable interactions, dynamical mass generation, asymptotic freedom, and other features related to more specific models. On the other hand, problems with the expected emergence of Lorentz symmetry in the IR are discussed, related to...

Alexandre, Jean

2011-01-01

64

On global anomalies in type IIB string theory

We study global gravitational anomalies in type IIB string theory with nontrivial middle cohomology. This requires the study of the action of diffeomorphisms on this group. Several results and constructions, including some recent vanishing results via elliptic genera, make it possible to consider this problem. Along the way, we describe in detail the intersection pairing and the action of diffeomorphisms, and highlight the appearance of various structures, including the Rochlin invariant and its variants on the mapping torus.

Sati, Hisham

2011-01-01

65

Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2012-03-15

66

D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Cvetic, Mirjam; /Pennsylvania U.; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

2009-06-19

67

Flux vacua in DBI type Einstein-Maxwell theory

We study compactification of extra dimensions in a theory of Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) type gravity. We investigate the solution for Minkowski spacetime with an $S^2$ extra space as well as that for de Sitter spacetime ($S^4$) with an $S^2$ extra space. They are derived by the efective potential method in the presence of the magnetic flux on the extra sphere. We also consider the higher dimensional generalization of the solutions. We find that, in a certain model, the radius of the extra space has a minimum value independent of the higher-dimensional Newton constant in weak-field limit.

Maki, Takuya; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

2011-01-01

68

The hexagon gauge anomaly in Type 1 superstring theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexagon diagrams with external on-mass-shell Yang-Mills gauge particles are investigated in Type I superstring theory. Both the annulus and the Mobius-strip diagrams are shown to give anomalies, implying that spurious longitudinal modes cannot be consistently decoupled. However, the anomalies cancel when the two diagrams are added together if the gauge group is chosen to be SO(32). In carrying out the analysis, two different regulators are considered, but the same conclusions emerge in both cases. The authors point out where various terms in the low-energy effective action originate in superstring diagrams

69

Serre-Tate Theory for Moduli Spaces of PEL Type

The main goal of this paper is to generalize Serre-Tate theory of "ordinary" local moduli to Shimura varieties of PEL type. To this end we develop a generalized notion of ordinariness, we prove a number of basic results about this, and we study the formal deformations of ordinary objects. In general, the formal deformation spaces get a new "group-like" structure that we call a "cascade". Further the paper contains some results on the Ekedahl-Oort stratification of PEL moduli...

Moonen, Ben

2002-01-01

70

Predictions for orientifold field theories from type 0{sup '} string theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two predictions about finite-N non-supersymmetric 'orientifold field theories' are made by using the dual type 0{sup '} string theory on C{sup 3}/Z{sub 2}xZ{sub 2} orbifold singularity. First, the mass ratio between the lowest pseudoscalar and scalar color-singlets is estimated to be equal to the ratio between the axial anomaly and the scale anomaly at strong coupling, M{sub -}/M{sub +}{approx}C{sub -}/C{sub +}. Second, the ratio between the domain wall tension and the value of the quark condensate is computed.

Armoni, Adi [Department of Physics, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Imeroni, Emiliano [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.imeroni@phys.uu.nl

2005-12-29

71

Type IIB flux vacua from G-theory I

We construct non-perturbatively exact four-dimensional Minkowski vacua of type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. These solutions are found by gluing together, consistently with U-duality, local solutions of type IIB supergravity on $T^4 \\times \\mathbb{C}$ with the metric, dilaton and flux potentials varying along $\\mathbb{C}$ and the flux potentials oriented along $T^4$. We focus on solutions locally related via U-duality to non-compact Ricci-flat geometries. More general solutions and a complete analysis of the supersymmetry equations are presented in the companion paper [1]. We build a precise dictionary between fluxes in the global solutions and the geometry of an auxiliary $K3$ surface fibered over $\\mathbb{CP}^1$. In the spirit of F-theory, the flux potentials are expressed in terms of locally holomorphic functions that parametrize the complex structure moduli space of the $K3$ fiber in the auxiliary geometry. The brane content is inferred from the monodromy data around the degeneration points o...

Candelas, Philip; Damian, Cesar; Larfors, Magdalena; Morales, Jose Francisco

2014-01-01

72

Threshold anomalies in Horava-Lifshitz-type theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently the study of threshold kinematic requirements for particle-production processes has played a very significant role in the phenomenology of theories with departures from Poincare symmetry. We here specialize these threshold studies to the case of a class of violations of Poincare symmetry which has been much discussed in the literature on Horava-Lifshitz scenarios. These involve modifications of the energy-momentum ('dispersion') relation that may be different for different types of particles, but always involve even powers of energy-momentum in the correction terms. We establish the requirements for compatibility with the observed cosmic-ray spectrum, which is sensitive to the photopion-production threshold. We find that the implications for the electron-positron pair-production threshold are rather intriguing, in light of some recent studies of TeV emissions by Blazars. Our findings should also provide additional motivation for examining the fate of the law of energy-momentum conservation in Horava-Lifshitz-type theories.

73

A systematic framework for incubation of damage- state quantification in composites is almost absent in the current practice. Identification and quantification of the material state at its early stage has become significantly important in the field of structural health monitoring. Interaction between the intrinsic material state and ultrasonic wave signals, e.g., nonlinear ultrasonic, higher harmonic generation, etc., in metals are quite well known and well documented in the literature. However, it is extremely challenging to quantify the precursor to damage state in composite materials. Thus, in this paper, a comparatively simple but efficient novel approach is proposed to quantify the "incubation of damage" state using scanning acoustic microscopy. The proposed approach exploits the hybrid microcontinuum field theory to quantify the intrinsic (multi-scale) damage state. Defying the conventional route of bottom-up multi-scale modeling methods, a hybrid top-down approach is presented, which is then correlated to the ultrasonic signature obtained from the materials. A parameter to quantify incubation of damage at meso-scale has been identified in this paper. The intrinsic length-scale-dependent parameter called "damage entropy" closely resembles the material state resulting from fatigue, extreme environments, operational hazards or spatio-temporal variability, etc. The proposed quantification process involves a fusion between micromorphic physics and high-frequency ultrasonics in an unconventional way. The proposed approach is validated through an experimental study conducted on glass-fiber reinforced polymer composites which are mechanically fatigued. Specimens were characterized under a scanning acoustic microscope at 50 and 100 MHz. The imaging data and the sensor signals are characterized to quantify the incubation of damage state by the new parameter damage entropy. PMID:25004477

Banerjee, Sourav; Ahmed, Riaz

2013-06-01

74

U-dualities in Type II string theories and M-theory

In this thesis the recently developed duality covariant approach to string and M-theory is investigated. In this formalism the U-duality symmetry of M-theory or T-duality symmetry of Type II string theory becomes manifest upon extending coordinates that describe a background. The effective potential of Double Field Theory is formulated only up to a boundary term and thus does not capture possible topological effects that may come from a boundary. By introducing a generalised normal we derive a manifestly duality covariant boundary term that reproduces the known Gibbons-Hawking action of General Relativity, if the section condition is imposed. It is shown that the full potential can be represented as a sum of the scalar potential of gauged supergravity and a topological term that is a full derivative. The latter is conjectured to capture non-trivial topological information of the corresponding background, such as monodromy around an exotic brane. Next we show that the Scherk-Schwarz reduction of M-theory exten...

Musaev, Edvard

2013-01-01

75

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A real-time PCR assay, based on Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET), was developed to improve the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PVC2). PCV2 is recognised as the essential infectious agent in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and has been associated with other disease syndromes such as porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) and porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Since circoviruses commonly occur in the pig populations and there is a correlation between the severity of the disease and the viral load in the organs and blood, it is important not only to detect PCV2 but also to determine the quantitative aspects of viral load. The PriProET real-time PCR assay described in this study was tested on various virus strains and clinical forms of PMWS in order to investigate any correlation between the clinical signs and viral loads in different organs. The data obtained in this study correlate with those described earlier; namely, the viral load in 1ml plasma and in 500 ng tissue DNA exceeds 10(7) copies in the case of PMWS. The results indicate that the new assay provides a specific, sensitive and robust tool for the improved detection and quantification of PCV2.

Balint, Adam; Tenk, M

2009-01-01

76

Application of multiple scattering theory to spark chamber type detectors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering is given which is intended primarily for application to particle tracks in ?-ray spark chamber telescopes but which may be applicable in other detector systems. This treatment provides for situations where particles may have large angles with respect to the detector axis, for non-homogeneous scattering material of different types, and localized in discrete zones at arbitrarily locations. The analysis is developed in terms of generalized scattering parameters to accommodate a variety of observational techniques. The final section includes the results of applying the theory to samples of Monte Carlo-generated tracks in a specific spark chamber configuration as a check on the validity of the calculation. (orig.)

77

Hazelnut is one of the most appreciated nuts being virtually found in a wide range of processed foods. The simple presence of trace amounts of hazelnut in foods can represent a potential risk for eliciting allergic reactions in sensitised individuals. The correct labelling of processed foods is mandatory to avoid adverse reactions. Therefore, adequate methodology evaluating the presence of offending foods is of great importance. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of hazelnut in complex food matrices. Using in-house produced antibodies, an ELISA system was developed capable to detect hazelnut down to 1 mg kg(-1) and quantify this nut down to 50 mg kg(-1) in chocolates spiked with known amounts of hazelnut. These results highlight and reinforce the value of ELISA as rapid and reliable tool for the detection of allergens in foods. PMID:25466021

Costa, Joana; Ansari, Parisa; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Baumgartner, Sabine

2015-04-15

78

Several analytical techniques that are currently available can be used to determine the spatial distribution and amount of austenite, ferrite and precipitate phases in steels. The application of magnetic force microscopy, in particular, to study the local microstructure of stainless steels is beneficial due to the selectivity of this technique for detection of ferromagnetic phases. In the comparison of Magnetic Force Microscopy and Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction for the morphological mapping and quantification of ferrite, the degree of sub-surface measurement has been found to be critical. Through the use of surface shielding, it has been possible to show that Magnetic Force Microscopy has a measurement depth of 105-140nm. A comparison of the two techniques together with the depth of measurement capabilities are discussed. PMID:25195013

Warren, A D; Harniman, R L; Collins, A M; Davis, S A; Younes, C M; Flewitt, P E J; Scott, T B

2015-01-01

79

Type I non-abelian superconductors in supersymmetric gauge theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-BPS non-Abelian vortices with CP1 internal moduli space are studied in an N = 2 supersymmetric U(1) x SU(2) gauge theory with adjoint mass terms. For generic internal orientations the classical force between two vortices can be attractive or repulsive. On the other hand, the mass of the scalars in the theory is always less than that of the vector bosons; also, the force between two vortices with the same CP1 orientation is always attractive: for these reasons we interpret our model as a non-Abelian generalization of type I superconductors. We compute the effective potential in the limit of two well separated vortices. It is a function of the distance and of the relative colour-flavour orientation of the two vortices; in this limit we find an effective description in terms of two interacting CP1 sigma models. In the limit of two coincident vortices we find two different solutions with the same topological winding and, for generic values of the parameters, different tensions. One of the two solutions is described by a CP1 effective sigma model, while the other is just an Abelian vortex without internal degrees of freedom. For generic values of the parameters, one of the two solutions is metastable, while there are evidences that the other one is truly stable

80

The Biequivalence of Locally Cartesian Closed Categories and Martin-L\\"of Type Theories

Seely's paper "Locally cartesian closed categories and type theory" contains a well-known result in categorical type theory: that the category of locally cartesian closed categories is equivalent to the category of Martin-L\\"of type theories with Pi-types, Sigma-types and extensional identity types. However, Seely's proof relies on the problematic assumption that substitution in types can be interpreted by pullbacks. Here we prove a corrected version of Seely's theorem: that the B\\'enabou-Hofmann interpretation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in locally cartesian closed categories yields a biequivalence of 2-categories. To facilitate the technical development we employ categories with families as a substitute for syntactic Martin-L\\"of type theories. As a second result we prove that if we remove Pi-types the resulting categories with families are biequivalent to left exact categories.

Clairambault, Pierre

2011-01-01

81

Type IIB flux vacua from G-theory II

We find analytic solutions of type IIB supergravity on geometries that locally take the form $\\text{Mink}\\times M_4\\times \\mathbb{C}$ with $M_4$ a generalised complex manifold. The solutions involve the metric, the dilaton, NSNS and RR flux potentials (oriented along the $M_4$) parametrised by functions varying only over $\\mathbb{C}$. Under this assumption, the supersymmetry equations are solved using the formalism of pure spinors in terms of a finite number of holomorphic functions. Alternatively, the solutions can be viewed as vacua of maximally supersymmetric supergravity in six dimensions with a set of scalar fields varying holomorphically over $\\mathbb{C}$. For a class of solutions characterised by up to five holomorphic functions, we outline how the local solutions can be completed to four-dimensional flux vacua of type IIB theory. A detailed study of this global completion for solutions with two holomorphic functions has been carried out in the companion paper [1]. The fluxes of the global solutions ar...

Candelas, Philip; Damian, Cesar; Larfors, Magdalena; Morales, Jose Francisco

2014-01-01

82

Type IIA flux compactifications. Vacua, effective theories and cosmological challenges

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis, we studied a number of type IIA SU(3)-structure compactifications with 06-planes on nilmanifolds and cosets, which are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the low energy effective theory. In particular we calculated the mass spectrum of the light scalar modes, using N = 1 supergravity techniques. For the torus and the Iwasawa solution, we have also performed an explicit Kaluza-Klein reduction, which led to the same result. For the nilmanifold examples we have found that there are always three unstabilized moduli corresponding to axions in the RR sector. On the other hand, in the coset models, except for SU(2) x SU(2), all moduli are stabilized. We discussed the Kaluza-Klein decoupling for the supersymmetric AdS vacua and found that it requires going to the Nearly-Calabi Yau limited. We searched for non-trivial de Sitter minima in the original flux potential away from the AdS vacuum. Finally, in chapter 7, we focused on a family of three coset spaces and constructed non-supersymmetric vacua on them. (orig.)

83

Type A fusion rules from elementary group theory

We show how the fusion rules for an affine Kac-Moody Lie algebra g of type A_{n-1}, n = 2 or 3, for all positive integral level k, can be obtained from elementary group theory. The orbits of the kth symmetric group, S_k, acting on k-tuples of integers modulo n, Z_n^k, are in one-to-one correspondence with a basis of the level k fusion algebra for g. If [a],[b],[c] are any three orbits, then S_k acts on T([a],[b],[c]) = {(x,y,z)\\in [a]x[b]x[c] such that x+y+z=0}, which decomposes into a finite number, M([a],[b],[c]), of orbits under that action. Let N = N([a],[b],[c]) denote the fusion coefficient associated with that triple of elements of the fusion algebra. For n = 2 we prove that M([a],[b],[c]) = N, and for n = 3 we prove that M([a],[b],[c]) = N(N+1)/2. This extends previous work on the fusion rules of the Virasoro minimal models [Akman, Feingold, Weiner, Minimal model fusion rules from 2-groups, Letters in Math. Phys. 40 (1997), 159-169].

Feingold, A J; Feingold, Alex J.; Weiner, Michael D.

2000-01-01

84

S-duality improved perturbation theory in compactified type I/heterotic string theory

We study the mass of the stable non-BPS state in type I/heterotic string theory compactified on a circle with the help of the interpolation formula between weak and strong coupling results. Comparison between the results at different orders indicate that this procedure can determine the mass of the particle to within 10% accuracy over the entire two dimensional moduli space parametrized by the string coupling and the radius of compactification. This allows us to estimate the region of the stability of the particle in this two dimensional moduli space. Outside this region the particle is unstable against decay into three BPS states carrying the same total charge as the original state. We discuss generalization of this analysis to compactification on higher dimensional tori.

Pius, Roji; Sen, Ashoke

2014-06-01

85

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information about current land cover type is essential at a certain level to ensure the optimum use of the land resources. Several approaches can be used to estimate land cover area, where remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS is among the method. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate how reliable these technologies in preparing information about land cover in Carey Island, Selangor of Peninsular Malaysia. Erdas Imagine 9.1 was used in digital image processing. A primary data of Landsat TM, with spatial resolution of 30 m was acquired from scene 127/58 on July 2007. Area estimate was calculated using direct expansion method from samples proportion of each segments of land cover type (1 km by 1 km sample size. In this study, four classes of land cover type have been identified and the areas were oil palm, mangrove, water bodies and urban/bare land area. The area estimate for all classes are 11039.28 ha (oil palm, 5242.86 ha (mangrove, 4894.92 ha (water bodies, and 4751.96 ha (urban/bare land, respectively. The overall classification accuracy obtained for this study is 96%. The results showed that the use of direct expansion method for estimating land cover type area is practical to be used with remote sensing approaches.

J Hj. Kamaruzaman,

2009-02-01

86

M Theory, Type IIA Superstrings, and Elliptic Cohomology

The topological part of the M-theory partition function was shown by Witten to be encoded in the index of an E8 bundle in eleven dimensions. This partition function is, however, not automatically anomaly-free. We observe here that the vanishing W_7=0 of the Diaconescu-Moore-Witten anomaly in IIA and compactified M-theory partition function is equivalent to orientability of spacetime with respect to (complex-oriented) elliptic cohomology. Motivated by this, we define an elliptic cohomology correction to the IIA partition function, and propose its relationship to interaction between 2-branes and 5-branes in the M-theory limit.

Kriz, I S; Kriz, Igor; Sati, Hisham

2004-01-01

87

On the S-matrix of type-0 string theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent discovery of non-perturbatively stable two-dimensional string back-grounds and their dual matrix models allows the study of complete scattering matrices in string theory. In this note we adapt work of Moore, Plesser, and Ramgoolam on the bosonic string to compute the exact S-matrices of 0A and 0B string theory in two dimensions. Unitarity of the 0B theory requires the inclusion of massless soliton sectors carrying RR scalar charge as asymptotic states. We propose a regularization of IR divergences and find transition probabilities that distinguish the otherwise energetically degenerate soliton sectors. Unstable D-branes can decay into distinct soliton sectors. (author)

88

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Coalescence of polymer particles in polymer matrix tablets influences drug release. The literature has emphasized that coalescence occurs above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer and that water may plasticize (lower Tg) the polymer. However, we have shown previously that nonplasticizing water also influences coalescence of Eudragit RLPO; so there is a need to quantify the different types of water in Eudragit RLPO. The purpose of this study was to distinguish the types of water present in Eudragit RLPO polymer and to investigate the water loss kinetics for these different types of water. Eudragit RLPO was stored in tightly closed chambers at various relative humidities (0, 33, 56, 75, and 94%) until equilibrium was reached. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-DRIFTS was used to investigate molecular interactions between water and polymer, and water loss over time. Using a curve fitting procedure, the water region (3100-3,700 cm(-1)) of the spectra was analyzed, and used to identifywater present in differing environments in the polymer and to determine the water loss kinetics upon purging the sample with dry compressed air. It was found that four environments can be differentiated (dipole interaction of water with quaternary ammonium groups, water cluster, and water indirectly and directly binding to the carbonyl groups of the polymer) but it was not possible to distinguish whether the different types of water were lost at different rates. It is suggested that water is trapped in the polymer in different forms and this should be considered when investigating coalescence of polymer matrices.

Pirayavaraporn, Chompak; Rades, Thomas

2013-01-01

89

Information about current land cover type is essential at a certain level to ensure the optimum use of the land resources. Several approaches can be used to estimate land cover area, where remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) is among the method. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate how reliable these technologies in preparing information about land cover in Carey Island, Selangor of Peninsular Malaysia. Erdas Imagine 9.1 was used in digital image processing. A p...

J Hj. Kamaruzaman,; I Mohd Hasmadi,

2009-01-01

90

New Type IIB Backgrounds and Aspects of Their Field Theory Duals

In this paper we study aspects of geometries in Type IIA and Type IIB String theory and elaborate on their field theory dual pairs. The backgrounds are associated with reductions to Type IIA of solutions with $G_2$ holonomy in eleven dimensions. We classify these backgrounds according to their G-structure, perform a non-Abelian T-duality on them and find new Type IIB configurations presenting {\\it dynamical} $SU(2)$-structure. We study some aspects of the associated field theories defined by these new backgrounds. Various technical details are clearly spelled out.

Caceres, Elena; Nune, Carlos

2014-01-01

91

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper compares the results of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) quantification by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PINP in serum from a patient with uremic hyperparathyroidism was measured in RIA and ELISA to 20 micrograms l-1 and 116 micrograms l-1 and the corresponding concentrations in dialysis fluid were 94.5 micrograms l-1 and 140 micrograms l-1, respectively. PINP antigen appears in two distinct peaks following size chromatography and the two peak fractions display immunological identity and identical M(r)'s (27 kDa: SDS-PAGE). Analysis of fractions from size separated amniotic fluid, serum and dialysis fluid demonstrated that the RIA failed to measure the low molecular weight form of PINP. However, the anti-PINP supplied with the RIA-kit and the anti-PINP applied in the ELISA reacted equally well with both molecular forms of PINP when analysed in a direct ELISA. It is concluded that the major difference in the ELISA and RIA results is due to assayefficacy with respect to the low molecular weight form of PINP. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Jan-12

Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Hansen, M

1998-01-01

92

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based medical imaging technique that produces cross-sectional images of blood vessels. This technique is particularly useful for studying coronary atherosclerosis. In this paper, we present a new framework that allows a segmentation and quantification of OCT images of coronary arteries to define the plaque type and stenosis grading. These analyses are usually carried out on-line on the OCT-workstation where measuring is mainly operator-dependent and mouse-based. The aim of this program is to simplify and improve the processing of OCT images for morphometric investigations and to present a fast procedure to obtain 3D geometrical models that can also be used for external purposes such as for finite element simulations. The main phases of our toolbox are the lumen segmentation and the identification of the main tissues in the artery wall. We validated the proposed method with identification and segmentation manually performed by expert OCT readers. The method was evaluated on ten datasets from clinical routine and the validation was performed on 210 images randomly extracted from the pullbacks. Our results show that automated segmentation of the vessel and of the tissue components are possible off-line with a precision that is comparable to manual segmentation for the tissue component and to the proprietary-OCT-console for the lumen segmentation. Several OCT sections have been processed to provide clinical outcome. PMID:25077844

Celi, Simona; Berti, Sergio

2014-10-01

93

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two alpha-amylase-producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae, a wild-type strain and a recombinant containing additional copies of the alpha-amylase gene, were characterized,vith respect to enzyme activities, localization of enzymes to the mitochondria or cytosol, macromolecular composition, and metabolic fluxes through the central metabolism during glucose-limited chemostat cultivations. Citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD) activities were found only in the mitochondria, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP) activities were found only in the cytosol, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, malate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) activities were found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol, The measured biomass components and ash could account for 95% (wt/wt) of the biomass. The protein and RNA contents increased linearly with increasing specific growth rate, but the carbohydrate and chitin contents decreased. A metabolic model consisting of 69 fluxes and 59 intracellular metabolites was used to calculate the metabolic fluxes through the central metabolism at several specific growth rates, with ammonia or nitrate as the nitrogen source. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway increased with increasing specific growth rate. The fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway were 15 to 26% higher for the recombinant strain than for the wild-type strain.

Pedersen, Henrik; Carlsen, Morten

1999-01-01

94

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Methanol has recently attracted renewed interest because of its potential importance as a solar fuel. Methanol is also an important bulk chemical that is most efficiently formed over the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The identity of the active site and, in particular, the role of ZnO as a promoter for this type of catalyst is still under intense debate. Structural changes that are strongly dependent on the pretreatment method have now been observed for an industrial-type methanol synthesis catalyst. A combination of chemisorption, reaction, and spectroscopic techniques provides a consistent picture of surface alloying between copper and zinc. This analysis enables a reinterpretation of the methods that have been used for the determination of the Cu surface area and provides an opportunity to independently quantify the specific Cu and Zn areas. This method may also be applied to other systems where metal-support interactions are important, and this work generally addresses the role of the carrier and the nature of the interactions between carrier and metal in heterogeneous catalysts.

Kuld, Sebastian; Moses, Poul Georg

2014-01-01

95

Krichever-Novikov type algebras theory and applications

Krichever and Novikov introduced certain classes of infinite dimensionalLie algebrasto extend the Virasoro algebra and its related algebras to Riemann surfaces of higher genus. The author of this book generalized and extended them toa more general setting needed by the applications. Examples of applications are Conformal Field Theory, Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models, moduli space problems, integrable systems, Lax operator algebras, and deformation theory of Lie algebra. Furthermore they constitute an important class of infinite dimensional Lie algebras which due to their geometric origin are

Schlichenmaier, Martin

2014-01-01

96

The type II interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R II) is a newly described 60-68 kDa protein expressed on monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. It is hypothesized that a 45 kDa soluble form of the IL-1R II attenuates the proinflammatory effects of IL-1 by preventing its binding to the type I IL-1 receptor. However, very little information exists regarding the detection of soluble IL-1R II. Specifically, there are no reports to date characterizing IL-1R II detection by enzyme-linked immunoassay in the presence of IL-1 beta or characterizing IL-1 beta detection in the presence of IL-1R II. This study addresses the detection and quantitation of IL-1R II and IL-1 beta by a number of sandwich ELISA formats and characterizes the sensitivity of detection in the presence of competitive cytokines. We generated two distinct IL-1R II sandwich ELISAs that can detect receptor down to a level of 50 pg/ml. One, M22/R2, detects only unbound IL-1R II and the other, M2/R2, detects both bound and unbound IL-1R II. In this context, a 4:1 molar ratio of IL-1 beta to IL-1R II interferes with the IL-1R II detection by the M22/R2 but not the M2/R2 ELISA. Conversely, IL-1R II at physiologically relevant concentrations interferes with the detection of IL-1 beta by three distinct IL-1 beta ELISA formats. Taken together, these studies suggest that when measuring samples that may contain both IL-1 beta and IL-1R II, careful attention must be given to assay specificity. PMID:7665893

Altenberger, E A; Pope, H A; Wewers, M D

1995-09-11

97

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

98

Initial layer theory and model equations of Volterra type

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is demonstrated here that there exist initial layers to singularly perturbed Volterra equations whose thicknesses are not of order of magnitude of 0(?), ? ? 0. It is also shown that the initial layer theory is extremely useful because it allows one to construct the approximate solution to an equation, which is almost identical to the exact solution. (author)

99

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 ± 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 ± 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 ± 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 ± 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

100

Approximately 25% of eukaryotic proteins possessing homology to at least two transmembrane domains are predicted to be embedded in biological membranes. Nevertheless, this group of proteins is not usually well represented in proteome-wide experiments due to their refractory nature. Here we present a quantitative mass spectrometry-based comparison of membrane protein expression in cerebellar granule neurons grown in primary culture that were isolated from wild-type mice and mice lacking the cellular prion protein. This protein is a cell-surface glycoprotein that is mainly expressed in the central nervous system and is involved in several neurodegenerative disorders, though its physiological role is unclear. We used a low specificity enzyme ?-chymotrypsin to digest membrane proteins preparations that had been separated by SDS-PAGE. The resulting peptides were labeled with tandem mass tags and analyzed by MS. The differentially expressed proteins identified using this approach were further analyzed by multiple reaction monitoring to confirm the expression level changes. PMID:22023170

Stella, Roberto; Cifani, Paolo; Peggion, Caterina; Hansson, Karin; Lazzari, Cristian; Bendz, Maria; Levander, Fredrik; Sorgato, Maria Catia; Bertoli, Alessandro; James, Peter

2012-02-01

101

This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact forces enable the hysteresis loops to be computed and analyzed. Consequently, the contact forces are plotted against the local deformation in order to assess the contact force loss during the impacts. The shaft motion during contact with the backup bearing is verified with a two-sided spectrum analyses. The analyses show that by use of a conventional annular guide, the shaft undergoes a direct transition from normal operation to a full annular backward whirling state for the case of external excitation. However, in a self-excited vibration case, where the speed is gradually increased and decreased through the first critical speed, the investigation revealed that different paths initiated the onset of backward whip and whirling motion. In order to improve the whirling and the full annular contact behavior, an unconventional pinned backup bearing is realized. The idea is to utilize pin connections that center the rotor during impacts and prevent the shaft from entering a full annular contact state. The experimental results show that the shaft escapes the pins and returns to a normal operational condition during an impact event.

Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar F.

2013-10-01

102

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact forces enable the hysteresis loops to be computed and analyzed. Consequently, the contact forces are plotted against the local deformation in order to assess the contact force loss during the impacts. The shaft motion during contact with the backup bearing is verified with a two-sided spectrum analyses. The analyses show that by use of a conventional annular guide, the shaft undergoes a direct transition from normal operation to a full annular backward whirling state for the case of external excitation. However, in a self-excited vibration case, where the speed is gradually increased and decreased through the first critical speed, the investigation revealed that different paths initiated the onset of backward whip and whirling motion. In order to improve the whirling and the full annular contact behavior, an unconventional pinned backup bearing is realized. The idea is to utilize pin connections that center the rotor during impacts and prevent the shaft from entering a full annular contact state. The experimental results show that the shaft escapes the pins and returns to a normal operational condition during an impact event. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

2013-01-01

103

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 {+-} 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 {+-} 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

Weber, Tim F. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ganten, Maria-Katharina [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.ganten@dkfz.de; Boeckler, Dittmar [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: dittmar.boeckler@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Geisbuesch, Philipp [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: philipp.geisbuesch@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: h.vontengg@dkfz.de

2009-12-15

104

Algebraic theory of type-and-effect systems

We present a general semantic account of Gifford-style type-and-effect systems. These type systems provide lightweight static analyses annotating program phrases with the sets of possible computational effects they may cause, such as memory access and modification, exception raising, and non-deterministic choice. The analyses are used, for example, to justify the program transformations typically used in optimising compilers, such as code reordering and inlining. Despite their ...

Kammar, Ohad

2014-01-01

105

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA. LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity. Conclusions We show that the natural system encoded in SPI-1 only produces high titers of secreted protein for 4-8 hours when the natural psicA promoter is used to drive expression. Secretion efficiency can be high, but declines for charged or large sequences. A quantitative characterization of these constraints will facilitate the effective use and engineering of this system.

Voigt Christopher A

2010-10-01

106

Applications of Reflection Amplitudes in Toda-type Theories

Reflection amplitudes are defined as two-point functions of certain class of conformal field theories where primary fields are given by vertex operators with real couplings. Among these, we consider (Super-)Liouville theory and simply and non-simply laced Toda theories. In this paper we show how to compute the scaling functions of effective central charge for the models perturbed by some primary fields which maintains integrability. This new derivation of the scaling functions are compared with the results from conventional TBA approach and confirms our approach along with other non-perturbative results such as exact expressions of the on-shell masses in terms of the parameters in the action, exact free energies. Another important application of the reflection amplitudes is a computation of one-point functions for the integrable models. Introducing functional relations between the one-point functions in terms of the reflection amplitudes, we obtain explicit expressions for simply-laced and non-simply-laced af...

Ahn, C; Rim, C; Ahn, Changrim; Kim, Chanju; Rim, Chaiho

2001-01-01

107

A New Look at Generalized Rewriting in Type Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rewriting is an essential tool for computer-based reasoning, both automated and assisted. This is because rewriting is a general notion that permits modeling a wide range of problems and provides a means to effectively solve them. In a proof assistant, rewriting can be used to replace terms in arbitrary contexts, generalizing the usual equational reasoning to reasoning modulo arbitrary relations. This can be done provided the necessary proofs that functions appearing in goals are congruent with respect to specific relations. We present a new implementation of generalized rewriting in the Coq proof assistant, making essential use of the expressive power of dependent types and the recently implemented type class mechanism. The new rewrite tactic improves on and generalizes previous versions by natively supporting higher-order functions, polymorphism and subrelations. The type class system inspired by Haskell provides a perfect interface between the user and the tactic, making it easily extensible.

Matthieu Sozeau

2009-01-01

108

Surveying problem solution with theory and objective type questions

The book provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of the various principles and methods for solving problems in land surveying. Each chapter starts with basic concepts and definitions, then solution of typical field problems and ends with objective type questions. The book explains errors in survey measurements and their propagation. Survey measurements are detailed next. These include horizontal and vertical distance, slope, elevation, angle, and direction. Measurement using stadia tacheometry and EDM are then highlighted, followed by various types of levelling problems. Traversing is then explained, followed by a detailed discussion on adjustment of survey observations and then triangulation and trilateration.

Chandra, AM

2005-01-01

109

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new algorithm has been derived for trajectory models to determine the transfer coefficient of each source along or adjacent to a trajectory and to calculate the concentrations of SO2 NOx, sulfate, nitrate, fine particulate matter (PM) and coarse PM at a receptor. The transfer coefficient tf(sm-1) is defined to be the ratio between the contributed concentration ?C(?gm-3) to the receptor from a ground source and the emission rate of the source q (?gm-2s-1) at a grid. i.e. tfidentical to?C/q. The model is developed by combining with a backward trajectory scheme and a circuit-type's parameterization. First, the transfer coefficients of grids along or adjacent a back-trajectory are calculated. Then, the contributed concentration of each emission grid is determined by multiplying its emission rate with the transfer coefficient of the grid. Finally, the concentration at the receptor is determined by the summation of all the contributed concentrations within the domain of simulation. (author)

110

Denotation of syntax and metaprogramming in contextual modal type theory (CMTT)

The modal logic S4 can be used via a Curry-Howard style correspondence to obtain a lambda-calculus. Modal (boxed) types are intuitively interpreted as `closed syntax of the calculus'. This lambda-calculus is called modal type theory --- this is the basic case of a more general contextual modal type theory, or CMTT. CMTT has never been given a denotational semantics in which modal types are given denotation as closed syntax. We show how this can indeed be done, with a twist. We also use the denotation to prove some properties of the system.

Gabbay, Murdoch

2012-01-01

111

The Classification of Gun’s Type Using Image Recognition Theory

The research aims to develop the Gun’s Type and Models Classification (GTMC) system using image recognition theory. It is expected that this study can serve as a guide for law enforcement agencies or at least serve as the catalyst for a similar type of research. Master image storage and image recognition are the two main processes. The procedures involved original images, scaling, gray scale, canny edge detector, SUSAN corner detector, block matching template, and finally gun type’s recog...

Kulthon Kasemsan, M. L.

2014-01-01

112

Fixed Point Theory for Lipschitzian-type Mappings with Applications

Offers a systematic presentation of Lipschitzian-type mappings in metric and Banach spaces. This book covers some basic properties of metric and Banach spaces. It also provides background in terms of convexity, smoothness and geometric coefficients of Banach spaces including duality mappings and metric projection mappings.

Sahu, D R; Agarwal, Ravi P

2009-01-01

113

In this paper we compare the behaviour of adverbs of frequency (de Swart 1993) like usually with the behaviour of adverbs of quantity like for the most part in sentences that contain plural definites. We show that sentences containing the former type of Q-adverb evidence that Quantificational Variability Effects (Berman 1991) come about as an indirect effect of quantification over situations: in order for quantificational variability readings to arise, these sentences have to obey two newly o...

Endriss, Cornelia; Hinterwimmer, Stefan

2006-01-01

114

Counting BPS Blackholes in Toroidal Type II String Theory

We derive a $U$-duality invariant formula for the degeneracies of BPS multiplets in a D1-D5 system for toroidal compactification of the type II string. The elliptic genus for this system vanishes, but it is found that BPS states can nevertheless be counted using a certain topological partition function involving two insertions of the fermion number operator. This is possible due to four extra toroidal U(1) symmetries arising from a Wigner contraction of a large $\\CN=4$ algeb...

Maldacena, Juan; Moore, Gregory; Strominger, Andrew

1999-01-01

115

Applications of differential sensitivity theory for extremum-type responses

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recently developed sensitivity theory for nonlinear systems with responses defined at critical points, e.g. maxima, minima, or saddle points, of a function of the system's state variables and parameters is applied to a protected transient with scram on high power level in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The single-phase segment of the fast reactor safety code MELT-III B is used to model this transient. Two responses of practical importance, viz. The maximum fuel temperature in the hot channel, and the maximum normalized reactor power level, are considered. For the purposes of sensitivity analysis, a complete characterization of such responses requires consideration of both the numerical value of the response at the maximum, and the location in phase-space where the maximum occurs. This is because variations in the system parameters alter not only the value at this maximum but also alter the location of the maximum in phase-space

116

Gödel-type Spacetimes in Induced Matter Gravity Theory

A five-dimensional (5D) generalized Gödel-type manifolds are examined in the light of the equivalence problem techniques, as formulated by Cartan. The necessary and sufficient conditions for local homogeneity of these 5D manifolds are derived. The local equivalence of these homogeneous Riemannian manifolds is studied. It is found that they are characterized by three essential parameters $k$, $m^2$ and $\\omega$: identical triads $(k, m^2, \\omega)$ correspond to locally equivalent 5D manifolds. An irreducible set of isometrically nonequivalent 5D locally homogeneous Riemannian generalized Gödel-type metrics are exhibited. A classification of these manifolds based on the essential parameters is presented, and the Killing vector fields as well as the corresponding Lie algebra of each class are determined. It is shown that the generalized Gödel-type 5D manifolds admit maximal group of isometry $G_r$ with $r=7$, $r=9$ or $r=15$ depending on the essential parameters $k$, $m^2$ and $\\omega$. The breakdown of causa...

Carrion, H L; Teixeira, A F F

1999-01-01

117

Bianchi type-V bulk viscous string cosmological model in scale-covariant theory of gravitation

A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V space-time is considered in the frame work of a scale covariant theory of gravitation proposed by Canuto et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39:429, 1977) when the matter sources is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. Using some physically plausible conditions, we have obtained a determinate solution of the field equations of the theory which represents a Bianchi type-V bulk viscous string cosmological model in this theory. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Reddy, D. R. K.; Vijaya Lakshmi, V.

2014-09-01

118

On the conformal field theory duals of type IIA AdS4 flux compactifications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the conformal field theory dual of the type IIA flux compactification model of DeWolfe, Giryavets, Kachru and Taylor, with all moduli stabilized. We find its central charge and properties of its operator spectrum. We concentrate on the moduli space of the conformal field theory, which we investigate through domain walls in the type IIA string theory. The moduli space turns out to consist of many different branches. We use Bezout's theorem and Bernstein's theorem to enumerate the different branches of the moduli space and estimate their dimension

119

Russell´s Early Type Theory and the Paradox of Propositions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paradox of propositions, presented in Appendix B of Russell's The Principles of Mathematics (1903, is usually taken as Russell's principal motive, at the time, for moving from a simple to a ramified theory of types. I argue that this view is mistaken. A closer study of Russell's correspondence with Frege reveals that Russell carne to adopt a very different resolution of the paradox, calling into question not the simplicity of his early type theory but the simplicity of his early theory of propositions.

André Fuhrmann

2001-12-01

120

Supergravity as Generalised Geometry I: Type II Theories

We reformulate ten-dimensional type II supergravity as a generalised geometrical analogue of Einstein gravity, defined by an $O(9,1)\\times O(1,9)\\subset O(10,10)\\times\\bbR^+$ structure on the generalised tangent space. Using the notion of generalised connection and torsion, we introduce the analogue of the Levi-Civita connection, and derive the corresponding tensorial measures of generalised curvature. We show how, to leading order in the fermion fields, these structures allow one to rewrite the action, equations of motion and supersymmetry variations in a simple, manifestly $\\Spin(9,1)\\times\\Spin(1,9)$-covariant form.

Coimbra, André; Waldram, Daniel

2011-01-01

121

Type-I D-branes in an H-flux and twisted KO-theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Witten has argued that charges of type-I D-branes in the presence of an H-flux, take values in twisted KO-theory. We begin with the study of real bundle gerbes and their holonomy. We then introduce the notion of real bundle gerbe KO-theory which we establish is a geometric realization of twisted KO-theory. We examine the relation with twisted K-theory, the Chern character and provide some examples. We conclude with some open problems. (author)

Mathai, Varghese; Murray, Michael K.; Stevenson, Danny [Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Adelaide (Australia)]. E-mail addresses: vmathai@maths.adelaide.edu.au; mmurray@maths.adelaide.edu.au; dstevens@maths.adelaide.edu.au

2003-11-01

122

Ginzburg-Landau-type theory of spin superconductivity

Spin superconductivity is a recently proposed analogue of conventional charge superconductivity, in which spin currents flow without dissipation but charge currents do not. Here we derive a universal framework for describing the properties of a spin superconductor along similar lines to the Ginzburg-Landau equations that describe conventional superconductors, and show that the second of these Ginzburg-Landau-type equations is equivalent to a generalized London equation. Just as the GL equations enabled researchers to explore the behaviour of charge superconductors, our Ginzburg-Landau-type equations enable us to make a number of non-trivial predictions about the potential behaviour of putative spin superconductor. They enable us to calculate the super spin current in a spin superconductor under a uniform electric field or that induced by a thin conducting wire. Moreover, they allow us to predict the emergence of new phenomena, including the spin-current Josephson effect in which a time-independent magnetic field induces a time-dependent spin current.

Bao, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, X. C.; Sun, Qing-Feng

2013-12-01

123

Theory of zeolite supralattices: Se in zeolite Linde type A

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study theoretically properties of Se clusters in zeolites, and choose zeolite Linde type A (LTA) as a prototype system. The geometries of free-space Se clusters are first determined, and we report the energetics and electronic and vibrational properties of these clusters. The work on clusters includes an investigation of the energetics of C3-C1 defect formation in Se rings and chains. The electronic properties of two Se crystalline polymorphs, trigonal Se and -monoclinic Se, are also determined. Electronic and vibrational properties of the zeolite LTA are investigated. Next we investigate the electronic and optical properties of ring-like Se clusters inside the large -cages of LTA. We find that Se clusters inside cages of silaceous LTA have very little interaction with the zeolite, and that the HOMO-LUMO gaps (HOMO standing for highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO for lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) are nearly those of the isolated cluster. The HOMO-LUMO gaps of Se6, Se8, and Se12 are found to be similar, which makes it difficult to identify them experimentally by absorption spectroscopy. We find that the zeolite/Se8 nanocomposite is lower in energy than the two separated systems. We also investigate two types of infinite chain encapsulated in LTA. Finally, we carry out finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations for an encapsulated Se12 cluster, which shows cluster melti2 cluster, which shows cluster melting and formation of nanoscale Se droplets in the?-cages of LTA. (author)

124

The theory of winds in early type stars

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this review should be to summarize the way in which the mass loss rate of a star may be included in a calculation of stellar evolution, but this is not possible. One can only use estimates of mass loss rates obtained from the observations. Even these give a large uncertainty. The observed mass loss rates for different stars of the same spectral type vary. Further the mass loss rates obtained by different methods for the same star differ. An extreme example of this is 9 Sgr. The mass loss rate derived from the radio observations is forty times greater than that derived from the U.V. and optical measurements. (Auth.)

125

Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric Stueckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence of chiral charged zero modes on M5-instantons in backgrounds with G{sub 4} flux are discussed and compared with the type IIB results. The dimensional reduction of the democratic formulation of M-theory is presented in the appendix.

Buenaventura Kerstan, Max Bromo

2013-11-13

126

Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric Stueckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence of chiral charged zero modes on M5-instantons in backgrounds with G4 flux are discussed and compared with the type IIB results. The dimensional reduction of the democratic formulation of M-theory is presented in the appendix.

127

Quantification analysis of CT of ovarian tumors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early symptoms in patients with ovarian tumors are usually few and nonspecific. CT is often very helpful in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors. Although it is difficult to identify normal ovaries, it is usually possible to diagnose ovarian lesions on CT, because with few exceptions they show tumorous enlargement. We can even estimate the histology in typical cases such as dermoid cysts or some types of cystadenomas. However, estimation of histology is difficult in many cases. Tumors other than those of ovarian origin can occur in the pelvis and require differentiation. Ovarian tumors have a close relationship with the uterus and broad ligaments, and make contact with as least one side of the pelvic wall. Enhanced CT with contrast media may facilitate differentiation between pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma uteri and ovarian tumor, because the former shows intense enhancement as a uterine body; the latter is less intense. Thus, we have little difficulty in differentiating between tumors of ovarian origin and those of other origins. Our problem is differentiating between malignant and benign ovarian tumors, and clarification of their histology. In this study, we devised a decision flow chart to attain an accurate diagnosis. In part, we have utilized Hayashi's quantification theory II, a multiple regression analysis where predictive variables are categorical and outside criteria are classificatory. Hayashi stated that the aim of multi-dimensional quantification is to synthetically form numerical representation of intercorrelated patterns to maximize the efficiency of classification, i.e. the success rate of prediction. Thus, quantification of patterns is thought to be effective in facilitating image diagnosis such as CT and minimizing errors. (author)

128

Vortex-type half-BPS solitons in Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory without and with mass deformation. It is shown that maximally supersymmetry preserving, D-term, and F-term mass deformations of single mass parameter are equivalent. We obtain vortex-type half-BPS equations and the corresponding energy bound. For the undeformed ABJM theory, the resulting half-BPS equation is the same as that in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and no finite energy regular BPS solution is found. For the mass-deformed ABJM theory, the half-BPS equations for U(2)xU(2) case reduce to the vortex equation in Maxwell-Higgs theory, which supports static regular multivortex solutions. In U(N)xU(N) case with N>2 the non-Abelian vortex equation of Yang-Mills-Higgs theory is obtained.

129

D-branes and dual gauge theories in type 0 strings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the type 0 theories, obtained from the closed NSR string by a diagonal GSO projection which excludes space-time fermions, and study the D-branes in these theories. The low-energy dynamics of N coincident D-branes is governed by a U(N) gauge theory coupled to adjoint scalar fields. It is tempting to look for the type 0 string duals of such bosonic gauge theories in the background of the R-R charged p-brane classical solutions. This results in a picture analogous to the one recently proposed by Polyakov (hep-th/9809057). One of the serious problems that needs to be resolved is the closed string tachyon mode which couples to the D-branes and appears to cause an instability. We study the tachyon terms in the type 0 effective action and argue that the background R-R flux provides a positive shift of the (mass)2 of the tachyon. Thus, for sufficiently large flux, the tachyonic instability may be cured, removing the most basic obstacle to constructing the type 0 duals of non-supersymmetric gauge theories. We further find that the tachyon acquires an expectation value in the presence of the R-R flux. This effect is crucial for breaking the conformal invariance in the dual description of the 3 + 1-dimensional non-supersymmetric gauge theory

130

Bianchi Type VI1 Viscous Fluid Cosmological Model in Wesson´s Theory of Gravitation

Field equations of a scale invariant theory of gravitation proposed by Wesson [1, 2] are obtained in the presence of viscous fluid with the aid of Bianchi type VIh space-time with the time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). It is found that Bianchi type VIh (h = 1) space-time with viscous fluid is feasible in this theory, whereas Bianchi type VIh (h = -1, 0) space-times are not feasible in this theory, even in the presence of viscosity. For the feasible case, by assuming a relation connecting viscosity and metric coefficient, we have obtained a nonsingular-radiating model. We have discussed some physical and kinematical properties of the models.

Khadekar, G. S.; Avachar, G. R.

2007-03-01

131

Quantum-defect theory for $-1/r^4$ type of interactions

We present a quantum-defect theory (QDT) for the $-1/r^4$ type of long-range potential, as a foundation for a systematic understanding of charge-neutral quantum systems such as ion-atom, ion-molecule, electron-atom, and positron-atom interactions. The theory incorporates both conceptual and mathematical advances since earlier formulations of the theory. It also includes more detailed discussions of the concept of resonance spectrum and its representations, universal properties in charge-neutral quantum systems, and the QDT description of scattering resonances that is applicable to any $-1/r^n$ potential with $n>2$.

Gao, Bo

2013-01-01

132

Maximal R-symmetry violating amplitudes in type IIb superstring theory.

On-shell superspace techniques are used to quantify R-symmetry violation in type IIB superstring theory amplitudes in a flat background in 10 dimensions. This shows the existence of a particularly simple class of nonvanishing amplitudes in this theory, which violate R symmetry maximally. General properties of the class and some of its extensions are established that at string tree level are shown to determine the first three nontrivial effective field theory contributions to all multiplicity. This leads to a natural conjecture for the exact analytic part of the first two of these. PMID:23002738

Boels, Rutger H

2012-08-24

133

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results.

Wellenreuther, G. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Achard, M.E.S.; Faust, A.; Kreplin, X. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Meyer-Klaucke, W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Wolfram@embl-hamburg.de

2008-12-15

134

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence (?XRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable res sample and yielded the most reliable results

135

Nonperturbative type IIB model building in the F-theory framework

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation is concerned with the topic of non-perturbative string theory, which is generally considered to be the most promising approach to a consistent description of quantum gravity. The five known 10-dimensional perturbative string theories are all interconnected by numerous dualities, such that an underlying non-perturbative 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, is postulated. Due to several technical obstacles, little is known about the fundamental objects in this theory. There exists an alternative non-perturbative description to type IIB string theory, namely F-theory. Here the SL(2;Z) self-duality of IIB theory is geometrized in the form of an elliptic fibration over the space-time. Moreover, higher-dimensional objects like 7-branes are included via singularities into the geometric picture. This formally elegant description, however, requires significant technical effort for the construction of suitable compactification geometries, as many different aspects necessarily have to be dealt with at the same time. On the other hand, the generation of essential GUT building blocks like certain Yukawa couplings or spinor representations is easier compared to perturbative string theory. The goal of this study is therefore to formulate a unified theory within the framework of F-theory, that satisfies basic phenomenological constraints. Within this thesis, at first E3-brane instantons in type IIB string theory - 4-dimensional objects that are entirely wrapped around the invisible dimensions of space-time - are matched with M5-branes in F-theory. Such objects are of great importance in the generation of critical Yukawa couplings or the stabilization of the free parameters of a theory. Certain properties of M5-branes then allow to derive a new criterion for E3-branes to contribute to the superpotential. In the aftermath of this analysis, several compactification geometries are constructed and checked for basic properties that are relevant for semi-realistic unified model building. An important aspect is the proper handling of the gauge flux on the 7-branes. Via the spectral cover description - which at first requires further refinements - chiral matter can be generated and the unified gauge group can be broken to the Standard Model. Ultimately, in this thesis an explicit unified model based on the gauge group SU(5) is constructed within the F-theory framework, such that an acceptable phenomenology and the observed three chiral matter generations are obtained. (orig.)

Jurke, Benjamin Helmut Friedrich

2011-02-28

136

Nonperturbative type IIB model building in the F-theory framework

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation is concerned with the topic of non-perturbative string theory, which is generally considered to be the most promising approach to a consistent description of quantum gravity. The five known 10-dimensional perturbative string theories are all interconnected by numerous dualities, such that an underlying non-perturbative 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, is postulated. Due to several technical obstacles, little is known about the fundamental objects in this theory. There exists an alternative non-perturbative description to type IIB string theory, namely F-theory. Here the SL(2;Z) self-duality of IIB theory is geometrized in the form of an elliptic fibration over the space-time. Moreover, higher-dimensional objects like 7-branes are included via singularities into the geometric picture. This formally elegant description, however, requires significant technical effort for the construction of suitable compactification geometries, as many different aspects necessarily have to be dealt with at the same time. On the other hand, the generation of essential GUT building blocks like certain Yukawa couplings or spinor representations is easier compared to perturbative string theory. The goal of this study is therefore to formulate a unified theory within the framework of F-theory, that satisfies basic phenomenological constraints. Within this thesis, at first E3-brane instantons in type IIB string theory - 4-dimensional objects that are entirely wrapped around the invisible dimensions of space-time - are matched with M5-branes in F-theory. Such objects are of great importance in the generation of critical Yukawa couplings or the stabilization of the free parameters of a theory. Certain properties of M5-branes then allow to derive a new criterion for E3-branes to contribute to the superpotential. In the aftermath of this analysis, several compactification geometries are constructed and checked for basic properties that are relevant for semi-realistic unified model building. An important aspect is the proper handling of the gauge flux on the 7-branes. Via the spectral cover description - which at first requires further refinements - chiral matter can be generated and the unified gauge group can be broken to the Standard Model. Ultimately, in this thesis an explicit unified model based on the gauge group SU(5) is constructed within the F-theory framework, such that an acceptable phenomenology and the observed three chiral matter generations are obtained. (orig.)

137

Abelian gauge symmetries and fluxed instantons in compactifications of type IIB and F-theory

We discuss the role of Abelian gauge symmetries in type IIB orientifold compactifications and their F-theory uplift. Particular emphasis is placed on U(1)s which become massive through the geometric St\\"uckelberg mechanism in type IIB. We present a proposal on how to take such geometrically massive U(1)s and the associated fluxes into account in the Kaluza-Klein reduction of F-theory with the help of non-harmonic forms. Evidence for this proposal is obtained by working out the F-theory effective action including such non-harmonic forms and matching the results with the known type IIB expressions. We furthermore discuss how world-volume fluxes on D3-brane instantons affect the instanton charge with respect to U(1) gauge symmetries and the chiral zero mode spectrum. The classical partition function of M5-instantons in F-theory is discussed and compared with the type IIB results for D3-brane instantons. The type IIB match allows us to determine the correct M5 partition function. Selection rules for the absence o...

Kerstan, Max

2014-01-01

138

Some phenomenological aspects of Type IIB/F-theory string compactifications

This article is the PhD thesis of the author. It is focused on Type II compactifications because of the potential for the construction of realistic MSSM-like compactifications. In particular we concentrate in Type IIB Calabi-Yau orientifolds and its non-perturbative realization: F-theory. These sort of models, have attracted a lot of attention during recent years due to their phenomenological interest. The first part is devoted to an introductory survey of some concepts and ...

Aparicio, Luis

2012-01-01

139

On theory of chemical evolution of neutral comets of a Halley type

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical theory of neutral chemical evolution atmospheres of comets, type of Gallea comet is presented, iced kernels which basically consist from ice water. The hydrogen atoms distribution law which photo dissociation molecules of water starting appears in result from a kernel under influence of short-wave Sun radiations, such types of comets were found in atmospheres and realization opportunity of this law is shown

140

WKB - type approximations in the theory of vacuum particle creation in strong fields

Within the theory of vacuum creation of an $e^{+}e^{-}$ - plasma in the strong electric fields acting in the focal spot of counter-propagating laser beams we compare predictions on the basis of different WKB-type approximations with results obtained in the framework of a strict kinetic approach. Such a comparison demonstrates a considerable divergence results. We analyse some reasoning for this observation and conclude that WKB-type approximations have an insufficient founda...

Smolyansky, S. A.; Dmitriev, V. V.; Panferov, A. D.; Prozorkevich, A. V.; Blaschke, D.; Juchnowski, L.

2014-01-01

141

Bipolarity in Jungian type theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

The standard form of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was constructed to measure introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuiting, and thinking/feeling as single, bipolar dimensions. We tested this assumption of bipolarity with a Likert form of the MBTI that allowed for the independent assessment of each attitude and function. A total of 106 female and 59 male undergraduate and graduate students completed the standard and Likert MBTI forms approximately 3 weeks apart. Evidence for the bipolarity of the introversion/extroversion dimension was weak, and findings did not support the bipolarity of the sensing/intuiting or thinking/feeling dimensions. Results provide evidence that high negative correlations within MBTI dimensions are an artifact of its forced-choice format. Implications of the findings for typology measurement are discussed. PMID:8473967

Girelli, S A; Stake, J E

1993-04-01

142

Comment on ''Proof of one-loop finiteness of type-I SO(32) superstring theory''

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reviewing a proof by Clavelli, we find that the parity-conserving one-loop divergences of type-I SO(N) superstring theory with an arbitrary number of external gauge bosons cancel for N = 8 rather than for N = 32

143

The central error of M. W. Evans ECE theory - a type mismatch

This note corrects an erroneous article by M.W. Evans on his GCUFT theory which he took over in his GCUFT book. Due to Evans' bad habit of suppressing seemingly unimportant indices type match errors occur that cannot be removed. In addition some further errors of that article/book chapter are pointed out.

Bruhn, G W

2006-01-01

144

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a theory of electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level, ladder-type Doppler-broadened medium, paying special attention to the case where the coupling and probe beams are counterpropagating and have similar frequencies, so as to reduce the total Doppler width of the two-photon process. The theory is easily generalized to deal with the ? configuration, where the ideal arrangement involves two copropagating beams. We discuss different possible regimes, depending on the relative importance of the various broadening mechanisms, and identify ways to optimize the absorption-reduction effect. The theory is compared to the results of a recent experiment (on a ladder-type system), using the Rb D2 line, with generally very good agreement. The maximum absorption reduction observed (64.4%) appears to be mostly limited by the relatively large (?5 MHz) linewidth of the diode lasers used in our experiment

145

An Sl(2, Z) multiplet of nine-dimensional type II supergravity theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that only by performing generalized dimensional reductions all possible brane configurations are taken into account and one gets the complete lower-dimensional theory. We apply this idea to the reduction of type IIB supergravity in an SL(2, Z)-covariant way and establish T-duality for the type II superstring effective action in the context of generalized dimensional reduction giving the corresponding generalized Buscher's T-duality rules. The full (generalized) dimensional reduction involves all the S-duals of D7-branes: Q7-branes and a sort of composite 7-branes. The three species constitute an SL(2, Z) triplet. Their presence induces the appearance of the triplet of masses of the 9-dimensional theory. The T-duals, including a 'KK-8A-brane', which must have a compact transverse dimension have to be considered in the type IIA side. Compactification of 11-dimensional KK-9M-branes (a.k.a. M9-branes) on the compact transverse dimension give D8-branes while compactification on a world-volume dimension gives KK-8A-branes. The presence of these KK-monopole-type objects breaks translation invariance and two of them given rise to an SL(2, Z)-covariant massive 11-dimensional supergravity whose reduction gives the massive 9-dimensional type II theories

146

The Classification of Gun’s Type Using Image Recognition Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research aims to develop the Gun’s Type and Models Classification (GTMC system using image recognition theory. It is expected that this study can serve as a guide for law enforcement agencies or at least serve as the catalyst for a similar type of research. Master image storage and image recognition are the two main processes. The procedures involved original images, scaling, gray scale, canny edge detector, SUSAN corner detector, block matching template, and finally gun type’s recognition. Of the 505 images, 80 were control or master images, and 425 were experimental images of the eight gun types. The finding from the experiment indicated that the GTMC was able to classify the images of the semi-automatic gun with the highest accuracy of 99.06 percent, and the average accurate gun image classification was 81.25 percent respectively.

M. L. Kulthon Kasemsan

2014-01-01

147

M-theory on Manifolds of G_2 Holonomy and Type IIA Orientifolds

We demonstrate that M-theory compactifications on 7-manifolds of G_2 holonomy, which yield 4d N=1 supersymmetric systems, often admit at special loci in their moduli space a description as type IIA orientifolds. In this way, we are able to find new dualities of special IIA orientifolds, including dualities which relate orientifolds of IIA strings on manifolds of different topology with different numbers of wrapped D-branes. We also discuss models which incorporate, in a natural way, compact embeddings of gauge theory/gravity dualities similar to those studied in the recent work of Atiyah, Maldacena and Vafa.

Kachru, S; Kachru, Shamit; Greevy, John Mc

2001-01-01

148

M-theory on manifolds of G2 holonomy and type IIA orientifolds

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate that M-theory compactifications on 7-manifolds of G2 holonomy, which yield 4d N=1 supersymmetric systems, often admit at special loci in their moduli space a description as type IIA orientifolds. In this way, we are able to find new dualities of special IIA orientifolds, including dualities which relate orientifolds of IIA strings on manifolds of different topology with different numbers of wrapped D-branes. We also discuss models which incorporate, in a natural way, compact embeddings of gauge theory/gravity dualities similar to those studied in the recent work of Atiyah, Maldacena and Vafa. (author)

149

Exceptional field theory. I. E6(6)-covariant form of M-theory and type IIB

We present the details of the recently constructed E6(6)-covariant extension of 11-dimensional supergravity. This theory requires a 5+27-dimensional spacetime in which the "internal" coordinates transform in the 27 ¯ of E6(6). All fields are E6(6) tensors and transform under (gauged) internal generalized diffeomorphisms. The "Kaluza-Klein" vector field acts as a gauge field for the E6(6)-covariant "E-bracket" rather than a Lie bracket, requiring the presence of 2-forms akin to the tensor hierarchy of gauged supergravity. We construct the complete and unique action that is gauge invariant under generalized diffeomorphisms in the internal and external coordinates. The theory is subject to covariant section constraints on the derivatives, implying that only a subset of the extra 27 coordinates is physical. We give two solutions of the section constraints: the first preserves GL(6) and embeds the action of the complete (i.e. untruncated) 11-dimensional supergravity; the second preserves GL(5)×SL(2) and embeds complete type IIB supergravity. As a byproduct, we thus obtain an off-shell action for type IIB supergravity.

Hohm, Olaf; Samtleben, Henning

2014-03-01

150

Inflation of Bianchi type-$\\Rmnum{7}_0$ Universe with Dirac Field in Einstein-Cartan theory

We discuss the Bianchi type-$\\Rmnum{7}_0$ cosmology with Dirac field in Einstein-Cartan theory. We obtain the equations of Dirac field and gravitational field in Einstein-Cartan theory. We find a Bianchi type-$\\Rmnum{7}_0$ inflationary solution.

Fang, Wei; Lu, Hui-Qing

2010-01-01

151

The detection of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is vital for controlling the spread of HIV, HBV, and HCV to uninfected individuals. Considering that these viruses have high replication rates and are undetectable by serological markers, early detection upon transmission is crucial. Various nucleic acid assays have been developed for diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring of infections. In the past decade, rapid and sensitive molecular techniques such as PCR have revolutionized the detection of a variety of infectious viruses, including HIV, HCV, and HBV. Here, we describe two of the most commonly used licensed methods for the detection and quantification of HIV, HCV, and HBV: the cobas TaqScreen MPX (PCR) test and the Tigris System. We used transcription-mediated amplification to review and compare the development and efficiency of these technologies. PMID:24927665

Albertoni, Guilherme; Castelo Girão, Manoel João Batista; Schor, Nestor

2014-08-01

152

Type IIB string theory on AdS5 x Tnn'

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study Kaluza-Klein spectrum of type IIB string theory compactified on AdS5 x Tnn' in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence. We examine some of the modes of the complexified 2 form potential as an example and show that for the states at the bottom of the Kaluza-Klein tower the corresponding d=4 boundary field operators have rational conformal dimensions. The masses of some of the fermionic modes in the bottom of each tower as functions of the R charge in the boundary conformal theory are also rational. Furthermore the modes in the bottom of the towers originating from q forms on T11 can be put in correspondence with the BRS cohomology classes of the c = 1 non critical string theory with ghost number q. (author)

153

A COSSERAT-TYPE PLATE THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION TO CARBON NANOTUBE MICROSTRUCTURE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The predictive capabilities of plate and shell theories greatly depend on their underlying kinematic assumptions. In this study, we develop a Cosserat-type elastic plate theory which accounts for rotations around the normal to the mid-surface plane (so-called drilling rotations. Internal loads, equilibrium equations, boundary conditions and constitutive equations are derived. The case of a Single Walled carbon Nanotube (SWNT modelled as a Cosserat medium is taken here as a reference example. Material parameters are identi?ed and the proposed theory is used to solve analytically the problem of a polymer-SWNT composite tube under torsion. Predictions such as an absolute size effect are compared to those of the classical Cauchy-de Saint-Venant results.

Abdellatif Selmi

2014-01-01

154

Type IIA/M-theory Moduli fixing in a Class of Orientifold Models

We present the study of type II A flux vacua and their M-theory duals for compactification on a class of Calabi-Yau orientifolds. The Kahler potential is derived from toroidal compactifications and the superpotential contains a contribution from non-Abelian gauge degrees of freedoms. We obtain complete stabilisation of the moduli. We found one supersymmetric minimum and several non supersymmetric ones. Consistency of the analysis constrains the parameters of the models in a finite region containing a finite, although very large, number of flux vacua. From the M-theory side, we found some differences in the distributions of the physical quantities with respect to the M-theory ensemble studied by Acharya et al. In particular, it is easier to find small supersymmetry breaking scale.

Milanesi, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

155

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many inner ear disorders, including Meniere's disease, are believed to be based on endolymphatic hydrops. We evaluated a newly proposed method for semi-quantification of endolymphatic size in patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops that uses 2 kinds of processed magnetic resonance (MR) images. Twenty-four consecutive patients underwent heavily T2-weighted (hT2W) MR cisternography (MRC), hT2W 3-dimensional (3D) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) with inversion time of 2250 ms (positive perilymph image, PPI), and hT2W-3D-IR with inversion time of 2050 ms (positive endolymph image, PEI) 4 hours after intravenous administration of single-dose gadolinium-based contrast material (IV-SD-GBCM). Two images were generated using 2 new methods to process PPI, PEI, and MRC. Three radiologists contoured the cochlea and vestibule on MRC, copied regions of interest (ROIs) onto the 2 kinds of generated images, and semi-quantitatively measured the size of the endolymph for the cochlea and vestibule by setting a threshold pixel value. Each observer noted a strong linear correlation between endolymphatic size of both the cochlea and vestibule of the 2 kinds of generated images. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.783, 0.734, and 0.800 in the cochlea and 0.924, 0.930, and 0.933 in the vestibule (P<0.001, for all). In both the cochlea and vestibule, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no statistically significant difference between observers. Use of the 2 kinds of generated images generated from MR images obtained 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM might enable semi-quantification of endolymphatic size with little observer dependency. (author)

156

Quantification of Endogenous Retinoids

Numerous physiological processes require retinoids, including development, nervous system function, immune responsiveness, proliferation, differentiation, and all aspects of reproduction. Reliable retinoid quantification requires suitable handling and, in some cases, resolution of geometric isomers that have different biological activities. Here we describe procedures for reliable and accurate quantification of retinoids, including detailed descriptions for handling retinoids, preparing stand...

Kane, Maureen A.; Napoli, Joseph L.

2010-01-01

157

The renormalization group (RNG) theory of turbulence is often used for the forced Navier-Stokes equation in order to investigate turbulence models in Fourier space. The strong point of this kind of theory is the ability to construct turbulence models with the aid of the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law for the energy spectrum. In this paper, we have made use of an iterative averaging method proposed by McComb (1990), which does not have the misleading ?-expansion technique developed by Yakhot and Orszag (1986), then applied this method to the derivation of an eddy-viscosity type turbulence model. Using the exact Navier-Stokes equation excluding artificial external forces, we have obtained the eddy-viscosity type turbulence model which is equivalent to the Boussinesq postulate, and its model constant C? is determined from only a Kolmogorov constant ?.

Nagano, Yasutaka; Itazu, Yoshihiro

1997-01-01

158

A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of 'lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them - the method of 'Kaehler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading ?'-correction - allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the Kaehler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume. (orig.)

159

WKB - type approximations in the theory of vacuum particle creation in strong fields

Within the theory of vacuum creation of an $e^{+}e^{-}$ - plasma in the strong electric fields acting in the focal spot of counter-propagating laser beams we compare predictions on the basis of different WKB-type approximations with results obtained in the framework of a strict kinetic approach. Such a comparison demonstrates a considerable divergence results. We analyse some reasoning for this observation and conclude that WKB-type approximations have an insufficient foundation for QED in strong nonstationary fields. The results obtained in this work on the basis of the kinetic approach are most optimistic for the observation of an $e^{+}e^{-}$ - plasma in the range of optical and x-ray laser facilities. We discuss also the influence of unphysical features of non-adiabatic field models on the reliability of predictions of the kinetic theory.

Smolyansky, S A; Panferov, A D; Prozorkevich, A V; Blaschke, D; Juchnowski, L

2014-01-01

160

Kaluza–Klein-type models of de Sitter and Poincaré gauge theories of gravity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We construct Kaluza–Klein-type models with a de Sitter or Minkowski bundle in the de Sitter or Poincaré gauge theory of gravity, respectively. A manifestly gauge-invariant formalism has been given. The gravitational dynamics is constructed by the geometry of the de Sitter or Minkowski bundle and a global section which plays an important role in the gauge-invariant formalism. Unlike the old Kaluza–Klein-type models of gauge theory of gravity, a suitable cosmological term can be obtained in the Lagrangian of our models and the models in the spin-current-free and torsion-free limit will come back to general relativity with a corresponding cosmological term. We also generalize the results to the case with a variable cosmological term. (paper)

161

Spatially Homogeneous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model in the Scale-Covariant Theory of Gravitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V spacetime filled with a perfect fluid in the framework of the scale-covariant theory of gravitation proposed by Canuto et al. By applying the law of variation for Hubble's parameter, exact solutions of the field equations are obtained, which correspond to the model of the universe having a big-bang type singularity at the initial time t = 0. The cosmological model, evolving from the initial singularity, expands with power-law expansion and gives essentially an empty space for a large time. The physical and dynamical properties of the model are also discussed. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

162

Constructing exotic D-branes with infinite matrices in type IIA string theory

We examine the set of objects which can be built in type IIA string theory by matrix methods using an infinite number of D0-branes. In addition to stacks of ordinary Dp-branes and branes in background fields, we find exotic states which cannot be constructed by other means. These states exhibit strongly noncommutative geometry, (e.g., partial derivatives on them do not commute) and some are conjectured to have Z_N-valued charges similar to those of the type I D-instanton. Real-valued charges are forbidden by Dirac quantization, leading to a nontrivial relationship between noncommutative topological invariants.

Zunger, Y

2002-01-01

163

Chern class identities from tadpole matching in type IIB and F-theory

In light of Sen's weak coupling limit of F-theory as a type IIB orientifold, the compatibility of the tadpole conditions leads to a non-trivial identity relating the Euler characteristics of an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold and of certain related surfaces. We present the physical argument leading to the identity, and a mathematical derivation of a Chern class identity which confirms it, after taking into account singularities of the relevant loci. This identity of...

Aluffi, Paolo; Esole, Mboyo

2007-01-01

164

HANDWRITTEN SIGNATURE VERIFICATIONS USING ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY TYPE-2 (ART-2) NET

Authorizing hand-written signature has always been a challenge to prevent illegal transactions, especially when the forged and the original signatures are very ‘similar-looking’ in nature. In this paper, we aim to automate forged signature verification process, offline, using Adaptive Resonance Theory type-2 (ART-2), which has been implemented in ‘C’ language using both sequential and parallel programming. The said network has been trained with the original signature and tested with t...

Tirtharaj Dash

2012-01-01

165

The quantum kinks of two-dimensional theories of the phi4 type

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We apply a recently established method of kink quantization, to two-dimensional theories of the PHI4 type possessing either a Z(4)xO(N) or an SU(N) symmetry and containing N complex scalar fields. Correlation functions of kinks are estimated through a 1/N expansion. Quantum kinks are interpolated by a local field, whenever a broken symmetry phase occurs. These kinks are massless. This result holds up to all orders in 1/N. (orig.)

166

Flux vacua in Dirac-Born-Infeld type Einstein-Maxwell theory

We study compactification of extra dimensions in a theory of Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) type gravity. We investigate the solution for Minkowski spacetime with an $S^{2}$ extra space. The solution is derived by the effective potential method in the presence of the magnetic flux on the extra sphere. We find that, in a certain model, the radius of the extra space has a minimum value independent of the higher-dimensional Newton constant in weak-field limit.

Maki, Takuya; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

2011-01-01

167

The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor in the two-group transport theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor is solved for the first time in the two group neutron transport theory, by singular eingenfunctions expansion, the singular integrals obtained through continuity conditions of angular distributions at the interface are regularized by a recently proposed method. The result is a coupled system of regular integral equations for the expansion coefficients, this system is solved by an ordinary interactive method. Numerical results that can be utilized as a comparative standard for aproximation methods, are presented

168

Transient theory of double slope floating cum tilted - wick type solar still

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A double slope floating cum tilted-wick solar still has been fabricated and transient theory of floating cum tilted-wick type solar still has been proposed. Analytical expressions have been derived for the different temperatures components of the proposed system. For elocution of the analytical results, numerical calculations have been carried out using the meteorological parameters for a typical summer day in Coimbatore. Analytical expression results are found to be in the close agreement with the experimental results. (authors)

169

Bosonic String and String Field Theory: a Solution Using Ultradistributions of Exponential Type

In this paper we show that Ultradistributions of Exponential Type (UET) are appropriate for the description in a consistent way string and string field theories. A new Lagrangian for the closed string is obtained and shown to be equivalent to Nambu Goto’s Lagrangian. We also show that the string field is a linear superposition of UET of compact support (CUET). We evaluate the propagator for the string field, and calculate the convolution of two of them.

Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.

2008-05-01

170

Bosonic String and String Field Theory: a solution using Ultradistributions of Exponential Type

In this paper we show that Ultradistributions of Exponential Type (UET) are appropriate for the description in a consistent way string and string field theories. A new Lagrangian for the closed string is obtained and shown to be equivalent to Nambu-Goto's Lagrangian. We also show that the string field is a linear superposition of UET of compact support CUET). We evaluate the propagator for the string field, and calculate the convolution of two of them.

Bollini, C G

2007-01-01

171

The epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory with Wilson-type fermions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this proceeding contribution we report on the ongoing effort to simulate Wilson-type fermions in the so called epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory (cPT).We present results for the chiral condensate and the pseudoscalar decay constant obtained with Wilson twisted mass fermions employing two lattice spacings, two different physical volumes and several quark masses. With this set of simulations we make a first attempt to estimate the systematic uncertainties. (orig.)

172

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To the full order in fermions, we construct D=10 type II supersymmetric double field theory. We spell the precise N=2 supersymmetry transformation rules as for 32 supercharges. The constructed action unifies type IIA and IIB supergravities in a manifestly covariant manner with respect to O(10,10) T-duality and a pair of local Lorentz groups, or Spin(1,9)×Spin(9,1), besides the usual general covariance of supergravities or the generalized diffeomorphism. While the theory is unique, the solutions are twofold. Type IIA and IIB supergravities are identified as two different types of solutions rather than two different theories

173

Some phenomenological aspects of Type IIB/F-theory string compactifications

This article is the PhD thesis of the author. It is focused on Type II compactifications because of the potential for the construction of realistic MSSM-like compactifications. In particular we concentrate in Type IIB Calabi-Yau orientifolds and its non-perturbative realization: F-theory. These sort of models, have attracted a lot of attention during recent years due to their phenomenological interest. The first part is devoted to an introductory survey of some concepts and aspects of Type II vacua like e.g. the low energy effective action or soft terms. It is also included a brief presentation of F-theory stressing the phenomenological interest of local models. In the second part we present an analysis of the theoretical and phenomenological issues of modulus dominated SUSY breaking. In addition it is examined its status in comparison with recent LHC data. Finally, the third part is devoted to the analysis of flux and instanton effects on local F-theory models. Yukawas and matter fields wave functions corres...

Aparicio, Luis

2012-01-01

174

A Novel Framework for Quantification of Supply Chain Risks

Supply chain risk management is an active area of research and there is a research gap of exploring established risk quantification techniques in other fields for application in the context of supply chain management. We have developed a novel framework for quantification of supply chain risks that integrates two techniques of Bayesian belief network and Game theory. Bayesian belief network can capture interdependency between risk factors and Game theory can assess risks associated with confl...

Qazi, Abroon; Quigley, John; Dickson, Alex

2014-01-01

175

We study a complex type theory, a Calculus of Inductive Constructions with a predicative hierarchy of universes and a first-order theory T built in its conversion relation. The theory T is specified abstractly, by a set of constructors, a set of defined symbols, axioms expressing that constructors are free and defined symbols completely defined, and a generic elimination principle relying on crucial properties of first-order structures satisfying the axioms. We first show that CoqMTU enjoys a...

Barras, Bruno; Jouannaud, Jean-pierre; Strub, Pierre-yves; Wang, Qian

2011-01-01

176

Localized Modes in Type II and Heterotic Singular Calabi-Yau Conformal Field Theories

We consider type II and heterotic string compactifications on an isolated singularity in the noncompact Gepner model approach. The conifold-type ADE noncompact Calabi-Yau threefolds, as well as the ALE twofolds, are modeled by a tensor product of the SL(2,R)/U(1) Kazama-Suzuki model and an N=2 minimal model. Based on the string partition functions on these internal Calabi-Yaus previously obtained by Eguchi and Sugawara, we construct new modular invariant, space-time supersymmetric partition functions for both type II and heterotic string theories, where the GSO projection is performed before the continuous and discrete state contributions are separated. We investigate in detail the massless spectra of the localized modes. In particular, we propose an interesting three generation model, in which each flavor is in the 27+1 representation of E6 and localized on a four-dimensional space-time residing at the tip of the cigar.

Mizoguchi, Shun'ya

2008-01-01

177

A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor

In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

Bianchi Granato, Danilo

2012-05-01

178

Towards reduction of type II theories on SU(3) structure manifolds

We revisit the reduction of type II supergravity on SU(3) structure manifolds, conjectured to lead to gauged N=2 supergravity in 4 dimensions. The reduction proceeds by expanding the invariant 2- and 3-forms of the SU(3) structure as well as the gauge potentials of the type II theory in the same set of forms, the analogues of harmonic forms in the case of Calabi-Yau reductions. By focussing on the metric sector, we arrive at a list of constraints these expansion forms should satisfy to yield a base point independent reduction. Identifying these constraints is a first step towards a first-principles reduction of type II on SU(3) structure manifolds.

Kashani-Poor, A K; Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; Minasian, Ruben

2007-01-01

179

A construction principle for ADM-type theories in maximal slicing gauge

The differing concepts of time in general relativity and quantum mechanics are widely accused as the main culprits in our persistent failure in finding a complete theory of quantum gravity. Here we address this issue by constructing ADM-type theories \\emph{in a particular time gauge} directly from first principles. The principles are expressed as conditions on phase space constraints: we search for two sets of spatially covariant constraints, which generate symmetries (are first class) and gauge-fix each other leaving two propagating degrees of freedom. One of the sets is the Weyl generator tr$(\\pi)$, and the other is a one-parameter family containing the ADM scalar constraint $\\lambda R- \\beta(\\pi^{ab}\\pi_{ab}+(\\mbox{tr}(\\pi))^2/2))$. The two sets of constraints can be seen as defining ADM-type theories with a maximal slicing gauge-fixing. The principles above are motivated by a heuristic argument relying in the relation between symmetry doubling and exact renormalization arguments for quantum gravity, aside...

Gomes, Henrique

2013-01-01

180

Type IIA supergravity and M-theory on manifolds with SU(4) structure

We give the general form of supersymmetric backgrounds with two real supercharges of M theory and type IIA supergravity (with nonzero Romans mass in general) of the form R1,d×M8, d=1,2, on eight-dimensional manifolds with SU(4) structure. We point out a subtlety in the integrability theorems for low-dimensional supersymmetric compactifications. As a special case we examine Calabi-Yau flux vacua, and we show that unbroken supersymmetry does not in general require the 4-form flux to be (2,2) or primitive. Our results could be used to construct novel higher dimensional analogues of the Klebanov-Strassler geometry. In the case of M-theory large-volume Calabi-Yau flux vacua, our results are in agreement with partial supersymmetry breaking in three-dimensional N=2 supergravity. Alternatively, the conditions for supersymmetry can be expressed in terms of a real "superpotential" in accordance with three-dimensional N=1 supergravity. We present explicit examples of M-theory flux vacua on K3×K3, which however do not appear to possess F-theory duals with four-dimensional Poincaré invariance.

Prins, Daniël; Tsimpis, Dimitrios

2014-03-01

181

Bianchi Type-IX Magnetized Dark Energy Model in Saez-Ballester Theory of Gravitation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bianchi type-IX cosmological model with variable ? has been studied in the scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester [Phys. Lett. A 113: 467, 1985] in the presence and absence of magnetic field of energy density?b. A special law of variation of Hubble’s parameter proposed by Berman [Nuovo Cimento 74 B, 182, 1983] has been used to solve the field equations. The physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

H. R. Ghate

2014-03-01

182

A Global View on The Search for de-Sitter Vacua in (type IIA) String Theory

The search for classically stable Type IIA de-Sitter vacua typically starts with an ansatz that gives Anti-de-Sitter supersymmetric vacua and then raises the cosmological constant by modifying the compactification. As one raises the cosmological constant, the couplings typically destabilize the classically stable vacuum, so the probability that this approach will lead to a classically stable de-Sitter vacuum is Gaussianly suppressed. This implies that classically stable de-Sitter vacua in string theory (at least in the Type IIA region), especially those with relatively high cosmological constants, are very rare. The probability that a typical de-Sitter extremum is classically stable (i.e., tachyon-free) is argued to be Gaussianly suppressed as a function of the number of moduli.

Chen, Xingang; Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S -H Henry

2011-01-01

183

Energy of the Universe in Bianchi-type I Models in Moller's Tetrad Theory of Gravity

In this paper, using the energy definition in Moller's tetrad theory of gravity we calculate the total energy of the universe in Bianchi-type I cosmological models which includes both the matter and gravitational fields. The total energy is found to be zero and this result agrees with a previous works of Banerjee-Sen who investigated this problem using the general relativity version of the Einstein energy-momentum complex and Xulu who investigated same problem using the general relativity versions of the Landau-lifshitz, Papapetrou and Weinberg's energy-momentum complexes. The result that total energy of the universe in Bianchi-type I universes is zero supports the viewpoint of Tryon.

Aydogdu, O; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

2005-01-01

184

M-theory on `toric' $G_2$ cones and its type II reduction

We analyze a class of conical $G_2$ metrics admitting two commuting isometries, together with a certain one-parameter family of $G_2$ deformations which preserves these symmetries. Upon using recent results of Calderbank and Pedersen, we write down the explicit $G_2$ metric for the most general member of this family and extract the IIA reduction of M-theory on such backgrounds, as well as its type IIB dual. By studying the asymptotics of type II fields around the relevant loci, we confirm the interpretation of such backgrounds in terms of localized IIA 6-branes and delocalized IIB 5-branes. In particular, we find explicit, general expressions for the string coupling and R-R/NS-NS forms in the vicinity of these objects. Our solutions contain and generalize the field configurations relevant for certain models considered in recent work of Acharya and Witten.

Anguelova, L

2002-01-01

185

Mild to severe social fears: ranking types of feared social situations using item response theory.

Social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders, and is associated with long term impairment, distress and vulnerability to secondary disorders. Certain types of social fears are more common than others, with public speaking fears typically the most prevalent in epidemiological surveys. The distinction between performance- and interaction-based fears has been the focus of long-standing debate in the literature, with evidence performance-based fears may reflect more mild presentations of social anxiety. This study aims to explicitly test whether different types of social fears differ in underlying social anxiety severity using item response theory techniques. Different types of social fears were assessed using items from three different structured diagnostic interviews in four different epidemiological surveys in the United States (n=2261, n=5411) and Australia (n=1845, n=1497); and ranked using 2-parameter logistic item response theory models. Overall, patterns of underlying severity indicated by different fears were consistent across the four samples with items functioning across a range of social anxiety. Public performance fears and speaking at meetings/classes indicated the lowest levels of social anxiety, with increasing severity indicated by situations such as being assertive or attending parties. Fears of using public bathrooms or eating, drinking or writing in public reflected the highest levels of social anxiety. Understanding differences in the underlying severity of different types of social fears has important implications for the underlying structure of social anxiety, and may also enhance the delivery of social anxiety treatment at a population level. PMID:24873885

Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew

2014-06-01

186

On the effective theory of type II string compactifications on nilmanifolds and coset spaces

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis we analyzed a large number of type IIA strict SU(3)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O6/D6-sources, as well as type IIB static SU(2)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O5/O7-sources. Restricting to structures and fluxes that are constant in the basis of left-invariant one-forms, these models are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory. The six-dimensional compact manifolds we studied in this thesis are nilmanifolds based on nilpotent Lie-algebras, and, on the other hand, coset spaces based on semisimple and U(1)-groups, which admit a left-invariant strict SU(3)- or static SU(2)-structure. In particular, from the set of 34 distinct nilmanifolds we identified two nilmanifolds, the torus and the Iwasawa manifold, that allow for an AdS4, N = 1 type IIA strict SU(3)-structure solution and one nilmanifold allowing for an AdS4, N = 1 type IIB static SU(2)-structure solution. From the set of all the possible six-dimensional coset spaces, we identified seven coset spaces suitable for strict SU(3)-structure compactifications, four of which also allow for a static SU(2)-structure compactification. For all these models, we calculated the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory using N = 1 supergravity techniques. In order to write down the most general four-dimensional effective action, we also studied how to classify the different disconnected ''bubbles'' in moduli space. (orig.)

187

An improved assay for measuring ligand binding to extracted nuclear type II estrogen binding sites which involves preimmobilization on glass fiber filters is described. At least two classes of specific estrogen binding sites have been demonstrated in rat uterus as well as in a variety of other tissues and species and have been designated as type I and type II. Although the endogenous ligand to the type II binding site has recently been identified as methyl p-hydroxyphenyllactate (MeHPLA), tritiated estrogens are generally used for radiolabeling this site due to the susceptibility of MeHPLA to enzymatic hydrolysis in in vitro assays. After extracting the type II site from the nuclear matrix, ligand binding and protein stability appear to be significantly enhanced by first immobilizing the site on an artificial matrix, such as hydroxylapatite, before incubating with radiolabeled ligand. Immobilization of the extracted site on glass fiber filters results in higher specific binding and lower nonspecific binding when compared to hydroxylapatite and a number of other immobilization matrices. The glass fiber ligand exchange procedure for measuring type II binding can also be performed on smaller samples and requires less time than other methods. Type II sites are significantly stabilized when immobilized on glass and exhibit sigmoidal binding curves when incubated with increasing concentrations of [3H]estradiol and [3H]estrone and display inhibition data characteristic of that observed using more traditional assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7618188

Densmore, C L; Tiller, A A; Gregory, R R; Schauweker, T H; Webb, B; Markaverich, B M

1995-02-01

188

The authors examine the applicability of the physicochemical theory of effective stresses to sandy soils. It is proven that the above theory may be furthered by the argument that all three types of energy contacts, including coagulatory, transient and phase contacts, are present in sandy soils. Coagulatory contact predominates over the other three types of contact. The authors provide their findings in terms of morphological peculiarities attributable to genetic differences of quaternary sand...

Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich; Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich; Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatolevna

2012-01-01

189

Maier-Saupe-type theory of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals.

Several experiments have reported that ferroelectric nanoparticles have drastic effects on nematic liquid crystals-increasing the isotropic-nematic transition temperature by about 5 K, and greatly increasing the sensitivity to applied electric fields. In a recent paper [Lopatina and Selinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197802 (2009)], we modeled these effects through a Landau theory, based on coupled orientational order parameters for the liquid crystal and the nanoparticles. This model has one important limitation: Like all Landau theories, it involves an expansion of the free energy in powers of the order parameters, and hence it overestimates the order parameters that occur in the low-temperature phase. For that reason, we now develop a new Maier-Saupe-type model, which explicitly shows the low-temperature saturation of the order parameters. This model reduces to the Landau theory in the limit of high temperature or weak coupling, but shows different behavior in the opposite limit. We compare these calculations with experimental results on ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals. PMID:22181153

Lopatina, Lena M; Selinger, Jonathan V

2011-10-01

190

The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100 years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy. PMID:25270249

Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

2014-10-01

191

Canonical BF-type topological field theory and fractional statistics of strings

We consider BF-type topological field theory coupled to non-dynamical particle and string sources on spacetime manifolds of the form \\IR^1\\times\\MT, where \\MT is a 3-manifold without boundary. Canonical quantization of the theory is carried out in the Hamiltonian formalism and explicit solutions of the Schr\\"odinger equation are obtained. We show that the Hilbert space is finite dimensional and the physical states carry a one-dimensional projective representation of the local gauge symmetries. When \\MT is homologically non-trivial the wavefunctions in addition carry a multi-dimensional projective representation, in terms of the linking matrix of the homology cycles of \\MT, of the discrete group of large gauge transformations. The wavefunctions also carry a one-dimensional representation of the non-trivial linking of the particle trajectories and string surfaces in \\MT. This topological field theory therefore provides a phenomenological generalization of anyons to (3 + 1) dimensions where the holonomies repres...

Bergeron, M; Szabó, R J; Mario Bergeron; Gordon W Semenoff; Richard J

1994-01-01

192

Hints for Off-Shell Mirror Symmetry in type II/F-theory Compactifications

We perform a Hodge theoretic study of parameter dependent families of D-branes on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds in type II and F-theory compactifcations. Starting from a geometric Gauss-Manin connection for B type branes we study the integrability and flatness conditions. The B model geometry defines an interesting ring structure of operators. For the mirror A model this indicates the existence of an open-string extension of the so-called A model connection, whereas the discovered ring structure should be part of the open-string A model quantum cohomology. We obtain predictions for genuine Ooguri-Vafa invariants for Lagrangian branes on the quintic in P4 that pass some non-trivial consistency checks. We discuss the lift of the brane compactifications to F-theory on Calabi-Yau 4-folds and the effective couplings in the effective supergravity action as determined by the N = 1 special geometry of the open-closed deformation space.

Alim, Murad; Jockers, Hans; Mayr, Peter; Mertens, Adrian; Soroush, Masoud

2009-01-01

193

Hints for off-shell mirror symmetry in type II/F-theory compactifications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We perform a Hodge theoretic study of parameter dependent families of D-branes on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds in type II and F-theory compactifications. Starting from a geometric Gauss-Manin connection for B-type branes we study the integrability and flatness conditions. The B-model geometry defines an interesting ring structure of operators. For the mirror A-model this indicates the existence of an open-string extension of the so-called A-model connection, whereas the discovered ring structure should be part of the open-string A-model quantum cohomology. We obtain predictions for genuine Ooguri-Vafa invariants for Lagrangian branes on the quintic in P{sup 4} that pass some non-trivial consistency checks. We discuss the lift of the brane compactifications to F-theory on Calabi-Yau four-folds and the effective couplings in the effective supergravity action as determined by the N=1 special geometry of the open-closed deformation space.

Alim, M. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany)] [Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Endenicher Allee 62, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Hecht, M. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Jockers, H., E-mail: jockers@kitp.ucsb.ed [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Mayr, P.; Mertens, A. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Soroush, M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

2010-12-21

194

In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear. PMID:24792441

Chaira, Tamalika

2014-06-01

195

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a generalized phenomenological theory of the paraelectric - incommensurate - commensurate phase transitions in type II ferroelectrics. The linear temperature dependence of the sixth-power term coefficient in the thermodynamic potential expansion is proposed. Contrary to the pre-existing theoretical approaches, the developed model eliminates a number of long-standing problems in the theory of type II ferroelectrics and can provide a correct description of the experimental data on the temperature dependence of the properties of type II ferroelectrics in the incommensurate phase.

196

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We develop a generalized phenomenological theory of the paraelectric - incommensurate - commensurate phase transitions in type II ferroelectrics. The linear temperature dependence of the sixth-power term coefficient in the thermodynamic potential expansion is proposed. Contrary to the pre-existing theoretical approaches, the developed model eliminates a number of long-standing problems in the theory of type II ferroelectrics and can provide a correct description of the experimental data on the temperature dependence of the properties of type II ferroelectrics in the incommensurate phase.

Korda, V.Yu., E-mail: kvyu@kipt.kharkov.ua [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Berezovsky, S.V.; Molev, A.S. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Korda, L.P. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Akademicheskaya St., Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Klepikov, V.F. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine)

2012-09-01

197

Quantitative tests for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma and proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) provide valuable information on the status of HIV-1 infection. This paper describes tests that were carried out with commercially available materials and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader for detecting spectrophotometric changes. Samples consisted of 100 microliters of plasma or 200,000 PBMC. The procedure involved sample preparation, PCR-bas...

Lin, H. J.; Haywood, M.; Hollinger, F. B.

1996-01-01

198

HANDWRITTEN SIGNATURE VERIFICATIONS USING ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY TYPE-2 (ART-2 NET

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authorizing hand-written signature has always been a challenge to prevent illegal transactions, especially when the forged and the original signatures are very ‘similar-looking’ in nature. In this paper, we aim to automate forged signature verification process, offline, using Adaptive Resonance Theory type-2 (ART-2, which has been implemented in ‘C’ language using both sequential and parallel programming. The said network has been trained with the original signature and tested with twelve very similar-looking but forged signatures. The mismatch threshold is set as 5%; however, it is set flexible as per the requirement from case-to-case. In order to obtain the desired result, the vigilance parameter (? and the cluster size (m has been tuned by carefully conducted parametric studies. The accuracy of the ART-2 net has been computed as almost 100% with ? = 0.97 and m = 20.

Tirtharaj Dash

2012-09-01

199

Theory of Type-II Superconductors with Finite London Penetration Depth

Previous continuum theory of type-II superconductors of various shapes with and without vortex pinning in an applied magnetic field and with transport current, is generalized to account for a finite London penetration depth lambda. This extension is particularly important at low inductions B, where the transition to the Meissner state is now described correctly, and for films with thickness comparable to or smaller than lambda. The finite width of the surface layer with screening currents and the correct dc and ac responses in various geometries follow naturally from an equation of motion for the current density in which the integral kernel now accounts for finite lambda. New geometries considered here are thick and thin strips with applied current, and `washers', i.e. thin film squares with a slot and central hole as used for SQUIDs.

Brandt, E H

2001-01-01

200

Type II/F-theory Superpotentials with Several Deformations and N=1 Mirror Symmetry

We present a detailed study of D-brane superpotentials depending on several open and closed-string deformations. The relative cohomology group associated with the brane defines a generalized hypergeometric GKZ system which determines the off-shell superpotential and its analytic properties under deformation. Explicit expressions for the N=1 superpotential for families of type II/F-theory compactifications are obtained for a list of multi-parameter examples. Using the Hodge theoretic approach to open-string mirror symmetry, we obtain new predictions for integral disc invariants in the A model instanton expansion. We study the behavior of the brane vacua under extremal transitions between different Calabi-Yau spaces and observe that the web of Calabi-Yau vacua remains connected for a particular class of branes.

Alim, Murad; Jockers, Hans; Mayr, Peter; Mertens, Adrian; Soroush, Masoud

2010-01-01

201

Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to conduct reasoning on descriptions obtained in order to automatically adapt the resources to a learner according to his preferences. We rely on the model MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for the consideration of learning styles of learners as a criterion for adaptation.

Amel Behaz

2012-01-01

202

Conformally de Sitter space from anisotropic SD3-brane of type IIB string theory

We construct a four dimensional de Sitter space upto a conformal transformation by compactifying the anisotropic SD3-brane solution of type IIB string theory on a six dimensional product space of the form $H_5 \\times S^1$, where $H_5$ is a five dimensional hyperbolic space and $S^1$ is a circle. The radius of the hyperbolic space is chosen to be constant. The radius of the circle and the dilaton in four dimensions are time dependent and not constant in general. By different choices of parameters characterizing the SD3-brane solution either the dilaton or the radius of the circle can be made constant but not both. The form-field is also non-vanishing in general, but it can be made to vanish without affecting the solution. This construction might be useful for a better understanding of dS/CFT correspondence as well as for cosmology.

Roy, Shibaji

2014-01-01

203

Some aspects of the theory of the flux flow state in type II superconductors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis examines some of the transport properties of type II superconductors in the mixed state. The emphasis is on theories of the electrical resistance and the energy current flow in an electric field. Using a time-dependent Ginsberg-Landau equation, derived using standard techniques, equations for the order parameter are obtained, correct to first order in the electric field. From the solutions to these equations the local current density accompanying an isolated moving vortex is obtained. This directly gives the transport current and hence the flux-flow resistivity. The energy current in the flux-flow state is calculated and an expression for the Ettingshausen coefficient for T-Tsub(C). obtained. Finally general transport relations are obtained an an estimate of the magnitude of the anomalous Hall effect in alloys is obtained. (author)

204

Natural inflation with and without modulations in type IIB string theory

We propose a mechanism for the natural inflation with and without modulation in the framework of type IIB string theory on toroidal orientifold or orbifold. We explicitly construct the stabilization potential of complex structure, dilaton and K\\"ahler moduli, where one of the imaginary component of complex structure moduli becomes light which is identified as the inflaton. The inflaton potential is generated by the gaugino-condensation term which receives the one-loop threshold corrections determined by the field value of complex structure moduli and the axion decay constant of inflaton is enhanced by the inverse of one-loop factor. We also find the threshold corrections can also induce the modulations to the original scalar potential for the natural inflation. Depending on these modulations, we can predict several sizes of tensor-to-scalar ratio as well as the other cosmological observables reported by WMAP, Planck and/or BICEP2 collaborations.

Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime

2014-01-01

205

New Proposal for a 5-dimensional Theory of Kaluza-Klein type

A new 5-dimensional Classical Unified Field Theory of Kaluza-Klein type is formulated using 2 separate scalar fields which are related in such a way as to make the 5-dimensional matter-geometry coupling parameter constant. It is shown that this procedure solves the problem of the variability of the gravity coupling parameter without having to assume a conformal invariance. The corresponding Field equations are discussed paying particular attention to the possible induction of scalar field gradients by Electromagnetic Fields. A new correspondence limit in which the field equations lead to the usual Einstein-Maxwell equations is obtained. This limit does not require the usual condition that the usual scalar field be constant.

Macedo, P G

2001-01-01

206

Brane Curvature Corrections to the $\\mathcal{N}=1$ Type II/F-theory Effective Action

We initiate a study of corrections to the K\\"{a}hler potential of $\\mathcal{N}=1$ type II/F-theory compactifications that arise from curvature terms in the action of D-branes and orientifold planes. We first show that a recently proposed correction, which was argued to appear at order $\\alpha^{\\prime 2}g_s$ and be proportional to the intersection volume of D7-branes and O7-planes, is an artifact of an inconvenient field basis in the dual M-theory frame and can be removed by a field redefinition. We then analyze to what extent curvature terms in the DBI and WZ action may still lead to corrections of a similar kind and identify two general mechanisms that can potentially modify the volume dependence of the K\\"{a}hler potential in the presence of D-branes and O-planes. The first mechanism is related to an induced Einstein-Hilbert term on warped brane worldvolumes, which leads to a shift in the classical volume of the compactification manifold. The resulting corrections are generic and can appear at one-loop orde...

Junghans, Daniel

2014-01-01

207

Engineering of Quantum Hall Effect from type IIA string theory on the K3 surface

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using D-brane configurations on the K3 surface, we give six-dimensional type IIA stringy realizations of the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) in 1+2 dimensions. Based on the vertical and horizontal lines of the K3 Hodge diamond, we engineer two different stringy realizations. The vertical line presents a realization in terms of D2 and D6-branes wrapping the K3 surface. The horizontal one is associated with hierarchical stringy descriptions obtained from a quiver gauge theory living on a stack of D4-branes wrapping intersecting 2-spheres embedded in the K3 surface with deformed singularities. These geometries are classified by three kinds of the Kac-Moody algebras: ordinary, i.e. finite dimensional, affine and indefinite. We find that no stringy QHE in 1+2 dimensions can occur in the quiver gauge theory living on intersecting 2-spheres arranged as affine Dynkin diagrams. Stringy realizations of QHE can be done only for the finite and indefinite geometries. In particular, the finite Lie algebras give models with fractional filling fractions, while the indefinite ones classify models with negative filling fractions which can be associated with the physics of holes in the graphene.

Belhaj, Adil, E-mail: belhaj@unizar.e [Centre National de l' Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires, CNESTEN Rabat (Morocco); Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies, GNPHE, Siege focal: FSR Rabat (Morocco); Segui, Antonio, E-mail: segui@unizar.e [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009-Zaragoza (Spain)

2010-08-09

208

Engineering of Quantum Hall Effect from Type IIA String Theory on The K3 Surface

Using D-brane configurations on the K3 surface, we give six dimensional type IIA stringy realizations of the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) in 1+2 dimensions. Based on the vertical and horizontal lines of the K3 Hodge diamond, we engineer two different stringy realizations. The vertical line presents a realization in terms of D2 and D6-branes wrapping the K3 surface. The horizontal one is associated with hierarchical stringy descriptions obtained from a quiver gauge theory living on a stack of D4-branes wrapping intersecting 2-spheres embedded in the K3 surface with deformed singularities. These geometries are classified by three kinds of the Kac-Moody algebras: ordinary, i.e finite dimensional, affine and indefinite. We find that no stringy QHE in 1+2 dimensions can occur in the quiver gauge theory living on intersecting 2-spheres arranged as affine Dynkin diagrams. Stringy realizations of QHE can be done only for the finite and indefinite geometries. In particular, the finite Lie algebras give models with fracti...

Belhaj, Adil

2010-01-01

209

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been identified as the essential causal agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which has spread worldwide. Monocyte/macrophage lineage cells are the major target cells of PCV2. To discover cellular protein responses of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) to PCV2 infection, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling was employed to quantitatively identify the proteins that were differentially expressed in PAMs from the PCV2-infected group compared to the uninfected control group. A total of 145 cellular proteins in PAMs that were significantly altered at different time periods post-infection were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were related to the biological processes of binding, cell structure, signal transduction, cell adhesion, etc., and their interactions. The high number of differentially expressed proteins identified should be very useful to elucidate the mechanism of replication and pathogenesis of PCV2 in the future. PMID:23238063

Liu, Jie; Bai, Juan; Lu, Qi; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J; He, Qingdong; Jiang, Ping

2013-02-21

210

An approach to handling polymorphic types in higher order unification

The higher order unification procedure as formulated by Huet [Hu 75] unifies terms in the simple theory of types [Ch 40]. In this language types are expressed in a very weak language (no quantification, "->" being the only operator). In many applications a stronger type-system is desirable. Lambda Prolog [MN 86], e.g. uses a type system that is in some ways similar to that of ML. This type-system uses implicitly universally quantified variables in the type-expressions. It is not trivial to re...

Kreuger, Per

1988-01-01

211

N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been shown to have clinical utility as a biomarker in dogs with heart disease. There were several limitations associated with early diagnostic assay formats including a limited dynamic range and the need for protease inhibitors to maintain sample stability. A second-generation Cardiopet® proBNP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine) was developed to address these limitations, and the present study reports the results of the analytical method validation for the second-generation assay. Coefficients of variation for intra-assay, interassay, and total precision based on 8 samples ranged from 3.9% to 8.9%, 2.0% to 5.0%, and 5.5% to 10.6%, respectively. Analytical sensitivity was established at 102 pmol/l. Accuracy averaged 102.0% based on the serial dilutions of 5 high-dose canine samples. Bilirubin, lipids, and hemoglobin had no effect on results. Reproducibility across 3 unique assay lots was excellent with an average coefficient of determination (r (2)) of 0.99 and slope of 1.03. Both ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid plasma and serum gave equivalent results at time of blood draw (slope = 1.02, r (2) = 0.89; n = 51) but NT-proBNP was more stable in plasma at 25°C with median half-life measured at 244 hr and 136 hr for plasma and serum, respectively. Plasma is the preferred sample type and is considered stable up to 48 hr at room temperature whereas serum should be frozen or refrigerated when submitted for testing. Results of this study validate the second-generation canine Cardiopet proBNP assay for accurate and precise measurement of NT-proBNP in routine sample types from canine patients. PMID:25525139

Cahill, Roberta J; Pigeon, Kathleen; Strong-Townsend, Marilyn I; Drexel, Jan P; Clark, Genevieve H; Buch, Jesse S

2015-01-01

212

Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 ...

Sta?hl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Angen, Øystein

2011-01-01

213

A proficiency test for the analysis of pesticide residues in brown rice was carried out to support upgrading in analytical skills of participant laboratories. Brown rice containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and isoprothiolane) was used as the test samples. The test samples were distributed to the 57 participants and analyzed by appropriate analytical methods chosen by each participant. It was shown that there was no significant difference among the reported values obtained by different types of analytical method. The analytical results obtained by National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) were 3 % to 10 % greater than those obtained by participants. The results reported by the participant were evaluated by using two types of z-scores, that is, one was the score based on the consensus values calculated from the analytical results of participants, and the other one was the score based on the reference values obtained by NMIJ with high reliability. Acceptable z-scores based on the consensus values and NMIJ reference values were achieved by 87 % to 89 % and 79 % to 94 % of the participants, respectively. PMID:25258285

Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

2014-11-01

214

Brane/antibrane Configurations in Type IIA and M-Theory

We investigate the relation between large N duality applied to systems of D5's and /lineD5's wrapping vanishing cycles of local CY in type IIB and M-theory lifts of the NS5/D4//lineD4 systems in type IIA to which they are related by T-duality. Through a simple example based on a local CY constructed using an A2 singularity, we review this well-known correspondence in the supersymmetric setting and describe the manner in which it generalizes when antibranes are added. Agreement between the IIB and IIA pictures, which supports the assertion that {N}=2 supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in these systems at string tree level, is demonstrated when gs ? 1. Novel nonholomorphic features can arise away from this regime and their physical origin is discussed. This note is based on talks given at KITP, Harvard University, TIFR, the University of Tokyo at Hongo, the 2007 Les Houches Summer School, and the 2007 Simons Workshop, is based on work done in collaboration with K. Papadodimas and M. Shigemori, and contains some previously unpublished results.

Marsano, Joseph

215

Three-dimensional theory of quantum memories based on ?-type atomic ensembles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a three-dimensional theory for quantum memories based on light storage in ensembles of ?-type atoms, where two long-lived atomic ground states are employed. We consider light storage in an ensemble of finite spatial extent and we show that within the paraxial approximation the Fresnel number of the atomic ensemble and the optical depth are the only important physical parameters determining the quality of the quantum memory. We analyze the influence of these parameters on the storage of light followed by either forward or backward read-out from the quantum memory. We show that for small Fresnel numbers the forward memory provides higher efficiencies, whereas for large Fresnel numbers the backward memory is advantageous. The optimal light modes to store in the memory are presented together with the corresponding spin waves and outcoming light modes. We show that for high optical depths such ?-type atomic ensembles allow for highly efficient backward and forward memories even for small Fresnel numbers F(greater-or-similar sign)0.1.

216

The Landau theory of 180 degrees domain walls in BaTiO3 type ferroelectric particles is presented. Results of exact description of domain walls in bulk enabled us to formulate variational approach to theory of domain walls in corresponding small particles. The depolarization field effects and the space-charge layers are taken into account in the samples of the cube form. It was found that at low temperatures well known hyperbolic tangent wall profile is a good approximation ...

Hudak, O.

2005-01-01

217

L-type Ca channels contain a cluster of four charged glutamate residues (EEEE locus), which seem essential for high Ca specificity. To understand how this highly charged structure might produce the currents and selectivity observed in this channel, a theory is needed that relates charge to current. We use an extended Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP2) theory to compute (mean) Coulombic interactions and thus to examine the role of the mean field electrostatic interactions in producing current and se...

Nonner, W.; Eisenberg, B.

1998-01-01

218

An optimized method of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2)) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of 26 characteristic components covering four structure types (flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols) in ginkgo seeds (GSs). The UAE parameters (ultrasound power, time and solvent-to-material ratio) were optimized using a response surface methodology. This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of 26 compounds in Ginkgo biloba using UHPLC-TQ/MS(2); this analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) was successfully applied to ginkgo seed samples, and the analysis showed that GSs are rich in terpene lactones and could be selected as a healthy food resource. The results suggest that UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) might be able to be utilized as a tool for the quality assessment of samples from GSs or other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols as markers. PMID:24731329

Zhou, Guisheng; Yao, Xin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Chun; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-ao

2014-09-01

219

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As a part of a prospective cohort study in four herds, a nested case control study was carried out. Five slow growing pigs (cases) and five fast growing pigs (controls) out of 60 pigs were selected for euthanasia and laboratory examination at the end of the study in each herd. A total of 238 pigs, all approximately 12 weeks old, were included in the study during the first week in the grower–finisher barn. In each herd, approximately 60 pigs from four pens were individually ear tagged. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 6–8 weeks observation period. Clinical data, blood and faecal samples were serially collected from the 60 selected piglets every second week in the observation period. In the killed pigs serum was examined for antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and procine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and in addition PCV2 viral DNA content was quantified. In faeces the quantity of LI cells/g faeces and number of PCV2 copies/g faeces was measured by qPCR. The objective of the study was to examine if growth rate in grower-finishing pig is associated with the detection of LI and PCV2 infection or clinical data. This study has shown that diarrhoea is a significant risk factor for low growth rate and that one log10 unit increase in LI load increases the odds ratio for a pig to have a low growth rate by 2.0 times. Gross lesions in the small intestine and LI load > log10 6/g were significant risk factors for low growth. No association between PCV2 virus and low growth was found.

Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, MaiBritt

2013-01-01

220

Itinerant type many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Itinerant type quantum many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions (PSPTs) are reviewed in close connection with various recent experimental results related to this new optical phenomenon. There are two key concepts: the hidden multi-stability of the ground state, and the proliferations of optically excited states. Taking the ionic (I) ? neutral (N) phase transition in the organic charge transfer (CT) crystal, TTF-CA, as a typical example for this type of transition, we, at first, theoretically show an adiabatic path which starts from CT excitons in the I-phase, but finally reaches an N-domain with a macroscopic size. In connection with this I-N transition, the concept of the initial condition sensitivity is also developed so as to clarify experimentally observed nonlinear characteristics of this material. In the next, using a more simplified model for the many-exciton system, we theoretically study the early time quantum dynamics of the exciton proliferation, which finally results in the formation of a domain with a large number of excitons. For this purpose, we derive a stepwise iterative equation to describe the exciton proliferation, and clarify the origin of the initial condition sensitivity. Possible differences between a photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and an equilibrium phase at high temperatures are also clarified from general and conceptional points of view, in connection with recent experiments on the photo-induced phase transitionts on the photo-induced phase transition in an organo-metallic complex crystal. It will be shown that the photo-induced phase can make a new interaction appear as a broken symmetry only in this phase, even when this interaction is almost completely hidden in all the equilibrium phases, such as the ground state and other high-temperature phases. The relation between the photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and the hysteresis induced nonequilibrium one is also qualitatively discussed. We will be concerned with a macroscopic parity violation and a ferro- (or super-para-) electricity, induced by a photogenerated electron in the perovskite type quantum dielectric SrTiO3. The photogenerated electron in the 3d band of Ti is assumed to couple weakly, but quadratically, with soft-anharmonic T1u phonons, and strongly but linearly to the breathing (A1g) type high energy phonons. These two types of electron-phonon coupling result in two types of polarons, a super-para-electric (SPE) large polaron with a quasi-global parity violation, and an off-centre type self-trapped polaron with only a local parity violation. This SPE large polaron, being equal to a charged and conductive ferroelectric domain, greatly enhances both the quasi-static electric susceptibility and the electronic conductivity. We also briefly review recent successes to observe the PSPTs more directly by using x-ray measurements

221

Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from the spiking experiments were 10(2) bacteria/g feces for Bpilo-qPCR and Laws-qPCR, 10(3)CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R(2) above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4-qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six log units for F18-qPCR and three log units for Bpilo-qPCR in spiked feces. When measured on pure DNA from the reference strains used in spiking experiments, the respective log ranges were: seven units for Bpilo-qPCR, Laws-qPCR and F18-qPCR and six log units for F4-qPCR. This shows the importance of using specific standard curves, where each pathogen is analysed in the same matrix as sample DNA. The qPCRs were compared to traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods and found to be more sensitive than cultivation for E. coli and B. pilosicoli. The qPCR assay for Lawsonia was also more sensitive than the earlier used method due to improvements in DNA extraction. In addition, as samples were not analysed for all four pathogen agents by traditional diagnostic methods, many samples were found positive for agents that were not expected on the basis of age and case history. The use of quantitative PCR tests for diagnosis of enteric diseases provides new possibilities for veterinary diagnostics. The parallel simultaneous analysis for several bacteria in multi-qPCR and the determination of the quantities of the infectious agents increases the information obtained from the samples and the chance for obtaining a relevant diagnosis. PMID:21530108

Ståhl, M; Kokotovic, B; Hjulsager, C K; Breum, S Ø; Angen, Ø

2011-08-01

222

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente texto descreve um equipamento na escala-piloto e um método simples para comparar a eficiência de distribuidores de líquido. A técnica consiste basicamente em analisar a massa do líquido coletado em 21 tubos verticais de 52mm de diâmetro interno e 800 mm de comprimento dispostos em arranjo [...] quadrático colocados abaixo do distribuidor. Uma manta acrílica que não dispersa o líquido com 50 mm de espessura foi fixada entre o distribuidor e o banco de tubos para evitar respingos. Como exemplo de aplicação foram realizados ensaios com nove distribuidores do tipo espinha de peixe de 4 tubos paralelos cada, para uma coluna com 400 mm de diâmetro. Variaram-se o número (n) de furos (95, 127 e 159 furos/m²), o diâmetro (d) dos furos (2, 3 e 4 mm) e as vazões (q) de (1,2; 1,4 e 1,6m³/h). A melhor eficiência de espalhamento pelo menor desvio-padrão foi obtida com n de 159, d de 2 e q de 1,4 indicando as limitações de regras práticas de projeto. A pressão (p), na entrada do distribuidor, para essa condição, foi de apenas 51000 Pa (0,51 kgf/cm²) e a velocidade média (v) em cada orifício foi de 6,3 m/s. Abstract in english This paper describes a device developed on the pilot scale and a simple approach to compare liquid distributor efficiencies. The technique consists basically of analyzing the mass of the liquid collected in 21 vertical pipes measuring 52 mm in internal diameter and 800 mm in length placed in a quadr [...] atic arrangement and positioned below the distributor. A 50 mm thick acrylic blanket that does not disperse liquids was placed between the distributor and the pipe bank to avoid splashes. Assays were carried out with ladder-type distributors equipped with 4 parallel pipes each for a column measuring 400 mm in diameter as an example of the application. The number (n) of orifices (95, 127, and 159 orifices/m²), orifice diameter (d) (2, 3, and 4 mm) and the flowrate (q) (1.2; 1.4; and 1.6 m3/h) were varied. The best spread efficiency, which presented the lowest standard deviation, was achieved with 159 orifices, 2 mm and 1.4 m³/h. The pressure (p) at the distributor's inlet for this condition was only 51000 Pa (0.51 kgf/cm²), while the average velocity (v) was 6.3 m/s in each orifice. These results show some limitations of the practical rules used in distributor designs.

Marlene Silva de, Moraes; José Renato Baptista de, Lima; Deovaldo de, Moraes Júnior; Luis Renato Bastos, Lia; Sandro Megale, Pizzo.

2008-03-01

223

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements are reported of the magnetic field in the solar corona, in the space above the active region. The magnetic field is determined from six type II bursts, observed in the 70 to 250 MHz range at the Ondrejov Observatory. Methods based on the theory of type II bursts are used to determine the magnetic field. The effect of the motion of the coronal medium on determining the values of the magnetic field is also estimated. (author)

224

Efficient quantification of non-gaussian spin distributions.

We study theoretically and experimentally the quantification of non-gaussian distributions via nondestructive measurements. Using the theory of cumulants, their unbiased estimators, and the uncertainties of these estimators, we describe a quantification which is simultaneously efficient, unbiased by measurement noise, and suitable for hypothesis tests, e.g., to detect nonclassical states. The theory is applied to cold 87Rb spin ensembles prepared in non-gaussian states by optical pumping and measured by nondestructive Faraday rotation probing. We find an optimal use of measurement resources under realistic conditions, e.g., in atomic ensemble quantum memories. PMID:22681075

Dubost, B; Koschorreck, M; Napolitano, M; Behbood, N; Sewell, R J; Mitchell, M W

2012-05-01

225

The proteomics quantification dilemma.

Proteomics is dominated today by the protein expression discourse, which favorites the bottom-up approach because of its high throughput and its high sensitivity. For quantification this proceeding is misleading, if a protein is present with more than one protein species in the sample to be analyzed. The protein speciation discourse considers this more realistic situation and affords the top-down procedures or at least a separation of the protein species in advance to identification and quantification. Today all of the top-down procedures are one order of magnitude less sensitive than the bottom-up ones. To increase sensitivity and to increase throughput are major challenges for proteomics of the next years. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez. PMID:24681132

Jungblut, Peter R

2014-07-31

226

Chern class identities from tadpole matching in type IIB and F-theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In light of Sen's weak coupling limit of F-theory as a type IIB orientifold, the compatibility of the tadpole conditions leads to a non-trivial identity relating the Euler characteristics of an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold and of certain related surfaces. We present the physical argument leading to the identity, and a mathematical derivation of a Chern class identity which confirms it, after taking into account singularities of the relevant loci. This identity of Chern classes holds in arbitrary dimension, and for varieties that are not necessarily Calabi-Yau. Singularities are essential in both the physics and the mathematics arguments: the tadpole relation may be interpreted as an identity involving stringy invariants of a singular hypersurface, and corrections for the presence of pinch-points. The mathematical discussion is streamlined by the use of Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson classes of singular varieties. We also show how the main identity may be obtained by applying 'Verdier specialization' to suitable constructible functions.

227

From Peierls brackets to a generalized Moyal bracket for type-I gauge theories

In the space-of-histories approach to gauge fields and their quantization, the Maxwell, Yang--Mills and gravitational field are well known to share the property of being type-I theories, i.e. Lie brackets of the vector fields which leave the action functional invariant are linear combinations of such vector fields, with coefficients of linear combination given by structure constants. The corresponding gauge-field operator in the functional integral for the in-out amplitude is an invertible second-order differential operator. For such an operator, we consider advanced and retarded Green functions giving rise to a Peierls bracket among group-invariant functionals. Our Peierls bracket is a Poisson bracket on the space of all group-invariant functionals in two cases only: either the gauge-fixing is arbitrary but the gauge fields lie on the dynamical sub-space; or the gauge-fixing is a linear functional of gauge fields, which are generic points of the space of histories. In both cases, the resulting Peierls bracke...

Esposito, G; Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

2006-01-01

228

A polynomial transform is the multiplication of an input vector $x\\in\\C^n$ by a matrix $\\PT_{b,\\alpha}\\in\\C^{n\\times n},$ whose $(k,\\ell)$-th element is defined as $p_\\ell(\\alpha_k)$ for polynomials $p_\\ell(x)\\in\\C[x]$ from a list $b=\\{p_0(x),\\dots,p_{n-1}(x)\\}$ and sample points $\\alpha_k\\in\\C$ from a list $\\alpha=\\{\\alpha_0,\\dots,\\alpha_{n-1}\\}$. Such transforms find applications in the areas of signal processing, data compression, and function interpolation. Important examples include the discrete Fourier and cosine transforms. In this paper we introduce a novel technique to derive fast algorithms for polynomial transforms. The technique uses the relationship between polynomial transforms and the representation theory of polynomial algebras. Specifically, we derive algorithms by decomposing the regular modules of these algebras as a stepwise induction. As an application, we derive novel $O(n\\log{n})$ general-radix algorithms for the discrete Fourier transform and the discrete cosine transform of type 4.

Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Pueschel, Markus

2010-01-01

229

Quantification in ordinary language

We firstly show that the standard interpretation of natural quantification in mathematical logic does not provide a satisfying account of its original richness. In particular, it ignores the difference between generic and distributive readings. We claim that it is due to the use of a set theoretical framework. We therefore propose a proof theoretical treatment in terms of proofs and refutations. Thereafter we apply these ideas to quantifiers that are not first order definabl...

Abrusci, Michele; Retore?, Christian

2011-01-01

230

Validated method for phytohormone quantification in plants

Phytohormones are long time known as important components of signaling cascades in plant development and plant responses to various abiotic and biotic challenges. Quantifications of phytohormone levels in plants are typically carried out using GC or LC-MS/MS systems, due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and the fact that not much sample preparation is needed. However, mass spectrometer-based analyses are often affected by the particular sample type (different matrices), extraction proc...

Almeida Trapp, Mari?lia; Souza, Gezimar D.; Rodrigues-filho, Edson; Boland, William; Mitho?fer, Axel

2014-01-01

231

I already showed that Kendall's shape geometry work was the geometrical description of Barbour's relational mechanics' reduced configuration spaces (alias shape spaces). I now describe the extent to which Kendall's subsequent statistical application to such as the `standing stones problem' realizes further ideas along the lines of Barbour-type timeless records theories, albeit just at the classical level.

Anderson, Edward

2013-01-01

232

The following seven statistical procedures are compared in terms of the ability to recover a unidimensional latent trait from Likert-type data: (1) factor analysis based on Pearson correlations (FA-PR); (2) factor analysis based on polychoric correlations (FA-PL); (3) the graded response model in item response theory (IRT-GRM); (4) internal…

Chan, Jason C.

233

XPS quantification of the hetero-junction interface energy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Quantum entrapment or polarization dictates the performance of dopant, impurity, interface, alloy and compounds. ? Interface bond energy, energy density, and atomic cohesive energy can be determined using XPS and our BOLS theory. ? Presents a new and reliable method for catalyst design and identification. ? Entrapment makes CuPd to be a p-type catalyst and polarization derives AgPd as an n-type catalyst. - Abstract: We present an approach for quantifying the heterogeneous interface bond energy using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Firstly, from analyzing the XPS core-level shift of the elemental surfaces we obtained the energy levels of an isolated atom and their bulk shifts of the constituent elements for reference; then we measured the energy shifts of the specific energy levels upon interface alloy formation. Subtracting the referential spectrum from that collected from the alloy, we can distil the interface effect on the binding energy. Calibrated based on the energy levels and their bulk shifts derived from elemental surfaces, we can derive the bond energy, energy density, atomic cohesive energy, and free energy at the interface region. This approach has enabled us to clarify the dominance of quantum entrapment at CuPd interface and the dominance of polarization at AgPd and BeW interfaces, as the origin of interface energy change. Developed approach not only enhances the power of XPS but also enables the quantification of the interfa the quantification of the interface energy at the atomic scale that has been an issue of long challenge.

234

SERS Quantification of Entacapone Isomers

Raman spectroscopy, due to its non-destructive character and speed, has found widespread use in pharmaceutical applications [1]. It is also being used for quantifying various isomer mixtures, best known being the quantification of xylene isomers [2-3]. Solid-state isomer quantification of entacapone was earlier reported [4]. Here, we report quantification of isomer mixture of an active pharmaceutical substance, in solution, by SERS.

Markovi?, Marina; Biljan, Tomislav

2010-08-01

235

Generalized coorbit space theory and inhomogeneous function spaces of Besov-Lizorkin-Triebel type

Coorbit space theory is an abstract approach to function spaces and their atomic decompositions. The original theory developed by Feichtinger and Gr{\\"o}chenig in the late 1980ies heavily uses integrable representations of locally compact groups. Their theory covers, in particular, homogeneous Besov-Lizorkin-Triebel spaces, modulation spaces, Bergman spaces, and the recent shearlet spaces. However, inhomogeneous Besov-Lizorkin-Triebel spaces cannot be covered by their group ...

Rauhut, Holger; Ullrich, Tino

2010-01-01

236

Spectrum to all orders of Polchinski-Strominger Effective String Theories of the Drummond Type

Drummond had proposed four actions for Polchinski-Strominger effective string theories at order $R^{-6}$, where $2\\pi R$ is the length of the (closed) string >. In thispaper we show, based on covariance arguments, that only two of them are independent. We analyse the spectral content of effective string theories with these two a ctions. We show that the inclusion of these actions also does not yield corrections to the spectrum of Nambu-Goto theory \\cite{Arv}.

Dass, N D Hari

2009-01-01

237

Exceptional Field Theory I: $E_{6(6)}$ covariant Form of M-Theory and Type IIB

We present the details of the recently constructed $E_{6(6)}$ covariant extension of 11-dimensional supergravity. This theory requires a 5+27 dimensional spacetime in which the `internal' coordinates transform in the $\\bar{\\bf 27}$ of $E_{6(6)}$. All fields are $E_{6(6)}$ tensors and transform under (gauged) internal generalized diffeomorphisms. The `Kaluza-Klein' vector field acts as a gauge field for the $E_{6(6)}$ covariant `E-bracket' rather than a Lie bracket, requiring the presence of two-forms akin to the tensor hierarchy of gauged supergravity. We construct the complete and unique action that is gauge invariant under generalized diffeomorphisms in the internal and external coordinates. The theory is subject to covariant section constraints on the derivatives, implying that only a subset of the extra 27 coordinates is physical. We give two solutions of the section constraints: the first preserves GL(6) and embeds the action of the complete (i.e. untruncated) 11-dimensional supergravity; the second pres...

Hohm, Olaf

2013-01-01

238

The spatially homogeneous and totally anisotropic Bianchi type-II cosmological solutions of massive strings have been investigated in the presence of the magnetic field in the framework of scale-covariant theory of gravitation formulated by Canuto et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 429, 1977). With the help of special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (Nuovo Cimento 74, 182, 1983) string cosmological model is obtained in this theory. We use the power law relation between scalar field ? and scale factor R to find the solutions. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Sharma, N. K.; Singh, J. K.

2014-12-01

239

Bianchi Type-II String Cosmological Model with Magnetic Field in Scalar-tensor Theory of Gravitation

The spatially homogeneous and totally anisotropic Bianchi type-II cosmological solutions of massive strings have been investigated in the presence of the magnetic field in the framework of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation formulated by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). With the help of special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) string cosmological model is obtained in this theory. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Sharma, N. K.; Singh, J. K.

2014-07-01

240

Advances in type-2 fuzzy sets and systems theory and applications

This book explores recent developments in the theoretical foundations and novel applications of general and interval type-2 fuzzy sets and systems, including: algebraic properties of type-2 fuzzy sets, geometric-based definition of type-2 fuzzy set operators, generalizations of the continuous KM algorithm, adaptiveness and novelty of interval type-2 fuzzy logic controllers, relations between conceptual spaces and type-2 fuzzy sets, type-2 fuzzy logic systems versus perceptual computers; modeling human perception of real world concepts with type-2 fuzzy sets, different methods for generating membership functions of interval and general type-2 fuzzy sets, and applications of interval type-2 fuzzy sets to control, machine tooling, image processing and diet. The applications demonstrate the appropriateness of using type-2 fuzzy sets and systems in real world problems that are characterized by different degrees of uncertainty.

Mendel, Jerry; Tahayori, Hooman

2013-01-01

241

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss Bianchi type-VII0 cosmology with a Dirac field in the Einstein—Cartan (E-C) theory and obtain the equations of the Dirac and gravitational fields in the E-C theory. A Bianchi type-VII0 inflationary solution is found. When (3)/16S2 - ?2 > 0, the Universe may avoid singularity. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

242

We discuss Bianchi type-VII0 cosmology with a Dirac field in the Einstein—Cartan (E-C) theory and obtain the equations of the Dirac and gravitational fields in the E-C theory. A Bianchi type-VII0 inflationary solution is found. When , the Universe may avoid singularity.

Huang, Zeng-Guang; Fang, Wei; Lu, Hui-Qing

2011-08-01

243

Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed. ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 203–212. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Carlson, Gregory N. 1977. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.Carlson, Gregory N. 1984. ‘Thematic roles and their role in semantic interpretation’. Linguistics 22: 259–279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ling.1984.22.3.259Champollion, Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Champollion, Lucas, Tauberer, Josh & Romero, Maribel. 2007. ‘The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical software for natural language semantics’. In Tracy Holloway King & Emily Bender (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks(GEAF 2007 Workshop’, Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.Condoravdi, Cleo. 2002. ‘Punctual until as a scalar NPI’. In Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (eds. ‘The nature of the word’, 631–654. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Csirmaz, Aniko. 2006. ‘Aspect, Negation and Quantifiers’. In Liliane Haegeman, Joan Maling, James McCloskey & Katalin E. Kiss (eds. ‘Event Structure And The Left Periphery’, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol. 68, 225–253. SpringerNetherlands.Davidson, Donald. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In Nicholas Rescher (ed. ‘The logic of decision and action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.de Swart, Henriëtte. 1996. ‘Meaning and use of not . . . until’. Journal of Semantics 13: 221–263.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/13.3.221de Swart, Henriëtte & Molendijk, Arie. 1999. ‘Negation and the temporal structure of narrative discourse’. Journal of Semantics 16: 1–42.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/16.1.1Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel.Eckardt, Regine. 2010. ‘A Logic for Easy Linking Semantics’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vo

Lucas Champollion

2010-12-01

244

We prove local and global versions of Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems for half-lattice and full-lattice CMV operators (CMV for Cantero, Moral, and Velazquez) with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients. While our half-lattice results are formulated in terms of matrix-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh functions, our full-lattice results involve the diagonal and main off-diagonal Green's matrices. We also develop the basics of Weyl-Titchmarsh theory for CMV operators with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients as this is of independent interest and an essential ingredient in proving the corresponding Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems.

Clark, Stephen; Zinchenko, Maxim

2010-01-01

245

To the full order in fermions, we construct D=10 type II supersymmetric double field theory. We spell the precise N=2 supersymmetry transformation rules as for 32 supercharges. In terms of stringy differential geometry we have previously developed beyond Riemann, our action treats R-R sector democratically and unifies type IIA and IIB supergravities in a manifestly covariant fashion, with respect to O(10,10) T-duality and a pair of local Lorentz groups, Spin(1,9) \\times Spin(9,1), in addition to the usual general covariance of the supergravities.

Jeon, Imtak; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Suh, Yoonji

2013-01-01

246

Some IHX type relations on trivalent graphs and symplectic representation theory

We consider several algebras that arise in the study of the mapping class group (by means of topology and Hodge theory) and describe their symplectic-invariant parts in terms of algebras on trivalent graphs.

Garoufalidis, S; Garoufalidis, Stavros; Nakamura, Hiroaki

1997-01-01

247

N = 2 Quiver Gauge Theories on A-type ALE Spaces

We survey and compare recent approaches to the computation of the partition functions and correlators of chiral BPS observables in {{N} = 2} gauge theories on ALE spaces based on quiver varieties and the minimal resolution X k of the A k-1 toric singularity {{C}^2/{Z}_k} , in light of their recently conjectured duality with two-dimensional coset conformal field theories. We review and elucidate the rigorous constructions of gauge theories for a particular family of ALE spaces, using their relation to the cohomology of moduli spaces of framed torsion-free sheaves on a suitable orbifold compactification of X k . We extend these computations to generic {{N} = 2} superconformal quiver gauge theories, obtaining in these instances new constraints on fractional instanton charges, a rigorous proof of the Nekrasov master formula, and new quantizations of Hitchin systems based on the underlying Seiberg-Witten geometry.

Bruzzo, Ugo; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J.

2014-11-01

248

Generalized coorbit space theory and inhomogeneous function spaces of Besov-Lizorkin-Triebel type

Coorbit space theory is an abstract approach to function spaces and their atomic decompositions. The original theory developed by Feichtinger and Gr{\\"o}chenig in the late 1980ies heavily uses integrable representations of locally compact groups. Their theory covers, in particular, homogeneous Besov-Lizorkin-Triebel spaces, modulation spaces, Bergman spaces, and the recent shearlet spaces. However, inhomogeneous Besov-Lizorkin-Triebel spaces cannot be covered by their group theoretical approach. Later it was recognized by Fornasier and the first named author that one may replace coherent states related to the group representation by more general abstract continuous frames. In the first part of the present paper we significantly extend this abstract generalized coorbit space theory to treat a wider variety of coorbit spaces. A unified approach towards atomic decompositions and Banach frames with new results for general coorbit spaces is presented. In the second part we apply the abstract setting to a specific ...

Rauhut, Holger

2010-01-01

249

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The small-strain, isotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO) is used. The theory is of the unified type and does not employ yield or loading/unloading criteria. The inelastic strain rate is a function of the overstress, the difference between the stress and the equilibrium stress, which is a state variable of the theory. Its growth law is the repository for modeling nearly elastic regions and hysteresis. Under constant strain rate loading, the theory admits asymptotic solutions, which show that the stress is composed of viscous, rate-independent (plastic) and kinematic contributions. For the modeling of cyclic hardening, a growth law for the rate-independent contribution to the stress is formulated. It models a different type of growth for proportional and nonproportional as well as cyclic and monotonic loadings. Numerical experiments for homogeneous states of stress are performed by intergrating the stiff, nonlinear ordinary differential equations using the IMSL routine DGEAR. They demonstrate the modeling capabilities for step-down and step-up two-amplitude loadings, for proportional and nonproportional cyclic loading including elliptical and square paths as well as for ratchetting. (orig./MM)

250

Constraining f(R) theories with Type Ia Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts

Fourth - order gravity theories have received much interest in recent years thanks to their ability to provide an accelerated cosmic expansion in a matter only universe. In these theories, the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has the form R + f(R), and the explicit choice of the arbitrary function f(R) must meet the local tests of gravity and the constraints from the primordial abundance of the light elements. Two popular classes of f(R) models, which are expect...

Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Camera, Stefano

2009-01-01

251

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multiharmonic cubic-nonlinear theory of a plasma-beam superheterodyne free-electron laser of the dopplertron type is constructed. A retarded electromagnetic wave propagating in the magnetized plasma-beam system toward the electron beam is used for pumping. The multiharmonic interaction of waves which plays an important role is taken into account. Saturation levels and mechanisms are analyzed. The promising application of such systems for generating high-power electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range is demonstrated.

252

We prove local and global versions of Borg-Marchenko-type uniqueness theorems for half-lattice and full-lattice CMV operators (CMV for Cantero, Moral, and Velazquez) with matrix-valued Verblunsky coefficients. While our half-lattice results are formulated in terms of matrix-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh functions, our full-lattice results involve the diagonal and main off-diagonal Green's matrices. We also develop the basics of Weyl-Titchmarsh theory for CMV operators with mat...

Clark, Stephen; Gesztesy, Fritz; Zinchenko, Maxim

2010-01-01

253

Bianchi type-I model with cosmological constant in a generalized scalar-tensor theory of gravitation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bianchi type-I cosmological models are discussed in the Bergmann-Wagoner-Nordtvedt scalar-tensor theory where both the so-called cosmological constant ? and the coupling parameter ? are taken to be functions of the scalar field phi. Exact solutions are obtained in Dicke's revised units assuming a very simple relationship between ? and phi. The properties of the models are discussed in special cases

254

Holographic-Type Gravitation via Non-Differentiability in Weyl-Dirac Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Weyl-Dirac non-relativistic hydrodynamics approach, the non-linear interaction between sub-quantum level and particle gives non-differentiable properties to the space. Therefore, the movement trajectories are fractal curves, the dynamics are described by a complex speed field and the equation of motion is identified with the geodesics of a fractal space which corresponds to a Schrodinger non-linear equation. The real part of the complex speed field assures, through a quantification condition, the compatibility between the Weyl-Dirac non-elativistic hydrodynamic model and the wave mechanics. The mean value of the fractal speed potential, identifies with the Shanon informational energy, specifies, by a maximization principle, that the sub-quantum level “stores” and “transfers” the informational energy in the form of force. The wave-particle duality is achieved by means of cnoidal oscillations modes of the state density, the dominance of one of the characters, wave or particle, being put into correspondence with two flow regimes (non-quasi-autonomous and quasi-autonomous of the Weyl-Dirac fluid. All these show a direct connection between the fractal structure of space and holographic principle.

Mihai Pricop

2013-08-01

255

Quantification of code uncertainties

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of so-called best-estimate (BE) codes aims at providing sufficient evidence that they can be used reliably and accurately enough within their intended ranges of application for realistic prediction of the behaviour of nuclear power plants during various accident and transient conditions. Until now the assessment has been essentially qualitative, with only minor exceptions. Only recently there has been increasing demand for quantification of the uncertainties, especially in conjunction with efforts to allow use of the BE codes (instead of the conservative 'evaluation model' EM codes) in licensing analyses, and to achieve a corresponding reduction in the safety margins where considered excessive. However, quantification of code uncertainties is an extremely complex task, and it has become evident that there will always be an element of subjective judgment involved. This paper will focus on description and comparison of three major methodologies developed for code uncertainty quantification: one by AEA Technology, UK, another by GRS, Germany, and the third (CSAU) by USNRC, USA. The European methods are quite similar, but differ distinctly from the American method. While sensitivity studies for production of model parameter uncertainties are essential in the former, and comparisons with experimental data serve to check the validity of the results, comparisons of code predictions with integral test data are central to the latter. The role of subjective judgmo the latter. The role of subjective judgment is smallest in the GRS method. In summary: The AEAWM relies more on experts' judgment and may require less effort, but at the expense of quality and quantity of the resulting information. The GRSM provides probability distributions of the output parameters plus other useful information, but the large effort involved may prevent its wide application. The CSAU Methodology also requires a lot of effort, and, in the author's understanding, there are still sane limitations in its range of application. However, it might be possible to develop all of the methods towards practical assessment tools, if supporting data bases and clear detailed guidelines will be developed. It also seems worth-while to investigate possibilities to use the information and data generated while developing these methods for somewhat different purposes. For example, the application and testing of the methods has probably already revealed weaknesses and shortages in the available data base, which information could be used in the planning of future research strategies. In the end any method will only be useful, if it can produce necessary results (information) with a reasonable effort. The applicability of the methods described will be determined in the near future after their development and testing will be completed

256

Validated method for phytohormone quantification in plants.

Phytohormones are long time known as important components of signaling cascades in plant development and plant responses to various abiotic and biotic challenges. Quantifications of phytohormone levels in plants are typically carried out using GC or LC-MS/MS systems, due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and the fact that not much sample preparation is needed. However, mass spectrometer-based analyses are often affected by the particular sample type (different matrices), extraction procedure, and experimental setups, i.e., the chromatographic separation system and/or mass spectrometer analyser (Triple-quadrupole, Iontrap, TOF, Orbitrap). For these reasons, a validated method is required in order to enable comparison of data that are generated in different laboratories, under different experimental set-ups, and in different matrices. So far, many phytohormone quantification studies were done using either QTRAP or Triple-quadrupole mass spectrometers. None of them was performed under the regime of a fully-validated method. Therefore, we developed and established such validated method for quantification of stress-related phytohormones such as jasmonates, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, IAA, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the fruit crop Citrus sinensis, using an Iontrap mass spectrometer. All parameters recommended by FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) or EMEA (European Medicines Evaluation Agency) for validation of analytical methods were evaluated: sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility (accuracy and precision). PMID:25206356

Almeida Trapp, Marília; De Souza, Gezimar D; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Boland, William; Mithöfer, Axel

2014-01-01

257

Affine Toda field theories related to Coxeter groups of non-crystallographic type

We propose affine Toda field theories related to the non-crystallographic Coxeter groups H_2, H_3 and H_4. The classical mass spectrum, the classical three-point couplings and the one-loop corrections to the mass renormalisation are determined. The construction is carried out by means of a reduction procedure from crystallographic to non-crystallographic Coxeter groups. The embedding structure explains for various affine Toda field theories that their particles can be organised in pairs, such that their relative masses differ by the golden ratio.

Fring, A; Fring, Andreas; Korff, Christian

2005-01-01

258

Affine Toda field theories related to Coxeter groups of noncrystallographic type

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose affine Toda field theories related to the noncrystallographic Coxeter groups H2,H3 and H4. The classical mass spectrum, the classical three-point couplings and the one-loop corrections to the mass renormalisation are determined. The construction is carried out by means of a reduction procedure from crystallographic to noncrystallographic Coxeter groups. The embedding structure explains for various affine Toda field theories that their particles can be organised in pairs, such that their relative masses differ by the golden ratio

259

Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation t...

Luca Padovani

2011-01-01

260

We consider perturbations of a static and spherically symmetric background endowed with a metric tensor and a scalar field in the framework of the effective field theory of modified gravity. We employ the previously developed 2 +1 +1 canonical formalism of a double Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) decomposition of space-time, which singles out both time and radial directions. Our building block is a general gravitational action that depends on scalar quantities constructed from the 2 +1 +1 canonical variables and the lapse. Variation of the action up to first order in perturbations gives rise to three independent background equations of motion, as expected from spherical symmetry. The dynamical equations of linear perturbations follow from the second-order Lagrangian after a suitable gauge fixing. We derive conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities for the odd-type perturbations. We show that our results not only incorporate those derived in the most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order equations of motion (the Horndeski theories) but they can be applied to more generic theories beyond Horndeski.

Kase, Ryotaro; Gergely, László Á.; Tsujikawa, Shinji

2014-12-01

261

We describe in this talk three methods of constructing different links with the same Jones type invariant. All three can be thought as generalizations of mutation. The first combines the satellite construction with mutation. The second uses the notion of rotant, taken from the graph theory, the third, invented by Jones, transplants into knot theory the idea of the Yang-Baxter equation with the spectral parameter (idea employed by Baxter in the theory of solvable models in statistical mechanics). We extend the Jones result and relate it to Traczyk's work on rotors of links. We also show further applications of the Jones idea, e.g. to 3-string links in the solid torus. We stress the fact that ideas coming from various areas of mathematics (and theoretical physics) has been fruitfully used in knot theory, and vice versa. (This is the detailed version of the talk given at the Banach Center Colloquium, Warsaw, Poland, March 24, 1994: ``W poszukiwaniu nietrywialnego wezla z trywialnym wielomianem Jonesa: grafy i me...

Przytycki, J H

1995-01-01

262

Tritium quantification in metallic samples

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ITER radwastes are generated from various facilities, which are Tokamak, hot cell building, RWB, and tritium plant building during operation and maintenance of ITER. The treatment systems of the radwastes are for long half lives intermediate radawstes (Type B radwastes generated in Tokamak), the radwastes including pure tritium (from tritium plant and fuel), and low level solid and liquid radwastes (Type A radwastes). The radwastes are required to be analyzed for radionuclide inventory before the radwastes will be stored at ITER hot cell facilities for 20 year according to the ITER policy. Especially, tritium shall be analyzed because of its concentration in the waste potentially higher than the Type B tritium criterion. There are several destructive or non-destructive methods for assay of tritium in metallic samples. A nondestructive method generally adopts high-sensitive photo film along with ? - particle detection technique. Other non-destructive ones are the Radiography (RG) technique in which it applies the magnetic microscope and radioluminography (RLG) based on the photo stimulated luminescence (PSL). In destructive analysis methods, electrochemical layer-by-layer etching (ELLE) and chemical acid dissolution or chemical acid leaching method (CAD of CAL) have known as mostly common techniques. The CAD or CAL technique as a destructive method has a merit of accurate analytical result and convenient test method compared to above nondestructive methods. Accordingl above nondestructive methods. Accordingly, it is considered that CAL method is the most suitable for tritium quantification. CAL method has already been developed in Nuclear Chemistry Research Division (NCRD). However, some metallic samples need to be analyzed for improvement of analytical reliability of CAL method. Considering tritium concentration in ITER radwastes, radwastes of CANDU type NPP was selected as a proper sample, since ITER sample has 10-9 Bq/g of radioactivity. Compared to samples in PWR and BWR NPP, tritium concentration in the coolant of Korean CANDU NPP has been reported to have a concentration of 0.1 MBq/m3 during 2000 ? 2006, whereas the case of Korean PWR NPP was about 0.003 MBq/m3 in the same time frame. The samples aimed at this project for tritium measurement are pressure tubes irradiated by nuclear fuels of CANDU type Korean NPP, which had been used for supporting nuclear fuel bundles. Although the CANDU samples are difficult to be directly compared to ITER metallic radwastes, they were prepared for evaluation of application of CAL method

263

Flux-induced soft terms on type IIB/F-theory matter curves and hypercharge dependent scalar masses

Closed string fluxes induce generically SUSY-breaking soft terms on supersymmetric type IIB orientifold compactifications with D3/D7 branes. This was studied in the past by inserting those fluxes on the DBI+CS actions for adjoint D3/D7 fields, where D7-branes had no magnetic fluxes. In the present work we generalise those computations to the phenomenologically more relevant case of chiral bi-fundamental fields laying at 7-brane intersections and F-theory local matter curves. We also include the effect of 7-brane magnetic flux as well as more general closed string backgrounds, including the effect of distant -branes. We discuss several applications of our results. We find that squark/slepton masses become in general flux-dependent in F-theory GUT's. Hypercharge-dependent non-universal scalar masses with a characteristic sfermion hierarchy m {/E 2} boson in compactifications with a MSSM spectrum.

Cámara, Pablo G.; Ibáñez, Luis E.; Valenzuela, Irene

2014-06-01

264

The isotropic theory of viscoplasticity based on overstress does not use a yield surface or a loading and unloading criterion. The inelastic strain rate depends on overstress, the difference between the stress and the equilibrium stress, and is assumed to be rate dependent. Special attention is paid to the modeling of elastic regions. For the modeling of cyclic hardening, such as observed in annealed Type 304 stainless steel, and additional growth law for a scalar quantity which represents the rate independent asymptotic value of the equilibrium stress is added. It is made to increase with inelastic deformation using a new scalar measure which differentiates between nonproportional and proportional loading. The theory is applied to correlate uniaxial data under two step amplitude loading including the effect of further hardening at the high amplitude and proportional and nonproportional cyclic loadings. Results are compared with corresponding experiments.

Yao, David; Krempl, Erhard

1988-01-01

265

Type Inference in the Presence of Subtyping: from Theory to Practice

From a purely theoretical point of view, type inference for a functional language with parametric polymorphism and subtyping poses little difficulty. Indeed, it suffices to generalize the inference algorithm used in the ML language, so as to deal with type inequalities, rather than equalities. However, the number of such inequalities is linear in the program size-whence, from a practical point of view, a serious efficiency and readability problem. To solve this problem, one must simplify the ...

Pottier, Franc?ois

1998-01-01

266

Graceful exit via monopoles in a theory with O'Raifeartaigh type supersymmetry breaking

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the stability of supersymmetry breaking metastable vacua and supersymmetric vacua in the presence of solitons. The metastable vacua of supersymmetric QCD and those found elsewhere such as in models based on the SU(5) grand unified group support the existence of topological solitons. The vacua containing such topological defects can become unstable against decay into lower energy configurations. We show for a specific model that a finite region of the available parameter space of couplings becomes disallowed due to the presence of monopoles. In a manner similar to previous studies based on cosmic strings, it is shown that soliton solutions arising in supersymmetric theories can put constraints on the range of allowed values of the couplings arising in the theories. Implications for cosmology are discussed.

267

KK-monopoles and G-structures in M-theory/type IIA reductions

We argue that M-theory/massive IIA backgrounds including KK-monopoles are suitably described in the language of G-structures and their intrinsic torsion. To this end, we study classes of minimal supergravity models that admit an interpretation as twisted reductions in which the twist parameters are not restricted to satisfy the Jacobi constraints $\\omega\\, \\omega=0$ required by an ordinary Scherk-Schwarz reduction. We first derive the correspondence between four-dimensional data and torsion classes of the internal space and, then, check the one-to-one correspondence between higher-dimensional and four-dimensional equations of motion. Remarkably, the whole construction holds regardless of the Jacobi constraints, thus shedding light upon the string/M-theory interpretation of (smeared) KK-monopoles.

Danielsson, Ulf; Guarino, Adolfo

2014-01-01

268

Maier-Saupe-type theory of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals

Several experiments have reported that ferroelectric nanoparticles have drastic effects on nematic liquid crystals--increasing the isotropic-nematic transition temperature by about 5 K, and greatly increasing the sensitivity to applied electric fields. In a recent paper [L. M. Lopatina and J. V. Selinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197802 (2009)], we modeled these effects through a Landau theory, based on coupled orientational order parameters for the liquid crystal and the nanop...

Lopatina, Lena M.; Selinger, Jonathan V.

2011-01-01

269

Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types

Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to c...

Amel Behaz; Mahieddine Djoudi

2012-01-01

270

The double Mellin-Barnes type integrals and their applications to convolution theory

This book presents new results in the theory of the double Mellin-Barnes integrals popularly known as the general H-function of two variables.A general integral convolution is constructed by the authors and it contains Laplace convolution as a particular case and possesses a factorization property for one-dimensional H-transform. Many examples of convolutions for classical integral transforms are obtained and they can be applied for the evaluation of series and integrals.

Hai, Nguyen Thanh

1992-01-01

271

BPS-type equations in the non-anticommutative N=2 supersymmetric U(1) gauge theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the equations of motion in the four-dimensional non-anticommutative N=2 supersymmetric U(1) gauge field theory, in the search for BPS configurations. The BPS-like equations, generalizing the Abelian (anti)self-duality conditions, are proposed. We prove full solvability of our BPS-like equations, as well their consistency with the equations of motion. Certain restrictions on the allowed scalar field values are also found. Surviving supersymmetry is briefly discussed too

272

Rational homotopy type a constructive study via the theory of the i*-measure

This comprehensive monograph provides a self-contained treatment of the theory of I*-measure, or Sullivan's rational homotopy theory, from a constructive point of view. It centers on the notion of calculability which is due to the author himself, as are the measure-theoretical and constructive points of view in rational homotopy. The I*-measure is shown to differ from other homology and homotopy measures in that it is calculable with respect to most of the important geometric constructions encountered in algebraic topology. This approach provides a new method of treatment and leads to various new results. In particular, an axiomatic system of I*-measure is formulated, quite different in spirit from the usual Eilenberg-Steenrod axiomatic system for homology, and giving at the same time an algorithmic method of computation of the I*-measure in concrete cases. The book will be of interest to researchers in rational homotopy theory and will provide them with new ideas and lines of research to develop further.

Wen-tsün, Wu

1987-01-01

273

Chern-Simons and Born-Infeld gravity theories and Maxwell algebras type

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently it was shown that standard odd- and even-dimensional general relativity can be obtained from a (2n + 1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the B2n+1 algebra and from a (2n)-dimensional Born-Infeld Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra LB2n+1, respectively. Very recently, it was shown that the generalized Inoenue-Wigner contraction of the generalized AdS-Maxwell algebras provides Maxwell algebras of types Mm which correspond to the so-called Bm Lie algebras. In this article we report on a simple model that suggests a mechanism by which standard odd-dimensional general relativity may emerge as the weak coupling constant limit of a (2p + 1)-dimensional Chern-Simons Lagrangian invariant under the Maxwell algebra type M2m+1, if and only if m ? p. Similarly, we show that standard even-dimensional general relativity emerges as the weak coupling constant limit of a (2p)-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under a subalgebra LM2m of theMaxwell algebra type, if and only if m ? p. It is shown that when m 2m+1 and for a (2p)-dimensional Born-Infeld type Lagrangian invariant under the LM2m algebra. (orig.)

274

The classical Yang-Baxter equation and the associated Yangian symmetry of gauged WZW-type theories

We construct the Lax-pair, the classical monodromy matrix and the corresponding solution of the Yang-Baxter equation, for a class of integrable gauged WZW-type theories interpolating between the WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the principal chiral model for a simple group. We derive in full detail the Yangian algebra using two independent methods: by computing the algebra of the non-local charges and alternatively through an expansion of the Maillet brackets for the monodromy matrix. As a byproduct, we also provide a detailed general proof of the Serre relations for the Yangian symmetry.

Itsios, Georgios; Siampos, Konstantinos; Torrielli, Alessandro

2014-01-01

275

Calculation of Fayet–Iliopoulos D-term in type I string theory revisited: T6/Z3 orbifold case

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The string one-loop computation of the Fayet–Iliopoulos D-term in type I string theory in the case of T6/Z3 orbifold compactification associated with annulus (planar) and the Möbius strip string worldsheet diagrams is reexamined. The mass extracted from the sum of these amplitudes through a limiting procedure is found to be non-vanishing, which is contrary to the earlier computation. The sum can be made finite by a rescaling of the modular parameter in the closed string channel

276

Algebraic Signal Processing Theory: Cooley-Tukey Type Algorithms for DCTs and DSTs

This paper presents a systematic methodology based on the algebraic theory of signal processing to classify and derive fast algorithms for linear transforms. Instead of manipulating the entries of transform matrices, our approach derives the algorithms by stepwise decomposition of the associated signal models, or polynomial algebras. This decomposition is based on two generic methods or algebraic principles that generalize the well-known Cooley-Tukey FFT and make the algorithms' derivations concise and transparent. Application to the 16 discrete cosine and sine transforms yields a large class of fast algorithms, many of which have not been found before.

Pueschel, M; Pueschel, Markus; Moura, Jose M. F.

2007-01-01

277

Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

2011-01-01

278

Modeling the size dependent pull-in instability of beam-type NEMS using strain gradient theory

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english It is well recognized that size dependency of materials characteristics, i.e. size-effect, often plays a significant role in the performance of nano-structures. Herein, strain gradient continuum theory is employed to investigate the size dependent pull-in instability of beam-type nano-electromechani [...] cal systems (NEMS). Two most common types of NEMS i.e. nano-bridge and nano-cantilever are considered. Effects of electrostatic field and dispersion forces i.e. Casimir and van der Waals (vdW) attractions have been considered in the nonlinear governing equations of the systems. Two different solution methods including numerical and Rayleigh-Ritz have been employed to solve the constitutive differential equations of the system. Effect of dispersion forces, the size dependency and the importance of coupling between them on the instability performance are discussed.

Ali, Koochi; Hamid M., Sedighi; Mohamadreza, Abadyan.

1806-18-01

279

AdS3 xw (S3 x S3 x S1) solutions of type IIB string theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyse a recently constructed class of local solutions of type IIB supergravity that consist of a warped product of AdS3 with a sevendimensional internal space. In one duality frame the only other nonvanishing fields are the NS three-form and the dilaton. We analyse in detail how these local solutions can be extended to globally well-defined solutions of type IIB string theory, with the internal space having topology S3 x S3 x S1 and with properly quantised three-form flux. We show that many of the dual (0,2) SCFTs are exactly marginal deformations of the (0,2) SCFTs whose holographic duals are warped products of AdS3 with seven-dimensional manifolds of topology S3 x S2 x T2. (orig.)

280

Theory of Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz Numbers for the Algebraic Functions of Cyclotomic Type

In this paper we anounce some results obtained for certain algebraic functions, which we call of cyclotomic type. The main results give quite resemble theorems to von Staudt-Clausen's theorem and Kummer's congruence for the Bernoulli numbers and to such theorems for Hurwitz numbers.

Ônishi, Y

2003-01-01

281

Representation theory of the rational Cherednik algebras of type Z/lZ via microlocal analysis

Based on the methods developed in [Kashiwara-Rouquier], we consider microlocalization of the rational Cherednik algebra of type $\\Z/l\\Z$. Our goal is to construct the irreducible modules and standard modules of the rational Cherednik algebra by using the microlocalization. As a consequence, we obtain the sheaves of microlocal system corresponding to holonomic systems with regular singularities.

Kuwabara, Toshiro

2010-01-01

282

On the theory of type-I superconductor surface tension and twinning-plane-superconductivity

A correction is found to the surface tension in type-I superconductors which is proportional to the square root of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter ?. This correction is essential for obtaining the phase diagram and other thermodynamical variables of the narrow superconducting layer arising near the twinning plane in some metals.

Mishonov, T. M.

1990-01-01

283

Criterion- versus distribution-shift accounts of frequency and strength effects in recognition memory were investigated with Type-2 signal detection receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, which provides a measure of metacognitive monitoring. Experiment 1 demonstrated a frequency-based mirror effect, with a higher hit rate and lower…

Higham, Philip A.; Perfect, Timothy J.; Bruno, Davide

2009-01-01

284

Massless particles, orthosymplectic symmetry and another type of Kaluza-Klein theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The superalgebra osp(8/1) is intimately related to the twistor program. Its most singular representation has the following property: restricted to the conformal subalgebra it contains each and every massless representation exactly once. In other words, one irreducible representation of osp(8/1) describes all massless particles with maximal efficiency. It is believed that such unification is required if massless fields of high spins are to have self-consistent interactions. There are other reasons for studying massless particles of all spins simultaneously. There is a very appealing model in which massless particles are viewed as states of two so(3,2) singletons. The astounding fact is that all free two-singleton states are precisely massless. The most singular representation of osp(8/2) is irreducible on osp(8/1) and completely determined by the latter representation. It finds direct application in supergravity theories. The most interesting Sp(8/R) homogeneous space is 10-dimensional. The action of the conformal subgroup leaves invariant a unique 4-dimensional submanifold that can be identified with space time. Kaluza-Klein expansion of the scalar field on 10-space, around this 4-dimensional manifold, leads to a field theory of massless particles with all integer spins on space time. A supersymmetric extension is also possible. (Auth.)

285

The Landau theory of 180 degrees domain walls in BaTiO3 type ferroelectric particles is presented. Results of exact description of domain walls in bulk enabled us to formulate variational approach to theory of domain walls in corresponding small particles. The depolarization field effects and the space-charge layers are taken into account in the samples of the cube form. It was found that at low temperatures well known hyperbolic tangent wall profile is a good approximation for description of domain walls. Near the transition temperature it is more appropriate to speak about two walls separating ferroelectric-paraelectric-ferroelectric domains correspondingly as a result of splitting of a single ferroelectric wall in small BaTiO3 particles. Domain wall energy density, average interwall distance and change of the dielectric response of thick walls in small ferroelectric particles in microcomposites is found. Our results describe observed dependencies better than those theories which exist up to date. In temper...

Hudak, O

2005-01-01

286

On higher derivative corrections to Wess-Zumino and Tachyonic actions in type II super string theory

By evaluating in detail the string scattering amplitude, we investigate various interactions of two massless scalars, one tachyon and one closed string Ramond-Ramond field in type II super string theory. In particular we find two scalar field and two tachyon couplings to all orders of $\\alpha'$ up to on-shell ambiguity. We then obtain the momentum expansion of this amplitude and using these infinite couplings we find that infinite tachyon poles of S-matrix element of this amplitude for the $p=n$ case to all orders of $\\alpha'$ are precisely equal to the infinite tachyon poles of the field theory. In addition to confirming the couplings of closed string field to the world-volume gauge field and scalar fields involving commutators, we also propose an extension of the Wess-Zumino action which naturally reproduces these new couplings in field theory such that they could be confirmed with direct S-matrix computations. Finally we show that the infinite massless poles and the contact terms of this amplitude for the ...

Hatefi, Ehsan

2012-01-01

287

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ruedenberg's well-known letter of 1951 contains two implications which still have been employed so far in numerical computations: (1) Whenever all types of attraction and repulsion integrals are subject to the Ruedenberg approximations in its simplest form partially known already from Mulliken, the attractive, the Coulomb, as well as the exchange part of the restricted Hartree-Fock-Roothaan equation can be led back to the calculation of corresponding diagonal elements, only. Using Ruedenberg's more elaborate concepts, which are invariant with respect to the rotation of local coordinate axes, the complete Fock-matrix representation can be constructed equivalently from only its own diagonal blocks, each belonging to one atom. Similar formulas are valid for the unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory of Pople and Nesbet. (2) If, however, one prefers to calculate all types of one- and two-center integrals exactly as suggested in Ruedenberg's headline, the original simplicity of both representations is lost. Instead, one is led to more complicated expressions, which arise from the fact that Ruedenberg's integral formulas, when applied to certain kinds of three-center repulsion integrals, imply considerable oversimplifications. In spite of this critical result, Ruedenberg's ideas offer an extension together with an interpretation of the semiempirical Wolfsberg and Helmholz recipe (better known from Hoffmann's extended Hueckel theory), on the one hand, and of the neglect of differehe one hand, and of the neglect of differential overlap schemes ZDO and NDDO, on the other, from a common point of view

288

Uncertainty Quantification in Climate Modeling

We address challenges that sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification methods face when dealing with complex computational models. In particular, climate models are computationally expensive and typically depend on a large number of input parameters. We consider the Community Land Model (CLM), which consists of a nested computational grid hierarchy designed to represent the spatial heterogeneity of the land surface. Each computational cell can be composed of multiple land types, and each land type can incorporate one or more sub-models describing the spatial and depth variability. Even for simulations at a regional scale, the computational cost of a single run is quite high and the number of parameters that control the model behavior is very large. Therefore, the parameter sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation face significant difficulties for climate models. This work employs several algorithmic avenues to address some of the challenges encountered by classical uncertainty quantification methodologies when dealing with expensive computational models, specifically focusing on the CLM as a primary application. First of all, since the available climate model predictions are extremely sparse due to the high computational cost of model runs, we adopt a Bayesian framework that effectively incorporates this lack-of-knowledge as a source of uncertainty, and produces robust predictions with quantified uncertainty even if the model runs are extremely sparse. In particular, we infer Polynomial Chaos spectral expansions that effectively encode the uncertain input-output relationship and allow efficient propagation of all sources of input uncertainties to outputs of interest. Secondly, the predictability analysis of climate models strongly suffers from the curse of dimensionality, i.e. the large number of input parameters. While single-parameter perturbation studies can be efficiently performed in a parallel fashion, the multivariate uncertainty analysis requires a large number of training runs, as well as an output parameterization with respect to a fast-growing spectral basis set. To alleviate this issue, we adopt the Bayesian view of compressive sensing, well-known in the image recognition community. The technique efficiently finds a sparse representation of the model output with respect to a large number of input variables, effectively obtaining a reduced order surrogate model for the input-output relationship. The methodology is preceded by a sampling strategy that takes into account input parameter constraints by an initial mapping of the constrained domain to a hypercube via the Rosenblatt transformation, which preserves probabilities. Furthermore, a sparse quadrature sampling, specifically tailored for the reduced basis, is employed in the unconstrained domain to obtain accurate representations. The work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's CSSEF (Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future) program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Sargsyan, K.; Safta, C.; Berry, R.; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H.

2011-12-01

289

A Global View on The Search for de-Sitter Vacua in (type IIA) String Theory

The search for classically stable Type IIA de-Sitter vacua typically starts with an ansatz that gives Anti-de-Sitter supersymmetric vacua and then raises the cosmological constant by modifying the compactification. As one raises the cosmological constant, the couplings typically destabilize the classically stable vacuum, so the probability that this approach will lead to a classically stable de-Sitter vacuum is Gaussianly suppressed. This suggests that classically stable de-...

Chen, Xingang; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S. -h Henry

2011-01-01

290

On importance of higher non-linear interactions in the theory of type II incommensurate systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reveal that the role of the higher non-linear local interactions in the conventional theoretical models developed to describe phase transitions in type II incommensurate systems is underestimated. Their consistent consideration in the thermodynamic potential expansion allows one to remove key contradictions in explanation of the experimental data for ferroelectric Sn2P2Se6 in the vicinity of the modulated-commensurate phase transition point

291

On importance of higher non-linear interactions in the theory of type II incommensurate systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reveal that the role of the higher non-linear local interactions in the conventional theoretical models developed to describe phase transitions in type II incommensurate systems is underestimated. Their consistent consideration in the thermodynamic potential expansion allows one to remove key contradictions in explanation of the experimental data for ferroelectric Sn{sub 2}P{sub 2}Se{sub 6} in the vicinity of the modulated-commensurate phase transition point.

Korda, V.Yu., E-mail: kvyu@kipt.kharkov.ua [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Berezovsky, S.V.; Molev, A.S. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Korda, L.P. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Akademicheskaya St., Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Klepikov, V.F. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 28 Chernyshevsky St., P.O. Box 8812, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine)

2013-09-15

292

A note on canonical bases and one-based types in supersimple theories

This paper studies the CBP, a model-theoretic property first discovered by Pillay and Ziegler. We first show a general decomposition result of types of canonical bases, which one can think of as a sort of primary decomposition. This decomposition is then used to show that existentially closed difference fields of any characteristic have the CBP. We also derive consequences of the CBP, and use these results for applications to differential and difference varieties, and algebraic dynamics.

Chatzidakis, Zoé

2012-01-01

293

Friedmann-type cosmological solutions in Wesson's 5D space-time-mass theory of gravity

Friedmann-type cosmological solutions in a 5D space-time-mass gravity proposed recently by Wesson are obtained for a zero-pressure perfect fluid. The behaviour of the solutions is discussed for three cases in which k = + 1, 0, - 1, respectively. It is found that the ``mass scale-factor'' ?(t), which characterizes the rest mass of a typical particle, is evolving with cosmic time just as the spatial scale-factor a(t).

Guang-Wen, Ma

1990-01-01

294

A New Survey of types of Uncertainties in Nonlinear System with Fuzzy Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to introduce a new framework to handle both uncertainty and time in spatial domain. The application of the fuzzy temporal constraint network (FTCN method is proposed for representation and reasoning of uncertain temporal data. A brief introduction of the fuzzy sets theory is followed by description of the FTCN method with its main algorithms. The paper then discusses the issues of incorporating fuzzy approach into current spatio-temporal processing framework. The general temporal data model is extended to accommodate uncertainties with temporal data and relationships among events. A theoretical FTCN process of fuzzy transition for the imprecise information is introduced with an example. A summary of the paper is given together with outlining some contributions of the paper and future research directions.

Fereshteh Mohammadi

2013-03-01

295

Theory of light-matter interactions in cascade and diamond type atomic ensembles

In this thesis, we investigate the quantum mechanical interaction of light with matter in the form of a gas of ultracold atoms: the atomic ensemble. We present a theoretical analysis of two problems, which involve the interaction of quantized electromagnetic fields (called signal and idler) with the atomic ensemble (i) cascade two-photon emission in an atomic ladder configuration, and (ii) photon frequency conversion in an atomic diamond configuration. The motivation of these studies comes from potential applications in long-distance quantum communication where it is desirable to generate quantum correlations between telecommunication wavelength light fields and ground level atomic coherences. We develop a theory of correlated signal-idler pair correlation. The analysis is complicated by the possible generation of multiple excitations in the atomic ensemble. An analytical treatment is given in the limit of a single excitation assuming adiabatic laser excitations. The analysis predicts superradiant timescales ...

Jen, Hsiang-Hua

2011-01-01

296

Electron interactions and transport theory in n-type silicon and HCP metals

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron interactions with impurities, phonons, and other elections are studied in a calculation of linear screening and electron mobility in n-type silicon. The dielectric function is calculated at non-zero temperatures in both the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjoelander (STLS) approximation. Significant differences are found at non-zero temperatures between exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation for electron-impurity scattering in the RPA Born approximation and the less accurate memory function formula for the electrical resistivity. RPA screening of impurity potentials combined with exact phase shift cross-sections yield electron mobilities in n-type silicon at 300K and 77K that agree more closely with experiment than more simple models. The electron-electron differential scattering rate in Born approximation is derived in terms of the nonequilibrium electron density-density correlation function and is evaluated in RPA to determine expressions for the inelastic electron lifetime and the Boltzmann equation collision term. The plasmon-pole contribution to the structure factor is found to be strongly damped in n-type silicon. The Fermi-surface density of states of Drudge Plasma frequency tensor are calculated for 14 metallic elements with hcp structures. By comparison with measured anisotropic resistivity components, electron-phonon coupling constants ?tr are extracted which compare reasonably well with ? from Tceasonably well with ? from Tc for the ten superconducting elements. For Sc and Y, ?tr is sufficiently high (0.5-0.6) to require spin-fluctuation suppression of Tc. Resistivity anisotropy is moderately well accounted for by anisotropy of the Drude plasma frequency, except for the sp elements, which have significant scattering anisotropy. A systematic onset of open-quotes resistivity saturationclose quotes is found when the mean free path l?10 angstrom

297

A new rosane-type diterpenoid from Stachys parviflora and its density functional theory studies.

A new rosane-type diterpenoid (1) has been isolated from the chloroform fraction of Stachys parviflora. Structure of 1 was proposed based on 1D and 2D NMR techniques including correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. A theoretical model for the electronic and spectroscopic properties of compound 1 is also developed. The geometries and electronic properties were modelled at B3LYP/6-31G(*) and the theoretical scaled spectroscopic data correlate nicely with the experimental data. PMID:25482043

Farooq, Umar; Ayub, Khurshid; Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Sarwar, Rizwana; Khan, Afsar; Ali, Mumtaz; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Ajmal

2014-12-01

298

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we investigate one class of Volterra type integral equation, in model case, when kernels have first order fixed singularity and logarithmic singularity. In detail study the case, when n = 3. In depend of the signs parameters solution to this integral equation can contain three arbitrary constants, two arbitrary constants, one constant and may have unique solution. In the case when general solution of integral equation contains arbitrary constants, we stand and investigate different boundary value problems, when conditions are given in singular point. Besides for considered integral equation, the solution found cane represented in generalized power series. Some results obtained in the general model case.

Nusrat Rajabov

2013-08-01

299

Among several analytic approximations for the growth of density fluctuations in the expanding Universe, Zel'dovich approximation in Lagrangian coordinate scheme is known to be unusually accurate even in mildly non-linear regime. This approximation is very similar to the Padé approximation in appearance. We first establish, however, that these two are actually different and independent approximations with each other by using a model of spheroidal mass collapse. Then we propose Padé-prescribed Zel'dovich-type approximations and demonstrate, within this model, that they are much accurate than any other known nonlinear approximations.

Matsubara, T; Morikawa, M; Matsubara, Takahiko; Yoshisato, Ayako; Morikawa, Masahiro

1997-01-01

300

Theory and modeling of type-II strained-layer superlattice detectors

Type II strained-layer superlattices promise superior performance as detectors in the LWIR and VLWIR wavelength regimes due to their potential for suppressing Auger recombination (and thus dark currents). These predictions for lower Auger rates have been verified experimentally, however the Shockley-Read-Hall recombination times remain shorter than for competing materials. Recent advances in understanding the interaction of defect/donor states with interfaces in strained materials indicates that in these short-period superlattices the behavior of defects and donors can be very different from in the bulk. The current understanding of these issues will be reviewed.

Flatté, Michael E.; Grein, Christoph H.

2009-01-01

301

A piezoelectric transformer is a power transfer device that converts its input and output voltage as well as current by effectively using electrical and mechanical coupling effects of piezoelectric materials. Equivalent-circuit models, which are traditionally used to analyze piezoelectric transformers, merge each mechanical resonance effect into a series of ordinary differential equations. Because of using ordinary differential equations, equivalent circuit models are insufficient to reflect the mechanical behavior of piezoelectric plates. Electromechanically, fully coupled governing equations of Rosen-type piezoelectric transformers, which are partial differential equations in nature, can be derived to address the deficiencies of the equivalent circuit models. It can be shown that the modal actuator concept can be adopted to optimize the electromechanical coupling effect of the driving section once the added spatial domain design parameters are taken into account, which are three-dimensional spatial dependencies of electromechanical properties. The maximum power transfer condition for a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer is detailed. Experimental results, which lead us to a series of new design rules, also are presented to prove the validity and effectiveness of the theoretical predictions. PMID:16382636

Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin

2005-10-01

302

Semiempirical Quantum Mechanics and the Quantification of Ligand Electronic Parameters

Quantification of electronic effects in organometallic chemistry has received little attention in the literature despite their importance in the control of catalytic processes. It is well recognized that the A1 CO vibration for Ni(CO)3L is a good measure of electronic effects. Recently, Crabtree has used density functional theory to compute the A1 CO vibration for Ni(CO)3L complexes and found good agreement with experiment. In this pap...

Gillespie, Aaron M.; Pittard, Karl A.; Cundari, Thomas R.; White, David P.

2002-01-01

303

Training load quantification in triathlon

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are different Indices of Training Stress of varying complexity, to quantification Training load. Examples include the training impulse (TRIMP, the session (RPE, Lucia’s TRIMP or Summated Zone Score. But the triathlon, a sport to be combined where there are interactions between different segments, is a complication when it comes to quantify the training. The aim of this paper is to review current methods of quantification, and to propose a scale to quantify the training load in triathlon simple application.

ROBERTO CEJUELA ANTA

2011-06-01

304

On the use of K\\"ulshammer type invariants in representation theory

Since 2005 a new powerful invariant of an algebra emerged using earlier work of Horv\\'ath, H\\'ethelyi, K\\"ulshammer and Murray. The authors studied Morita invariance of a sequence of ideals of the centre of a finite dimensional algebra over a field of finite characteristic. It was shown that the sequence of ideals is actually a derived invariant, and most recently a slightly modified version of it an invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type. The invariant was used in various contexts to distinguish derived and stable equivalence classes of pairs of algebras in very subtle situations. Generalisations to non symmetric algebras and to higher Hochschild (co-)homology was given. This article surveys the results and gives some of the constructions in more detail.

Zimmermann, Alexander

2010-01-01

305

Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} × {{S}^{3}} × {{M}^{4}}

We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert–de Leeuw construction.

Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin

2014-11-01

306

Design of a compliant-cylinder-type fiber-optic accelerometer: theory and experiment

Experimental and theoretical research was carried out in order to establish the dependence of the performance of a compliant-cylinder-based fiber-optic accelerometer on the geometry and elastic properties of the transducer cylinders. The sensitivity and the natural frequency of the sensor were measured as a function of the ratio epsilon = (inner cylinder diameter)/(outer cylinder diameter). Two transducer materials with different elastic properties, a silicone rubber (Ecosil) and a polyetheretherketone polymer (PEEK 450G), were examined. It was found that with decreasing epsilon the sensitivity increases in the case of Ecosil and decreases in the case of PEEK. In both cases the natural frequency increases with decreasing epsilon . A simple analytical model was developed in order to explain this behavior qualitatively. The model takes into account the contributions to the effective stiffness from both the cylinder material and the fiber wrapped around the cylinder. The model is useful for the design of such types of accelerometer.

Pechstedt, R. D.; Jackson, D. A.

1995-06-01

307

Uncertainty Quantification in Hybrid Dynamical Systems

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above method...

Sahai, Tuhin

2011-01-01

308

Uncertainty quantification in hybrid dynamical systems

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontinuities, we use a wavelet-based Wiener-Haar expansion. We develop a boundary layer approach to propagate uncertainty through separable reset conditions. We also introduce a transport theory based approach for propagating uncertainty through hybrid dynamical systems. Here the expansion yields a set of hyperbolic equations that are solved by integrating along characteristics. The solution of the partial differential equation along the characteristics allows one to quantify uncertainty in hybrid or switching dynamical systems. The above methods are demonstrated on example problems.

Sahai, Tuhin; Pasini, José Miguel

2013-03-01

309

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation with and without a magnetic field by applying the techniques used by Latelier (1979, 1980) and Stachel (1983). To obtain a deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution. The physical and geometrical significance of the model are discussed. By comparing our model with the model of Bali et al. (2007), it is realized that there are no big-bang and big-crunch singularities in our model and T = 0 is not the time of the big bang, whereas the model of Bali et al. starts with a big bang at T = 0. Further, our model is in agreement with Bali et al. (2007) as time increases in the presence, as well as in the absence, of a magnetic field. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

310

The classical Yang-Baxter equation and the associated Yangian symmetry of gauged WZW-type theories

We construct the Lax-pair, the classical monodromy matrix and the corresponding solution of the Yang-Baxter equation, for a two-parameter deformation of the Principal chiral model for a simple group. This deformation includes as a one-parameter subset, a class of integrable gauged WZW-type theories interpolating between the WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the principal chiral model. We derive in full detail the Yangian algebra using two independent methods: by computing the algebra of the non-local charges and alternatively through an expansion of the Maillet brackets for the monodromy matrix. As a byproduct, we also provide a detailed general proof of the Serre relations for the Yangian symmetry.

Itsios, Georgios; Sfetsos, Konstantinos; Siampos, Konstantinos; Torrielli, Alessandro

2014-12-01

311

Band-gap corrected density functional theory calculations for InAs/GaSb type II superlattices

We performed pseudopotential based density functional theory (DFT) calculations for GaSb/InAs type II superlattices (T2SLs), with bandgap errors from the local density approximation mitigated by applying an empirical method to correct the bulk bandgaps. Specifically, this work (1) compared the calculated bandgaps with experimental data and non-self-consistent atomistic methods; (2) calculated the T2SL band structures with varying structural parameters; (3) investigated the interfacial effects associated with the no-common-atom heterostructure; and (4) studied the strain effect due to lattice mismatch between the two components. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying the DFT method to more exotic heterostructures and defect problems related to this material system.

Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong

2014-12-01

312

In this paper, a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological model is considered in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (in Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986) when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. The field equations being highly non-linear, we obtain a determinate solution using the plausible physical conditions (i) the scalar of expansion of the space-time is proportional to shear scalar (ii) the baratropic equation of state for pressure and density and (iii) the bulk viscous pressure is proportional to the energy density. It is interesting to observe that cosmic strings do not survive in this model. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

Reddy, D. R. K.; Naidu, R. L.; Sobhan Babu, K.; Dasu Naidu, K.

2014-01-01

313

Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

314

Potential flow theory application for description of velocity distribution in WWER type reactors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of experimental studies carried out on a plane hydrodynamic model of WWER-440 the applicability of the potential approximation for the velocity distribution within some parts of the reactor has been investigated. Neglecting of the normal velocity component within the gap between the reactor vessel bottom and the perforated elliptical bottom of the reactor shaft and introduction of a hydrodynamic potential transforms the initial three-dimensional problem of the velocity distribution near the perforated bottom into a two-dimensional one. Such an approach combined with the method of partial solutions superposition for Laplas equation and iterations to take into account the non-linear boundary condition at the perforated bottom allow to provide an efficient and low computation time consuming technique for calculation of the velocity distribution near the perforated bottom of the WWER type reactor shaft. With this the effects of turned-off reactor loops and pressure losses in the perforated bottom can be taken into consideration as well. The experiments with a plane hydrodynamic reactor model have proved the validity of the mentioned assumptions

315

Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. J. [Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Seoul National Univ., Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. W. [Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engr, Dongguk Univ., Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-Do, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, G. C. [Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Seoul National Univ., Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

316

Flux-induced Soft Terms on Type IIB/F-theory Matter Curves and Hypercharge Dependent Scalar Masses

Closed string fluxes induce generically SUSY-breaking soft terms on supersymmetric type IIB orientifold compactifications with D3/D7 branes. This was studied in the past by inserting those fluxes on the DBI+CS actions for adjoint D3/D7 fields, where D7-branes had no magnetic fluxes. In the present work we generalise those computations to the phenomenologically more relevant case of chiral bi-fundamental fields laying at 7-brane intersections and F-theory local matter curves. We also include the effect of 7-brane magnetic flux as well as more general closed string backgrounds, including the effect of distant (anti-)D3-branes. We discuss several applications of our results. We find that squark/slepton masses become in general flux-dependent in F-theory GUT's. Hypercharge-dependent non-universal scalar masses with a characteristic sfermion hierarchy m_E^2 < m_L^2 < m_Q^2 < m_D^2 < m_U^2 are obtained. There are also flavor-violating soft terms both for matter fields living at intersecting 7-branes or ...

Camara, Pablo G; Valenzuela, Irene

2014-01-01

317

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters.

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles. PMID:25355078

Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M; Rizvi, Tahir A

2014-01-01

318

XPS quantification of the hetero-junction interface energy

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum entrapment or polarization dictates the performance of dopant, impurity, interface, alloy and compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface bond energy, energy density, and atomic cohesive energy can be determined using XPS and our BOLS theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presents a new and reliable method for catalyst design and identification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Entrapment makes CuPd to be a p-type catalyst and polarization derives AgPd as an n-type catalyst. - Abstract: We present an approach for quantifying the heterogeneous interface bond energy using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Firstly, from analyzing the XPS core-level shift of the elemental surfaces we obtained the energy levels of an isolated atom and their bulk shifts of the constituent elements for reference; then we measured the energy shifts of the specific energy levels upon interface alloy formation. Subtracting the referential spectrum from that collected from the alloy, we can distil the interface effect on the binding energy. Calibrated based on the energy levels and their bulk shifts derived from elemental surfaces, we can derive the bond energy, energy density, atomic cohesive energy, and free energy at the interface region. This approach has enabled us to clarify the dominance of quantum entrapment at CuPd interface and the dominance of polarization at AgPd and BeW interfaces, as the origin of interface energy change. Developed approach not only enhances the power of XPS but also enables the quantification of the interface energy at the atomic scale that has been an issue of long challenge.

Ma, Z.S. [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang Yan [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Huang, Y.L.; Zhou, Z.F. [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhou, Y.C., E-mail: zhouyc@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Zheng Weitao [School of Materials Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Chang Q. [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Materials Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2013-01-15

319

L-type Ca channels contain a cluster of four charged glutamate residues (EEEE locus), which seem essential for high Ca specificity. To understand how this highly charged structure might produce the currents and selectivity observed in this channel, a theory is needed that relates charge to current. We use an extended Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP2) theory to compute (mean) Coulombic interactions and thus to examine the role of the mean field electrostatic interactions in producing current and selectivity. The pore was modeled as a central cylinder with tapered atria; the cylinder (i.e., "pore proper") contained a uniform volume density of fixed charge equivalent to that of one to four carboxyl groups. The pore proper was assigned ion-specific, but spatially uniform, diffusion coefficients and excess chemical potentials. Thus electrostatic selection by valency was computed self-consistently, and selection by other features was also allowed. The five external parameters needed for a system of four ionic species (Na, Ca, Cl, and H) were determined analytically from published measurements of thre limiting conductances and two critical ion concentrations, while treating the pore as a macroscopic ion-exchange system in equilibrium with a uniform bath solution. The extended PNP equations were solved with these parameters, and the predictions were compared to currents measured in a variety of solutions over a range of transmembrane voltages. The extended PNP theory accurately predicted current-voltage relations, anomalous mole fraction effects in the observed current, saturation effects of varied Ca and Na concentrations, and block by protons. Pore geometry, dielectric permittivity, and the number of carboxyl groups had only weak effects. The successful prediction of Ca fluxes in this paper demonstrates that ad hoc electrostatic parameters, multiple discrete binding sites, and logistic assumptions of single-file movement are all unnecessary for the prediction of permeation in Ca channels over a wide range of conditions. Further work is needed, however, to understand the atomic origin of the fixed charge, excess chemical potentials, and diffusion coefficients of the channel. The Appendix uses PNP2 theory to predict ionic currents for published "barrier-and-well" energy profiles of this channel. PMID:9726931

Nonner, W; Eisenberg, B

1998-09-01

320

Theory, design, and simulation of LINA: A path forward for QCA-type nanoelectronics

The past 50 years have seen exponential advances in digital integrated circuit technologies which has facilitated an explosion of uses and functionality. Although this rate (generally referred to as "Moore's Law") cannot be sustained indefinitely, significant advances will remain possible even after current technologies reach fundamental limits. However if these further advances are to be realized, nanoelectronics designs must be developed that provide significant improvements over, the currently-utilized, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistor based integrated circuits. One promising nanoelectronics paradigm to fulfill this function is Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA). QCA provides the possibility of THz switching, molecular scaling, and provides particular applicability for advanced logical constructs such as reversible logic and systolic arrays within the paradigm. These attributes make QCA an exciting prospect; however, current fabrication technology does not exist which allows for the fabrication of reliable electronic QCA circuits which operate at room-temperature. Furthermore, a plausible path to fabrication of circuitry on the very large scale integration (VLSI) level with QCA does not currently exist. This has caused doubts to the viability of the paradigm and questions to its future as a suitable nanoelectronic replacement to CMOS. In order to resolve these issues, research was conducted into a new design which could utilize key attributes of QCA while also providing a means for near-term fabrication of reliable room-temperature circuits and a path forward for VLSI circuits. The result of this research, presented in this dissertation, is the Lattice-based Integrated-signal Nanocellular Automata (LINA) nanoelectronics paradigm. LINA designs are based on QCA and provide the same basic functionality as traditional QCA. LINA also retains the key attributes of THz switching, scalability to the molecular level, and ability to utilize advanced logical constructs which are crucial to the QCA proposals. However, LINA designs also provide significant improvements over traditional QCA. For example, the continuous correction of faults, due to LINA's integrated-signal approach, provides reliability improvements to enable room-temperature operation with cells which are potentially up to 20nm and fault tolerance to layout, patterning, stray-charge, and stuck-at-faults. In terms of fabrication, LINA's lattice-based structure allows precise relative placement through the use of self-assembly techniques seen in current nanoparticle research. LINA also allows for large enough wire and logic structures to enable use of widely available photo-lithographical patterning technologies. These aspects of the LINA designs, along with power, timing, and clocking results, have been verified through the use of new and/or modified simulation tools specifically developed for this purpose. To summarize, the LINA designs and results, presented in this dissertation, provide a path to realization of QCA-type VLSI nanoelectronic circuitry. Furthermore, they offer a renewed viability of the paradigm to replace CMOS and advance computing technologies beyond the next decade.

Hook, Loyd Reed, IV

321

A recipe for EFT uncertainty quantification in nuclear physics

The application of effective field theory (EFT) methods to nuclear systems provides the opportunity to rigorously estimate the uncertainties originating in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Yet this is just one source of uncertainty in the observables predicted by calculations based on nuclear EFTs. We discuss the goals of uncertainty quantification in such calculations and outline a recipe to obtain statistically meaningful error bars for their predictions. We argue that the different sources of theory error can be accounted for within a Bayesian framework, as we illustrate using a toy model.

Furnstahl, R J; Wesolowski, S

2014-01-01

322

Automated quantification and analysis of mandibular asymmetry

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present an automated method of spatially detailed 3D asymmetry quantification in mandibles extracted from CT and apply it to a population of infants with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS). An atlas-based method employing non-rigid registration of surfaces is used for determining deformation fields, thereby establishing detailed anatomical point correspondence between subjects as well as between points on the left and right side of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP). Asymmetry is defined in terms of the vector between a point and the corresponding anatomical point on the opposite side of the MSP after mirroring the mandible across the MSP. A principal components analysis of asymmetry characterizes the major types of asymmetry in the population, and successfully separates the asymmetric UCS mandibles from a number of less asymmetric mandibles from a control population.

Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.

2010-01-01

323

Structural Quantification of Entanglement

We introduce an approach which allows a full structural and quantitative analysis of multipartite entanglement. The sets of states with different structures are convex and nested. Hence, they can be distinguished from each other using appropriate measurable witnesses. We derive equations for the construction of optimal witnesses and discuss general properties arising from our approach. As an example, we formulate witnesses for a 4-cluster state and perform a full quantitative analysis of the entanglement structure in the presence of noise and losses. The strength of the method in multimode continuous variable systems is also demonstrated for a dephased Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state.

Shahandeh, F.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

2014-12-01

324

Quantum non-equilibrium and relaxation to equilibrium for a class of de Broglie-Bohm-type theories

The de Broglie-Bohm theory is about non-relativistic point-particles that move deterministically along trajectories. The theory reproduces the predictions of standard quantum theory, given that the distribution of particles over an ensemble of systems, all described by the same wavefunction $\\psi$, equals the quantum equilibrium distribution $|\\psi|^2$. Numerical simulations by Valentini and Westman have illustrated that non-equilibrium particle distributions may relax to quantum equilibrium after some time. Here we consider non-equilibrium distributions and their relaxation properties for a particular class of trajectory theories, first studied in detail by Deotto and Ghirardi, that are empirically equivalent to the de Broglie-Bohm theory theory in quantum equilibrium. For the examples of such theories that we consider, we find a speed-up of the relaxation compared to the ordinary de Broglie-Bohm theory theory.

Colin, Samuel

2009-01-01

325

Quantification of mannan-binding lectin

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is attracting considerable interest due to its role in the immune defense. The high frequency of congenital MBL deficiency makes it feasible to evaluate clinical relevance through epidemiological investigations on fairly limited numbers of patients. MBL deficiency is determined by three mutant allotypes termed B, C and D in the coding region as well as mutations in the promoter region. It has been suggested that individuals, with deficiency-associated allotypes, may present significant amounts of low molecular weight MBL. We have compared the quantification of MBL by four commercially available assays with results obtained by our own in-house assays. Most assays are selectively sensitive for the wild type MBL (allotype A), but special combinations of antibodies also detect mutant forms of MBL. Thus a sandwich-type time-resolved immunoflourometric assay (TRIFMA), with a mouse monoclonal antibody (93C) as the catching and detecting antibody, shows B/B and D/D homozygous individuals to present signals corresponding to up to 500 ng MBL per ml (with plasma from an A/A individual as standard) as compared to less than 50 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml, respectively, when measured in other assays. In GPC at isotonic conditions the MBL in B/B and D/D individuals showed a Mr of 450 kDa. This MBL cannot bind to mannan. We further present a new method for quantifying the amount of MBL polypeptide chain. By applying plasma samples on SDS-PAGE at reducing conditions followed by Western blotting and quantification by chemiluminescense, this approach presents single polypeptide chains to the antibody independent of allotype differences in the collagen-like region. Titrations of recombinant MBL served as standard. In sera from homozygous mutants (O/O) the MBL concentrations estimated on Western blot were in the range of 100 to 500 ng/ml and correlated with that measured in the 93C-based TRIFMA.

Frederiksen, Pernille D; Thiel, Steffen

2006-01-01

326

Quantification of confocal images of biofilms grown on irregular surfaces.

Bacterial biofilms grow on many types of surfaces, including flat surfaces such as glass and metal and irregular surfaces such as rocks, biological tissues and polymers. While laser scanning confocal microscopy can provide high-resolution images of biofilms grown on any surface, quantification of biofilm-associated bacteria is currently limited to bacteria grown on flat surfaces. This can limit researchers studying irregular surfaces to qualitative analysis or quantification of only the total bacteria in an image. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm called modified connected volume filtration (MCVF) to quantify bacteria grown on top of an irregular surface that is fluorescently labeled or reflective. Using the MCVF algorithm, two new quantification parameters are introduced. The modified substratum coverage parameter enables quantification of the connected-biofilm bacteria on top of the surface and on the imaging substratum. The utility of MCVF and the modified substratum coverage parameter were shown with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on human airway epithelial cells. A second parameter, the percent association, provides quantified data on the colocalization of the bacteria with a labeled component, including bacteria within a labeled tissue. The utility of quantifying the bacteria associated with the cell cytoplasm was demonstrated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilms grown on cervical epithelial cells. This algorithm provides more flexibility and quantitative ability to researchers studying biofilms grown on a variety of irregular substrata. PMID:24632515

Sommerfeld Ross, Stacy; Tu, Mai Han; Falsetta, Megan L; Ketterer, Margaret R; Kiedrowski, Megan R; Horswill, Alexander R; Apicella, Michael A; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Fiegel, Jennifer

2014-05-01

327

MODEL VALIDATION AND UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This session offers an open forum to discuss issues and directions of research in the areas of model updating, predictive quality of computer simulations, model validation and uncertainty quantification. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamics and model validation for structural dynamics. A panel discussion introduces the discussion on technology needs, future trends and challenges ahead with an emphasis placed on soliciting participation of the audience, One of the goals is to show, through invited contributions, how other scientific communities are approaching and solving difficulties similar to those encountered in structural dynamics. The session also serves the purpose of presenting the on-going organization of technical meetings sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to health monitoring, damage prognosis, model validation and uncertainty quantification in engineering applications. The session is part of the SD-2000 Forum, a forum to identify research trends, funding opportunities and to discuss the future of structural dynamics.

Hemez, F.M.; Doebling, S.W.

2000-10-01

328

Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model - are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time-consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling-free non...

Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.

2013-01-01

329

Object Oriented Design Security Quantification

Quantification of security at early phase produces a significant improvement to understand the management of security artifacts for best possible results. The proposed study discusses a systematic approach to quantify security based on complexity factors which having impact on security attributes. This paper provides a road-map to researchers and software practitioner to assess, and preferably, quantify software security in design phase. A security assessment through complexity framework (SVD...

Suhel Ahmad Khan

2011-01-01

330

Risk Quantification and Evaluation Modelling

In this paper authors have discussed risk quantification methods and evaluation of risks and decision parameter to be used for deciding on ranking of the critical items, for prioritization of condition monitoring based risk and reliability centered maintenance (CBRRCM). As time passes any equipment or any product degrades into lower effectiveness and the rate of failure or malfunctioning increases, thereby lowering the reliability. Thus with the passage of time or a number of active tests or ...

Manmohan Singh; Jaybhaye, M. D.; Basu, S. K.

2014-01-01

331

Quantification of atmospheric water soluble inorganic and organic nitrogen

The key aims of this project were: (i) investigation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, focused on discrimination between bulk, wet and dry deposition, and between particulate matter and gas phase, (ii) accurate quantification of the contributions of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen to each type of deposition, and (iii) exploration of the origin and potential sources of atmospheric water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON). This project was particularly focused on the WSON fraction becau...

Beni?tez, Juan Manuel Gonza?lez

2010-01-01

332

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, a new type of general, multiscale plate theory was developed for application to the analysis of the history-dependent response of laminated plates (Williams). In particular, the history-dependent behavior in a plate was considered to arise from both delamination effects as well as history-dependent material point responses (such as from viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, damage, etc.). The multiscale nature of the theoretical framework is due to the use of a superposition of both general global and local displacement effects. Using this global-local displacement field the governing equations of the theory are obtained by satisfying the governing equations of nonlinear continuum mechanics referenced to the initial configuration. In order to accomplish the goal of conducting accurate analyses in the history-dependent response regimes the formulation of the theory has been carried out in a sufficiently general fashion that any cohesive zone model (CZM) and any history-dependent constitutive model for a material point can be incorporated into the analysis without reformulation. Recently, the older multiscale theory of Williams has been implemented into the finite element (FE) framework by Mourad et al. and the resulting capabilities where used to shown that in a qualitative sense it is important that the local fields be accurately obtained in order to correctly predict even the overall response characteristics of a laminated plate in the inelastic regime. The goal of this work is to critically examine the predictive capabilities of this theory, as well as the older multiscale theory of Williams and other types of laminated plate theories, with recently developed exact solutions for the response of inelastic plates in cylindrical bending (Williams). These exact solutions are valid for both nonlinear CZMs as well as inelastic material responses obtained from different constitutive theories. In particular, the accuracy with which the different plate theories predict the local and global responses are considered.

Williams, Todd O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

333

This lesson includes a theory-evaluation activity. A set of five scenarios (theories for how diverse life came into existence on Earth) is divided evenly throughout the class, so each student is asked to evaluate one theory. Students then come together in groups of five, so that all theories are represented in each group, where they are compared and evaluated. Each group reports to the entire class for further discussion and clarifications.

Michael Kimmel

334

An uncertainty inventory demonstration - a primary step in uncertainty quantification

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tools, methods, and theories for assessing and quantifying uncertainties vary by application. Uncertainty quantification tasks have unique desiderata and circumstances. To realistically assess uncertainty requires the engineer/scientist to specify mathematical models, the physical phenomena of interest, and the theory or framework for assessments. For example, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) specifically identifies uncertainties using probability theory, and therefore, PRA's lack formal procedures for quantifying uncertainties that are not probabilistic. The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) proceeds by ranking phenomena using scoring criteria that results in linguistic descriptors, such as importance ranked with words, 'High/Medium/Low.' The use of words allows PIRT to be flexible, but the analysis may then be difficult to combine with other uncertainty theories. We propose that a necessary step for the development of a procedure or protocol for uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the application of an Uncertainty Inventory. An Uncertainty Inventory should be considered and performed in the earliest stages of UQ.

Langenbrunner, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Issac F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

2009-01-01

335

CuCrO2 is the most promising Cu-based delafossite for p-type optoelectronic devices. Despite this, little is known about the p-type conduction mechanism of this material, with both CuI/CuII and CrIII/CrIV hole mechanisms being proposed. In this article we examine the electronic structure, thermodynamic stability and the p-type defect chemistry of this ternary compound using density functional theory with three different approaches to the exchange and correlation; the generalized-gradient-appr...

Watson, Graeme William; Scanlon, David

2009-01-01

336

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment recommendations for prevention of type 2 diabetes complications often require radical and life-long health behaviour changes. Observational studies based on Self-determination theory (SDT propose substantial factors for the maintenance of behaviour changes and concomitant well-being, but experimental research is needed to develop and evaluate SDT-based interventions. The aims of this paper were to describe 1 the design of a trial assessing the effectiveness of a training course for practice-nurses in autonomy support on patient-perceived motivation, HbA1, cholesterol, and well-being among a diabetes population, 2 the actual intervention to a level of detail that allows its replication, and 3 the connection between SDT recommendations for health care-provider behaviour and the content of the training course. Methods/Design The study is a cluster-randomised pragmatic trial including 40 Danish general practices with nurse-led diabetes consultations, and the associated diabetes population. The diabetes population was identified by registers (n = 4034. The intervention was a 16-hour course with interactive training for practice nurses. The course was delivered over 4 afternoons at Aarhus University and one 1/2 hour visit to the practice by one of the course-teachers over a period of 10 months (0, 2, 5, 10 mths.. The intervention is depicted by a PaT Plot showing the timeline and the characteristics of the intervention components. Effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed on the diabetes populations with regard to well-being (PAID, SF-12, HbA1c- and cholesterol-levels, perceived autonomy support (HCCQ, type of motivation (TSRQ, and perceived competence for diabetes care (PCD 15-21 months after the core course; the completion of the second course afternoon. Data will be retrieved from registers and by questionnaires. Discussion Challenges and advantages of the pragmatic design are discussed. In a real-world setting, this study will determine the impact on motivation, HbA1c, cholesterol, and well-being for people with diabetes by offering a training course in autonomy support to practice-nurses from general practices with nurse-led consultations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01187069

Juul Lise

2011-11-01

337

Object Oriented Design Security Quantification

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantification of security at early phase produces a significant improvement to understand the management of security artifacts for best possible results. The proposed study discusses a systematic approach to quantify security based on complexity factors which having impact on security attributes. This paper provides a road-map to researchers and software practitioner to assess, and preferably, quantify software security in design phase. A security assessment through complexity framework (SVDF has been proposed in order to incorporate security to develop quality products. It may be used to benchmark software products according to their severity.

Suhel Ahmad Khan

2011-05-01

338

An EPGPT-based approach for uncertainty quantification

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) has been widely used by many scientific disciplines to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. This manuscript employs recent developments in GPT theory, collectively referred to as Exact-to-Precision Generalized Perturbation Theory (EPGPT), to enable uncertainty quantification for computationally challenging models, e.g. nonlinear models associated with many input parameters and many output responses and with general non-Gaussian parameters distributions. The core difference between EPGPT and existing GPT is in the way the problem is formulated. GPT formulates an adjoint problem that is dependent on the response of interest. It tries to capture via the adjoint solution the relationship between the response of interest and the constraints on the state variations. EPGPT recasts the problem in terms of a smaller set of what is referred to as the 'active' responses which are solely dependent on the physics model and the boundary and initial conditions rather than on the responses of interest. The objective of this work is to apply an EPGPT methodology to propagate cross-sections variations in typical reactor design calculations. The goal is to illustrate its use and the associated impact for situations where the typical Gaussian assumption for parameters uncertainties is not valid and when nonlinear behavior must be considered. To allow this demonstration, exaggerated variations will be employed to stimulate nonlinear behavior in simple prototypical neutronics models. (authors)

Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, North Caroline State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

2012-07-01

339

Detection and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Dialysates

Sensitive analytical methods are needed for the separation and quantification of neurotransmitters obtained in microdialysate studies. This unit describes methods that permit quantification of nanomolar concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (high-pressure liquid chromatography electrochemical detection), acetylcholine (HPLC-coupled to an enzyme reactor), and amino acids (HPLC-fluorescence detection; capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection). PMID:19575473

Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Denoroy, Luc

2010-01-01

340

Detection and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Dialysates

Sensitive analytical methods are needed for the separation and quantification of neurotransmitters obtained in microdialysate studies. This unit describes methods that permit quantification of nanomolar concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (high-pressure liquid chromatography electrochemical detection), acetylcholine (HPLC-coupled to an enzyme reactor), and amino acids (HPLC-fluorescence detection; capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection).

Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Denoroy, Luc

2009-01-01

341

Uncertainty quantification for systems of conservation laws

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uncertainty quantification through stochastic spectral methods has been recently applied to several kinds of non-linear stochastic PDEs. In this paper, we introduce a formalism based on kinetic theory to tackle uncertain hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods. The idea is to introduce a new variable, the entropic variable, in bijection with our vector of unknowns, which we develop on the polynomial basis: by performing a Galerkin projection, we obtain a deterministic system of conservation laws. We state several properties of this deterministic system in the case of a general uncertain system of conservation laws. We then apply the method to the case of the inviscid Burgers' equation with random initial conditions and we present some preliminary results for the Euler system. We systematically compare results from our new approach to results from the stochastic Galerkin method. In the vicinity of discontinuities, the new method bounds the oscillations due to Gibbs phenomenon to a certain range through the entropy of the system without the use of any adaptative random space discretizations. It is found to be more precise than the stochastic Galerkin method for smooth cases but above all for discontinuous cases

342

The development and validation of dried sample spots as a method of specimen collection are urgently needed in developing countries for monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Our aim was to test some crucial steps in the use of dried spots, i.e., viral recovery and storage over time. Moreover, we investigated whether dried plasma and blood spots (DPS and DBS, respectively) give comparable viral load (VL) results. Four manual RNA extraction methods from commercial HIV type...

Monleau, Marjorie; Montavon, Ce?line; Laurent, Christian; Segondy, Michel; Montes, Brigitte; Delaporte, Eric; Boillot, Franc?ois; Peeters, Martine

2009-01-01

343

Three commercial assays for quantifying plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA were evaluated. The assays differed in their sample volumes, the means of preparing samples, and methods of amplification and detection. Plasma samples were obtained from 36 HIV-1-infected patients representing all stages of HIV-1 infection and were analyzed as coded specimens. Measurement of HIV-1 RNA baseline levels revealed no significant difference in sensitivity between the three assays. The as...

Revets, H.; Marissens, D.; Wit, S.; Lacor, P.; Clumeck, N.; Lauwers, S.; Zissis, G.

1996-01-01

344

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with the development of metabolic diseases. Anthropometry is one of the methods used to quantify it. aim: to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and anthropometric [...] indexes, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in type 2 diabetic patients (DM2). Patients and Methods: Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients aged 55 to 78 years (15 females) and weighting 61.5 to 97 kg, were included. The patients underwent MRI examination on a Philips Intera® 1.5T MR scanner. The MRI protocol included a spectral excitation sequence centered at the fat peak. The field of view included from L4-L5 to the diaphragmatic border. VAT was measured using the software Image J®. Weight, height, BMI, WC and body fat percentage (BF%), derived from the measurement offour skinfolds with the equation of Durnin and Womersley, were also measured. The association between MRIVAT measurement and anthropometry was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Mean VAT was 2478 ± 758 ml, mean BMI29.5 ± 4.7 kg/m², and mean WC was 100 ± 9.7 cm. There was a poor correlation between VAT, BMI (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.56). Conclusions: BMI and WC are inaccurate predictors of VAT volume in type 2 diabetic patients.

Cristóbal, Serrano García; Francisco, Barrera; Pilar, Labbé; Jessica, Liberona; Marco, Arrese; Pablo, Irarrázabal; Cristián, Tejos; Sergio, Uribe.

1535-15-01

345

On a singular Fredholm-type integral equation arising in N=2 super-Yang-Mills theories

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work we study the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the Nekrasov instanton partition function of Yang-Mills field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and gauge group SU(N{sub c}). The theories are coupled with N{sub f} flavors of fundamental matter. The equation that determines the density of eigenvalues at the leading order in the saddle-point approximation is exactly solved when N{sub f}=2N{sub c}. The dominating contribution to the instanton free energy is computed. The requirement that this energy is finite imposes quantization conditions on the parameters of the theory that are in agreement with analogous conditions that have been derived in previous works. The instanton energy and thus the instanton contribution to the prepotential of the gauge theory is computed in closed form.

Ferrari, Franco, E-mail: ferrari@fermi.fiz.univ.szczecin.pl [Institute of Physics and CASA, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70451 Szczecin (Poland); Piatek, Marcin, E-mail: piatek@fermi.fiz.univ.szczecin.pl [Institute of Physics and CASA, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70451 Szczecin (Poland); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2013-01-08

346

Quantification of Flow Structures in Syntectonic Magmatic Rocks

Fabrics of syntectonic magmatic rocks provide important information on melt emplacement and crystallization conditions and, consequently, information on state and development of certain parts of the continental crust. Therefore, detailed studies on magmatic fabrics and, specifically, their quantification is a necessary prerequisite for any more detailed study. Fabric anisotropy and heterogeneity are fundamental properties of magmatic rocks. Their quantification can be performed by recently developed modified methods of fractal geometry. (i) A modified Cantor-dust method leads to a direction-related fractal dimension and, consequently, to quantification of fabric anisotropy. (ii) A modified perimeter method allows determination of fractal dimensions of complex curves in relation to their average orientations. (iii) A combination of box-counting method with kriging results in a contour map of the box-counting dimension, revealing the local fabric heterogeneity. (iv) A combination of method iii and a modified Cantor-dust method leads to mapping of fabric anisotropy (Kruhl et al. 2004, Peternell et al. subm.). Automation of these methods allows fast recording, generation of large data sets and the application of quantification methods on large areas (Gerik & Kruhl subm.). It leads to a precision of fabric analysis, not obtainable by manual execution of methods. Specifically, the direction-related Cantor-dust method has proven useful for analyzing magmatic flow structures and quantifying the intensity of flow. Application of this method to different types of syntectonic magmatic rocks will be presented and discussed. References: Gerik, A. & Kruhl, J.H.: Towards automated pattern quantification: time-efficient assessment of anisotropy of 2D pattern with AMOCADO. Computers & Geosciences (subm.). Kruhl, J.H., Andries, F., Peternell, M. & Volland, S. 2004: Fractal geometry analyses of rock fabric anisotropies and inhomogeneities. In: Kolymbas, D. (ed.), Fractals in Geotechnical Engineering, Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and Tunnelling, 9, Logos, Berlin, 115-135. Peternell, M., Bitencourt, M.F. & Kruhl, J.H.: New methods for large-scale rock fabric quantification - the Piquiri Syenite Massif, Southern Brazil. Journal of Structural Geology (subm.)

Kruhl, J. H.; Gerik, A.

2007-12-01

347

A new class of a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-I cosmological models of the universe for perfect fluid distribution within the framework of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. 113:467, 1986) is investigated. To prevail the deterministic solutions we choose the different scale factors which yield time-dependent deceleration parameters (DP) representing models which generate a transition of the universe from the ...

Pradhan, Anirudh; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Amirhashchi, H.

2012-01-01

348

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An homogeneous model which simulates the stationary behavior of steam generators of PWR type reactors and uses the differential formalism of perturbation theory for analysing sensibility of linear and non-linear responses, is presented. The PERGEVAP computer code to calculate the temperature distribution in the steam generator and associated importance function, is developed. The code also evaluates effects of the thermohydraulic parameter variation on selected functionals. The obtained results are compared with results obtained by GEVAP computer code . (M.C.K.)

349

We compared the sensitivity and accuracy of the NucliSens assay and those of both the standard and modified (addition of a new primer set, primer mix 1, supplied by Roche) Amplicor HIV Monitor assays to quantify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in persons infected with HIV-1 subtype A in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Seventy-one plasma samples from HIV-1-seropositive persons at different stages of HIV infection and 15 samples from HIV antibody-negative persons were analyzed. The H...

Nkengasong, John N.; Kalou, Mirielle; Maurice, Chantal; Bile, Celestin; Borget, Marie-yolande; Koblavi, Ste?phania; Boateng, Emmanuel; Sassan-morokro, Madeleine; Anatole-ehounou, Ekpini; Ghys, Peter; Greenberg, Alan E.; Wiktor, Stefan Z.

1998-01-01

350

Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

Kim, Hyeon Sik; Min, Jung Joon; Lee, Byeong Il [Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Seo [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Tak, Yoon O; Choi, Heung Kook; Lee, Ju Young [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

2009-10-15

351

Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used focess. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

352

We study the Cauchy problem for an $p$-Laplacian type of evolution system ${\\mathbf H}_{t}+\\g [ | \\g {\\mathbf H}|^{p-2} \\g {\\mathbf H}|]={\\mathbf F}$. This system governs the evolution of a magnetic field ${\\bf H}$, where the current displacement is neglected and the electrical resistivity is assumed to be some power of the current density. The existence, uniqueness and regularity of solutions to the system are established. Furthermore, it is shown that the limit solution as...

Yin, Hong-ming

1998-01-01

353

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highly sensitive technologies for multiplexed quantification of a large number of candidate proteins will play an increasingly important role in clinical biomarker discovery, systems biology, and general biomedical research. Herein we introduce the new PRISM-SRM technology, which represents a highly sensitive multiplexed quantification technology capable of simultaneous quantification of many low-abundance proteins without the need of affinity reagents. The versatility of antibody-free PRISM-SRM for quantifying various types of targets including protein isoforms, protein modifications, metabolites, and others, thus offering new competition with immunoassays.

Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun

2013-02-01

354

Quantification of extracellular UDP-galactose.

The human P2Y(14) receptor is potently activated by UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc), UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal), UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), and UDP-glucuronic acid. Recently, cellular release of UDP-Glc and UDP-GlcNAc has been reported, but whether additional UDP-sugars are endogenous agonists for the P2Y(14) receptor remains poorly defined. In the present study, we describe an assay for the quantification of UDP-Gal with subnanomolar sensitivity. This assay is based on the enzymatic conversion of UDP-Gal to UDP, using 1-4-beta-galactosyltransferase. UDP is subsequently phosphorylated by nucleoside diphosphokinase in the presence of [gamma-(32)P]ATP and the formation of [gamma-(32)P]UTP is monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography. The overall conversion of UDP-Gal to [gamma-(32)P]UTP was linear between 0.5 and 30 nM UDP-Gal. Extracellular UDP-Gal was detected on resting cultures of various cell types, and increased release of UDP-Gal was observed in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells stimulated with the protease-activated receptor agonist thrombin. The occurrence of regulated release of UDP-Gal suggests that, in addition to its role in glycosylation reactions, UDP-Gal is an important extracellular signaling molecule. PMID:19699703

Lazarowski, Eduardo R

2010-01-01

355

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La llanura amazónica peruana se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples formaciones vegetales. Éstas cada vez reciben mayor impacto por actividades antropogénicas tales como la minería y tala. Todo esto, sumado al cambio climático global, genera desconcierto sobre el futuro de los bosques. La iden [...] tificación de los niveles de almacenamiento de carbono en áreas boscosas, y específicamente en cada formación vegetal, permitiría un mejor manejo de las zonas de conservación, así como identificar las áreas potenciales que servirían para el financiamiento de la absorción de carbono y otros servicios ambientales. El presente estudio fue desarrollado en la estación Biológica del Centro de Investigación y Capacitación Río Los Amigos (CICRA). En el CICRA se identificaron tres formaciones vegetales principales, el bosque de terraza, el bosque inundable y el aguajal. Siendo los bosques de terraza los de mayor extensión y mayor cantidad de carbono acumulado. Como resultado se valorizó la vegetación presente en el CICRA, en alrededor de 11 millones de dólares americanos. El ingreso a la oferta de los bonos de carbono promovería la conservación de los bosques. Abstract in english The Peruvian Amazon Basin is characterized by the presence of multiple vegetation types. They are being given great impact by human activities such as mining and, logging. All this, coupled with global climate change, creates confusion about the future of our forests. The identification of levels of [...] carbon storage in forested areas, and specifically in each vegetation type, would allow better management of conservation areas, and then identify potential areas that could serve to finance carbon sequestration and other environmental services. This study was conducted at the Biological Station for Research and Training Center Rio Los Amigos (CICRA, Spanish acronym). At the station three main formations were identified, alluvial terrace forests, flood terrace forests and Mauritia swamps. The alluvial terrace forest presents the most extensive area and the highest amount of carbon stored. As result, CICRA vegetations were valued at approx. 11 millions U.S. dollars. Admission to the supply of carbon credits could promote Amazon forest conservation.

Carlos, Martel; Lianka, Cairampoma.

2012-08-01

356

Ages of the universe for FRW-type models in Wesson's 5D variable mass theory of gravity

The age of the universe is computed for spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models of the relativistic Wesson's 5D variable mass theory of gravity. It is shown that if the pressure in the mass dimension is negligible, ages old enough to agree with the observations can only be obtained if the cosmological constant is different from zero. In addition, unlike the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models in Einstein's 4D theory, the age value itself is not affected by the nature of the matter content (matter and radiation dominated models give the same age).

Lima, J. A. S.; Carvalho, J. C.; Nelson, O. R.

1994-09-01

357

Conditions for the existence of stability in the stationary flow of a perfect two-dimensinal fluid can be studied on the basis of a generalized theory for the rotary motion of a rigid body fixed at a point. The Eulerian theory can be generalized from the finding that a considerable part of the theory is related only to the left invariant Riemann metric on the group of rotations of the three-dimensional Euclidean space. For this reason, it can be transferred to other groups. In a fluid mechanical interpretation, the function of a geodetic traced by the rigid body is represented by a geodetic on the Lie group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of a flow region. The relation between the fluid mechanics and the Eulerian equations of a rigid body is strictly defined by the lemma of the equivalence between a nonlinear system of a fluid mechanical type of the third order (triplet) and the classic gyroscope. Stability problems for certain types of flow are then considered. The criterion here employs a fluid mechanical interpretation of the equation of motion of a classic gyroscope. This makes it possible to replace the group of rotations of the three-dimensional Euclidean space with an infinite group of diffeomorphisms of a flow region with the Riemann metric.

Horak, J.; Navratil, J.

358

Quantification model for energy consumption in edification

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m^{2} of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction.
The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment.
The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.

La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m^{2} de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación.
La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado.
Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos numéricos que podrán ser comparados en otras tipologías y ámbitos geográficos, a la vez que permitirán analizar y precisar mejoras en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado por los diferentes materiales, subsistemas y elementos constructivos habitualmente utilizados en las tipologías edificatorias definidas.

Mercader, Mª P.

2012-12-01

359

We calculate the D-brane superpotentials for two Calabi-Yau manifolds with three deformations by the generalized hypergeometric GKZ systems, which give rise to the flux superpotentials 𝒲GVW of the dual F-theory compactification on the relevant Calabi-Yau fourfolds in the weak decoupling limit. We also compute the Ooguri-Vafa invariants from A-model expansion with mirror symmetry, which are related to the open Gromov-Witten invariants.

Xu, Feng-Jun; Yang, Fu-Zhong

2014-04-01

360

Analysis of New Type Air-conditioning for Loom Based on CFD Simulation and Theory of Statistics

Based on theory of statistics, main factors affecting effects of loom workshop’s large and small zone ventilation using the CFD simulation in this paper. Firstly, four factors and three levels of orthogonal experimental table is applied to CFD simulation, the order from major to minor of four factors is obtained, which can provide theoretical basis for design and operation. Then single-factor experiment method is applied to CFD simulation, certain factor changi...

Ruiliang Yang; Yide Zhou; Nannan Zhao; Gaoju Song

2011-01-01

361

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity calculations are very important in design and safety of nuclear reactor cores. Large codes with a great number of physical considerations have been used to perform sensitivity studies. However, these codes need long computation time involving high costs. The perturbation theory has constituted an efficient and economical method to perform sensitivity analysis. The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (matricial formalism) to a simplified model of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) analysis to perform sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of enthalpy and coolant velocity with respect to coolant density and hot channel area were developed from the proposed model. The CASNUR.FOR code to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients was written in Fortran. The comparison between results obtained from the matricial formalism of perturbation theory with those obtained directly from the proposed model makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

362

Risk Quantification and Evaluation Modelling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper authors have discussed risk quantification methods and evaluation of risks and decision parameter to be used for deciding on ranking of the critical items, for prioritization of condition monitoring based risk and reliability centered maintenance (CBRRCM. As time passes any equipment or any product degrades into lower effectiveness and the rate of failure or malfunctioning increases, thereby lowering the reliability. Thus with the passage of time or a number of active tests or periods of work, the reliability of the product or the system, may fall down to a low value known as a threshold value, below which the reliability should not be allowed to dip. Hence, it is necessary to fix up the normal basis for determining the appropriate points in the product life cycle where predictive preventive maintenance may be applied in the programme so that the reliability (the probability of successful functioning can be enhanced, preferably to its original value, by reducing the failure rate and increasing the mean time between failure. It is very important for defence application where reliability is a prime work. An attempt is made to develop mathematical model for risk assessment and ranking them. Based on likeliness coefficient ?1 and risk coefficient ?2 ranking of the sub-systems can be modelled and used for CBRRCM.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 4, July 2014, pp. 378-384, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6366

Manmohan Singh

2014-07-01

363

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Started with analyzing the features of metallogenetic epoch and space distribution of typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit both in China and abroad and their relations of basin evolution, the authors have proposed the idea that the last unconformity mainly controls the metallogenetic epoch and the strength of structure activity after the last unconformity determines the deposit space. An exploration theory with the kernel from new events to the old one is put forward. The means and method to use SAR technology to identify ore-controlling key factors are discussed. An application study in Eastern Jungar Basin is performed

364

Damage quantification of shear buildings using deflections obtained by modal flexibility

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a damage quantification method for shear buildings using the damage-induced inter-storey deflections (DI-IDs) estimated by the modal flexibilities from ambient vibration measurements. This study intends to provide a basis for the damage quantification problem of more complex building structures by investigating a rather idealized type of structures, shear buildings. Damage in a structure represented by loss of stiffness generally induces additional deflection, which may contain essential information about the damage. From an analytical investigation, the general equation of damage quantification by the damage-induced deflection is proposed and its special case for shear buildings is also proposed based on the damage-induced inter-storey deflection. The proposed damage quantification method is advantageous compared to conventional FE updating approaches since the number of variables in the optimization problem is only dependent on the complexity of damage parametrization, not on the complexity of the structure. For this reason, the damage quantification for shear buildings is simplified to a form that does not require any FE updating. Numerical and experimental studies on a five-storey shear building were carried out for two damage scenarios with 10% column EI reductions. From the numerical study, it was found that the lower four natural frequencies and mode shapes were enough to make errors in the deflection estimation and the damage quantificationn estimation and the damage quantification below 1%. From the experimental study, deflections estimated by the modal flexibilities were found to agree well with the deflections obtained from static push-over tests. Damage quantifications by the proposed method were also found to agree well with true amounts of damage obtained from static push-over tests

365

We construct the generalized hypergeometric GKZ systems for two Calabi-Yau manifolds with three parameters and D-branes wrapped on divisors with single open-string moduli, respectively, and further calculate the D-brane superpotentials which give rise to the flux superpotentials $\\mathcal{W}_{GVW}$ of the dual F-theory compactification on the relevant Calabi-Yau fourfolds in the weak decoupling limit. We also compute the Ooguri-Vafa invariants from A-model expansion with mirror symmetry, which are related to the open Gromov-Witten invariants.

Xu, Feng-Jun

2012-01-01

366

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential distribution in cyclotron-type gaps with liner (outer electrodes at ground potential) is determined via Schwarz-Christoffel transformation as well as by computer analysis (relaxation method). First-order focusing formulas for both static as well as time-varying potentials are derived. In addition exact calculations were carried out by direct numerical integration of the equations of motion with a computer program. The numerical data permitted an accurate evaluation of the validity of the analytical approximation as well as further improvement of the theoretical formulas. Focusing relations are presented in a generalized form which shows the scaling laws and is readily applicable to different types of particles, energies or lens geometries. As an example, the theory is applied in the axial motion of ions in a cyclotron

367

Frequency conversion (FC) and type-II parametric down-conversion (PDC) processes serve as basic building blocks for the implementation of quantum optical experiments: type-II PDC enables the efficient creation of quantum states such as photon-number states and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-states. FC gives rise to technologies enabling efficient atom-photon coupling, ultrafast pulse gates and enhanced detection schemes. However, despite their widespread deployment, their theoretical treatment remains challenging. Especially the multi-photon components in the high-gain regime as well as the explicit time-dependence of the involved Hamiltonians hamper an efficient theoretical description of these nonlinear optical processes. In this paper, we investigate these effects and put forward two models that enable a full description of FC and type-II PDC in the high-gain regime. We present a rigorous numerical model relying on the solution of coupled integro-differential equations that covers the complete dynamics of the process. As an alternative, we develop a simplified model that, at the expense of neglecting time-ordering effects, enables an analytical solution. While the simplified model approximates the correct solution with high fidelity in a broad parameter range, sufficient for many experimental situations, such as FC with low efficiency, entangled photon-pair generation and the heralding of single photons from type-II PDC, our investigations reveal that the rigorous model predicts a decreased performance for FC processes in quantum pulse gate applications and an enhanced EPR-state generation rate during type-II PDC, when EPR squeezing values above 12 dB are considered.

Christ, Andreas; Brecht, Benjamin; Mauerer, Wolfgang; Silberhorn, Christine

2013-05-01

368

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frequency conversion (FC) and type-II parametric down-conversion (PDC) processes serve as basic building blocks for the implementation of quantum optical experiments: type-II PDC enables the efficient creation of quantum states such as photon-number states and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-states. FC gives rise to technologies enabling efficient atom–photon coupling, ultrafast pulse gates and enhanced detection schemes. However, despite their widespread deployment, their theoretical treatment remains challenging. Especially the multi-photon components in the high-gain regime as well as the explicit time-dependence of the involved Hamiltonians hamper an efficient theoretical description of these nonlinear optical processes. In this paper, we investigate these effects and put forward two models that enable a full description of FC and type-II PDC in the high-gain regime. We present a rigorous numerical model relying on the solution of coupled integro-differential equations that covers the complete dynamics of the process. As an alternative, we develop a simplified model that, at the expense of neglecting time-ordering effects, enables an analytical solution. While the simplified model approximates the correct solution with high fidelity in a broad parameter range, sufficient for many experimental situations, such as FC with low efficiency, entangled photon-pair generation and the heralding of single photons from type-II PDC, our investigations reveal that the rigo investigations reveal that the rigorous model predicts a decreased performance for FC processes in quantum pulse gate applications and an enhanced EPR-state generation rate during type-II PDC, when EPR squeezing values above 12 dB are considered. (paper)

369

Carotid Intraplaque Neovascularization Quantification Software (CINQS).

Intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) is an important biomarker of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. As IPN can be detected by contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), imaging-biomarkers derived from CEUS may allow early prediction of plaque vulnerability. To select the best quantitative imaging-biomarkers for prediction of plaque vulnerability, a systematic analysis of IPN with existing and new analysis algorithms is necessary. Currently available commercial contrast quantification tools are not applicable for quantitative analysis of carotid IPN due to substantial motion of the carotid artery, artifacts, and intermittent perfusion of plaques. We therefore developed a specialized software package called Carotid intraplaque neovascularization quantification software (CINQS). It was designed for effective and systematic comparison of sets of quantitative imaging biomarkers. CINQS includes several analysis algorithms for carotid IPN quantification and overcomes the limitations of current contrast quantification tools and existing carotid IPN quantification approaches. CINQS has a modular design which allows integrating new analysis tools. Wizard-like analysis tools and its graphical-user-interface facilitate its usage. In this paper, we describe the concept, analysis tools, and performance of CINQS and present analysis results of 45 plaques of 23 patients. The results in 45 plaques showed excellent agreement with visual IPN scores for two quantitative imaging-biomarkers (The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92 and 0.93). PMID:25561454

Akkus, Zeynettin; van Burken, Gerard; van den Oord, Stijn C H; Schinkel, Arend F L; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Bosch, Johan G

2015-01-01

370

We study the probability distribution P(\\Lambda) of the cosmological constant \\Lambda in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. P(\\Lambda) is divergent at \\Lambda =0^- and the likely value of \\Lambda drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h^{2,1} increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the probability of having a positive Hessian (mass squared matrix) approaches unity as h^{2,1} increases.

Sumitomo, Yoske

2012-01-01

371

We study the probability distribution P(\\Lambda) of the cosmological constant \\Lambda in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. We show that, as we sweep through the quantized flux values in this flux compactification, P(\\Lambda) behaves divergent at \\Lambda =0^- and the median magnitude of \\Lambda drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h^{2,1} increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the p...

Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S. -h Henry

2012-01-01

372

This paper introduces a vectorial form of equilibrium version of Ekeland-type variational principle. Some equivalent results to our variational principle are given. As applications, we derive the existence of solutions of a vector equilibrium problem in the setting of complete quasi-metric spaces with a W-distance. Caristi-Kirk fixed point theorem for multivalued maps is also established in a more general setting.

Ansari, Qamrul Hasan

2007-10-01

373

The damage caused by corrosion in chemical process installations can lead to unexpected plant shutdowns and the leakage of potentially toxic chemicals into the environment. When subjected to corrosion, structural changes in the material occur, leading to energy releases as acoustic waves. This acoustic activity can in turn be used for corrosion monitoring, and even for predicting the type of corrosion. Here we apply wavelet packet decomposition to extract features from acoustic emission signa...

Hulle, Marc M.; Gert Van Dijck

2011-01-01

374

Analysis of New Type Air-conditioning for Loom Based on CFD Simulation and Theory of Statistics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on theory of statistics, main factors affecting effects of loom workshop’s large and small zone ventilation using the CFD simulation in this paper. Firstly, four factors and three levels of orthogonal experimental table is applied to CFD simulation, the order from major to minor of four factors is obtained, which can provide theoretical basis for design and operation. Then single-factor experiment method is applied to CFD simulation, certain factor changing can be obtained with best levels of other factors. Base on above recommend parameters, CFD software is applied to simulate relative humid and PMV on the loom. Lastly, comparison of simulation results and experiment is used to verify feasibility of simulation results.

Ruiliang Yang

2011-01-01

375

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The damage caused by corrosion in chemical process installations can lead to unexpected plant shutdowns and the leakage of potentially toxic chemicals into the environment. When subjected to corrosion, structural changes in the material occur, leading to energy releases as acoustic waves. This acoustic activity can in turn be used for corrosion monitoring, and even for predicting the type of corrosion. Here we apply wavelet packet decomposition to extract features from acoustic emission signals. We then use the extracted wavelet packet coefficients for distinguishing between the most important types of corrosion processes in the chemical process industry: uniform corrosion, pitting and stress corrosion cracking. The local discriminant basis selection algorithm can be considered as a standard for the selection of the most discriminative wavelet coefficients. However, it does not take the statistical dependencies between wavelet coefficients into account. We show that, when these dependencies are ignored, a lower accuracy is obtained in predicting the corrosion type. We compare several mutual information filters to take these dependencies into account in order to arrive at a more accurate prediction.

Marc M. Van Hulle

2011-05-01

376

The damage caused by corrosion in chemical process installations can lead to unexpected plant shutdowns and the leakage of potentially toxic chemicals into the environment. When subjected to corrosion, structural changes in the material occur, leading to energy releases as acoustic waves. This acoustic activity can in turn be used for corrosion monitoring, and even for predicting the type of corrosion. Here we apply wavelet packet decomposition to extract features from acoustic emission signals. We then use the extracted wavelet packet coefficients for distinguishing between the most important types of corrosion processes in the chemical process industry: uniform corrosion, pitting and stress corrosion cracking. The local discriminant basis selection algorithm can be considered as a standard for the selection of the most discriminative wavelet coefficients. However, it does not take the statistical dependencies between wavelet coefficients into account. We show that, when these dependencies are ignored, a lower accuracy is obtained in predicting the corrosion type. We compare several mutual information filters to take these dependencies into account in order to arrive at a more accurate prediction. PMID:22163921

Van Dijck, Gert; Van Hulle, Marc M

2011-01-01

377

Quantification of 11 clinical strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from domestic (cattle, sheep, and goat) and wildlife (fallow deer, deer, wild boar, and bison) animal species in an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960) was accomplished. The strains were previously isolated and typed using IS1311 PCR followed by restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA) into type C, S, or B. A strain-specific quantification curve was generated for each M. avium subsp....

Abendan?o, Naiara; Sevilla, Iker; Prieto, Jose? M.; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramon A.; Alonso-hearn, Marta

2012-01-01

378

Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

Wolpert, David H.

2005-01-01

379

We formulate a unified framework of balance laws and thermodynamically-consistent constitutive equations which couple Cahn-Hilliard-type species diffusion with large elastic deformations of a body. The traditional Cahn-Hilliard theory, which is based on the species concentration c and its spatial gradient ?c, leads to a partial differential equation for the concentration which involves fourth-order spatial derivatives in c; this necessitates use of basis functions in finite-element solution procedures that are piecewise smooth and globally C1-continuous. In order to use standard C0-continuous finite-elements to implement our phase-field model, we use a split-method to reduce the fourth-order equation into two second-order partial differential equations (pdes). These two pdes, when taken together with the pde representing the balance of forces, represent the three governing pdes for chemo-mechanically coupled problems. These are amenable to finite-element solution methods which employ standard C0-continuous finite-element basis functions. We have numerically implemented our theory by writing a user-element subroutine for the widely used finite-element program Abaqus/Standard. We use this numerically implemented theory to first study the diffusion-only problem of spinodal decomposition in the absence of any mechanical deformation. Next, we use our fully coupled theory and numerical-implementation to study the combined effects of diffusion and stress on the lithiation of a representative spheroidal-shaped particle of a phase-separating electrode material.

Di Leo, Claudio V.; Rejovitzky, Elisha; Anand, Lallit

2014-10-01

380

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

381

Accurate material quantification in dual energy CT

Clinical CT applications such as oncology follow-up using iodine maps require accurate contrast agent (CA) quantification within the patient. Unfortunately, due to beam hardening, the quantification of CA materials like iodine in dual energy systems can vary for different patient sizes and surrounding composition. In this paper we present a novel method that handles this problem which takes into account properly the CA energy dependent attenuation profile. Our method is applicable for different dual energy scanners, e.g. fast kVp switching or dual layer detector array and is fully compatible with image domain material analysis. In this paper we explain the concept of so called landmarks used by our method, and give the mathematical formulation of how to calculate them. We demonstrate by scans of various phantom shapes and by simulations, the robustness and the accuracy of the iodine concentration quantification obtained by our method.

Shechter, Gilad; Thran, Axel; Katchalski, Tsvi

2012-03-01

382

Model based quantification of EELS spectra

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in model based quantification of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) are reported. The maximum likelihood method for the estimation of physical parameters describing an EELS spectrum, the validation of the model used in this estimation procedure, and the computation of the attainable precision, that is, the theoretical lower bound on the variance of these estimates, are discussed. Experimental examples on Au and GaAs samples show the power of the maximum likelihood method and show that the theoretical prediction of the attainable precision can be closely approached even for spectra with overlapping edges where conventional EELS quantification fails. To provide end-users with a low threshold alternative to conventional quantification, a user friendly program was developed which is freely available under a GNU public license

383

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the probability distribution P(?) of the cosmological constant ? in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. We show that, as we sweep through the quantized flux values in this flux compactification, P(?) behaves divergent at ?=0{sup ?} and the median magnitude of ? drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h{sup 2,1} increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the probability of having a positive Hessian (mass-squared matrix) approaches unity as h{sup 2,1} increases.

Sumitomo, Yoske, E-mail: yoske@ust.hk [Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Tye, S.-H. Henry, E-mail: iastye@ust.hk [Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2013-06-25

384

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of anisotropy on the measurement, by muon spin rotation, of the London penetration depth in the high Tc uniaxial type II superconductors is considered in detail. Expressions are derived which will allow the principal penetration depths, ?1 and ?2, to be determined using measurements of the ?SR line width from single crystals. For polycrystalline, powder or sintered, samples an expression is derived which will allow an effective penetration depth, ?eff, to be determined from the measured ?SR line width. Further, it is shown that for all anisotropy ratios, ?2/?1, greater than five ?1 ? 0.81?eff. (author)

385

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The depressurization behaviour of a fibre-type thermal insulation has been investigated both by measurements with air and helium and with numerical models. A simple lumped parameter model has been used to reproduce the measured transients for air as well as for helium. All the experimental data have been obtained with reasonable accuracy by fitting two empirical parameters, the effective surfaces of the flow through the venting holes and the flow through the perforated tube. It is remarkable that the same parameters reproduce the experimental data for such different gases as air and helium. The dependence of the depressurization behaviour on the different parameters has been treated by a dimensional analysis. (Auth.)

386

Interpretation of eRBS for H quantification at surfaces

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The quantification of H at the surface is a subject of key importance. However, direct quantification of this element at the surface region (2 samples have to be made with care.

387

A new approach to the evaluation and quantification of human reliability in systems assessment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of human reliability considerations in risk assessment is considered. The shortcomings of existing approaches are discussed and the problems of data collection in this area are analysed. A new approach is proposed based on the use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory. Detailed procedures for applying this approach to the qualitative assessment of human reliability are given. Finally, the extension of the technique to quantification is discussed. (author)

388

It is a classical result of Postnikov [15] that homotopy types X with at most two non-trivial homotopy groups [pi]mX = A and [pi]nX = B, 2 [less-than-or-eq, slant] m < n, are classified by the k-invariantformula hereHere the cohomology group of the Eilenberg-MacLane space K(A, m) was computed by Eilenberg-MacLane [11] and Cartan [5]. Let p be a prime and let [open face Z]p [subset or is implied by] [open face Q] be the smallest subring of [open face Q] containing 1/q for all primes q with q [not equal] p. We consider finitely generated [open face Z]p-modules A and B and the stable range n < 2m [minus sign] 1. Hence X is a p-local space with at most two non-trivial homotopy groups in a stable range. Then the homotopy type of X admits a product decompositionformula herewhere all Xi with 1 [less-than-or-eq, slant] i [less-than-or-eq, slant] j are indecomposable and this decomposition is unique up to permutation. We classify in this paper the indecomposable factors in (2) by the following result.

Baues, Hans-Joachim; Drozd, Yuri

2000-03-01

389

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations with a digital spectrometer within the frequency band between 250 and 273 MHz of fiber fine structures during the type IV solar radio burst of 1978 October 1 are presented and analyzed. The results are summarized in histograms. Typical values for drift rates are in the range between -2.3 and -9.9 MHz s-1. Frequency intervals between absorption and emission within the spectrum were measured to be within 0.9 and 2.7 MHz. Several types of spectra are discussed. A theoretical interpretation is based upon the model of a population of electrons trapped within a magnetic-mirror loop-configuration. It is shown that the fiber emission can be explained assuming an interaction between spatially localized strong whistler turbulence (solitons) and a broad-band Langmuir wave spectrum. Estimates using the observed flux values indicate that a fiber is composed of some 1011--1014 solitons occupying a volume of about 105--108 km3. Ducting of whistler solitons in low-density magnetic loops provides a plausible explanation for coherent behavior during the lifetime of an individual fiber. The magnetic field strength is found to be 6.2< or =B< or =35 gauss at the radio source and 15.3< or =B< or =76 gauss at the lower hybrid wave level respectively. The quasi-periodicity of the fiber occurrence is interpreted as periodically switched-on soliton production

390

Splitting the Reference Time Temporal Anaphora and Quantification in DRT

This paper presents an analysis of temporal anaphora in sentences which contain quantification over events, within the framework of Discourse Representation Theory. The analysis in (Partee 1984) of quantified sentences, introduced by a temporal connective, gives the wrong truth-conditions when the temporal connective in the subordinate clause is "before" or "after". This problem has been previously analyzed in (de Swart 1991) as an instance of the proportion problem, and given a solution from a Generalized Quantifier approach. By using a careful distinction between the different notions of reference time, based on (Kamp and Reyle 1993), we propose a solution to this problem, within the framework of DRT. We show some applications of this solution to additional temporal anaphora phenomena in quantified sentences.

Nelken, R; Nelken, Rani; Francez, Nissim

1995-01-01

391

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent efforts in the application of uncertainty quantification to nuclear systems have utilized methods based on generalized perturbation theory and stochastic sampling. While these methods have proven to be effective they both have major drawbacks that may impede further progress. A relatively new approach based on spectral elements for uncertainty quantification is applied in this paper to several problems in reactor simulation. Spectral methods based on collocation attempt to couple the approximation free nature of stochastic sampling methods with the determinism of generalized perturbation theory. The specific spectral method used in this paper employs both the Smolyak algorithm and adaptivity by using Newton-Cotes collocation points along with linear hat basis functions. Using this approach, a surrogate model for the outputs of a computer code is constructed hierarchically by adaptively refining the collocation grid until the interpolant is converged to a user-defined threshold. The method inherently fits into the framework of parallel computing and allows for the extraction of meaningful statistics and data that are not within reach of stochastic sampling and generalized perturbation theory. This paper aims to demonstrate the advantages of spectral methods-especially when compared to current methods used in reactor physics for uncertainty quantification-and to illustrate their full potential. (authors)

392

Secret Symmetries of Type IIB Superstring Theory on AdS3 x S3 x M4

We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two different secret symmetry generators which appear unrelated. One generator, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other generator is new and more elusive, and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.

Pittelli, Antonio; Wolf, Martin

2014-01-01

393

The thermal convection occurring over many density scale heights in an A-type star outer envelope, encompassing both the hydrogen and helium convectively unstable zones, is examined by means of anelastic modal equations. The single-mode anelastic equations for such compressible convection display strong overshooting of the motions into adjacent radiative zones, which would preclude diffusive separation of elements in the supposedly quiescent region between the two unstable zones. In addition, the anelastic solutions reveal that the two zones of convective instability are dynamically coupled by the overshooting motions. The two solutions that the nonlinear single-mode equations admit for the same horizontal wavelength are distinguished by the sense of the vertical velocity at the center of the three-dimensional cell. It is suggested that strong horizontal shear flows should be present just below the surface of the star, and that the large-scale motions extending into the stable atmosphere would appear mainly as horizontal flows.

Latour, J.; Toomre, J.; Zahn, J.-P.

1981-01-01

394

Electronic structure of cage-type ternaries ARu2Al10 – Theory and XPS experiment (A = Ce and U)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Electronic structures of (U;Ce)Ru2Al10 probed by X-ray photoemission and ab initio. ? Good agreement between valence-band XPS and calculated (within LDA) spectra. ? More itinerant character of the U 5f than Ce 4f electrons in these compounds. ? Reduced Fermi surface of CeRu2Al10 compared with the U-based system. -- Abstract: The electronic structure of the isomorphic, orthorhombic URu2Al10 and CeRu2Al10 aluminides have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ab initio calculations using the fully relativistic full-potential local-orbital (FPLO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The calculated data of the former system revealed fairly sharp triple-peaks of the U 5f states around the Fermi level (EF) and a large broad contribution from the Ru 4d states expanded from EF to about 6.5 eV of binding energy. Although the size and positions of the Ru 4d bands for the latter compound are quite similar to those of the U-based one, the double Ce 4f sharp peaks are placed almost completely above EF underlying their mostly localized character. We have also analyzed the Fermi surfaces (FSs) in these two aluminides. The calculated results of both ternaries were then compared with our experimental XPS data for URu2Al10 and with such data for CeRu2Al10 available in the literature. The results are in fairly good agreement between the theory and experiment. Especially, the fact that the spectrum weight of the Ce 4f electrons below EF turned out to be very much reduced, reflecting rather a small f–c hybridization of these electrons compared to considerably larger one in the U-based compound

395

Instantaneous Wavenumber Estimation for Damage Quantification in Layered Plate Structures

This paper illustrates the application of instantaneous and local wavenumber damage quantification techniques for high frequency guided wave interrogation. The proposed methodologies can be considered as first steps towards a hybrid structural health monitoring/ nondestructive evaluation (SHM/NDE) approach for damage assessment in composites. The challenges and opportunities related to the considered type of interrogation and signal processing are explored through the analysis of numerical data obtained via EFIT simulations of damage in CRFP plates. Realistic damage configurations are modeled from x-ray CT scan data of plates subjected to actual impacts, in order to accurately predict wave-damage interactions in terms of scattering and mode conversions. Simulation data is utilized to enhance the information provided by instantaneous and local wavenumbers and mitigate the complexity related to the multi-modal content of the plate response. Signal processing strategies considered for this purpose include modal decoupling through filtering in the frequency/wavenumber domain, the combination of displacement components, and the exploitation of polarization information for the various modes as evaluated through the dispersion analysis of the considered laminate lay-up sequence. The results presented assess the effectiveness of the proposed wavefield processing techniques as a hybrid SHM/NDE technique for damage detection and quantification in composite, plate-like structures.

Mesnil, Olivier; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Ruzzene, Massimo

2014-01-01

396

Image quantification of high-throughput tissue microarray

Tissue microarray (TMA) technology allows rapid visualization of molecular targets in thousands of tissue specimens at a time and provides valuable information on expression of proteins within tissues at a cellular and sub-cellular level. TMA technology overcomes the bottleneck of traditional tissue analysis and allows it to catch up with the rapid advances in lead discovery. Studies using TMA on immunohistochemistry (IHC) can produce a large amount of images for interpretation within a very short time. Manual interpretation does not allow accurate quantitative analysis of staining to be undertaken. Automatic image capture and analysis has been shown to be superior to manual interpretation. The aims of this work is to develop a truly high-throughput and fully automated image capture and analysis system. We develop a robust colour segmentation algorithm using hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) colour space to provide quantification of signal intensity and partitioning of staining on high-throughput TMA. Initial segmentation results and quantification data have been achieved on 16,000 TMA colour images over 23 different tissue types.

Wu, Jiahua; Dong, Junyu; Zhou, Huiyu

2006-03-01

397

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the computational study of the structures, energies, dipole moments and IR spectra for a singlet and a triplet nitromethane are presented. Five different hybrids (BHandH, BHandHLYP, B3LYP, B3P86 and B3PW91), local (SVWN), and nonlocal (BLYP) DFT methods are used with various sizes of the gaussian type of basis set. The obtained results are compared to the HF, MP2, and MCSCF ab initio calculations, as well as, to the experimental results. Becke's three functional based hybrid DFT methods outperform the following: the ab initio (HF, MP2 and MCSCF), the Becke's half-and-half based DFT methods, and the local (SVWN or LSDA) and nonlocal (BLYP) DFT methods. The computed nitromethane geometry, the dipole moment, the energy difference, and the IR frequency are in extraordinary agreement with the experimental results. Thus, we are recommending the B3LYP and the B3PW91 as the methods of choice when the computational study of small open-quotes difficultclose quotes molecules is considered

398

Quantification of fluorescent reporters in plant cells.

Fluorescent reporters are powerful tools for plant research. Many studies require accurate determination of fluorescence intensity and localization. Here, we describe protocols for the quantification of fluorescence intensity in plant cells from confocal laser scanning microscope images using semiautomated software and image analysis techniques. PMID:25408449

Pound, Michael; French, Andrew P; Wells, Darren M

2015-01-01

399

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses predictive transport simulations of the type I ELMy high confinement mode (H-mode) with a theory-motivated edge localized mode (ELM) model based on linear ballooning and peeling mode stability theory. In the model, a total mode amplitude is calculated as a sum of the individual mode amplitudes given by two separate linear differential equations for the ballooning and peeling mode amplitudes. The ballooning and peeling mode growth rates are represented by mutually analogous terms, which differ from zero upon the violation of a critical pressure gradient and an analytical peeling mode stability criterion, respectively. The damping of the modes due to non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects is controlled by a term driving the mode amplitude towards the level of background fluctuations. Coupled to simulations with the JETTO transport code, the model qualitatively reproduces the experimental dynamics of type I ELMy H-mode, including an ELM frequency that increases with the external heating power. The dynamics of individual ELM cycles is studied. Each ELM is usually triggered by a ballooning mode instability. The ballooning phase of the ELM reduces the pressure gradient enough to make the plasma peeling unstable, whereby the ELM continues driven by the peeling mode instability, until the edge current density has been depleted to a stable level. Simulations with current ramp-up and ramp-down are studied as examples of situations in which pure peeling and p of situations in which pure peeling and pure ballooning mode ELMs, respectively, can be obtained. The sensitivity with respect to the ballooning and peeling mode growth rates is investigated. Some consideration is also given to an alternative formulation of the model as well as to a pure peeling model

400

Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Verification and validation (V&V) are playing more important roles to quantify uncertainties and realize high fidelity simulations in engineering system analyses, such as transients happened in a complex nuclear reactor system. Traditional V&V in the reactor system analysis focused more on the validation part or did not differentiate verification and validation. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a 'black box' approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. The 'black box' method mixes numerical errors with all other uncertainties. It is also not efficient to perform sensitivity analysis. Contrary to the 'black box' method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In these types of approaches equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivities are directly solved for as variables in the simulation. This paper presents the forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty qualification. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other interested physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time and space steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time and space steps forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step and grid convergence study with much less computational cost. Several well defined benchmark problems with manufactured solutions are utilized to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis method. All the physical solutions, parameter sensitivity solutions, even the time step sensitivity in one case, have analytical forms, which allows the verification to be performed in the strictest sense.

Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau

2011-09-01

401

Optimisation of glycogen quantification in mixed microbial cultures.

This study addressed the key factors affecting the extraction and quantification of glycogen from floccular and granular mixed microbial cultures collected from activated sludge, nutrient removal systems and photosynthetic consortiums: acid concentration, hydrolysis time and concentration of biomass in the hydrolysis. Response surface modelling indicated that 0.9 M HCl and a biomass concentration of 1 mg mL(-1) were optimal conditions for performing acid hydrolysis. Floccular samples only needed a 2-h hydrolysis time whereas granular samples required as much as 5 h. An intermediate 3 h yielded an error of 10% compared to the results obtained with the hydrolysis times specifically tailored to the type of biomass and can thus be recommended as a practical compromise. PMID:22717572

Lanham, Ana B; Ricardo, Ana R; Coma, Marta; Fradinho, Joana; Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

2012-08-01

402

Quantification of dichromatism: a characteristic of color in transparent materials.

The color of a material, such as solution of a dye, can change by changing parameters like pH, temperature, illumination direction, and illumination type. Dichromatism -- a color change due to the difference in thickness of the material -- has long been known as a property of only a few materials. Here we show that dichromatism is a common property of many substances and materials, and we introduce a method for its quantification. We defined dichromaticity index (DI) as the difference in hue angle (Delta h(ab)) between the color of the sample at the dilution, where the chroma is maximal, and the color of four times more diluted (or thinner) and four times more concentrated (or thicker) sample. The two hue angle differences are called dichromaticity index toward lighter (DI(L)) and dichromaticity index toward darker (DI(D)), respectively. High dichromaticity was found for materials that were previously known as dichromatic (pumpkin oil, bromophenol). PMID:19568292

Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

2009-07-01

403

Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, the Climate Action Reserve (CAR, the CarbonFix Standard (CFS, and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature.

Sabine Henders

2012-01-01

404

A simple dot-blot-Sirius red-based assay for collagen quantification.

The assessment of collagen content in tissues is important in biomedical research, since this protein is altered in numerous diseases. Hydroxyproline and Sirius red based assays are the most common methods for collagen quantification. However, these procedures have some pitfalls, such as the requirement of oxygen-free medium or expensive equipment and large sample size or being unsuitable for hydrolyzed collagen, respectively. Our objective was to develop a specific, versatile, and user-friendly quantitative method applicable to small tissue samples and extracts obtained from elastin purification, therefore, suitable for simultaneous quantification of elastin. This method is based on the binding of Sirius red to collagen present in a sample immobilized on a PVDF membrane, as in the dot-blot technique, and quantified by a scanner and image analysis software. Sample loading, Sirius red concentration, temperature and incubation time, type of standard substance, albumin interference, and quantification time are optimized. The method enabled the quantification of (1) intact collagen in several rat tissue homogenates, including small resistance-sized arteries, (2) partially hydrolyzed collagen obtained from NaOH extracts, compatible with elastin purification, and (3) for the detection of differences in collagen content between hypertensive and normotensive rats. We conclude that the developed technique can be widely used since it is versatile (quantifies intact and hydrolyzed collagen), requires small sample volumes, is user-friendly (low-cost, easy to use, minimum toxic materials, and reduced time of test), and is specific (minimal interference with serum albumin). PMID:23780225

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Arribas, Silvia M; de Pablo, Angel Luis López; González, M Carmen; Abderrahim, Fatima; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

2013-08-01

405

New approach for the quantification of processed animal proteins in feed using light microscopy.

A revision of European Union's total feed ban on animal proteins in feed will need robust quantification methods, especially for control analyses, if tolerance levels are to be introduced, as for fishmeal in ruminant feed. In 2006, a study conducted by the Community Reference Laboratory for Animal Proteins in feedstuffs (CRL-AP) demonstrated the deficiency of the official quantification method based on light microscopy. The study concluded that the method had to be revised. This paper puts forward an improved quantification method based on three elements: (1) the preparation of permanent slides with an optical adhesive preserving all morphological markers of bones necessary for accurate identification and precision counting; (2) the use of a counting grid eyepiece reticle; and (3) new definitions for correction factors for the estimated portions of animal particles in the sediment. This revised quantification method was tested on feeds adulterated at different levels with bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) and fishmeal, and it proved to be effortless to apply. The results obtained were very close to the expected values of contamination levels for both types of adulteration (MBM or fishmeal). Calculated values were not only replicable, but also reproducible. The advantages of the new approach, including the benefits of the optical adhesive used for permanent slide mounting and the experimental conditions that need to be met to implement the new method correctly, are discussed. PMID:20432096

Veys, P; Baeten, V

2010-07-01

406

Uncertainty quantification for porous media flows

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uncertainty quantification is an increasingly important aspect of many areas of computational science, where the challenge is to make reliable predictions about the performance of complex physical systems in the absence of complete or reliable data. Predicting flows of oil and water through oil reservoirs is an example of a complex system where accuracy in prediction is needed primarily for financial reasons. Simulation of fluid flow in oil reservoirs is usually carried out using large commercially written finite difference simulators solving conservation equations describing the multi-phase flow through the porous reservoir rocks. This paper examines a Bayesian Framework for uncertainty quantification in porous media flows that uses a stochastic sampling algorithm to generate models that match observed data. Machine learning algorithms are used to speed up the identification of regions in parameter space where good matches to observed data can be found

407

Uncertainty Quantification in Hybrid Dynamical Systems

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques are frequently used to ascertain output variability in systems with parametric uncertainty. Traditional algorithms for UQ are either system-agnostic and slow (such as Monte Carlo) or fast with stringent assumptions on smoothness (such as polynomial chaos and Quasi-Monte Carlo). In this work, we develop a fast UQ approach for hybrid dynamical systems by extending the polynomial chaos methodology to these systems. To capture discontin...

Sahai, Tuhin; Pasini, Jose Miguel

2011-01-01

408

QUMA: quantification tool for methylation analysis

Bisulfite sequencing, a standard method for DNA methylation profile analysis, is widely used in basic and clinical studies. This method is limited, however, by the time-consuming data analysis processes required to obtain accurate DNA methylation profiles from the raw sequence output of the DNA sequencer, and by the fact that quality checking of the results can be influenced by a researcher's bias. We have developed an interactive and easy-to-use web-based tool, QUMA (quantification tool for ...

Kumaki, Yuichi; Oda, Masaaki; Okano, Masaki

2008-01-01

409

Extending Existential Quantification in Conjunctions of BDDs

We introduce new approaches intended to speed up determining the satisfiability of a given Boolean formula ? expressed as a conjunction of Boolean functions. A common practice in such cases, when using constraint-oriented methods, is to represent the functions as BDDs, then repeatedly cluster BDDs containing one or more variables, and finally existentially quantify those variables away from the cluster. Clustering is essential because, in general, existential quantification cannot be applied...

Weaver, Sean A.; John Franco; Schlipf, John S.

2006-01-01

410

Standardized Relative Quantification of Immunofluorescence Tissue Staining

Authors: Oriol Arqués, Irene Chicote, Stephan Tenbaum, Isabel Puig & Héctor G. Palmer ### Abstract The detection of correlations between the expression levels or sub-cellular localization of different proteins with specific characteristics of human tumors, such as e.g. grade of malignancy, may give important hints of functional associations. Here we describe the method we use for relative quantification of immunofluorescence staining of tumor tissue sections, which allows us to ...

sprotocols

2015-01-01

411

Extending Existential Quantification in Conjunctions of BDDs

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce new approaches intended to speed up determining the satisfiability of a given Boolean formula ? expressed as a conjunction of Boolean functions. A common practice in such cases, when using constraint-oriented methods, is to represent the functions as BDDs, then repeatedly cluster BDDs containing one or more variables, and finally existentially quantify those variables away from the cluster. Clustering is essential because, in general, existential quantification cannot be applied unless the variables occur in only a single BDD. But, clustering incurs significant overhead and may result in BDDs that are too big to allow the process to complete in a reasonable amount of time. There are two significant contributions in this paper. First, we identify elementary conditions under which the existential quantification of a subset of variables V may be distributed over all BDDs without clustering. We show that when these conditions are satisfied, safe assignments to the variables of V are automatically generated. This is significant because these assignments can be applied, as though they were inferences, to simplify ?. Second, some efficient operations based on these conditions are introduced and can be integrated into existing frameworks of both search-oriented and constraint-oriented methods of satisfiability. All of these operations are relaxations in the use of existential quantification and therefore may fail to find one or more existing safe assignments. Finally, we compare and contrast the relationship of these operations to autarkies and present some preliminary results.

Sean A. Weaver

2006-06-01

412

Quantification of image registration error

Image registration is a digital image processing technique that takes two or more of images of a scene in different coordinate systems and transforms them into a single coordinate system. Image registration is a necessary step in many advanced image processing techniques, such as multi-frame super-resolution. For that reason, registration accuracy is very crucial. While image registration is usually performed on images, one can perform the registration using metric images as well. This paper will present registration methods and their accuracies for various noise levels for the case of pure translational image motion. Registration techniques will be applied to the images themselves as well as to phase congruency images, gradient images, and edge-detected images. This study will also investigate registration of under-sampled images. Noise-free images are degraded using three types of noise: additive Gaussian noise, fixed-pattern noise along the column direction, and a combination of these two. The registration error is quantified for two registration algorithms with three different images as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio. A test on the usefulness of the image registration and registration accuracy performed on the intensity images of the Stokes imaging polarimeter. The Stokes images calculated before and after registration of the intensity images are compared to each other to show the improvement.

Mahamat, Adoum H.; Shields, Eric A.

2014-05-01

413

Quantification of carotid vessel atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is characterized by the development of plaques in the arterial wall, which ultimately leads to heart attacks and stroke. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to screen patients' carotid arteries. Plaque measurements obtained from these images may aid in the management and monitoring of patients, and in evaluating the effect of new treatment options. Different types of measures for ultrasound phenotypes of atherosclerosis have been proposed. Here, we report on the development and application of a method used to analyze changes in carotid plaque morphology from 3D US images obtained at two different time points. We evaluated our technique using manual segmentations of the wall and lumen of the carotid artery from images acquired in two US scanning sessions. To incorporate the effect of intraobserver variability in our evaluation, manual segmentation was performed five times each for the arterial wall and lumen. From this set of five segmentations, the mean wall and lumen surfaces were reconstructed, with the standard deviation at each point mapped onto the surfaces. A correspondence map between the mean wall and lumen surfaces was then established, and the thickness of the atherosclerotic plaque at each point in the vessel was estimated to be the distance between each correspondence pairs. The two-sample Student's t-test was used to judge whether the difference between the thickness values at each pair corresponding points of the arteries in the two 3D US images was statistically significant.

Chiu, Bernard; Egger, Micaela; Spence, J. D.; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

2006-03-01

414

A Type System for Parallel Components

The # component model was proposed to improve the practice of parallel programming. This paper introduces a type system for # programming systems, aiming to lift the abstraction and safety of programming for parallel computing architectures by introducing a notion of abstract component based on universal and existential bounded quantification. Issues about the implementation of such type system in HPE, a # programming system, are also discussed.

de Carvalho-Junior, Francisco Heron

2009-01-01

415

Two rules for the detection and quantification of epistasis and other interaction effects.

Traditionally statistical interactions and epistasis are defined with respect to the ANOVA model of additive effects; that is, epistasis is defined as a deviation from the additive mode of combining main effects of gene substitutions. Furthermore, the definition is relative to a particular scale and epistasis can potentially be eliminated by a non-linear transformation of the underlying phenotype variables. The latter fact raises questions of the scientific validity of the concept if interaction, given its presumed arbitrariness. Here I am arguing that the arbitrariness in the definition and detection of epistasis, and any other interaction, can be eliminated if we observe measurement theoretical constraints on the treatment of quantitative data. I propose two principles for determining the appropriate reference model for the detection of epistasis. The first is the principle of effect propagation stating that the scale type of the effect measure determines the reference model for defining epistasis. For instance, if effects are measured as differences, then the reference model has to be additive. If the reference effects are fold differences, then the reference model has to be multiplicative. A mathematical justification for this rule is provided. The second principle is called irrelevant effects and derives from the principle of meaningfulness in measurement theory. In short, the rule says that the reference model is determined by the allowable scale transformations of the variables measured. The justification for this rule is that any mathematical model in which these variables figure have to be invariant to allowable scale transformations. These two rules can effectively eliminate the arbitrariness in the definition, detection, and quantification of epistasis or any other interaction effect. PMID:25403531

Wagner, Günter P

2015-01-01

416

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent computational and experimental studies have confirmed that high energy cascades produce clustered defects of both vacancy- and interstitial-types as well as isolated point defects. However, the production probability, configuration, stability and other characteristics of the cascade clusters are not well understood in spite of the fact that clustered defect production would substantially affect the irradiation-induced microstructures and the consequent property changes in a certain range of temperatures and displacement rates. In this work, a model of point defect and cluster evolution in irradiated materials under cascade damage conditions was developed by combining the conventional reaction rate theory and the results from the latest molecular dynamics simulation studies. This paper provides a description of the model and a model-based fundamental investigation of the influence of configuration, production efficiency and the initial size distribution of cascade-produced vacancy clusters. In addition, using the model, issues on characterizing cascade-induced defect production by microstructural analysis will be discussed. In particular, the determination of cascade vacancy cluster configuration, surviving defect production efficiency and cascade-interaction volume is attempted by analyzing the temperature dependence of swelling rate and loop growth rate in austenitic steels and model alloys. (author)

417

Precise protein quantification based on peptide quantification using iTRAQ™

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry based quantification of peptides can be performed using the iTRAQ™ reagent in conjunction with mass spectrometry. This technology yields information about the relative abundance of single peptides. A method for the calculation of reliable quantification information is required in order to obtain biologically relevant data at the protein expression level. Results A method comprising sound error estimation and statistical methods is presented that allows precise abundance analysis plus error calculation at the peptide as well as at the protein level. This yields the relevant information that is required for quantitative proteomics. Comparing the performance of our method named Quant with existing approaches the error estimation is reliable and offers information for precise bioinformatic models. Quant is shown to generate results that are consistent with those produced by ProQuant™, thus validating both systems. Moreover, the results are consistent with that of Mascot™ 2.2. The MATLAB® scripts of Quant are freely available via http://www.protein-ms.de and http://sourceforge.net/projects/protms/, each under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Conclusion The software Quant demonstrates improvements in protein quantification using iTRAQ™. Precise quantification data can be obtained at the protein level when using error propagation and adequate visualization. Quant integrates both and additionally provides the possibility to obtain more reliable results by calculation of wise quality measures. Peak area integration has been replaced by sum of intensities, yielding more reliable quantification results. Additionally, Quant allows the combination of quantitative information obtained by iTRAQ™ with peptide and protein identifications from popular tandem MS identification tools. Hence Quant is a useful tool for the proteomics community and may help improving analysis of proteomic experimental data. In addition, we have shown that a lognormal distribution fits the data of mass spectrometry based relative peptide quantification.

Sickmann Albert

2007-06-01

418

Taking into account the importance of goats as transgenic models, as well as the rarity of copy number (CN) studies in farm animals, the present work aimed to evaluate methodological strategies for accurate and precise transgene CN quantification in goats using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mouse and goat lines transgenic for human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were used. After selecting the best genomic DNA extraction method to be applied in mouse and goat samples, intra-assay variations, accuracy and precision of CN quantifications were assessed. The optimized conditions were submitted to mathematical strategies and used to quantify CN in goat lines. The findings were as follows: validation of qPCR conditions is required, and amplification efficiency is the most important. Absolute and relative quantifications are able to produce similar results. For normalized absolute quantification, the same plasmid fragment used to generate goat lines must be mixed with wild-type goat genomic DNA, allowing the choice of an endogenous reference gene for data normalization. For relative quantifications, a resin-based genomic DNA extraction method is strongly recommended when using mouse tail tips as calibrators to avoid tissue-specific inhibitors. Efficient qPCR amplifications (?95%) allow reliable CN measurements with SYBR technology. TaqMan must be used with caution in goats if the nucleotide sequence of the endogenous reference gene is not yet well understood. Adhering to these general guidelines can result in more exact CN determination in goats. Even when working under nonoptimal circumstances, if assays are performed that respect the minimum qPCR requirements, good estimations of transgene CN can be achieved. PMID:25044808

Batista, Ribrio I T P; Luciano, Maria C S; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Freitas, Vicente J F; Melo, Luciana M; Andreeva, Lyudmila E; Serova, Irina A; Serov, Oleg L

2014-01-01

419

Applying uncertainty quantification to multiphase flow computational fluid dynamics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multiphase computational fluid dynamics plays a major role in design and optimization of fossil fuel based reactors. There is a growing interest in accounting for the influence of uncertainties associated with physical systems to increase the reliability of computational simulation based engineering analysis. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has recently undertaken an initiative to characterize uncertainties associated with computer simulation of reacting multiphase flows encountered in energy producing systems such as a coal gasifier. The current work presents the preliminary results in applying non-intrusive parametric uncertainty quantification and propagation techniques with NETL's open-source multiphase computational fluid dynamics software MFIX. For this purpose an open-source uncertainty quantification toolkit, PSUADE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been interfaced with MFIX software. In this study, the sources of uncertainty associated with numerical approximation and model form have been neglected, and only the model input parametric uncertainty with forward propagation has been investigated by constructing a surrogate model based on data-fitted response surface for a multiphase flow demonstration problem. Monte Carlo simulation was employed for forward propagation of the aleatory type input uncertainties. Several insights gained based on the outcome of these simulations are presented such as how inadequate characterization of uncertainties can affect the reliability of the prediction results. Also a global sensitivity study using Sobol' indices was performed to better understand the contribution of input parameters to the variability observed in response variable.

Gel, A; Garg, R; Tong, C; Shahnam, M; Guenther, C

2013-07-01

420

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team management of chronic disease such as diabetes, however, the application of such models is less well established. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors underlying health professional teams' clinical management of diabetes using a psychological model of human behaviour. Methods A predictive questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB investigated health professionals' (HPs' cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes and intentions about the provision of two aspects of care for patients with diabetes: prescribing statins and inspecting feet. General practitioners and practice nurses in England and the Netherlands completed parallel questionnaires, cross-validated for equivalence in English and Dutch. Behavioural data were practice-level patient-reported rates of foot examination and use of statin medication. Relationships between the cognitive antecedents of behaviour proposed by the TPB and healthcare teams' clinical behaviour were explored using multiple regression. Results In both countries, attitude and subjective norm were important predictors of health professionals' intention to inspect feet (Attitude: beta = .40; Subjective Norm: beta = .28; Adjusted R2 = .34, p 2 = .40, p Conclusion Using the TPB, we identified modifiable factors underlying health professionals' intentions to perform two clinical behaviours, providing a rationale for the development of targeted interventions. However, we did not observe a relationship between health professionals' intentions and our proxy measure of team behaviour. Significant methodological issues were highlighted concerning the use of models of individual behaviour to explain behaviours performed by teams. In order to investigate clinical behaviours performed by teams it may be necessary to develop measures that reflect the collective cognitions of the members of the team to facilitate the application of these theoretical models to team behaviours.

Johnston Marie

2009-08-01

421

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

Birkett Nicholas

2010-01-01

422

The mathematics of classical probability theory was subsumed into classical measure theory by Kolmogorov in 1933. Quantum theory as nonclassical probability theory was incorporated into the beginnings of noncommutative measure theory by von Neumann in the early thirties, as well. To precisely this end, von Neumann initiated the study of what are now called von Neumann algebras and, with Murray, made a first classification of such algebras into three types. The nonrelativisti...

Re?dei, Miklo?s; Summers, Stephen Jeffrey

2006-01-01

423

Use of X-ray fluorescence for the quantification of multicomponent samples composition

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray spectrometry became an indispensable tool in those cases in which a quick and accurate determination of the elemental concentration of samples of different origin is necessary. Research aimed to improve the results given by different radiation-detector source combinations of characteristic radiation are focused on the improvement of the precision of results obtained and to lower detection limits. In this sense, the quantification techniques of characteristic radiation provide the most accurate results. Quantification by appropriate detectors of X-ray intensity and energy discrimination allow to perform three types of spectrometric studies: 1) electronic structure (information on chemical binding); 2) atomic structure by diffraction (crystallography); 3) elemental composition (spectrochemistry). The applications of X ray spectroscopy in the determination of relative elementary concentrations is considered in this work

424

Design Theory in Information Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i theory for analysing and describing, (ii theory for understanding, (iii theory for predicting, (iv theory for explaining and predicting, and (v theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding and recognition of this type of theory in information systems indicates that further debate concerning its nature and role in our discipline is needed.

Shirley Gregor

2002-11-01

425

Comparative studies of modern methods for caries detection and quantification

In clinical dentistry proper treatment of caries lesions is highly dependent on diagnostic accuracy. Aim The present dissertation aimed at the evaluation and comparisons between several modem methods for caries detection and quantification. Methods The employed methods for detection and quantification of caries lesions may be divided into two categories, namely laser fluorescence based methods and radiographic methods. Laser fluorescence The performance of the...

Shi, Xie-qi

2001-01-01

426

Quantification of collagen contraction in three-dimensional cell culture.

Many different cell types including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and cancer cells exert traction forces on the fibrous components of the extracellular matrix. This can be observed as matrix contraction both macro- and microscopically in three-dimensional (3D) tissues models such as collagen type I gels. The quantification of local contraction at the micron scale, including its directionality and speed, in correlation with other parameters such as cell invasion, local protein or gene expression, can provide useful information to study wound healing, organism development, and cancer metastasis. In this article, we present a set of tools to quantify the flow dynamics of collagen contraction, induced by cells migrating out of a multicellular cancer spheroid into a three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrix. We adapted a pseudo-speckle technique that can be applied to bright-field and fluorescent microscopy time series. The image analysis presented here is based on an in-house written software developed in the Matlab (Mathworks) programming environment. The analysis program is freely available from GitHub following the link: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10116. This tool provides an automatized technique to measure collagen contraction that can be utilized in different 3D cellular systems. PMID:25640438

Kopanska, Katarzyna S; Bussonnier, Matthias; Geraldo, Sara; Simon, Anthony; Vignjevic, Danijela; Betz, Timo

2015-01-01

427

The open-endedness of the set concept and the semantics of set theory

Some philosophers have argued that the open-endedness of the set concept has revisionary consequences for the semantics and logic of set theory. I consider (several variants of) an argument for this claim, premissed on the view that quantification in mathematics cannot outrun our conceptual abilities. The argument urges a non-standard semantics for set theory that allegedly sanctions a non-classical logic. I show that the views about quantification the argument relies on turn out to sanction ...

Paseau, A.

2003-01-01

428

Quantification of Inositol Hexa-Kis Phosphate in Environmental Samples

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorous (P is a major contributor to eutrophication of surface waters, yet a complete understanding of the P cycle remains elusive. Inositol hexa-kis phosphate (IHP is the primary form of organic (P_{O} in the environment and has been implicated as an important sink in aquatic and terrestrial samples. IHP readily forms complexes in the environment due to the 12 acidic sites on the molecule. Quantification of IHP in environmental samples has typically relied on harsh extraction methods that limit understanding of IHP interactions with potential soil and aquatic complexation partners. The ability to quantify IHP in-situ at the pH of existing soils provides direct access to the role of IHP in the P cycle. Since it is itself a buffer, adjusting the pH correspondingly alters charged species of IHP present in soil. Density Functional Theory (DFT calculations support the charged species assignments made based pKas associated with the IHP molecule. Raman spectroscopy was used to generate pH dependent spectra of inorganic (P_{I} and IHP as well as (P_{O} from IHP and (P_{I} in soil samples. Electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS was used to quantify IHP-Iron complexes in two soil samples using a neutral aqueous extraction.

John A. Tossell

2012-03-01

429

Mesh refinement for uncertainty quantification through model reduction

We present a novel way of deciding when and where to refine a mesh in probability space in order to facilitate uncertainty quantification in the presence of discontinuities in random space. A discontinuity in random space makes the application of generalized polynomial chaos expansion techniques prohibitively expensive. The reason is that for discontinuous problems, the expansion converges very slowly. An alternative to using higher terms in the expansion is to divide the random space in smaller elements where a lower degree polynomial is adequate to describe the randomness. In general, the partition of the random space is a dynamic process since some areas of the random space, particularly around the discontinuity, need more refinement than others as time evolves. In the current work we propose a way to decide when and where to refine the random space mesh based on the use of a reduced model. The idea is that a good reduced model can monitor accurately, within a random space element, the cascade of activity to higher degree terms in the chaos expansion. In turn, this facilitates the efficient allocation of computational sources to the areas of random space where they are more needed. For the Kraichnan-Orszag system, the prototypical system to study discontinuities in random space, we present theoretical results which show why the proposed method is sound and numerical results which corroborate the theory.

Li, Jing; Stinis, Panos

2015-01-01

430

Uncertainty Quantification for Airfoil Icing using Polynomial Chaos Expansions

The formation and accretion of ice on the leading edge of a wing can be detrimental to airplane performance. Complicating this reality is the fact that even a small amount of uncertainty in the shape of the accreted ice may result in a large amount of uncertainty in aerodynamic performance metrics (e.g., stall angle of attack). The main focus of this work concerns using the techniques of Polynomial Chaos Expansions (PCE) to quantify icing uncertainty much more quickly than traditional methods (e.g., Monte Carlo). First, we present a brief survey of the literature concerning the physics of wing icing, with the intention of giving a certain amount of intuition for the physical process. Next, we give a brief overview of the background theory of PCE. Finally, we compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations to PCE-based uncertainty quantification for several different airfoil icing scenarios. The results are in good agreement and confirm that PCE methods are much more efficient for the canonical airfoil icing un...

DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi

2014-01-01

431

The quantification problem in EELS microanalysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope is a technique that allows to do quantitative analysis of the chemical constitution of small regions in a thin-film sample. In the present work the most widely used ways of doing EELS are applied, i.e., using a parallel detection spectrometer and imaging-filter devices. The scope of this thesis is the investigation and further improvement of the quantification process. Instrumental insufficiencies of the spectrometer are discussed and correction methods for two prominent effects are described. Lens errors of the electron microscope, leading to a defocused image formed by the inelastically scattered electrons, are investigated on an atomic level and for elemental distributions over a specimen region of some hundreds of manometers. A correction procedure for the effect of chromatic aberration in parallel-detected spectra is explained. The background in EELS spectra is investigated by use of a convolution method for plural scattering and experimental data concerning the fitting process. The influences of Bragg scattering on inelastic scattering in crystalline specimens are presented for a kinematical and a dynamical model. The strong interference effects are experimentally demonstrated by means of energy-filtered extinction contours, thickness fringes, and diffraction patterns. The resulting quantification errors are discussed for three different mapping methods used in electron-spectroscopic ng methods used in electron-spectroscopic imaging. (author)

432

Computer-aided quantification of retinal neovascularization.

Rodent models of retinal angiogenesis play a pivotal role in angiogenesis research. These models are a window to developmental angiogenesis, to pathological retinopathy, and are also in vivo tools for anti-angiogenic drug screening in cancer and ophthalmic research. The mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) has emerged as one of the leading in vivo models for these purposes. Many of the animal studies that laid the foundation for the recent breakthrough of anti-angiogenic treatments into clinical practice were performed in the OIR model. However, readouts from the OIR model have been time-consuming and can vary depending on user experience. Here, we present a computer-aided quantification method that is characterized by (i) significantly improved efficiency, (ii) high correlation with the established hand-measurement protocols, and (iii) high intra- and inter-individual reproducibility of results. This method greatly facilitates quantification of retinal angiogenesis while at the same time increasing lab-to-lab reproducibility of one of the most widely used in vivo models in angiogenesis research. PMID:19757106

Stahl, A; Connor, K M; Sapieha, P; Willett, K L; Krah, N M; Dennison, R J; Chen, J; Guerin, K I; Smith, L E H

2009-01-01

433

Survey and Evaluate Uncertainty Quantification Methodologies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and academic institutions that will develop and deploy state-of-the-art computational modeling and simulation tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technologies from discovery to development, demonstration, and ultimately the widespread deployment to hundreds of power plants. The CCSI Toolset will provide end users in industry with a comprehensive, integrated suite of scientifically validated models with uncertainty quantification, optimization, risk analysis and decision making capabilities. The CCSI Toolset will incorporate commercial and open-source software currently in use by industry and will also develop new software tools as necessary to fill technology gaps identified during execution of the project. The CCSI Toolset will (1) enable promising concepts to be more quickly identified through rapid computational screening of devices and processes; (2) reduce the time to design and troubleshoot new devices and processes; (3) quantify the technical risk in taking technology from laboratory-scale to commercial-scale; and (4) stabilize deployment costs more quickly by replacing some of the physical operational tests with virtual power plant simulations. The goal of CCSI is to deliver a toolset that can simulate the scale-up of a broad set of new carbon capture technologies from laboratory scale to full commercial scale. To provide a framework around which the toolset can be developed and demonstrated, we will focus on three Industrial Challenge Problems (ICPs) related to carbon capture technologies relevant to U.S. pulverized coal (PC) power plants. Post combustion capture by solid sorbents is the technology focus of the initial ICP (referred to as ICP A). The goal of the uncertainty quantification (UQ) task (Task 6) is to provide a set of capabilities to the user community for the quantification of uncertainties associated with the carbon capture processes. As such, we will develop, as needed and beyond existing capabilities, a suite of robust and efficient computational tools for UQ to be integrated into a CCSI UQ software framework.

Lin, Guang; Engel, David W.; Eslinger, Paul W.

2012-02-01

434

Finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3}

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3}, which is the string dual of the recently constructed N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory of Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena (ABJM theory). The string states we consider are in the RxS{sup 2}xS{sup 2} subspace of AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3} with an angular momentum J on CP{sup 3} being large. We compute the finite-size corrections using two different methods, one is to consider curvature corrections to the Penrose limit giving an expansion in 1/J, the other by considering a low energy expansion in {lambda}'={lambda}/J{sup 2} of the string theory sigma-model, {lambda} being the 't Hooft coupling of the dual ABJM theory. For both methods there are interesting issues to deal with. In the near-pp-wave method there is a 1/{radical}(J) interaction term for which we use zeta-function regularization in order to compute the 1/J correction to the energy. For the low energy sigma-model expansion we have to take into account a non-trivial coupling to a non-dynamical transverse direction. We find agreement between the two methods. At order {lambda}' and {lambda}'{sup 2}, for small {lambda}', our results are analogous to the ones for the SU(2) sector in type IIB string theory on AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. Instead at order {lambda}'{sup 3} there are interactions between the two two-spheres. We compare our results with the recently proposed all-loop Bethe ansatz of Gromov and Vieira and find agreement.

Astolfi, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia, Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)], E-mail: astolfi@pg.infn.it; Puletti, Valentina Giangreco M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: valentina.giangreco@fysast.uu.se; Grignani, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia, Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)], E-mail: gianluca.grignani@pg.infn.it; Harmark, Troels [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail: harmark@nbi.dk; Orselli, Marta [The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail: orselli@nbi.dk

2009-03-21

435

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydration free energy of hard-sphere solute is evaluated over a wide range of size using the method of energy representation, information-theoretic approach, reference interaction site model, and scaled-particle theory. The former three are distribution function theories and the hydration free energy is formulated to reflect the solution structure through distribution functions. The presence of the volume-dependent term is pointed out for the distribution function theories, and the asymptotic behavior in the limit of large solute size is identified. It is indicated that the volume-dependent term is a key to the improvement of distribution function theories toward the application to large molecules.

N.Matubayasi

2007-12-01

436

The stellar magnetic field configuration and solutions of Maxwell equations in the external background spacetime of a magnetized spherical stars in the Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity and in modified f(R) gravity are studied. The star is modeled as a sphere consisting of perfect highly magnetized fluid with infinite conductivity and frozen-in magnetic field. With respect to solutions for magnetic fields found in the Schwarzschild spacetime star in modified gravity theories, enhancing corrections are added to the exterior magnetic field. The energy losses through magnetodipolar radiation of the rotating magnetized compact star within alternative gravity theories is also considered. The question of whether these models can be considered as an alternative theory for general relativity is also discussed through astrophysical application of the obtained magnetodipolar energy loss formula. Finally we analyze the role of general relativistic effect on the decay of a neutron star’s magnetic field in modified theories of gravity.

Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Hakimov, Abdullo

437

Superspace conformal field theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2013-07-15

438

Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae are the principal causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot in dryland cereal production systems of the Pacific Northwest. To facilitate the identification and quantification of these pathogens in agricultural samples, we developed SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assays specific to internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of R. solani and R. oryzae. The assays were diagnostic for R. solani AG-2-1, AG-8, and AG-10, three genotypes of R. oryzae, and an AG-I-like binucleate Rhizoctonia species. Quantification was reproducible at or below a cycle threshold (Ct) of 33, or 2 to 10 fg of mycelial DNA from cultured fungi, 200 to 500 fg of pathogen DNA from root extracts, and 20 to 50 fg of pathogen DNA from soil extracts. However, pathogen DNA could be specifically detected in all types of extracts at about 100-fold below the quantification levels. Soils from Ritzville, WA, showing acute Rhizoctonia bare patch harbored 9.4 to 780 pg of R. solani AG-8 DNA per gram of soil.. Blastn, primer-template duplex stability, and phylogenetic analyses predicted that the Q-PCR assays will be diagnostic for isolates from Australia, Israel, Japan, and other countries. PMID:18943261

Okubara, P A; Schroeder, K L; Paulitz, T C

2008-07-01

439

Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

2011-04-01

440

Quantification of low levels of fluorine content in thin films

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorine quantification in thin film samples containing different amounts of fluorine atoms was accomplished by combining proton-Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (p-RBS) and proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) using proton beams of 1550 and 2330 keV for p-RBS and PIGE measurements, respectively. The capabilities of the proposed quantification method are illustrated with examples of the analysis of a series of samples of fluorine-doped tin oxides, fluorinated silica, and fluorinated diamond-like carbon films. It is shown that this procedure allows the quantification of F contents as low as 1 at.% in thin films with thicknesses in the 100-400 nm range.

Ferrer, F.J., E-mail: fjferrer@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CSIC - Univ. Sevilla), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gil-Rostra, J.; Terriza, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC - Univ. Sevilla), Americo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Rey, G.; Jimenez, C. [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique-UMR 5628-INPGrenoble-Minatec 3, parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CSIC - Univ. Sevilla), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Yubero, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC - Univ. Sevilla), Americo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

2012-03-01

441

Quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to assess the feasibility of quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software (BronCare). We evaluated the reliability of the software to segment the airways and defined criteria ensuring accurate measurements. BronCare was applied on two successive examinations in 10 mild asthmatic patients. Acquisitions were performed at pneumotachographically controlled lung volume (65% TLC), with reconstructions focused on the right lung base. Five validation criteria were imposed: (1) bronchus type: segmental and subsegmental; (2) lumen area (LA)>4 mm2; (3) bronchus length (Lg) > 7 mm; (4) confidence index - giving the percentage of the bronchus not abutted by a vessel - (CI) >55% for validation of wall area (WA) and (5) a minimum of 10 contiguous cross-sectional images fulfilling the criteria. A complete segmentation procedure on both acquisitions made possible an evaluation of LA and WA in 174/223 (78%) and 171/174 (98%) of bronchi, respectively. The validation criteria were met for 56/69 (81%) and for 16/69 (23%) of segmental bronchi and for 73/102 (72%) and 58/102 (57%) of subsegmental bronchi, for LA and WA, respectively. In conclusion, BronCare is reliable to segment the airways in clinical practice. The proposed criteria seem appropriate to select bronchi candidates for measurement. (orig.)

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VESGEN Software for Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Regulators

VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis is an automated software that maps and quantifies effects of vascular regulators on vascular morphology by analyzing important vessel parameters. Quantification parameters include vessel diameter, length, branch points, density, and fractal dimension. For vascular trees, measurements are reported as dependent functions of vessel branching generation. VESGEN maps and quantifies vascular morphological events according to fractal-based vascular branching generation. It also relies on careful imaging of branching and networked vascular form. It was developed as a plug-in for ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, USA). VESGEN uses image-processing concepts of 8-neighbor pixel connectivity, skeleton, and distance map to analyze 2D, black-and-white (binary) images of vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. VESGEN maps typically 5 to 12 (or more) generations of vascular branching, starting from a single parent vessel. These generations are tracked and measured for critical vascular parameters that include vessel diameter, length, density and number, and tortuosity per branching generation. The effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on vascular morphology and branching tested in human clinical or laboratory animal experimental studies are quantified by comparing vascular parameters with control groups. VESGEN provides a user interface to both guide and allow control over the users vascular analysis process. An option is provided to select a morphological tissue type of vascular trees, network or tree-network composites, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced.