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Tsunami  

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Full Text Available ... tsunami warnings to the Nation, and a leadership role in tsunami observations and research. Information! New! NOAAWatch ... impacts. Basic information about Tsunamis Tsunami Terminology NOAA's Role NOAA's Tsunami Program 2008–2017 Strategic Plan NOAA's ...

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Tsunami  

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Full Text Available ... of a tsunami can be mitigated through community preparedness, timely warnings, and effective response. NOAA has primary ... Marine Debris from the Japanese Tsunami New! Tsunami Preparedness Week March 24-30, 2013 Recent Tsunami Events ...

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Tsunami  

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Full Text Available ... What's happening now? Tsunami YouTube videos Feature Archive Basics: The Tsunami Story : Generation, propagation, warning systems, forecasts and reduction of impacts. Basic information about Tsunamis Tsunami Terminology NOAA's Role NOAA's ...

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Tsunami Awareness  

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Full Text Available ... Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program NOAA Center for Tsunami Research Credits: NOAA National Weather Service NOAA National Ocean ... Tsunami Hazard Mitigration Program NOAA Center for Tsunami Research Rebel Arts Please copy and paste the ...

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Tsunami  

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Full Text Available ... and a leadership role in tsunami observations and research. Information! New! NOAAWatch Tsunami website United States East ... the Warning System work? Observations & Data Warnings & Forecasts Research & Modeling More Information: Featured Video! Tsunamis: Know What ...

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World Data Center / National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Data Archive  

Science.gov (United States)

The WDC for Solid Earth Geophysics (including tsunamis) is operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). NGDC is one of three environmental data centers within the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). Operating both World and National Data Centers, WDC/NGDC is now providing the long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data for research and mitigation of tsunami hazards. Archive responsibilities include the global historic tsunami event and runup database, the bottom pressure recorder data, and access to event-specific tide-gauge data, as well as other related hazards and bathymetric data and information. The WDC/NGDC Worldwide Tsunami Database includes more than 2,400 events since 2,000 BC and more than 7,200 locations where tsunamis were observed. Times of generating earthquakes, tsunami arrival times, travel times, first motion of the wave, and wave periods are included in the database. The WDC/NGDC Worldwide Significant Earthquake Database includes information for more than 6,600 destructive earthquakes from 2,000 B.C. to the present. In the 1980s, NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) developed deep ocean tsunameters for the early detection, measurement, and real-time reporting of tsunamis in the open ocean. The tsunameters were developed by PMEL's Project DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis). A DART system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. An acoustic link is used to transmit data from the BPR on the seafloor to the surface buoy. The data are then relayed via a GOES satellite link to ground stations for immediate dissemination to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers and PMEL. These systems were deployed near regions with a history of tsunami generation, to ensure measurement of the waves as they propagate towards threatened U.S. coastal communities and to acquire data critical to real-time forecasts. Currently, there are eight BPRs located near Alaska, Hawaii, Chili, and in the equatorial Pacific. The WDC/NGDC is now providing access to bottom pressure recorder (BPR) data from 1986 to the present. The BPR database includes pressure and temperature data from the ocean floor. All of the WDC/NGDC tsunami and significant earthquake databases are stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, interactive maps, and custom CD-ROMs.

Dunbar, P. K.; Brantley, K.; Stroker, K.

2005-12-01

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Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

A tsunami is a series of huge ocean waves created by an underwater disturbance. Causes include earthquakes, landslides, volcanic ... space that strike the surface of Earth. A tsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in ...

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Tsunami  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available A tsunami is a series of ocean waves generated by sudden displacements in the sea floor, landslides, or volcanic activity. In the deep ocean, the tsunami wave may only be a few inches high. ...

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Tsunami Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tsunami Database is a global digital database containing information on more than 2000 tsunamis maintained by the National Geophysical Data Center. This is an interactive site; the user is asked to enter search parameters such as date, latitude and longitude, cause of the tsunami - earthquake, landslide, volcano, or all combined - magnitude, and death. Information is then generated on tsunamis that match that data. The National Geophysical Data Center also maintains an historic slide set collection of tsunami damage.

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WDC/National Geophysical Data Center 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Data  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Data Center (WDC) for Solid Earth Geophysics (including tsunamis) is operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). NGDC is one of three environmental data centers within the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). Operating both World and National Data Centers, WDC/NGDC provides the long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data for research and mitigation of tsunami hazards. Archive responsibilities include the global historical tsunami database, the bottom pressure recorder data, and access to event-specific tide-gauge data, as well as other related hazards and bathymetric data and information. The Global Historical Tsunami Database includes data for more than 1,700 events since 2,000 BC and more than 8,500 locations where tsunamis were observed. The tsunami database contains extensive information on the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami including earthquake and tsunami effects and imagery. The associated tsunami runup database provides information on over 700 locations in 39 different countries, in three different oceans, where the tsunami was observed. The runup data records include information on the location where the wave was observed, arrival time, first motion of the wave, wave periods, distance from the tsunami source, maximum wave height, maximum inundation distance, and effects at the location such as deaths, injuries, and damage. Links are also provided to the tide gauge time- series data where available. All of the WDC/NGDC tsunami and natural hazards databases are stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, interactive maps, and custom CD-ROMs.

Stroker, K.; Dunbar, P.; Brocko, R.

2006-12-01

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TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readily available for tsunami hazard assessment and mapping applications.Tsunami inundation maps and modeling are just two of the more important products which may be derived from NWLON data. In addition to the seven water level gauges that are hardwired into the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WClATWC), NOS has a significant number of gauges with real-time satellite telemetry capabilities located along the Pacific Northwest coastline, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. These gauges, in concert with near shore buoy systems, have the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the existing tsunami warning system.The recent expansion of the Caribbean Sea Level Gauge Network through the NOS regional partnerships with Central American and Caribbean countries have opened an opportunity for a basin-wide tsunami warning network in a region which is ill prepared for a major tsunami event.

James R. Hubbard; Scott A. Duncan

2002-01-01

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NOAA Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Web site developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on issues surrounding tsunamis. It provides an extensive selection of links to information on how tsunamis are created, hazards associated with them, and how individuals and communities can prepare and respond to a tsunami. There is also information about the NOAA's role in tsunami warnings and preparedness, including locations of warning centers in the Pacific Ocean Basin, observations and data, forecasts, and hazard-assessment research and modeling.

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Tsunami Preparedness  

Science.gov (United States)

... Disaster or Emergency › Types of Emergency › Tsunami Preparedness Tsunami Preparedness About About Tsunami Tsunamis are a series of large ocean waves ... night. Be aware of the signs of a tsunami: A strong earthquake lasting 20 seconds or more ...

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Quality of life, vulnerability and resilience: a qualitative study of the tsunami impact on the affected population of Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This qualitative study is aimed at analysing the impact of the 2004 tsunami on the Quality of Life of the Sri Lankan population. It focused on the factors that have contributed to an increase in the people's susceptibility to the impact of hazards - their vulnerability - as well as of the natural ability to cope of the populations affected - their resilience. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on the conduction of 10 Focus Group discussions and 18 In-depth Interviews, then analysed through a qualitative analysis software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that each factor involved in the interplay among the different processes that produced the changes in the affected people's quality of life is at the same time a damaged asset, a vulnerability factor and a resource to draw upon for coping. The complexity of this situation opens further speculation as to how disasters and relief interventions influence relationships and dynamics in society. This should thus be further investigated, together with the effects of individual and group trauma on society.

Fauci AJ; Bonciani M; Guerra R

2012-01-01

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Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the NOAA Web site This site NOAA home ocean news ocean life sci & tech discoveries about locations contribute subscribe resources faqs Home Ocean News Tsunami Awareness Tsunami Awareness Links: Tsunami.gov ...

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Tsunamis and Tsunami Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This site features information about tsunamis and tsunami research at the Institute of Ocean Sciences (IOS) of Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans. There is introductory information on tsunamis and what they are, accounts of some historically significant events, and a discussion of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, the likely source for earthquakes and tsunamis in coastal British Columbia. The homepage provides contact information for IOS personnel and a list of recent publications in downloadable format (PDF). The data page provides access to archived and real-time data from moored instruments, satellites, lighthouses, buoys, and other sources. The research page features links to projects grouped by topic (the Arctic, coastal oceanography, the open ocean, and others). There is also an extensive list of older publications (1994-2006), some of which are downloadable, and links to news items and event announcements.

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Quality of life, vulnerability and resilience: a qualitative study of the tsunami impact on the affected population of Sri Lanka/ Qualità della vita, vulnerabilità e resilienza: uno studio qualitativo dell'impatto dello tsunami sulla popolazione colpita dello Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english AIM: This qualitative study is aimed at analysing the impact of the 2004 tsunami on the Quality of Life of the Sri Lankan population. It focused on the factors that have contributed to an increase in the people's susceptibility to the impact of hazards - their vulnerability - as well as of the natural ability to cope of the populations affected - their resilience. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on the conduction of 10 Focus Group discussions and 18 In-depth Interviews, t (more) hen analysed through a qualitative analysis software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that each factor involved in the interplay among the different processes that produced the changes in the affected people's quality of life is at the same time a damaged asset, a vulnerability factor and a resource to draw upon for coping. The complexity of this situation opens further speculation as to how disasters and relief interventions influence relationships and dynamics in society. This should thus be further investigated, together with the effects of individual and group trauma on society.

Fauci, Alice Josephine; Bonciani, Manila; Guerra, Raniero

2012-06-01

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Significance of close relationships after the tsunami disaster in connection with existential health--a qualitative interpretive study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In an existential health perspective, the potential for recovery and development through natural life circumstances provides a factor to be taken into account. Earlier research on disaster-stricken people indicates that people create their own ways of recovering and that natural caring encounters (with family or friends) imply important health factors. AIM: The aim of the study is to acquire an in-depth understanding of the significance of natural close relationships for survivors of the tsunami disaster in Southeast Asia in connection with the development of existential health and understanding of life in a long-term perspective. The sample consists of 19 persons afflicted by the 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia, both Swedish tourists and relatives at home. Data were collected from interviews recurring five times during 2006. FINDINGS: What is evidently seen is how the ontological aspects are expressed in data in relation to the existential and relational aspects. In concrete terms, this is understood when survivors say that their lives are completely changed (an ontological turn in their understanding of life). A change also occurs in the way they relate to others (a concrete existential turn), for example, in their families. When the findings on communion as an utterance of interdependence were read comprehensively, it was seen that human encounters in the aftermath of a disaster are not only about relationships but inherently affect people's entire understanding of life both ontologically and existentially. Relationships with others and communion become a way of understanding or defining life. To conclude, in line with the aim of the study, the data suggest that relationships and communion with other people helped the survivors of the tsunami to discover a new understanding of life. It is also clear that natural encounters have had great importance for progress in existential health.

Rehnsfeldt A; Arman M

2012-09-01

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Tsunami Society  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site assists the international Tsunami Society in its mission to distribute "knowledge about tsunamis to scientists, officials, and the public." In the first section of the site, scientists can download articles from the 2002 and 2003 issues of the journal Science of Tsunami Hazards. Visitors can also view footage from tsunamis around the world. The second section of the site discusses the details of the society including its origin, award recipients, and symposiums.

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Tsunami Warning  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning resource is a news report by the Science reports on Tsunami warning.The devastating tsunamis that struck South Asia highlighted the need for an early tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean like the one in place in the Pacific Ocean. Correspondent Betty Ann Bowser of the NewsHour's Science Unit reports on the science of tsunami warnings.This report includes a lesson plan and additional coverage

The Science Reports (;)

2005-01-11

 
 
 
 
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Tsunami Surge  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami Surge is a project for students in grades 6-12 that uses real-time data sources from the internet to help students answer these questions. They will be challenged to think critically and creatively in their efforts to understand, predict, and guard against this powerful force of nature. Students will learn to describe what a tsunami is and what causes it, explain how tsunamis are different from regular waves in the ocean, determine where tsunamis are most likely to originate, create a plan for a tsunami warning system, and explain how to prepare and protect an area that could be hit by a tsunami. There are many activities and helpful tools for the teachers, like a reference guide and teacher guide.

2006-01-01

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Tsunami Attack!  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about tsunamis, discovering what causes them and what makes them so dangerous. They learn that engineers design detection and warning equipment, as well as structures that that can survive the strong wave forces. In a hands-on activity, students use a table-top-sized tsunami generator to observe the formation and devastation of a tsunami. They see how a tsunami moves across the ocean and what happens when it reaches a coastline. They make villages of model houses to test how different material types are impacted by the huge waves.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

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Parenting After a Natural Disaster: A Qualitative Study of Norwegian Families Surviving the 2004 Tsunami in Southeast Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How do parents support their children after a high-impact disaster? To answer this question, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 51 Norwegian parents. These parents and children were all severely exposed to the trauma of the tsunami disaster. The analyses show how parents interpret their children's signs of distress, as well as their own strategies of support in the aftermath. The main strategies described by the parents were watchful waiting, careful monitoring of the children's reactions and a sensitive timing when providing support. Such monitoring, and interpretation of signs of distress, served as an aid for the parents in determining what needs their children had and what support they therefore needed to provide. A range of support strategies were employed, including re-establishing a sense of safety, resuming normal roles and routines, and talking to their children. Parents who were themselves severely impacted by the disaster reported a reduced ability to assess their children's reactions and thereby were unable to provide optimal care in the aftermath. Interestingly, the parents' support strategies mirror the early intervention recommendations put forward in the NICE guidelines and in the Psychological First Aid guidelines which is a well accepted and promising practice for helping children after disasters.

Hafstad GS; Haavind H; Jensen TK

2012-04-01

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Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... know the potential warning signs of an incoming tsunami: a strong earthquake that causes difficulty standing; a rapid rise or fall of the water along the coast; a load ocean roar. When you're in a ... police, The US Tsunami Warning Centers and NOAA All Hazards Radio. If ...

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Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to radiate outward in all directions. In deep waters, these waves may not even be detectable. But when the tsunami enters shallower waters, the wave speed slows and its height increases. ...

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Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... But they are most often caused by an earthquake where there's a sudden displacement of the ocean ... warning signs of an incoming tsunami: a strong earthquake that causes difficulty standing; a rapid rise or ...

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Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... it's important to keep alert for messages from local officials, such as lifeguards, police, The US Tsunami ... in a sturdy building; follow all instructions from local officials, and stay out of coastal areas until ...

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Modelling tsunamis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We doubt the relevance of soliton theory to the modelling of tsunamis, and present a case in support of an alternative view. Although the shallow-water equations do provide, we believe, an appropriate basis for this phenomenon, an asymptotic analysis of the solution for realistic variable depths, and for suitable background flows, is essential for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. In particular we explain how a number of tsunami waves can arrive at a shoreline. (letter to the editor)

2006-04-07

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Impact of exposure to conflict, tsunami and mental disorders on school absenteeism: findings from a national sample of Sri Lankan children aged 12-17 years  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Armed conflicts and natural disasters are common. Millions of people, including children are killed, injured, disabled and displaced as a result. The effects of conflict and natural disaster on mental health, especially of children are well established but effects on education have received less attention. This study investigated associations between conflict and/or tsunami exposure in Sri Lanka and their associations with absenteeism in a national sample of school children. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006–7 among 1,505 randomly selected school children aged 12–17 years attending government schools in 17 districts. The hypotheses were that absenteeism would be more common in children previously affected by conflict or the 2004 tsunami and that at least part of this effect would be accounted for by mental disorders. Survey information included socio-demographic, conflict and tsunami exposure, mental health status (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and information on absenteeism (defined as 20% or greater non-attendance over one year). Results The total sample of consisted of 1,505 students aged 12–17 years with a mean age of 13.7 years. 120 children reported at least one conflict exposure and 65 reported at least one tsunami exposure while only 15 reported exposure to both conflict and tsunami. Prevalence of emotional disorder caseness was 2.7%, conduct disorder caseness 5.8%, hyperactivity disorder caseness 0.6%, and 8.5% were identified as having any psychiatric disorder. Absenteeism was present in 26.8%. Overall, previous exposure to tsunami (OR 2.29 95% CI 1.36-3.84) was significantly associated with absenteeism whereas exposure to conflict was not (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.88-1.97), although some specific conflict-related exposures were significant risk factors. Mental disorder was strongly associated with absenteeism but did not account for its association with tsunami or conflict exposure. Conclusions Exposure to traumatic events may have a detrimental effect on subsequent school attendance. This may give rise to perpetuating socioeconomic inequality and needs further research to inform policy and intervention.

2013-01-01

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Impact of exposure to conflict, tsunami and mental disorders on school absenteeism: findings from a national sample of Sri Lankan children aged 12--17 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts and natural disasters are common. Millions of people, including children are killed, injured, disabled and displaced as a result. The effects of conflict and natural disaster on mental health, especially of children are well established but effects on education have received less attention. This study investigated associations between conflict and/or tsunami exposure in Sri Lanka and their associations with absenteeism in a national sample of school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006--7 among 1,505 randomly selected school children aged 12--17 years attending government schools in 17 districts. The hypotheses were that absenteeism would be more common in children previously affected by conflict or the 2004 tsunami and that at least part of this effect would be accounted for by mental disorders. Survey information included socio-demographic, conflict and tsunami exposure, mental health status (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and information on absenteeism (defined as 20% or greater non-attendance over one year). RESULTS: The total sample of consisted of 1,505 students aged 12--17 years with a mean age of 13.7 years. 120 children reported at least one conflict exposure and 65 reported at least one tsunami exposure while only 15 reported exposure to both conflict and tsunami. Prevalence of emotional disorder caseness was 2.7%, conduct disorder caseness 5.8%, hyperactivity disorder caseness 0.6%, and 8.5% were identified as having any psychiatric disorder. Absenteeism was present in 26.8%. Overall, previous exposure to tsunami (OR 2.29 95% CI 1.36-3.84) was significantly associated with absenteeism whereas exposure to conflict was not (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.88-1.97), although some specific conflict-related exposures were significant risk factors. Mental disorder was strongly associated with absenteeism but did not account for its association with tsunami or conflict exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traumatic events may have a detrimental effect on subsequent school attendance. This may give rise to perpetuating socioeconomic inequality and needs further research to inform policy and intervention. PMID:23758997

Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Pannala, Gayani; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

2013-06-01

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Impact of exposure to conflict, tsunami and mental disorders on school absenteeism: findings from a national sample of Sri Lankan children aged 12--17 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts and natural disasters are common. Millions of people, including children are killed, injured, disabled and displaced as a result. The effects of conflict and natural disaster on mental health, especially of children are well established but effects on education have received less attention. This study investigated associations between conflict and/or tsunami exposure in Sri Lanka and their associations with absenteeism in a national sample of school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006--7 among 1,505 randomly selected school children aged 12--17 years attending government schools in 17 districts. The hypotheses were that absenteeism would be more common in children previously affected by conflict or the 2004 tsunami and that at least part of this effect would be accounted for by mental disorders. Survey information included socio-demographic, conflict and tsunami exposure, mental health status (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and information on absenteeism (defined as 20% or greater non-attendance over one year). RESULTS: The total sample of consisted of 1,505 students aged 12--17 years with a mean age of 13.7 years. 120 children reported at least one conflict exposure and 65 reported at least one tsunami exposure while only 15 reported exposure to both conflict and tsunami. Prevalence of emotional disorder caseness was 2.7%, conduct disorder caseness 5.8%, hyperactivity disorder caseness 0.6%, and 8.5% were identified as having any psychiatric disorder. Absenteeism was present in 26.8%. Overall, previous exposure to tsunami (OR 2.29 95% CI 1.36-3.84) was significantly associated with absenteeism whereas exposure to conflict was not (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.88-1.97), although some specific conflict-related exposures were significant risk factors. Mental disorder was strongly associated with absenteeism but did not account for its association with tsunami or conflict exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traumatic events may have a detrimental effect on subsequent school attendance. This may give rise to perpetuating socioeconomic inequality and needs further research to inform policy and intervention.

Siriwardhana C; Pannala G; Siribaddana S; Sumathipala A; Stewart R

2013-06-01

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Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products.

Chambers S; Lobb A; Butler L; Harvey K; Traill WB

2007-07-01

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Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products. PMID:17368868

Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce

2007-02-24

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What Causes Tsunamis?  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 26, 2004, a disastrous tsunami struck many parts of South Asia. The scope of this disaster has resulted in an outpouring of aid throughout the world and brought attention to the science of tsunamis. "Tsunami" means "harbor wave" in Japanese, and the Japanese have a long history of tsunamis. The word "tsunami" brings to mind one…

Mogil, H. Michael

2005-01-01

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Tsunami lung.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We encountered three cases of lung disorders caused by drowning in the recent large tsunami that struck following the Great East Japan Earthquake. All three were females, and two of them were old elderly. All segments of both lungs were involved in all the three patients, necessitating ICU admission and endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. All three died within 3 weeks. In at least two cases, misswallowing of oil was suspected from the features noted at the time of the detection. Sputum culture for bacteria yielded isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Legionella pneumophila, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cause of tsunami lung may be a combination of chemical induced pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia.

Inoue Y; Fujino Y; Onodera M; Kikuchi S; Shozushima T; Ogino N; Mori K; Oikawa H; Koeda Y; Ueda H; Takahashi T; Terui K; Nakadate T; Aoki H; Endo S

2012-04-01

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Integrated Historical Tsunami Event and Deposit Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides integrated access to historical tsunami event, deposit, and proxy data. The NGDC tsunami archive initially listed tsunami sources and locations with observed tsunami effects. Tsunami frequency and intensity are important for understanding tsunami hazards. Unfortunately, tsunami recurrence intervals often exceed the historic record. As a result, NGDC expanded the archive to include the Global Tsunami Deposits Database (GTD_DB). Tsunami deposits are the physical evidence left behind when a tsunami impacts a shoreline or affects submarine sediments. Proxies include co-seismic subsidence, turbidite deposits, changes in biota following an influx of marine water in a freshwater environment, etc. By adding past tsunami data inferred from the geologic record, the GTD_DB extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Although the best methods for identifying tsunami deposits and proxies in the geologic record remain under discussion, developing an overall picture of where tsunamis have affected coasts, calculating recurrence intervals, and approximating runup height and inundation distance provides a better estimate of a region’s true tsunami hazard. Tsunami deposit and proxy descriptions in the GTD_DB were compiled from published data found in journal articles, conference proceedings, theses, books, conference abstracts, posters, web sites, etc. The database now includes over 1,200 descriptions compiled from over 1,100 citations. Each record in the GTD_DB is linked to its bibliographic citation where more information on the deposit can be found. The GTD_DB includes data for over 50 variables such as: event description (e.g., 2010 Chile Tsunami), geologic time period, year, deposit location name, latitude, longitude, country, associated body of water, setting during the event (e.g., beach, lake, river, deep sea), upper and lower contacts, underlying and overlying material, etc. If known, the tsunami source mechanism (e.g., earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, asteroid impact) is also specified. Observations (grain size, sedimentary structure, bed thickness, number of layers, etc.) are stored along with the conclusions drawn from the evidence by the author (wave height, flow depth, flow velocity, number of waves, etc.). Geologic time periods in the GTD_DB range from Precambrian to Quaternary, but the majority (70%) are from the Quaternary period. This period includes events such as: the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis, the 1755 Lisbon tsunami, the A.D. 79 Vesuvius tsunami, the 3500 BP Santorini caldera collapse and tsunami, and the 7000 BP Storegga landslide-generated tsunami. Prior to the Quaternary period, the majority of the paleotsunamis are due to impact events such as: the Tertiary Chesapeake Bay Bolide, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) Boundary, Cretaceous Manson, and Devonian Alamo. The tsunami deposits are integrated with the historical tsunami event database where applicable. For example, users can search for articles describing deposits related to the 1755 Lisbon tsunami and view those records, as well as link to the related historic event record. The data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and display data (selection forms, Web Map Services, and Web Feature Services).

Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

2010-12-01

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Tsunami diaries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inspired by recent discussion on how Serbian media influenced allegedly indifferent reaction of the public to the aftermath of tsunami, this paper examines the role of electronic media in Serbia, television in particular, in regard to their function as a central communication channel for acquiring k...

Radovi? Sr?an

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What Is a Tsunami?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Story Smile Style Game WHAT? What is a tsunami? Tsunamis are giant sea waves. They can be ... will destroy anything in their way. Why are tsunamis so destructive? During a normal storm or hurricane, ...

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Waves of Destruction: Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Web companion to an episode of the PBS/WNET television series "Savage Earth" devoted to tsunamis. The homepage article provides a brief overview of the mechanism that creates tsunamis, the enormous energy they release, and the role of plate tectonics in earthquake and tsunami generation. Sidebar pages discuss tsunami monitoring and advance warning, and geologic investigations that reveal evidence of destructive tsunamis in the past. There is also an animation that shows how an earthquake at a subduction zone can cause the sea floor to snap upward abruptly, displacing water and generating a tsunami, and a video interview with a survivor of the 1946 tsunami that struck the Hawaiian Islands.

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Long-Term Tsunami Data Archive Supports Tsunami Forecast, Warning, Research, and Mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the United States began a careful review and strengthening of its programs aimed at reducing the consequences of tsunamis. Several reports and calls to action were drafted, including the Tsunami Warning and Education Act (Public Law 109-424) signed into law by the President in December 2006. NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology (WDC-GMG) maintain a national and international tsunami data archive that fulfills part of the P.L. 109-424. The NGDC/WDC-GMG long-term tsunami data archive has expanded from the original global historical event databases and damage photo collection, to include tsunami deposits, coastal water-level data, DART™ buoy data, and high-resolution coastal DEMs. These data are used to validate models, provide guidance to warning centers, develop tsunami hazard assessments, and educate the public about the risks from tsunamis. In this paper we discuss current steps and future actions to be taken by NGDC/WDC-GMG to support tsunami hazard mitigation research, to ultimately help save lives and improve the resiliency of coastal communities.

Dunbar, Paula K.; Stroker, Kelly J.; Brocko, Vanita R.; Varner, Jesse D.; McLean, Susan J.; Taylor, Lisa A.; Eakins, Barry W.; Carignan, Kelly S.; Warnken, Robin R.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Predicting natural catastrophes tsunamis  

CERN Multimedia

1. Tsunamis - Introduction - Definition of phenomenon - basic properties of the waves Propagation and dispersion Interaction with coasts - Geological and societal effects Origin of tsunamis - natural sources Scientific activities in connection with tsunamis. Ideas about simulations 2. Tsunami generation - The earthquake source - conventional theory The earthquake source - normal mode theory The landslide source Near-field observation - The Plafker index Far-field observation - Directivity 3. Tsunami warning - General ideas - History of efforts Mantle magnitudes and TREMOR algorithms The challenge of "tsunami earthquakes" Energy-moment ratios and slow earthquakes Implementation and the components of warning centers 4. Tsunami surveys - Principles and methodologies Fifteen years of field surveys and related milestones. Reconstructing historical tsunamis: eyewitnesses and geological evidence 5. Lessons from the 2004 Indonesian tsunami - Lessons in seismology Lessons in Geology The new technologies Lessons in civ...

CERN. Geneva

2005-01-01

42

Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII), European ...

Romuald I. Zalewski; Eulalia Skawinska

43

Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII), European Summary Innovative Index (SII), Ranking of Competitiveness of Nations (in a form of summary as well as subsidiary data ) and set of macro economy data (GDP, labor productivity, export, export of high-tech, R&D expenditure as [as % of GDP] etc as measures of economic growth. Various regression models: liner, curvilinear, planar or spatial with one or two dependent variables will be calculated and explained. In addition the appropriate 2 D and 3 D-graphs will be used and presented to strengthen verbal arguments and explanation. The main result of this paper is relationship between innovative activity, competitive ability and growth measured as GDP per capita. Such relationship is shown as fairy good linear span of countries. Only two of them: Luxemburg and Norway due to higher than average growth value are outliers. The valuable outcome of this paper is classification of nation into groups: highly innovative- highly competitive, highly competitive-non innovative, highly innovative- non competitive and non innovative – non competitive. The last group of nations fall into trap of low competitiveness.

Romuald I. Zalewski; Eulalia Skawinska

2011-01-01

44

Tsunami diaries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspired by recent discussion on how Serbian media influenced allegedly indifferent reaction of the public to the aftermath of tsunami, this paper examines the role of electronic media in Serbia, television in particular, in regard to their function as a central communication channel for acquiring knowledge about world surroundings. With a premise of having cultural and discursive power, Dnevnik, the central news program of the Serbian public broadcaster, is taken as a paradigmatic media text for analysis in order to examine ways in which global affairs and phenomena are portrayed and structured in television representation of reality. It is suggested that it is fair to conclude that world affairs are marginalized within the representational frame of news broadcasts, and that the media discourse could be depicted as dominantly introverted when it comes to global flow of information and cultural meanings, which is significant regarding cultural perception of world realities among Serbian audiences.

Radovi? Sr?an

2005-01-01

45

Tsunami asymptotics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By applying the technique of uniform asymptotic approximation to the oscillatory integrals representing tsunami wave profiles, the form of the travelling wave far from the source is calculated for arbitrary initial disturbances. The approximations reproduce the entire profiles very accurately, from the front to the tail, and their numerical computation is much faster than that of the oscillatory integrals. For one-dimensional propagation, the uniform asymptotics involve Airy functions and their derivatives; for two-dimensional propagation, the uniform asymptotics involve products of these functions. Separate analyses are required when the initial disturbance is specified as surface elevation or surface velocity as functions of position, and when these functions are even or odd. 'There was an awful rainbow once in heaven' (John Keats, 1820)

2005-01-01

46

Qualitative responses to a national physician survey on HPV vaccination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Independently offered comments on a physician survey may reveal new insight into physician recommendations for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to their patients. The current study is a follow-up to a previous report of free-response comments and describes remarks from the second of two surveys regarding physicians' HPV vaccine recommendation practices. A secondary objective was to investigate comments specific to male HPV vaccination, which was FDA approved after the first survey was completed. METHODS: In 2011, a mailed survey assessing physicians' HPV-related knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination practices was conducted among a national sample of U.S. primary care physicians, including Family Physicians, Pediatricians, and Obstetricians/Gynecologists. Comments were analyzed using grounded theory and content analysis. FINDINGS: Of 928 completed surveys received, 134 participants provided comments, which were coded into four overall categories: 1) the survey process, 2) personal strategy for discussing HPV vaccine, 3) clinical practice guidelines preference, and 4) barriers to vaccine administration. Twenty-six comments were specific to males, with 17 physicians stating they did not recommend HPV vaccine to males. Physicians also cited the need for more information about HPV vaccine safety and efficacy for males. INTERPRETATION: Respondents used the open-ended portion of the survey to reemphasize issues that were most important to them and to offer insight about the vaccine and survey process. FUNDING: This study was funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (R01AI076440-01).

Vadaparampil ST; Murphy D; Rodriguez M; Malo TL; Quinn GP

2013-04-01

47

2011 Tsunami Propagation  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity uses data collected from DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) stations in the Pacific following the 2011 tsunami generated off the coast of Japan. Students are required to map the wave front after 5, 10, and 15 hours to better understand the speed and propagation of the tsunami wave.

Martin, Julie

48

Tsunami Propagation Visualization  

Science.gov (United States)

This visualization of the Tsunami generated by the 2010 Chile earthquake shows the spread of the tsunami waves across the pacific. The animation was computed with the MOST tsunami model. Across the bottom of the visualization is a comparison of the MOST predictions to actual data collected by a sensor buoy (denoted by the solid yellow square on the map).

Research, Noaa C.

49

THE INAPPROPRIATE TSUNAMI ICON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The supposition that the Japanese printmaker Hokusai intended to represent a tsunami in his print of the “Great Wave at Kanagawa” is unfounded and the use of his “Great Wave” as a tsunami icon gives a false impression of the nature of tsunami waves.

DoakC. Cox

2001-01-01

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Science of Tsunami Hazards ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Science of Tsunami Hazards published to disseminate the results of applied and theoretical research on tsunamis and to increase knowledge about their hazards. Science of Tsunami Hazards is a unique, peer-reviewed journal which has been published continuously without interruption s...

51

Post-Tsunami Field Surveys are Essential for Mitigating the Next Tsunami Disaster  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Post-tsunami field investigations are an essential component in improving our understanding of tsunamis and in developing the tools and programs necessary to mitigate their effects. A destructive tsunami can attract a large number of international, national, and local tsunami professionals interested in conducting post-tsunami science surveys to investigate and document its scientific, economic, and social impact on affected coasts and communities. Science data collected immediately after a damaging tsunami are important for government decision makers. In the short term, these data help to better organize and deploy often-limited resources to the most critical areas needing response. In the long term, these data are used for recovery planning that will mitigate the losses of the next tsunami. Without a coordination plan that is integrated into government emergency response operations, perishable data may prove to be logistically difficult to gather before erosion or bulldozers eliminate the evidence, and in all likelihood, the operations could interfere and conflict with emergency activities. Additionally, during catastrophic tsunamis, affected areas and local jurisdictions may also be simultaneously overwhelmed by many government agencies, nongovernment organizations, and the media all demanding information and/or access, thus making collection of useful data even more challenging unless a coordination and information sharing plan is already in place.

Laura Kong

2011-01-01

52

DETERMINISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE TSUNAMI HAZARD IN CHINA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seismic hazard analysis has reached a level of maturity in China. Such work has contributed significantly towards improvements of the national infrastructure in effecting programs of disaster preparedness and mitigation. However, the work on tsunami risk assessment is still in a preliminary stage. The present study proposes a deterministic method of tsunami hazard analysis based on coastal bathymetry and morphology, as well as on mathematical simulations, and evaluates the potential tsunami risk to China’s coastal areas.

Yefei Ren; Ruizhi Wen; Baofeng Zhou; Dacheng Shi

2010-01-01

53

Beyond Age and Adjustment: A Cross-National Qualitative Study of Older Adults’ Perceptions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: To explore the older adults’ perceptions of age and aging, focusing on adjustment to aging (AtA) and subjective age (SA). Methods: This cross-national and qualitative study comprised demographics and semistructured interviews. Complete information on 151 older adults aged between 75-1...

Sofia von Humboldt; Isabel Leal; Filipa Pimenta; Georgeta Niculescu

54

REVIEW OF THE 1994 SKAGWAY, AKASKA TSUNAMI AND FUTURE PLANS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On November 3,1994 a nine meter amplitude submarine landslide-created tsunami with a resonate wave tram lasting about 30 minutes struck the Skagway, Alaska., watafiont causing extensive damage and loss of one life.Numerous scientists and engineers have studied the 1994 tsunami and at a workshop on the subject in Seattle, Washington, on October 30-3 1,2001, have generally concluded that large down inlet submarine landslide(s) created the tsunami. A general plan under the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program was developed to start a study, which could lead to mitigation measures at Skagway with possible adaptability to other parts of theworkl with similar problems.This paper briefly overviews the events preceding the tsunami, reviews findings following the event and outlines plans relating to similar future expected tsunamis.

Den& Nottingham, P.E. Pres&M

2002-01-01

55

TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean, the short-period tsunami wave rides on the longer-period tides. The question is whether these two waves can be superposed linearly for the purpose of determining the resulting sea surface height (SSH) or rather in the shallow water they interact nonlinearly, enhancing/reducing the total sea level and currents. Since the near–shore bathymetry is important for the run-up computation, Weisz and Winter (2005) demonstrated that the changes of depth caused by tides should not be neglected in tsunami run-up considerations. On the other hand, we hypothesize that much more significant effect of the tsunami-tide interaction should be observed through the tidal and tsunami currents. In order to test this hypothesis we apply a simple set of 1-D equations of motion and continuity to demonstrate the dynamics of tsunami and tide interaction in the vicinity of the shelf break for two coastal domains: shallow waters of an elongated inlet and narrow shelf typical for deep waters of the Gulf of Alaska.

Zygmunt Kowalik; Tatiana Proshutinsky; Andrey Proshutinsky

2006-01-01

56

Using the story-telling technique in the qualitative research of national identity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contains the main results of a qualitative research onRomanians national identity. The research proposes a new approach to the national identity based on two methodological elements: the patriotic songs as a stimulus for reflection on national identity and the presentation of data in the form of story-telling. The theoretical background integrates the social identity theory and the theory of social representations. The main conclusionof the research is that Romanians have nowadays a negative social identity in relation with their own country and the political class is seen as the main culprit for the country’s bad situation.

?andru, C.

2011-01-01

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COMMENT ON: TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES BY PATRICIA A. LOCKRIDGE, LOWELL S. WHITESIDE AND JAMES F. LANDER WITH RESPECT TO THE NOVEMBER 18, 1929 EARTHQUAKE AND ITS TSUNAMI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This most valuable compilation by Patricia Lockridge et al. (2002) covers a wide range of tsunamis and tsunami-like events ranging from marine tectonic, volcanic, and landslide tsunamis to possible meteorologic tsunami-like events. Lockridge et al.'s (2002) massive text table (pp. 124-141) entitled "Description of Events" covers events from 1668 to 1992. The 2002 paper in Science of Tsunami Hazards was clearly intended to be an update of, an extension to, and a sequel to, the first east coast and Caribbean tsunami compilations contained in Lander and Lockridge's 1989 National Geophysical Data Center volume United States Tsunamis (including United States Possessions) 1690-1988.The Lockridge et al. (2002) compilation contains a small error with respect to the 1929 "Grand Banks" Earthquake and Tsunami of which I may be cause in part. In addition the tsunami histories of oceans without a tsunami warning system will be now receiving much closer attention, including historic events in the Atlantic Ocean given the events of December 26, 2004 and March 18, 2005 in the Indian Ocean; both the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans have no tsunami warning system and have an incomplete tsunami history.

Alan Ruffman

2005-01-01

58

Seismically generated tsunamis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

People around the world know more about tsunamis than they did 10 years ago, primarily because of two events: a tsunami on 26 December 2004 that killed more than 200,000 people around the shores of the Indian Ocean; and an earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 that killed nearly 15,000 more and triggered a nuclear accident, with consequences that are still unfolding. This paper has three objectives: (i) to summarize our current knowledge of the dynamics of tsunamis; (ii) to describe how that knowledge is now being used to forecast tsunamis; and (iii) to suggest some policy changes that might protect people better from the dangers of future tsunamis.

Arcas D; Segur H

2012-04-01

59

Seismically generated tsunamis.  

Science.gov (United States)

People around the world know more about tsunamis than they did 10 years ago, primarily because of two events: a tsunami on 26 December 2004 that killed more than 200,000 people around the shores of the Indian Ocean; and an earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 that killed nearly 15,000 more and triggered a nuclear accident, with consequences that are still unfolding. This paper has three objectives: (i) to summarize our current knowledge of the dynamics of tsunamis; (ii) to describe how that knowledge is now being used to forecast tsunamis; and (iii) to suggest some policy changes that might protect people better from the dangers of future tsunamis. PMID:22393107

Arcas, Diego; Segur, Harvey

2012-04-13

60

The Physics of Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site provides a set of simple tutorials on the physics of tsunamis. Each tutorial is presented in clear, straightforward language, with multiple animations and simulations to depict how these destructive waves originate and propagate. This item is part of a larger set of resources on tsunamis developed and maintained by the Earth and Space Sciences project at the University of Washington.

2009-03-10

 
 
 
 
61

International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

Mosher, D. C.

2009-01-01

62

2004 Asian Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Students are employees of a unit of the United Nations responsible for coordinating disaster relief after a major disaster (the 2004 Asian Earthquake and Tsunami) occurs. The agency needs to understand the situation in each country so that it can coordinate the work of various governments and NGO (nongovernmental organizations) working in the affected area.

Char Bezanson, Eastview High School, Apple Valley, Minnesota

63

Once and Future Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Long before the devastating December 2004 Indian Ocean event, tsunamis had already been implicated in the widespread death and destruction in Java and Sumatra following the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa. Tsunamis are also blamed for the collapse of the ancient Minoan civilization on Crete. These waves are capable of overrunning almost any coastline in the world and exacting a serious toll on both property and life. This interactive world map lets users explore key tsunamis dating from 3.5 billion years ago, along with a hypothetical future event that might take place in the Atlantic Ocean near the Canary Islands.

2011-04-29

64

Numerical Simulation of Tsunamis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-dimensional, time-dependent, nonlinear, incompressible, viscous flow calculations were performed of realistic models of tsunami waves interacting with continental slopes and shelves. Wave heights were observed to grow by a factor of 4 as they shoaled ...

C. L. Mader

1973-01-01

65

Tsunami Travel Time Approximation  

Science.gov (United States)

Eric Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are asked to calculate approximate tsunami travel times across the Pacific basin. The assignment builds off of a lab introducing students to Spatial Analyst, and ...

Grosfils, Eric

66

Floods and tsunamis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Floods and tsunamis cause few severe injuries, but those injuries can overwhelm local areas, depending on the magnitude of the disaster. Most injuries are extremity fractures, lacerations, and sprains. Because of the mechanism of soft tissue and bone injuries, infection is a significant risk. Aspiration pneumonias are also associated with tsunamis. Appropriate precautionary interventions prevent communicable dis-ease outbreaks. Psychosocial health issues must be considered.

Llewellyn M

2006-06-01

67

Floods and tsunamis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Floods and tsunamis cause few severe injuries, but those injuries can overwhelm local areas, depending on the magnitude of the disaster. Most injuries are extremity fractures, lacerations, and sprains. Because of the mechanism of soft tissue and bone injuries, infection is a significant risk. Aspiration pneumonias are also associated with tsunamis. Appropriate precautionary interventions prevent communicable dis-ease outbreaks. Psychosocial health issues must be considered. PMID:16781270

Llewellyn, Mark

2006-06-01

68

Tsunamis in Cuba?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

2011-01-01

69

Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de ondas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México.We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which provides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

Rodrigo González González; Modesto Ortiz Figueroa; José Miguel Montoya Rodríguez

2012-01-01

70

Tsunamis from nature to physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tsunamis are gravity waves that propagate near the ocean surface. They belong to the same family as common sea waves that we enjoy at the beach; however, tsunamis are distinct in their mode of generation and in their characteristic period, wavelength, and velocity. The type of tsunamis that induce widespread damage number about one or two per decade. Thus 'killer tsunamis' although fearful, are a relatively rare phenomenon.

Helal, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Cairo, Giza, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: mahelal@yahoo.com; Mehanna, M.S. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Cairo, Giza, Cairo (Egypt)

2008-05-15

71

Tsunamis from nature to physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunamis are gravity waves that propagate near the ocean surface. They belong to the same family as common sea waves that we enjoy at the beach; however, tsunamis are distinct in their mode of generation and in their characteristic period, wavelength, and velocity. The type of tsunamis that induce widespread damage number about one or two per decade. Thus 'killer tsunamis' although fearful, are a relatively rare phenomenon.

2008-01-01

72

[Quantitative and qualitative analysis of four national otorhinolaryngology journals between 2002 and 2010].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of four national peer-reviewed otorhinolaryngology journals between 2002 and 2010 and compare various parameters in 1990-1994 period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The number of authors and female authors, gender of first author, city and the institution where the article was submitted, number of references and national references were noted separately for each article in all issues of four national peer-reviewed journals in years 2002, 2005 and 2010. Language of articles was noted and they were grouped under six main headings based on their subjects. Quantitative analysis was performed considering evidence-based medicine principle and evidence levels of articles were noted between 1 and 5. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson chi-square and one-way ANOVA tests. RESULTS: A total of 424 articles including 143 in 2002, 147 in 2005 and 134 in 2010 in four national otorhinolaryngology journals were evaluated. The number of authors per article was found to be 4.49, indicating no statistically significant difference between the years (p>0.05). The mean number of female authors per article was 0.85. When the institutions submitted articles were assessed, number of publications from university hospitals was higher than the education hospitals and other health care services; however, this difference was reduced in 2010. In the evaluation of cited references, the mean number of references and national references per article increased from 16.90 to 18.12 and from 1.54 to 1.68 in 2002 and 2010, respectively. According to the articles categorized to their main subjects, it was found that most of the publications were related to upper respiratory/digestive tract and neck and the least was related to facial plastic surgery. The qualitative analysis in terms of evidence-based medicine revealed no articles with level 1 evidence through three years studied. CONCLUSION: It will be useful to make similar periodical studies to improve the quality of otorhinolaryngology journals and related articles in Turkey.

Erda? TK; Do?an E; Ecevit MC; Durmu?o?lu M; Güneri EA; Ikiz AO

2013-09-01

73

The role of deposits in tsunami risk assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

An incomplete catalogue of tsunamis in the written record hinders tsunami risk assessment. Tsunami deposits, hard evidence of tsunami, can be used to extend the written record. The two primary factors in tsunami risk, tsunami frequency and magnitude, can be addressed through field and modeling studies of tsunami deposits. Recent research has increased the utility of tsunami deposits in tsunami risk assessment by improving the ability to identify tsunami deposits and developing models to determine tsunami magnitude from deposit characteristics. Copyright ASCE 2008.

Jaffe, B.

2008-01-01

74

Catalog of Tsunamis in Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

This summary of the history of tsunamis was prompted by the recent establishments of the Alaska Regional Tsunami Warning System to cope with the special problems of providing useful warnings of tsunamis along the coastlines of Alaska and the Aleutian Isla...

D. C. Cox G. Pararas-Carayannis

1969-01-01

75

May Gravity detect Tsunami ?  

CERN Document Server

The present gravitational wave detectors are reaching lowest metric deviation fields able to detect galactic and extra-galactic gravitational waves, related to Supernova explosions up to Virgo cluster. The same gravitational wave detector are nevertheless almost able to reveal near field gravitational perturbations due to fast huge mass displacements as the ones occurring during largest Earth-Quake or Tsunami as the last on 26th December 2004 in Asiatic area. The prompt gravitational near field deformation by the Tsunami may reach the LIGO threshold sensitivity within 3000-10000 km distances. Their eventual discover (in LIGO data or in future on-line detector arrays) may offer the most rapid warning alarm system on earth. Nevertheless the later continental mass rearrangement and their gravitational field assessment on Earth must induce, for Richter Magnitude 9 Tsunami, a different terrestrial inertia momentum and a different rotation axis, as well as a detectable shrinking of the Earth radius of nearly R =1.7...

Fargion, D

2004-01-01

76

Alternative tsunami models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

2009-01-01

77

Awareness of headache and of National Headache Society activities among primary care physicians - a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Headache is one of the most common symptoms in primary care. To improve the quality of headache diagnosis and management with the largest possible benefit for the general population, headache and pain societies around the world have recently been devoting more attention to headache in primary care.The aim of the study was to investigate the potential contribution that national societies can make toward raising the awareness of primary headaches in general practice. FINDINGS: In a qualitative telephone survey, targeting primary care practices (PCP), we asked about the frequency of headache patients in their practices and inquired about their treatment and referral strategies.A total of 1000 telephone interviews with PCP have been conducted. Three-hundred and fifty physicians have been directly interviewed, 95% of them see headache patients every week, 23% daily. Direct MRI referral is done by 84%. Sixty-two per cent of the physicians knew the Swiss headache society, 73% were interested in further education about headaches. CONCLUSION: The survey yielded information about the physicians' awareness of the Swiss Headache Society and its activities, and about their desire for continuing education in the area of headache. National headache societies should work to improve the cooperation between headache specialists and PCP, aiming for a better care for our patients with headache.

Gantenbein AR; Jäggi C; Sturzenegger M; Gobbi C; Merki-Feld GS; Emmenegger MJ; Taub E; Sándor PS

2013-01-01

78

On the moroccan tsunami catalogue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A primary tool for regional tsunami hazard assessment is a reliable historical and instrumental catalogue of events. Morocco by its geographical situation, with two marine sides, stretching along the Atlantic coast to the west and along the Mediterranean coast to the north, is the country of Western Africa most exposed to the risk of tsunamis. Previous information on tsunami events affecting Morocco are included in the Iberian and/or the Mediterranean lists of tsunami events, as it is the case of the European GITEC Tsunami Catalogue, but there is a need to organize this information in a dataset and to assess the likelihood of claimed historical tsunamis in Morocco. Due to the fact that Moroccan sources are scarce, this compilation rely on historical documentation from neighbouring countries (Portugal and Spain) and so the compatibility between the new tsunami catalogue presented here and those that correspond to the same source areas is also discussed.

F. Kaabouben; M. A. Baptista; A. Iben Brahim; A. El Mouraouah; A. Toto

2009-01-01

79

Earthquakes and Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, by the Lane Community College MAPS GIS Program, students work in teams to evaluate Oregon citiesâ tsunami evacuation plans related to a potential 8.1 coastal earthquake. Teams use additional information from a Web-based GIS to study the multi-faceted nature of earthquake damage in addition to tsunami impacts and make recommendations to improve the existing plan. The data are from the Oregon Geospatial Data Clearinghouse and the Oregon Department of Geology and Mines. On this site, visitors will find both the teacher version of the lesson plan and the student exercise, both as PDFs.

2008-08-13

80

Dynamics of tsunami waves  

CERN Multimedia

The life of a tsunami is usually divided into three phases: the generation (tsunami source), the propagation and the inundation. Each phase is complex and often described separately. A brief description of each phase is given. Model problems are identified. Their formulation is given. While some of these problems can be solved analytically, most require numerical techniques. The inundation phase is less documented than the other phases. It is shown that methods based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) are particularly well-suited for the inundation phase. Directions for future research are outlined.

Dias, F; Dias, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Dutykh, Denys

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Tsunami wave energy  

CERN Multimedia

In the vast literature on tsunami research, few articles have been devoted to energy issues. A theoretical investigation on the energy of waves generated by bottom motion is performed here. We start with the full incompressible Euler equations in the presence of a free surface and derive both dispersive and non-dispersive shallow-water equations with an energy equation. It is shown that dispersive effects only appear at higher order in the energy budget. Then we solve the Cauchy-Poisson problem of tsunami generation for the linearized water wave equations. Exchanges between potential and kinetic energies are clearly revealed.

Dutykh, Denys

2008-01-01

82

MULTIPLE LAYER IDENTIFICATION AND TRANSPORTATION PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR ONSHORE TSUNAMI DEPOSIT AS THE EXTENDING TSUNAMI DATA – A CASE STUDY FROM THE THAI ANDAMAN COAST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 26thDecember 2004, a strong Indian Ocean earthquake of moment magnitude 9 generated a deadly tsunami that hit the west coast of southern Thailand and many coastal nations of the Indian Ocean. Two tsunami-affected areas on the Thai Andaman coast (Ao Kheuy beach and Khuk Khak beach) were investigated. Multiple sediment layers in the tsunami deposits are identified and are analyzed. The sediment transportation patterns are also determined. Tsunami deposits consist of graded sand layers overlying the pre-existing soil. The particle size profile of the tsunami sediment and the plot of grain-size standard deviation with depth are used to identify major layers in tsunami deposit. There are three major sediment layers in the tsunami deposit in the study areas. They reflect three depositional sequences created by three tsunami run-ups. The mean grain-size of tsunami deposit and the results of sediment trend analysis show that the tsunami deposit is generally fining upwards and landwards. Each major sediment layer is created by sediments settled from suspension in a set of run-up and backwash. The percentage by weight of sediment settled from suspension during the backwash is small when it is compared to the percentage by weight of sediment settled from suspension during the run-up. The 1stdepositional sequence has higher quantity of coarse grain particles than the following depositional sequences. At a mild slope shore face, sediments are transported and deposited on land far from their origins. The number of major sediment layers in tsunami deposit can be used as the extending data for reconstructing individual tsunami run-up by using numerical and/or simple models.

Chanchai Srisutam; Jean-Frank Wagner

2009-01-01

83

Tsunamis and meteorological tsunamis: similarities and differences  

Science.gov (United States)

Destructive seiche oscillations occasionally generated in certain bays and inlets are mainly associated with two natural forcing phenomena: Seismic activity (tsunamis), and atmospheric disturbances (meteotsunamis). Despite their different origin, both types are modified and amplified by topography in a similar way and produce similar catastrophic effects in coastal areas. Due to these similarities, it is often difficult to distinguish between these two phenomena without knowing the exact source characteristics. Recognition and separation of these phenomena is important for the revision/improvement of existing tsunami catalogues but also to better understand the generation mechanism and mitigate their possible catastrophic effects. To investigate this problem and to compare seismic and meteorological tsunamis, we assembled a number of cases when both phenomena had been recorded at the same place. In particular, our findings included Alicante (Mediterranean coast of Spain), Malokurilsk and Krabovaya bays (Shikotan Island, Russia), and Tofino, Winter Harbour, Bamfield, Port Hardy, and Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). We also used the results of the LAST-97 hydrophysical experiment when eight bottom pressure stations were deployed on the shelf and in the inlets of Menorca Island (Western Meditterranean, Spain) and three precise microbarographs were working on the coast. Our analysis is based on the assumption that both tsunamis and meteotsunamis are formed by the combined effects of external forcing and topography. So, for different events recorded at the same site, the similarities are related to topography and the differences to the forcing. On the contrary, for the same event recorded at different stations, similarities are mainly associated with the forcing and the differences with specific local topographic features. Analysis of the spectral distributions and comparison with background noise enabled us to reconstruct the topographic transfer functions for all stations, estimate (for certain stations) the relative influence of shelf and bay/inlets, and to determine the sources. The estimated source functions for long waves associated with seismic events were found to have typical periods of 10-40 min, while those generated by a storm had shorter periods and strong energy pumping from high-frequencies due to non-linear interaction of wind waves.

Rabinovich, A. B.; Monserrat, S.

2003-04-01

84

Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets and increased monitoring in the affected area. Internationally donated antimalarials were either redundant or did not comply with national drug policy, however, few seem to have entered circulation outside government control. Despite distribution of mosquito nets, still a large population is relatively exposed to mosquito bites due to inadequate housing. There were no indications of increased malaria vector abundance. Overall it is concluded that the tsunami has not negatively influenced the malaria situation in Sri Lanka.

Briët OJ; Galappaththy GN; Amerasinghe PH; Konradsen F

2006-01-01

85

A review of tsunami simulation activities for NPPs safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on finite difference numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The present paper evaluate the results of various simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatra model, four and five fault Sumatra Model, Nias insignificant tsunami and also some parametric studies results for tsunami waring system scenario generation. A study is carried for the tsunami due to Sumatra earthquake in 2004 with TUNAMI-N2 software. Bathymetry data available from the National Geophysical Data Center was used for this study. The single fault and detailed four and five fault data were used to calculate sea surface deformations which were subsequently used as initial conditions for Sumatra 2004 tsunami propagation simulation. The paper also presents a hypothetical study by assuming the earthquake rupture on northern fault only as compared to complete (northern and southern) rupture segment and the resulting tsunami propagation scenario. All of the studies provide the results in terms of wave heights and compare them with the reported simulation, satellite observation and field observed reported data. The paper includes the parametric studies on the possible fault line for Sumatra fault line for support for early tsunami warning. The various other events i.e Java, Nias, Makaran, Andaman etc are also discussed in the paper. (author)

2011-01-01

86

Tiché tsunami bez hranic.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Ro?. 6, ?. 24 (2008), s. 14. ISSN 1801-1446Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z70280505Klí?ová slova: food crisisKód oboru RIV: AO - Sociologie, demografiehttp://www.respekt.cz/search.php?f_search_text=tich%E9+tsunami+bez+hranic

Kone?ný, TomášG

87

Alternative Tsunami Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 "Eur. J. Phys." 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 "Eur. J. Phys." 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional,…

Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.

2009-01-01

88

Perceptions of radiography and the National Health Service: a qualitative study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To identify the factors that determine the attractiveness of radiography as a career choice and of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer to potential recruits and returners. Methods: Individual and group interviews were conducted in the East Midlands region to explore participants' perceptions of the attractiveness of the NHS as an employer to potential radiography staff. Interviews were conducted with school pupils, radiography students, mature students, radiography assistants, agency radiographers and independent sector radiographers. Results: Eighty-eight individuals participated in the qualitative stage of the study. Analysis of the interview transcripts indicated that radiography as a career choice is perceived as boring and routine, involving high workloads and little recognition from the general public. Working with patients is the source of considerable job satisfaction but is offset by staff shortages, lack of flexibility over working hours and a lack of consideration of family commitments in the NHS. Financial costs are highlighted as dissuading many participants from considering a career as a radiographer in the NHS or returning to work for the NHS. Greater use of open days in conjunction with more advertising of the profession is suggested as tactics to improve recruitment. Conclusions: The provision of more flexible working hours, greater consideration of family commitments and increased financial support for training are necessary to improve the attractiveness of a radiography career. NHS Human Resource Managers should consider these findings concerning the applicant and returner pools when developing strategies to address the current shortfall of radiographers.

Coombs, C.R. E-mail: c.r.coombs@lboro.ac.uk; Park, J.R.; Loan-Clarke, J.; Arnold, J.; Preston, D.; Wilkinson, A.J

2003-05-01

89

Service impact of a national clinical leadership development programme: findings from a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The study reported here was part of a larger study, which evaluated a national clinical leadership development programme with reference to resources, participant experiences, participant outcomes and service impact. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the programme's service impact. BACKGROUND: Clinical leadership development develops competencies that are expressed in context. The outcomes of clinical leadership development occur at individual, departmental and organisational levels. METHODS: The methods used to evaluate the service impact were focus groups, group interviews and individual interviews. Seventy participants provided data in 18 separate qualitative data collection events. RESULTS: The data contained numerous accounts of service development activities, initiated by programme participants, which improved service and/or improved the culture of the work setting. CONCLUSION: Clinical leadership development programmes that incorporate a deliberate service impact element can result in identifiable positive service outcomes. The nuanced relationship between leader development and service development warrants further investigation. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: This study demonstrates that clinical leadership development can impact on service in distinct and identifiable ways. Clinical leadership development programmes should focus on the setting in which the leadership competencies will be demonstrated.

Fealy GM; McNamara MS; Casey M; O'Connor T; Patton D; Doyle L; Quinlan C

2013-07-01

90

Perceptions of radiography and the National Health Service: a qualitative study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To identify the factors that determine the attractiveness of radiography as a career choice and of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer to potential recruits and returners. Methods: Individual and group interviews were conducted in the East Midlands region to explore participants' perceptions of the attractiveness of the NHS as an employer to potential radiography staff. Interviews were conducted with school pupils, radiography students, mature students, radiography assistants, agency radiographers and independent sector radiographers. Results: Eighty-eight individuals participated in the qualitative stage of the study. Analysis of the interview transcripts indicated that radiography as a career choice is perceived as boring and routine, involving high workloads and little recognition from the general public. Working with patients is the source of considerable job satisfaction but is offset by staff shortages, lack of flexibility over working hours and a lack of consideration of family commitments in the NHS. Financial costs are highlighted as dissuading many participants from considering a career as a radiographer in the NHS or returning to work for the NHS. Greater use of open days in conjunction with more advertising of the profession is suggested as tactics to improve recruitment. Conclusions: The provision of more flexible working hours, greater consideration of family commitments and increased financial support for training are necessary to improve the attractiveness of a radiography career. NHS Human Resource Managers should consider these findings concerning the applicant and returner pools when developing strategies to address the current shortfall of radiographers.

2003-01-01

91

Tsunamis and Earthquakes (Local Tsunamis in the Pacific Northwest)  

Science.gov (United States)

On the Pacific Northwest an oceanic tectonic plate (Juan de Fuca) is being pulled and driven (subducted) beneath the North American continental plate. Earthquakes generated along that fault may produce local tsunamis. Local tsunamis are those generated by earthquakes near the coast. This site provides links to external webpages describing the physics behind a tsunami. Resources featured in the links include glossary of terms and photo galleries.

92

Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante/ Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de ondas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo (more) largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México. Abstract in english We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which provides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic a (more) pproach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

González González, Rodrigo; Ortiz Figueroa, Modesto; Montoya Rodríguez, José Miguel

2012-01-01

93

Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis Data Quality Control  

Science.gov (United States)

From the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) page contains real time sea level data which can be modified by site and transmitter, type of data set, database, and time range. Data may be viewed through a browser or downloaded (.dbf, .gz).

1999-01-01

94

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami Information Sources, Part 4, was originally published, on 14 March 2008, as a Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Report UCB/HEL 2008-1, of the Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of California at Berkeley. It is published now in "SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS" with the permission of the author, so that it can receive wider distribution and use by the Tsunami Scientific Community.

Robert L. Wiegel

2009-01-01

95

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES PART 3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is Part 3 of Tsunami Information Sources published by Robert L. Wiegel, as Technical Report UCB/HEL 2006-3 of the Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory of the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering of the University of California at Berkeley. Part 3 is published in "SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS" -with the author's permission -so that it can receive wider distribution and use by the Tsunami Scientific Community.

Robert L. Wiegel

2009-01-01

96

TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.

Andrei G. Marchuk

2009-01-01

97

Tsunami Tallinna lahel / Vivika Veski  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Küberneetika Instituudis tehtav mere- ja rannikuteaduse alane töö on pälvinud rahvusvahelist tähelepanu. Tallinna laht võib anda maailmale vastuse, kuidas kaitsta end tsunami eest

Veski, Vivika

2008-01-01

98

Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR). Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133) with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care). The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

Kidanto Hussein L; Mogren Ingrid; van Roosmalen Jos; Thomas Angela N; Massawe Siriel N; Nystrom Lennarth; Lindmark Gunilla

2009-01-01

99

Tsunami and other waves  

CERN Multimedia

After describing the awesome power of tsunami and their past occurrences, this book turns to the history of explaining phenomena by means of mathematical equations. The book then describes other wave phenomena and the laws governing them. Many different kinds of waves are covered, including sound waves, electromagnetic waves, gravitational waves, water waves, the Schrödinger wave function, and solitary waves. The laws governing them find use in all sorts of applications as well as give rise to many effects. In our exploration of wave phenomena, we examine vibrating strings and drums in musical instruments, ultrasound, rainbows and glories, microwave ovens, and the cosmic microwave background, as well as deal with questions such as why the sky is blue and how a radio works. Finally, we return to tsunami and the question: What laws govern them? This book is designed for members of the general public interested in physics, its foundation in mathematics, and its relation to our everyday lives.

Newton, Roger G

2013-01-01

100

On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particul...

Dias, Frédéric; Dutykh, Denys; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

 
 
 
 
101

Tsunamis and Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

A writer from the SmallBizPipeline recently wrote an article reviewing some of the ways technology has been used to facilitate aid distribution and locate those missing after the Tsunami that hit several countries in Asia on December 26, 2004. This article (1) reports from a socialist perspective on the reasons why there was no early warning for the people who suffered from the recent tsunami, many of which are not related to a lack of technology. Nonetheless, predicting the next big earthquake is still beyond the control of scientists, according to this article from the Why Files (4). This website from the USGS (5) provides an overview of the magnitude of the most recent earthquake and links to other pages that help put the catastrophe in perspective in terms of previous earthquakes. This next website (6) proposes a lesson plan for calculating the magnitude of an earthquake, with links to some related information. Finally, this article (7) from the Christian Science Monitor highlights a low-tech way to minimize the effect of Tsunamis --mangroves.

102

Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily – Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami...

A. Grezio; P. Gasparini; W. Marzocchi; A. Patera; S. Tinti

103

Science 101: What causes tsunamis?  

Science.gov (United States)

The word "tsunami" brings to mind one towering wave but actually refers to a series of waves, most often caused by an undersea earthquake. This article debunks some of the myths about tsunamis and gives a historic and scientific view of this natural phenomenon.

Mogil, H. M.

2005-04-01

104

Papers about Volcanoes and Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Steven N Ward, a Earth Sciences professor at UC-Santa Cruz, provides downloadable PDF versions of his numerous publications about volcanoes and tsunamis as a part of his homepage. Topics include tsunamis caused by earthquakes, underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, and asteroid impacts, as well as risk assessment and modeling.

Ward, Steven N.

105

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms), propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic) modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/erosion; hazard mitigation; land use planning; zoning; siting, design, construction and maintenance of structures and infrastructure; public awareness and education; distant and local sources; tsunami warning and evacuation programs; tsunami probability and risk criteria. A few references are on "sedimentary signatures" useful in the study of historic and prehistoric tsunamis (paleo-tsunamis). In addition to references specifically on tsunamis, there are references on long water wave and solitary wave theory; wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection; shelf and basin free and forced oscillations (bay and harbor response; seiches); edge waves; Mach- reflection of long water waves ("stem waves"); wave run-up on shore; energy dissipation. All are important in understanding tsunamis, and in hazard mitigation. References are given on subaerial and submarine landslide (and rockfall) generated waves in reservoirs, fjords, bays, and ocean; volcano explosive eruptions/collapse; underwater and surface explosions; asteroid impact. This report is in two parts: 1) Bibliographies, books and pamphlets, catalogs, collections, journals and newsletters, maps, organizations, proceedings, videos and photos; 2) Articles, papers, reports listed alphabetically by author.Many papers on the Indian Ocean (Sumatra) tsunami of 26 December 2004, were given at the 22nd IUGG International Tsunami Symposium, Chania, Crete, 27-29 June 2005, but had not been published at the date of this report. For the program, see http://www.gein.noa.gr/English/tsunamis.htmThis list of tsunami information sources (115 pp, about 3,300 entries) is also available on a diskette, at the Water Resources Center Archives, 410 O'Brien Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1718. Most of the publications are available in the Water Resources Center Archives or the Earth Sciences Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA.I wish to acknowledge my appreciation of the great help of the staff of the Water Resources Center Archives in finding some difficult to obtain publications; in particular Paul S. Atwood for his help for those on websites and other computer sources. I want to thank John M. Wiegel for his continuous help in searching for sources on websites via computer search-engines.

Robert L. Wiegel

2006-01-01

106

The Holocene paleo-tsunami history of West Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

West Australian coastlines experienced several tsunamis in mid-Holocene times. To expand our knowledge about Holocene tsunami events in West Australia, the authors extended the previously studied spatial scale to include the central- and south-western coastlines. Several of the discovered events were mid- and young Holocene (? 1000 yr BP) tsunami impacts on the outer coast of the Cape Range Peninsula. Five hundred kilometres to the south between Cape Cuvier and Point Quobba, additional tsunami evidence exists on top of steep cliffs over a coastal stretch of 30 km. The sedimentary signature of two tsunamis is documented in this area by wide ridges comprised of sand, shell, and clasts (including coral fragments) at heights of 12-30 m asl and 300-500 m inland. Enigmatic boulders (20-100 tons) appear as cliff-top megaclasts up to 100 m inland. Here, radiocarbon dating revealed a minimum of two tsunami events: at 5700 yr BP with waves depositing sandy ridges far inland and at approximately 1000 yr BP with waves depositing boulders originating from the marine environment. As the first dates are congruent with previously published results for the Learmonth region 500 km to the north, we assume that the same mid-Holocene tsunami hits this long coastal section as well. The southwestern coast of West Australia from Cape Naturaliste to Albany also shows signs of impacts by extreme waves. Here, huge granite boulders (80-400 tons) were dislocated and transported to heights up to 10 m above sea level. The most prominent dislocated boulders were positioned at Merchant Rock (Cape Naturaliste National Park), at Islet near Nanarup, and in Cave Bay close to Albany.

Scheffers, S. R.; Scheffers, A.; Kelletat, D.; Bryant, E. A.

2008-06-01

107

Recent Tsunami Highlights Need for Awareness of Tsunami Duration  

Science.gov (United States)

On Wednesday, 15 November 2006, Crescent City Harbor, in Del Norte County, Calif., was hit by surges resulting from the tsunami generated by the Mw=8.3 Kuril Islands earthquake. The strong currents caused an estimated US $700,000 to $1 million in losses to the small boat basin at Citizen's Dock, destroying or damaging three floating docks and causing minor damage to several boats (Figure 1). The event highlighted a persistent problem for tsunami hazard mitigation: Most people are still unaware that the first tsunami waves rarely are the largest and that the potential for damaging waves may last for many hours.

Kelly, Annabel; Dengler, Lori A.; Uslu, Burak; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Yim, Solomon C.; Bergen, Kristian J.

2006-12-01

108

Emergency management response to a warning-level Alaska-source tsunami impacting California: Chapter J in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter is directed towards two audiences: Firstly, it targets nonemergency management readers, providing them with insight on the process and challenges facing emergency managers in responding to tsunami Warning, particularly given this “short fuse” scenario. It is called “short fuse” because there is only a 5.5-hour window following the earthquake before arrival of the tsunami within which to evaluate the threat, disseminate alert and warning messages, and respond. This action initiates a period when crisis communication is of paramount importance. An additional dynamic that is important to note is that within 15 minutes of the earthquake, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Weather Service (NWS) will issue alert bulletins for the entire Pacific Coast. This is one-half the time actually presented by recent tsunamis from Japan, Chile, and Samoa. Second, the chapter provides emergency managers at all levels with insights into key considerations they may need to address in order to augment their existing plans and effectively respond to tsunami events. We look at emergency management response to the tsunami threat from three perspectives:“Top Down” (Threat analysis and Alert/Warning information from the Federal agency charged with Alert and Warning) “Bottom Up” (Emergency management’s Incident Command approach to responding to emergencies and disasters based on the needs of impacted local jurisdictions) “Across Time” (From the initiating earthquake event through emergency response) We focus on these questions: What are the government roles, relationships, and products that support Tsunami Alert and Warning dissemination? (Emergency Planning and Preparedness.) What roles, relationships, and products support emergency management response to Tsunami Warning and impact? (Engendering prudent public safety response.) What are the key emergency management activities, considerations, and challenges brought out by the SAFRR tsunami scenario? (Real emergencies) How do these activities, considerations, and challenges play out as the tsunami event unfolds across the “life” of the event? (Lessons)

Miller, Kevin M.; Long, Kate

2013-01-01

109

National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: qualitative and quantitative carcinogenic risk assessment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the basic principles and assumptions associated with a qualitative and quantitative carcinogenic risk assessment and illustrates these features using several examples of quantitative risk assessment done by State and local agencies. The report is intended to help readers better understand and interpret a risk assessment rather than to provide instructions that would enable them to conduct a risk assessment. The report is aimed at managers and staff members in State and local agencies who are concerned with the use of qualitative and quantitative carcinogenic risk assessment for evaluating emissions of toxic air pollutants. The report discusses the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization, focusing primarily on the dose-response assessment.

Cote, I.; Bayard, S.

1987-06-01

110

On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation  

CERN Document Server

While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the kinematics of the rupturing process. We also consider an unusual source for tsunami generation: the sinking of a cruise ship. Then we review some aspects of tsunami run-up. In particular, we explain why the first wave of a tsunami is sometimes less devastating than the subsequent waves. A resonance effect can boost the waves that come later. We also look at a particular feature of the 11 March 2011 tsunami in Japan - the formation of macro-scale vortices - and show that these macr...

Dias, Frédéric; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

2012-01-01

111

TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000) of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps) based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

B. Theilen-Willige

2006-01-01

112

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES PART 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami Information Sources (Robert L. Wiegel, University of California, Berkeley, CA, UCB/HEL 2005-1, 14 December 2005, 115 pages), is available in printed format, and on a diskette. It is also available in electronic format at the Water Resources Center Archives, University of California, Berkeley, CA http:www.lib.berkeley.edu/WRCA/tsunamis.htmland in the International Journal of The Tsunami Society, Science of Tsunami Hazards (Vol. 24, No. 2, 2006, pp 58-171) at http://www.sthjournal.org/sth6.htm.This is Part 2 of the report. It has two components. They are: 1.(Sections A and B). Sources added since the first report, and corrections to a few listed in the first report. 2.(Sections C and D). References from both the first report and this report, listed in two categories:Section C. Planning and engineering design for tsunami mitigation/protection; adjustments to the hazard; damage to structures and infrastructureSection D. Tsunami propagation nearshore; induced oscillations; runup/inundation (flooding) and drawdown.

Robert L. Wiegel

2006-01-01

113

Tsunami risk mapping simulation for Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The 26 December 2004 Andaman mega tsunami killed about a quarter of a million people worldwide. Since then several significant tsunamis have recurred in this region, including the most recent 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami. These tsunamis grimly remind us of the devastating destruction that a tsunami might inflict on the affected coastal communities. There is evidence that tsunamis of similar or higher magnitudes might occur again in the near future in this region. Of particular concern to Malaysia are tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring along the northern part of the Sunda Trench. Further, the Manila Trench in the South China Sea has been identified as another source of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes that might trigger large tsunamis. To protect coastal communities that might be affected by future tsunamis, an effective early warning system must be properly installed and maintained to provide adequate time for residents to be evacuated from risk zones. Affected communities must be prepared and educated in advance regarding tsunami risk zones, evacuation routes as well as an effective evacuation procedure that must be taken during a tsunami occurrence. For these purposes, tsunami risk zones must be identified and classified according to the levels of risk simulated. This paper presents an analysis of tsunami simulations for the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea for the purpose of developing a tsunami risk zone classification map for Malaysia based upon simulated maximum wave heights. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

Teh, S. Y.; Koh, H. L.; Moh, Y. T.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

2011-01-01

114

Disseminated aspergillosis associated with tsunami lung.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many survivors of the tsunami that occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, contracted a systemic disorder called "tsunami lung," a series of severe systemic infections following aspiration pneumonia caused by near drowning in the tsunami. Generally, the cause of aspiration pneumonia is polymicrobial, including fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, but Aspergillus infection is rarely reported. Here we report a case of tsunami lung complicated by disseminated aspergillosis, as diagnosed during autopsy.

Kawakami Y; Tagami T; Kusakabe T; Kido N; Kawaguchi T; Omura M; Tosa R

2012-10-01

115

Tsunami and Earthquake Research at the USGS  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal provides access to information on United States Geological Survey (USGS) research and resources on tsunamis and earthquakes. Materials include news and events in USGS tsunami research, an overview of the program, and basic information on the life of a tsunami. There are also links to individual research projects. The site also features an extensive set of tsunami animations of real and hypothetical events, and links to VRML models of real and hypothetical events.

2011-07-20

116

Study of Tsunamis by Dimensional Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunamis are among the most terrifying natural hazards known to man and have been responsible for tre-mendous loss of life and property throughout history. In this paper by means of dimensional analysis, important non-dimensional groups in Tsunamis was studied and an equation to calculate the power of tsunamis was obtained. Also by this method and using tsunami basic physics, the height of waves near the coastline was estimated and results were compared by reported values.

S. Ghasemi

2011-01-01

117

Population vulnerability and evacuation challenges in California for the SAFRR tsunami scenario: Chapter I in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

The SAFRR tsunami scenario models the impacts of a hypothetical yet plausible tsunami associated with a magnitude 9.1 megathrust earthquake east of the Alaska Peninsula. This report summarizes community variations in population vulnerability and potential evacuation challenges to the tsunami. The most significant public-health concern for California coastal communities during a distant-source tsunami is the ability to evacuate people out of potential inundation zones. Fatalities from the SAFRR tsunami scenario could be low if emergency managers can implement an effective evacuation in the time between tsunami generation and arrival, as well as keep people from entering tsunami-prone areas until all-clear messages can be delivered. This will be challenging given the estimated 91,956 residents, 81,277 employees, as well as numerous public venues, dependent-population facilities, community-support businesses, and high-volume beaches that are in the 79 incorporated communities and 17 counties that have land in the scenario tsunami-inundation zone. Although all coastal communities face some level of threat from this scenario, the highest concentrations of people in the scenario tsunami-inundation zone are in Long Beach, San Diego, Newport Beach, Huntington Beach, and San Francisco. Communities also vary in the prevalent categories of populations that are in scenario tsunami-inundation zones, such as residents in Long Beach, employees in San Francisco, tourists at public venues in Santa Cruz, and beach or park visitors in unincorporated Los Angeles County. Certain communities have higher percentages of groups that may need targeted outreach and preparedness training, such as renters, the very young and very old, and individuals with limited English-language skills or no English-language skills at all. Sustained education and targeted evacuation messaging is also important at several high-occupancy public venues in the scenario tsunami-inundation zone (for example, city and county beaches, State or national parks, and amusement parks). Evacuations will be challenging, particularly for certain dependent-care populations, such as patients at hospitals and children at schools and daycare centers. We estimate that approximately 8,678 of the 91,956 residents in the scenario inundation zone are likely to need publicly provided shelters in the short term. Information presented in this report could be used to support emergency managers in their efforts to identify where additional preparedness and outreach activities may be needed to manage risks associated with California tsunamis.

Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff; Shoaf, Kimberley

2013-01-01

118

Synthetic tsunamis along the Israeli coast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new mathematical model for tsunami evolution by Tobias & Stiassnie (Tobias & Stiassnie 2011 J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116, C06026) is used to derive a synthetic tsunami database for the southern part of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Information about coastal tsunami amplitudes, half-periods, currents and inundation levels is presented.

Tobias J; Stiassnie M

2012-04-01

119

Synthetic tsunamis along the Israeli coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new mathematical model for tsunami evolution by Tobias & Stiassnie (Tobias & Stiassnie 2011 J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116, C06026) is used to derive a synthetic tsunami database for the southern part of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Information about coastal tsunami amplitudes, half-periods, currents and inundation levels is presented. PMID:22393116

Tobias, Joshua; Stiassnie, Michael

2012-04-13

120

TSUNAMI MITIGATION IN HAWAI`I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hawai`i has a long, though sporadic history of deadly tsunami attacks.Since the 1946 tsunami disaster the State of Hawaii has developed increasingly sophisticated and effective mitigation strategies. The evolution and operation of these strategies is described in this paper. Tsunamis will no longer be Hawai`i’s deadliest natural hazard.

George D. Curtis

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic: CENALT  

Science.gov (United States)

The CENALT (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Centre). Its objective is to transmit a message in less than fifteen minutes for any earthquake that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North-East Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions from five European countries are processed with software that permit to make an early location of the seismic events and to measure the expected sea level effect on the shore. The on-duty analysts interactively revise all the information produced and use references based on historical tsunami and earthquake databases as well as computed tsunami scenario to be able to send the more comprehensive message possible. Communication tests are performed monthly to test and validate the different transmission mode latencies (Global telecommunication system, email and fax). In November 2012, CENALT have participated to the international NEAMWave12 tsunami exercise organized by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (Unesco/IOC). A scenario of a magnitude 7.5 earthquake located on the north Algerian margin was modeled , and messages were disseminated to the tsunami warning focal points of the Member states of the Mediterranean region.

Roudil, Pascal; Schindele, Francois; Duperray, Pierre; Gailler, Audrey; Hebert, Helene; Loevenbruck, Anne; Gutierrez, Emmanuel; Damicis, Adeline

2013-04-01

122

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr events could benefit the NTHMP. The joint NFIP/NTHMP pilot study at Seaside, Oregon is organized into three closely related components: Probabilistic, Modeling, and Impact studies. Probabilistic studies (Geist, et al., this session) are led by the USGS and include the specification of near- and far-field seismic tsunami sources and their associated probabilities. Modeling studies (Titov, et al., this session) are led by NOAA and include the development and testing of a Seaside tsunami inundation model and an associated database of computed wave height and flow velocity fields. Impact studies (Synolakis, et al., this session) are led by USC and include the computation and analyses of indices for the categorization of hazard zones. The results of each component study will be integrated to produce a Seaside tsunami hazard map. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the project and an update on progress, while the above-referenced companion presentations will provide details on the methods used and the preliminary results obtained by each project component.

Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

2004-12-01

123

Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). TRIDEC focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application: The technical development is based on mature system architecture models and industry standards. The use of standards already applies to the operation of individual TRIDEC reference installations and their interlinking into an integrated service infrastructure for supranational warning services. This is a first step towards best practices and service lifecycles for Early Warning Centre IT service management, including Service Level Agreements (SLA) and Service Certification. While on a global scale the integration of TEWS progresses towards Systems of Systems (SoS), there is still an absence of accredited and reliable certifications for national TEWS or regional Tsunami Early Warning Systems of Systems (TEWSoS). Concepts for TEWS operations have already been published under the guidance of the IOC, and can now be complemented by the recent research advances concerning SoS architecture. Combined with feedback from the real world, such as the NEAMwave 2012 Tsunami exercise in the Mediterranean, this can serve as a starting point to formulate initial requirements for TEWS and TEWSoS certification: Certification activities will cover the establishment of new TEWS and TEWSoS, and also both maintenance and enhancement of existing TEWS/TEWSoS. While the IOC is expected to take a central role in the development of the certification strategy, it remains to be defined which bodies will actually conduct the certification process. Certification requirements and results are likely to become a valuable information source for various target groups, ranging from national policy decision makers, government agency planners, national and local government preparedness officials, TWC staff members, Disaster Responders, the media and the insurance industry.

Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

2013-04-01

124

Uncertainty Quantification Techniques of SCALE/TSUNAMI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI). The TSUNAMI code suite can quantify the predicted change in system responses, such as keff, reactivity differences, or ratios of fluxes or reaction rates, due to changes in the energy-dependent, nuclide-reaction-specific cross-section data. Where uncertainties in the neutron cross-section data are available, the sensitivity of the system to the cross-section data can be applied to propagate the uncertainties in the cross-section data to an uncertainty in the system response. Uncertainty quantification is useful for identifying potential sources of computational biases and highlighting parameters important to code validation. Traditional validation techniques often examine one or more average physical parameters to characterize a system and identify applicable benchmark experiments. However, with TSUNAMI correlation coefficients are developed by propagating the uncertainties in neutron cross-section data to uncertainties in the computed responses for experiments and safety applications through sensitivity coefficients. The bias in the experiments, as a function of their correlation coefficient with the intended application, is extrapolated to predict the bias and bias uncertainty in the application through trending analysis or generalized linear least squares techniques, often referred to as 'data adjustment.' Even with advanced tools to identify benchmark experiments, analysts occasionally find that the application models include some feature or material for which adequately similar benchmark experiments do not exist to support validation. For example, a criticality safety analyst may want to take credit for the presence of fission products in spent nuclear fuel. In such cases, analysts sometimes rely on 'expert judgment' to select an additional administrative margin to account for gap in the validation data or to conclude that the impact on the calculated bias and bias uncertainty is negligible. As a result of advances in computer programs and the evolution of cross-section covariance data, analysts can use the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools in the TSUNAMI codes to estimate the potential impact on the application-specific bias and bias uncertainty resulting from nuclides not represented in available benchmark experiments. This paper presents the application of methods described in a companion paper.

2011-01-01

125

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

T. Steinmetz; U. Raape; S. Teßmann; C. Strobl; M. Friedemann; T. Kukofka; T. Riedlinger; E. Mikusch; S. Dech

2010-01-01

126

Introduction to "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World: Volume I. The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami"  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one papers on the 2011 Tohoku, Japan tsunami are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World." Two papers discuss seismological aspects of the event with an emphasis on tsunami generation and warning. Five papers report the impacts and effects in Japan through field surveys of tsunami heights, building damage, and tsunami deposits or analysis of satellite data. Eight papers report the tsunami effects on other Pacific coasts, including the Kuril Islands, the USA, French Polynesia, the Galapagos Islands, Australia, and New Zealand. Three papers report on analyses of the instrumental records of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, and two more papers report their modelling efforts of the tsunami. Several of the above papers also compare the 2011 Tohoku and 2010 Chile tsunamis.

Satake, Kenji; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Borrero, José C.

2013-06-01

127

Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

Renteria, W.

2012-04-01

128

ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE/ DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami como una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia ? ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y ocean (more) ográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú. Abstract in english The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands ? which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warning system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI) and hydrographic a (more) nd oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA). This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

Alvarez, Gabriel; Ramirez, Jorge; Paredes, Lorena; Canales, Miguel

2010-12-01

129

Recent Tsunamis That Affected the Japanese Coasts and Evaluation of JMA's Tsunami Warnings  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last two years (Sep 2006 to Aug 2008), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued tsunami advisories or warnings for eight events. Tsunami estimations in the advisories or warnings are considered appropriate for six cases. No tsunami was confirmed for the other two cases, one of which was thought to be a quite peculiar case. The November 2006 and January 2007 Kuril earthquakes, for which tsunami warnings were issued on the Hokkaido coasts, impelled JMA to improve its methods in estimating tsunamis. The JMA magnitude (M) was larger for the 2007 earthquake than the 2006 event, but other magnitude scales as well as the observed tsunamis were smaller (Fujii and Satake, 2008, BSSA). The long duration of these Kuril tsunamis were due to reflected wave at Emperor seamount chain (Koshimura et al., 2007, GRL). These features have become to be considered in the current JMA's system. The Noto-hanto earthquake (M 6.9) on March 25 in 2007 generated a small (Rumoi does not match with the numerical simulation, hence considered as meteorological origin. On August 16, for the great earthquake (Mw 8.0) off Peru coast, JMA issued tsunami advisory, based on the tsunami numerical simulation and actual tsunami data in Hawaii. The tsunami heights recorded on tide gauges were 0.2 m or less in Japan. On May 8, 2008, an earthquake off Ibaraki (M 7.0) occurred and JMA did not issue tsunami advisory. Instead, JMA issued a tsunami forecast, which informed that the maximum tsunami height would be below 0.2m and that such tsunami would not cause damage. Some tide stations recorded very weak tsunami, around 0.1m. On July 19, an earthquake (M 6.6) off Fukushima prefecture caused tsunami up to 0.2 m. JMA issued tsunami advisory for this event.

Satake, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Nishimae, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

2008-12-01

130

Capacity Building for Caribbean Tsunami Warnings: A Regional Training Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Between June 25 and June 30 the Seismic Research Unit (SRU) of the University of the West Indies (UWI) hosted a Caribbean regional training program in Seismology and Tsunami Warnings. A total of 43 participants from 21 countries and territories, representing meteorological, emergency management, and seismological institutions in the region, attended this training aimed at developing their understanding of the science of tsunamis, hazard and risk assessment, preparedness, education, and outreach, and operational best practices. As an outcome of the course the participants drafted six recommendations (outlined on the poster) that they felt were priority action items for expeditious realization of a Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System. The program was conducted under the UNESCO IOC banner in response to a call for such a training program at the Second Session of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS II), held in Cumanã, Venezuela, March 12-14, 2007. The majority of funding for the course was provided by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (ODFA) of the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Disaster Reduction Center of the UWI, and the US Geological Survey (USGS).

Kelly, A.; Robertson, R.; Kong, L.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; McCreery, C.; Yamamoto, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Lynch, L.

2007-12-01

131

Scale/TSUNAMI Sensitivity Data for ICSBEP Evaluations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI) software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Scale code system provide unique methods for code validation, gap analysis, and experiment design. For TSUNAMI analysis, sensitivity data are generated for each application and each existing or proposed experiment used in the assessment. The validation of diverse sets of applications requires potentially thousands of data files to be maintained and organized by the user, and a growing number of these files are available through the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE) distributed through the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program (ICSBEP). To facilitate the use of the IHECSBE benchmarks in rigorous TSUNAMI validation and gap analysis techniques, ORNL generated SCALE/TSUNAMI sensitivity data files (SDFs) for several hundred benchmarks for distribution with the IHECSBE. For the 2010 edition of IHECSBE, the sensitivity data were generated using 238-group cross-section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for 494 benchmark experiments. Additionally, ORNL has developed a quality assurance procedure to guide the generation of Scale inputs and sensitivity data, as well as a graphical user interface to facilitate the use of sensitivity data in identifying experiments and applying them in validation studies.

Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Reed, Davis Allan [ORNL; Lefebvre, Robert A [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL

2011-01-01

132

SATELLITE TRANSMITTED FLOOD ALERTS TO REDUCE FATALITIES AND INJURIES ON THE ISLAND OF HAWAII ASSOCIATED WITH LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami detection instruments were installed along remote shoreline campgrounds of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in August of 2009. Components include water sensing devices at elevations of about 10 feet above sea level located at distances of about 200 feet from the shoreline and satellite communicators located further inland at higher elevations that will send daily status reports and flood alerts from the water sensors as they occur to the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Honolulu. Such instruments will provide for earlier warnings of significant locally generated tsunamis than previously possible. These instruments will also provide a basis for early warnings of locally generated tsunamis to those campgrounds using siren systems to be designed specifically for those remote environments. Suggestions of additional actions that could also reduce future fatalities and injuries at those campgrounds as a result of locally generated tsunamis are also provided in this report.

Daniel A. Walker

2010-01-01

133

Short note: The earthquake of 16 November, 1925 (Ms=7.0) and the reported tsunami in Zihuatanejo, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A feasibility study to develop a tsunami alert system for Mexican earthquakes, using broadband seismograms from the Na-tional Seismological Service, is currently under way. A first step in this direction is a revision of the Mexican tsunami catalogs. In these catalogs, one of the largest tsunamis of this century is reported in the Port of Zihuatanejo and has been related to an earthquake which occurred on November 16, 1925. This earthquake was located at a distance of about 600 km from Zihuatanejo and had a surface-wave magnitude, Ms, of 7.0. In developing a tsunami alert system, it is important to know if the tsunami was indeed related to the earthquake of 1925. In this note we examine available evidence and find that the tsunami was not related to the earthquake. There is no evidence of a local earthquake near Zihuatanejo which may have resulted in the tsunami. We con-clude that the tsunami was either caused by slumping of the sea floor near Zihuatanejo or by a meteorological phenomenon in the region.

S.K. Singh; J. F. Pacheco; N. Shapiro

1998-01-01

134

How volcanic eruptions cause tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effect of pyroclastic flows on tsunami generation. The authors analyzed several possible mechanisms that occur when the particle rich flows encounter water and conclude that the volume and density of the basal flow has a close correlation with the wave's amplitude and wavelength, which can be used to model the water movement in lakes, bays and oceans.

Watts, Phil; Waythomas, C. F.; Agu

135

Dispersive mudslide-induced tsunamis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nonlinear nested model for mudslide-induced tsunamis is proposed in which three phases of the life of the wave, i.e. the generation, far-field propagation and costal run-up are described by means of different mathematical models, that are coupled through appropriate matching procedures. The generation and run-up dynamics are simulated through a nonlinear shallow-water model with movable lateral boundaries: in the generation region two active layers are present, the lower one describing the slide descending on a sloping topography. For the intermediate phase, representing wave propagation far from the generation region, the hydrostatic assumption is not assumed as appropriate in general and, therefore, a nonlinear model allowing for weak phase dispersion, namely a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, is used. This choice is made in order to assess the relevance of dispersive features such as solitary waves and dispersive tails. It is shown that in some realistic circumstances dispersive mudslide-induced tsunami waves can be produced over relatively short, distances. In such cases the use of a hydrostatic model throughout the whole tsunami history turns out to give erroneous results. In particular, when solitary waves are generated during the tsunami propagation in the open sea, the resulting run-up process yields peculiar wave forms leading to amplified coastal inundations with respect to a mere hydrostatic context.

A. Rubino; S. Pierini; J. O. Backhaus

1998-01-01

136

Mantle Decompression Thermal-Tsunami  

CERN Multimedia

Previously in geophysics, only three heat transport processes have been considered: conduction, radiation, and convection or, more generally, bouyancy-driven mass transport. As a consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics, I add a fourth, called mantle decompression thermal-tsunami, which may emplace heat at the base of the crust from a heretofore unanticipated source.

Herndon, J M

2006-01-01

137

Development of Tsunami PSA method for Korean NPP site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. The application of this method was applied to a nuclear power plant, Ulchin 56 NPP, which is located in the east coast of Korean peninsula. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real nuclear power plant in Korea

2010-01-01

138

Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997) estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not ...

Tanioka, Y.; Seno, T.

139

Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully nonlinear tsunami generation model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Case studies of landslide tsunamis require integration of marine geology data and interpretations into numerical simulations of tsunami attack. Many landslide tsunami generation and propagation models have been proposed in recent time, further motivated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, f...

Watts, P.; Grilli, S. T.; Kirby, J. T.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.

140

A Qualitative Study of Lung Cancer Risk Perceptions and Smoking Beliefs Among National Lung Screening Trial Participants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Cancer Society recently released lung screening guidelines that include smoking cessation counseling for smokers undergoing screening. Previous work indicates that smoking behaviors and risk perceptions of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants were relatively unchanged. We explored American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)/NLST former and current smokers' risk perceptions specifically to (a) determine whether lung screening is a cue for behavior change, (b) elucidate risk perceptions for lung cancer and smoking-related diseases, and (c) explore postscreening behavioral intentions and changes. METHODS: A random sample of 35 participants from 4 ACRIN sites were qualitatively interviewed 1-2 years postscreen. We used a structured interview guide based on Health Belief Model and Self-Regulation Model constructs. Content analyses were conducted with NVivo 8. RESULTS: Most participants endorsed high-risk perceptions for lung cancer and smoking-related diseases, but heightened concern about these risks did not appear to motivate participants to seek screening. Risk perceptions were mostly attributed to participants' heavy smoking histories; former smokers expressed greatly reduced risk. Lung cancer and smoking-related diseases were perceived as very severe although participants endorsed low worry. Current smokers had low confidence in their ability to quit, and none reported quitting following their initial screen. CONCLUSIONS: Lung screening did not appear to be a behavior change cue to action, and high-risk perceptions did not translate into quitting behaviors. Cognitive and emotional dissonance and avoidance strategies may deter engagement in smoking behavior change. Smoking cessation and prevention interventions during lung screening should explore risk perceptions, emotions, and quit confidence.

Park ER; Streck JM; Gareen IF; Ostroff JS; Hyland KA; Rigotti NA; Pajolek H; Nichter M

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Modeling for the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario-generation, propagation, inundation, and currents in ports and harbors: Chapter D in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File report presents a compilation of tsunami modeling studies for the Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario. These modeling studies are based on an earthquake source specified by the SAFRR tsunami source working group (Kirby and others, 2013). The modeling studies in this report are organized into three groups. The first group relates to tsunami generation. The effects that source discretization and horizontal displacement have on tsunami initial conditions are examined in section 1 (Whitmore and others). In section 2 (Ryan and others), dynamic earthquake rupture models are explored in modeling tsunami generation. These models calculate slip distribution and vertical displacement of the seafloor as a result of realistic fault friction, physical properties of rocks surrounding the fault, and dynamic stresses resolved on the fault. The second group of papers relates to tsunami propagation and inundation modeling. Section 3 (Thio) presents a modeling study for the entire California coast that includes runup and inundation modeling where there is significant exposure and estimates of maximum velocity and momentum flux at the shoreline. In section 4 (Borrero and others), modeling of tsunami propagation and high-resolution inundation of critical locations in southern California is performed using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model and NOAA’s Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) modeling tool. Adjustments to the inundation line owing to fine-scale structures such as levees are described in section 5 (Wilson). The third group of papers relates to modeling of hydrodynamics in ports and harbors. Section 6 (Nicolsky and Suleimani) presents results of the model used at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center for the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, as well as synthetic time series of the modeled tsunami for other selected locales in southern California. Importantly, section 6 provides a comparison of the effect of including horizontal displacements at the source described in section 1 and differences in bottom friction on wave heights and inundation in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Modeling described in section 7 (Lynett and Son) uses a higher order physical model to determine variations of currents during the tsunami and complex flow structures such as jets and eddies. Section 7 also uses sediment transport models to estimate scour and deposition of sediment in ports and harbors—a significant effect that was observed in southern California following the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Together, all of the sections in this report form the basis for damage, impact, and emergency preparedness aspects of the SAFRR tsunami scenario. Three sections of this report independently calculate wave height and inundation results using the source specified by Kirby and others (2013). Refer to figure 29 in section 3, figure 52 in section 4, and figure 62 in section 6. All of these results are relative to a mean high water (MHW) vertical datum. Slight differences in the results are observed in East Basin of the Port of Los Angeles, Alamitos Bay, and the Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. However, given that these three modeling efforts involved different implementations of the source, different numerical wave propagation and runup models, and slight differences in the digital elevation models (DEMs), the similarity among the results is remarkable.

SAFRR Tsunami Modeling Working Group

2013-01-01

142

Tsunami watch and warning in Fiji  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami warning system needs further development in Fiji. The MRD earthquake and tsunami plan of action needs to be tested and appropriate authorities drilled in putting this plan into practice. It also needs to be supplemented with an alarm system such that people near the coasts, especially in built-up areas such as Suva can be made aware of impending tsunami danger. The plan of action becomes virtually ineffective when dealing with locally generated tsunamis and for this we have to rely on public education as it is not yet possible or practical to devise a warning system which can be activated within adequate time. 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

1989-01-01

143

Cascadia Great Earthquake and Tsunami Suite  

Science.gov (United States)

Michael Mayhew and Michelle Hall, Science Education Solutions Summary The Cascadia Earthquakes and Tsunami Suite contains five case studies organized around understanding the potential for large earthquakes and ...

Mayhew, Michael

144

SOME OPPORTUNITITES OF THE LANDSLIDE TSUNAMI HYPOTHESIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami sources are intimately linked to geological events. Earthquakes and landslides are shown to be part of a continuum of complicated geological phenomena. Advances in landslide tsunami research will remain coupled with marine geology research. The landslide tsunami hypothesis is shown to have originated in the scientific literature in the early 1900s. Tsunami science has been slow to embrace the hypothesis in part because of the tremendous uncertainity that it introduces into tsunami gneration. The 1998 Papua New Guyinea event sparked much controbersy regarding the landslide tsunami hypothesis despite a preponderance of the evidence in favor of one simple and consistent explanation of the tsunami source. Part of the difficulty was the unanticipated distinction between slide and slump tsunami sources. Significant controversies still exist over other aspects of the Papua New Guinea event. The landslide hypothesis will become widely acceepted once direct measurements of underwater landslide events are made. These measurements will likely be integrated into a local tsunami warning system.

Phillip Watts

2001-01-01

145

Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami: Performance of Tsunami Countermeasures, Coastal Buildings, and Tsunami Evacuation in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011, Japan was hit by a tsunami that was generated by the greatest earthquake in its history. The first tsunami warning was announced 3 min after the earthquake, as is normal, but failed to estimate the actual tsunami height. Most of the structural countermeasures were not designed for the huge tsunami that was generated by the magnitude M = 9.0 earthquake; as a result, many were destroyed and did not stop the tsunami. These structures included breakwaters, seawalls, water gates, and control forests. In this paper we discuss the performance of these countermeasures, and the mechanisms by which they were damaged; we also discuss damage to residential houses, commercial and public buildings, and evacuation buildings. Some topics regarding tsunami awareness and mitigation are discussed. The failures of structural defenses are a reminder that structural (hard) measures alone were not sufficient to protect people and buildings from a major disaster such as this. These defenses might be able to reduce the impact but should be designed so that they can survive even if the tsunami flows over them. Coastal residents should also understand the function and limit of the hard measures. For this purpose, non-structural (soft) measures, for example experience and awareness, are very important for promoting rapid evacuation in the event of a tsunami. An adequate communication system for tsunami warning messages and more evacuation shelters with evacuation routes in good condition might support a safe evacuation process. The combination of both hard and soft measures is very important for reducing the loss caused by a major tsunami. This tsunami has taught us that natural disasters can occur repeatedly and that their scale is sometimes larger than expected.

Suppasri, Anawat; Shuto, Nobuo; Imamura, Fumihiko; Koshimura, Shunichi; Mas, Erick; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet

2013-06-01

146

The Seismicity and Tsunamis of Canada: 1663-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluations of seismic risk on national and regional scales are an important factor in preventing and mitigating natural disasters caused by earthquakes. We review the history of earthquakes and tsunamis in Canada and summarize the current knowledge of seismogenic zones, the frequency of large events and the risk of tsunamis. We also describe the response of the Canadian government, universities and industry to better understand the seismic risk in the country. This includes the current Canadian monitoring and research activities using the National Canadian Seismograph Networks as well as the more specialized Southern Ontario Seismic and POLARIS (portable) networks. In addition to the research carried out to improve our understanding of seismicity, we discuss briefly the work done in the past twenty years by the LITHOPROBE (deep crustal exploration) project which was designed to help clarify the tectonic history of the country. The paper concludes with a description of the current and planned applications of advanced technology to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards in Canada.

Mereu, R.; Mooney, W.

2005-12-01

147

Salinity in Soils and Tsunami Deposits in Areas Affected by the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

The accumulation of data sets of past tsunamis is the most basic but reliable way to prepare for future tsunamis because the frequency of tsunami occurrence and their magnitude can be estimated by historical records of tsunamis. Investigation of tsunami deposits preserved in geological layers is an effective measure to understand ancient tsunamis that occurred before historical records began. However, the areas containing tsunami deposits can be narrower than the area of tsunami inundation, thus resulting in underestimation of the magnitude of past tsunamis. A field survey was conducted after the 2010 Chile tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami to investigate the chemical properties of the tsunami-inundated soil to examine the applicability of tsunami inundation surveys considering water-soluble salts in soil. The soil and tsunami deposits collected in the tsunami-inundated areas are rich in water-soluble ions (Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, Br- and SO{4/2-}) compared with the samples collected in the non-inundated areas. The analytical result that the ratios of Na+, Mg2+, Br- and SO{4/2-} to Cl- are nearly the same in the tsunami deposits and in the tsunami-inundated soil suggests that the deposition of these ions resulting from the tsunami inundation does not depend on whether or not tsunami deposits exist. Discriminant analysis of the tsunami-inundated areas using the ion contents shows the high applicability of these ions to the detection of tsunami inundation during periods when the amount of rainfall is limited. To examine the applicability of this method to palaeotsunamis, the continuous monitoring of water-soluble ions in tsunami-inundated soil is needed as a future study.

Yoshii, Takumi; Imamura, Masahiro; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Koshimura, Syunichi; Matsuoka, Masashi; Mas, Erick; Jimenez, Cesar

2013-06-01

148

Tsunami Source of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia Earthquake Inferred from Tsunami Field Survey and Waveform Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2010 Mentawai earthquake (magnitude 7.7) generated a destructive tsunami that caused more than 500 casualties in the Mentawai Islands, west of Sumatra, Indonesia. Seismological analyses indicate that this earthquake was an unusual "tsunami earthquake," which produces much larger tsunamis than expected from the seismic magnitude. We carried out a field survey to measure tsunami heights and inundation distances, an inversion of tsunami waveforms to estimate the slip distribution on the fault, and inundation modeling to compare the measured and simulated tsunami heights. The measured tsunami heights at eight locations on the west coasts of North and South Pagai Island ranged from 2.5 to 9.3 m, but were mostly in the 4-7 m range. At three villages, the tsunami inundation extended more than 300 m. Interviews of local residents indicated that the earthquake ground shaking was less intense than during previous large earthquakes and did not cause any damage. Inversion of tsunami waveforms recorded at nine coastal tide gauges, a nearby GPS buoy, and a DART station indicated a large slip (maximum 6.1 m) on a shallower part of the fault near the trench axis, a distribution similar to other tsunami earthquakes. The total seismic moment estimated from tsunami waveform inversion was 1.0 × 1021 Nm, which corresponded to Mw 7.9. Computed coastal tsunami heights from this tsunami source model using linear equations are similar to the measured tsunami heights. The inundation heights computed by using detailed bathymetry and topography data and nonlinear equations including inundation were smaller than the measured ones. This may have been partly due to the limited resolution and accuracy of publically available bathymetry and topography data. One-dimensional run-up computations using our surveyed topography profiles showed that the computed heights were roughly similar to the measured ones.

Satake, Kenji; Nishimura, Yuichi; Putra, Purna Sulastya; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Sunendar, Haris; Fujii, Yushiro; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Latief, Hamzah; Yulianto, Eko

2013-09-01

149

Tsunami deposits as paleoseismic indicators: examples from the Spanish coast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunamis are usually associated with submarine tectonic activity. Tsunamis transform the shore owing to their erosive and sedimentary capacity. Evidence of tsunamis can be preserved in the geological record for millions of years. The tsunami sedimentary record is a useful tool for obtaining paleosei...

Luque Ripoll, Luis de; Lario Gómez, Javier; Zazo Cardeña , Caridad; Goy Goy, José Luis; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Silva Barroso, Pablo Gabriel

150

OBSERVATION OF TSUNAMI RADIATION AT TOHOKU BY REMOTE SENSING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present prima facie evidence that upon the onset of the Tohoku tsunami of Mar. 11, 2011 infrared radiation was emitted by the tsunami and was detected by the Japanese satellite MTSAT-IR1, in agreement with our earlier findings for the Great Sumatra Tsunami of 2004. Implications for a worldwide Tsunami Early Warning System are discussed.

Frank C. Lin; Weiwei Zhu; Kingkarn Sookhanaphibarn

2011-01-01

151

Solar Tsunamis - View with a Spin  

Science.gov (United States)

Push-in to a region of the Sun to witness a solar tsunami after a flare event. The tsunami moves hot gas (bright) out of the region, revealing cooler regions (darker) below. This view rotates on the push-in to keep the region of the flare event visible (to the left in the final frame).

Bridgman, Tom; Wills-Davey, Meredith; Deforest, Craig

2005-03-08

152

Catalog of Tsunamis in Hawaii - Revised 1977.  

Science.gov (United States)

This catalog is a revision of 'Catalog of Tsunamis in the Hawaiian Islands,' which was issued in 1969 by World Data Center A subcenter for tsunami data when it was a separate activity in Honolulu operated by the former U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. To t...

G. Pararas-Carayannis J. P. Calebaugh

1977-01-01

153

BASIC RELATIONSBETWEEN TSUNAMI CALCULATIONSAND THEIR PHYSICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Basic tsunami physics of propagation and run-up is discussed for the simple geometry of a channel. We will try to understand how linear and nonlinear processes occurring in a tsunami should influence approach taken to numerical computations.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2001-01-01

154

TSUNAMI LOADING ON BUILDINGS WITH OPENINGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with openings in the masonry infill panels have shown superior performance to those without openings in the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Understanding the effect of openings and the resulting tsunami force is essential for an economical and safe design of vertical evacuation shelters against tsunamis. One-to-one hundred scale building models with square shape in plan were tested in a 40 m long hydraulic flume with 1 m x 1 m cross section. A mild slope of 0.5 degree representing the beach condition at Phuket, Thailand was simulated in the hydraulic laboratory. The model dimensions were 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm. Two opening configurations of the front and back walls were investigated, viz., 25% and 50% openings. Pressure sensors were placed on the faces of the model to measure the pressure distribution. A high frequency load cell was mounted at the base of the model to record the tsunami forces. A bi-linear pressure profile is proposed for determining the maximum tsunami force acting on solid square buildings. The influence of openings on the peak pressures on the front face of the model is found to be practically insignificant. For 25% and 50% opening models, the tsunami forces reduce by about 15% and 30% from the model without openings, respectively. The reduction in the tsunami force clearly demonstrates the benefit of openings in reducing the effect of tsunami on such buildings.

P. Lukkunaprasit; A. Ruangrassamee

2009-01-01

155

UN assesses tsunami response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A report to the UN’s Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) identifies lessons learned from the humanitarian response. Recommendations stress the need for national ownership and leadership of disaster response and recovery, improved coordination, transparent use of resources, civil society engagement and greater emphasis on risk reduction.

Marion Couldrey; Tim Morris

2005-01-01

156

Tsunamis: Detecting, Simulating, and Chasing Them  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tsunamis are gravitational oscillations of the water mass of an ocean basin set up by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, or bolide impacts. They represent an exceptional hazard capable of inflicting death and destruction on a global scale. Because their waves travel at a relatively slow speed (typically 200 m/s or the speed of a jetliner), there exists an opportunity for warning, at least in the far field. We will review the basic physics of the tsunami wave, the relationship between seismic source and tsunami excitation, and the scientific bases underlying the mitigation, warning, computer simulation, and real time detection of tsunami waves. In particular, we will describe the development of robust discriminants in the near and far fields for tsunamis generated by earthquakes and landslides, and will give examples of field methods for the recovery of quantitative databases of inundation measurements.

Okal, Emile A. (Northwestern University)

2005-02-23

157

Effect of earthquake and tsunami. Ground motion and tsunami observed at nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) were struck by the earthquake off the pacific coast in the Tohoku District, which occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011. Afterwards, tsunamis struck the Tohoku District. In terms of the earthquake observed at the Fukushima NPSs, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of reactor buildings exceeded the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss for partial periodic bands at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. As for the Fukushima Daini NPS, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of the reactor buildings was below the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss. Areas inundated by Tsunami at each NPS were investigated and tsunami inversion analysis was made to build tsunami source model to reproduce tide record, tsunami height, crustal movement and inundated area, based on tsunami observation records in the wide areas from Hokkaido to Chiba prefectures. Tsunami heights of Fukushima Daiichi and Daini NPSs were recalculated as O.P. +13m and +9m respectively and tsunami peak height difference was attributed to the extent of superposition of tsunami waves of tsunami earthquake type of wave source in the area along interplane trench off the coast in the Fukushima prefecture and interplane earthquake type of wave source in rather deep interplate area off the coast in the Miyagi prefecture. (T. Tanaka)

2012-01-01

158

Hokkaido Southwestern Offshore Earthquake Tsunami and its damages and restoration; Hokkaido Nanseioki jishin tsunami to sono higai oyobi fukkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The earthquake with a magnitude of 7.8 having an epicenter in the Japan Sea offland of the southwestern part of Hokkaido occurred at 22 o`clock 17 minute on 12th of July in 1993, has brought the large tsunami to the Japan Sea coast including the Hokkaido. Because there were many cape topography brought upon the wave convergence especially in the Okujiri Island, it was attacked by unprecedential large tsunami with a maximum surging wave height of 31.7 m. On top of it, it was the ultimately neighboring tsunami, the 1st wave attacked within several minutes after the earthquake occurred, as well as, it was the night. Being piled up these bad conditions, many deads and missings were lost 230 persons in total. The disaster countermeasure of this kind, which will occur in the future as well somewhere in Japan, does not stay only on an improvement of nature and quantity of the facilities, but it is necessary also that the city environment making filled up the software, such as the information transmission, disaster prevention training, mutual aid community and so forth is approached to be developed. In this panel discussion, in addition to the coastal engineering investigators, the national and the Hokkaido administration organs taking part in the disaster restoration, the engineers of the construction industry also participated, and therefore many opinions based on the practical work experience have been presented.

Kondo, H. [Muroran Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Saeki, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1995-01-15

159

Second international tsunami workshop on the technical aspects of tsunami warning systems, tsunami analysis, preparedness, observation and instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Second Workshop on the Technical Aspects of Tsunami Warning Systems, Tsunami Analysis, Preparedness, Observation, and Instrumentation, sponsored and convened by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was held on 1-2 August 1989, in the modern and attractive research town of Academgorodok, which is located 20 km south from downtown Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia, USSR. The Program was arranged in eight major areas of interest covering the following: Opening and Introduction; Survey of Existing Tsunami Warning Centers - present status, results of work, plans for future development; Survey of some existing seismic data processing systems and future projects; Methods for fast evaluation of Tsunami potential and perspectives of their implementation; Tsunami data bases; Tsunami instrumentation and observations; Tsunami preparedness; and finally, a general discussion and adoption of recommendations. The Workshop presentations not only addressed the conceptual improvements that have been made, but focused on the inner workings of the Tsunami Warning System, as well, including computer applications, on-line processing and numerical modelling. Furthermore, presentations reported on progress has been made in the last few years on data telemetry, instrumentation and communications. Emphasis was placed on new concepts and their application into operational techniques that can result in improvements in data collection, rapid processing of the data, in analysis and prediction. A Summary Report on the Second International Tsunami Workshop, containing abstracted and annotated proceedings has been published as a separate report. The present Report is a Supplement to the Summary Report and contains the full text of the papers presented at this Workshop. Refs, figs and tabs.

1989-01-01

160

Tsunamis and Tsunami Prone Mechanisms in Eastern Mediterranean  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous earthquakes and tsunamis that occurred in eastern Mediterranean and are documented in historical records. The fault zones around eastern Mediterranean basin are Hellenic Arc, North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAF), East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAF), Cyprus Arc, and Dead sea Fault. Hellenic Arc is a subduction zone of about 1000 km in length. It is the most active seismic region in Europe containing active volcanoes in historic times. The Hellenic Arc starts from the Peloponnesus passes from the south of Crete Island, goes at east side of Rhodes Island end enters mainland Anatolia around Dalaman. It has a roughly circular shape. The deepest region of the Mediterranean Sea is in between Rhodes and Dalaman near Hellenic Arc. The deepest region lies as a trench with the depth more than 4000 m depth, at the coordinates 28.7 oE, 35.7 oN, and with the size of 80 km in E-W direction and 60 km in S-N direction. At the centre of the Aegean sea there is a series of volcanic systems almost parallel to the trench and forming the internal arc (Milos, Antimilos, Antiparos, Santorini, Christiana, Colombus, Kos, Yali, Nisiros, etc). The North Anatolian fault is more than 1000 km-long, strike-slip fault. It starts near Erzincan Karliova, is roughly parallel to the Black Sea coasts towards W, enters the sea of Marmara at Izmit Bay and splits two branches. South branch lies at south of the sea of Marmara, North branch passes along the sea of Marmara towards Aegean sea. The East Anatolian Fault Zone starts near Karliova and goes to South and splits two Branches as Amonos Fault and Misis Fault. The Cyprus Arc starts in the Antalia Gulf and develops towards Cyprus. The link between the Cyprus and the Hellenic Arc and the link between the Cyprus Arc and EAF is still not described. The Dead Sea fault is a strike slip fault running in a N-S direction from the termination of the East Anatolian fault to the Red Sea. There are numerous earthquakes along the Dead Sea fault, but they recently do not exceed magnitude 4. The stronger earthquakes are more rare and always have magnitude lower than 6 and are mainly concentrated in the most internal zone of the Aqaba Gulf. In this study, the data about historical earthquakes, the distribution of their epicenters, the historical tsunamis in the eastern Mediterranean are presented. The fault zones, volcanic activities, probable submarine landslides, and their relation to the earthquakes and tsunamis are examined. The source areas and source mechanisms of historical tsunamis are analyzed. The probable source areas, expected source characteristics and tsunami prone mechanisms in eastern Mediterranean are discussed.

Yalciner, A. C.

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

French Polynesia tsunami warning center (CPPT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Geophysical Laboratory, which is also the French Polynesia Tsunami Warning Center (Centre Polynesien de Prevention des Tsunamis - CPPT) disposes of the data recorded by the Polynesian Seismic Network which includes 21 short-period stations, 4 broad-band three component long period stations and 2 tide gauge stations. These stations are, for the most, telemetred toward the CPPT in Tahiti which is equipped with data processing means. The data acquisition is performed on optic discs, tape drive recordings and graphic recordings. In the CPPT, the Tsunami Warning is based on the measurements of the Seismic Moment through the mantle magnitude Mm and the proportionality of observed tsunami height to this seismic moment. The new mantle magnitude scale, Mm used the measurement of the mantle Rayleigh and Love wave energy in the 50-300 s. period range and is directly related to the seismic moment through Mm = log Mo - 20. The knowledge of the seismic moment allows computation of an estimate of the high-seas amplitude of a range of expectable tsunami heights. In establishing seismic thresholds for tsunami warning, we assume that tsunami risk is substantial when the upper level found on the amplitude predicted at PPT reach 1 m. On this basis, the risk levels have been identified as a function of the magnitude Mm. For the Polynesian Islands the destructive tsunami danger would subsequently exist for Mm ? 8.7 (Mo ? 5 x 1028 dyn-cm), in the case of epicenters in Samoa, Tonga, Kermadec and Mm ? 9.0 (Mo ? 1029 dyn-cm) for other epicenters. This procedure is fully automatic: One computer detects, locates and estimates the seismic moment through the Mm magnitude and, in terms of moment, gives an amplitude window of the expected tsunami. These different operations are executed in real time. In addition, the operator can use the historic references and, if necessary, the acoustic T waves. 13 refs, 11 figs

1989-01-01

162

A numerical simulation of the 1993 East Sea tsunami and estimations of potential tsunamis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami in the East Sea occurred after powerful earthquake July 12, 1993 is analyzed. Data of the measured runup heights along the eastern coast of the East Sea are processed. It is shown the log-normal function is best fit for the distribution of the wave heights. Numerical simulations of tsunami propagation in the East Sea is performed and computed, results are compared with observed data. Prognostic characteristics of potential tsunamis in the East Sea are discussed. Zones of potential danger tsunami sources are selected.

1999-01-01

163

Assessing the Near-Field Tsunami Hazard for the Pacific Northwest in View of the 2011 Japan Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct energy estimation using real-time deep-ocean pressure measurements suggested the tsunami energy is only about 0.1% of the seismic radiation energy released by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki M9.0 earthquake. This real-time estimation allowed NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) to accurately provide experimental forecast of the tsunami impact for U.S. coastline in real time during the Japanese tsunami. It also led to quick, yet accurate, modeling of the tsunami inundation in Japanese coastline within hours after the event. The flooding limits computed with 11 inundation models that cover the entire east coastline of Japan agree well with observations. The computed tsunami runup height is up to 40 m, and the tsunami-height distribution along Japanese coastline is consistent with post-tsunami survey. These computational results will be compared with tsunami measurements and post-tsunami measurements, in light of a real-time tsunami source determined directly from deep-ocean tsunami measurements independent of any seismic data. Use of the forecast source scenario as input for tsunami inundation models for local coastlines shows promise for improved local tsunami forecast and warnings.The examples of the 2011 Japanese, as well as the 2010 Chilean, tsunamis will be used to illustrate the approaches to reducing the latency period for near-field tsunami forecasting. The catastrophic Japanese tsunami raised deep concerns about the tsunami impact in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), where a giant earthquake has been estimated to strike in the Cascadia within the next 50 years with a possibility of 10% to 15%. The similarity of tectonic settings and coastal environments between PNW and Sanriku, Japan may potentially result in comparable, or worse, disasters at PNW with what happened in Japan. To illustrate the similarity, we study the tsunami inundation impact along the coastline of PNW caused by a 500-year scenario on the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ).

Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Tang, L.; Chamberlin, C.

2011-12-01

164

Plasmon tsunamis on metallic nanoclusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model is constructed to describe inelastic scattering events accompanying electron capture by a highly charged ion flying by a metallic nanosphere. The electronic energy liberated by an electron leaving the Fermi level of the metal and dropping into a deep Rydberg state of the ion is used to increase the ion kinetic energy and, simultaneously, to excite multiple surface plasmons around the positively charged hole left behind on the metal sphere. This tsunami-like phenomenon manifests itself as periodic oscillations in the kinetic energy gain spectrum of the ion. The theory developed here extends our previous treatment (Lucas et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 013034) of the Arq+/C60 charge exchange system. We provide an analysis of how the individual multipolar surface plasmons of the metallic sphere contribute to the formation of the oscillatory gain spectrum. Gain spectra showing characteristic, tsunami-like oscillations are simulated for Ar15+ ions capturing one electron in distant collisions with Al and Na nanoclusters. (paper)

2012-03-14

165

Plasmon tsunamis on metallic nanoclusters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A model is constructed to describe inelastic scattering events accompanying electron capture by a highly charged ion flying by a metallic nanosphere. The electronic energy liberated by an electron leaving the Fermi level of the metal and dropping into a deep Rydberg state of the ion is used to increase the ion kinetic energy and, simultaneously, to excite multiple surface plasmons around the positively charged hole left behind on the metal sphere. This tsunami-like phenomenon manifests itself as periodic oscillations in the kinetic energy gain spectrum of the ion. The theory developed here extends our previous treatment (Lucas et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 013034) of the Ar(q+)/C(60) charge exchange system. We provide an analysis of how the individual multipolar surface plasmons of the metallic sphere contribute to the formation of the oscillatory gain spectrum. Gain spectra showing characteristic, tsunami-like oscillations are simulated for Ar(15+) ions capturing one electron in distant collisions with Al and Na nanoclusters. PMID:22353847

Lucas, A A; Sunjic, M

2012-02-21

166

THE MOMENTUM OF TSUNAMI WAVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the generation and propagation of tsunamis, it seemed like the momentum might be a quantity of some usefulness. In many tsunami generating situations the source mechanism might impart significant initial velocity to the water in addition to surface displacement. In the cases of pyroclastic flow and landslides from land into the water this is surely the case. The property of momentum that is especially noteworthy is that, unlike energy, the momentum of a body of water is affected only by external forces and not by internal forces associated with turbulence or laminar flow. These latter aspects of wave propagation dissipate energy and have disappeared from the distant wave motions in which principally irrotational flow remains. The impulse, Fdt, where F are external forces on the body of water, result in a change of momentum, d(Mv) of the body of water. The momentum density of a column of water of dimensions dxdy and from the bottom to the surface corresponding to particle velocities v(z) is the quantity discussed in this paper.

Harold G. Loomis

2002-01-01

167

Inflation from tsunami-waves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate inflation driven by the evolution of highly excited quantum states within the framework of out of equilibrium field dynamics. These states are characterized by a non-perturbatively large number of quanta in a band of momenta but with vanishing expectation value of the scalar field. They represent the situation in which initially a non-perturbatively large energy density is localized in a band of high energy quantum modes and are coined tsunami-waves. The self-consistent evolution of this quantum state and the scale factor is studied analytically and numerically. It is shown that the time evolution of these quantum states lead to two consecutive stages of inflation under conditions that are the quantum analogue of slow-roll. The evolution of the scale factor during the first stage has new features that are characteristic of the quantum state. During this initial stage the quantum fluctuations in the highly excited band build up an effective homogeneous condensate with a non-perturbatively large amplitude as a consequence of the large number of quanta. The second stage of inflation is similar to the usual classical chaotic scenario but driven by this effective condensate. The excited quantum modes are already superhorizon in the first stage and do not affect the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. Thus, this tsunami quantum state provides a field theoretical justification for chaotic scenarios driven by a classical homogeneous scalar field of large amplitude.

2002-06-17

168

Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is meaningful for tsunami assessment to evaluate phenomena beyond the design basis as well as seismic design. Because once we set the design basis tsunami height, we still have possibilities tsunami height may exceeds the determined design tsunami height due to uncertainties regarding the tsunami phenomena. Probabilistic tsunami risk assessment consists of estimating for tsunami hazard and fragility of structures and executing system analysis. In this report, we apply a method for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). We introduce a logic tree approach to estimate tsunami hazard curves (relationships between tsunami height and probability of excess) and present an example for Japan. Examples of tsunami hazard curves are illustrated, and uncertainty in the tsunami hazard is displayed by 5-, 16-, 50-, 84- and 95-percentile and mean hazard curves. The result of PTHA will be used for quantitative assessment of the tsunami risk for important facilities located on coastal area. Tsunami hazard curves are the reasonable input data for structures and system analysis. However the evaluation method for estimating fragility of structures and the procedure of system analysis is now being developed. (authors)

2006-01-01

169

The public health response to the tsunami  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At a meeting in the Maldives convened in April by the International Centre for Migration and Health, public health specialists from tsunami-affected states assessed lessons learned from the humanitarian response.

Manuel Carballo; Bryan Heal

2005-01-01

170

Tsunami wave suppression using submarine barriers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Submerged barriers, single or double, can be used to greatly reduce the devastating effect of a tsunami wave according to a research flume study conducted at Tel Aviv University. (instruments and methods of investigation)

2010-11-15

171

Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

Simon Harris

2005-01-01

172

Geomorphic Environments of Tsunami Deposits, Southeastern India  

Science.gov (United States)

As paleotsunami research progresses around the Indian Ocean, it is increasingly evident that tsunamis have occurred in this region in the past. The largest of these could have traversed the ocean and reached the southeastern coast of India, which highlights the importance of identifying key preservation sites in this potential repository of catastrophic basin-wide events. However, geologically enduring sites where tsunami deposits dependably survive are not yet well defined in India and other tropical environments. The purpose of this project was to identify the settings conducive to long-term preservation of tsunami deposits in tropical India and develop criteria for distinguishing them in the stratigraphic record. We documented the post- depositional fate of the tsunami deposits from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in various geomorphic environments along the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India from 10.5-13° N. Latitude. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami were mapped, described and surveyed at locations where they had been described immediately after the event, as well as at previously unstudied sites. At many sites, the tsunami deposits were recognizable in the stratigraphic column by characteristic fine mafic laminations, debris and an organic layer at the lower boundary. Field observations and initial grain-size analysis indicated a distinct difference between tsunami deposits and underlying sedimentary layers. For example, at Mamallapuram (12.5° N. Lat.) the mean grain size of the tsunami deposits was 0.25 phi finer than that of the underlying layers. However, only three years after the event, deposits in some locations had already been altered significantly by erosion, bioturbation and incipient weathering and were not readily recognizable in the stratigraphy. Although the 2004 tsunami deposits were thicker and more extensive in the hard-hit southern half of the study area, the degree of bioturbation and weathering was greater there than in the drier northern portion, where some thin tsunami sand layers behind coastal dunes remained unaltered since the original post- tsunami surveys. To date, no conclusive evidence of paleotsunami deposits has been found at the sites included in this study, but the results will guide the search for key settings that best satisfy the balance between sediment volume and preservation.

Johnston, P.; Ely, L.; Achyuthan, H.; Srinivasalu, S.

2008-12-01

173

Complex earthquake rupture and local tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and rupture complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that rupture complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of rupture complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a factor of 3 or more. These results indicate that there is substantially more variation in the local tsunami wave field derived from the inherent complexity subduction zone earthquakes than predicted by a simple elastic dislocation model. Probabilistic methods that take into account variability in earthquake rupture processes are likely to yield more accurate assessments of tsunami hazards.

Geist, E. L.

2002-01-01

174

Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

175

Dispersion of tsunamis: does it really matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the effect of dispersion in the field of tsunami modeling. Frequency dispersion in the linear long-wave limit is first briefly discussed from a theoretical point of view. A single parameter, denoted as "dispersion time", for the integrated effect of frequency dispersion is identified. This parameter depends on the wavelength, the water depth during propagation, and the propagation distance or time. Also the role of long-time asymptotes is discussed in this context. The wave generation by the two main tsunami sources, namely earthquakes and landslides, are briefly discussed with formulas for the surface response to the bottom sources. Dispersive effects are then exemplified through a semi-idealized study of a moderate-strength inverse thrust fault. Emphasis is put on the directivity, the role of the "dispersion time", the significance of the Boussinesq model employed (dispersive effect), and the effects of the transfer from bottom sources to initial surface elevation. Finally, the experience from a series of case studies, including earthquake- and landslide-generated tsunamis, is presented. The examples are taken from both historical (e.g. the 2011 Japan tsunami and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) and potential tsunamis (e.g. the tsunami after the potential La Palma volcanic flank collapse). Attention is mainly given to the role of dispersion during propagation in the deep ocean and the way the accumulation of this effect relates to the "dispersion time". It turns out that this parameter is useful as a first indication as to when frequency dispersion is important, even though ambiguity with respect to the definition of the wavelength may be a problem for complex cases. Tsunamis from most landslides and moderate earthquakes tend to display dispersive behavior, at least in some directions. On the other hand, for the mega events of the last decade dispersion during deep water propagation is mostly noticeable for transoceanic propagation.

S. Glimsdal; G. K. Pedersen; C. B. Harbitz; F. Løvholt

2013-01-01

176

Dispersion of tsunamis: does it really matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the effect of dispersion in the field of tsunami modeling. Frequency dispersion in the linear long-wave limit is first briefly discussed from a theoretical point of view. A single parameter, denoted as "dispersion time", for the integrated effect of frequency dispersion is identified. This parameter depends on the wavelength, the water depth during propagation, and the propagation distance or time. Also the role of long-time asymptotes is discussed in this context. The wave generation by the two main tsunami sources, namely earthquakes and landslides, are briefly discussed with formulas for the surface response to the bottom sources. Dispersive effects are then exemplified through a semi-idealized study of a moderate-strength inverse thrust fault. Emphasis is put on the directivity, the role of the "dispersion time", the significance of the Boussinesq model employed (dispersive effect), and the effects of the transfer from bottom sources to initial surface elevation. Finally, the experience from a series of case studies, including earthquake- and landslide-generated tsunamis, is presented. The examples are taken from both historical (e.g. the 2011 Japan tsunami and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) and potential tsunamis (e.g. the tsunami after the potential La Palma volcanic flank collapse). Attention is mainly given to the role of dispersion during propagation in the deep ocean and the way the accumulation of this effect relates to the "dispersion time". It turns out that this parameter is useful as a first indication as to when frequency dispersion is important, even though ambiguity with respect to the definition of the wavelength may be a problem for complex cases. Tsunamis from most landslides and moderate earthquakes tend to display dispersive behavior, at least in some directions. On the other hand, for the mega events of the last decade dispersion during deep water propagation is mostly noticeable for transoceanic propagation.

Glimsdal, S.; Pedersen, G. K.; Harbitz, C. B.; Løvholt, F.

2013-06-01

177

Tsunamis warning from space: Ionosphere seismology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

2012-01-01

178

MODELING OF THE 1755 LISBON TSUNAMI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The generation and propagation of the November 1, 1755 Lisbon earthquake generated tsunami is of current interest to the IOCARIBE Tsunami Scientific Steering Committee.The November 1, 1755 Lisbon earthquake generated a tsunami with a period of one hour and amplitudes of 20 meters at Lisbon and along the African and south European coasts, of 4 meters along the English coast, and of 7 meters at Saba in the Caribbean after 7 hours of travel. The modeling was performed using the SWAN code which solves the nonlinear long wave equations. The tsunami generation, and propagation was modeled using a 10. minute Mercator grid of 600 by 640 cells. The observed tsunami wavecharacteristics were approximatelyreproduced usinga source 300 kilometer in radius with a drop of 30 meters located in the region of the 1969 earthquake near the Gorringe bank. The east coast of the U.S.A. and the Caribbean received a tsunami wave off shore in deep water about 2 meters high with periods of 1.25 to 1.5 hours. The maximum wave amplitude after run-up would be about 10 feet. The Gulf of Mexico would have a wave with less than half that amplitude.

Charles L. Mader

2001-01-01

179

Some events in Central Italy: are they all tsunamis? A revision for the Italian tsunami catalog  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available he catalogs available in the literature show that tsunamis affecting Italian coasts are not very strong, except for a few well analyzed events, i.e. the Messina December 28, 1908 tsunami. This study aims at making a careful revision of some minor tsunamigenic events, in particular those occurred along the coasts of the Central Tyrrhenian Sea, considering tsunamis associated with earthquakes, from 1700 to 1919. These events have been poorly studied so far, and need a check to verify their reliability, even though they are reported in the catalogs. The results show how it is difficult to get a clear definition of those tsunamis, because of a gap in the historical sources, in spite of the large amount of seismological data concerning earthquakes related to the anaIyzed tsunamis. This analysis proposes to delete from the catalog some events for which a clear groundlessness appeared.

A. Maramai; A. Tertulliani

1994-01-01

180

The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plant (3). Outline of tsunami fragility analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) standard was issued in February 2012 by Standard Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). This article detailed tsunami fragility analysis, which calculated building and structure damage probability contributing core damage and consisted of five evaluation steps: (1) selection of evaluated element and damage mode, (2) selection of evaluation procedure, (3) evaluation of actual stiffness, (4) evaluation of actual response and (5) evaluation of fragility (damage probability and others). As an application example of the standard, calculation results of tsunami fragility analysis investigation by tsunami PRA subcommittee of AESJ were shown reflecting latest knowledge of damage state caused by wave force and others acted by tsunami from the 'off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake'. (T. Tanaka)

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Healthcare financing in Syria: satisfaction with the current system and the role of national health insurance--a qualitative study of householders' views.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to identify the satisfaction with the current public health system and health benefit schemes, examine willingness to participate in national health insurance and review expectations and preferences of national health insurance. To this end, qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out with 19 Syrian householders. Our results show that a need for health reform exists and that Syrian people are willing to support a national health insurance scheme if some key issues are properly addressed. Funding of the scheme is a major concern and should take into account the ability to pay and help the poor. In addition, waiting times should be shortened and sufficient coverage guaranteed. On the whole, the people would support a national health insurance with national pooling and purchasing under a public set-up, but important concerns of such a system regarding corruption and inefficiency were voiced too. Installing a quasi non-governmental organisation as manager of the insurance system under the stewardship of the Ministry of Health could provide a compromise acceptable to the people.

Mershed M; Busse R; van Ginneken E

2012-04-01

182

ISSN 8755-6839 SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS Journal of Tsunami Society International Number 2 2013 IMPACT OF TSUNAMI FORCES ON STRUCTURES The University of Ottawa Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past seven years, a comprehensive interdisciplinary research program has been conducted between researchers at the University of Ottawa and at the Canadian Hydraulics Centre (CHC) of the National Research Council of Canada. The objectives of this on-going research program are to identify and quantify forces that are imposed on near-shoreline structures when exposed to tsunami- induced hydraulic bores and to investigate mitigation strategies to dampen these forces. The experimental component of this research program involves two structural models (square and circular) that are tested in the High Discharge Flume at CHC. The structural models are instrumented to record base shear force-, base overturning moment-, pressure-, acceleration-, lateral displacement- and bore depth-time histories continually during testing. Impact loading resulting from wood debris of different sizes and located at pre-determined distances from the structural models is also studied. Furthermore, this research program aims to review tsunami-induced forces on structures prescribed by recent design documents.

D. Palermo; I. Nistor; T. Al-Faesly; A. Cornett

2013-01-01

183

Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24) tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16) events of the seismic origin, five (5) events of volcanic origin and three (3) events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13) occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica). The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

N. Zahibo; E. N. Pelinovsky

2001-01-01

184

Team in South Pacific Studies Source of Historic Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

... of the tsunami across the Pacific Ocean. From left to right: Daniel Rousseau (Summer Intern ... the 1946 tsunami. On the picture, Mr. Wilson (left) points to a topo map of the Island of Sanak, and ...

185

Detection of very long period seismic signals and acoustic gravity waves generated by large tsunamis Application to tsunami warning Detektion von durch Tsunami erzeugten langperiodischen seismischen Signalen und akustischen Gravitationswellen Anwendung für die Tsunami-Warnung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunamis sind Naturereignisse, die zu den verheerendsten weltweiten Katastrophen gehören, obwohl sie relativ selten auftreten. Da Tsunamis in letzter Zeit zahlreiche Opfer und schwere Zerstörungen in grossen Küstenregionen verursacht haben, sind sie Ziel intensivierter Forschungen geworden. Die Grun...

Raveloson, Andriamiranto

186

Animation of the July 17, 1998, Papua New Guinea Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

On July 17, 1998, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the richter scale caused a tsunami along the coast of Papua New Guinea, wiping out two villages. The US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a model of the tsunami along with background information and news stories about the event. The animation is available in four formats and resolutions. Those who want to learn more about tsunamis can take advantage of the site's links under the heading General Information about Tsunamis.

187

DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

2013-09-01

188

Tsunami hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean: strong earthquakes and tsunamis in the East Hellenic Arc and Trench system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on tsunami phenomena occurring in the East Hellenic Arc and Trench system (HA-T) from antiquity up to the present have been updated, critically evaluated and compiled in the standard GITEC format developed in the last decade for the New European Tsunami Catalogue. New field observations are presented for the tsunamis of 9 February 1948 and 24 March 2002. From the 18 tsunamis reported eight are rather well-documented while another nine remain doubtful. The mean recurrence of strong tsunamis is likely equal to about 142 years. Most of the tsunamis documented are caused by strong earthquakes occurring in the area offshore Rhodes to the east or northeast of the island. However, there are large earthquakes near Rhodes that do not cause tsunamis, like the 1926 and 1957 ones, which is of particular importance for the tsunami hazard assessment.

G. A. Papadopoulos; E. Daskalaki; A. Fokaefs; N. Giraleas

2007-01-01

189

Research for developing precise tsunami evaluation methods. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis/numerical simulation method with dispersion and wave breaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report introduces main results of investigations on precise tsunami evaluation methods, which were carried out from the viewpoint of safety evaluation for nuclear power facilities and deliberated by the Tsunami Evaluation Subcommittee. A framework for the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) based on logic tree is proposed and calculation on the Pacific side of northeastern Japan is performed as a case study. Tsunami motions with dispersion and wave breaking were investigated both experimentally and numerically. The numerical simulation method is verified for its practicability by applying to a historical tsunami. Tsunami force is also investigated and formulae of tsunami pressure acting on breakwaters and on building due to inundating tsunami are proposed. (author)

2007-01-01

190

A Tsunami PSA for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied in this study. At first, an empirical tsunami hazard analysis performed for an evaluation of tsunami return period. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. Finally, a system analysis performed in the case of tsunami event for an evaluation of a CDF of Ulchin 56 NPP site. For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. As a result, in the case of tsunami event, functional failure is mostly governed total failure probability of facilities in NPP site

Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil; Park, Jin Hee; Seo, Kyung Suk; Seo, Jeong Moon; Yang, Joon Eon

2010-06-15

191

Statistical Analysis of Tsunamis of the Italian Coasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of a catalog of 138 tsunamis of the Italian coasts has been made. Intensitities of 106 tsunamis has been assigned and cataloged. The statistical analysis of this data fits a density distribution of the form log n = 3.00-0.425 I, where n is the number of tsunamis of intensity I per thousand years.

Caputo, M.; Faita, G.F.

1982-01-20

192

How Shifting Plates Caused the Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This page features USGS visualizations including a slide show of the sudden movement of the Pacific tectonic plate under the North American plate caused a massive earthquake and a tsunami. It also contains maps of the magnitude of shaking and predicted tsunami wave heights from the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan.

Times, New Y.

193

The tsunami warning center in Alaska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (ATWC) has implemented many major changes in order to provide timely and effective tsunami warning services for coastal populations in Alaska, and the west coasts of Canada and the lower 48 States. The basis for these improvements was the integration of computers and associated developments into the ATWC's operations. New concepts, technique developments, procedures, computers, and equipment were implemented which resulted in a highly automated warning system which analyzes data from potential tsunamigenic earthquakes in real-time, and immediately disseminates necessary critical information to affected coastal populations. These advancements are leading toward an automated expert system. The present system has been exercised for seven recent potential tsunamigenic earthquakes and has proven to be very timely with tsunami warnings being issued in an average of 11 minutes after the origin time of an earthquake. Seismic and tide data networks have been enlarged to improve the accuracy and timeliness in locating and sizing earthquakes, and for confirming the existence of a tsunami. New techniques and equipment are being implemented to collect, analyze and process tide data via micro computers. All critical warning and watch information messages are generated by computers which are linked to a satellite and high speed teletypewriter communication systems for rapid dissemination of information. The ATWC's community preparedness efforts have been expanded to aid those individuals who may be caught in the immediate vicinity of a violent earthquake and its subsequent tsunami. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs.

1989-01-01

194

Tsunami-tendenko and morality in disasters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disaster planning challenges our morality. Everyday rules of action may need to be suspended during large-scale disasters in favour of maxims that that may make prudential or practical sense and may even be morally preferable but emotionally hard to accept, such as tsunami-tendenko. This maxim dictates that the individual not stay and help others but run and preserve his or her life instead. Tsunami-tendenko became well known after the great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011, when almost all the elementary and junior high school students in one city survived the tsunami because they acted on this maxim that had been taught for several years. While tsunami-tendenko has been praised, two criticisms of it merit careful consideration: one, that the maxim is selfish and immoral; and two, that it goes against the natural tendency to try to save others in dire need. In this paper, I will explain the concept of tsunami-tendenko and then respond to these criticisms. Such ethical analysis is essential for dispelling confusion and doubts about evacuation policies in a disaster.

Kodama S

2013-03-01

195

MODELING THE LA PALMA LANDSLIDE TSUNAMI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tsunami expected from a lateral collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano on La Palma in the Canary Islands was modeled. The flank collapse for a ‘worst case” landslide was modeled as a 650 meter high, 20 kilometer radius water wave after 30 kilometers of travel as predicted by physical modeling studies of Fritz at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland.The modeling was performed using the SWAN code which solves the nonlinear long waver equations. The tsunami generation and propagation was modeled using a 10 minute Mercator grid of 600 by 640 cells. The small wavelength and period of the tsunami expected from the landslide source results in an intermediate wave rather than a shallow water tsunami wave. The use of a shallow water model only describes the geometric spreasing of the wave and not the significant dispersion such a short period wave would exhibit. Dispersion would reduce the wave amplitudes to less than one-third of the shallow water amplitudes.The upper limit shallow water modeling indicates that the east coast of the U.S.A. and the Caribbean would receive tsunami waves less than 3 meters high. The European and African coasts would have waves less than 10 meters high.Full Navier-Stokes modeling including dispersion and geometric spreading for the Fritz initial wave profile predicts that the maximim wave amplitude off the U.S. east coast would be about a meter. Even with shoaling the wave would not present a significant hazard.

Charles L. Mader

2001-01-01

196

NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE GLOBAL TSUNAMI: Indonesian Tsunami of 26 December 2004  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new model for the global tsunami computation is constructed. It includes a high order of approximation for the spatial derivatives. The boundary condition at the shore line is controlled by the total depth and can be set either to runup or to the zero normal velocity. This model, with spatial resolution of one minute, is applied to the tsunami of 26 December 2004 in the World Ocean from 80?S to 69?N. Because the computational domain includes close to 200 million grid points, a parallel version of the code was developed and run on a supercomputer. The high spatial resolution of one minute produces very small numerical dispersion even when tsunamis wave travel over large distances. Model results for the Indonesian tsunami show that the tsunami traveled to every location of the World Ocean. In the Indian Ocean the tsunami properties are related to the source function, i.e., to the magnitude of the bottom displacement and directional properties of the source. In the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica, in the Pacific, and especially in the Atlantic, tsunami waves propagate over large distances by energy ducting over oceanic ridges. Tsunami energy is concentrated by long wave trapping over the oceanic ridges. Our computations show the Coriolis force plays a noticeable but secondary role in the trapping. Travel times obtained from computations as arrival of the first significant wave show a clear and consistent pattern only in the region of the high amplitude and in the simply connected domains. The tsunami traveled from Indonesia, around New Zealand, and into the Pacific Ocean. The path through the deep ocean to North America carried miniscule energy, while the stronger signal traveled a much longer distance via South Pacific ridges. The time difference between first signal and later signals strong enough to be recorded at North Pacific locations was several hours.

Zygmunt Kowalik; William Knight; Tom Logan; Paul Whitmore

2005-01-01

197

Harm reduction services for British Columbia's First Nation population: a qualitative inquiry into opportunities and barriers for injection drug users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal injection drug users are the fastest growing group of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus cases in Canada. However, there remains a lack of comprehensive harm reduction services available to First Nation persons, particularly for First Nation people dwelling in rural and reserve communities. This paper reports findings from an exploratory study of current harm reduction practices in First Nation communities. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the availability and content of current harm reduction practices, as well as to identify barriers and opportunities for implementing these services in First Nation communities. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 13 addictions service providers from the province of British Columbia, Canada. Results Participants identified barriers to these services such as community size and limited service infrastructure, lack of financial resources, attitudes towards harm reduction services and cultural differences. Conclusion It was recommended that community education efforts be directed broadly within the community before establishing harm reduction services and that the readiness of communities be assessed.

Wardman Dennis; Quantz Darryl

2006-01-01

198

Harm reduction services for British Columbia's First Nation population: a qualitative inquiry into opportunities and barriers for injection drug users.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal injection drug users are the fastest growing group of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus cases in Canada. However, there remains a lack of comprehensive harm reduction services available to First Nation persons, particularly for First Nation people dwelling in rural and reserve communities. This paper reports findings from an exploratory study of current harm reduction practices in First Nation communities. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the availability and content of current harm reduction practices, as well as to identify barriers and opportunities for implementing these services in First Nation communities. METHODS: Key informant interviews were conducted with 13 addictions service providers from the province of British Columbia, Canada. RESULTS: Participants identified barriers to these services such as community size and limited service infrastructure, lack of financial resources, attitudes towards harm reduction services and cultural differences. CONCLUSION: It was recommended that community education efforts be directed broadly within the community before establishing harm reduction services and that the readiness of communities be assessed.

Wardman D; Quantz D

2006-01-01

199

The Impacts of Tsunami on the Well-Being of the Affected Community in Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tsunami of 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating tragedy ever occurred to men in the history of human civilization. Approximately 250,000 lives perished, millions injured and suffered, while the destruction of property loss of opportunities cannot be accurately estimated. The impact of the tsunami on environmental destruction shows that damage was inflicted on natural resources such as coral reefs, mangroves, sand dunes and other coastal ecosystem that acted as wave defense barriers. Moreover, inlands, wetlands and agricultural land were salinated and natural resources for livelihood and for source of income were badly affected, especially for coastal communities who were involve in fisheries. The situation worsened as basic facilities were also destroyed. As such, this research focuses on assessing and identifying on how the impacts of the tsunami on the infrastructure and environmental resources affected the community well-being inKuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. This study focuses on the impacts of tsunami on the affected community well-being in the coastal zone on the basis of available primary and secondary sources. Primary sources included questionnaires, interviews and observations while the secondary resources included books, government and international reports, scientific journals, maps and articles that highlighted tsunami related issues. The study tries to seek for both qualitative and quantitative impacts and also tries to find out some solutions that would help to minimize the impact of the tsunami on the community well-being. The information gained from this study can be used to help the community as well as the agencies involve in order to minimize the impacts of the tsunami on the community and develop a more effective mitigation measures for other environmental disasters such as tsunami. Besides, the research may help to create awareness on the community to be prepared in facing disastrous situation such as the tsunami. Through community preparedness, the impact can be minimized and reduced. As for the authority, this research may be of great assistance by allowing them to make better decision.

M. Zainora Asmawi; Aisyah Nadhrah Ibrahim

2013-01-01

200

Holocene Tsunami Deposits From Large Tsunamis Along the Kuril Subduction Zone, Northeast Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Holocene tsunami deposits in eastern Hokkaido between Nemuro and Tokachi show that the Kuril subduction zone repeatedly produced earthquakes and tsunamis larger than those recorded in this region since AD 1804 (Nanayama et al., Nature, 424, 660-663, 2003). Twenty-two postulated tsunami sand layers from the past 9500 years are preserved on lake bottom near Kushiro City, and about ten postulated tsunami sand layers from the past 3000 years are preserved in peat layers on the coastal marsh of Kiritappu. We dated these ten tsunami deposits (named Ts1 to Ts10 from shallower to deeper) in peat layers by radiocarbon and tephrochronology, correlated them with historical earthquakes and tsunamis, and surveyed their spatial distribution to estimate the tsunamisO inland inundation limits. Ts10 and Ts9 are under regional tephra Ta-c2 (ca. 2.5 ka) and represent prehistorical events. Ts8 to Ts5 are between two regional tephra layers Ta-c2 and B-Tm (ca. 9th century). In particular, Ts5 is found just below B-Tm, so it is dated 9th century (Heian era). Ts4 is dated ca 13th century (Kamakura era), while Ts3, found just below Us-b and Ta-b (AD 1667-1663), is dated 17th century (Edo era). Ts2 is dated 19th century (Edo era) and may correspond to the AD 1843 Tempo Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mt 8.0) recorded in a historical document Nikkanki of Kokutai-ji temple at Akkeshi. Ts1 is inferred 20th century and may correspond to the tsunami from the AD 1960 Chilean earthquake (M 9.5) or the AD 1952 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mt 8.2). Our detailed surveys indicate that Ts3 and Ts4 can be traced more than 3 km from the present coast line in Kirittapu marsh, much longer than the limits (< 1 km) of recent deposits Ts1 and Ts2 or documented inundation of the 19th and 20th century tsunamis. The recurrence intervals of great tsunami inundation are about 400 to 500 years, longer than that of typical interplate earthquakes along the Kuril subduction zone. The longer interval and the apparent large tsunami inundation indicate unusual origin of these tsunamis.

Nanayama, F.; Furukawa, R.; Satake, K.; Soeda, Y.; Shigeno, K.

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

A qualitative study of provider perspectives of structural barriers to cervical cancer screening among first nations women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In Canada, opportunistic screening programs have successfully reduced mortality from cervical cancer; however, minority or disadvantaged groups, as well as women in northern and rural areas, are inadequately recruited by this approach. Hence, we set out to examine the structural barriers that prevent First Nations women's participation in cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Using a participatory action research approach and semistructured interview guides, we conducted in-depth interviews with 18 experienced health care professionals, 12 of whom were also community members. These individuals included nurses, nurse practitioners, community health representatives, social workers and physicians who provide care to women in our First Nations partner communities. In the current report, we explored perceived barriers to cervical cancer screening through the lens of service providers. RESULTS: Structural barriers to cervical cancer screening for First Nations women included shortage of appropriate health care providers, lack of a recall-based screening system, geographic and transportation barriers; health literacy and socioeconomic inequalities, generational effects, and the colonial legacy. CONCLUSION: Existing, opportunistic cervical cancer screening programs do not perform well for First Nations women who experience significant screening-related health inequalities that are largely influenced by structural barriers. Sustainable screening interventions in First Nations communities require approaches that resolve these structural barriers, explore new ways of screening, and provide education for both women and health care providers. Many of the structural barriers are rooted in colonial history. Given the negative impact of the consequences of colonization on indigenous women worldwide, many of our findings strongly resonate with marginalized populations in other countries.

Maar M; Burchell A; Little J; Ogilvie G; Severini A; Yang JM; Zehbe I

2013-09-01

202

The elusive AD 1826 tsunami, South Westland, New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In AD 1826 sealers reported earthquake and tsunami activity in Fiordland, although contemporary or near-contemporary accounts of tsunami inundation at the time are elusive. A detailed analysis of recent sediments fom Okarito Lagoon builds on contextual evidence provided by earlier research concerning past tsunami inundation. Sedimentological, geochemical, micropalaeontological and geochronological data are used to determine palaeoenvironments before, during and after what was most probably tsunami inundation in AD 1826. The most compelling chronological control is provided by a young cohort of trees growing on a raised shoreline bench stranded by a drop in the lagoon water level following tsunami inundation. (author). 42 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

2004-01-01

203

Tsunami Inflation Selfconsistent Quantum Dynamics  

CERN Multimedia

The physics during the inflationary stage of the universe is of quantum nature involving extremely high energy densities. Moreover, it is out of equilibrium on a fastly expanding dynamical geometry. We complement here the 1999 Chalonge Lectures on out of equilibrium fields in self-consistent inflationary dynamics [astro-ph/0006446] investigating inflation driven by the evolution of highly excited quantum states. These states are characterized by a non-perturbatively large number of quanta in a band of momenta and with zero or nonzero expectation value of the inflaton scalar field. They represent the situation in which initially a non-perturbatively large energy density is localized in a band of high energy quantum modes and are coined tsunami-waves. The self- consistent evolution of this quantum state and the scale factor is studied analytically and numerically. It is shown that the time evolution of these quantum states lead to two consecutive stages of inflation under conditions that are the quantum analogu...

De Vega, H J

2002-01-01

204

Inflation from Tsunami-waves  

CERN Document Server

We investigate inflation driven by the evolution of highly excited quantum states within the framework of out of equilibrium field dynamics. These states are characterized by a non-perturbatively large number of quanta in a band of momenta but with vanishing expectation value of the scalar field.They represent the situation in which initially a non-perturbatively large energy density is localized in a band of high energy quantum modes and are coined tsunami-waves. The self-consistent evolution of this quantum state and the scale factor is studied analytically and numerically. It is shown that the time evolution of these quantum states lead to two consecutive stages of inflation under conditions that are the quantum analogue of slow-roll. The evolution of the scale factor during the first stage has new features that are characteristic of the quantum state. During this initial stage the quantum fluctuations in the highly excited band build up an effective homogeneous condensate with a non- perturbatively large ...

Boyanovsky, D; De Vega, H J

2002-01-01

205

Tsunami Early Warning Within Five Minutes  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis are most destructive at near to regional distances, arriving within 20-30 min after a causative earthquake; effective early warning at these distances requires notification within 15 min or less. The size and impact of a tsunami also depend on sea floor displacement, which is related to the length, L, width, W, mean slip, D, and depth, z, of the earthquake rupture. Currently, the primary seismic discriminant for tsunami potential is the centroid-moment tensor magnitude, M {w/CMT}, representing the product LWD and estimated via an indirect inversion procedure. However, the obtained M {w/CMT} and the implied LWD value vary with rupture depth, earth model, and other factors, and are only available 20-30 min or more after an earthquake. The use of more direct discriminants for tsunami potential could avoid these problems and aid in effective early warning, especially for near to regional distances. Previously, we presented a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using two, simple measurements on P-wave seismograms—the predominant period on velocity records, T d , and the likelihood, T {50/Ex}, that the high-frequency, apparent rupture-duration, T 0, exceeds 50-55 s. We have shown that T d and T 0 are related to the critical rupture parameters L, W, D, and z, and that either of the period-duration products T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex} gives more information on tsunami impact and size than M {w/CMT}, M wp, and other currently used discriminants. These results imply that tsunami potential is not directly related to the product LWD from the "seismic" faulting model, as is assumed with the use of the M {w/CMT} discriminant. Instead, information on rupture length, L, and depth, z, as provided by T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex}, can constrain well the tsunami potential of an earthquake. We introduce here special treatment of the signal around the S arrival at close stations, a modified, real-time, M wpd(RT) magnitude, and other procedures to enable early estimation of event parameters and tsunami discriminants. We show that with real-time data currently available in most regions of tsunami hazard, event locations, m b and M wp magnitudes, and the direct, period-duration discriminant, T d T {50/Ex} can be determined within 5 min after an earthquake occurs, and T 0, T d T 0, and M wpd(RT) within approximately 10 min. This processing is implemented and running continuously in real-time within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it). We also show that the difference m b - log10( T d T 0) forms a rapid discriminant for slow, tsunami earthquakes. The rapid availability of these measurements can aid in faster and more reliable tsunami early warning for near to regional distances.

Lomax, Anthony; Michelini, Alberto

2013-09-01

206

Concepts and Perceptions of Democracy and Governance beyond the Nation State: Qualitative Research in Education for European Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The empirical research presented in this paper focuses on concepts and perceptions of European politics and citizenship which are expressed by students and teachers in secondary schools. The qualitative study is based on semi-standardized interviews, written surveys, and classroom research (video transcripts, observation records). The results suggest that many young people are amenable towards transnational patterns of identity and they tend to combine pragmatic-optimistic expectations with European Union citizenship. Many of the students interviewed seem willing to adapt themselves to a larger European environment. However, many of the teachers voiced ambivalent notions while expressing veiled scepticism, although they rarely expressed open criticism based on their own fears towards political developments in a unified Europe. The classroom research shows that in the examined civic education lessons, the everyday concepts of students are seldom questioned and sparsely developed towards social-science-based explanatory models. Sometimes even misleading concepts are enforced in classroom interaction instead of being clarified by the development of adequate categories and models.

Andreas Eis

2010-01-01

207

A qualitative risk assessment of factors contributing to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle along the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between November 2000 and the end of 2007, five outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred in cattle in the area adjacentto the Kruger National Park (KNP) in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. To help understand the factors behind these outbreaks a qualitative risk assessment based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) assessment framework was adopted, using available data from published sources and various unpublished South African sources. Risk was assessed on the basis of the following factors: data on South African Territories (SAT) type infections of buffalo and impala in the KNP, permeability of the fence along the western boundary of the KNP, the potential for contact between livestock and wildlife susceptible to FMD in areas adjacent to the KNP, and the level of herd immunity in cattle generated by prophylactic vaccination. Scenario pathways for FMD occurrence outside the KNP are presented as a conceptual framework to qualitatively assess the risk of FMD outbreaks. Factors that are likely to have most influence on the risk were identified: fence permeability, vaccination coverage, or the efficiency of animal movement control measures. The method and results are provided as an approach that may be used as a basis to evaluate the risk of FMD outbreaks occurring in other wildlife/livestock interface areas of southern Africa. PMID:20462150

Jori, F; Vosloo, W; Du Plessis, B; Bengis, R; Brahmbhatt, D; Gummow, B; Thomson, G R

2009-12-01

208

A qualitative risk assessment of factors contributing to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle along the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between November 2000 and the end of 2007, five outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred in cattle in the area adjacentto the Kruger National Park (KNP) in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. To help understand the factors behind these outbreaks a qualitative risk assessment based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) assessment framework was adopted, using available data from published sources and various unpublished South African sources. Risk was assessed on the basis of the following factors: data on South African Territories (SAT) type infections of buffalo and impala in the KNP, permeability of the fence along the western boundary of the KNP, the potential for contact between livestock and wildlife susceptible to FMD in areas adjacent to the KNP, and the level of herd immunity in cattle generated by prophylactic vaccination. Scenario pathways for FMD occurrence outside the KNP are presented as a conceptual framework to qualitatively assess the risk of FMD outbreaks. Factors that are likely to have most influence on the risk were identified: fence permeability, vaccination coverage, or the efficiency of animal movement control measures. The method and results are provided as an approach that may be used as a basis to evaluate the risk of FMD outbreaks occurring in other wildlife/livestock interface areas of southern Africa.

Jori F; Vosloo W; Du Plessis B; Bengis R; Brahmbhatt D; Gummow B; Thomson GR

2009-12-01

209

Tsunami deposits of the Shikotan earthquake of 1994  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the results of the grain-size and mineralogical studies of the deposits of the tsunami of 1994 on Shikotan, Tanfil’ev, and Kunashir islands. The studies were carried out within the portions of the coast with different configurations, geomorphologic structures, lithodynamical environments, and character of the tsunami manifestation. The composition of the tsunami deposits is shown to be controlled mainly by erosion-accumulative processes during the tsunami events and is in many respects inherited from the matter sources. The tsunami deposits contain marine diatom species, whose richest assemblages were found within the areas where the material from the underwater coastal slope was redeposited. The data concerning the deposits of earlier historical tsunamis encountered in the same cross sections are discussed too. Their examination points to a similar development of the erosional-accumulative processes during tsunami events with the same intensity and an entrainment of the matter from the same sources.

Razzhigaeva, N. G.; Ganzei, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Kharlamov, A. A.; Il'Ev, A. Ya.; Kaistrenko, V. M.

2007-08-01

210

Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies  

CERN Multimedia

The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

Joseph, Antony

2011-01-01

211

Tsunami forecast for Bulgarian coasts of the Black Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami hazard in the Black Sea is considered low to moderate but not negligible. At present, New European Tsunami Catalogue counts 29 historical tsunami events in the Black Sea, 22 of which are considered as reliable. Four of them affected Bulgarian coast including a strong earthquakes event 544/545 of offshore Varna. Here we discuss a forecast of possible tsunami wave heights at Bulgarian coasts of the Black Sea. In order to do that, prognostic numerical simulations of 55 tsunami events in the Baltic Sea has been performed. All tsunami sources are uniformly distributed in the Black Sea basin. The results of prognostic numerical simulations are compared with the results of numerical modelling of two instrumentally measured historical events (1939 and 1966) and with the data of instrumental measurements. On this basis a preliminary forecast of tsunami wave heights along the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea is given.

Didenkulova, Ira; Zaitsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Ranguelov, Boyko

2013-04-01

212

Understanding the tsunami with a simple model  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we use the approximation of shallow water waves (Margaritondo G 2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) to understand the behaviour of a tsunami in a variable depth. We deduce the shallow water wave equation and the continuity equation that must be satisfied when a wave encounters a discontinuity in the sea depth. A short explanation about how the tsunami hit the west coast of India is given based on the refraction phenomenon. Our procedure also includes a simple numerical calculation suitable for undergraduate students in physics and engineering.

Helene, O

2006-01-01

213

Understanding the tsunami with a simple model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we use the approximation of shallow water waves (Margaritondo G 2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) to understand the behaviour of a tsunami in a variable depth. We deduce the shallow water wave equation and the continuity equation that must be satisfied when a wave encounters a discontinuity in the sea depth. A short explanation about how the tsunami hit the west coast of India is given based on the refraction phenomenon. Our procedure also includes a simple numerical calculation suitable for undergraduate students in physics and engineering.

2006-07-01

214

TSUNAMI AMPLITUDE PREDICTION DURING EVENTS: A TEST BASED ON PREVIOUS TSUNAMIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center’s (WC/ATWC) far-field tsunami amplitude prediction method is tested by applying the technique to nine previous, well-recorded tsunamigenic events. Predicted tsunami amplitudes outside the source area are shown to be sufficiently accurate to guide warning cancellation/restriction/expansion decisions. Average error per event ranged from 0.04m to 0.29m with error defined as the absolute value of the difference between the recorded amplitude and the predicted amplitude. Had this technique been available during the 1986 Aleutian Is. and the 1994 Kuril Is. tsunami warnings, the warned areas likely would not have been expanded to include the U.S. West Coast, Canada, and Alaska east of Kodiak Island.

Paul M. Whitmore

2003-01-01

215

Peers and peer-based interventions in supporting reintegration and mental health among National Guard soldiers: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

National Guard soldiers experience high levels of mental health symptoms following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, yet many do not seek treatment. We interviewed 30 National Guard soldiers with prior deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan to assess mental health treatment barriers and the role of peers in treatment engagement. Interview transcripts were analyzed by a multidisciplinary research team using techniques drawn from grounded theory. The following themes were identified: (1) personal acceptance of having a mental health problem rather than treatment access is the major barrier to treatment entry; (2) tightly connected, supportive peer networks can decrease stigma related to mental health problems and encourage treatment; however, soldiers in impoverished or conflicted peer networks are less likely to receive these benefits; and (3) soldiers are generally positive about the idea of peer-based programs to improve treatment engagement, although they note the importance of leadership support, peer assignment, and unit specialty in implementing these programs. We conclude that some, but not all, naturally occurring peer networks serve to overcome stigma and encourage mental health treatment seeking by soldiers. Formal peer-based programs may assist soldiers not sufficiently benefitting from natural peer networks, although there are barriers to implementation.

Pfeiffer PN; Blow AJ; Miller E; Forman J; Dalack GW; Valenstein M

2012-12-01

216

Empowering disaster-affected communities for long-term reconstruction: intervening in Sri Lanka after the tsunami.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the importance of interdependencies between nations, delivery of humanitarian aid in an empowering manner, and long-term reconstruction. I examine relationships between overseas actors and local residents in tsunami-affected villages in Sri Lanka in a project initiated by the International Association of Schools of Social Work through its Rebuilding People's Lives After Disasters Network and another based on an institutional endeavour supported by Durham University because these sought to empower local communities through local, egalitarian partnerships. Lacking sufficient educational resources, capacity building in social work education has become a long-term objective.

Dominelli L

2013-01-01

217

A tsunami PSA methodology and application for NPP site in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. ? Tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. ? Procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. ? A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. ? Accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. - Abstract: A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. In this study, tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. In the case of system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real Nuclear Power Plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which located in east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real Nuclear Power Plant in Korea. But for more accurate tsunami PSA result, there are many researches needed for evaluation of hydrodynamic force, effect of debris, structural failure probability of break water structure and intake structure, functional failure criteria for offsite power.

2012-01-01

218

The role of social workers and social service delivery during crisis intervention for tsunami survivors: a case study of Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper seeks to understand the economic, social and psychological impacts on survivors in Thailand of the Asian Tsunami on 26 December 2004. The Tsunami disaster brought about great changes in the lives of survivors, the role of social workers and social service delivery. Problems were actively worked out between many parties resulting in greater collaborations between local, national and international organizations. Social workers worked in a collaborative manner with various professions in delivering crisis intervention. In the case of the Tsunami disaster, there is an emergence of the development of the professional role of social workers and other social service workers to respond to the urgent needs of the family and children survivors.

Busaspathumrong P

2006-01-01

219

Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is 1 November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.

M. A. Baptista; J. M. Miranda

2009-01-01

220

Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and Volcanoes of Southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquakes in this area are concentrated along the Indonesian island arc and the portion of the Circum-Pacific seismic belt which extends from New Guinea through Taiwan. Most of the tsunamis which have been reported from this area have occurred in the Ba...

1968-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12  

Science.gov (United States)

As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after…

Hurst, Marianne D.

2005-01-01

222

Tsunami: Hope in the Midst of Disaster  

Science.gov (United States)

The lives of many were changed forever when a tsunami struck on the morning of December 26, 2004, as a result of an earthquake off the coast of Indonesia registering 9.0 on the Richter scale. Aftershocks in the nearby Andaman and Nicobar Islands sent waves of fear among the survivors, further debilitating their spirits. The aim of this article is…

Thirumurthy, Vidya; Uma, V.; Muthuram, R. N.

2008-01-01

223

Predicting tsunami arrivals: Estimates and policy implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunami is one of a few kinds of natural disasters that leave people some time for escape. This escape time, which is essentially the time for the giant wave to propagate from the epicentre to a coast, has to be estimated without delay upon the occurrence of the incident. With the advancement of wat...

Zhang, DH; Yip, TL; Ng, CO

224

A Tsunami Fragility Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although Tsunami events were defined as an external event in 'PRA Procedure Guide (NUREG/CR- 2300)'after 1982, a Tsunami event was not considered in a design and construction of NPP before the Sumatra earthquake in 2004. But the Madras Atomic Power Station, a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), and located near Chennai, India, was affected by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (USNRC 2008). The condenser cooling pumps of Unit 2 of the installation were affected due to flooding of the pump house and subsequent submergence of the seawater pumps by tsunami waves. The turbine was tripped and the reactor shut down. The unit was brought to a cold-shutdown state, and the shutdown-cooling systems were reported as operating safely. After this event, Tsunami hazards were considered as one of the major natural disasters which can affect the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA performed an Extrabudgetary project for Tsunami Hazard Assessment and finally an International Seismic Safety Center (ISSC) established in IAEA for protection from natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami etc. For this reason, a tsunami hazard assessment method determined in this study. At first, a procedure for tsunami hazard assessment method was established, and second target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. Finally, a sample fragility calculation was performed for one of equipment in Nuclear Power Plant

2009-01-01

225

Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Galapagos Local Time), the Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan, spawning a Pacific-wide tsunami. Approximately 12,000 km away, the Galapagos Islands experienced moderate tsunami impacts, including flooding, structural damage, and strong currents. In this paper, we present observations and measurements of the tsunami effects in the Galapagos, focusing on the four largest islands in the archipelago; (from west to east) Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Access to the tsunami affected areas was one of the largest challenges of the field survey. Aside from approximately ten sandy beaches open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are restricted to anyone without a research permit; open cooperation with the Galapagos National Park provided the survey team complete access to the Islands coastlines. Survey locations were guided by numerical simulations of the tsunami performed prior to the field work. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum tsunami heights were generally in the range of 3-4 m with the highest runup of 6 m measured in a small pocket beach on Isla Isabela. Puerto Ayora, on Santa Cruz Island, the largest harbor in the Galapagos experienced significant flooding and damage to structures located at the shoreline. A current meter moored inside the harbor recorded relatively weak tsunami currents of less than 0.3 m/s (0.6 knot) during the event. Comparisons with detailed numerical simulations suggest that these low current speed observations are most likely the result of data averaging at 20-min intervals and that maximum instantaneous current speeds were considerably larger. Currents in the Canal de Itabaca, a natural waterway between Santa Cruz Island and a smaller island offshore, were strong enough to displace multiple 5.5-ton navigation buoys. Numerical simulations indicate that currents in the Canal de Itabaca exceeded 4 m/s (~8 knots), a very large flow speed for a navigational waterway.

Lynett, Patrick; Weiss, Robert; Renteria, Willington; De La Torre Morales, Giorgio; Son, Sangyoung; Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel

2013-06-01

226

A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunamis. The additional 53 events either are not described with sufficient detail in the literature to verify their tsunami nature or are judged to be reports of other phenomenasuch as sea quakes or hurricane storm surges which may have been reported as tsunamis. Included in these 91 reports are teletsunamis, tectonic tsunamis, landslide tsunamis, and volcanic tsunamis that have caused major damage and deaths. Nevertheless, in recent history these events have been relatively rare. In the interim since the last major tsunami event in the Caribbean Sea the coastal regions have greatly increased in population. Coastal development has also increased. Today tourism is a major industry that exposes thousands of non-residents to the disastrous effects of a tsunami. These factors make the islands in this region much more vulnerable today than they were when the last major tsunami occurred in this area. This paper gives an overview of the tsunami history in the area. This history illustrates what can be expected in the future from this geologic hazard and provides information that will be useful for mitigation purposes.

James F. Lander; LowellS. Whiteside; Patricia A. Lockridge

2002-01-01

227

Football Coaches' Practical Sense of Talent. A Qualitative Study of Talent Identification in Danish National Youth Team Football  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study explores the practical sense of talent among top-level football coaches in Denmark, and aims to identify specific structures of the coaches' expert knowledge related to talent identification. The theoretical foundation of the study is Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework, in particular the concept of practical sense. The data compile from eight biographical, in-depth interviews with Danish national youth team football coaches. The interviews are analyzed through a process of coding and recoding. Thematic cross-case analyses as well as purposeful selected single-case analyses are used to explore the focus area. The results are grouped in three major themes, which characterize core elements of the coaches' practical sense: 1) visual experience and pattern recognition, 2) recognition of individual paths and personal styles, and 3) a model of top-level football coaches' classificatory schemes. Conclusively, the study supports the theory that talent identification in top-level football is strongly connected to the coach's practical sense of the game and taste for football talents. Furthermore, the study points at the importance of being aware of the person "behind" the coach, given that his practical sense will be identifying the future talents.

Christensen, Mette Krogh

228

Frequency Domain Response at Pacific Coast Harbors to Major Tsunamis of 2005-2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis waves caused by submarine earthquake or landslide might contain large wave energy, which could cause significant human loss and property damage locally as well as in distant region. The response of three harbors located at the Pacific coast (i.e. Crescent City Harbor, Los Angeles/Long Beach Port, and San Diego Harbor) to six well-known tsunamis events generated (both near-field and far-field) between 2005 and 2011 are examined and simulated using a hybrid finite element numerical model in frequency domain. The model incorporated the effects of wave refraction, wave diffraction, partial wave reflection from boundaries, entrance and bottom energy dissipation. It can be applied to harbor regions with arbitrary shapes and variable water depth. The computed resonant periods or modes of oscillation for three harbors are in good agreement with the energy spectral analysis of the time series of water surface elevations recorded at tide gauge stations inside three harbors during the six tsunamis events. The computed wave induced currents based on the present model are also in qualitative agreement with some of the reported eye-witness accounts absence of reliable current data. The simulated results show that each harbor responded differently and significantly amplified certain wave period(s) of incident wave trains according to the shape, topography, characteristic dimensions and water depth of the harbor basins.

Xing, Xiuying; Kou, Zhiqing; Huang, Ziyi; Lee, Jiin-Jen

2013-06-01

229

On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate the evolution of initial rectangular shaped humps of water propagating large distances over a constant depth. The objective is to clarify under which circumstances the front of the wave can develop into an undular bore with a leading soliton. In this connection we discuss and test various measures for the threshold distance necessary for nonlinear and dispersive effects to manifest in a transient wave train. In part 2, we simulate the shoaling of long smooth transient and periodic waves on a mild slope and conclude that these waves are effectively non-dispersive. In this connection we discuss the relevance of finite amplitude solitary wave theory in laboratory studies of tsunamis. We conclude that order-of-magnitude errors in effective temporal and spatial duration occur when this theory is used as an approximation for long waves on a sloping bottom. In part 3, we investigate the phenomenon of disintegration of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed e.g. in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficently steep, and as a result the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection with breaking and runup, and conclude that they do not justify a solitary wave model for the bulk tsunami.

Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

2008-01-01

230

Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of nonlinear time series: the earthquake-driven tsunami of 27 February 2010 in Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study general multifractal properties of tidal gauge and long-wave time series which show a well defined transition between two states, as is the case of sea level when a tsunami arrives. We adopt a method based on discrete wavelets, called wavelet leaders, which has been successfully used in a wide range of applications from image analysis to biomedical signals. First, we analyze an empirical time series of tidal gauge from the tsunami event of 27 February 2010 in Chile. Then, we study a numerical solution of the driven-damped regularized long-wave equation (RLWE) which displays on-off intermittency. Both time series are characterized by a sudden change between two sharply distinct dynamical states. Our analysis suggests a correspondence between the pre- and post-tsunami states (ocean background) and the on state in the RLWE, and also between the tsunami state (disturbed ocean) and the off state in the RLWE. A qualitative similarity in their singularity spectra is observed, and since the RLWE is used to model shallow water dynamics, this result could imply an underlying dynamical similarity. PMID:23496582

Toledo, B A; Chian, A C-L; Rempel, E L; Miranda, R A; Muñoz, P R; Valdivia, J A

2013-02-28

231

Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of nonlinear time series: the earthquake-driven tsunami of 27 February 2010 in Chile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study general multifractal properties of tidal gauge and long-wave time series which show a well defined transition between two states, as is the case of sea level when a tsunami arrives. We adopt a method based on discrete wavelets, called wavelet leaders, which has been successfully used in a wide range of applications from image analysis to biomedical signals. First, we analyze an empirical time series of tidal gauge from the tsunami event of 27 February 2010 in Chile. Then, we study a numerical solution of the driven-damped regularized long-wave equation (RLWE) which displays on-off intermittency. Both time series are characterized by a sudden change between two sharply distinct dynamical states. Our analysis suggests a correspondence between the pre- and post-tsunami states (ocean background) and the on state in the RLWE, and also between the tsunami state (disturbed ocean) and the off state in the RLWE. A qualitative similarity in their singularity spectra is observed, and since the RLWE is used to model shallow water dynamics, this result could imply an underlying dynamical similarity.

Toledo BA; Chian AC; Rempel EL; Miranda RA; Muñoz PR; Valdivia JA

2013-02-01

232

Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami-Earthquakes represent natural catastrophes threatening lives and well-being of societies in a solitary and unexpected extreme event as tragically demonstrated in Sumatra (2004), Samoa (2009), Chile (2010), or Japan (2011). Both phenomena are consequences of the complex system of interactions of tectonic stress, fracture mechanics, rock friction, rupture dynamics, fault geometry, ocean bathymetry, and coastline geometry. The ASCETE project forms an interdisciplinary research consortium that couples the most advanced simulation technologies for earthquake rupture dynamics and tsunami propagation to understand the fundamental conditions of tsunami generation. We report on the latest research results in physics-based dynamic rupture and tsunami wave propagation simulation, using unstructured and adaptive meshes with continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization approaches. Coupling both simulation tools - the physics-based dynamic rupture simulation and the hydrodynamic tsunami wave propagation - will give us the possibility to conduct highly realistic studies of the interaction of rupture dynamics and tsunami impact characteristics.

Behrens, Joern

2013-04-01

233

Twin Tsunamis Triggered by the 12 January 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

On 12 January 2010, a magnitude M w 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west-southwest of Haiti's capital Port-au-Prince causing an estimated 316,000 fatalities, thereby exceeding any previous loss of life from a similar size earthquake. In addition, tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least three fatalities at Petit Paradis due to a complete lack of tsunami awareness. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) was deployed within weeks of the event and covered the greater Bay of Port-au-Prince and more than 100 km of Hispaniola's southern coastline. The collected survey data include more than 21 tsunami heights along with observations of coastal land level change. Maximum tsunami heights of 3 m have been measured for two independently triggered tsunamis.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Hillaire, Jean Vilmond; Molière, Emanuel; Wei, Yong; Mohammed, Fahad

2013-09-01

234

Tsunami speed variations in density-stratified compressible global oceans  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed propagator matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4 km deep ocean, the total tsunami speed reduction is 0.44% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. Tsunami speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles, and characteristic structures are discussed. Tsunami speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on tsunami traveltime should be included for precise modeling of transoceanic tsunamis.

Watada, Shingo

2013-08-01

235

DID A SUBMARINE SLIDE TRIGGER THE 1918 PUERTO RICO TSUNAMI?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1918 tsunami that inundated northwest Puerto Rico with up to 6 m waves has been attributed to seafloor faulting associated with the 1918 Mona Canyon earthquake. During the earthquake a series of submarine cable breaks occurred directly off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico where the largest tsunami waves came ashore. Here, we use a recently compiled geophysical data set to reveal that a 9 km long landslide headwall exists in the region where cable breaks occurred during the 1918 earthquake. We incorporate our interpretations into a near-field tsunami wave model to evaluate whether the slide may have triggered the observed 1918 tsunami. Our analysis indicates that this slide could generate a tsunami with phase, arrival times, and run-ups similar to observations along the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. We therefore suggest that a submarine slide offers a plausible alternative explanation for generation of this large tsunami.

Matthew J. Hornbach; Steven A. Mondzie; Nancy R. Grindlay; Cliff Frohlich; Paul Mann

2008-01-01

236

Tsunami generation by ocean floor rupture front propagation: Hamiltonian description  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Hamiltonian method is applied to the problem of tsunami generation caused by a propagating rupture front and deformation of the ocean floor. The method establishes an alternative framework for analyzing the tsunami generation process and produces analytical expressions for the power and directivity of tsunami radiation (in the far-field) for two illustrative cases, with constant and gradually varying speeds of rupture front propagation.

V. I. Pavlov; J. Tromp; E. P. Tito

2009-01-01

237

Post tsunami environmental impact assessment using sediment analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this investigation is to understand the geochemical variation in east coast of marine environment near existing and proposed DAE facilities due to Tsunami. Hence interest in the post Tsunami Environmental Impact study is on the concentration and distribution of radioelement and associated heavy metals. It is therefore essential to study the impact of Tsunami on the marine ecosystem which has been subject to to the impact of industrialization and urbanization of land

2008-01-01

238

The 11 March 2011 East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Tsunami Effects on Coastal Infrastructure and Buildings  

Science.gov (United States)

The 11 March 2011 East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami caused unprecedented damage to well-engineered buildings and coastal structures. This report presents some notable field observations of structural damage based on our surveys conducted along the Sanriku coast in April and June 2011. Engineered reinforced concrete buildings failed by rotation due to the high-velocity and deep tsunami inundation: entrapped air in the buildings and soil liquefaction by ground shaking could have contributed to the failure. The spatial distribution pattern of destroyed and survived buildings indicates that the strength of tsunami was affected significantly by the locations of well-engineered sturdy buildings: weaker buildings in the shadow zone tended to survive while jet and wake formations behind the sturdy buildings enhanced the tsunami forces. We also found that buildings with breakaway walls or breakaway windows/doors remained standing even if the surrounding buildings were washed away or destroyed. Several failure patterns of coastal structures (seawalls) were observed. Flow-induced suction pressure near the seawall crown could have caused the failure of concrete panels that covered the infill. Remarkable destruction of upright solid-concrete type seawalls was closely related with the tsunami induced scour and soil instability. The rapid decrease in inundation depth during the return-flow phase caused soil fluidization down to a substantial depth. This mechanism explains severely undermined roads and foundations observed in the area of low flow velocities.

Yeh, Harry; Sato, Shinji; Tajima, Yoshimitsu

2013-06-01

239

Aspiration pneumonia and challenges following the Samoa Tsunami in 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On 29 September 2009, a large tsunami struck the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean, causing 142 deaths and large numbers of casualties. 199 patients presented to the emergency department within the first 72 hours. Twenty-nine patients were admitted with respiratory symptoms and histories of aspirating contaminated seawater and were diagnosed with tsunami-associated aspiration pneumonia. These patients were initially treated with empiric antibiotics based on drug availability and published experience after the Asian Boxing Day Tsunami of 2006. Antibiotic treatment was subsequently modified with sputum culture information. The good outcomes of the Samoa Tsunami patients may be attributed to early initiation of appropriate antibiotics and timely coordinated management.

Leong-Nowell TA; Leavai F; Ah Ching L; Fiu L; Wyber R; Nisbet M; Jones D; Blackmore T; Ioane-Cleverley T

2012-01-01

240

Landslide tsunami hazard in the Indonesian Sunda Arc  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indonesian archipelago is known for the occurrence of catastrophic earthquake-generated tsunamis along the Sunda Arc. The tsunami hazard associated with submarine landslides however has not been fully addressed. In this paper, we compile the known tsunamigenic events where landslide involvement is certain and summarize the properties of published landslides that were identified with geophysical methods. We depict novel mass movements, found in newly available bathymetry, and determine their key parameters. Using numerical modeling, we compute possible tsunami scenarios. Furthermore, we propose a way of identifying landslide tsunamis using an array of few buoys with bottom pressure units.

S. Brune; A. Y. Babeyko; S. Ladage; S. V. Sobolev

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Study of tsunami propagation in the Ligurian Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami propagation is analyzed for the Ligurian Sea with particular attention on the French coasts of the Mediterranean. Historical data of tsunami manifestation on the French coast are analyzed for the period 2000 B.C.–1991 A.D. Numerical simulations of potential and historical tsunamis in the Ligurian Sea are done in the context of the nonlinear shallow water theory. Tsunami wave heights as well as their distribution function is calculated for historical tsunamis and it is shown that the log-normal distribution describes reasonably the simulated data. This demonstrates the particular role of bottom irregularities for the wave height distribution function near the coastlines. Also, spectral analysis of numerical tide-gauge records is done for potential tsunamis, revealing the complex resonant interactions between the tsunami waves and the bottom oscillations. It is shown that for an earthquake magnitude of 6.8 (averaged value for the Mediterranean Sea) the tsunami phenomenon has a very local character but with long duration. For sources located near the steep continental slope in the vicinity of the French-Italian Rivera, the tsunami tide-gauge records in the vicinity of Cannes – Imperia present irregular oscillations with a characteristic period of 20–30 min and a total duration of 10–20 h. For the western French coasts the amplitudes are significantly less with characteristic low-frequency oscillations (period of 40 min–1 h).

E. Pelinovsky; C. Kharif; I. Riabov; M. Francius

2001-01-01

242

UNDERSTANDING TSUNAMI RISK TO STRUCTURES: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential catastrophic effects of tsunami-induced loading on built infrastructure in the vicinity of shorelines have been brought to the fore by recent global events. However, state- of-the-art building codes remain silent or provide conflicting guidance on designing near- shoreline structures in tsunami-prone areas. This paper focuses on tsunami-induced loading and its effect on structures within the Canadian context. The mechanics of tsunami-induced loading is described based on knowledge gained during reconnaissance visits after the 2004 south-east Asia Tsunami, as well as post-construction visits to countries significantly affected by the destructive forces of the tsunami. To gain an appreciation of the magnitude of tsunami-induced bores for a given seismic event along the western coastal region of Canada, structural analysis of a simple near-shoreline structure was performed considering a proposed loading protocol for tsunami-induced hydraulic bores. These loads were further compared to seismic loading in order to provide an estimation of the tsunami risk and its impact. The work was complemented by experimental results from a large-scale testing program conducted with the purpose of estimating the forces experienced on structural components. Square-, rectangular-, and diamond-shaped columns were used to study the influence of shape. Furthermore, results from debris impact testing are also discussed.

D. Palermo; I. Nistor

2008-01-01

243

Comparison of Tsunami Hazards between Japan and Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 11th, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukushima NPP sites, including their cores, were damaged. The term 'core damage' can be found in safety reports or textbooks on nuclear engineering. Therefore, in this study, a tsunami hazard assessment was performed for Korean NPP sites and was compared to a Japanese tsunami hazard assessment based on a previous tsunami PSA study

2011-01-01

244

The international humanitarian system and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis were an exceptional event. So too was the scale of the response, particularly the level of international funding. Unprecedented donations meant that for once, an international emergency response was largely free of financial constraints. This removal of the funding constraint facilitated observation of the capacity and quality of international disaster aid. The Tsunami Evaluation Coalition conducted five independent thematic assessments in 2005-an impact study was planned, but never implemented. The five evaluations were supported by 44 sub-studies. Based on this work, this paper compares international disaster response objectives, principles and standards with actual performance. It reaches conclusions on four salient aspects: funding; capacity and quality; recovery; and ownership. It ends by proposing a fundamental reorientation of international disaster response approaches that would root them in concepts of sustainable disaster risk reduction and recovery, based on local and national ownership of these processes. PMID:17367371

Telford, John; Cosgrave, John

2007-03-01

245

Structural and qualitative evaluation of microscopy and directly observed treatment centers under revised national tuberculosis control programme in Nanded city of Maharashtra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Structural and qualitative evaluation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) is important to determine actual status of the programme in the field settings and to uncover the concealed gaps. The present cross-sectional study assessed the infrastructural facilities and quality of services provided through microscopy and directly observed treatment (DOT) centers at Nanded city of Maharashtra. The investigator made on spot observation on the activities at microscopy and DOT centers and assessed the infrastructural facilities using an observational checklist. Expert microbiologist cross checked the microscopy report done by the laboratory technicians. It revealed that retrieval mechanism was not functioning in more than half of the DOT centers. Only 5 DOT providers were trained in RNTCP. Stock of sputum containers, methylene blue, and carbol fuchsin was found to be inadequate at some microscopy centers. Half of the laboratory technicians reported high false positive result in spite of being trained. Improvement of infrastructural and logistic support along with the refreshing training for the workers are needed for effective implementation of RNTCP.

Bhagat VM; Gattani PL

2011-01-01

246

The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. METHODS: A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. RESULTS: Six themes emerged: (1) A sense of being overwhelmed, (2) A multitude of health issues, (3) critical challenges in providing health care, (4) access to health and settlement services, (5) overall successes and (6) need for a coordinated approach to migration health. CONCLUSIONS: For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems. PMID:15647108

Fowler, Nancy; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Molinaro, Elizabeth; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Jafarpour, Morteza; Robinson, Susan

2005-01-12

247

The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. METHODS: A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. RESULTS: Six themes emerged: (1) A sense of being overwhelmed, (2) A multitude of health issues, (3) critical challenges in providing health care, (4) access to health and settlement services, (5) overall successes and (6) need for a coordinated approach to migration health. CONCLUSIONS: For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems.

Fowler N; Redwood-Campbell L; Molinaro E; Howard M; Kaczorowski J; Jafarpour M; Robinson S

2005-01-01

248

The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. Methods A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. Results Six themes emerged: (1) A sense of being overwhelmed, (2) A multitude of health issues, (3) critical challenges in providing health care, (4) access to health and settlement services, (5) overall successes and (6) need for a coordinated approach to migration health. Conclusions For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems.

Fowler Nancy; Redwood-Campbell Lynda; Molinaro Elizabeth; Howard Michelle; Kaczorowski Janusz; Jafarpour Morteza; Robinson Susan

2005-01-01

249

Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR has been analyzed. For seismic design, safety components are confirmed to maintain their functions even against recent strong earthquakes. As for Tsunami, some parts of reactor building might be submerged including component cooling water system whose final heat sink is sea water. However, in the JSFR design, safety grade components are independent from component cooling water system (CCWS). The JSFR emergency power supply adopts a gas turbine system with air cooling, since JSFR does not basically require quick start-up of the emergency power supply thanks to the natural convection DHRS. Even in case of long station blackout, the DHRS could be activated by emergency batteries or manually and be operated continuously by natural convection. (authors)

Chikazawa, Y.; Enuma, Y.; Kisohara, N.; Yamano, H.; Kubo, S.; Hayafune, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraci (Japan); Sagawa, H.; Okamura, S.; Shimakawa, Y. [Mitsubishi FBR Systems Inc., 2-34-17 Jingumae, Shibuya, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-07-01

250

Tsunamis, Viscosity and the HBT Puzzle  

CERN Document Server

The equation of state and bulk and shear viscosities are shown to be able to affect the transverse dynamics of a central heavy ion collision. The net entropy, along with the femtoscopic radii are shown to be affected at the 10-20% level by both shear and bulk viscosity. The degree to which these effects help build a tsunami-like pulse is also discussed.

Pratt, Scott

2007-01-01

251

Asteroid impact tsunami of 2880 March 16  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA scientists have given a 1.1-km diameter asteroid (1950 DA) a 0.0 to 0.3 per cent probability of colliding with the Earth in the year 2880. This article examines a scenario where 1950 DA strikes the sea 600 km east of the United States coast. Travelling at 17.8 km s-1, the asteroid would blow a cavity 19 km in diameter and as deep as the ocean (5 km) at the impact site. Tsunami waves hundreds of metres high would follow as the transient impact cavity collapses. The tsunami disperses quickly; but because the waves are so large initially, destructive energy carries basin-wide. Within two hours of the scenario impact, 100-m waves make landfall from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. Within 12 hours, 20-m waves arrive in Europe and Africa. Water velocity at the deep ocean floor exceeds 1 m s-1 to 800-km distance, strong enough to leave a widespread tsunami signature in the sedimentary record.

Ward, Steven N.; Asphaug, Erik

2003-06-01

252

Influence of sedimentary layering on tsunami generation  

CERN Document Server

The present article is devoted to the influence of sediment layers on the process of tsunami generation. The main scope here is to demonstrate and especially quantify the effect of sedimentation on seabed vertical displacements due to an underwater earthquake. The fault is modelled as a Volterra-type dislocation in an elastic half-space. The elastodynamics equations are integrated with a finite element method. A comparison between two cases is performed. The first one corresponds to the classical situation of an elastic homogeneous and isotropic half-space, which is traditionally used for the generation of tsunamis. The second test case takes into account the presence of a sediment layer separating the oceanic column from the hard rock. Some important differences are revealed. The results of the present study may partially explain why the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 produced such a big tsunami. More precisely, we conjecture that the wave amplitude in the generation region may have bee...

Dutykh, Denys

2008-01-01

253

MOMENTUM AS A USEFUL TSUNAMI DESCRIPTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In looking at the videos of the Indonesian tsunami coming ashore at various locations, I thought, “That’s a lot of water with a lot of momentum, and that’s what does the damage.”Perhaps the momentum of a tsunami might be a physical quantity to focus on. Only external forces on the designated body of water create its momentum. Within the body of water, turbulence, internal friction and laminar flow involve internal forces and are not relevant.This could be particularly useful in the generating area. There could be external forces on a designated body of water from a landslide, a pyroclastic flow, an explosion, from steam generation and from chunks of matter falling into the ocean. The horizontal components of those forces result in horizontal momentums. Ultimately when the wave moves out from the generating area and the internal turbulence and laminar flow get dissipated by friction, in the remaining long wave motion the wave height is simply related to the horizontal momentum. The horizontal momentum contribution to the directionality of the wave would be narrower than that due only to the initial vertical displacement.Focusing on the momentum description of the tsunami introduces many new kinds of physical problems that are interesting in themselves.

Harold G. Loomis

2006-01-01

254

Patient and carer experience of obtaining regular prescribed medication for chronic disease in the English National Health Service: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The increasing burden of chronic disease is recognised globally. Within the English National Health Service, patients with chronic disease comprise of half of all consultations in primary care, and 70% of inpatient bed days. The cost of prescribing long-term medications for those with physical chronic diseases is rising and there is a drive to reduce medicine wastage and costs. While current policies in England are focused on the latter, there has been little previous research on patient experience of ordering and obtaining regular medication for their chronic disease. This paper presents findings from England of a qualitative study and survey of patients and their carers' experiences of community and primary care based services for physical chronic diseases. Although not the primary focus of the study, the results highlighted particular issues around service delivery of repeat prescriptions. METHODS: We conducted 21 qualitative in-depth interviews with 30 patients and family carers' in two Primary Care Trusts in England. Participants were receiving community based care for diabetes, respiratory, neurological or complex co-morbidities, and ranged in age from 39-92 years old. We used a broadly inductive approach to enable themes around patient experience to emerge from the data. RESULTS: While the study sought to gain an overview of patient experience, the findings suggested that the processes associated with ordering and obtaining regular medication - the repeat prescription, was most frequently described as a recurring hassle of managing a long-term condition. Issues for patients and carers included multiple journeys to the surgery and pharmacy, lack of synchrony and dissatisfaction with the length of prescriptions. CONCLUSION: Much literature exists around medication waste and cost, which led to encouragement from the NHS in England to reduce dosage units to a 28-day supply. While there has been an acknowledgement that longer supplies may be suitable for people with stable chronic conditions, it appears that there is limited evidence on the impact of shorter length prescriptions on patient and carer experience, adherence and health outcomes. Recent policy documents within England also fail to address possible links between patient experience, adherence and flaws within repeat prescription service delivery.

Wilson PM; Kataria N; McNeilly E

2013-05-01

255

Patient and carer experience of obtaining regular prescribed medication for chronic disease in the English National Health Service: a qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The increasing burden of chronic disease is recognised globally. Within the English National Health Service, patients with chronic disease comprise of half of all consultations in primary care, and 70% of inpatient bed days. The cost of prescribing long-term medications for those with physical chronic diseases is rising and there is a drive to reduce medicine wastage and costs. While current policies in England are focused on the latter, there has been little previous research on patient experience of ordering and obtaining regular medication for their chronic disease. This paper presents findings from England of a qualitative study and survey of patients and their carers' experiences of community and primary care based services for physical chronic diseases. Although not the primary focus of the study, the results highlighted particular issues around service delivery of repeat prescriptions. METHODS: We conducted 21 qualitative in-depth interviews with 30 patients and family carers' in two Primary Care Trusts in England. Participants were receiving community based care for diabetes, respiratory, neurological or complex co-morbidities, and ranged in age from 39-92 years old. We used a broadly inductive approach to enable themes around patient experience to emerge from the data. RESULTS: While the study sought to gain an overview of patient experience, the findings suggested that the processes associated with ordering and obtaining regular medication - the repeat prescription, was most frequently described as a recurring hassle of managing a long-term condition. Issues for patients and carers included multiple journeys to the surgery and pharmacy, lack of synchrony and dissatisfaction with the length of prescriptions. CONCLUSION: Much literature exists around medication waste and cost, which led to encouragement from the NHS in England to reduce dosage units to a 28-day supply. While there has been an acknowledgement that longer supplies may be suitable for people with stable chronic conditions, it appears that there is limited evidence on the impact of shorter length prescriptions on patient and carer experience, adherence and health outcomes. Recent policy documents within England also fail to address possible links between patient experience, adherence and flaws within repeat prescription service delivery. PMID:23705866

Wilson, Patricia M; Kataria, Neha; McNeilly, Elaine

2013-05-24

256

Coping with the Asian tsunami : perspectives from Tamil Nadu, India on the determinants of resilience in the face of adversity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 wreaked havoc along the southeastern coast of India and resulted in devastating losses. The high rates of long-term mental health consequences in adult survivors predicted immediately after the disaster have not been borne out by recent surveys. This qualitative study explored the psychological impact of the tsunami on survivors with a view to gaining insights into the ethno-cultural coping mechanisms of affected communities and evaluating resilience in the face of incomprehensible adversity. We conducted focus group discussions 9 months after the tsunami with two groups of fishermen, two groups of housewives, a group of village leaders and a group of young men in four affected villages of Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu, India. In spite of incomplete reconstruction of their lives, participants reconstructed meaning for the causes and the aftermath of the disaster in their cultural idiom. Qualitative changes in their social structure, processes and attitudes towards different aspects of life were revealed. Survivors valued their unique individual, social and spiritual coping strategies more than formal mental health services. Their stories confirm the assertion that the collective response to massive trauma need not necessarily result in social collapse but also includes positive effects. The results of this study suggest that interventions after disaster should be grounded in ethno-cultural beliefs and practices and should be aimed at strengthening prevailing community coping strategies.

Rajamani, Anto Praveen Rajkumar; Premkumar, Titus S

2008-01-01

257

Insights into the problems of communicating tsunami warnings and tsunami awareness education from decision loop analysis of behavior during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Decision loop analysis allows us to interpret video and photograph evidence of the behavior of people in Sumatra, Thailand and Sri Lanka during the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, and to identify problems in communication of tsunami warnings to the general population. Decision loop analysis identifies four steps in the response to a threat: observation (of warning signs); orientation (recognition of the significance of those warning signs); decision (on what response to make); action (implementation of that response). In the case of the Indian Ocean tsunami, lack of tsunami awareness generally caused the decision loop to break down at the orientation stage, even where observation of the incoming waves was reinforced by shouted warnings. Where the orientation step was made early, evacuations were often successful. In the zone of strongest felt seismic intensity the population was subject to information overload (even though damage was often limited) and spent the time between the earthquake and the arrival of the tsunami responding to the earthquake: this "blitzkrieg" effect is a significant obstacle to near - source tsunami mitigation. In other cases, the loop broke down at the decision stage: frequently fatal decisions about where to go emphasize the need for clearly signposted tsunami evacuation routes. Decision loop analysis therefore highlights the different components needed in Education for Self Warning and Voluntary Evacuation (ESWAVE) as part of tsunami mitigation. The abundant video and photograph recordings of the 2004 tsunami provide much material for this approach, similar to the films of volcanic eruptions by Maurice and Katia Krafft that have been used to raise awareness of volcanic hazards after the 1985 Armero lahar disaster.

Fahey, P.; Day, S. J.

2007-12-01

258

Applying and validating the PTVA-3 Model at the Aeolian Islands, Italy: assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy) is included on the UNESCO World Heritage list and is visited by more than 200 000 tourists per year. Due to its geological characteristics, the risk related to volcanic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by eight local tsunamis. The most recent and intense of these events happened on 30 December 2002. It was triggered by two successive landslides along the north-western side of the Stromboli volcano (Sciara del Fuoco), which poured approximately 2-3×107 m3 of rocks and debris into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The waves impacted across the whole archipelago, but most of the damage to buildings and infrastructures occurred on the islands of Stromboli (maximum run-up 11 m) and Panarea. The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of buildings to damage from tsunamis located within the same area inundated by the 2002 event. The assessment is carried out by using the PTVA-3 Model (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment, version 3). The PTVA-3 Model calculates a Relative Vulnerability Index (RVI) for every building, based on a set of selected physical and structural attributes. Run-up values within the area inundated by the 2002 tsunami were measured and mapped by the Istituto Italiano di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the University of Bologna during field surveys in January 2003. Results of the assessment show that if the same tsunami were to occur today, 54 buildings would be affected in Stromboli, and 5 in Panarea. The overall vulnerability level obtained in this analysis for Stromboli and Panarea are "average"/"low" and "very low", respectively. Nonetheless, 14 buildings in Stromboli are classified as having a "high" or "average" vulnerability. For some buildings, we were able to validate the RVI scores calculated by the PTVA-3 Model through a qualitative comparison with photographs taken by INGV and the University of Bologna during the post-tsunami survey. With the exception of a single structure, which is partially covered by a coastal dune on the seaward side, we found a good degree of accuracy between the PTVA-3 Model forecast assessments and the actual degree of damage experienced by buildings. This validation of the model increases our confidence in its predictive capability. Given the high tsunami risk for the archipelago, our results provide a framework for prioritising investments in prevention measures and addressing the most relevant vulnerability issues of the built environment, particularly on the island of Stromboli.

Dall'Osso, F.; Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Brizuela, B.; Cavalletti, A.; Gonella, M.; Tinti, S.

2010-07-01

259

Preliminary Analysis of the Tsunami Generated by the 23 June 2001 Peru Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

This animation shows a model of the tsunami generated by the June 23, 2001 Peru earthquake. The first 33 minutes of tsunami propagation are shown. The tsunami is generated very near the coast and propagates outward to the Pacific Basin and along the coastline to the north and south. Largest offshore tsunami amplitudes are in the Chala-Camaná region of southern Peru.

Usgs

260

A new multi-sensor approach to simulation assisted tsunami early warning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new tsunami forecasting method for near-field tsunami warning is presented. This method is applied in the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, as part of the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Center in Jakarta, Indonesia. The method employs a rigorous approach to minimize uncertainty in the as...

J. Behrens; A. Androsov; A. Y. Babeyko; S. Harig; F. Klaschka; L. Mentrup

 
 
 
 
261

TSUNAMI PROPAGATION OVER THE NORTH PACIFIC: DISPERSIVE AND NONDISPERSIVE MODELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrostatic (HY) and non-hydrostatic (NHY) tsunami physics is compared by application to the Kuril Island Tsunami (KIT) of November 2006 and the Japan Tsunami (JT) of March 2011. Our purpose is to study the significance of dispersive vs. non-dispersive long waves on global tsunami propagation. A tool which is well suited to revealing tsunami wave transformations is the energy flux. Expressions for dispersive and non-dispersive fluxes have been formulated. This provides an understanding of the role of dispersion in tsunami propagation and dissipation. Separating the pressure field into two parts i.e., HY and NHY shows that dispersive waves extract energy from the main wave, directing the dispersive energy flux away from the wave front. The major result of the application of the energy flux to non-dispersive waves is an enhanced understanding of later tsunami wave train arrivals at distant points – with arrivals sometimes occurring several hours after an initial forerunner wave. Computations show that strong differences between non-dispersive and dispersive waves develop along the length of the main energy beam. This has important consequences for accurate tsunami prediction and warnings.

Juan Horrillo; William Knight; Zygmunt Kowalik

2012-01-01

262

The Force of a Tsunami on a Wave Energy Converter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With an increasing emphasis on renewable energy resources, wave power technology is fast becoming a realistic solution. However, the recent tsunami in Japan was a harsh reminder of the ferocity of the ocean. It is known that tsunamis are nearly undetectable in the open ocean but as the wave approach...

O'Brien, Laura; Christodoulides, Paul; Renzi, Emiliano; Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

263

Impact of a 1755-like tsunami in Huelva, Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal areas are highly exposed to natural hazards associated with the sea. In all cases where there is historical evidence for devastating tsunamis, as is the case of the southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, there is a need for quantitative hazard tsunami assessment to support spatial plannin...

V. V. Lima; J. M. Miranda; M. A. Baptista; J. Catalão; M. Gonzalez; L. Otero; M. Olabarrieta; J. A. Álvarez-Gómez; E. Carreño

264

Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

Chilcote, Rebekah L.

2007-01-01

265

Adaptive Mesh Refinement Applied to Tsunami Modeling: TsunaFLASH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The devastating Sumatra-Andaman tsunami of December 2004, is a milestone for the internationalcommunity striving to introduce measures to prevent hazards from (future) tsunamis. One of themeasures is numerical modeling which plays a key role for predictions as well as inundation mappingdevelopments....

Pranowo, Widodo Setiyo

266

Landslide generated tsunamis : numerical modeling and real-time prediction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Submarine landslides can generate local tsunamis posing a hazard to human lives and coastal facilities. Two major related problems are: (i) quantitative estimation of tsunami hazard and (ii) early detection of the most dangerous landslides. This thesis focuses on both those issues by providing numer...

Brune, Sascha

267

Energy flux as a tool in locating tsunami secondary sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sea levels recorded in the wake of Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 and of the Kuril Island Tsunami of November 2006 show strong tsunami signal enhancement of the late arriving secondary waves. Using these tsunami eventswe demonstrate thatsudden changes caused by higher energy pulses in the intermittent tsunami wave trains can be assessed by energy fluxes. Therefore, to delineate the regions of tsunami wave amplification and travel time we propose to use energy flux.A series of numerical experimentsdefinedinexplicitwaythe bathymetric features which scatter tsunami signal towards ports, like Crescent City. Identification of the distant bathymetric featureswas achievable sincethe energy fluxvectordelineatedthe energy pathways that coupled distant bathymetric features to portslocated thousands of kilometers apart. Calculations of the energy flux vector involves simple formulas based on two components of velocity and sea level. The maximum of the energy flux (which has no directional properties) can be evaluated from the sea level amplitude, hence both observed and computed sea level can be used for this purpose. The main task of this paper is to suggest that tsunami warning and prediction services should use numerical-hydrodynamical models with wider scope of physical processes by incorporating the energy balance equation into presently used tools.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2008-01-01

268

The influences of Media within the Tsunami & Pakistani earthquake - 2005  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project is an analysis of the media coverage of both the Tsunami in South East Asia and the earthquake in Pakistan. This comparison has lead to the conclusion that the Tsunami received most coverage and this project tries to answer why and how media chooses so. In connection to the funding rece...

Reymann, Marie Emilie Leth; Pedersen, Mitzi; Mortensen, Thor Storm; Nat-George, Jonathan Arthur; Prole, Rebekah Anne

269

The Asian Tsunami: PAHO disaster guidelines in action in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: On 26 December 2004, an earthquake (9.0 Richter, 10 kilometers below the sea) near Sumatra, Indonesia, triggered a tsunami, which traveled at approximately 800 km per hour to strike the Indian coastline. The disaster response at a 100-bed hospital situated on the beach front (2,028 km from the epicenter) is described. This paper underlines the benefit of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Natural Disasters in the Indian setting. METHODS: The demand on the healthcare system in the affected study area (50 km2, 40,000 population) was assessed in terms of preparedness, response time, casualties, personnel, and resources. Other disaster issues studied included: (1) the disposal of the dead; (2) sanitation; (3) water supply; (4) food; (5) the role of the media; and (6) rehabilitation. Two hospital paramedics administered a disaster-related questionnaire in the local language to the victims (or an accompanying person) upon arrival at the hospital. Personal interviews with administrative officials involved in incident management, aid, volunteers, and response, also were conducted. The outreach programs consisted of medical camps, health education, re-chlorination of contaminated drinking water, and spraying bleaching powder on wet floor areas. RESULTS: The total death toll in the area was 62 (with 56, four, and two bodies being recovered on Day 1, 2, and 3 respectively). There were 17 deceased males and 45 females. The bodies immediately were handed over to the relatives upon identification or sent to the mortuary. The attendance in the makeshift accident-and-emergency department on the day of the Tsunami was 219, surged to 339 patients on Day 2, and returned to baseline census on Day 7. Essentially, injuries were minor, and two children with pulmonary edema secondary to salt-water drowning recovered fully. The hospital was cleaned of debris and seaweed on Day 3 and the equipment was restored, but it remained only partially functional. This is because many staff members did not come to work because of rumors that another tsunami was imminent. There were no outbreaks of water-borne illnesses. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms such as panic attacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of water, being startled by loud sounds, and palpitations were detected in 17% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: After an event, medical rescue personnel often are instructed by well-meaning authorities to conduct interventions and response, which have high visibility in the media. However, strictly adhering to the PAHO/WHO guidelines proved to be cost-effective in terms of resource allocations and disaster responses in the Tsunami-affected areas. Unnecessary mass vaccinations, mass disposal of dead bodies without identification, and an influx of untrained volunteers were avoided. Inappropriate aid by developed nations often is unmindful of the victims' needs and self-esteem. The survivors demonstrated natural coping mechanisms and resilience, which only required time and psychosocial support.

Roy N

2006-09-01

270

Post tsunami changes in soil properties of Andaman Islands, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A post tsunami study was conducted to assess the changes in soil properties in the Andaman Island, in India. The present study reported tsunami led conversion of acid soils to saline acid soils and acid sodic soils to acid saline sodic soils in the areas South Andaman inundated during tsunami and permanently receded later and in the low-lying area submerged during high tides. Upon intense leaching acid saline soils and acid saline sodic may further develop typical characteristics of acidic soils and acidic sodic soil, respectively. The soil at Guptapara inundated almost due to tsunami with minimal pyrite oxidation has potential to develop into highly acidic soils upon drainage. The tsunami by and large has modified some depositional layer affecting the salt accumulation to a greater extent and iron to a lesser extent and least to sodicity.

Nayak AK; Damodaran T; Singh CS; Jha SK; Raja D; Mishra VK; Sharma DK; Singh G

2010-11-01

271

TSUNAMIS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA A GUIDE OF HISTORIC EVENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Arabian Peninsula has been affected by tsunamis in the past. The Peninsula is bounded by the Persian Gulf on its northeast side, the Red Sea on its west side, and the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean to its east and south. Each of these areas is very different geographically, tectonically, and bathymetrically.Only two, localized tsunamis have been recorded in the Red Sea and one, doubtful, tsunami in the Persian Gulf. Almost all of the recorded tsunamis along the Arabian Peninsula have occurred on its eastern and southern edge, some, such as the one formed by the 1945 Makran earthquake, were extremely destructive. The Indian Ocean is the most likely source area for future destructive tsunamis that would impact the Arabian Peninsula.

Benjamin R. Jordan

2008-01-01

272

Development of guideline for assessing large tsunami countermeasures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Tsunami caused a nuclear accident in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants (NPPs), which led to massive social fear of the NPPs. The Japan Society of Maintenology organized a special committee to develop a methodology of assessing the safety of Japanese NPPs that the short-term measures against large tsunami had been taken after March 11. The vigorous study and discussion resulted in the 'Guideline for Assessing Large Tsunami Countermeasures in Japanese Nuclear Power Plants'. By applying it, robustness of NPPs (37 units not including TEPCO plants) against large tsunami had been assessed. This article explained background of preparing the guideline, its contents, and evaluated results by applying it, and further needed activities. Waterproofing and multiplicity of batteries and reinforcement of external power such as small-sized gas turbines installed near NPPs would contribute much to upgrade safety of NPPs against large tsunami. (T. Tanaka)

2012-01-01

273

THE TSUNAMI ASSESSMENT MODELLING SYSTEM BY THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System was developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, in order to serve Tsunami early warning systems such as the Global Disaster Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in the evaluation of possible consequences by a Tsunami of seismic nature. The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System is currently operational and is calculating in real time all the events occurring in the world, calculating the expected Tsunami wave height and identifying the locations where the wave height should be too high. The first part of the paper describes the structure of the system, the underlying analytical models and the informatics arrangement; the second part shows the activation of the system and the results of the calculated analyses. The final part shows future development of this modeling tool.

Alessandro Annunziato

2007-01-01

274

Tsunami Hazard Evaluation for the East Coast of Korea by using Empirical Data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a tsunami hazard curve was determined for a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) induced tsunami event in Nuclear Power Plant site. A Tsunami catalogue was developed by using historical tsunami record which happen before 1900 and instrumental tsunami record after 1900. For the evaluation of return period of tsunami run-up height, power-law, uppertruncated power law and exponential function were considered for the assessment of regression curves and compared with each result. Although the total tsunami records were only 9 times at the east coast of Korea during tsunami catalogue, there was no such research like this about tsunami hazard curve evaluation and this research lay a cornerstone for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) in Korea

2010-01-01

275

The Tsunami and the Chit Fund- Evidence from the Indian Ocean Tsunami Hit on Credit Demand in South India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on credit demand in South India. Combining data from a semi-formal financial intermediary with geophysical data on the Tsunami, we estimate the extent to which the price of credit and the structure of credit flows changed in response to this sh...

Czura, Kristina; Klonner, Stefan

276

Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazard in this area, tsunami fragility curves were developed. Surveyed data of inundation depth and visual inspection of satellite images of Dichato were used to classify the damage to housing. A practical method suitable when there are limitations on available data for numerical simulation or damage evaluation from surveys is presented here. This study is the first application of tsunami fragility curves on the South American Pacific coast and it might be of practical use for communities with similar characteristics along the west Pacific coast. The proposed curve suggests that structures in Dichato will be severely damaged – with a 68% probability – already at 2 m tsunami inundation depth.

E. Mas; S. Koshimura; A. Suppasri; M. Matsuoka; M. Matsuyama; T. Yoshii; C. Jimenez; F. Yamazaki; F. Imamura

2012-01-01

277

The Tsunami’s CSR Effect: MNEs and Philanthropic Responses to the Disaster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper contributes to the literature on CSR and International Business by linking firm internationalization to corporate philanthropy. Considering the 2004 Tsunami disaster as a highly relevant case of an international societal issue, we analyze the characteristics of the corporate response to t...

Whiteman, G.M.; Muller, A.R.; Voort, J. van der; Wijk, J.C.A.C. van; Meijs, L.C.P.M.; Piqué, C.

278

Integrated warning system for tsunami and storm surges in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunami and storm surges result in unusual oscillation of seal level, flooding the coastal zones and constitute the major marine disasters in China. Damage by storm surges occurs frequently. According to statistics there are 14 storm surge events exceeding 1 every year on the average. Six of them are typhoon surges and the other eight are extra-tropical surges. In general, in China, there is one severe disaster of storm surge every two years. Monitoring, forecasting and warning for storm surges, including the drop of water level, are the major part of the operational oceanographic services in China. Such a warning system has been set up and is operated by the State Oceanic Administration since 1974. The results of the historical study of tsunami in the last few years pointed out that the anomaly of sea level generated by tele-tsunamis originating in the Pacific Ocean Basin is less than 30 cm on the mainland coast, but local tsunami in the China Seas can be very dangerous. For example, more than 50,000 people were killed by a tsunami in Taiwan and in Taiwan Strait in 1781. It resulted in more deaths than any other tsunami in recorded history. However, the frequency of tsunami disaster is very low for the coast of China, averaging only one every 100 years. It is impossible to set up an independent tsunami warning system in China. It is more practical to set up an integrated warning system on tsunami and on storm surges consisting of: A sea level observing network with real time sea level data acquisition capability; A monitoring system of weather causing the storm surges and of seismic stations monitoring tsunamigenic earthquakes; A tidal prediction scheme for operational use; A forecasting scheme for storm surges and tsunami analysis; The means for warning dissemination. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

1989-01-01

279

Qualitative Distances  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A framework for the representation of qualitative distances is developedinspired by previous work on qualitative orientation. It isbased on the concept of "distance systems" consisting of a list of distancerelations and a set of structure relations that describe how thedistance relations in turn relate to each other. The framework is characterizedby making the role of the "frame of reference" explicit, whichcaptures contextual information essential for the representation of distances.The composition of distance relations as main inference mechanismto reason about distances within a given frame of reference isexplained, in particular under "homogeneous structural restrictions".Finally, we introduce articulation rules as a way to mediate betweendifferent frames of reference.The work of Daniel Hern'andez reported here has been partially funded by the GermanMinistry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under FKZ ITN9102B.yThe work of Eliseo Clementini and Paolino Di Felice...

Fakultat Fur Informatik; Eliseo Clementini; Paolino Di Felice

280

Qualitative Distances  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A framework for the representation of qualitative distances is developedinspired by previous work on qualitative orientation. It isbased on the concept of "distance systems" consisting of a list of distancerelations and a set of structure relations that describe how thedistance relations in turn relate to each other. The framework is characterizedby making the role of the "frame of reference" explicit, whichcaptures contextual information essential for the representation of distances.The composition of distance relations as main inference mechanismto reason about distances within a given frame of reference isexplained, in particular under "homogeneous structural restrictions".Finally, we introduce articulation rules as a way to mediate betweendifferent frames of reference.The work of Daniel Hern'andez reported here has been partially funded by the GermanMinistry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under FKZ ITN9102B.yThe work of Eliseo Clementini and Paolino...

Fakultat Fur Informatik; Eliseo Clementini; Paolino Di Felice

 
 
 
 
281

Recovery of an estuary in the southwest coast of India from tsunami impacts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water quality in the Cochin Estuary, southwest coast of India during the tsunami attack was assessed and compared with the pre and post tsunami characteristics. From the results obtained, it is evident that a drastic change in hydrography has been inflicted by the energy transferred through the tsunami, which disturbed the entire estuarine embayment. However, the post tsunami water quality showed normal levels indicating that the region has recovered from the tsunami impacts.

Laluraj CM; Kesavadas V; Balachandran KK; Gerson VJ; Martin GD; Shaiju P; Revichandran C; Joseph T; Nair M

2007-02-01

282

EL TERREMOTO Y POSTERIOR TSUNAMI DEL 26 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2004 EN INDONESIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A short compilation of the cause, characteristics and effects of the tsunami generated on the 26 of December of 2004 in Indonesia is presented here. The general context of generation of this phenomena is illustrated together with the tectonic environment in which this tsunami in particular was produced. Finally, a brief introduction to tsunamis in Colombia including tsunami cases and areas of higher tsunami hazard is considered.

ESTRADA ROLDÁN, BEATRIZ ELENA; FARBIARZ FARBIARZ, JOSEF

2005-03-01

283

STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS IN THE INTRA-AMERICAS SEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential impact of past Caribbean tsunamis generated by earthquakes and/or massive submarine slides/slumps, as well as the tsunamigenic potential and population distribution within the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS) is examined to help define the optimal location for coastal sea level gauges intended to serve as elements of a regional tsunami warning system. The goal of this study is to identify the minimum number of sea level gauge locations to aid in tsunami detection and provide the most warning time to the largest number of people. We identified 12 initial, prioritized locations for coastal sea level gauge installation. Our study area approximately encompasses 7oN, 59oW to 36oN, 98oW. The results of this systematic approach to assess priority locations for coastal sea level gauges will assist in developing a tsunami warning system (TWS) for the IAS by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Regional Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE-GOOS).

Joshua I. Henson; Frank Muller-Karger; Doug Wilson; Steven L. Morey; George A. Maul; Mark Luther; Christine Kranenburg

2006-01-01

284

A NEW TSUNAMI RISK SCALE FOR WARNING SYSTEMS - APPLICATION TO THE BAY OF ALGIERS IN ALGERIA, WEST MEDITERRANEAN SEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The city of Algiers and the surrounding coastal areas in northern Algeria are vulnerable to earthquakes which range from moderate to severe. In 2006, using several possible earthquake scenarios for the Western Mediterranean, the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Algerian National Seismic Engineering Research Center predicted that heavy damage could occur in the Algiers region. Algerian Civil Defense authorities are particularly concerned by the threat of near-field earthquakes, associated slides and rock falls, as well as for tsunamis that can be generated. The present study proposes a new tsunami risk scale that provides information about the exposed communities and infrastructure, which can be used for regional tsunami alerts and warnings. Furthermore, it evaluates the vulnerability along the Bay of Algiers from tsunamigenic earthquakes. The JMA seismic intensity scale (Shindo scale) and the corresponding seismic peak ground accelerations are used in the evaluation. The results of tsunami modeling studies and of earthquake vulnerability assessment described by the present study, emphasize the significance of public education and preparedness in efforts to mitigate loss of life and damage to property.

L. A. Amir; A. Cisternas; W. Dudley; B. G. McAdoo; G. Pararas-Carayannis

2013-01-01

285

Global Financial Tsunami Impacts Russian Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Russian economy depends on energy resources highly. Due to impacts of the financial crisis and the sharp decrease of oil price, Russian economy driven by “Petro-dollar” tends to develop slowly. The overwhelming financial tsunami not only impacts Russian financial system but also influences Russian substantial economy. Russian government adopts relevant financial policies in time, keeping the stability of domestic currency, depressing the inflation, and enhancing the support for SMEs and substantial economy. In 2009, Russian economy recovers its vitality, stepping forward steadily.

Chunyang Shi

2010-01-01

286

Tsunami hazard scenarios in the Adriatic Sea domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tsunami phenomenon is mainly detected in oceanic domains but it can also occur in small basins as the Adriatic Sea. The presence of great waves has been recorded a few times in the past centuries on the Adriatic shorelines, therefore this suggests the idea to evaluate which could be the maximum amplitude reached by a possible future tsunami event. In this framework we calculate several synthetic mareograms applying to the shallow water basin case both the theory of modal summation by Panza et al. (2000) and the theory of the Green's function by Yanovskaya et al. (2003). The first is applied to the case of tsunamis generated by an offshore source, the second to the case of tsunamis generated by an inland source. Both kinds of tsunamigenic events did already occur in the Adriatic domain, as witnessed in many catalogues (Caputo and Faita, 1984; Bedosti and Caputo, 1986; Tinti et al., 2004) and also pointed out in the recent "Catalogue of reported tsunami events in the Adriatic Sea" (see Appendix). We calculate synthetic mareograms varying those parameters which are the most influencing in tsunami generation, such as magnitude, focal depth, water layer thickness, etc., in order to estimate the expected values of tsunami maximum amplitude and arrival time, in the whole Adriatic basin, for the selected scenarios.

M. Paulatto; T. Pinat; F. Romanelli

2007-01-01

287

Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean. Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP) and event-driven architecture (EDA)) are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

J. Wächter; A. Babeyko; J. Fleischer; R. Häner; M. Hammitzsch; A. Kloth; M. Lendholt

2012-01-01

288

The living environment and children's fears following the Indonesian tsunami.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tsunami that struck South-east Asia on 26 December 2004 left more than 500,000 people in Aceh, Indonesia, homeless and displaced to temporary barracks and other communities. This study examines the associations between prolonged habitation in barracks and the nature of fears reported by school-age children and adolescents. In mid-2007, 30 months after the tsunami, the authors interviewed 155 child and parent dyads. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the fears reported by children and adolescents living in barracks with those reported by their peers who were living in villages. After adjusting for demographic factors and tsunami exposure, the data reveals that children and adolescents living in barracks were three times more likely than those living in villages to report tsunami-related fears. The study demonstrates that continued residence in barracks 30 months after the tsunami is associated with higher rates of reporting tsunami-related fears, suggesting that barracks habitation has had a significant impact on the psychological experience of children and adolescents since the tsunami.

Du YB; Lee CT; Christina D; Belfer ML; Betancourt TS; O'Rourke EJ; Palfrey JS

2012-07-01

289

Tsunami Research Status in IAEA after Fukushima Event  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 11th, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukishima NPP sites. After Japan earthquake, many international researches about tsunami and earthquake event were started or revised. Especially, the most remarkable point of the great earthquake in east coast of Japan was tsunami event. Before this earthquake, the Niigata earthquake occurred in 2007 and the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant had little damaged. The research about the safety of nuclear power plant against earthquake events was activated by 2007 Niigata earthquake. However, the researches about a tsunami event were very few and only tsunami simulation was only focused. After the Fukushima accident, the international society became very interested in tsunami event as a major external event. Therefore in this study, the tsunami research status in IAEA after Fukushima event and the role of Korea are introduced

2012-01-01

290

Forecasting Wave Amplitudes after the Arrival of a Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The destructive Pacific Ocean tsunami generated off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 prompted the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) to issue a tsunami warning and advisory for the coastal regions of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. Estimating the length of time the warning or advisory would remain in effect proved difficult. To address this problem, the WCATWC developed a technique to estimate the amplitude decay of a tsunami recorded at tide stations within the Warning Center's Area of Responsibly (AOR). At many sites along the West Coast of North America, the tsunami wave amplitudes will decay exponentially following the arrival of the maximum wave (uc(Mofjeld) et al., Nat Hazards 22:71-89, 2000). To estimate the time it will take before wave amplitudes drop to safe levels, the real-time tide gauge data are filtered to remove the effects of tidal variations. The analytic envelope is computed and a 2 h sequence of amplitude values following the tsunami peak is used to obtain a least squares fit to an exponential function. This yields a decay curve which is then combined with an average West Coast decay function to provide an initial tsunami amplitude-duration forecast. This information may then be provided to emergency managers to assist with response planning.

Nyland, David; Huang, Paul

2013-08-01

291

2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON THE MALDIVES ISLANDS: INITIAL OBSERVATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Post-tsunami field surveys of the Maldives Islands where carried out to document the effects of the tsunami inundation. The study area was situated in the islands of South Male Atoll that were some of the most heavily damaged islands of the Maldive Islands. The tsunami damaged the natural environment, vegetation, man-made structures, and residents. The maximum tsunami wave height was 3-4 m. This level of inundation exceeded the height of most residents. The wave height was greatest on the eastern rim of the South Male Atoll (closest to the tsunami source) and these islands were completely flooded. The islands within the interior of the atoll saw the lowest wave heights, and these were only marginally flooded.Surveys of flood lines left on the exterior and interior of structures were measured but proved to be substantially less than that reported by survivors. It appears that the highest inundation was not preserved as flood lines. We suggest that the turbulence associated with the tsunami inundation erased the highest lines or that they did not form due to an absence of debris and organic compounds that acted as adhesion during the initial flooding.Significant erosion was documented. Deposition took place in the form of sand sheets while only desultory deposition of coral clasts in marginal areas was found. Seasonal erosion, and storms are likely to remove most or all of the traces of the tsunami within these islands.

Barbara H. Keating; Charles Helsley; Zaha Waheed; Dale Dominey-Howes

2005-01-01

292

Safety evaluation of nuclear power plant against the virtual tsunami  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main scope of this study is the numerical analysis of virtual tsunami event near the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants. In the numerical analysis, the maximum run-up height and draw-down are estimated at the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants. The computer program developed in this study describes the propagation and associated run-up process of tsunamis by solving linear and nonlinear shallow-water equations with finite difference methods. It can be used to check the safety of a nuclear power plant against tsunami attacks. The program can also be used to calculate run-up height of wave and provide proper design criteria for coastal facilities and structures. A maximum inundation zone along the coastline can be developed by using the moving boundary condition. As a result, it is predicted that the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants might be safe against the virtual tsunami event. Although the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants are safe against the virtual tsunami event, the occurrence of a huge tsunami in the seismic gap should be investigated in detail. Furthermore, the possibility of nearshore tsunamis around the Korean Peninsula should also be studied and monitored continuously.

2004-01-01

293

Modelling the tsunami free oscillations in the Marquesas (French Polynesia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The tsunami resonance inside basins (closed or semi-enclosed) depends on the period of the incident waves, reflection and energy dissipation, characteristics of the boundary and the geometry of the basin. When waves continuously enter the basin, they cause abnormal water level fluctuations and produced damage if their periods are close to the periods of free oscillation of the basin. These resonant oscillations inside harbours, bays, or other semi-enclosed or closed basins can have a direct influence on the management of harbours, shipping and coastal uses. So, it is important to determine these free oscillations. These resonant characteristics have been observed in the Marquesas, an archipelago prone to tsunami amplification, during the last three tsunamis (Samoa 2009, Maule 2010, Tohoku 2011). These events were recorded by the two tide gauges located in the Marquesas. In this archipelago, there are two monitored bays : the first one is located in Hiva Oa Island (Tahauku Bay) and the second in Nuku Hiva Island (Taihoae Bay). For all these tsunamis, more than 3 d of water tidal resonance were recorded. In this work, we make a free oscillation analysis of the Marquesas Archipelago using real tide gauge data, simulated tsunami data and theoretical computations. During the last century, this archipelago was hit by several trans-Pacific tsunamis. It is interesting to note that, following different tsunami reports the bays responded differently depending on the earthquake source region. For example, Tahauku and Atuona, two bays in Hiva Oa Island only 1 km apart, have different responses depending on the tsunami, as it was observed in 1946 (Aleutian earthquake) and 1960 (Chile earthquake). For this reason, we study the azimuthal dependence of the excitation of the free oscillation modes, and we show that some azimuths enhance tsunami amplification.

Allgeyer, S.; Hébert, H.; Madariaga, R.

2013-06-01

294

Hydrodynamic modeling of tsunamis from the Currituck landslide  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami generation from the Currituck landslide offshore North Carolina and propagation of waves toward the U.S. coastline are modeled based on recent geotechnical analysis of slide movement. A long and intermediate wave modeling package (COULWAVE) based on the non-linear Boussinesq equations are used to simulate the tsunami. This model includes procedures to incorporate bottom friction, wave breaking, and overland flow during runup. Potential tsunamis generated from the Currituck landslide are analyzed using four approaches: (1) tsunami wave history is calculated from several different scenarios indicated by geotechnical stability and mobility analyses; (2) a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the effects of both landslide failure duration during generation and bottom friction along the continental shelf during propagation; (3) wave history is calculated over a regional area to determine the propagation of energy oblique to the slide axis; and (4) a high-resolution 1D model is developed to accurately model wave breaking and the combined influence of nonlinearity and dispersion during nearshore propagation and runup. The primary source parameter that affects tsunami severity for this case study is landslide volume, with failure duration having a secondary influence. Bottom friction during propagation across the continental shelf has a strong influence on the attenuation of the tsunami during propagation. The high-resolution 1D model also indicates that the tsunami undergoes nonlinear fission prior to wave breaking, generating independent, short-period waves. Wave breaking occurs approximately 40-50??km offshore where a tsunami bore is formed that persists during runup. These analyses illustrate the complex nature of landslide tsunamis, necessitating the use of detailed landslide stability/mobility models and higher-order hydrodynamic models to determine their hazard.

Geist, E. L.; Lynett, P. J.; Chaytor, J. D.

2009-01-01

295

Satellite Data for a Rapid Assessment of Tsunami Inundation Areas after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The M w = 9.0 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Japan's Tohoku region produced a great tsunami causing catastrophic damage and loss of life. Within hours of the tsunami event, satellite data were readily available and massive media coverage immediately circulated thousands of photographs and videos of the tsunami. Satellite data allow a rapid assessment of inundated areas where access can be difficult either as a result of damaged infrastructure (e.g., roads, bridges, ports, airports) or because of safety issues (e.g., the hazard at Nuclear Power Plant at Fukushima). In this study, we assessed in a day tsunami inundation distances and runup heights using satellite data (very high-resolution satellite images from the GeoEye1 satellite and from the DigitalGlobe worldview, SRTM and ASTER GDEM) of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Field survey data by Japanese and other international scientists validated our results. This study focused on three different locations. Site selection was based on coastal morphologies and the distance to the tsunami source (epicenter). Study sites are Rikuzentakata, Oyagawahama, and Yagawahama in the Oshika Peninsula, and the Sendai coastal plain (Sendai City to Yamamoto City). Maximum inundation distance (6 km along the river) and maximum runup (39 m) at Rikuzentakata estimated from satellite data agree closely with the 39.7 m inundation reported in the field. Here the ria coastal morphology and horn shaped bay enhanced the tsunami runup and effects. The Sendai coastal plain shows large inundation distances (6 km) and lower runup heights. Natori City and Wakabayashi Ward, on the Sendai plain, have similar runup values (12 and 16 m, respectively) obtained from SRTM data; these are comparable to those obtained from field surveys (12 and 9.5 m). However, at Yagawahama and Oyagawahama, Miyagi Prefecture, both SRTM and ASTER data provided maximum runup heights (41 to 45 m and 33 to 34 m, respectively), which are higher than those measured in the field (about 27 m). This difference in DEM and field data is associated with ASTER and SRTM DEM's pixel size and vertical accuracy, the latter being dependent on ground coverage, slope, aspect and elevation. Countries with less access to technology and infrastructure can benefit from the use of satellite imagery and freely available DEMs for an initial, pre-field surveys, rapid estimate of inundated areas, distances and runup, and for assisting in hazard management and mitigation after a natural disaster.

Ramírez-Herrera, María Teresa; Navarrete-Pacheco, José Antonio

2013-06-01

296

Correction to “New maps of California to improve tsunami preparedness”  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 21 April issue (Eos, 90(16), 2009), the article titled “New maps of California to improve tsunami preparedness” contained an error in its Figure 2 caption. Figure 2 is a map of Goleta, a city in Santa Barbara County. Thus, the first sentence of the caption should read, “Newly created tsunami inundation maps for Goleta, a city in Santa Barbara County, Calif., show the city's ‘wet line’ in black, representing the highest probable tsunami runup modeled for the region added to average water levels at high tide.” Eos deeply regrets this error.

Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Borrero, Jose C.; Uslu, Burak; Kalligeris, Nikos; Goltz, James D.; Wilson, Rick I.; Synolakis, Costas E.

2009-05-01

297

Surviving a Tsunami: Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains true stories that illustrate how to survive (and how not to survive) a tsunami. It is meant for people who live, work, or play along coasts that tsunamis may strike. The stories are personal accounts selected from interviews with people who survived a Pacific Ocean tsunami generated by the magnitude 9.5 earthquake that occurred along the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960. Important points include the necessity to heed all warnings (official and natural), head for higher ground, expect many waves, and not to attempt to recover personal belongings.

298

Detecting the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami arrival on sea-level records in the Pacific Ocean: application and performance of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm (TEDA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Real-time detection of a tsunami on instrumental sea-level records is quite an important task for a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), and in case of alert conditions for an ongoing tsunami it is often performed by visual inspection in operational warning centres. In this paper we stress the importance o...

L. Bressan; S. Tinti

299

Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous buildings and houses in Thailand. Estimation of tsunami impact to buildings from this event and evaluation of the potential risks are important but still in progress. The tsunami fragility curve is a function used to estimate the structura...

A. Suppasri; S. Koshimura; F. Imamura

300

Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is to present an original real-time algorithm devised for detection of tsunami or tsunami-like waves we call TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm), and to introduce a methodology to evaluate its performance. TEDA works on the sea level records of a single station and implem...

L. Bressan; S. Tinti

 
 
 
 
301

Application of the SCALE TSUNAMI Tools for the Validation of Criticality Safety Calculations Involving 233U  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiochemical Development Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been storing solid materials containing 233U for decades. Preparations are under way to process these materials into a form that is inherently safe from a nuclear criticality safety perspective. This will be accomplished by down-blending the 233U materials with depleted or natural uranium. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, a study has been performed using the SCALE sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools to demonstrate how these tools could be used to validate nuclear criticality safety calculations of selected process and storage configurations. ISOTEK nuclear criticality safety staff provided four models that are representative of the criticality safety calculations for which validation will be needed. The SCALE TSUNAMI-1D and TSUNAMI-3D sequences were used to generate energy-dependent keff sensitivity profiles for each nuclide and reaction present in the four safety analysis models, also referred to as the applications, and in a large set of critical experiments. The SCALE TSUNAMI-IP module was used together with the sensitivity profiles and the cross-section uncertainty data contained in the SCALE covariance data files to propagate the cross-section uncertainties (??/?) to keff uncertainties (?k/k) for each application model. The SCALE TSUNAMI-IP module was also used to evaluate the similarity of each of the 672 critical experiments with each application. Results of the uncertainty analysis and similarity assessment are presented in this report. A total of 142 experiments were judged to be similar to application 1, and 68 experiments were judged to be similar to application 2. None of the 672 experiments were judged to be adequately similar to applications 3 and 4. Discussion of the uncertainty analysis and similarity assessment is provided for each of the four applications. Example upper subcritical limits (USLs) were generated for application 1 based on trending of the energy of average lethargy of neutrons causing fission, trending of the TSUNAMI similarity parameters, and use of data adjustment techniques.

2009-01-01

302

Manifestation of the 2011 Great Tohoku Tsunami on the Coast of the Kuril Islands: A Tsunami with Ice  

Science.gov (United States)

The tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake ( M w = 9.0) reached maximum heights of about 5 m along the coast of the Kuril Islands. The most essential feature of this event was sea ice about 0.5 m thick moved by the ocean water. The tsunami did not cause any essential damage on the Kuril Islands, but significantly affected coastal zones and produced interesting effects. The problem of a tsunami accompanied by marine ice is discussed and illustrated with photos.

Kaistrenko, Victor; Razjigaeva, Nadezhda; Kharlamov, Andrey; Shishkin, Alexander

2013-06-01

303

Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M/9, http://earthquake.usgs.gov/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented in the present article indicate that islands undergoing significant surface displacements from submarine earthquakes can produce infrasound.Far more intriguing is the possibility that the initiation and propagation of a tsunami may produce low-frequency sound near the source as well as along coastlines and basins. Since distant sound effectively propagates at ˜300 m/s and tsunamis propagate at ˜200 m/s, precursory sound could potentially be used as a discriminant for tsunami genesis.

Garcés, M.; Caron, P.; Hetzer, C.; Le Pichon, A.; Bass, H.; Drob, D.; Bhattacharyya, J.

304

Tsunami warning in French Polynesia during the 2009 Samoa event  

Science.gov (United States)

An effective tsunami warning was in effect in French Polynesia for the big Samoa event on September 2009; a rapid warning was generated from the seismic parameters obtained via near real-time processing. Different methods were used to characterize and quantify the source parameters like: evolving scalar moment along the time, average mantle magnitude Mm, slowness, and use of the new concept of magnitude with the W phase. The expected tsunami amplitudes were estimated from seismic parameters such obtained, and were communicated to Civil Defense; a red warning was then broadcasted to population during about one hour (2 hours in Marquesas). In fact, French Polynesia was spared by the tsunami, with relatively weak amplitudes in Society Island, and, as expected, larger ones in Marquesas (justifying the this warning and state of watch). Numerical simulations involving different seismic source models, were used in a later stage to explain the observed tsunami amplitudes.

Reymond, D.; Hebert, H.; Hyvernaud, O.; Allgeyer, S.

2009-12-01

305

Ionospheric Method of Detecting Tsunami-Generating Earthquakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the earthquake phenomenon and its possible relation to ionospheric disturbances. Discusses the basic physical principles involved and the methods upon which instrumentation is being developed for possible use in a tsunami disaster warning system. (GA)

Najita, Kazutoshi; Yuen, Paul C.

1978-01-01

306

Scientists to Evaluate Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

... Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods Key social and psychological variables influence ... It will aim to identify the most effective methods to alert the public. "This research is critically ...

307

TSUNAMI HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTHERN AEGEAN SEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emergency planning for the assessment of tsunami hazard inundation and of secondary effects of erosion and landslides, requires mapping that can help identify coastal areas that are potentially vulnerable. The present study reviews tsunami susceptibility mapping for coastal areas of Turkey and Greece in the Aegean Sea. Potential tsunami vulnerable locations were identified from LANDSAT ETM imageries, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000) data and QuickBird imageries and from a GIS integrated spatial database. LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data derived by the SRTM-Mission were investigated to help detect traces of past flooding events. LANDSAT ETM imageries, merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data, clearly indicate the areas that may be prone to flooding if catastrophic tsunami events or storm surges occur.

Barbara Theilen-Willige

2008-01-01

308

On the tsunami wave-submerged breakwater interaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami wave loads on a submerged rigid breakwater are inertial. It is the result arising from the simple calculation method here proposed, and it is confirmed by the comparison with results obtained by other researchers. The method is based on the estimate of the speed drop of the tsunami wave passing over the breakwater. The calculation is rigorous for a sinusoidal wave interacting with a rigid submerged obstacle, in the framework of the linear wave theory. This new approach gives a useful and simple tool for estimating tsunami loads on submerged breakwaters.An unexpected novelty come out from a worked example: assuming the same wave height, storm waves are more dangerous than tsunami waves, for the safety against sliding of submerged breakwaters.

2008-07-08

309

TSUNAMI WAVE LOADING ON A BRIDGE DECK WITH PERFORATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunamis have damaged bridges to various extents in the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. This paper reports an experimental investigation of the effect of perforations in the girders and parapets on the horizontal tsunami loads. The results reveal that the maximum pressures impinging on the front face of the pier and deck are 4.5 and 3 times the hydrostatic pressure at 80mm nominal wave heights. The percentage of force reduction of the bridge deck with 10% perforated girders and 60% perforated parapets is found to be close to the percentage of perforation area in the deck. However, it is also noted that perforations in the bridge deck can substantially reduce the tsunami forces acting on it throughout the force time history. Thus, less damage to the bridge is anticipated for the bridge deck with perforations in girders and parapets.

P. Lukkunaprasit; T.L. Lau; A. Ruangrassamee; T. Ohmachi

2011-01-01

310

CAPTURING THE NEXT GENERATION OF CULTURAL MEMORIES – THE PROCESS OF VIDEO INTERVIEWING TSUNAMI SURVIVORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional story telling is rare in many cultures these days and yet stories are an effective way of educating people of all ages. The technology of modern media is increasingly accessing all corners of the world and if used wisely can help capture and communicate messages of disaster preparedness. Planned video interviewing of tsunami survivors began around 1998 and an extensive archive has been assembled at the Pacific Tsunami Museum. Video interviewing is an effective way to collect data that are both educational and scientific. The technique however, is not simple and a protocol has been developed to achieve the best results. We explain the protocol in detail using examples where appropriate, and discuss a wide range of applications that have been developed using interview materials. Recent advances in analytical techniques mean that the previously difficult to access qualitative data of these interviews are now available for more robust scientific analysis. The database continues to grow each year. It seems likely that this publicly- available database will now be available for a whole suite of new applications that can be developed.

W. Dudley; J. Goff; C. Chagué-Goff; J. Johnston

2009-01-01

311

Tsunami Hazard in Crescent City, California from Kuril Islands earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

On November 15, Crescent City in Del Norte County, California was hit by a series of tsunami surges generated by the M = 8.3 Kuril Islands earthquake causing an estimated 9.7 million (US dollars) in damages to the small boat basin. This was the first significant tsunami loss on US territory since the 1964 Alaska tsunami. The damage occurred nearly 8 hours after the official tsunami alert bulletins had been cancelled. The tsunami caused no flooding and did not exceed the ambient high tide level. All of the damage was caused by strong currents, estimated at 12 to 15 knots, causing the floating docks to be pinned against the pilings and water to flow over them. The event highlighted problems in warning criteria and communications for a marginal event with the potential for only localized impacts, the vulnerability of harbors from a relatively modest tsunami, and the particular exposure of the Crescent City harbor area to tsunamis. It also illustrated the poor understanding of local officials of the duration of tsunami hazard. As a result of the November tsunami, interim changes were made by WCATWC to address localized hazards in areas like Crescent City. On January 13, 2007 when a M = 8.1 earthquake occurred in the Kuril Islands, a formal procedure was in place for hourly conference calls between WCATWC, California State Office of Emergency Services officials, local weather Service Offices and local emergency officials, significantly improving the decision making process and the communication among the federal, state and local officials. Kuril Island tsunamis are relatively common at Crescent City. Since 1963, five tsunamis generated by Kuril Island earthquakes have been recorded on the Crescent City tide gauge, two with amplitudes greater than 0.5 m. We use the MOST model to simulate the 2006, 2007 and 1994 events and to examine the difference between damaging and non-damaging events at Crescent City. Small changes in the angle of the rupture zone results can result in a half meter difference in water heights. We also look at the contribution of fault segments along the Kuril subduction zone using the FACTS server to look at the potentially most damaging source regions for Crescent City. A similar-sized rupture as the November 15 event located further south along the Hokkaido - Honshu area of the subduction zone, is likely to produce a slightly larger amplitude signal with and even greater delay between the first wave arrivals and the largest waves.

Dengler, L.; Uslu, B.; Barberopoulou, A.

2007-12-01

312

Candidate Tsunami Deposits at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, Southern California  

Science.gov (United States)

Carpinteria Salt Marsh, 15 km southeast of Santa Barbara, California preserves geologic evidence of possible past tsunami inundation along the southern California coast. The proximity of the Santa Barbara coastline to the Goleta slide complex and to numerous offshore faults in the Santa Barbara basin suggests a potential for moderate to large tsunamis. A field investigation in February 2008 collected more than 60 cores and examined 8 cutbank exposures throughout the marsh. Sand layers consistent with tsunami deposition were found at depths from 35 to 96 cm in cores from four areas within the marsh. The sand layers, which range from 1 cm to 35 cm thick and extend up to 630 m inland, had sharp lower contacts and were often normally graded. In addition, in some cores there were one or more intervening mud layers within the sand layer. Composition and angularity of the sand is similar to sands found in the surrounding beach, dune, and nearshore environments. While the sand layers occur at similar depths in the cores, they were concentrated in four areas that were isolated by regions with no evidence of tsunami deposition. The deposits may represent spatially discontinuous deposition from one event, spatially continuous deposition from one event with poor preservation of the deposits, or deposition from more than one event. Discontinuous deposition from one event is in contrast to spatially continuous sheet deposition characteristic of moderate to large tsunamis, but may represent isolated deposition by a smaller tsunami along channel banks. The deposit is more consistent with tsunami deposition than deposition by other event-driven processes such as storms or floods. However, marsh processes that may create normally graded sand layers such as channel migration must also be considered before accepting a tsunami origin for the deposits.

Peters, R.; Jaffe, B. E.; Buckley, M.; Watt, S. G.

2008-12-01

313

The Asian tsunami and the hecatombs of the  

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Full Text Available The catastrophic Indonesian earthquake and the subsequent tsunami has not created any hecatombs among the privileged social strata, with the exception of (relatively) few tourists from the North and the prince of Thailand, who was happily surfing at the time. The vast majority of the victims were destitute fishermen, homeless and semi-homeless “natives” who lived in miserable huts, which were naturally swept away by the tsunami, or dismantled by the quake.

Takis Fotopoulos

2005-01-01

314

Use of a Pre-Computed Data Base of Tsunami Simulations for Rapid Estimation of Tsunami Amplitude: Application to the Effective Tsunami Warning of the Great Tsunami of 11 March 2011 IN French Polynesia  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a method giving a rapid and accurate estimation of the tsunami amplitude based on a pre-computed database of numerical simulations; this methodology has been applied in real-time in an operational context during the March 2011 Honshu tsunami alert in French Polynesia. For this purpose we constructed a pre-computed database of numerical simulations of tsunamis for 260 scenarios, involving 20 source regions distributed in the main dangerous circum Pacific subduction zones. For each region, we consider 3 types of generic sources defined by their seismic moment and their sources dimensions: MEGA (corresponding to a scalar moment Mo of 1023 N.m), BIG (Mo = 1022 N.m) and AVERAGE (Mo = 1021 N.m). All the pre-computed scenarios give the maximum height of the sea surface in deep ocean with a time step of 1 hour. The database also includes all the synthetic waveforms (14 820) at 57 virtual receivers, including all existing DART buoys, thus allowing comparisons between calculated and observed data. The latter can help to detect abnormal earthquakes (e.g., "tsunami earthquakes", generating a larger tsunami than expected, or conversely, a "snappy" earthquake generating a deficient tsunami. The distribution of tsunami heights along a coastline is then calculated from the deep ocean sea surface using Green's law and stopping the computation at a depth of 5 m. A modified formulation of Green's law has been introduced to take into account large amplification effects of some bays in the Marquesas Islands. This method gives good results in agreement with the measures and observations made during the post tsunami field surveys of the events of Chile February 2010 and Japan March 2011

Reymond, D.; Hebert, H.; Okal, E.

2011-12-01

315

Local tsunamis and distributed slip at the source  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the local tsunami wave field are examined in relation to heterogeneous slip distributions that are characteristic of many shallow subduction zone earthquakes. Assumptions inherent in calculating the coseismic vertical displacement field that defines the initial condition for tsunami propagation are examined. By comparing the seafloor displacement from uniform slip to that from an ideal static crack, we demonstrate that dip-directed slip variations significantly affect the initial cross-sectional wave profile. Because of the hydrodynamic stability of tsunami wave forms, these effects directly impact estimates of maximum runup from the local tsunami. In most cases, an assumption of uniform slip in the dip direction significantly underestimates the maximum amplitude and leading wave steepness of the local tsunami. Whereas dip-directed slip variations affect the initial wave profile, strike-directed slip variations result in wavefront-parallel changes in amplitude that are largely preserved during propagation from the source region toward shore, owing to the effects of refraction. Tests of discretizing slip distributions indicate that small fault surface elements of dimensions similar to the source depth can acceptably approximate the vertical displacement field in comparison to continuous slip distributions. Crack models for tsunamis generated by shallow subduction zone earthquakes indicate that a rupture intersecting the free surface results in approximately twice the average slip. Therefore, the observation of higher slip associated with tsunami earthquakes relative to typical subduction zone earthquakes of the same magnitude suggests that tsunami earthquakes involve rupture of the seafloor, whereas rupture of deeper subduction zone earthquakes may be imbedded and not reach the seafloor.

Geist, E. L.; Dmowska, R.

1999-01-01

316

Experience from three years of local capacity development for tsunami early warning in Indonesia: challenges, lessons and the way ahead  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five years after the 2004 tsunami, a lot has been achieved to make communities in Indonesia better prepared for tsunamis. This achievement is primarily linked to the development of the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS). However, many challenges remain. This paper describes the experience with local capacity development for tsunami early warning (TEW) in Indonesia, based on the activities of a pilot project. TEW in Indonesia is still new to disaster management institutions and the public, as is the paradigm of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). The technology components of InaTEWS will soon be fully operational. The major challenge for the system is the establishment of clear institutional arrangements and capacities at national and local levels that support the development of public and institutional response capability at the local level. Due to a lack of information and national guidance, most local actors have a limited understanding of InaTEWS and DRR, and often show little political will and priority to engage in TEW. The often-limited capacity of local governments is contrasted by strong engagement of civil society organisations that opt for early warning based on natural warning signs rather than technology-based early warning. Bringing together the various actors, developing capacities in a multi-stakeholder cooperation for an effective warning system are key challenges for the end-to-end approach of InaTEWS. The development of local response capability needs to receive the same commitment as the development of the system's technology components. Public understanding of and trust in the system comes with knowledge and awareness on the part of the end users of the system and convincing performance on the part of the public service provider. Both sides need to be strengthened. This requires the integration of TEW into DRR, clear institutional arrangements, national guidance and intensive support for capacity development at local levels as well as dialogue between the various actors.

H. Spahn; M. Hoppe; H. D. Vidiarina; B. Usdianto

2010-01-01

317

Experience from three years of local capacity development for tsunami early warning in Indonesia: challenges, lessons and the way ahead  

Science.gov (United States)

Five years after the 2004 tsunami, a lot has been achieved to make communities in Indonesia better prepared for tsunamis. This achievement is primarily linked to the development of the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS). However, many challenges remain. This paper describes the experience with local capacity development for tsunami early warning (TEW) in Indonesia, based on the activities of a pilot project. TEW in Indonesia is still new to disaster management institutions and the public, as is the paradigm of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). The technology components of InaTEWS will soon be fully operational. The major challenge for the system is the establishment of clear institutional arrangements and capacities at national and local levels that support the development of public and institutional response capability at the local level. Due to a lack of information and national guidance, most local actors have a limited understanding of InaTEWS and DRR, and often show little political will and priority to engage in TEW. The often-limited capacity of local governments is contrasted by strong engagement of civil society organisations that opt for early warning based on natural warning signs rather than technology-based early warning. Bringing together the various actors, developing capacities in a multi-stakeholder cooperation for an effective warning system are key challenges for the end-to-end approach of InaTEWS. The development of local response capability needs to receive the same commitment as the development of the system's technology components. Public understanding of and trust in the system comes with knowledge and awareness on the part of the end users of the system and convincing performance on the part of the public service provider. Both sides need to be strengthened. This requires the integration of TEW into DRR, clear institutional arrangements, national guidance and intensive support for capacity development at local levels as well as dialogue between the various actors.

Spahn, H.; Hoppe, M.; Vidiarina, H. D.; Usdianto, B.

2010-07-01

318

Current issues on PRA regarding seismic and tsunami events at multiunits and sites based on lessons leaned from Tohoku earthquake/tsunami  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP (F1-NPP) were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. This paper describes the overview of F1-NPP accident and the usability of tsunami PRA at Tohoku earthquake. The paper makes reference to the following current issues: influence on seismic hazard of gigantic aftershocks and triggered earthquakes, concepts for evaluating core damage frequency considering common cause failure with correlation coefficient against seismic event at multi units and sites, and concepts of 'seismic-tsunami PSA' considering a combination of seismic motion and tsunami effects.

2012-01-01

319

Infrasound associated with the 2004 Sumatra megathrust earthquake and tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian Oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) observed three distinct waveform signatures associated with the December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. Infrasound station in Palau, Diego Garcia, Madagascar, and Kenya observed (1) seismic arrivals (P, S and surface) from the earthquake, (2) T-phases, propagated along SOFAR channel in the ocean, and coupled back to the ground, and (3) infrasonic arrivals associated with either the tsunami generation mechanism or the motion of the ground above sea level. All signals were recorded by the pressure sensors in the arrays. The seismic and T-phase recordings are due to the sensitivity of the MB2000 microbarometers to ground vibration, whereas the infrasound arrivals correspond to dispersed acoustic waves propagated through atmospheric waveguides. It appears that the arrival of the tsunami, as well as oceanic infragravity waves following the tsunami, were not observed by the infrasound stations. We show the prominent features of the arrivals, present source location estimates, discuss the absence of a signal associated with the tsunami arrival, and consider the potential for using infrasound as a discriminant for tsunami genesis.

Garces, Milton; Caron, Pierre; Hetzer, Claus

2005-04-01

320

Tsunami deposits on the coastline of west Crete (Greece)  

Science.gov (United States)

The eastern Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea in particular, are the most active seismic regions in Europe. Historically, numerous earthquakes have occurred in this part of the world and comprehensive tsunami recordings exist. Nevertheless, field evidence of tsunamis is rare, although many neotectonic movements certainly must have triggered very strong tsunami waves. Along the coastlines of western Crete, we found evidence for tsunami impacts, such as 1) bimodal deposits (large clasts floating in sands comprised of shell fragments); 2) dislocation of large boulders with tilting of biogenous notches; and 3) boulders (with Lithophaga or Cliona borings) weighing up to 75 tons thrown onshore and imbedded in strata of marine shells. This paper documents these deposits and discusses whether they originated from the sudden uplift that occurred in 365 AD. Moreover, numerical radiocarbon ages reveal the occurrence of two tsunamis dated to 5660 yrs BP and 500 yrs BP. Evidence for other tsunami impacts is discussed, but not supported by numerical dating due to the lack of suitable material.

Scheffers, Anja; Scheffers, Sander

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Historical tsunami database for France and its overseas territories  

Science.gov (United States)

A search and analysis of a large number of historical documents has made it possible: (i) to discover so-far unknown tsunamis that have hit the French coasts during the last centuries, and (ii) conversely, to disprove the tsunami nature of several events referred to in recent catalogues. This information has been structured into a database and also made available as a website (http://www.tsunamis.fr) that is accessible in French, English and Spanish. So far 60 genuine ("true") tsunamis have been described (with their dates, causes, oceans/seas, places observed, number of waves, flood and ebb distances, run-up, and intensities) and referenced against contemporary sources. Digitized documents are accessible online. In addition, so as to avoid confusion, tsunamis revealed as "false" or "doubtful" have been compiled into a second catalogue. Both the database and the website are updated annually corresponding to the state of knowledge, so as to take into account newly discovered historical references and the occurrence of new tsunamis on the coasts of France and many of its overseas territories: Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Réunion, and Mayotte.

Lambert, J.; Terrier, M.

2011-04-01

322

Historical tsunami database for France and its overseas territories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A search and analysis of a large number of historical documents has made it possible: (i) to discover so-far unknown tsunamis that have hit the French coasts during the last centuries, and (ii) conversely, to disprove the tsunami nature of several events referred to in recent catalogues. This information has been structured into a database and also made available as a website (http://www.tsunamis.fr) that is accessible in French, English and Spanish. So far 60 genuine ("true") tsunamis have been described (with their dates, causes, oceans/seas, places observed, number of waves, flood and ebb distances, run-up, and intensities) and referenced against contemporary sources. Digitized documents are accessible online. In addition, so as to avoid confusion, tsunamis revealed as "false" or "doubtful" have been compiled into a second catalogue. Both the database and the website are updated annually corresponding to the state of knowledge, so as to take into account newly discovered historical references and the occurrence of new tsunamis on the coasts of France and many of its overseas territories: Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Réunion, and Mayotte.

J. Lambert; M. Terrier

2011-01-01

323

The 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami earthquake, from real-time discriminants, finite-fault rupture, and tsunami excitation  

Science.gov (United States)

The moment magnitude 7.8 earthquake that struck offshore the Mentawai islands in western Indonesia on 25 October 2010 created a locally large tsunami that caused more than 400 human causalities. We identify this earthquake as a rare slow-source tsunami earthquake based on: 1) disproportionately large tsunami waves; 2) excessive rupture duration near 125 s; 3) predominantly shallow, near-trench slip determined through finite-fault modeling; and 4) deficiencies in energy-to-moment and energy-to-duration-cubed ratios, the latter in near-real time. We detail the real-time solutions that identified the slow-nature of this event, and evaluate how regional reductions in crustal rigidity along the shallow trench as determined by reduced rupture velocity contributed to increased slip, causing the 5–9 m local tsunami runup and observed transoceanic wave heights observed 1600 km to the southeast.

Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin; Wei, Yong; Convers, Jaime

2011-01-01

324

TSUNAMI ON 26 DECEMBER 2004: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TSUNAMI HEIGHT AND THE EXTENT OF INUNDATION IN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had been significantly greater for most parts of the east and the south-eastcoastal areas than the south, south-west and the west coasts of Sri Lanka. The results alsoindicate the possible influence of the coastal geomorphology on the extent of inundation. On theother hand, the measurements suggest maximum tsunami heights of 3 m – 7 m along the eastcoast, 3 m – 11 m on the south coast, and 1.5 m – 6 m on the west coast.

Janaka J. Wijetunge

2006-01-01

325

2006: STATUS OF TSUNAMI SCIENCE RESEARCH AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2005, Dr. Robert Wiegel compiled “Tsunami Information Sources”. The compilation has been made available via a website and has been published as an issue in Science of Tsunami Hazards. The compiled references have been assigned keyword descriptions, and compiled in order to review the breath and depth of Tsunami Science publications.The review indicates that tsunami research involves eight major scientific disciplines: Geology, Seismology, Tsunami Science, Engineering, Disaster Management, Meteorology and Communications. These disciplines were subdivided into many topical subjects and the results were tabulated.The topics having the largest number of publications include: tsunamigenic earthquakes, numerical modeling, field surveys, engineering models, harbor, bay, and canal modeling and observations, energy of tsunamis, workshops, tsunami warning centers, instrumentation, tsunami catalogs, tsunami disaster mitigation, evaluation of hazards, the aftermath of tsunamis on humans, and AID provided to Tsunami Damaged Communities.Several areas of research were identified as likely directions for future research, including: paleotsunami studies, risk assessments, instrumentation, numerical modeling of earthquakes and tsunami, particularly the 2004 Indian Ocean event. There is a dearth of recent publications available on tsunami hazards education for the general public.

Barbara H. Keating

2006-01-01

326

Qualitative Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available QR Methodology learning and its application to the field of public health/community medicine research and practice has been comparatively a recent phenomenon. It has been a bastion of Social science. Our increasing acceptance of ever increasing influence of sociobehavioral factors on health and health related issues, have led us to accept the use of QR methodology to examine some of it in the research settings. Unfortunately, so far, neither the correct training in this field of research methodology is available uniformly everywhere, nor its relevance and use is fully appreciated across the Medical colleges, in the state. Among medical researchers, it appears to be growing under the shadow of Quantitative research (QtR) methodology and therefore, suffers from being viewed with an inappropriate “Quantitative Lens” with a lot of misgivings about the robust methods and its relevance and application. In order to initiate understanding create health acceptance of Qualitative research Methodology; let us first examine what this methodology is not!

R. K. Baxi

2010-01-01

327

Nonabelian Debye screening and the 'tsunami' problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phenomenon of Debye screening is familiar from electrolytes and many other systems. Recently, it has been recognized that in nonabelian gauge theories at high temperature, even perturbatively Debye screening is much more complicated than in nonrelativistic systems. This was originally derived as 'hard thermal loops'. Hard thermal loops have been derived perturbatively, by a semiclassical truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, and by classical kinetic theory. In this talk I give a pedagogical derivation, following that of Kelly, Liu, Lucchesi, and Manuel. The derivation is valid not just for a thermal distribution, but (modulo certain obvious restrictions) for an arbitrary initial distribution of particles. Consider, for example, the 'tsunami' problem: suppose that one starts, at time t = 0, with a spatially homogenous, infinite wall of particles, all moving with the same velocity at the speed of light.

1997-09-22

328

Entanglement Tsunami: Universal Scaling in Holographic Thermalization  

CERN Document Server

We consider the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in a strongly coupled holographic system, whose subsequent equilibration is described in the gravity dual by the gravitational collapse of a thin shell of matter resulting in a black hole. In the limit of large regions of entanglement, the evolution of entanglement entropy is controlled by the geometry around and inside the event horizon of the black hole, allowing us to identify regimes of pre-local- equilibration quadratic growth (in time), post-local-equilibration linear growth, a late-time regime in which the evolution does not carry any memory of the size and shape of the entangled region, and a saturation regime with critical behavior resembling those in continuous phase transitions. Collectively, these regimes suggest a picture of entanglement growth in which an "entanglement tsunami" carries entanglement inward from the boundary. We also make a conjecture on the maximal rate of entanglement growth in relativistic systems.

Liu, Hong

2013-01-01

329

Criticality Code Validation Exercises with TSUNAMI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the criticality code validation of common systems, many paths may exist to a correct bias, bias uncertainty, and upper subcritical limit. The challenge for the criticality analyst is to select an efficient, defensible, and safe methodology to consistently obtain the correct values. One method of testing criticality code validation techniques is to use a sample system with a known bias as a test application and determine whether the methods employed can reproduce the known bias. In this paper, a low-enriched uranium (LEU) lattice critical experiment with a known bias is used as the test application, and numerous other LEU experiments are used as the benchmarks for the criticality code validation exercises using traditional and advanced parametric techniques. The parameters explored are enrichment, energy of average lethargy causing fission (EALF), and the TSUNAMI integral index ck with experiments with varying degrees of similarity. This paper is an extension of a previously published summary.

2007-06-01

330

W Phase Inversion and Tsunami Inundation Modeling for Tsunami Early Warning: Case Study for the 2011 Tohoku Event  

Science.gov (United States)

Centroid moment tensor solutions for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake are determined by W phase inversions using 5 and 10 min data recorded by the Full Range Seismograph Network of Japan (F-net). By a scaling relation of moment magnitude to rupture area and an assumption of rigidity of 4 × 1010 N m-2, simple rectangular earthquake fault models are estimated from the solutions. Tsunami inundations in the Sendai Plain, Minamisanriku, Rikuzentakata, and Taro are simulated using the estimated fault models. Then the simulated tsunami inundation area and heights are compared with the observations. Even the simulated tsunami heights and inundations from the W phase solution that used only 5 min data are considerably similar to the observations. The results are improved when using 10 min of W phase data. These show that the W phase solutions are reliable to be used for tsunami inundation modeling. Furthermore, the technique that combines W phase inversion and tsunami inundation modeling can produce results that have sufficient accuracy for tsunami early warning purposes.

Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Tanioka, Yuichiro

2013-05-01

331

Técnicas histórico-etnográficas en la reconstrucción y caracterización de tsunamis: el ejemplo del gran tsunami del 22 de junio de 1932, en las costas del Pacífico mexicano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La magnitud de los desastres ocasionados por tsunamis en la última década ha motivado a ampliar el conocimiento sobre su dinámica y comportamiento. Este estudio propone la aplicación de técnicas de análisis multidisciplinarias, incluyendo las histórico-etnográficas en la reconstrucción y caracterización de los tsunamis sin un registro instrumental. Se usa el ejemplo del tsunami del 22 de junio de 1932, el segundo más destructivo registrado en las costas del Pac (more) ífico mexicano. El origen del tsunami es incierto y se plantean dos hipótesis: 1) sísmico, y 2) por un deslizamiento submarino. Archivos históricos, entrevistas y mapeo en Sistemas de Información Geográfica permitieron identificar componentes clave de la dinámica del tsunami: tiempo de arribo, directividad, superficie afectada y alturas máximas de ola en la costa. Se aplicaron modelos numéricos (GEOWAVE y FUNWAVE) basados en datos históricos, usando dos posibles mecanismos de generación. Los resultados demuestran que un deslizamiento submarino explica mejor la causa del tsunami de 1932. Abstract in english The magnitude of damage caused by tsunamis in the past decade has encouraged scientists to expand our knowledge about tsunami dynamics and behavior. This study applies a multidisciplinary analysis, including historical and ethnographic techniques, in the reconstruction and characterization of tsunamis with no instrumental record. The example of the 22 June 1932 tsunami, the second most destructive recorded in the Pacific Coast of Mexico is used. The cause of this tsunami (more) is uncertain. Two hypotheses are proposed: 1) seismic slip, and 2) a submarine landslide. Historical archives, interviews with local witnesses, and GIS mapping, aided in identifying key components of the tsunami dynamics: arrival time, directivity, affected area, and maximum wave heights at the coast. Based on historical data, we applied numerical models (GEOWAVE and FUNWAVE codes) to the two possible mechanisms of tsunami generation. The results show that a submarine landslide explains best the cause of the 1932 tsunami.

Morales, Corona; Ramírez-Herrera, Teresa

2012-12-01

332

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

333

Housing reconstruction in disaster recovery: a study of fishing communities post-tsunami in chennai, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disaster recovery after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 led to a number of challenges and raised issues concerning land rights and housing reconstruction in the affected countries. This paper discusses the resistance to relocation of fishing communities in Chennai, India. Qualitative research methods were used to describe complexities in the debate between the state and the community regarding relocation, and the paper draws attention to the dimensions of the state-community interface in the recovery process. The results of this study highlight the effects of differences in the values held by each of the stakeholders regarding relocation, the lack of community participation, and thereby the interfaces that emerge between the state and the community regarding relocation. The failure to establish a nexus between disaster recovery and the importance of a sustainable livelihood for fishing communities severely delayed housing reconstruction. PMID:23591625

Raju, Emmanuel

2013-04-03

334

Housing reconstruction in disaster recovery: a study of fishing communities post-tsunami in chennai, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disaster recovery after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 led to a number of challenges and raised issues concerning land rights and housing reconstruction in the affected countries. This paper discusses the resistance to relocation of fishing communities in Chennai, India. Qualitative research methods were used to describe complexities in the debate between the state and the community regarding relocation, and the paper draws attention to the dimensions of the state-community interface in the recovery process. The results of this study highlight the effects of differences in the values held by each of the stakeholders regarding relocation, the lack of community participation, and thereby the interfaces that emerge between the state and the community regarding relocation. The failure to establish a nexus between disaster recovery and the importance of a sustainable livelihood for fishing communities severely delayed housing reconstruction.

Raju E

2013-01-01

335

Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response  

Science.gov (United States)

In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President?s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitucion, Concepcion, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this delegation, it was clear that a multidisciplinary approach was required to properly analyze the emergency response, technical, and social components of this disaster. A diverse and knowledgeable delegation was necessary to analyze the Chilean response in a way that would be beneficial to preparedness in California, as well as improve mitigation efforts around the United States. By most standards, the Maule earthquake was a catastrophe for Chile. The economic losses totaled $30 billion USD or 17% of the GDP of the country. Twelve million people, or ? of the population of the country, were in areas that felt strong shaking. Yet only 521 fatalities have been confirmed, with 56 people still missing and presumed dead in the tsunami. The Science and Technology Team evaluated the impacts of the earthquake on built environment with implications for the United States. The fires following the earthquake were minimal in part because of the shutdown of the national electrical grid early in the shaking. Only five engineer-designed buildings were destroyed during the earthquake; however, over 350,000 housing units were destroyed. Chile has a law that holds building owners liable for the first 10 years of a building?s existence for any losses resulting from inadequate application of the building code during construction. This law was cited by many our team met with as a prime reason for the strong performance of the built environment. Overall, this earthquake demonstrated that strict building codes and standards could greatly reduce losses in even the largest earthquakes. In the immediate response to the earthquake and tsunami, first responders, emergency personnel, and search and rescue teams handled many challenges. Loss of communications was significant; many lives were lost and effective coordination to support life-sustaining efforts was gravely impacted due to a lack of inter- and intra-agency coordination. The Health and Medical Services Team sought to understand the medical disast

American Red Cross Multi-Disciplinary Team

2011-01-01

336

NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria  

Science.gov (United States)

West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

2009-01-01

337

SEVERAL TSUNAMI SCENARIOS AT THE NORTH SEA AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES AT THE GERMAN BIGHT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunamis occurred in the past at the North Sea, but not frequently. There are historical and geological records of several tsunamis: the Storegga tsunami caused sediment deposits in Scotland 8,000 years ago and records of at least six earthquake-generated tsunamis exist from 842 to 1761 AC. The highest tsunami height witnessed at the German Bight is comparable to the maximum storm surge recorded and could thus cause similar or higher damage. However, there is little research on tsunami modeling in the North Sea. Here, we performed ten numerical experiments imposing N-waves at the open boundaries of a North Sea model system to study the potential consequences of tsunamis for the German Bight. One of the experiments simulated the second Storegga slide tsunami, seven more explored the influence of the incidence direction of the tsunami when entering the North Sea domain, and the other two explored the influence of tides on tsunami heights. We found that the German Bight is not exempt from tsunami risk. The main impact was from waves entering the North Sea from the north, even for tsunamis with sources south of the North Sea. Waves entering from the English Channel were attenuated after crossing the Dover strait. For some scenarios, the tsunami energy got focused directly at the Frisian Islands. The tidal phase had a strong influence on tsunami heights, although in this study the highest heights were obtained in the absence of tides. The duration of tsunamis is significantly smaller than that of storm surges, even though their flow velocities were found to be comparable or larger, thus increasing their possible damage. Therefore, tsunamis should not be dismissed as a threat at the North Sea basin and particularly at the German Bight.

Silvia Chacón-Barrantes; Rangaswami Narayanan; Roberto Mayerle

2013-01-01

338

VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pelée on Martinique, of Soufriere on St. Vincent and of the Kick’em Jenny underwater volcano near Grenada and provides an overall risk assessment of tsunami generation from volcanic sources in the Caribbean region.

George Pararas-Carayannis

2004-01-01

339

Field observations of the 17 July 2006 Tsunami in Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 17 July 2006, a tsunami struck the southern coast of Java, Indonesia, causing over 730 casualties. The triggering earthquake located 225 km off the coast of Pangandaran (9.222° S, 107.320° E), occurred at 15:19 LT (UTC +7) with a 7.7 magnitude on the Richter scale (Harward Center and CEA/DAM). In order to calibrate numerical models and understand the phenomenon, we conducted a 6-weeks field survey in July and August 2006 from Cimerak district in West Java to Gunung Kidul district in Central Java. Data collection involved measurements of wave height before its breaking, flow depth, run-up height, inundation depth, flow directions and a detailed chronology of the tsunami. Eyewitnesses accounted for three main waves. The maximum height of the second wave ranged from 4.2 to 8.6 m before its breaking. Maximum flow depth after the wave's breaking reached 5 m, and maximum runup heights reached 15.7 m. Our run-up values are about 1.5 higher than those obtained by the other field surveys carried out until present. They are also higher than the values computed through preliminary models. The 17 July 2006 tsunami has been generated by a "tsunami earthquake", i.e. an earthquake of low or medium scale that triggers a tsunami of high magnitude. The run-up heights progressively decreased eastwards, which is consistent with a tsunami triggered by fault dislocation, as the one that hit the Nicaragua's coast with similar run-up heights on the 2 September 1992. An earthquake with associated landslides could also have generated the 17 July 2006 tsunami, as ever observed in Papua-New-Guinea in 1998.

F. Lavigne; C. Gomez; M. Giffo; P. Wassmer; C. Hoebreck; D. Mardiatno; J. Prioyono; R. Paris

2007-01-01

340

The July 17, 2006 Java Tsunami: Tsunami Modeling and the Probable Causes of the Extreme Run-up  

Science.gov (United States)

On 17 July 2006, an Earthquake magnitude Mw 7.8 off the south coast of west Java, Indonesia generated tsunami that affected over 300 km of south Java coastline and killed more than 600 people. Observed tsunami heights and field measurement of run-up distributions were uniformly scattered approximately 5 to 7 m along a 200 km coastal stretch; remarkably, a locally focused tsunami run-up height exceeding 20 m at Nusakambangan Island has been observed. Within the framework of the German Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project, a high-resolution near-shore bathymetrical survey equipped by multi-beam echo-sounder has been recently conducted. Additional geodata have been collected using Intermap Technologies STAR-4 airborne interferometric SAR data acquisition system on a 5 m ground sample distance basis in order to establish a most-sophisticated Digital Terrain Model (DTM). This paper describes the outcome of tsunami modelling approaches using high resolution data of bathymetry and topography being part of a general case study in Cilacap, Indonesia, and medium resolution data for other area along coastline of south Java Island. By means of two different seismic deformation models to mimic the tsunami source generation, a numerical code based on the 2D nonlinear shallow water equations is used to simulate probable tsunami run-up scenarios. Several model tests are done and virtual points in offshore, near-shore, coastline, as well as tsunami run-up on the coast are collected. For the purpose of validation, the model results are compared with field observations and sea level data observed at several tide gauges stations. The performance of numerical simulations and correlations with observed field data are highlighted, and probable causes for the extreme wave heights and run-ups are outlined. References Ammon, C.J., Kanamori, K., Lay, T., and Velasco, A., 2006. The July 2006 Java Tsunami Earthquake, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(L24308). Fritz, H.M., Kongko, W., Moore, A., McAdoo, B., Goff, J., Harbitz, C., Uslu, B., Kalligeris, N., Suteja, D., Kalsum, K., Titov, V., Gusman, A., Latief, H., Santoso, E., Sujoko, S., Djulkarnaen, D., Sunendar, H., and Synolakis, C., 2007. Extreme Run-up from the 17 July 2006 Java Tsunami. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(L12602). Fujii, Y., and Satake, K., 2006. Source of the July 2006 Java Tsunami Estimated from Tide Gauge Records. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(L23417). Intermap Federal Services Inc., 2007. Digital Terrain Model Cilacap, version 1. Project of GITEWS, DLR Germany. Kongko, W., and Leschka, S., 2008. Nearshore Bathymetry Measurements in Indonesia: Part 1. Cilacap, Technical Report, DHI-WASY GmbH Syke Germany. Kongko, W., Suranto, Chaeroni, Aprijanto, Zikra, and SUjantoko, 2006, Rapid Survey on Tsunami Jawa 17 July 2006, http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/java20060717/tsunami-java170706_e.pdf Lavigne, F., Gomes, C., Giffo, M., Wassmer, P., Hoebreck, C., Mardiatno, D., Prioyono, J., and Paris R., 2007. Field Observation of the 17 July 2006 Tsunami in Java. Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 7: 177-183.

Kongko, W.; Schlurmann, T.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Toward the Real-Time Tsunami Parameters Prediction  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, a wide well-developed system of deep ocean tsunami detectors operates over the Pacific. Direct measurements of tsunami-wave time series are available. However, tsunami-warning systems fail to predict basic parameters of tsunami waves on time. Dozens examples could be provided. In our view, the lack of computational power is the main reason of these failures. At the same time, modern computer technologies such as, GPU (graphic processing unit) and FPGA (field programmable gates array), can dramatically improve data processing performance, which may enhance timely tsunami-warning prediction. Thus, it is possible to address the challenge of real-time tsunami forecasting for selected geo regions. We propose to use three new techniques in the existing tsunami warning systems to achieve real-time calculation of tsunami wave parameters. First of all, measurement system (DART buoys location, e.g.) should be optimized (both in terms of wave arriving time and amplitude parameter). The corresponding software application exists today and is ready for use [1]. We consider the example of the coastal line of Japan. Numerical tests show that optimal installation of only 4 DART buoys (accounting the existing sea bed cable) will reduce the tsunami wave detection time to only 10 min after an underwater earthquake. Secondly, as was shown by this paper authors, the use of GPU/FPGA technologies accelerates the execution of the MOST (method of splitting tsunami) code by 100 times [2]. Therefore, tsunami wave propagation over the ocean area 2000*2000 km (wave propagation simulation: time step 10 sec, recording each 4th spatial point and 4th time step) could be calculated at: 3 sec with 4' mesh 50 sec with 1' mesh 5 min with 0.5' mesh The algorithm to switch from coarse mesh to the fine grain one is also available. Finally, we propose the new algorithm for tsunami source parameters determination by real-time processing the time series, obtained at DART. It is possible to approximate the measured time series by a linear combination of synthetic marigrams. Coefficients of such linear combination are calculated with the help of orthogonal decomposition. The algorithm is very fast and demonstrates good accuracy. Summing up, using the example of the coastal line of Japan, wave height evaluation will be available in 12-14 minutes after the earthquake even before the wave approaches the nearest shore point (usually, it takes places in about 20 minutes). The determination of the optimal sensors' location using genetic algorithm / A.S.Astrakova, D.V.Bannikov, S.G.Cherny, M.M.Lavrentiev // 3rd Nordic EMW Summer School, Turku, Finland, June, 2009: proceedings - Finland: TUSC General Publications, 2009. - N 53. - P.5-22. M.Lavrentiev Jr., A.Romanenko, "Modern Hardware Solutions to Speed Up Tsunami Simulation Codes", Geophysical research abstracts, Vol. 12, EGU2010-3835, 2010

Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Marchuk, Andrey

2013-04-01

342

Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review  

Science.gov (United States)

The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the Azores is mostly driven from the events triggered by distant earthquakes and local earthquakes and landslides. In this context, were identified 12 tsunami events. In another context, it were identified 6 events associated with coastal areas flooding due to floods and/or extreme weather phenomena, hypothetically identified as meteotsunamis. It should be stressed that, despite the differences associated with their triggering mechanisms, both the tsunamis generated by geological factors and those related to atmospheric phenomena may have similar impact. Although the absence of reports identifying tsunamis associated with volcanic activity, the eruptive history of the Azores active volcanoes shows high magnitude eruptions with considerable tsunamigenic potential.

Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

2010-05-01

343

Near-Field Tsunami Edge Waves and Complex Earthquake Rupture  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of distributed coseismic slip on progressive, near-field edge waves is examined for continental shelf tsunamis. Detailed observations of edge waves are difficult to separate from the other tsunami phases that are observed on tide gauge records. In this study, analytic methods are used to compute tsunami edge waves distributed over a finite number of modes and for uniformly sloping bathymetry. Coseismic displacements from static elastic theory are introduced as initial conditions in calculating the evolution of progressive edge-waves. Both simple crack representations (constant stress drop) and stochastic slip models (heterogeneous stress drop) are tested on a fault with geometry similar to that of the M w = 8.8 2010 Chile earthquake. Crack-like ruptures that are beneath or that span the shoreline result in similar longshore patterns of maximum edge-wave amplitude. Ruptures located farther offshore result in reduced edge-wave excitation, consistent with previous studies. Introduction of stress-drop heterogeneity by way of stochastic slip models results in significantly more variability in longshore edge-wave patterns compared to crack-like ruptures for the same offshore source position. In some cases, regions of high slip that are spatially distinct will yield sub-events, in terms of tsunami generation. Constructive interference of both non-trapped and trapped waves can yield significantly larger tsunamis than those that produced by simple earthquake characterizations.

Geist, Eric L.

2013-09-01

344

TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events) times measures of elements at risk (human exposure) times measures of vulnerability (preparedness) in a given epoch (Nott, 2006). While the tsunami hazard in the Caribbean (averaging 19 ± 22 years between deadly events) is lower than Pacific coastal areas, the total risk to life and property is at least as high as the USA West Coast, Hawaii, or Alaska, because of the higher Caribbean population density and beach tourism so attractive to more than 35 million visitors a year. Viewed in this light, the allocation of resources by governments, industry, and insurers needs to be adjusted for the better protection of life, for coastal engineering, and for infrastructure.

X. William Proenza; George A. Maul

2010-01-01

345

TSUNAMI RELICS ON THE COASTAL LANDSCAPE WEST OF LISBON, PORTUGAL  

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Full Text Available Lisbon and the mouth of the river Tagus (Tejo) are known to have suffered from the great earthquake and tsunami of November 1st, 1755. Whereas historical sources mention tsunami waves and describe inundation in Lisbon, field evidence from this event has been found only along the Algarve coast and the Spanish Atlantic coast in the south. Our observations in the Cabo da Roca-Cascais area west of Lisbon resulted in the discovery of several very significant tsunami relics in the form of single large boulders, boulder ridges, pebbles and shells high above the modern storm level. Deposition of large amounts of sand by the tsunami waves has intensified eolian rock sculpturing. Abrasion of soil and vegetation still visible in the landscape may point to the great Lisbon event of only some 250 years ago, but radiocarbon and ESR datings also yielded older data. Therefore, we have evidence that the Portuguese coastline has suffered more than one strong tsunami in the Younger Holocene.

Anja Scheffers; Dieter Kelletat

2005-01-01

346

TSUNAMI CATALOG AND VULNERABILITY OF MARTINIQUE (LESSER ANTILLES, FRANCE)  

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Full Text Available In addition to meteorological hazards (hurricanes, heavy rainfalls, long-period swells, etc.), the Caribbean Islands are vulnerable to geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions caused by the complex tectonic activity and interactions in the region. Such events have generated frequently local or regional tsunamis, which often have affected the island of Martinique in the French West Indies. Over the past centuries, the island has been struck by destructive waves associated with local or regional events - such as those associated with the eruption of the Saint-Vincent volcano in 1902 and by tsunamis of distant origin as that generated by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.The present study includes a classification of tsunamis that have affected Martinique since its discovery in 1502. It is based on international tsunami catalogs, historical accounts, and previous scientific studies and identifies tsunamigenic areas that could potentially generate destructive waves that could impact specific coastal areas of Martinique Island. The potential threat from tsunamis has been greatly increasing because of rapid urban expansion of coastal areas and development of tourism on the island.

Accary, F.; Roger, J.

2010-01-01

347

Tsunami evacuation mathematical model for the city of Padang  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunami is a series of wave trains which travels with high speed on the sea surface. This traveling wave is caused by the displacement of a large volume of water after the occurrence of an underwater earthquake or volcano eruptions. The speed of tsunami decreases when it reaches the sea shore along with the increase of its amplitudes. Two large tsunamis had occurred in the last decades in Indonesia with huge casualties and large damages. Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System has been installed along the west coast of Sumatra. This early warning system will give about 10-15 minutes to evacuate people from high risk regions to the safe areas. Here in this paper, a mathematical model for Tsunami evacuation is presented with the city of Padang as a study case. In the model, the safe areas are chosen from the existing and selected high rise buildings, low risk region with relatively high altitude and (proposed to be built) a flyover ring road. Each gathering points are located in the radius of approximately 1 km from the ring road. The model is formulated as an optimization problem with the total normalized evacuation time as the objective function. The constraints consist of maximum allowable evacuation time in each route, maximum capacity of each safe area, and the number of people to be evacuated. The optimization problem is solved numerically using linear programming method with Matlab. Numerical results are shown for various evacuation scenarios for the city of Padang.

2012-05-22

348

Alaska earthquake source for the SAFRR tsunami scenario: Chapter B in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami modeling has shown that tsunami sources located along the Alaska Peninsula segment of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone have the greatest impacts on southern California shorelines by raising the highest tsunami waves for a given source seismic moment. The most probable sector for a Mw ~ 9 source within this subduction segment is between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands in what we call the Semidi subduction sector; these bounds represent the southwestern limit of the 1964 Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake rupture and the northeastern edge of the Shumagin sector that recent Global Positioning System (GPS) observations indicate is currently creeping. Geological and geophysical features in the Semidi sector that are thought to be relevant to the potential for large magnitude, long-rupture-runout interplate thrust earthquakes are remarkably similar to those in northeastern Japan, where the destructive Mw 9.1 tsunamigenic earthquake of 11 March 2011 occurred. In this report we propose and justify the selection of a tsunami source seaward of the Alaska Peninsula for use in the Tsunami Scenario that is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) Project. This tsunami source should have the potential to raise damaging tsunami waves on the California coast, especially at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Accordingly, we have summarized and abstracted slip distribution from the source literature on the 2011 event, the best characterized for any subduction earthquake, and applied this synoptic slip distribution to the similar megathrust geometry of the Semidi sector. The resulting slip model has an average slip of 18.6 m and a moment magnitude of Mw = 9.1. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake was not anticipated, despite Japan having the best seismic and geodetic networks in the world and the best historical record in the world over the past 1,500 years. What was lacking was adequate paleogeologic data on prehistoric earthquakes and tsunamis, a data gap that also presently applies to the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. Quantitative appraisal of potential tsunami sources in Alaska requires such investigations.

Kirby, Stephen; Scholl, David; von Huene, Roland; Wells, Ray

2013-01-01

349

Health care response to the tsunami in Taro District, Miyako, Iwate Prefecture  

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Full Text Available Problem : In the Taro District (population: 4434), the great tsunami of 11 March 2011 destroyed the central region including the clinic, the sole medical facility (one physician, 13 nurses and other staff) in the district, and many citizens were forced to live in evacuation centres.Context: The Taro District experienced massive damage during the tsunamis of 1896 and 1933. Since then countermeasures to tsunamis have been implemented. The great tsunami on 11 March 2011 caused catastrophic damage to the low-lying areas where approximately 2500 people lived; 1609 buildings were completely destroyed, and approximately 200 people died or were missing across the district.Action: The Taro National Health Insurance Clinic, the sole medical facility in the Taro District, was required to play a central role in a variety of activities to care for residents in severely affected areas. First of all, evacuees needed to move to neighbouring hospitals or safer evacuation centres because lifeline services were cut off to the first evacuation centre. Then, the clinic staff worked in a temporary clinic; they visited the evacuation centres to assess the public health and medical situation, cared for wounded residents, managed infection control and encouraged a normal lifestyle where possible. Additional medical, pharmaceutical and logistical support was received from outside the district.Outcome: There was no noticeably severe damage to health, although there was manifestation of and deterioration in lifestyle-related diseases (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, obesity). Health care activities gradually returned to their pre-disaster levels. At the end of July 2011, the evacuation centres closed, and all evacuees moved to temporary accommodations.Discussion: Isolated rural health practitioners were required to be involved in a wide variety of activities related to the disaster in addition to their routine work: e.g. preventive health (public health and safety activities), routine medical care, acute medical care, psychological care, post-mortems and recovery of medical facilities. Although the whole health care system returned to near-normal six months after the disaster, it is important to plan how to develop more resilient medical systems to respond to disasters, especially in rural areas. This article describes my experience and lessons learnt in responding to this disaster.

Hitoshi Kuroda

2011-01-01

350

Run-up heights of 1983 central east sea tsunami along the Korean peninsula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The East Sea is one of the most vulnerable regions to unexpected tsunami attacks in the world. Many catastrophic tsunamis have been occurred in this region. Among them, the Central East Sea tsunami occurred in 1983 has been recorded as the most devastating tsunami in modern Korean history. By employing a combined numerical model, the run-up heights of the tsunami are estimated along the Eastern coastline of the Korean Peninsula. The computed results are compared with available field measurements. A very reasonable agreement is observed. (authors)

2005-01-01

351

Evaluation on the effect of tsunami and seaquake on the floating structure; Tsunami kaishin no futai ni taisuru eikyo hyoka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of tsunami and seaquake on large floating structures are theoretically studied, where these effects are followed in terms of local strength using the equation proposed by Sells to predict surface shapes changed by seaquake-caused uplift of the seabottom. The equation is combined with the one for tsunami propagation, to better predict the tsunami motion. The simulation results indicate the necessity of considering the effects of tsunami for the design of a large floating structure. The authors discuss that the effect of tsunami is minimized when a floating structure is set at a depth of at least 40 to 50m, chain length should be determined by equalizing the breaking weight with the load at which the structure starts to move, and a structure should be set at a position where it is not attacked by transverse waves. They also discuss that seaquake intensity should be predicted by the equation of motion of compressible fluid, and, noting local strength of a floating structure, it will not be damaged when it is at least 16mm thick under the conditions of 2m as seabottom uplift and 0.5m as draft depth. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H.; Hosomi, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nahata, H. [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-12-31

352

A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Study of the Auckland Region, Part I: Propagation Modelling and Tsunami Hazard Assessment at the Shoreline  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional source tsunamis represent a potentially devastating threat to coastal communities in New Zealand, yet are infrequent events for which little historical information is available. It is therefore essential to develop robust methods for quantitatively estimating the hazards posed, so that effective mitigation measures can be implemented. We develop a probabilistic model for the tsunami hazard posed to the Auckland region of New Zealand from the Kermadec Trench and the southern New Hebrides Trench subduction zones. An innovative feature of our model is the systematic analysis of uncertainty regarding the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes in the source regions. The methodology is first used to estimate the tsunami hazard at the coastline, and then used to produce a set of scenarios that can be applied to produce probabilistic maps of tsunami inundation for the study region; the production of these maps is described in part II. We find that the 2,500 year return period regional source tsunami hazard for the densely populated east coast of Auckland is dominated by events originating in the Kermadec Trench, while the equivalent hazard to the sparsely populated west coast is approximately equally due to events on the Kermadec Trench and the southern New Hebrides Trench.

Power, William; Wang, Xiaoming; Lane, Emily; Gillibrand, Philip

2013-09-01

353

Assessing the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on households: a modified domestic assets index approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper offers a potential measurement solution for assessing disaster impacts and subsequent recovery at the household level by using a modified domestic assets index (MDAI) approach. Assessment of the utility of the domestic assets index first proposed by Bates, Killian and Peacock (1984) has been confined to earthquake areas in the Americas and southern Europe. This paper modifies and extends the approach to the Indian sub-continent and to coastal surge hazards utilizing data collected from 1,000 households impacted by the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) in the Nagapattinam district of south-eastern India. The analyses suggest that the MDAI scale is a reliable and valid measure of household living conditions and is useful in assessing disaster impacts and tracking recovery efforts over time. It can facilitate longitudinal studies, encourage cross-cultural, cross-national comparisons of disaster impacts and inform national and international donors of the itemized monetary losses from disasters at the household level.

Arlikatti S; Peacock WG; Prater CS; Grover H; Sekar AS

2010-07-01

354

Mortality in the 2011 tsunami in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. METHODS: Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. RESULTS: In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences.

Nakahara S; Ichikawa M

2013-01-01

355

Near-coast tsunami waveguiding: phenomenon and simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we show that shallow, elongated parts in a sloping bottom toward the coast will act as a waveguide and lead to large enhanced wave amplification for tsunami waves. Since this is even the case for narrow shallow regions, near-coast tsunami waveguiding may contribute to an explanation that tsunami heights and coastal effects as observed in reality show such high variability along the coastline. For accurate simulations, the complicated flow near the waveguide has to be resolved accurately, and grids that are too coarse will greatly underestimate the effects. We will present some results of extensive simulations using shallow water and a linear dispersive Variational Boussinesq model.

E. van Groesen; D. Adytia; Andonowati

2008-01-01

356

Subsurface Images Shed Light on Past Tsunamis in India  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive devastation and left a lasting impact along many of the major coastal regions in South Asia, including the coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in the southeastern tip of India. Following the event, sand deposits draped the low-lying areas and buried the muddy sediments of the coastal plain [Babu et al., 2007; Srinivasalu et al., 2007]. In addition, erosional features related to the tsunami, such as channels and scarps, have been observed along many parts of the coast (Figure 1a). This tsunami, along with a recorded history of intense monsoons, has highlighted the need for focused research on the role of extreme events in shaping the geological character of India's coastal plains.

Nair, Rajesh R.; Buynevich, Ilya; Goble, Ronald J.; Srinivasan, P.; Murthy, S. G. N.; Kandpal, S. C.; Lakshmi, C. S. Vijaya; Trivedi, D.

2010-12-01

357

BASIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TSUNAMIS CALCULATION AND THEIR PHYSICS–II  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACTBasic tsunami physics of propagation and run-up is discussed for the simple geometry of a channel. Modifications of a numerical technique are suggested for the long-distance propagation and for the nonlinear pro- cesses in tsunami waves. The principal modification is application of the higher order of approximations for the first derivative in space. Presently, tsunami calculations employ the high resolution 2D and 3D models for generation and runup processes, while propagation is resolved by the reg- ular 2D models. Such approach requires boundary conditions which will seamlessly connect the high resolution calculations to the propagation models. These conditions are described with the help of the method of characteristics.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2003-01-01

358

Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster  

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Full Text Available Environmental events such as natural disasters may influence the public's affective reactions and decisions. Shortly after the 2004 Tsunami disaster we assessed how affect elicited by thinking about this disaster influenced risk perceptions and future time perspective in Swedish undergraduates not directly affected by the disaster. An experimental manipulation was used to increase the salience of affect associated with the disaster. In Study 1 we found that participants reminded about the tsunami had a sense that their life was more finite and included fewer opportunities than participants in the control condition (not reminded about the tsunami). In Study 2 we found similar effects for risk perceptions. In addition, we showed that manipulations of ease-of-thought influenced the extent to which affect influenced these risk perceptions, with greater ease of thoughts being associated with greater perceived risks.

Daniel Vastfjall; Ellen Peters; Paul Slovic

2008-01-01

359

The Force of a Tsunami on a Wave Energy Converter  

CERN Document Server

With an increasing emphasis on renewable energy resources, wave power technology is fast becoming a realistic solution. However, the recent tsunami in Japan was a harsh reminder of the ferocity of the ocean. It is known that tsunamis are nearly undetectable in the open ocean but as the wave approaches the shore its energy is compressed creating large destructive waves. The question posed here is whether a nearshore wave energy converter (WEC) could withstand the force of an incoming tsunami. The analytical 3D model of Renzi & Dias (2012) developed within the framework of a linear theory and applied to an array of fixed plates is used. The time derivative of the velocity potential allows the hydrodynamic force to be calculated.

O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

2012-01-01

360

Tsunami hazard assessment for the island of Rhodes, Greece  

Science.gov (United States)

The island of Rhodes is part of the Dodecanese archipelago, and is one of the many islands that are found in the Aegean Sea. The tectonics of the Rhodes area is rather complex, involving both strike-slip and dip-slip (mainly thrust) processes. Tsunami catalogues (e.g. Papadopulos et al, 2007) show the relative high frequency of occurrence of tsunamis in this area, some also destructive, in particular between the coasts of Rhodes and Turkey. In this part of the island is located the town of Rhodes, the capital and also the largest and most populated city. Rhodes is historically famous for the Colossus of Rhodes, collapsed following an earthquake, and nowadays is a popular tourist destination. This work is focused on the hazard assessment evaluation with research performed in the frame of the European project NearToWarn. The hazard is assessed by using the worst-credible case scenario, a method introduced and used to study local tsunami hazard in coastal towns like Catania, Italy, and Alexandria, Egypt (Tinti et al., 2012). The tsunami sources chosen for building scenarios are three: two located in the sea area in front of the Turkish coasts where the events are more frequent represent local sources and were selected in the frame of the European project NearToWarn, while one provides the case of a distant source. The first source is taken from the paper Ebeling et al. (2012) and modified by UNIBO and models the earthquake and small tsunami occurred on 25th April 1957.The second source is a landslide and is derived from the TRANSFER Project "Database of Tsunamigenic Non-Seismic Sources" and coincides with the so-called "Northern Rhodes Slide", possibly responsible for the 24th March 2002 tsunami. The last source is the fault that is located close to the island of Crete believed to be responsible for the tsunami event of 1303 that was reported to have caused damage in the city of Rhodes. The simulations are carried out using the finite difference code UBO-TSUFD that solves the Navier Stokes equations in shallow water approximation. To cover the entire basin two nested grids (a coarse one with 30 arc sec resolution and a finer one with 200 m resolution) are used, constructed on bathymetry data provided by the TRANSFER database. The results, as fields of highest wave elevation, maximum flood, maximum speed, arrival times and synthetic tide-gauges, are provided and discussed both individually (i.e. separately for each source) as well as in the form of a single, aggregate result, as required by the worst-case scenario technique. References Ebeling, C.W., Okal., E.A., Kalligeris, N., Synolakis, C.E.: Modern seismological reassessment and tsunami simulation of historical Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Tectonophysics, 530-531, 225-239, 2012. Papadopoulos, G. A., Daskalaki, E., Fokaefs, A., and Giraleas, N.: Tsunami hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean: strong earthquakes and tsunamis in the East Hellenic Arc and Trench system, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 7, 57-64, doi:10.5194/nhess-7-57-2007, 2007. Tinti S., Pagnoni G., Armigliato A., and Tonini R.: Tsunami inundation scenarios and tsunami vulnerability assessment forthe town of Alexandria, Egypt, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-10325, 2012, EGU General Assembly 2012.

Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Gestión de la emergencia ante eventos de inundación por tsunami en Chile: el caso de Puerto Saavedra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La gestión de la emergencia ante un evento de inundación por tsunami en Chile fue estudiada en el área urbana de Puerto Saavedra, Región de La Araucanía. Este procedimiento consistió en tres etapas: (1) evaluación y zonificación del riesgo en base a la metodología propuesta por las Naciones Unidas (ONU), (2) ejecución de talleres de participación ciudadana según la metodología AIDEP, y (3) confección de cartografía indicando zonas de seguridad y rutas de ev (more) acuación. Los resultados mostraron dos categorías de riesgo: máximo, asociada al área urbana, y sin riesgo, asociada al cordón montañoso. La comunidad no percibió como máximo el riesgo de inundación por tsunami, lo que dependería de la localización de las unidades vecinales y de la priorización de los riesgos más inmediatos. La aproximación de este estudio es de utilidad para la actualización de planes de protección civil en zonas litorales, experiencia que puede ser replicada en comunas costeras del país y Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Emergency management of tsunami floods in Chile was studied in the urban area of Puerto Saavedra, Araucanía Region. This procedure consisted of three stages: (1) risk assessment and zoning based on the methodology proposed by the United Nations (UN), (2) implementation of citizen participation workshops, according to the AIDEP methodology, and (3) implementation of maps indicating safety areas and evacuation routes. The results showed two risk categories: maximum, associ (more) ated to the urban area, and no risk, associated to mountain range. The community did not perceive the risk of flooding due to tsunami as a maximum, which depended on the location of housing developments and the prioritization of the most immediate risks. The approach of this study is useful for updating civil protection plans in coastal areas, an experience that can be replicated in the coastal districts of the country and the rest of Latin America.

Montenegro-Romero, Tatiana; Peña-Cortés, Fernando

2010-12-01

362

ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of the effects of tsunami damage relative to earthquake damage may help to identify critical coastal zone structures and exposed populations for near field tsunami risk. In this work, we propose to define the ratio between tsunami intensity and earthquake intensity as a measure of near field tsunami vulnerability for coastal communities. This parameter is estimated for 13 tsunami events reported in North Algeria from the 14th century to present. Although the results show that there are no tsunamis that are unusually large for the size of the earthquake that generated them, coastal communities remain at risk from these periodic hazards.We also use tsunami modelling and published information to estimate maximum inundation in Northern Algeria. Then, we generate a flooding map, which reveals the communities, buildings and infrastructure that are exposed to the tsunami hazard. This map shows that the majority of the people in Algiers and Oran live above 5 meters in elevation, and are hence not exposed to the hazard. Despite this, the coastline remains vulnerable to tsunami as earthquakes can damage poorly constructed buildings and other infrastructure, weakening it prior to the arrival of the tsunami. To increase resilience in the coastal zone, tsunami and earthquake awareness, education and preparedness must become a priority in the context of regional early warning programs.

ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES; A. Cisternas; J. -L. Vigneresse; W. Dudley; B. Mc Adoo

2012-01-01

363

GEOMORPHIC EVIDENCE AND RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE DATING RESULTS FOR TSUNAMI EVENTS ON CYPRUS  

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Full Text Available For the Mediterranean area, almost 100 tsunamis were recorded in historical sources from Antiquity till present. Recordings often describe the consequences for human lives and buildings in coastal areas. However, little evidence for the geomorphic effects of tsunamis has been collected in thisregion. Tsunami run-up may destroy soil and vegetation. Tsunamis may further move extremely large volumes of coarse clastic material including individual boulders weighing more than 20 t. Trottoirs, supra- littoral cliffs, and tafoni may also be destroyed. Deepwater foraminifers deposited on land also provide evidence for Tsunami action. Recently extensively dispersed tsunami deposits were observed in southwestern and southeastern Cyprus. Field collected evidence proves tsunami action for over 60 km of coastline and about 100 - 150 m inland. Coastal areas up to 15 m asl, sometimes up to a maximum height of 30 - 50 m asl, have been influenced by tsunami action on Cyprus Island. This paper describes these deposits, their morphologic characteristics, and possibilities of relative and absolute dating.Cues for relative age determination are provided by soil and vegetation, tafoning, karstification on displaced boulders, and by post-tsunami cliff and beach rock development. Field evidence suggests that tsunamis occurred during the last few centuries. This time estimate was also supported by the absolute 14C dating of vermetids and calcareous algae crusts on displaced boulders, and by the dating of relocated wood and charcoal. Overall, strong tsunami action can be assumed for the time between 1530 and 1821 AD.

Franziska Whelan; Dieter Kelletat

2002-01-01

364

An evacuation building project for Cascadia earthquakes and tsunamis Un proyecto de edificio de evacuación para los terremotos y tsunamis Cascadia  

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Full Text Available This paper discusses the need for a tsunami evacuation building (TEB) as a new risk management approach to Cascadia earthquakes and tsunamis. Taking its starting point from FEMA P646 (2008) guidelines for design of structures for evacuation from tsunamis, it looks at how this approach would work for rebuilding the Cannon Beach City Hall as a TEB. Geotechnical, structural and hydraulic designs and technical issues are considered in the project. The paper gives the outline for a future feasibility study that would include subsurface exploration, tsunami evacuation modeling, development of the conceptual design to allow for preliminary structure design, development of tsunami wave dissipation strategies, and assessment of costs. The goal of the future study is to test the feasibility of a TEB in a real situation which will allow communities to understand the technical and cost implications.Este artículo discute sobre la necesidad de un edificio de evacuación para tsunamis como un nuevo proyecto de manejo de riesgo contra tsunamis y terremotos de Cascadia. Basándose en el documento de FEMA P646 (2008), guía para el diseño de estructuras de evacuación para tsunamis, este artículo presenta este posible proyecto de reconstrucción del edificio de la Municipalidad de Cannon Beach como un edificio de evacuación para tsunamis. Se consideran en el proyecto aspectos técnicos y de diseño geotécnico, estructural e hidráulico. Se entrega una descripción para un estudio futuro de factibilidad que incluiría exploración del subsuelo, modelación de la evacuación ante un tsunami, desarrollo del diseño conceptual que permita un diseño estructural preliminar, desarrollo de estrategias de disipación de olas del tsunami y evaluación de costos. El objetivo de este estudio futuro es probar la factibilidad de un edificio de evacuación para tsunamis en un caso real, lo cual permita a la población entender las implicancias técnicas y económicas.

Jay Raskin; Yumei Wang; Marcella Boyer; Tim Fiez; Javier Moncada; Kent Yu; Harry Yeh

2011-01-01

365

The UBO-TSUFD tsunami inundation model: validation and application to a tsunami case study focused on the city of Catania, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays numerical models are a powerful tool in tsunami research since they can be used (i) to reconstruct modern and historical events, (ii) to cast new light on tsunami sources by inverting tsunami data and observations, (iii) to build scenarios in the frame of tsunami mitigation plans, and (iv) to produce forecasts of tsunami impact and inundation in systems of early warning. In parallel with the general recognition of the importance of numerical tsunami simulations, the demand has grown for reliable tsunami codes, validated through tests agreed upon by the tsunami community. This paper presents the tsunami code UBO-TSUFD that has been developed at the University of Bologna, Italy, and that solves the non-linear shallow water (NSW) equations in a Cartesian frame, with inclusion of bottom friction and exclusion of the Coriolis force, by means of a leapfrog (LF) finite-difference scheme on a staggered grid and that accounts for moving boundaries to compute sea inundation and withdrawal at the coast. Results of UBO-TSUFD applied to four classical benchmark problems are shown: two benchmarks are based on analytical solutions, one on a plane wave propagating on a flat channel with a constant slope beach; and one on a laboratory experiment. The code is proven to perform very satisfactorily since it reproduces quite well the benchmark theoretical and experimental data. Further, the code is applied to a realistic tsunami case: a scenario of a tsunami threatening the coasts of eastern Sicily, Italy, is defined and discussed based on the historical tsunami of 11 January 1693, i.e. one of the most severe events in the Italian history.

Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

2013-07-01

366

Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco) against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The behaviour of incident tsunami waves when interacting with coastal infrastructures is analysed on the basis of numerical simulations of near-shore tsunami waves' propagation. Tsunami impact at the affected site is assessed through computing inundation and current velocity using a high-resolution digital terrain model that incorporates bathymetric, topographic and coastal structures data. Results, in terms of near-shore tsunami propagation snapshots, waves' interaction with coastal barriers, and spatial distributions of flow depths and speeds, are presented and discussed in light of what was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Predicted results show different levels of impact that different tsunami wave conditions could generate in the region. Existing coastal barriers around the El Jadida harbour succeeded in reflecting relatively small waves generated by some scenarios, but failed in preventing the overtopping caused by waves from others. Considering the scenario highly impacting the El Jadida coast, significant inundations are computed at the sandy beach and unprotected areas. The modelled dramatic tsunami impact in the region shows the need for additional tsunami standards not only for sea-defense structures but also for the coastal dwellings and houses to provide potential in-place evacuation.

Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Leone, F.; Matias, L.; Mellas, S.; Zourarah, B.; Miranda, J. M.; Carrilho, F.; Cherel, J.-P.

2013-07-01

367

Oceanographer tracks marine debris from the Japan tsunami and other incidents  

Science.gov (United States)

In the wake of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and resulting tsunami that struck Japan, much of the debris that washed out to sea continues to float slowly on ocean currents across the Pacific Ocean. The leading edge of a dispersed field of debris that has not already sunk or biodegraded was estimated by a computer model to be about halfway across the Pacific, north of Midway Island, as of 31 July, 142 days after the tsunami. According to Curtis Ebbesmeyer, a consulting oceanographer who has been involved with tracking various kinds of ocean flotsam for decades, the debris field, which encompasses an area about the size of California, could begin to reach the U.S. West Coast by March 2012. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Satellite and Information Service was able to track the debris field until mid-April, when the debris became too dispersed to be detected in satellite imagery. Ebbesmeyer, formerly an oceanographer with Mobil and Standard Oil, told Eos that he does not have any recent physical evidence of the debris field because it is now widely dispersed and still far away from any landfall. Ebbesmeyer said, though, that his confidence level for the debris field's estimated size and location is “very high.”

Showstack, Randy

2011-09-01

368

TSUNAMI- SEDIMENT SIGNATURES IN THE MANAKUDY ESTUARY ALONG THE WEST COAST OF INDIA  

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Full Text Available The December 26, 2004 tsunami left its imprints along the southern coast of India especially the coastal areas of Manakudy in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. In the study area - Manakudy estuary - the post-tsunami sediment texture is predominantly coarser as inferred from textural analysis. Granulometric analysis indicates a shift of well-sorted, coarse skewed and platykurtic nature during the pre-tsunami season, to moderately sorted, fine skewed and leptokurtic behavior, after the tsunami. Violent hydrodynamic conditions have prevailed during the post-tsunami deposition of sediments. The unimodal nature of the post-tsunami sediments as distinct from the bimodal pre- tsunami sediments is reflected from the frequency curves. The CM diagram and the log probability curves confirm these observations.

Rashi M; Vetha Roy D; Chandrasekhar N

2011-01-01

369

The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, ...

Fowler Nancy; Redwood-Campbell Lynda; Molinaro Elizabeth; Howard Michelle; Kaczorowski Janusz; Jafarpour Morteza

370

The possibilities for the development of tourism in the Appennino Lucano Val d'Agri Lagonegrese National Park: A participative qualitative-quantitative approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Protected areas can represent a strategic laboratory for the realisation of initiatives capable of promoting sustainable economic development models at a local level. One of the duties of national parks is to provide value and promote, even for tourism purposes, natural, historical and cultural reso...

Bencivenga, Angelo; Breil, Margaretha; Cassinelli, Mariaester; Chiarullo, Livio; Percoco, Annalisa

371

Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Tsunamis: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Thinking of powerful natural events like volcanic eruptions and tsunamis only as hazards undervalues their importance in our lives. This module suggests taking a case study approach--featuring Vesuvius of 75 AD, the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, and the South Asian tsunami of 2004--to learn about earthquakes and volcanic eruptions as players in the dynamic system that has shaped the environment of Earth's surface throughout history. Key concepts include the components of Earth's systems, the hazards that volcanoes and earthquakes present, and how to reduce the risks associated with them.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

372

THE TSUNAMI HISTORY OF GUAM: 1849-1993  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great (Mw 8.1) tsunamigenic earthquake of August 8, 1993, about 50 km to the east of Guam, has created renewed interest in the tsunami hazard for the island of Guam. We examine this hazard from two perspectives--historical and mechanistic. Guam has had only three tsunamis causing damage at more than one location--in 1849, 1892, and in 1993, and only two to six other locally-generated tsunamis which were observed on the island in the past 200 years. Five of these six events have low validities and may not be reports of true tsunami. On the other hand, dozens of storm surges related to typhoons have caused millions of dollars of damage on Guam. The island of Guam is located west of the Marianas Trench. The trench is caused by the subduction of old, cold, and dense lithosphere of the Pacific plate under the Philippine plate. Steeply dipping old material is unlikely to trigger tsunamis because (1) the two plates are decoupled and (2) the motion is too slow to allow large amounts of stress to build up before earthquakes occur, resulting in less violent earthquakes. A small section of the Marianas Trench near Guam, however, has shallow subduction. This is where the 1993 event occurred, and a quiet area south of this may be the site of a similar future tsunamigenic earthquake. Most of the damage from a local tsunami would occur on the relatively unpopulated east coast; the likelihood of a local tsunami from the west is minimal. However, a repeat of the 1848 tsunami with a southern source could affect both the east and west coasts. The 1993 earthquake occurred coincident with the passage of Typhoon Steve. We show that this may not be coincidental as there is a substantial statistical correlation between earthquakes and typhoons at Guam. The close encounter of a typhoon with Guam doubles the probability of an earthquake with magnitude greater than 5.0 occurring on that day.

James F. Lander; Lowell S. Whiteside; Paul Hattori

2002-01-01

373

On the uniqueness of flow in a recent tsunami model  

CERN Document Server

We give an elementary proof of uniqueness for the integral curve starting from the vertical axis in the phase-plane analysis of the recent model [A. Constantin, R.S. Johnson, Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis, Fluid Dynam. Res. 40 (2008), 175--211]. Our technique can be applied easily in circumstances where the reparametrization device from [A. Constantin, A dynamical systems approach towards isolated vorticity regions for tsunami background states, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. doi: 10.1007/s00205-010-0347-1] might lead to some serious difficulties.

Mustafa, Octavian G

2011-01-01

374

New tsunami runup relationships based on long wave experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami are propagating waves characterized by long wavelengths and large amplitudes close to the shore. They may also have a profile characterised by a large trough preceding the positive wave. These waves are destructive, causing severe damage to structures and human casualties when they reach coastal areas (e.g., Indian Ocean, 2004; Japan, 2011). Runup is a local characteristic of a wave flow inland and this measure, easily identifiable in the field, is extensively used as an indicator of tsunami inundation and impact on the coast.

Charvet, Ingrid; Eames, Ian; Rossetto, Tiziana

2013-09-01

375

Calibration of a real-time tsunami detection algorithm for sites with no instrumental tsunami records: application to stations in Eastern Sicily, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal tide-gauges play a very important role in a Tsunami Warning System, since sea-level data are needed for a correct evaluation of the tsunami threat and the tsunami arrival has to be recognised as early as possible. Real-time tsunami detection algorithms serve this purpose. For an efficient detection they have to be calibrated and adapted to the specific local characteristics of the site where they are installed, which is easily done when the station has recorded a sufficiently large number of tsunamis. In this case the recorded database can be used to select the best set of parameters enhancing the discrimination power of the algorithm and minimizing the detection time. This chance is however rare, since most of the coastal tide-gauge stations, either historical or of new installation, have recorded only a few tsunamis in their lifetime, if not any. In this case calibration must be carried out by using synthetic tsunami signals, which poses the problem of how to generate them and how to use them. This paper investigates this issue and proposes a calibration approach by using as an example a specific case, that is the calibration of a real-time detection algorithm called TEDA for two stations, namely Tremestieri and Catania, in eastern Sicily, Italy, that have been recently installed in the frame of the Italian project TSUNET, aiming at improving the tsunami monitoring capacity in a region that is one of the most hazardous tsunami areas of Italy and of the Mediterranean.

Bressan, L.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

2013-06-01

376

Knowledge and confidence of Australian emergency department clinicians in managing patients with mental health-related presentations: findings from a national qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Mental health related presentations are common in Australian Emergency Departments (EDs). We sought to better understand ED staff knowledge and levels of confidence in treating people with mental health related problems using qualitative methods. METHODS: This was a qualitative learning needs analysis of Australian emergency doctors and nurses regarding the assessment and management of mental health presentations. Participants were selected for semi-structured telephone interview using criterion-based sampling. Recruitment was via the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and College of Emergency Nursing Australasia membership databases. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic framework analysis was used to identify perceived knowledge gaps and levels of confidence among participants in assessing and managing patients attending EDs with mental health presentations. RESULTS: Thirty-six staff comprising 20 doctors and 16 nurses consented to participate. Data saturation was achieved for four major areas where knowledge gaps were reported. These were: assessment (risk assessment and assessment of mental status), management (psychotherapeutic skills, ongoing management, medication management and behaviour management), training (curriculum and rotations), and application of mental health legislation. Participants' confidence in assessing mental health patients was affected by environmental, staff, and patient related factors. Clinicians were keen to learn more about evidence based practice to provide better care for this patient group. Areas where clinicians felt the least confident were in the effective assessment and management of high risk behaviours, providing continuity of care, managing people with dual diagnosis, prescribing and effectively managing medications, assessing and managing child and adolescent mental health, and balancing the caseload in ED. CONCLUSION: Participants were most concerned about knowledge gaps in risk assessment, particularly for self-harming patients, violent and aggressive patients and their management, and distinguishing psychiatric from physical illness. Staff confidence was enhanced by better availability of skilled psychiatric support staff to assist in clinical decision-making for complex cases and via the provision of a safe ED environment. Strategies to enhance the care of patients with mental health presentations in Australian emergency departments should address these gaps in knowledge and confidence.

Jelinek GA; Weiland TJ; Mackinlay C; Gerdtz M; Hill N

2013-01-01

377

Simulation of space-borne tsunami detection using GNSS-Reflectometry applied to tsunamis in the Indian Ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009), a feasibility study on a future tsunami detection system from space has been carried out. The Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is an innovative way of using reflected GNSS signals for remote sensing, e.g. sea surface altimetry. In contrast to conventional satellite radar altimetry, multiple height measurements within a wide field of view can be made simultaneously. With a dedicated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) constellation of satellites equipped with GNSS-R, densely spaced sea surface height measurements could be established to detect tsunamis. This simulation study compares the Walker and the meshed comb constellation with respect to their global reflection point distribution. The detection performance of various LEO constellation scenarios with GPS, GLONASS and Galileo as signal sources is investigated. The study concentrates on the detection performance for six historic tsunami events in the Indian Ocean generated by earthquakes of different magnitudes, as well as on different constellation types and orbit parameters. The GNSS-R carrier phase is compared with the PARIS or code altimetry approach. The study shows that Walker constellations have a much better reflection point distribution compared to the meshed comb constellation. Considering simulation assumptions and assuming technical feasibility it can be demonstrated that strong tsunamis with magnitudes (M) ?8.5 can be detected with certainty from any orbit altitude within 15–25 min by a 48/8 or 81/9 Walker constellation if tsunami waves of 20 cm or higher can be detected by space-borne GNSS-R. The carrier phase approach outperforms the PARIS altimetry approach especially at low orbit altitudes and for a low number of LEO satellites.

R. Stosius; G. Beyerle; A. Helm; A. Hoechner; J. Wickert

2010-01-01

378

Towards a robust framework for Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for local and regional tsunami in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is conceptually closely related to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA). The main difference is that PTHA needs to simulate propagation of tsunami waves through the ocean and cannot rely on attenuation relationships, which makes PTHA computationally more expensive. The wave propagation process can be assumed to be linear as long as water depth is much larger than the wave amplitude of the tsunami. Beyond this limit a non-linear scheme has to be employed with significantly higher algorithmic run times. PTHA considering far-field tsunami sources typically uses unit source simulations, and relies on the linearity of the process by later scaling and combining the wave fields of individual simulations to represent the intended earthquake magnitude and rupture area. Probabilistic assessments are typically made for locations offshore but close to the coast. Inundation is calculated only for significantly contributing events (de-aggregation). For local and regional tsunami it has been demonstrated that earthquake rupture complexity has a significant effect on the tsunami amplitude distribution offshore and also on inundation. In this case PTHA has to take variable slip distributions and non-linearity into account. A unit source approach cannot easily be applied. Rupture complexity is seen as an aleatory uncertainty and can be incorporated directly into the rate calculation. We have developed a framework that manages the large number of simulations required for local PTHA. As an initial case study the effect of rupture complexity on tsunami inundation and the statistics of the distribution of wave heights have been investigated for plate-interface earthquakes in the Hawke's Bay region in New Zealand. Assessing the probability that water levels will be in excess of a certain threshold requires the calculation of empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDF). We compare our results with traditional estimates for tsunami inundation simulations that do not consider rupture complexity. De-aggregation based on moment magnitude alone might not be appropriate, because the hazard posed by any individual event can be underestimated locally if rupture complexity is ignored.

Mueller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming

2013-04-01

379

Role of depositional environments in the preservation and detection of past tsunamis: lessons from 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstructing the tsunamigenic earthquake history of a region aids hazard assessment, and in the absence of written records, tsunami geology is the only tool to constrain the chronology and magnitudes of previous tsunamis to have affected a region. Observations along the Andaman-Nicobar Islands and the east coast of India suggest that distant and geomorphologically sheltered sites provide more conducive environments for tsunami deposition and preservation. The 2004 deposits from the Andaman Islands are mainly organic debris, sand sheets, coral debris and boulder deposits. The 2004 coseismic deformational features include uplift and subsidence of land as well as soil liquefaction. We use sites of tsunami deposits and deformational features to obtain evidence leading to past tsunamigenic earthquakes. The study spans latitudes from 7-14° N, from Campbell Bay to East Island. We classify the ages into three grades, A, B and C, based on the stratigraphic context of the deposit and the material and the age uncertainties. The earliest of the tsunamis occurred between 2nd and 6th centuries AD, evidenced by the coastal boulder beds of the southern Car Nicobar Island. A subsequent tsunami probably in the age range AD 770-1040 is inferred from both the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and on the Indian subcontinent. It is the strongest candidate for a 2004-caliber earthquake in the past 1500 years or more. The A&N Islands also contain tsunami deposits from AD 1250-1450 that probably matches those previously reported from Sumatra and Thailand. Evidence from what we consider as protected inland sites as well as coseismic deformation and liquefaction fall in the same age brackets as AD 1250-1450 from Indonesia, Thailand and AD 770-1040, from Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the east coast of India. By using deposits from the inland locations within the rupture as well as transoceanic sites, and other proxies dated in the same age bracket, we suggest that the ~1000 year old earthquake best mimics the 2004 event in rupture characteristics and tsunami extent.

Rajendran, Kusala; Chittenipattu, Rajendran; Andrade, Vanessa

2013-04-01

380

Children and adolescents' self-reported coping strategies during the Southeast Asian Tsunami.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate how Norwegian children on holiday in Southeast Asia coped when the tsunami hit December 26, 2004. The goal is to understand more about children and adolescents' immediate coping strategies when faced with a life-threatening situation. Acquiring more knowledge on coping strategies at different points in the recovery process can be useful for gaining insight to the relationship between coping and psychological adjustment. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews of 56 children aged 6-18 years (36 girls and 20 boys) were conducted in their homes approximately 10 months after the tsunami. The interviews were analysed using qualitative methods. RESULTS: Two primary coping strategies were described and labelled as self-soothing thoughts and behavioural strategies. Self-soothing thoughts were divided into five categories: positive thinking; avoidant thinking; rational thoughts; and thoughts on parental competencies and parental protection. Behavioural strategies were divided into six categories: attachment seeking behaviour; distraction behaviour; helping others; seeking information and comfort; and talking. CONCLUSIONS: The children's coping responses point to the developmental aspects of coping and how children are dependent upon adults for guidance and protection. In addition, very few youth reported using problem-focused coping strategies that are normally thought of as helpful in the aftermath of trauma, whereas strategies often thought of as not so helpful such as distraction and avoidance, was more predominant. It may be that helpful immediate coping strategies are different from long-term coping strategies, and that coping strategies differ according to the degree of perceived control of the situation.

Jensen TK; Ellestad A; Dyb G

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

Study on tsunami due to offshore earthquakes for Korea coast. Literature survey and numerical simulation on earthquake and tsunami in the Japan Sea and the East China Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Korea, there has been a concern on tsumami risks for the Nuclear Power Plants since the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake tsunami. The maximum run-up height reached 4 m to north of the Ulchin nuclear power plant site. The east coast of Korea was also attacked by a few meters high tsunami generated by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. Both source areas of them were in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, which remains another tsunami potential. Therefore it is necessary to study tsunami risks for coast of Korea by means of geological investigation and numerical simulation. Historical records of earthquake and tsunami in the Japan Sea were re-compiled to evaluate tsunami potential. A database of marine active faults in the Japan Sea was compiled to decide a regional potential of tsunami. Many developed reverse faults are found in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. The authors have found no historical earthquake in the East China Sea which caused tunami observed at coast of Korea. Therefore five fault models were determined on the basis of the analysis results of historical records and recent research results of fault parameter and tunami. Tsunami heights were estimated by numerical simulation of nonlinear dispersion wave theory. The results of the simulations indicate that the tsunami heights in these cases are less than 0.25 m along the coast of Korea, and the tsunami risk by these assumed faults does not lead to severe impact. It is concluded that tsunami occurred in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea leads the most significant impact to Korea consequently. (author)

382

Historic tsunami in Britain since AD 1000: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The British coast is not considered at particular risk from tsunami, a view that is supported by a number of recent government reports. However, these reports largely ignore some written historic records that suggest southern Britain has experienced a number of events over the past 1000 yrs. This study briefly assesses these records and recognises four groups of events: 1) sea disturbance and coastal floods in southeast England linked to earthquakes in the Dover Straits (e.g. 1382 and 1580), 2) far-field tsunami reaching the coast of the British Isles, for example, from earthquakes along the Azores-Gibraltar Fault Zone offshore Portugal (e.g. 1755), 3) tsunami associated with near-coastal low magnitude earthquakes (e.g. 1884 and 1892), and 4) a flood event in AD 1014 that has been linked to comet debris impact. The seismogenic events range from minor water disturbance, through seismic seiching, to small and "giant" waves, suggesting near-coastal, low-magnitude, shallow earthquakes may be capable of triggering disturbance in relatively shallow water, as supported by similar occurrences elsewhere, and that the British tsunami risk requires a more careful evaluation.

S. K. Haslett; E. A. Bryant

2008-01-01

383

Landsat 7 Images Show Scale of Tsunami Damage  

Science.gov (United States)

This NASA page shows before and after pictures taken by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument of a part of the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The images show that the scale of the tsunami's impact can be seen from space.

Nasa

384

GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PALEO-TSUNAMIS IN SRI LANKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundation event, thin sediment films of fining up sequences were located in several topographic depressions of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka. The films consisting of silty fine sand with particular microfossil assemblages were located also in closed containers, bottles and kitchen tables. Well preserved microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolarians as well as spicules of sponges were noted in these recent tsunami sediments.Random augur holes were drilled into some selected depressions in the southern coastal villages of Peraliya and Denuwala situated at locations separated by about 50km. In several such holes, at least two fining up sequences were located below the surface in soil horizons separated from each other by 35cm to 1m. These soil profiles were overlying older coral reefs developed on lateritic formations. The microscopic observations on particular size fractions of the soil horizons showed microfossil assemblages with textures, color and organic C contents strikingly comparable to those observed in the recent tsunami sediments of Sri Lanka. Our findings imply the occurrence of at least two paleo- tsunami events of different ages in Sri Lanka originating apparently from a common source.

Kapila Dahanayake; Nayomi Kulasena

2008-01-01

385

The 2004 tsunami in Penang, Malaysia: early mental health intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disasters, natural or man-made, bring numerous health care challenges. In any crisis, mental health programs are a requirement during both the acute and postemergency phases. In the Asian tsunami on December 26, 2004, some of the northwestern coastal areas of Malaysia, particularly the island of Penang, were affected with devastating effects on the residents. Such disasters can predispose to mental health problems among the affected people. An early mental health intervention program was carried out in Balik Pulau, Penang, an area badly affected by the tsunami. The objective of the intervention program was to identify the victims, counsel them, make referrals if necessary, and provide help and resources to prevent the development of mental health problems. Penang residents identified as tsunami victims by the local health authorities were recruited. A group of health care workers, school teachers, village authorities, and volunteers were trained to carry out the crisis intervention program by health care workers experienced in crisis interventions. A total of 299 adults participated in the crisis intervention program, with follow-up assessments being made 4 to 6 weeks later. At the follow-up assessment, 1% of the victims had a problem and they were then referred for further medical assessment. This indicates that the intervention program in the first 2 weeks after the tsunami disaster with referrals to medical services may have helped stabilize the victims.

Krishnaswamy S; Subramaniam K; Indran T; Low WY

2012-07-01

386

Tsunami atlas for the coasts of the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coastal power plant siting and safety analysis requires consideration of wave action and extreme water levels, both high and low. The run-up of large amplitude long waves, such as tsunamis, may pose a hazard to a coastal facility through direct dynamic effects on plant structures, through destruction of protective breakwaters and beaches, and the like. Extreme low water levels are of concern in design of coolant intake structures. The importance of tsunamis in these analyses, especially long Pacific coasts, makes specification of potential tsunami histories necessary. The present report addresses this problem. A large hypothetical earthquake is defined by appeal to history and tectonic theory. This canonical source serves as input to a numerical hydrodynamic model which computes the resulting wave history anywhere within the ocean basin. This procedure is repeated for a number of potential source locations, chosen according to degree and type of seismic activity. In this way, hypothetical coastal histories of great tsunamis emanating from any potential source area are simulated. The results of this study are offshore incident wave systems and do not include the complex, site-dependent, nearshore transformation. Users must account for such local effects in any specific application.

1979-01-01

387

Teaching Ideas: The Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This page hosts a large collection of resources for teaching about the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear crisis in Japan, including the latest Times articles and multimedia, related lesson plans and other materials from The Learning Network, and ideas from around the Web.

Network, New Y.

388

How Will Astronomy Archives Survive The Data Tsunami?  

CERN Multimedia

The field of astronomy is starting to generate more