WorldWideScience
1

Update of the U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical Record and Sources for Waves  

Science.gov (United States)

The NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated to conduct the first qualitative United States tsunami hazard assessment, published in 2008 by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Since that time, significant events such as the 2009 Samoa and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis have affected the U.S. and reinforced the importance of considering all of the evidence when conducting an assessment. In addition, there has been progress in tsunami research that reduces some of the earlier uncertainties. In 2011, the National Academies released their assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program recommending that NOAA and its NTHMP partners, in collaboration with researchers in social and physical sciences, should complete an initial national assessment of tsunami risk and should institute a periodic assessment of the sources of tsunamis that threaten the United States. Therefore, the NTHMP is updating the national tsunami hazard assessment. Although the second assessment will not be a national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, areas where there is progress in this methodology will be presented. As a result, a national tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment is not possible at this time, but examples of ongoing work will be presented. This paper looks at the data sources in the first report, including an examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database that resulted in a qualitative assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of tsunami runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths were compared with the qualitative assessments based on frequency and amplitude. The 2009 American Samoa tsunami resulted in a change for the U.S. Pacific island territories qualitative tsunami hazard assessment from 'Moderate' to 'High'. The NGDC tsunami database contains reported tsunamis and is therefore limited to written records existing for an area. Some of the uncertainty in the completeness of the written record has been reduced by investigating the history of tide gauges in the different regions. The first tsunami hazard assessment also used the USGS National Seismic Hazard Map (NSHM) databases to partially extend the time interval. These databases are primarily meant to assess earthquakes affecting U.S. possessions and do not include all possible seismogenic tsunami sources in the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. However, the databases make it possible to estimate the rate of occurrence of larger magnitude earthquakes that could generate a tsunami. The USGS NSHM databases are based on tectonic models, and paleoseismic and paleotsunami data. These databases are periodically updated with new research. Inclusion of updated information can reduce uncertainties in tsunami sources such as the Cascadia subduction zone and others.

Dunbar, P. K.; Goldfinger, C.

2013-12-01

2

Tsunami!  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Geophysics at University of Washington provides the Tsunami! Website. An excellent general resource about tsunamis (large water waves), this site provides information about the "mechanisms of tsunami generation and propagation, the impact of tsunamis on humankind, and the Tsunami Warning System." Sections included at the site are General Tsunami Information, Tsunami Survey and Research Information, Miscellaneous Information (links to related sites), and Background on the Development of Tsunami!.

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Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Insect Hazards Rodent Control Prevent or Respond to Snake Bite Animal Disposal Following an Emergency Carbon Monoxide ... All Regions (NOAA) About Tsunamis (American Red Cross) World Health Organization (WHO) South Asia earthquake and tsunamis ...

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Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

A tsunami is a series of huge ocean waves created by an underwater disturbance. Causes include earthquakes, landslides, volcanic ... space that strike the surface of Earth. A tsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in ...

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Impact of the tsunami response on local and national capacities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The largest ever evaluation of an international humanitarian response found that most lives were saved by affected and neighbouring communities in the immediate aftermath of the December 2004 tsunami. When the international community bypassed or appropriated local and national response, the impact was inefficient in terms of cost, effort and time.

Arjuna Parakrama

2007-07-01

6

Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Seed Project contains information on the Indian Ocean Tsunami as well as 2 new visualizations. The first shows the main wave's progress across the ocean in hour increments. The second shows a hypothetical tsunami in profile as it travels across open water and then encounters a land mass. (Both of these links are images on the right hand side of the page.)

Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development, Inc.

7

Tsunami Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tsunami Database is a global digital database containing information on more than 2000 tsunamis maintained by the National Geophysical Data Center. This is an interactive site; the user is asked to enter search parameters such as date, latitude and longitude, cause of the tsunami - earthquake, landslide, volcano, or all combined - magnitude, and death. Information is then generated on tsunamis that match that data. The National Geophysical Data Center also maintains an historic slide set collection of tsunami damage.

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Suspect Tsunami Deposits Point Reyes National Seashore Marin County California  

Science.gov (United States)

An anomalous sand layer is inter-bedded within estuary mud deposits of Point Reyes National Seashore (PORE), Marin County, California. The alternating mud and sand deposits resemble tsunami deposited sediments located along northern California, Oregon, Washington and southern British Columbia (Cascadia) coastline, and other coastal locations around the world. This study was conducted to determine if the sedimentary record indicates a significant deviation from the typical low-energy long-duration depositional environment of the PORE marshes, to a brief high-energy short- duration depositional environment, then returning to typical quiet deposition. The sand layer appears continuous along a nearly 170 m sampling traverse of the upper-most reach of the Home Bay marsh and along a 55 m sampling traverse normal to the first traverse. Generally, the sand layer appears to drape the marsh, an area measuring at least 75 m by 300 m. This estimate is based on visual inspection of tidal channel banks where the sand layer is well exposed, approximately 25 cm below the marsh surface. The sand layer ranges from one to several centimeters thick and has an abrupt, smooth to wavy lower contact with the underlying estuary mud. The upper contact of the sand layer with the overlying mud ranges from gradual to abrupt and has a smooth subsurface topography. Several samples collected during the traverses appear as sand-mud couplets and are inversely graded. Should pending laboratory analysis support the anomalous sand layer as deposited by tsunami, we can then apply these data to extend the tsunami record and ultimately, improve assessment of tsunami risk.

Hoirup, D. F.

2006-12-01

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A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform forming the upstream information flow, the DEWS project focused on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Based on these results, TRIDEC continues this task focusing on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data.

Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

2012-04-01

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TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK  

OpenAIRE

With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readi...

Hubbard, James R.; Duncan, Scott A.

2002-01-01

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TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS, National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readily available for tsunami hazard assessment and mapping applications.Tsunami inundation maps and modeling are just two of the more important products which may be derived from NWLON data. In addition to the seven water level gauges that are hardwired into the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WClATWC, NOS has a significant number of gauges with real-time satellite telemetry capabilities located along the Pacific Northwest coastline, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. These gauges, in concert with near shore buoy systems, have the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the existing tsunami warning system.The recent expansion of the Caribbean Sea Level Gauge Network through the NOS regional partnerships with Central American and Caribbean countries have opened an opportunity for a basin-wide tsunami warning network in a region which is ill prepared for a major tsunami event.

James R. Hubbard

2002-01-01

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NOAA Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Web site developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on issues surrounding tsunamis. It provides an extensive selection of links to information on how tsunamis are created, hazards associated with them, and how individuals and communities can prepare and respond to a tsunami. There is also information about the NOAA's role in tsunami warnings and preparedness, including locations of warning centers in the Pacific Ocean Basin, observations and data, forecasts, and hazard-assessment research and modeling.

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The Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Centre (HL-NTWC): Recent updates and future developments  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hellenic NTWC (HL-NTWC) was established officially by Greek Law in September 2010. HL-NTWC is hosted at the National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Geodynamics (NOA-IG), which also operates a 24/7 earthquake monitoring service in Greece and coordinates the newly established Hellenic Unified National Seismic Network. NOA-IG and HL-NTWC Operational Centre is linked to the Civil Protection Operational Centre and serves as the official alerting agency to the General Secretariat for Civil Protection in Greece, regarding earthquake events and tsunami watch. Since August 2012, HL-NTWC acts as Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (CTWP) under the UNESCO IOC - ICG NEAMTWS tsunami warning system (NEAM: North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas) and offers its services to the NEAMTWS system. HL-NTWC has participated in all Communication Test Exercises (CTE) under NEAMTWS and also it has provided tsunami scenarios for extended system testing exercises such as NEAMWAVE12. Some of the recent developments at HL-NTWC in Greece include: deployment of new tide gauge stations for tsunami watch purposes, computation of tsunami scenarios and extending the database in use, improving alerting response times, earthquake magnitude estimation and testing newly established software modules for tsunami and earthquake alerting (i.e. Early-Est, SeisComP3 etc.) in Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. Although funding today is limited, an advantage of the participation in important EC funded research projects, i.e. NERIES, NERA, TRANSFER, NEAMTIC and ASTARTE, demonstrates that collaboration of top class Research Institutions that care to produce important and useful results in the research front in Europe, can facilitate towards developing and operating top class Operational Centers, useful for Civil Protection purposes in regions in need. Last, it is demonstrated that HL-NTWC collaboration with important key role Research Centers in the Security and Safety issues (e.g. JRC-IPSC) at the Operational front, can further facilitate and secure everyday operation under a collaborative and experience exchanging manner. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3)

Melis, Nikolaos S.; Charalampakis, Marinos

2014-05-01

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Sedimentology of onshore tsunami deposits of the Indian Ocean tsunami, 2004 in the mangrove forest of the Curieuse Marine National Park, Seychelles  

Science.gov (United States)

The Seychelles were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Since the tsunami history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historiography we conducted a study of onshore tsunami deposits on the Seychelles in order to understand the scale of impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and potential predecessors. As part of this project we found and studied onshore tsunami deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay on the east coast of Curieuse Island. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused a change of habitat due to sedimentation of an extended sand sheet in the mangrove forest. We present results of the first detailed sedimentological study of onshore tsunami deposits of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami conducted on the Seychelles. The Curieuse mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay is part of the Curieuse Marine National Park. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the tsunami by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The silt to fine sand sized and organic rich mangrove soil was subsequently covered by carbonate fine to medium sand (1.5 to 2.1 ?) containing coarser carbonate shell debris which had been trapped outside the mangrove bay before the tsunami. The tsunami deposited a sand sheet which is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of morphology. Maximum inundation distance is 200 m. The sediments often cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. No landward fining trend of the sand sheet has been observed. On the different sand lobes carbonate-cemented sandstone debris ranging in size from 0.5 up to 12 cm occurs. Also numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and molluscs were distributed on top of the sand lobes. Intact bivalve shells were mostly positioned with the convex side upwards. On small ledges of a granitic body at 120 m from the shore fragmented and complete shells were deposited at different elevations of up to 4 m. This implies a run up height of at least 4 m above sea level at this distance from the shore. Our study presents the mapping of the tsunamigenic sand lobes, their grain size distribution and petrographic variations of their components compared to the mangrove soil. The difference in the grain size and amount of organic material of the mangrove soil compared to the sand lobes indicate that the coarser material was entrained from outside of the mangrove forest by the tsunami. The similarity of the grain size distributions of the sediment of the sand lobes and of a reference beach/intertidal sample suggests the lagoon between the mangrove forest and the causeway as the probable sediment source area. The fact that the mangrove forest is surrounded by granitic hills and the appearance of the carbonate sandstone debris mostly on the surface of the sand sheets supports this assumption.

Nentwig, V.; Bahlburg, H.; Monthy, D.

2012-12-01

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Tsunami Preparedness  

Science.gov (United States)

... Disaster or Emergency › Types of Emergency › Tsunami Preparedness Tsunami Preparedness About About Tsunami Tsunamis are a series of large ocean waves ... night. Be aware of the signs of a tsunami: A strong earthquake lasting 20 seconds or more ...

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Tsunami Modeling from Submarine Landslides  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a kinematic model that computes tsunamis generated from submarine landslides. The model is based on bathymetric (ocean floor modeling) data and historical tsunami data. The papers' main focus is the application of the model to the 1741 Oshima-Oshima Tsunami in Japan and landslide events around the Hawaiian Islands. This paper was presented at the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Review and International Tsunami Symposium in Seattle, Washington on August 10, 2001.

Kenji Satake

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Assessment of human immediate response capability related to tsunami threats in Indonesia at a sub-national scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human immediate response is contextualized into different time compartments reflecting the tsunami early warning chain. Based on the different time compartments the available response time and evacuation time is quantified. The latter incorporates accessibility of safe areas determined by a hazard assessment, as well as environmental and demographic impacts on evacuation speed properties assessed using a Cost Distance Weighting GIS approach.

Approximately 4.35 million Indonesians live in tsunami endangered areas on the southern coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali and have between 20 and 150 min to reach a tsunami-safe area. Most endangered areas feature longer estimated-evacuation times and hence the population possesses a weak immediate response capability leaving them more vulnerable to being directly impacted by a tsunami. At a sub-national scale these hotspots were identified and include: the Mentawai islands off the Sumatra coast, various sub-districts on Sumatra and west and east Java. Based on the presented approach a temporal dynamic estimation of casualties and displacements as a function of available response time is obtained for the entire coastal area. As an example, a worst case tsunami scenario for Kuta (Bali results in casualties of 25 000 with an optimal response time (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning and 120 000 for minimal response time (no evacuation. The estimated casualties correspond well to observed/reported values and overall model uncertainty is low with a standard error of 5%.

The results obtained allow for prioritization of intervention measures such as early warning chain, evacuation and contingency planning, awareness and preparedness strategies down to a sub-district level and can be used in tsunami early warning decision support.

J. Post

2009-07-01

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A User's Guide to the Tsunami Datasets at NOAA's National Data Buoy Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has maintained and operated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunameter network since 2003. The tsunameters employ the NOAA-developed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) technology. The technology measures the pressure and temperature every 15 seconds on the ocean floor and transforms them into equivalent water-column height observations. A complex series of subsampled observations are transmitted acoustically in real-time to a moored buoy or marine autonomous vehicle (MAV) at the ocean surface. The surface platform uses its satellite communications to relay the observations to NDBC. NDBC places the observations onto the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) for relay to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) in Hawai'i and Alaska and to the international community. It takes less than three minutes to speed the observations from the ocean floor to the TWCs. NDBC can retrieve limited amounts of the 15-s measurements from the instrumentation on the ocean floor using the technology's two-way communications. NDBC recovers the full resolution 15-s measurements about every 2 years and forwards the datasets and metadata to the National Geophysical Data Center for permanent archive. Meanwhile, NDBC retains the real-time observations on its website. The type of real-time observation depends on the operating mode of the tsunameter. NDBC provides the observations in a variety of traditional and innovative methods and formats that include descriptors of the operating mode. Datasets, organized by station, are available from the NDBC website as text files and from the NDBC THREDDS server in netCDF format. The website provides alerts and lists of events that allow users to focus on the information relevant for tsunami hazard analysis. In addition, NDBC developed a basic web service to query station information and observations to support the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT) model. NDBC and NOAA's Integrated Ocean Observing System have fielded the innovative Sensor Observation Service (SOS) that allows users access to observations by station, or groups of stations that have been organized into Features of Interest, such as the 2011 Honshu Tsunami. The user can elect to receive the SOS observations in several different formats, such as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) or delimiter-separated values. Recently, NDBC's Coastal and Offshore Buoys provided meteorological observations used in analyzing possible meteotsunamis on the U.S. East Coast. However, many of these observations are some distance away from the tsunameters. In a demonstration project, NDBC has added sensors to a tsunameter's surface buoy and a MAV to support program requirements for meteorological observations. All these observations are available from NDBC's website in text files, netCDF, and SOS. To aid users in obtaining information relevant to their applications, the presentation documents, in detail, the characteristics of the different types of real-time observations and the availability and organization of the resulting datasets at NDBC .

Bouchard, R. H.; O'Neil, K.; Grissom, K.; Garcia, M.; Bernard, L. J.; Kern, K. J.

2013-12-01

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Tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

In the framework of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) the assessment of tsunami risk is an essential part of the overall activities. The scientific and technical approach for the tsunami risk assessment has been developed and the results are implemented in the national Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre and are provided to the national and regional disaster management and spatial planning institutions in Indonesia.

The paper explains the underlyin...

Strunz, G.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Mu?ck, M.; Riedlinger, T.; Mehl, H.; Dech, S.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.; Harjono, H.; Anwar, H. Z.; Sumaryono; Khomarudin, R. M.; Muhari, A.

2011-01-01

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Parenting After a Natural Disaster: A Qualitative Study of Norwegian Families Surviving the 2004 Tsunami in Southeast Asia  

OpenAIRE

How do parents support their children after a high-impact disaster? To answer this question, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 51 Norwegian parents. These parents and children were all severely exposed to the trauma of the tsunami disaster. The analyses show how parents interpret their children’s signs of distress, as well as their own strategies of support in the aftermath. The main strategies described by the parents were watchful waiting, careful monitoring of the children’s ...

Hafstad, Gertrud S.; Haavind, Hanne; Jensen, Tine K.

2011-01-01

21

Quality of life, vulnerability and resilience: a qualitative study of the tsunami impact on the affected population of Sri Lanka / Qualità della vita, vulnerabilità e resilienza: uno studio qualitativo dell'impatto dello tsunami sulla popolazione colpita dello Sri Lanka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: This qualitative study is aimed at analysing the impact of the 2004 tsunami on the Quality of Life of the Sri Lankan population. It focused on the factors that have contributed to an increase in the people's susceptibility to the impact of hazards - their vulnerability - as well as of the natur [...] al ability to cope of the populations affected - their resilience. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on the conduction of 10 Focus Group discussions and 18 In-depth Interviews, then analysed through a qualitative analysis software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that each factor involved in the interplay among the different processes that produced the changes in the affected people's quality of life is at the same time a damaged asset, a vulnerability factor and a resource to draw upon for coping. The complexity of this situation opens further speculation as to how disasters and relief interventions influence relationships and dynamics in society. This should thus be further investigated, together with the effects of individual and group trauma on society.

Alice Josephine, Fauci; Manila, Bonciani; Raniero, Guerra.

2012-06-01

22

International Tsunami Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

This intergovernmental organization maintains and develops relationships with scientific research and academic organizations, civil defense agencies, and the general public in order to mitigate the hazards associated with tsunamis for all Pacific Ocean nations. They also maintain the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center.

Unesco

23

Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

2014-10-01

24

Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

Koh, Hock Lye, E-mail: kohhl@ucsiuniversity.edu.my [Office of Deputy Vice Chancellor for Research and Post Graduate Studies, UCSI University, Jalan Menara Gading, 56000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Teh, Su Yean, E-mail: syteh@usm.my [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che [Malaysian Meteorological Department, MOSTI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2014-10-24

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Towards real-time tsunami amplitude prediction  

OpenAIRE

The catastrophic consequences of the 2004 Indian Ocean and the recent (17 July) Java tsunamis demand the development of modern and robust tsunami early warning systems.The greatest challenge of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS), led by the National Center of Geosciences (GeoForschungsZentrum) in Potsdam, Germany, is to provide early tsunami warnings for the Indian Ocean coast of Indonesia where tsunamis can arrive 20–40 minutes after an earthquake. This article sho...

 sobolev, S.;  babeyko, A.;  wang, R.;  galas, R.;  rothacher, M.;  lauterjung, J.;  sein, D.;  schro?ter, J.;  subarya, C.

2006-01-01

26

Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

2013-12-01

27

Tsunami overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, floods and tsunamis have caused relatively few severe injuries; an exception to that tendency followed the great Andaman Island-Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of 2004. More than 280,000 people died, the coastal plains were massively scoured, and more than 1 million individuals were made homeless by the quake and resulting tsunami, which affected a 10-nation region around the Indian Ocean. This destruction overwhelmed local resources and called forth an unprecedented, prolonged, international response. The USNS Mercy deployed on a unique mission and rendered service to the people and government of Indonesia. This introduction provides background on the nature and extent of the damage, conditions upon arrival of the hospital ship 5 weeks after the initial destruction, and the configuration of professionals aboard (officers and sailors of the U.S. Navy, civilian volunteers from Project HOPE, officers of the U.S. Public Health Service, and officers and civilian mariners of the Military Sealift Command). Constraints on the mission provide context for the other articles of this issue that document and comment on the activities, challenges, methods, and accomplishments of this unique mission's "team of teams," performing humanitarian assistance and disaster relief in the Pacific theater. PMID:17447612

Morrow, Robert C; Llewellyn, D Mark

2006-10-01

28

Tsunami Visualizations  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection provides a wide array of visual resources and supporting material about the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Visualizations include simple animations, satellite photographs, Quicktime animations and tsunami models. The collection also contains visualizations related to other historical tsunamis and additional resources (beyond visualizations) about tsunamis. Resources can be incorporated into lectures, labs, or other activities.

Bruckner, Monica

29

Tsunami Society  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site assists the international Tsunami Society in its mission to distribute "knowledge about tsunamis to scientists, officials, and the public." In the first section of the site, scientists can download articles from the 2002 and 2003 issues of the journal Science of Tsunami Hazards. Visitors can also view footage from tsunamis around the world. The second section of the site discusses the details of the society including its origin, award recipients, and symposiums.

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Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated under the United Nations. This paper reviews historical tsunamis, their warning activities, and their sea level records to highlight lessons learned with the focus on how these insights have helped to drive further development of tsunami warning systems and their tsunami warning centers. While the international systems do well for teletsunamis, faster detection, more accurate evaluations, and widespread timely alerts are still the goals, and challenges still remain to achieving early warning against the more frequent and destructive local tsunamis.

Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

2011-11-01

31

Tsunamis in the Caribbean  

Science.gov (United States)

The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami increased global awareness to the destruction hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis around the world. The United States government has committed 37.5 million dollars toward the upgrade of earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems in the Caribbean region. Several historical earthquakes have caused considerable damage throughout the Caribbean, many causing tsunamis. The US Geological Survey is using a large part of this money to enhance capabilities for rapid detection and notification of earthquakes in the Caribbean in an attempt to warn the millions living in this area of possible tsunamis. The USGS is working with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network, the Seismological Research Unit at the University of West Indies, eight other host countries, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These groups are in the process of installing or upgrading seismic monitoring sites in the earthquake zones of the region. NOAA is also installing four Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoys in support of a Caribbean-wide tsunami warning system. Planned seismic stations are located in Antigua/Barbuda, Barbados, Cuba (U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Honduras, Panama, Turks and Caicos, and Grenada. Satellite telemetry will transmit data from these sites to NEIC, Golden, CO, where the data will be redistributed to NOAA, the University of Puerto Rico and the University of the West Indies, the IRIS Data Management Center and other agencies. The development of seismic monitoring operations began on January 9, 2006. This will improve seismic monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean and Central America, provide better real time data for global monitoring research and assessment activities, and improve understanding of historical tsunamis and their effects on the Caribbean.

Farwell, J.; Kelly, A.; Mooney, W. D.

2006-12-01

32

Tsunami Surge  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami Surge is a project for students in grades 6-12 that uses real-time data sources from the internet to help students answer these questions. They will be challenged to think critically and creatively in their efforts to understand, predict, and guard against this powerful force of nature. Students will learn to describe what a tsunami is and what causes it, explain how tsunamis are different from regular waves in the ocean, determine where tsunamis are most likely to originate, create a plan for a tsunami warning system, and explain how to prepare and protect an area that could be hit by a tsunami. There are many activities and helpful tools for the teachers, like a reference guide and teacher guide.

2006-01-01

33

Tsunami Attack!  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about tsunamis, discovering what causes them and what makes them so dangerous. They learn that engineers design detection and warning equipment, as well as structures that that can survive the strong wave forces. In a hands-on activity, students use a table-top-sized tsunami generator to observe the formation and devastation of a tsunami. They see how a tsunami moves across the ocean and what happens when it reaches a coastline. They make villages of model houses to test how different material types are impacted by the huge waves.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

34

Tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

In the framework of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) the assessment of tsunami risk is an essential part of the overall activities. The scientific and technical approach for the tsunami risk assessment has been developed and the results are implemented in the national Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre and are provided to the national and regional disaster management and spatial planning institutions in Indonesia. The paper explains the underlying concepts and applied methods and shows some of the results achieved in the GITEWS project (Rudloff et al., 2009). The tsunami risk assessment has been performed at an overview scale at sub-national level covering the coastal areas of southern Sumatra, Java and Bali and also on a detailed scale in three pilot areas. The results are provided as thematic maps and GIS information layers for the national and regional planning institutions. From the analyses key parameters of tsunami risk are derived, which are integrated and stored in the decision support system of the national Indonesian Early Warning Centre. Moreover, technical descriptions and guidelines were elaborated to explain the developed approach, to allow future updates of the results and the further development of the methodologies, and to enable the local authorities to conduct tsunami risk assessment by using their own resources.

Strunz, G.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Mück, M.; Riedlinger, T.; Mehl, H.; Dech, S.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.; Harjono, H.; Anwar, H. Z.; Sumaryono; Khomarudin, R. M.; Muhari, A.

2011-01-01

35

Tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS the assessment of tsunami risk is an essential part of the overall activities. The scientific and technical approach for the tsunami risk assessment has been developed and the results are implemented in the national Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre and are provided to the national and regional disaster management and spatial planning institutions in Indonesia.

The paper explains the underlying concepts and applied methods and shows some of the results achieved in the GITEWS project (Rudloff et al., 2009. The tsunami risk assessment has been performed at an overview scale at sub-national level covering the coastal areas of southern Sumatra, Java and Bali and also on a detailed scale in three pilot areas. The results are provided as thematic maps and GIS information layers for the national and regional planning institutions. From the analyses key parameters of tsunami risk are derived, which are integrated and stored in the decision support system of the national Indonesian Early Warning Centre. Moreover, technical descriptions and guidelines were elaborated to explain the developed approach, to allow future updates of the results and the further development of the methodologies, and to enable the local authorities to conduct tsunami risk assessment by using their own resources.

G. Strunz

2011-01-01

36

The effect analysis of 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the West Coast of Japan to Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is very difficult to determine and assessment for tsunami hazard. For determining a tsunami risk for NPP site, a development of tsunami hazard is one of the most important. Through the tsunami hazard analysis, a tsunami return period can be determined. For the performing a tsunami hazard analysis, empirical method and numerical method should be needed. Kim et al, already developed tsunami hazard for east coast of Korea for the calculation of tsunami risk of nuclear power plant. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, a development of tsunami catalog should be performed. In the previous research of Kim et al, the maximum wave height was assumed by the author's decision based on historical record in the annals of Chosun dynasty for evaluating the tsunami catalog. Therefore, in this study, a literature survey was performed for a quantitative measure of historical tsunami record transform to qualitative tsunami wave height for the evaluation of tsunami catalog. In this study, the 1741 tsunami was determined by using a literature review for the evaluation of tsunami hazard. The 1741 tsunami reveals a same tsunami between the historical records in Korea and Japan. The tsunami source of 1741 tsunami was not an earthquake and volcanic. Using the numerical analysis, the wave height of 1741 tsunami can be determined qualitatively.

Kim, Minkyu; Rhee, Hyunme; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

37

The effect analysis of 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the West Coast of Japan to Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is very difficult to determine and assessment for tsunami hazard. For determining a tsunami risk for NPP site, a development of tsunami hazard is one of the most important. Through the tsunami hazard analysis, a tsunami return period can be determined. For the performing a tsunami hazard analysis, empirical method and numerical method should be needed. Kim et al, already developed tsunami hazard for east coast of Korea for the calculation of tsunami risk of nuclear power plant. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, a development of tsunami catalog should be performed. In the previous research of Kim et al, the maximum wave height was assumed by the author's decision based on historical record in the annals of Chosun dynasty for evaluating the tsunami catalog. Therefore, in this study, a literature survey was performed for a quantitative measure of historical tsunami record transform to qualitative tsunami wave height for the evaluation of tsunami catalog. In this study, the 1741 tsunami was determined by using a literature review for the evaluation of tsunami hazard. The 1741 tsunami reveals a same tsunami between the historical records in Korea and Japan. The tsunami source of 1741 tsunami was not an earthquake and volcanic. Using the numerical analysis, the wave height of 1741 tsunami can be determined qualitatively

38

Using the story-telling technique in the qualitative research of national identity  

OpenAIRE

This paper contains the main results of a qualitative research onRomanians national identity. The research proposes a new approach to the national identity based on two methodological elements: the patriotic songs as a stimulus for reflection on national identity and the presentation of data in the form of story-telling. The theoretical background integrates the social identity theory and the theory of social representations. The main conclusionof the research is that Romanians have nowadays ...

S?andru, C.

2011-01-01

39

The unperceived risk to Europe's coasts: tsunamis and the vulnerability of Cadiz, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of appropriate risk and vulnerability reduction strategies to cope with tsunami risks is a major challenge for countries, regions, and cities exposed to potential tsunamis. European coastal cities such as Cadiz are exposed to tsunami risks. However, most official risk reduction strategies as well as the local population are not aware of the probability of such a phenomenon and the potential threat that tsunami waves could pose to their littoral. This paper outlines how tsunami risks, and particularly tsunami vulnerability, could be assessed and measured. To achieve this, a vulnerability assessment framework was applied focusing on the city of Cadiz as a case study in order to highlight the practical use and the challenges and gaps such an assessment has to deal with. The findings yield important information that could assist with the systematic improvement of societal response capacities of cities and their inhabitants to potential tsunami risks. Hazard and vulnerability maps were developed, and qualitative data was obtained through, for example, focused group discussions. These maps and surveys are essential for the development of a people-centred early warning and response system. Therefore, in this regard, the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected seas promoted by the UNESCO-Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC should encompass these assessments to ensure that action is particularly intensified and fostered by those potentially exposed. That means that besides the necessary technical infrastructure for tsunami detection, additional response and adaptation measures need to be promoted – particularly those that reduce the vulnerability of people and regions exposed – in terms of national systems. In addition, it is important to develop emergency preparedness and awareness plans in order to create an integrated regional Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS by 2011. The findings of the paper are based on research conducted within the framework of the EC funded project TRANSFER: "Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region", a project that aims to improve the understanding of tsunami processes in the Euro-Mediterranean region, to develop methods and tools to assess vulnerability and risk, and to identify strategies for the reduction of tsunami risks.

J. Birkmann

2010-12-01

40

Lost tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical simulations support the occurrence of a catastrophic tsunami impacting all of the eastern Mediterranean in early Holocene. The tsunami was triggered by a debris avalanche from Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) which entered the Ionian Sea in the order of minutes. Simulations show that the resulting tsunami waves were able to destabilize soft marine sediments across the Ionian Sea floor. This generated the well-known, sporadically located, ``homogenite'' deposits of the Ionian Sea, and the widespread megaturbidite deposits of the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains. It is possible that, ~8 ka B.P., the Neolithic village of Atlit-Yam (Israel) was abandoned because of impact by the same Etna tsunami. Two other Pleistocenic megaturbidite deposits of the Ionian Sea can be explained by previous sector collapses from the Etna area.

Pareschi, Maria Teresa; Boschi, Enzo; Favalli, Massimiliano

2006-11-01

41

A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the first national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment considers tsunami generated from near-field earthquakes sources around Indonesia as well as regional and far-field sources, to define the tsunami hazard at the coastline. The PTHA methodology is based on the established stochastic event-based approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted for tsunami. The earthquake source information is primarily based on the recent Indonesian National Seismic Hazard Map and included a consensus-workshop with Indonesia's leading tsunami and earthquake scientists to finalize the seismic source models and logic trees to include epistemic uncertainty. Results are presented in the form of tsunami hazard maps showing the expected tsunami height at the coast for a given return period, and also as tsunami probability maps, showing the probability of exceeding a tsunami height of 0.5m and 3.0m at the coast. These heights define the thresholds for different tsunami warning levels in the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS). The results show that for short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, the islands of Nias and Mentawai. For longer return periods (>500 years), the tsunami hazard in Eastern Indonesia (north Papua, north Sulawesi) is nearly as high as that along the Sunda Arc. A sensitivity analysis of input parameters is conducted by sampling branches of the logic tree using a monte-carlo approach to constrain the relative importance of each input parameter. The results from this assessment can be used to underpin evidence-based decision making by disaster managers to prioritize tsunami mitigation, such as developing detailed inundation simulations for evacuation planning.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Koetapangwa, B.; Anugrah, S.; Thio, H. K.

2012-12-01

42

Modelling tsunamis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We doubt the relevance of soliton theory to the modelling of tsunamis, and present a case in support of an alternative view. Although the shallow-water equations do provide, we believe, an appropriate basis for this phenomenon, an asymptotic analysis of the solution for realistic variable depths, and for suitable background flows, is essential for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. In particular we explain how a number of tsunami waves can arrive at a shoreline. (letter to the editor)

43

Japan (East Coast of Honshu) Tsunami, March 11, 2011: Main Event Page  

Science.gov (United States)

The forecasting models displayed in this website are from NOAA Center for Tsunami Research featuring the Honshu, Japan tsunami. Forecast results, showing qualitative and quantitative information about the tsunami, including tsunami wave interaction with ocean floor bathymetric features, and neighboring coastlines are available for educators and students. Also included are interactive maps depicting model and sea level data comparison plots, global maximum wave amplitude and tsunami propagation animations.

2011-01-01

44

Integrated Historical Tsunami Event and Deposit Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides integrated access to historical tsunami event, deposit, and proxy data. The NGDC tsunami archive initially listed tsunami sources and locations with observed tsunami effects. Tsunami frequency and intensity are important for understanding tsunami hazards. Unfortunately, tsunami recurrence intervals often exceed the historic record. As a result, NGDC expanded the archive to include the Global Tsunami Deposits Database (GTD_DB). Tsunami deposits are the physical evidence left behind when a tsunami impacts a shoreline or affects submarine sediments. Proxies include co-seismic subsidence, turbidite deposits, changes in biota following an influx of marine water in a freshwater environment, etc. By adding past tsunami data inferred from the geologic record, the GTD_DB extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Although the best methods for identifying tsunami deposits and proxies in the geologic record remain under discussion, developing an overall picture of where tsunamis have affected coasts, calculating recurrence intervals, and approximating runup height and inundation distance provides a better estimate of a region’s true tsunami hazard. Tsunami deposit and proxy descriptions in the GTD_DB were compiled from published data found in journal articles, conference proceedings, theses, books, conference abstracts, posters, web sites, etc. The database now includes over 1,200 descriptions compiled from over 1,100 citations. Each record in the GTD_DB is linked to its bibliographic citation where more information on the deposit can be found. The GTD_DB includes data for over 50 variables such as: event description (e.g., 2010 Chile Tsunami), geologic time period, year, deposit location name, latitude, longitude, country, associated body of water, setting during the event (e.g., beach, lake, river, deep sea), upper and lower contacts, underlying and overlying material, etc. If known, the tsunami source mechanism (e.g., earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, asteroid impact) is also specified. Observations (grain size, sedimentary structure, bed thickness, number of layers, etc.) are stored along with the conclusions drawn from the evidence by the author (wave height, flow depth, flow velocity, number of waves, etc.). Geologic time periods in the GTD_DB range from Precambrian to Quaternary, but the majority (70%) are from the Quaternary period. This period includes events such as: the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis, the 1755 Lisbon tsunami, the A.D. 79 Vesuvius tsunami, the 3500 BP Santorini caldera collapse and tsunami, and the 7000 BP Storegga landslide-generated tsunami. Prior to the Quaternary period, the majority of the paleotsunamis are due to impact events such as: the Tertiary Chesapeake Bay Bolide, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) Boundary, Cretaceous Manson, and Devonian Alamo. The tsunami deposits are integrated with the historical tsunami event database where applicable. For example, users can search for articles describing deposits related to the 1755 Lisbon tsunami and view those records, as well as link to the related historic event record. The data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and display data (selection forms, Web Map Services, and Web Feature Services).

Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

2010-12-01

45

Beyond Age and Adjustment: A Cross-National Qualitative Study of Older Adults’ Perceptions  

OpenAIRE

Aims: To explore the older adults’ perceptions of age and aging, focusing on adjustment to aging (AtA) and subjective age (SA). Methods: This cross-national and qualitative study comprised demographics and semistructured interviews. Complete information on 151 older adults aged between 75-101 years (M = 84.6; SD = 6.905) from Portugal, Romania Angola was available. Data was subjected to content analysis. Results: The most predominant response of the interviewed participants for indicators o...

Georgeta Niculescu; Filipa Pimenta; Isabel Leal; Sofia von Humboldt

2012-01-01

46

Towards Real-Time TsunamiAmplitude Prediction  

Science.gov (United States)

The catastrophic consequences of the2004 Indian Ocean and the recent (17 July)Java tsunamis demand the development ofmodern and robust tsunami early warningsystems. The greatest challenge of the GermanIndonesian Tsunami Early Warning System(GITEWS), led by the National Center ofGeosciences (GeoForschungsZentrum) inPotsdam, Germany, is to provide early tsunamiwarnings for the Indian Ocean coast ofIndonesia where tsunamis can arrive 20-40minutes after an earthquake.

Sobolev, Stephan; Babeyko, Andrey; Wang, Rongjiang; Galas, Roman; Rothacher, Markus; Lauterjung, Jorn; Sein, Dmitry; Scröter, Jens; Subarya, Cecep

2006-09-01

47

What Is a Tsunami?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Story Smile Style Game WHAT? What is a tsunami? Tsunamis are giant sea waves. They can be ... will destroy anything in their way. Why are tsunamis so destructive? During a normal storm or hurricane, ...

48

Recent Advances in the National Seismographic Network of Chile: GPS as Tsunami Early Warning  

Science.gov (United States)

Major plans were devised in 2007 for the establishment of a new National Seismographic Network for Chile comprising the existing academic instruments together with additional instruments to be acquired. In the meantime, a network of 10 observatories has been implemented by IRIS jointly with Chilean efforts. The Government approved funding in several stages allowing the acquisition of 65 broad-band stations, 297 strong motion instruments and about 130 dual-frequency devices. The 65 broad-band sites also house accelerometers and GPS devices transmitting in robust real-time links to a Central Data Processing in Santiago. Of the 297 strong motion instruments, distributed along the country with concentrated nests in large cities, it is envisioned that only a percentage will have robust communication capabilities; the rest will be connected with 3G (or 4G) means utilizing local providers. Another suit of 60-70 GPS devices will be installed along the coast, around 40-50 km from each other covering the Chilean portion of the Nazca-South America plate interaction, considered as the most seismically active segment of the country. International collaboration efforts to include real-time transmission and processing of the GPS data will complement the existing automatic seismic system. It is expected that this complementary design will not only allow rapid preliminary estimation of hypocentral parameters but also rupture location and extension as well as displacement distribution on the causative fault, essential ingredients to assess the tsunamigenic potential of large thrust-type earthquakes in Chile.

Barrientos, S. E.

2012-12-01

49

The Puerto Rico Tsunami Program after the 2004 Tsunami: Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment, Public Outreach and the Tsunami-Ready Program for Coastal Towns  

OpenAIRE

Prior to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico had implemented the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program, with a grant from the USA’s FEMA. This program ended in 2003. For several years we had asked NOAA for Puerto Rico to be included in the in the USA National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, to no avail. But right after the Sumatra tsunami we were asked to join. This resulted in the complete revision of the (local) tsunami flood maps finalized in...

Mercado Irizarry, Aurelio

2014-01-01

50

A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

2014-11-01

51

Solitons and Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss the relevance of soliton theory to the modeling of tsunami waves. Our analysis shows that for the two most devastating tsunamis of the last century, the 2004 Bay of Bengal and the 1960 Chile tsunami, the propagation distances were too short for soliton dynamics to apply. Thus the shallow water theory is appropriate for the modelling of tsunamis

Constantin, Adrian; Henry, David

2009-02-01

52

U.S. Tsunami Warning System: Advancements since the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. government embarked on a strengthening program for the U.S. Tsunami Warning System (TWS) in the aftermath of the disastrous 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The program was designed to improve several facets of the U.S. TWS, including: upgrade of the coastal sea level network - 16 new stations plus higher transmission rates; expansion of the deep ocean tsunameter network - 7 sites increased to 39; upgrade of seismic networks - both USGS and Tsunami Warning Center (TWC); increase of TWC staff to allow 24x7 coverage at two centers; development of an improved tsunami forecast system; increased preparedness in coastal communities; expansion of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center facility; and improvement of the tsunami data archive effort at the National Geophysical Data Center. The strengthening program has been completed and has contributed to the many improvements attained in the U.S. TWS since 2004. Some of the more significant enhancements to the program are: the number of sea level and seismic sites worldwide available to the TWCs has more than doubled; the TWC areas-of-responsibility expanded to include the U.S./Canadian Atlantic coasts, Indian Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and U.S. Arctic coast; event response time decreased by approximately one-half; product accuracy has improved; a tsunami forecast system developed by NOAA capable of forecasting inundation during an event has been delivered to the TWCs; warning areas are now defined by pre-computed or forecasted threat versus distance or travel time, significantly reducing the amount of coast put in a warning; new warning dissemination techniques have been implemented to reach a broader audience in less time; tsunami product content better reflects the expected impact level; the number of TsunamiReady communities has quadrupled; and the historical data archive has increased in quantity and accuracy. In addition to the strengthening program, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) has expanded its efforts since 2004 and improved tsunami preparedness throughout U.S. coastal communities. The NTHMP is a partnership of federal agencies and state tsunami response agencies whose efforts include: development of inundation and evacuation maps for most highly threatened communities; tsunami evacuation and educational signage for coastal communities; support for tsunami educational, awareness and planning seminars; increased number of local tsunami warning dissemination devices such as sirens; and support for regional tsunami exercises. These activities are major factors that have contributed to the increase of TsunamiReady communities throughout the country.

Whitmore, P.

2009-12-01

53

Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily – Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides information on the population, on buildings and on many relevant social aspects; (ii the Italian National Territory Agency that provides updated economic values of the buildings on the basis of their typology (residential, commercial, industrial and location (streets; and (iii the Train and Port Authorities. For human beings, a factor of time exposition is introduced and calculated in terms of hours per day in different places (private and public and in terms of seasons, considering that some factors like the number of tourists can vary by one order of magnitude from January to August. Since the tsunami risk is a function of the run-up levels along the coast, a variable tsunami risk zone is defined as the area along the Messina coast where tsunami inundations may occur.

A. Grezio

2012-01-01

54

Tsunami asymptotics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By applying the technique of uniform asymptotic approximation to the oscillatory integrals representing tsunami wave profiles, the form of the travelling wave far from the source is calculated for arbitrary initial disturbances. The approximations reproduce the entire profiles very accurately, from the front to the tail, and their numerical computation is much faster than that of the oscillatory integrals. For one-dimensional propagation, the uniform asymptotics involve Airy functions and their derivatives; for two-dimensional propagation, the uniform asymptotics involve products of these functions. Separate analyses are required when the initial disturbance is specified as surface elevation or surface velocity as functions of position, and when these functions are even or odd. 'There was an awful rainbow once in heaven' (John Keats, 1820)

55

Tsunami Casualty Model  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

Yeh, H.

2007-12-01

56

Tsunamis: Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

57

Tsunami Warning Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami Warning Systems describes the processes involved in anticipating, detecting, and warning for a tsunami by summarizing data collection, modeling, analysis, and alert procedures used at NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers. A simulated event and past tsunami occurrences are used to highlight warning system processes for determining the tsunami threat based on seismic and sea level data and tsunami forecast models. Message communication and local response are also addressed as final components of any warning system. The module is intended for Weather Forecast Office staff and emergency managers who require a better understanding of the technical aspects of tsunami warning delivery. The module will also benefit anyone wanting to learn more about the components of tsunami warning systems.

COMET

2010-10-12

58

Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene  

Science.gov (United States)

... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... your family by following these steps Hygiene and Sanitation From the CDC Water-Related Emergencies and Outbreaks ...

59

Health Effects of Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Health Effects of Tsunamis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... in areas where little medical care exists. Secondary effects Natural disasters do not necessarily cause an increase ...

60

Tsunami Risk and Vulnerability  

OpenAIRE

The research focuses on providing reliable spatial information in support of tsunami risk and vulnerability assessment within the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project. It contributes to three major components of the project: (1) the provision of spatial information on surface roughness as an important parameter for tsunami inundation modeling and hazard assessment; (2) the modeling of population distribution, which is an essential factor in tsunami ...

Khomarudin, Muhammad Rokhis

2010-01-01

61

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL AND IN VARIOUS NATIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The qualitative characteristics of accounting information presented by financial-accounting reports represent a concept which was subsequently introduced in the national legal accounting framework and, as a rule, the national conceptual frameworks represent the documents by means of which these quality criteria are established. At a worldwide level, there are more international or national organisms that have an important role in the elaboration of accounting standards in general and more specifically in the formulation of qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. We find two important ones among them, and these are: International Accounting Standards Board, which creates and promotes International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, and Financial Accounting Standards Board, which elaborates Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. However, at the level of each country a standardizing authority decides the rules for producing the financial reports and the qualitative characteristics that must be respected by the information contained in these documents. In this context, this paper aims to present a few general considerations concerning the treatment of the qualitative characteristics of the financial-accounting information in different accounting systems, such as the American one, or the British, French, German, Romanian ones, with insistence on the international approach to qualitative characteristics.

Ionela Cristina Breahna Pravat

2014-07-01

62

Development Of New Databases For Tsunami Hazard Analysis In California  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Geological Survey (CGS) has partnered with other tsunami specialists to produce two statewide databases to facilitate the evaluation of tsunami hazard products for both emergency response and land-use planning and development. A robust, State-run tsunami deposit database is being developed that compliments and expands on existing databases from the National Geophysical Data Center (global) and the USGS (Cascadia). Whereas these existing databases focus on references or individual tsunami layers, the new State-maintained database concentrates on the location and contents of individual borings/trenches that sample tsunami deposits. These data provide an important observational benchmark for evaluating the results of tsunami inundation modeling. CGS is collaborating with and sharing the database entry form with other states to encourage its continued development beyond California’s coastline so that historic tsunami deposits can be evaluated on a regional basis. CGS is also developing an internet-based, tsunami source scenario database and forum where tsunami source experts and hydrodynamic modelers can discuss the validity of tsunami sources and their contribution to hazard assessments for California and other coastal areas bordering the Pacific Ocean. The database includes all distant and local tsunami sources relevant to California starting with the forty scenarios evaluated during the creation of the recently completed statewide series of tsunami inundation maps for emergency response planning. Factors germane to probabilistic tsunami hazard analyses (PTHA), such as event histories and recurrence intervals, are also addressed in the database and discussed in the forum. Discussions with other tsunami source experts will help CGS determine what additional scenarios should be considered in PTHA for assessing the feasibility of generating products of value to local land-use planning and development.

Wilson, R. I.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Bryant, W. A.; Dengler, L. A.; Goltz, J. D.; Legg, M.; McGuire, T.; Miller, K. M.; Real, C. R.; Synolakis, C.; Uslu, B.

2009-12-01

63

DETERMINISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE TSUNAMI HAZARD IN CHINA  

OpenAIRE

Seismic hazard analysis has reached a level of maturity in China. Such work has contributed significantly towards improvements of the national infrastructure in effecting programs of disaster preparedness and mitigation. However, the work on tsunami risk assessment is still in a preliminary stage. The present study proposes a deterministic method of tsunami hazard analysis based on coastal bathymetry and morphology, as well as on mathematical simulations, and evaluates the potential tsunami r...

Yefei Ren; Ruizhi Wen; Baofeng Zhou; Dacheng Shi

2010-01-01

64

THE INAPPROPRIATE TSUNAMI ICON  

OpenAIRE

The supposition that the Japanese printmaker Hokusai intended to represent a tsunami in his print of the “Great Wave at Kanagawa” is unfounded and the use of his “Great Wave” as a tsunami icon gives a false impression of the nature of tsunami waves.

DoakC. Cox

2001-01-01

65

Tsunami Propagation Visualization  

Science.gov (United States)

This visualization of the Tsunami generated by the 2010 Chile earthquake shows the spread of the tsunami waves across the pacific. The animation was computed with the MOST tsunami model. Across the bottom of the visualization is a comparison of the MOST predictions to actual data collected by a sensor buoy (denoted by the solid yellow square on the map).

NOAA Center for Tsunami Research

66

2011 Tsunami Propagation  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity uses data collected from DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) stations in the Pacific following the 2011 tsunami generated off the coast of Japan. Students are required to map the wave front after 5, 10, and 15 hours to better understand the speed and propagation of the tsunami wave.

Julie Martin

67

Maritime Tsunami Hazard Assessment in California  

Science.gov (United States)

The California tsunami program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. Basin resonance and geometric amplification are two reasonably well understood mechanisms for local magnification of tsunami impact in harbors, and are generally the mechanisms investigated when estimating the tsunami hazard potential in a port or harbor. On the other hand, our understanding of and predictive ability for currents is lacking. When a free surface flow is forced through a geometric constriction, it is readily expected that the enhanced potential gradient will drive strong, possibly unstable currents and the associated turbulent coherent structures such as "jets" and "whirlpools"; a simple example would be tidal flow through an inlet channel. However, these fundamentals have not been quantitatively connected with respect to understanding tsunami hazards in ports and harbors. A plausible explanation for this oversight is the observation that these features are turbulent phenomena with spatial and temporal scales much smaller than that of a typical tsunami. The ability to model and then validate these currentsdissect them has only recently become available through the evaluation of dozens of eyewitness accounts and hundreds of videos.developed. In this presentation, we will present ongoing work related to the application of such models to quantify the maritime tsunami hazard in select ports and harbors in California. The development of current-based tsunami hazard maps and safe-offshore-depth delineations will be discussed. We will also present an overview of the challenges in modeling tsunami currents, including capture of turbulent dynamics, coupling with tides, and issues with long-duration simulations. This work in California will form the basis for tsunami hazard reduction for all U.S. maritime communities through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

2012-12-01

68

Perceptions of radiography and the National Health Service: a qualitative study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To identify the factors that determine the attractiveness of radiography as a career choice and of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer to potential recruits and returners. Methods: Individual and group interviews were conducted in the East Midlands region to explore participants' perceptions of the attractiveness of the NHS as an employer to potential radiography staff. Interviews were conducted with school pupils, radiography students, mature students, radiography assistants, agency radiographers and independent sector radiographers. Results: Eighty-eight individuals participated in the qualitative stage of the study. Analysis of the interview transcripts indicated that radiography as a career choice is perceived as boring and routine, involving high workloads and little recognition from the general public. Working with patients is the source of considerable job satisfaction but is offset by staff shortages, lack of flexibility over working hours and a lack of consideration of family commitments in the NHS. Financial costs are highlighted as dissuading many participants from considering a career as a radiographer in the NHS or returning to work for the NHS. Greater use of open days in conjunction with more advertising of the profession is suggested as tactics to improve recruitment. Conclusions: The provision of more flexible working hours, greater consideration of family commitments and increased financial support for training are necessary to ial support for training are necessary to improve the attractiveness of a radiography career. NHS Human Resource Managers should consider these findings concerning the applicant and returner pools when developing strategies to address the current shortfall of radiographers

69

REVIEW OF THE 1994 SKAGWAY, AKASKA TSUNAMI AND FUTURE PLANS  

OpenAIRE

On November 3,1994 a nine meter amplitude submarine landslide-created tsunami with a resonate wave tram lasting about 30 minutes struck the Skagway, Alaska., watafiont causing extensive damage and loss of one life.Numerous scientists and engineers have studied the 1994 tsunami and at a workshop on the subject in Seattle, Washington, on October 30-3 1,2001, have generally concluded that large down inlet submarine landslide(s) created the tsunami. A general plan under the National Tsunami Hazar...

Den Nottingham, P. E. Pres M.

2002-01-01

70

India’s Initiative in Mitigating Tsunami Hazard & Tsunami Potential in Northern Bay of Bengal (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Soon after the occurrence of the most devastating tsunami caused by the 26th December 2004 Sumatra earthquake, India took the initiative to set up an end-to-end system to mitigate tsunami and storm surge hazard. The system includes all the necessary elements: networking of seismic stations; deployment of ocean bottom pressure recorders; real time sea level monitoring stations; establishment of radar based monitoring stations for real time measurement of surface currents and waves; modeling for tsunamis and storm surges; generation of coastal inundation and vulnerability maps; operation of a tsunami and storm surges warning centre on 24×7 basis; capacity building and training of all the stakeholders and communication with the global community. This initiative was estimated to have a direct cost of US $30million and was to be operative by August 2007. This has been achieved. The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information and Services (INCOIS), belonging to the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, located at Hyderabad, is the nodal agency for this program. The system is functioning well. We also examine the tsunami potential in the northern Bay of Bengal, where a large population (about 100 million) in the coastal area makes the region very vulnerable if a large tsunami was to occur. It is observed that: i) oblique plate motion characterizes the region resulting in strike-slip dominated earthquakes with low tsunami generating potential; ii) in the northern Bay of Bengal, the deformation front associated with the plate boundary between India and Sunda plates is either landward or in the shallow water in the Arakan region and therefore a great earthquake will not displace large amounts of water causing a major tsunami; and iii) there is no evidence of the region been affected by a large tsunami in the past 2000 years. We therefore conclude that though a great earthquake could occur in the Arakan region, it would not generate a large tsunami in the northern Bay of Bengal.

Gupta, H. K.

2009-12-01

71

TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean, the short-period tsunami wave rides on the longer-period tides. The question is whether these two waves can be superposed linearly for the purpose of determining the resulting sea surface height (SSH or rather in the shallow water they interact nonlinearly, enhancing/reducing the total sea level and currents. Since the near–shore bathymetry is important for the run-up computation, Weisz and Winter (2005 demonstrated that the changes of depth caused by tides should not be neglected in tsunami run-up considerations. On the other hand, we hypothesize that much more significant effect of the tsunami-tide interaction should be observed through the tidal and tsunami currents. In order to test this hypothesis we apply a simple set of 1-D equations of motion and continuity to demonstrate the dynamics of tsunami and tide interaction in the vicinity of the shelf break for two coastal domains: shallow waters of an elongated inlet and narrow shelf typical for deep waters of the Gulf of Alaska.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2006-01-01

72

COMMENT ON: TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES BY PATRICIA A. LOCKRIDGE, LOWELL S. WHITESIDE AND JAMES F. LANDER WITH RESPECT TO THE NOVEMBER 18, 1929 EARTHQUAKE AND ITS TSUNAMI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This most valuable compilation by Patricia Lockridge et al. (2002 covers a wide range of tsunamis and tsunami-like events ranging from marine tectonic, volcanic, and landslide tsunamis to possible meteorologic tsunami-like events. Lockridge et al.'s (2002 massive text table (pp. 124-141 entitled "Description of Events" covers events from 1668 to 1992. The 2002 paper in Science of Tsunami Hazards was clearly intended to be an update of, an extension to, and a sequel to, the first east coast and Caribbean tsunami compilations contained in Lander and Lockridge's 1989 National Geophysical Data Center volume United States Tsunamis (including United States Possessions 1690-1988.The Lockridge et al. (2002 compilation contains a small error with respect to the 1929 "Grand Banks" Earthquake and Tsunami of which I may be cause in part. In addition the tsunami histories of oceans without a tsunami warning system will be now receiving much closer attention, including historic events in the Atlantic Ocean given the events of December 26, 2004 and March 18, 2005 in the Indian Ocean; both the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans have no tsunami warning system and have an incomplete tsunami history.

Alan Ruffman

2005-01-01

73

Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

Thomas Angela N

2009-09-01

74

Pacific Tsunami Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pacific Tsunami Museum is dedicated to promoting public education about tsunamis for citizens of Hawaii and the Pacific Region, as well as preserving the social and cultural history of Hawaii. Materials available at the museum's site include a listing of exhibits, a link to a webcam overlooking Hilo Bay, and event announcements. There is also a listing of programs sponsored by the museum, including class visits, a tsunami observer program and evacuation notification team, and a walking tour of historical tsunami sites. The students' page features games and puzzles, a frequently-asked-questions feature, links to related websites, and an online collection of tsunami warning signs. Other materials include a collection of tsunami-related art, interviews with survivors, and an archive of photographs.

75

Marin Tsunami (video)  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

2010-01-01

76

Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

2011-07-01

77

Survive That Tsunami!  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use a table-top-sized tsunami generator to observe the formation and devastation of a tsunami. They see how a tsunami moves across the ocean and what happens when it reaches the continental shelf. Students make villages of model houses and buildings to test how different material types are impacted by the huge waves. They further discuss how engineers design buildings to survive tsunamis. Much of this activity setup is the same as for the Mini-Landscape activity in Lesson 4 of the Natural Disasters unit.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

78

Waves of Destruction: Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a set of interactive articles on tsunamis developed to accompany the Savage Earth television series on PBS. The three articles explain the anatomy of a tsunami and how it differs from typical wind-generated water waves. Animations and illustrations help users understand how these waves are generated and why they can be so destructive upon reaching a shoreline. A history of tsunami events is woven throughout the articles, including a video interview with a tsunami survivor. SEE RELATED ITEMS ON THIS PAGE for a link to the full collection of materials developed by WNET-TV to accompany Savage Earth.

2009-03-07

79

Tsunami Strike! Caribbean Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami Strike! Caribbean Edition offers an interactive learning experience in which learners take on the role of a journalist writing an article for a news magazine. Sixteen multimedia lessons on tsunami science, safety, and history are interwoven within the learning scenario as resources for the article. The material is aimed at middle school and high school students (ages 13-17) but will be useful to a broader audience wishing to learn more about tsunamis in general, and in particular about tsunami risks in the Caribbean.

COMET

2012-02-07

80

Tsunami Strike! Pacific Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami Strike! Pacific Edition is a scenario-based learning experience for kids from middle school through high school (approximate ages 13-17). The scenario tells the story of four main characters at different locations in the Pacific basin who are each impacted by a major tsunami that originates in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. Over the course of the story, learners not only view the unfolding events and how each of the characters responds, but also observe how warning scientists analyze and communicate the tsunami threat. Fourteen short lessons provide interactive instruction focused on the science, safety, and history of tsunamis.

COMET

2011-08-23

81

TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), representing the Tsunami National Contact (TNC) and Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP) for Turkey, is one of the key partners in TRIDEC. KOERI is responsible for the operation of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) for Turkey and establishes Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (CTWP) responsibilities for the NEAM region. Based on this profound experience, KOERI is contributing valuable requirements to the overall TRIDEC system and is responsible for the definition and development of feasible tsunami-related scenarios. However, KOERI's most important input focuses on testing and evaluating the TRIDEC system according to specified evaluation and validation criteria. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools. In addition to conventional sensors also unconventional sensors and sensor networks play an important role in TRIDEC. The first system demonstrator, deployed at KOERI's crisis management room, has been designed and implemented to support plausible scenarios for the Turkish NTWC and to demonstrate the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a NTWC. The feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes in a hypothetical natural crisis situation caused by a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Hammitzsch, M.; Necmioglu, O.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.; Comoglu, M.; Ozel, N. M.; Wächter, J.

2012-04-01

82

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500–2500 years, the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1–10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1–1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

N. Horspool

2014-05-01

83

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

2014-05-01

84

Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean  

Science.gov (United States)

The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami warning system that serves regionally and delivers locally, saving lives and livelihoods, not only from tsunamis, but all coastal hazards. Through this and other platforms, physical and social scientists, emergency managers and elected officials have been working together via different mechanisms. Community based recognition programs, like the TsunamiReadyTM Program, regional tsunami exercises, sub-regional public education activities such as the Tsunami Smart campaigns, internet technologies, social media, meetings and conferences, identification of local and national champions, capitalization of news breaking tsunamis and earthquakes, economic resources for equipment and training have all been key to developing a tsunami safer Caribbean. Given these efforts, according to a 2013 survey, 93% of the countries covered by CARIBE EWS have tsunami response protocols in place, although much more work is required. In 2010 the US National Weather Service established the Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program as the first step towards a Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center in the region. In 2013 the Caribbean Tsunami Information Center was established in Barbados. Both these institutions which serve the region play a key role for promoting both the warning and educational components of the warning system.

von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

2013-12-01

85

International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

Mosher, D.C.

2009-01-01

86

Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

2006-01-01

87

Chicxulub Tsunami Animation  

Science.gov (United States)

An animation that simulates the tsunami created by the Chicxulub impact off the coast of Mexico. The model simulates the height of the tsunami waves as they reached the surrounding parts of North, Central, South America as they are projected to have looked at the time of the impact.

Steven N. Ward

88

Tsunami Wordsearch Game  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a word search for basic tsunami terms. This site has multiple versions of the word search which can be viewed by refreshing the page or hitting the restart button. The wordsearch can be completed online or can be printed out. The words used are Alaska, Earthquake, Seward, Valdez, Hawaii, Hilo, Japan, Landslide, Meteorite, Tsunami, Water, and Wave.

89

Impact of Near-Field, Deep-Ocean Tsunami Observations on Forecasting the 7 December 2012 Japanese Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the devastating 11 March 2011 tsunami, two deep-ocean assessment and reporting of tsunamis (DART®)(DART® and the DART® logo are registered trademarks of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, used with permission) stations were deployed in Japanese waters by the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Two weeks after deployment, on 7 December 2012, a M w 7.3 earthquake off Japan's Pacific coastline generated a tsunami. The tsunami was recorded at the two Japanese DARTs as early as 11 min after the earthquake origin time, which set a record as the fastest tsunami detecting time at a DART station. These data, along with those recorded at other DARTs, were used to derive a tsunami source using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami forecast system. The results of our analysis show that data provided by the two near-field Japanese DARTs can not only improve the forecast speed but also the forecast accuracy at the Japanese tide gauge stations. This study provides important guidelines for early detection and forecasting of local tsunamis.

Bernard, Eddie; Wei, Yong; Tang, Liujuan; Titov, Vasily

2014-12-01

90

Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…

Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

2009-01-01

91

Tsunamis in Cuba?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Hait as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

92

Tsunami: the Great Waves  

Science.gov (United States)

... in advance of the first of six tsunami waves after venturing out when the water first receded ( ... generation mechanism. T sunamis, also called seismic sea waves or incorrectly tidal waves, are caused generally by ...

93

Dynamics of tsunami waves  

OpenAIRE

The life of a tsunami is usually divided into three phases: the generation (tsunami source), the propagation and the inundation. Each phase is complex and often described separately. A brief description of each phase is given. Model problems are identified. Their formulation is given. While some of these problems can be solved analytically, most require numerical techniques. The inundation phase is less documented than the other phases. It is shown that methods based on Smoo...

Dias, Fre?de?ric; Dutykh, Denys

2006-01-01

94

Formation of a Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This Flash animation, by McGraw-Hill, illustrates the steps involved in producing a tsunami. First, motion along a submerged fault plane causes a column of water to rise directly above the epicenter. As the wave approaches the shore, it slows, wave height grows, and wave crests grow closer together. The heightened wave then reaches the shore and can extend far inland, destroying everything in its path. Tsunami-like waves can also be caused by underwater landslides.

McGraw-Hill

95

Behaviors Of Concrete Walls Under Impulsive Tsunami Load  

Science.gov (United States)

1. INTRODUCTION Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 made us to recognize of the power of the huge tsunami. But there are few reports of the mechanism of structure destruction due to inundation tsunami. So, at first, the physical model tests are conducted to clarify the mechanism of failure of concrete wall due to the impulsive tsunami. 2. LARGE PHYSICAL MODEL TESTS (1) Experimental setup: The size of the Large Hydro Geo Flume is 184m long, 3.5m wide and 12m deep at the maximum. This wave flume has the 14m stroke and can generate the 2.5m height tsunami. The concrete walls are set up from the edge to the position in 1.8m. The size of walls is 2.5m high and 2.5m wide. The thickness of walls is changed from 6cm to 10.0cm. Pressure and strain gauges are set up. (2) State of tsunami attack: Maximum height of tsunami above the still water level is 2.5m and inundation depth in front of wall is 1.8m. The very big splash is occurred in a moment of attacking tsunami. (3) State of destruction: The results show that the concrete wall is broken in the instance of tsunami attacking at the lower part of wall. (4) Estimation by using the numerical simulators The validity of estimation by using the numerical simulation system is verified. The pressure in front of concrete wall was calculated by using the STOC-VF (CADMAS-SURF/3D), which is the wave calculator based on VOF method. These pressures were translated to the power of grid to use FEM calculator. the result of the deformation of wall is good agreement with experimental results qualitatively. 3. CONCLUSIONS To clarify the mechanism of failure of concrete wall due to tsunami pressure, the physical model tests were conducted. In the physical model test, several type of concrete are tested. From the results, it is found that the concrete wall with 6cm to 10cm thickness was broken in the instance of tsunami attacking. The validity of estimation by using the numerical simulation system is verified. The results show that these phenomena can be estimated qualitatively by using the numerical simulator.

Arikawa, T.

2008-12-01

96

New Operational Tsunami Forecast: Accuracy Assessment of Tsunami Amplitude Predictions  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA has accepted a new tsunami forecast method in operational use to predict tsunami flooding, amplitudes and other tsunami parameters in real-time, while tsunami is still propagating. The method (called Short-term Inundation Forecast for Tsunamis -- SIFT) uses DART real-time data to improve the accuracy of coastal tsunami forecast, when compared with just the seismic data-based assessment. The main goal of the forecast system is to forecast flooding due to tsunami wave at specific coastal locations. Other tsunami parameters are also computed to estimate overall hazard at a given location for a specific tsunami event. Knowing the accuracy of the forecast is extremely important for making right decisions throughout tsunami warnings procedures. During operational testing of the system a comprehensive analysis of accuracy of the system has been performed. The presentation will present the accuracy analysis of the tsunami forecast and implications for future development and improvements of tsunami forecasting.The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

Titov, V.

2013-12-01

97

Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de ondas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México.We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which provides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

Rodrigo González González

2012-01-01

98

Tsunamis from nature to physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunamis are gravity waves that propagate near the ocean surface. They belong to the same family as common sea waves that we enjoy at the beach; however, tsunamis are distinct in their mode of generation and in their characteristic period, wavelength, and velocity. The type of tsunamis that induce widespread damage number about one or two per decade. Thus 'killer tsunamis' although fearful, are a relatively rare phenomenon

99

Tsunami Deposit Data Base  

Science.gov (United States)

A digital database has been established describing tsunami deposits around the world (3 phases; 15 months). The projects involved the review and tabulation of data derived from books, catalogs, journals, preprints, citations and abstracts (currently 1000 references), into a database designed to provide a comprehensive review of the types of tsunami deposits, their geographic distribution and location, sedimentary characteristics, fossil content, age, preservation, run-up, wave height and inundation observations, etc. (34 parameters). The tsunami occurrences can be divided into many subjects, e.g., Volcanogenic (N=375), Seismites (N=49), Co-seismic (N=258), K/T Boundary Impact-triggered debris flows (N=97), Landslides (N=43), etc. Numerous publications compare tsunami deposits to storm deposits (N=38), or analyze the origin of megaboulders (N=22). Tsunami deposits occur throughout geologic time (Pre-Cambrian to present day), and because of plate tectonics, they occur along plate margins (primarily subduction zones) as well as interior to plates. In addition, they occur in epi-continental seas, fjords, etc. Few publications describe depositional processes. Deposits generated by tsunamis occur in multiple environments such as the marine, fresh water, and subaerial. Common characteristics of tsunami deposits include: 1) Deposition of thin sand sheets (can be normal, massive, inversely graded, chaotic or bimodal). 2) Erosional: basal uncomformity, mud balls, rip-up clasts, reworked fossils produced by scouring. 3) Lithology: Stacks of couplets reflecting marine incursions (often sands) into fresh water or subaerial environments (mud, soil, peat). 4) Fossil: Couplets reflects marine fossils, fresh water fossils or a mixed assemblage. 5) Geomorphology: The sand sheets taper landward and can rise in elevation. 6) Deformation: syn-depositional (soft sediments) and intraformational (stiff sediments).

Keating, B. H.; Wanink, M.

2007-05-01

100

Healthy universities--time for action: a qualitative research study exploring the potential for a national programme.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the absence of national or international steers, there is within England growing interest in the Healthy University approach. This article introduces Healthy Universities; reports on a qualitative study exploring the potential for a national programme contributing to health, well-being and sustainable development; and concludes with reflections and recommendations. The study used questionnaires and interviews with key informants from English higher education institutions and national stakeholder organizations. The findings confirmed that higher education offers significant potential to impact positively on the health and well-being of students, staff and wider communities through education, research, knowledge exchange and institutional practice. There was strong support for extending the healthy settings approach beyond schools and further education, through a National Healthy Higher Education Programme that provides a whole system Healthy University Framework. Informants argued that although there are important public health drivers, it will also be necessary to show how a Healthy Universities can help achieve core business objectives and contribute to related agendas such as sustainability. Two models were discussed: an accreditation scheme with externally assessed standardized achievement criteria; and a flexible and light-touch framework focusing on change-related processes and utilizing self-assessment. While highlighting the appeal of league tables, many informants feared that a top-down approach could backfire, generating resistance and resulting in minimal compliance. In contrast, the majority felt that a process-focused aspirational model would be more likely to win hearts and minds and facilitate system-level change. Key recommendations relate to national programme development, research and evaluation and international collaboration and networking. PMID:20167825

Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

2010-03-01

101

Qualitative risk evaluation of environmental restoration programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the evaluation of risks associated with environmental restoration activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory using two tools supplied by DOE to provide a consistent set of risk estimates across the DOE complex: Risk Data Sheets (RDS) and Relative Risk Ranking. The tools are described, the process taken characterized, results provided and discussed. The two approaches are compared and recommendations provided for continuing improvement of the process.

Morris, S.C.

1996-05-01

102

Studying family participation in system-of-care evaluations: using qualitative methods to examine a national mandate in local contexts.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the rapid pace of policy and practice changes in children's mental health, there is a need for research to examine, describe, and disseminate information about the translation of policy directives into practice innovations at the local level. National policy mandates for children's mental health have placed expectations on local communities to involve families as partners in the development, implementation, and evaluation of systems of care with little guidance about how to implement program requirements locally. Consequently, there is a gap in the knowledge base regarding how innovations are actually implemented in local community contexts. This article reports on a qualitative study to gain understanding of family participation in evaluations of systems of care from the perspectives of evaluators and family members working together. Findings provided rich examples of the experiences and perceptions of evaluators and family members working on evaluation teams, the challenges they encountered, and effective strategies to meet those challenges. PMID:17333403

Jivanjee, Pauline; Robinson, Adjoa

2007-10-01

103

The role of deposits in tsunami risk assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

An incomplete catalogue of tsunamis in the written record hinders tsunami risk assessment. Tsunami deposits, hard evidence of tsunami, can be used to extend the written record. The two primary factors in tsunami risk, tsunami frequency and magnitude, can be addressed through field and modeling studies of tsunami deposits. Recent research has increased the utility of tsunami deposits in tsunami risk assessment by improving the ability to identify tsunami deposits and developing models to determine tsunami magnitude from deposit characteristics. Copyright ASCE 2008.

Jaffe, B.

2008-01-01

104

A CRITICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF APPLYING SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (SVOCS) AS A GEOCHEMICAL TRACER TO INDICATE TSUNAMI BACKWASH: The Bilateral, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) Funded Project “Tsunami Deposits in Near-Shore- and Coastal Waters of Thailand (TUNWAT)”  

OpenAIRE

Tsunamis symbolize one of the most harmful natural disasters for low-lying coastal zones and their residents, due to both its destructive power and irregularity. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, which attack the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, resulted 5,395 of deaths and inestimable casualties, interrupted economies and social well-being in numerous coastal villages and caused in extreme alterations of both onshore and offshore coastal morphology. The Great Indian Ocean tsunami also highlighted t...

Siwatt Pongpiachan; Klaus Schwarzer

2013-01-01

105

Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigation of tsunami risk requires a combination of emergency preparedness for evacuation in addition to providing structural resilience of critical facilities, infrastructure, and key resources necessary for immediate response and economic and social recovery. Critical facilities would include emergency response, medical, tsunami refuges and shelters, ports and harbors, lifelines, transportation, telecommunications, power, financial institutions, and major industrial/commercial facilities. The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee is developing a proposed new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the 2016 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard. ASCE 7 provides the minimum design loads and requirements for structures subject to building codes such as the International Building Code utilized in the USA. In this paper we will provide a review emphasizing the intent of these new code provisions and explain the design methodology. The ASCE 7 provisions for Tsunami Loads and Effects enables a set of analysis and design methodologies that are consistent with performance-based engineering based on probabilistic criteria. . The ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects chapter will be initially applicable only to the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii. Ground shaking effects and subsidence from a preceding local offshore Maximum Considered Earthquake will also be considered prior to tsunami arrival for Alaska and states in the Pacific Northwest regions governed by nearby offshore subduction earthquakes. For national tsunami design provisions to achieve a consistent reliability standard of structural performance for community resilience, a new generation of tsunami inundation hazard maps for design is required. The lesson of recent tsunami is that historical records alone do not provide a sufficient measure of the potential heights of future tsunamis. Engineering design must consider the occurrence of events greater than scenarios in the historical record, and should properly be based on the underlying seismicity of subduction zones. Therefore, Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) consistent with source seismicity must be performed in addition to consideration of historical event scenarios. A method of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis has been established that is generally consistent with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in the treatment of uncertainty. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. Structural member acceptability criteria will be based on performance objectives for a 2,500-year Maximum Considered Tsunami. The approach developed by the ASCE Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE 7 Standard would result in the first national unification of tsunami hazard criteria for design codes reflecting the modern approach of Performance-Based Engineering.

Chock, G.

2013-12-01

106

Alternative tsunami models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation

107

May Gravity detect Tsunami ?  

CERN Document Server

The present gravitational wave detectors are reaching lowest metric deviation fields able to detect galactic and extra-galactic gravitational waves, related to Supernova explosions up to Virgo cluster. The same gravitational wave detector are nevertheless almost able to reveal near field gravitational perturbations due to fast huge mass displacements as the ones occurring during largest Earth-Quake or Tsunami as the last on 26th December 2004 in Asiatic area. The prompt gravitational near field deformation by the Tsunami may reach the LIGO threshold sensitivity within 3000-10000 km distances. Their eventual discover (in LIGO data or in future on-line detector arrays) may offer the most rapid warning alarm system on earth. Nevertheless the later continental mass rearrangement and their gravitational field assessment on Earth must induce, for Richter Magnitude 9 Tsunami, a different terrestrial inertia momentum and a different rotation axis, as well as a detectable shrinking of the Earth radius of nearly R =1.7...

Fargion, D

2004-01-01

108

On the moroccan tsunami catalogue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A primary tool for regional tsunami hazard assessment is a reliable historical and instrumental catalogue of events. Morocco by its geographical situation, with two marine sides, stretching along the Atlantic coast to the west and along the Mediterranean coast to the north, is the country of Western Africa most exposed to the risk of tsunamis. Previous information on tsunami events affecting Morocco are included in the Iberian and/or the Mediterranean lists of tsunami events, as it is the case of the European GITEC Tsunami Catalogue, but there is a need to organize this information in a dataset and to assess the likelihood of claimed historical tsunamis in Morocco. Due to the fact that Moroccan sources are scarce, this compilation rely on historical documentation from neighbouring countries (Portugal and Spain and so the compatibility between the new tsunami catalogue presented here and those that correspond to the same source areas is also discussed.

F. Kaabouben

2009-07-01

109

After the Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian Ocean tsunami of Dec. 26, 2004, ranks as one of the great disasters of human history. The key to learning from any disaster—whether tsunami, earthquake, storm, fire or volcano—is to gather as much data as possible, as quickly as possible. NSF’s Learning from Earthquakes (LFE) rapid-response program quickly dispatched dozens of researchers to the devastated regions. This web site contains reports of the research efforts in Indonesia, India, Maldives,and Sri Lanka including video interviews with the researchers and day to day accounts.

110

Community Tsunami Preparedness, 2nd Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

This module is designed to help emergency managers prepare their communities for tsunamis. Lessons include basic tsunami science, hazards produced by tsunamis, the tsunami warning system, the importance of public education activities, and how to craft good emergency messages and develop tsunami response plans. The module also contains links to extensive Reference and Resources sections.

COMET

2011-12-14

111

THE FRENCH TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NORTHEAST ATLANTIC: CENALT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CENALT (CENtre d’ALerte aux Tsunamis is responsible for the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC. The CENALT is established in the framework of the Unesco/IOC/ICG/NEAMTWS. Its objective is to transmit a warning message in less than fifteen minutes for any events that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North- Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions of European and North African countries is processed with software that permits early epicenter location of seismic events and measurements of expected tsunami impacts on the shore. On-duty analysts revise interactively all the generated information and use references of historical tsunami and earthquake databases - as well as computed tsunami scenarios – in order to disseminate the more comprehensive message possible.

H. Hébert

2013-01-01

112

A review of tsunami simulation activities for NPPs safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on finite difference numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The present paper evaluate the results of various simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatrarious simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatra model, four and five fault Sumatra Model, Nias insignificant tsunami and also some parametric studies results for tsunami waring system scenario generation. A study is carried for the tsunami due to Sumatra earthquake in 2004 with TUNAMI-N2 software. Bathymetry data available from the National Geophysical Data Center was used for this study. The single fault and detailed four and five fault data were used to calculate sea surface deformations which were subsequently used as initial conditions for Sumatra 2004 tsunami propagation simulation. The paper also presents a hypothetical study by assuming the earthquake rupture on northern fault only as compared to complete (northern and southern) rupture segment and the resulting tsunami propagation scenario. All of the studies provide the results in terms of wave heights and compare them with the reported simulation, satellite observation and field observed reported data. The paper includes the parametric studies on the possible fault line for Sumatra fault line for support for early tsunami warning. The various other events i.e Java, Nias, Makaran, Andaman etc are also discussed in the paper. (author)

113

Speeding up tsunami wave propagation modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Trans-oceanic wave propagation is one of the most time/CPU consuming parts of the tsunami modeling process. The so-called Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package, developed at PMEL NOAA USA (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA), is widely used to evaluate the tsunami parameters. However, it takes time to simulate trans-ocean wave propagation, that is up to 5 hours CPU time to "drive" the wave from Chili (epicenter) to the coast of Japan (even using a rather coarse computational mesh). Accurate wave height prediction requires fine meshes which leads to dramatic increase in time for simulation. Computation time is among the critical parameter as it takes only about 20 minutes for tsunami wave to approach the coast of Japan after earthquake at Japan trench or Sagami trench (as it was after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011). MOST solves numerically the hyperbolic system for three unknown functions, namely velocity vector and wave height (shallow water approximation). The system could be split into two independent systems by orthogonal directions (splitting method). Each system can be treated independently. This calculation scheme is well suited for SIMD architecture and GPUs as well. We performed adaptation of MOST package to GPU. Several numerical tests showed 40x performance gain for NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU vs. single core of Intel i7 processor. Results of numerical experiments were compared with other available simulation data. Calculation results, obtained at GPU, differ from the reference ones by 10^-3 cm of the wave height simulating 24 hours wave propagation. This allows us to speak about possibility to develop real-time system for evaluating tsunami danger.

Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey

2014-05-01

114

Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis Data Quality Control  

Science.gov (United States)

From the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) page contains real time sea level data which can be modified by site and transmitter, type of data set, database, and time range. Data may be viewed through a browser or downloaded (.dbf, .gz).

115

Tsunami Generation Animation  

Science.gov (United States)

This QuickTime animation by Professor Miho Aoki at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Art Department clearly illustrates how a tsunami can be generated by a subduction zone earthquake. The visualization file is large and may take some time to download.

Miho Aoki

116

Alternative Tsunami Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 "Eur. J. Phys." 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 "Eur. J. Phys." 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional,…

Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.

2009-01-01

117

Tiché tsunami bez hranic.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 6, ?. 24 (2008), s. 14. ISSN 1801-1446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : food crisis Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.respekt.cz/search.php?f_search_text=tich%E9+tsunami+bez+hranic

Kone?ný, Tomáš

2008-01-01

118

CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. The CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX 13 scenario simulated a tsunami generated by a magnitude 8.5 earthquake originating north of Oranjestad, Aruba in the Caribbean Sea. For the first time earthquake impact was included in addition to expected tsunami impact. The initial message was issued by the warning centers over the established channels, while different mechanisms were then used by participants for further dissemination. The enhanced PTWC tsunami products for the Caribbean were also made available to the participants. To provide feedback on the exercise an online survey tool with 85 questions was used. The survey demonstrated satisfaction with exercise, timely receipt of bulletins and interest in the enhanced PTWC products. It also revealed that while 93% of the countries had an activation and response process, only 59% indicated that they also had an emergency response plan for tsunamis and even fewer had tsunami evacuation plans and inundation maps. Given that 80% of those surveyed indicated that CARIBE WAVE should be conducted annually, CARIBE EWS decided that the next exercise be held on March 26, 2014, instead of waiting until 2015.

von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

2013-12-01

119

Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante / Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de o [...] ndas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México. Abstract in english We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which p [...] rovides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

Rodrigo, González González; Modesto, Ortiz Figueroa; José Miguel, Montoya Rodríguez.

2012-01-01

120

Natural Post-Tsunami Recovery of the Mataquito River Mouth, after the 2010 Chilean Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The ensuing tsunami from the Mw=8.8 2010 Chilean earthquake was one of the most destructive events on Chilean history (Fritz et al. 2011). It caused not only major damage and loss of infrastructure on several locations, but also drastic morphological changes on coastal environments (Cienfuegos et al., 2010). The large scale and magnitude of the change could be considered effectively as system resets. This situation presented a unique opportunity to witness the natural recovery of some coastal landforms such as sand spits. The Mataquito River mouth, located just in front of the rupture area where most of the earthquake energy was released (Lay et al. 2010), is an example of a natural coastal system heavily affected by the 2010 tsunami: its 8 km-long sand spit almost completely disappeared under the combined action of tsunami waves and the relatively large land subsidence (Vargas et al. 2011). After the earthquake and tsunami, we have monitored the coastal evolution of the river mouth using different techniques such as site surveys, airborne and satellite images, to characterize qualitatively and identify the main processes driving the formation and recovery of the sand spit by waves and wind. This was complemented with forcing information like wind, waves and river discharge in order to better understand the system dynamics. Our observations evidenced a massive accretion and a surprisingly fast coastal recovery . In fact, most of the original configuration of the spit was reformed in less than 18 months. On the contrary, Duao beach, located 15 km north of Mataquito, experienced a dramatic erosion probably by land subsidence and consequent beach response to incoming wave climate. In this work we discuss on the role of waves, longshore currents, river hydrology and land subsidence in determining the rapid coastal evolution experienced in the Mataquito area. Moreover, this ongoing research will adress whether morphological changes are definitive or not. References Cienfuegos et al. 2010. "Observations on morphological changes by the impact of the February 27, 2010 tsunami along the coastline of V-VI-VII Regions". AGU Chapman Conference on Giant Earthquakes and Their Tsunamis, Viña del Mar, Chile. Fritz et al. 2011. "Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Tsunami, Chile". Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2011. doi:10.1007/s00024- 011-0283-5. Lay et al. 2010. "Teleseismic inversion for rupture process of the 27 February 2010 Chile earthquake". Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L13301, doi:10.1029/2010GL043379.

Villagran, M. F.; Cienfuegos, R.; Almar, R.; Catalan, P. A.; Camaño, A.

2011-12-01

121

Late improvements of Chile tsunami warning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The instrumentation for the tide stations has been improved with the replacement of the old Ballauf Standard tide gauge by the bubbler type in 15 locations besides the installation of five Handar Data Collection Platforms (DCP) provided by U.S.NOAA. The existing seismic network is still far from having a good coverage of the country; however, four short period seismometers have been installed lately around the Iquique seismic gap (Latitude 20 deg. S), linked to the Geophysics Institute Office in Santiago, and the two THRUST seismic triggers are in operation at Iquique and Valparaiso ports. Communications with the National Emergency Office has been improved with a HF transmitter which permits linking with all the Regional Emergency Offices along the country. The Standard Operations Plan in Case of Tsunami has been tested in a tsunami simulation exercise, where some problems arised between different emergency agencies; a revision of the Plan has been adopted. (author). 6 figs

122

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES PART 3  

OpenAIRE

This is Part 3 of Tsunami Information Sources published by Robert L. Wiegel, as Technical Report UCB/HEL 2006-3 of the Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory of the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering of the University of California at Berkeley. Part 3 is published in "SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS" -with the author's permission -so that it can receive wider distribution and use by the Tsunami Scientific Community.

Wiegel, Robert L.

2009-01-01

123

TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES  

OpenAIRE

This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numer...

Marchuk, Andrei G.

2009-01-01

124

Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors  

Science.gov (United States)

The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right) tsunami induced currents and surface agitation. The small jetty indicated with the arrow is overtopped in the second image (indicated by the oval)

Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

2012-12-01

125

Tsunami Tallinna lahel / Vivika Veski  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Küberneetika Instituudis tehtav mere- ja rannikuteaduse alane töö on pälvinud rahvusvahelist tähelepanu. Tallinna laht võib anda maailmale vastuse, kuidas kaitsta end tsunami eest

Veski, Vivika

2008-01-01

126

TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.

Andrei G. Marchuk

2009-01-01

127

Validation and Verification of Tsunami Numerical Models  

Science.gov (United States)

In the aftermath of the 26 December, 2004 tsunami, several quantitative predictions of inundation for historic events were presented at international meetings differing substantially from the corresponding well-established paleotsunami measurements. These significant differences attracted press attention, reducing the credibility of all inundation modeling efforts. Without exception, the predictions were made using models that had not been benchmarked. Since an increasing number of nations are now developing tsunami mitigation plans, it is essential that all numerical models used in emergency planning be subjected to validation—the process of ensuring that the model accurately solves the parent equations of motion—and verification—the process of ensuring that the model represents geophysical reality. Here, we discuss analytical, laboratory, and field benchmark tests with which tsunami numerical models can be validated and verified. This is a continuous process; even proven models must be subjected to additional testing as new knowledge and data are acquired. To date, only a few existing numerical models have met current standards, and these models remain the only choice for use for real-world forecasts, whether short-term or long-term. Short-term forecasts involve data assimilation to improve forecast system robustness and this requires additional benchmarks, also discussed here. This painstaking process may appear onerous, but it is the only defensible methodology when human lives are at stake. Model standards and procedures as described here have been adopted for implementation in the U.S. tsunami forecasting system under development by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, they are being adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the U.S. and by the appropriate subcommittees of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Synolakis, C. E.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V. V.; Kâno?lu, U.; González, F. I.

2008-12-01

128

Modélisation mathématique des tsunamis  

OpenAIRE

Cette thèse est consacrée à la modélisation des tsunamis. La vie de ces vagues peut être conditionnellement divisée en trois parties: génération, propagation et inondation. Dans un premier temps, nous nous intéressons à la génération de ces vagues extrêmes. Dans cette partie du mémoire, nous examinons les différentes approches existantes pour la modélisation, puis nous en proposons d'autres. La conclusion principale à laquelle nous sommes arrivés est que le couplage entre la...

Dias, Fre?de?ric

2007-01-01

129

May Gravity detect Tsunami ?  

OpenAIRE

The present gravitational wave detectors are reaching lowest metric deviation fields able to detect galactic and extra-galactic gravitational waves, related to Supernova explosions up to Virgo cluster. The same gravitational wave detector are nevertheless almost able to reveal, in principle, near field Newtonian gravitational perturbations due to fast huge mass displacements as the ones occurring during largest Earth-Quake or Tsunami as the last on 26nd December 2004 in Asia...

Fargion, D.

2004-01-01

130

Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective decision making is required to make financial allocations based on real, rather than perceived needs. With a large part of HIV program funding dedicated to public-private partnerships, it becomes imperative to develop public sector capacity to administer contracts, coordinate and monitor activities of the non-governmental sector.

Kadir Masood

2007-01-01

131

A CRITICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF APPLYING SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (SVOCS AS A GEOCHEMICAL TRACER TO INDICATE TSUNAMI BACKWASH: The Bilateral, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT Funded Project “Tsunami Deposits in Near-Shore- and Coastal Waters of Thailand (TUNWAT”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunamis symbolize one of the most harmful natural disasters for low-lying coastal zones and their residents, due to both its destructive power and irregularity. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, which attack the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, resulted 5,395 of deaths and inestimable casualties, interrupted economies and social well-being in numerous coastal villages and caused in extreme alterations of both onshore and offshore coastal morphology. The Great Indian Ocean tsunami also highlighted that there are many missing jigsaw puzzle pieces in scientific knowledge, starting from the generating of tsunamis offshore to the countless influences to the marine ecosystems on the continental shelf, coastal areas and on land and to the economic and social systems consequences. As with all deposits that do not have a direct physical link to their causative sources, marine tsunami deposits must be distinguished from other deposits through regional correlation, dating and criteria for recognition within the deposits themselves. This study aims to provide comprehensive reviews on using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs as a chemical proxy to discriminate tsunami relateddeposits from typical marine sediments. The advantages and disadvantages of this chemical tracer will be critically reviewed and further discussed.

Siwatt Pongpiachan

2013-10-01

132

Tsunami propagation modelling – a sensitivity study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian Ocean (2004 Tsunami and following tragic consequences demonstrated lack of relevant experience and preparedness among involved coastal nations. After the event, scientific and forecasting circles of affected countries have started a capacity building to tackle similar problems in the future. Different approaches have been used for tsunami propagation, such as Boussinesq and Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE. These approximations were obtained assuming different relevant importance of nonlinear, dispersion and spatial gradient variation phenomena and terms. The paper describes further development of original TUNAMI-N2 model to take into account additional phenomena: astronomic tide, sea bottom friction, dispersion, Coriolis force, and spherical curvature. The code is modified to be suitable for operational forecasting, and the resulting version (TUNAMI-N2-NUS is verified using test cases, results of other models, and real case scenarios. Using the 2004 Tsunami event as one of the scenarios, the paper examines sensitivity of numerical solutions to variation of different phenomena and parameters, and the results are analyzed and ranked accordingly.

P. Tkalich

2007-12-01

133

Food Safety After a Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Food Safety After a Tsunami Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... wash your hands with clean water and soap before and after you eat or prepare food and after you use the latrine or bathroom. ...

134

77 FR 6785 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Feedback Survey for Annual Tsunami Warning...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Annual Tsunami Warning Communications Tests AGENCY: National...Warning System, this survey is needed to gather...the associated NWS communications systems. The tests...days. This will be a Web-based survey and will allow...

2012-02-09

135

Assessing Tsunami Hazard from the Geologic Record  

Science.gov (United States)

The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami dramatically demonstrated the vulnerability of the world's coastlines to the impact of tsunamis. Although northeast Japan had experienced large tsunamis in the past, there was no historical precedent for the March 11 tsunami. Most areas of the world capable of receiving such catastrophic tsunamis have not experienced them during the short period of written history. Sedimentary deposits left by tsunamis are being used to extend the record of tsunamis back through time. The state of the science for tsunami deposits has now evolved to a point where false positives (e.g. misinterpreting a storm deposit as a tsunami deposit) are less frequent. Tsunami hazard assessment is beginning to incorporate the spatial distribution of tsunami deposits and the record of tsunami recurrence. A recent development in the use of tsunami deposits for tsunami risk assessment is to obtain tsunami magnitude estimates by applying sediment transport models to replicate the observed deposits. Models have focused on estimating two parameters, tsunami height and flow speed. These models are developed and tested using data sets collected from recent tsunamis (Papua New Guinea 1998, Peru 2001, Indian Ocean 2004, and Samoa 2009, and most recently, Tohoku-Oki 2011). The extent of tsunami deposits were less than the maximum inundation, but typically were within 10% on gently sloping coastal plains. However, recent field investigations on the coastal plain of Sendai, Japan after the 2011 tsunami bring into question whether the extent of tsunami deposits are a good proxy for maximum inundation distance. There, because of sediment source limitations, an easily recognizable deposit (sand thickness >0.5 cm) only extended about 2/3 of the way to the limit of inundation. This new data highlights the need to incorporate other proxies such as geochemical signatures and approaches such as sediment transport modeling in tsunami hazard assessment.

Jaffe, B. E.

2011-12-01

136

Survey of existing tsunami warning centers - Present status, results of work, plans for future development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tsunami Warning System of the Pacific exists as an example of participatory coordination between ICG/ITSU member nations throughout the Pacific Basin. The involvement and participation by many nations has continued to result in significant improvements in the TWS. Although recent operational improvements at PTWC have resulted in the provision of enhanced tsunami warning services, even greater improvements are anticipated over the coming year as PTWC implements the improved automation technology provided by the Concurrent/Masscomp 6600 minicomputer, increased coverage for both seismic and sea level data, improved tsunami evaluation techniques, and increased participation by ICG/ITSU participants. 2 figs

137

Processing and presentation of high-resolution DART° data for recent significant tsunami events  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colorado, is an integral part of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. One of three NOAA data centers, NGDC hosts the long-term archive and management of tsunami data for research and mitigation of tsunami hazards under collaborative development between the National Weather Service, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Data Buoy Center. Archive responsibilities include the global historic tsunami event and run-up database, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART°) event and native bottom pressure and temperature observations, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, historic marigrams, and other hazards-related data and information. In terms of tsunami observations, NGDC currently process and archives all recovered native or 15 seconds high-resolution DART° bottom pressure observation time series. Tsunami signal-to-noise ratios in the deep-ocean are such that de-tiding based on a combination of tidal harmonic predictions and carefully constructed filters are necessary to obtain clean tsunami records. The processing includes removing tides using a customized version of the IOS tidal package of Mike Foreman. Additional processing is applied for parts of the records with registered tsunami events where the noise from the intra-gravity waves and components representing larger scale oceanic processes are removed by band-pass Kaiser-Bessel filters. The NGDC tsunami archive contains processed full record high-resolution observations for the period 2002-2010. An event-specific archive of real-time and native high-resolution observations recorded during recent significant tsunamis, including the March 2011 Japan Tohoku event are now available through new event pages that have been integrated with the NOAA Global Historical Tsunami Event Database. Event pages are developed to deliver comprehensive summaries of each tsunami event, including socio-economic impacts, tsunami travel time maps, raw observations, de-tided residuals, spectra of the tsunami signal compared to the energy of the background noise, and wavelets. These data are invaluable to tsunami researchers and educators as they are essential to providing a more thorough understanding of tsunamis and their propagation in the open ocean and subsequent inundation of coastal communities. All tsunami data are accessible at http://ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/recenttsunamis.shtml. Details of filtering and tide removal techniques applied during the processing of all tsunami time series are discussed and spatial distribution and density of the observations along with general statistics are presented. Results obtained from analysis of all recently recovered 15-second high-resolution DART observations for the 11 March 2011 Japan Tohoku tsunami after application of the described processing techniques are presented and show the historic nature of this event; the largest deep-ocean tsunami amplitude in recorded history.

Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; Stroker, K. J.

2011-12-01

138

Calculating the Threat of Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Provided by the Australian Academy of Science, Calculating the Threat of Tsunami is a recent feature of NOVA: Science in the News (described in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The report describes recent "advances towards predicting tsunami by combining mathematics, geology, and physics." The importance of being able to predict tsunami was made clear when, on July 17, 1998, the north coast of Papua New Guinea and villages near the Sissano lagoon were destroyed by a massive tsunami. In addition to the general text, the special feature includes a Glossary, Activities, Further Reading, and a solid selection of Useful Sites. Anyone interested in tsunami will find a plethora of information for all levels at this site.

Sarre, Alastair.

139

Introducing CAT (Centro di Allerta Tsunami), the Italian candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (It-cTWP) for the Mediterranean  

Science.gov (United States)

The recently established CAT (Centro di Allerta Tsunami) at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) will be part of the Italian National Tsunami Warning Center (It-NTWC) and it is a candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) for the Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAMTWS). It-NTWC is a partnership of three Italian institutions: INGV, the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC) and the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, ISPRA) which provides the sea-level data of the Italian mareographic network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN) in quasi-real-time. CAT is the operational part of the It-NTWC based at the INGV 24/7 seismic monitoring centre in Rome. CAT will be committed to deliver tsunami warning messages to DPC and, when it will enter its operational cTWP phase, to any IOC/UNESCO member state that will subscribe for the service. The current implementation of CAT is based on the NEAMTWS Decision Matrix (DM). Earthquake parameters are determined automatically by the Early-Est (EE) software, and used as an input to DM and tsunami travel times calculation to provide warning messages, including earthquake parameters, plus level of alert and estimated tsunami arrival time at pre-defined forecast points along threatened coasts. Basing on updated automatic EE solutions, seismologist's revision, and sea-level readings subsequent messages can be delivered until warning status ends. The use of the DM allows a rapid implementation of a tsunami warning system, but it does not consider some important features to better characterize a tsunami forecast, such as the earthquake's focal mechanism, the directivity of tsunami propagation and the morphology of the coast. More sophisticated procedures are currently under development: a database of pre-calculated, or calculated on the fly on GPU cards, tsunami scenarios, and rapid moment tensor calculation. The deployment of deep-sea tsunami (pressure) sensors is envisaged as well subject to budgetary constraints. A Decision Support System (DSS) is under development in order to integrate the different sources of information (earthquake parameters estimates and prior knowledge of the tectonic setting, numerical tsunami forecast, sea-level readings), and assist decision making during the first minutes after an event. CAT participated successfully in several NEAM communication tests within its function of National Tsunami Warning Focal Point (NTWFP) and the delivery of messages to DPC, ISPRA, and local authorities has also been tested. Preliminary CAT procedures have been tested internally, that is without delivering messages, also for two recent Mediterranean earthquakes: the M=6.6 occurred the 12th October 2013 offshore Crete and the M=5.9 occurred the 28th December 2013 offshore between Turkey and Cyprus. Here, we will present the current CAT implementation and describe its future developments.

Michelini, Alberto; Amato, Alessandro; Badiali, Lucio; Basili, Roberto; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Govoni, Aladino; Lauciani, Valentino; Lomax, Anthony; Lorito, Stefano; Mele, Francesco; Melini, Daniele; Molinari, Irene; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Selva, Jacopo; Selvaggi, Giulio; Sensale, Giampaolo; Tonini, Roberto; Vazzoler, Stefano; Zanolin, Francesco

2014-05-01

140

SOME OPPORTUNITITES OF THE LANDSLIDE TSUNAMI HYPOTHESIS  

OpenAIRE

Tsunami sources are intimately linked to geological events. Earthquakes and landslides are shown to be part of a continuum of complicated geological phenomena. Advances in landslide tsunami research will remain coupled with marine geology research. The landslide tsunami hypothesis is shown to have originated in the scientific literature in the early 1900s. Tsunami science has been slow to embrace the hypothesis in part because of the tremendous uncertainity that it introduces into tsunami gne...

Phillip Watts

2001-01-01

141

Implementation and Challenges of the Tsunami Warning System in the Western Mediterranean  

Science.gov (United States)

The French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT) has been in operation since 2012. It is contributing to the North-eastern and Mediterranean (NEAM) tsunami warning and mitigation system coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, and benefits from data exchange with several foreign institutes. This center is supported by the French Government and provides French civil-protection authorities and member states of the NEAM region with relevant messages for assessing potential tsunami risk when an earthquake has occurred in the Western Mediterranean sea or the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean. To achieve its objectives, CENALT has developed a series of innovative techniques based on recent research results in seismology for early tsunami warning, monitoring of sea level variations and detection capability, and effective numerical computation of ongoing tsunamis.

Schindelé, F.; Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Gutierrez, E.; Monnier, A.; Roudil, P.; Reymond, D.; Rivera, L.

2015-03-01

142

Implementation and Challenges of the Tsunami Warning System in the Western Mediterranean  

Science.gov (United States)

The French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT) has been in operation since 2012. It is contributing to the North-eastern and Mediterranean (NEAM) tsunami warning and mitigation system coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, and benefits from data exchange with several foreign institutes. This center is supported by the French Government and provides French civil-protection authorities and member states of the NEAM region with relevant messages for assessing potential tsunami risk when an earthquake has occurred in the Western Mediterranean sea or the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean. To achieve its objectives, CENALT has developed a series of innovative techniques based on recent research results in seismology for early tsunami warning, monitoring of sea level variations and detection capability, and effective numerical computation of ongoing tsunamis.

Schindelé, F.; Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Gutierrez, E.; Monnier, A.; Roudil, P.; Reymond, D.; Rivera, L.

2014-12-01

143

Exploring tsunamis with non-traditional dataset: array recordings from temporary ocean-bottom seismic experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

We observe clear tsunami signals generated by the July 15, 2009 magnitude 7.8 Dusky Sound (Fiordland) New Zealand earthquake on seafloor differential pressure gauges (DPGs). The dataset was collected during the ocean-bottom seismic experiment, Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA). This experiment deployed 30 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (Trillium 240) and differential pressure gauges (DPGs) for a year (2009/01-2010/02) both in deep ocean (greater than 4000 m water depth) and on the continental shelf (550 m to 1300 m) offshore of the South Island of New Zealand. The DPGs are used in many US National Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) experiments and are designed to record seismic signals. In this study, we demonstrate that DPGs can effectively record open-ocean tsunami signals and the tsunami signals on DPG records can be used for tsunami studies. We carry out waveform and spectral analysis for DPG data recordings of the Fiordland tsunami event. The arrival times of tsunami signals on DPG recordings can be directly used to constrain tsunami wave propagation models. We calibrate the DPGs to obtain better control on the amplitude of the tsunami signals on the DPG records. Calibrations are done over frequency bands of both Rayleigh wave and tidal signals. Synthetic pressure waveforms are calculated to be compared with the DPG recorded signals.

Sheehan, A. F.; Yang, Z.; Nicolsky, D.; Mungov, G.; Eakins, B.

2011-12-01

144

New Approaches to Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Demonstrated in Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and Oregon Emergency Management collaborated over the last four years to increase tsunami preparedness for residents and visitors to the Oregon coast. Utilizing support from the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP), new approaches to outreach and tsunami hazard assessment were developed and then applied. Hazard assessment was approached by first doing two pilot studies aimed at calibrating theoretical models to direct observations of tsunami inundation gleaned from the historical and prehistoric (paleoseismic/paleotsunami) data. The results of these studies were then submitted to peer-reviewed journals and translated into 1:10,000-12,000-scale inundation maps. The inundation maps utilize a powerful new tsunami model, SELFE, developed by Joseph Zhang at the Oregon Health & Science University. SELFE uses unstructured computational grids and parallel processing technique to achieve fast accurate simulation of tsunami interactions with fine-scale coastal morphology. The inundation maps were simplified into tsunami evacuation zones accessed as map brochures and an interactive mapping portal at http://www.oregongeology.org/tsuclearinghouse/. Unique in the world are new evacuation maps that show separate evacuation zones for distant versus locally generated tsunamis. The brochure maps explain that evacuation time is four hours or more for distant tsunamis but 15-20 minutes for local tsunamis that are invariably accompanied by strong ground shaking. Since distant tsunamis occur much more frequently than local tsunamis, the two-zone maps avoid needless over evacuation (and expense) caused by one-zone maps. Inundation mapping for the entire Oregon coast will be complete by ~2014. Educational outreach was accomplished first by doing a pilot study to measure effectiveness of various approaches using before and after polling and then applying the most effective methods. In descending order, the most effective methods were: (1) door-to-door (person-to-person) education, (2) evacuation drills, (3) outreach to K-12 schools, (4) media events, and (5) workshops targeted to key audiences (lodging facilities, teachers, and local officials). Community organizers were hired to apply these five methods to clusters of small communities, measuring performance by before and after polling. Organizers were encouraged to approach the top priority, person-to-person education, by developing Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) or CERT-like organizations in each community, thereby leaving behind a functioning volunteer-based group that will continue the outreach program and build long term resiliency. One of the most effective person-to-person educational tools was the Map Your Neighborhood program that brings people together so they can sketch the basic layout of their neighborhoods to depict key earthquake and tsunami hazards and mitigation solutions. The various person-to-person volunteer efforts and supporting outreach activities are knitting communities together and creating a permanent culture of tsunami and earthquake preparedness. All major Oregon coastal population centers will have been covered by this intensive outreach program by ~2014.

Priest, G. R.; Rizzo, A.; Madin, I.; Lyles Smith, R.; Stimely, L.

2012-12-01

145

West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?  

Science.gov (United States)

The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

2013-12-01

146

On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation  

OpenAIRE

While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solut...

Dias, Fre?de?ric; Dutykh, Denys; O Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

2012-01-01

147

On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation  

CERN Document Server

While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the kinematics of the rupturing process. We also consider an unusual source for tsunami generation: the sinking of a cruise ship. Then we review some aspects of tsunami run-up. In particular, we explain why the first wave of a tsunami is sometimes less devastating than the subsequent waves. A resonance effect can boost the waves that come later. We also look at a particular feature of the 11 March 2011 tsunami in Japan - the formation of macro-scale vortices - and show that these macr...

Dias, Frédéric; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

2012-01-01

148

TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

B. Theilen-Willige

2006-01-01

149

Integrating Caribbean Seismic and Tsunami Hazard into Public Policy and Action  

Science.gov (United States)

The Caribbean has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 80 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Almost 90% of all these historical tsunamis have been associated with earthquakes. Just since 1842, 3510 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along the Caribbean shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. Most of the countries also have a very high exposure to earthquakes. Given the elevated vulnerability, it is imperative that government officials take steps to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of these events. Nevertheless, given the low frequency of high impact earthquakes and tsunamis, in comparison to hurricanes, combined with social and economic considerations, the needed investments are not made and disasters like the 2010 Haiti earthquake occur. In the absence of frequent significant events, an important driving force for public officials to take action, is the dissemination of scientific studies. When papers of this nature have been published and media advisories issued, public officials demonstrate heightened interest in the topic which in turn can lead to increased legislation and funding efforts. This is especially the case if the material can be easily understood by the stakeholders and there is a local contact. In addition, given the close link between earthquakes and tsunamis, in Puerto Rico alone, 50% of the high impact earthquakes have also generated destructive tsunamis, it is very important that earthquake and tsunami hazards studies demonstrate consistency. Traditionally in the region, earthquake and tsunami impacts have been considered independently in the emergency planning processes. For example, earthquake and tsunami exercises are conducted separately, without taking into consideration the compounding effects. Recognizing this deficiency, the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) which was established in 2005, decided to include the tsunami and earthquake impacts for the upcoming March 20, 2013 regional CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX tsunami exercise. In addition to the tsunami wave heights predicted by the National Weather Service Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii, the USGS PAGER and SHAKE MAP results for the M8.5 scenario earthquake in the southern Caribbean were also integrated into the manual. Additionally, in recent catastrophic planning for Puerto Rico, FEMA did request the local researchers to determine both the earthquake and tsunami impacts for the same source. In the US, despite that the lead for earthquakes and tsunamis lies within two different agencies, USGS and NOAA/NWS, it has been very beneficial that the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program partnership includes both agencies. By working together, the seismic and tsunami communities can achieve an even better understanding of the hazards, but also foster more actions on behalf of government officials and the populations at risk.

von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

2012-12-01

150

California Seismic Safety Commission: Tsunami Information  

Science.gov (United States)

This page provides general information on tsunamis for the state of California and the Pacific coast. Topics include what tsunamis are and how they are generated, the tsunami generated by the 1964 Alaska earthquake, and steps individuals should take if they experience an earthquake at the shoreline or hear a tsunami warning. There is also a discussion of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 and an animation of the powerful tsunamis it generated, as well as a set of links to tsunami research organizations.

151

University of Southern California: Tsunami Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California "is actively involved with all aspects of tsunami research; inundation field surveys, numerical and analytical modeling, and hazard assessment, mitigation and planning." The website supplies interactive maps and chilling images of the destruction caused by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Visitors can find out the latest tsunami news and research. Students and educators can view animations of seismic activity, landslides, and additional tsunami-related activity in various locations across the globe. Researchers can find abstracts and lists of publications of papers discussing field surveys, physical models, numerical methods, tsunami hazards, and more.

152

Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability  

Science.gov (United States)

A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

153

Vulnerability Analysis of Buildings Exposed to the Tohoku Tsunami and Implications for Use of Multi-Story Buildings for Tsunami Vertical Evacuation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluid and impact loads and scouring from tsunami inundation creates substantial collapse risk for coastal buildings. An April 2011 survey after the Tohoku Tsunami led by the principal author investigated cases of structural failures, successes and near failures. During the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, aerial and land-based video cameras captured the inundation at numerous locations along the Tohoku coastline of Japan. Tsunami flow depths and velocities were determined based on analysis of video records and the effects on simple benchmark structures in the flow path. Detailed field measurements and material samples were used to verify critical dimensions and properties of structures. A subsequent National Science Foundation-sponsored survey captured even more detailed LiDAR data of selected structures which was used to validate structural deformations from the structural analysis. The ASCE Structural Engineering Institute will be incorporating tsunami design provisions in the next update of the national load standard, ASCE 7-2016, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. We will present several relevant case studies of full-scale tsunami loads on structures used to evaluate design provisions being considered for these provisions. The first two authors are also working on the performance-based tsunami design criteria, where a building's performance objective for design is based on the role it plays in the community. Drawing on findings from research and post-tsunami building vulnerability analyses, the authors will discuss how these findings are informing the direction of the forthcoming ASCE 7-2016 chapter on Tsunami Loads and Effects that will be the first national tsunami design provisions applicable for all US states with Pacific Ocean coastlines. During the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, many thousands of people were saved by taking shelter in multi-story reinforced concrete buildings after the tsunami warning was issued. The first two authors visited a number of these structures that were inundated in the tsunami, and incorporated these lessons in updated provisions for the second edition of FEMA P646, Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis (2012). The significant changes to these revised guidelines for new, specially designed and constructed facilities will be explained. Regardless of whether or not a multi-story building is designated as a tsunami evacuation refuge, a sufficiently robust and tall building may offer significant basic life safety protection to occupants. Therefore, with the emergence of new guidelines and code standards, and with expertise in evaluating particular modes of structural failures caused during a tsunami, it will be feasible to design buildings to withstand tsunami events. This is desirable for taller buildings that may serve as refuges, taller buildings that may not be easily evacuated, buildings whose failure may pose a substantial risk to human life, and essential facilities that by necessity of function may exist in the inundated coastal zone.

Chock, G.; Robertson, I.; Carden, L.

2012-12-01

154

Validation of NEOWAVE with Measurements from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

An accurate and reliable numerical model is essential in mapping tsunami hazards for mitigation and preparedness. The model NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs) is being used for tsunami inundation mapping in Hawaii, American Samoa, the Gulf coast states, and Puerto Rico. In addition to the benchmarks established by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, we have been conducting a thorough investigation of NEOWAVE's capability in reproducing the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and its impact across the Pacific. The shock-capturing non-hydrostatic model is well suited to handle tsunami conditions in a variety of coastal environments in the near and far field. It describes dispersive waves through non-hydrostatic pressure and vertical velocity, which also account for tsunami generation from time histories of seafloor deformation. The semi-implicit, staggered finite difference model captures flow discontinuities associated with bores or hydraulic jumps through a momentum conservation scheme. The model supports up to five levels of two-way nested grids in spherical coordinates to describe tsunami processes of varying time and spatial scales from the open ocean to the coast. We first define the source mechanism through forward modeling of the near-field tsunami recorded by coastal and deep-ocean buoys. A finite-fault solution based on teleseismic P-wave inversion serves as the starting point of the iterative process, in which the source parameters are systematically adjusted to achieve convergence of the computed tsunami with the near-field records. The capability of NEOWAVE in modeling propagation of the tsunami is evaluated with DART data across the Pacific as well as water-level and current measurements in Hawaii. These far-field water-level records, which are not considered in the forward modeling, also provide an independently assessment of the source model. The computed runup and inundation are compared with measurements along Northeastern Japan coasts and the Hawaiian Island chain. These coastlines include shallow embayments with open plains, narrow estuaries with steep cliffs, and volcanic insular slopes with fringing reefs for full validation of the model in a single event. The Tohoku tsunami caused persistent oscillations and hazardous currents in coastal waters around Hawaii. Analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals complex resonance modes along the Hawaiian Island chain. Standing waves with period 16 min or shorter are able to form a series of nodes and antinodes over the reefs that results in strong currents and large drawdown responsible for the damage in harbors and marinas. The results provide insights into effects of fringing reefs, which are present along 70% of Hawaii's coastlines, on tsunami transformation and runup processes. The case study improves our understanding on tsunamis in tropical island environments and validates the modeling capability to predict their impacts for hazard mitigation and emergency management.

Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

2012-12-01

155

Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned  

OpenAIRE

Tsunami of 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most devastating tsunami in modern times, affecting 18 countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day, and leaving more than 1.7 million homeless. However, less reported, albeit real, is its impact in the islands of the Indian Ocean more than 1,000 miles away from its epicenter. This is the first peer-reviewed paper on the 2004 tsunami events specifically in the eleven nations bord...

Georges Ramalanjaona

2011-01-01

156

Tsunami detection by satellite altimetry  

Science.gov (United States)

We present what is to our knowledge the first direct observation of the deformation of the surface of the ocean upon passage of a tsunami wave, on the high seas, far from the influence of shorelines and continental shelves. We use satellite altimetry data from the ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON programs, complemented by spectrogram techniques and synthetic maregrams to examine the case of seven recent tsunamigenic earthquakes. We make a positive identification of the tsunami wave field in the case of the 1992 Nicaraguan tsunami, which we detect at 15°S, 106°W, five hours after origin time. We model the observed spectrogram by injecting a synthetic of variable amplitude into the signal of a repetitive cycle of the satellite along the same track, concluding that the Nicaraguan tsunami had a zero-to-peak amplitude of 8 cm in that region. In the case of the 1995 Chilean tsunami, a large scatter in the spectral properties of the reference tracks renders the detection tentative. We fail to detect the tsunamis of five other large events, including the 1996 Biak and 1996 Peru earthquakes, primarily on account of unfavorable source directivity in the geometry of existing satellite tracks, and of the strong and incoherent noise produced by large current systems, such as the Kuroshio in the Northwest Pacific.

Okal, Emile A.; Piatanesi, Alessio; Heinrich, Philippe

1999-01-01

157

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES PART 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami Information Sources (Robert L. Wiegel, University of California, Berkeley, CA, UCB/HEL 2005-1, 14 December 2005, 115 pages, is available in printed format, and on a diskette. It is also available in electronic format at the Water Resources Center Archives, University of California, Berkeley, CA http:www.lib.berkeley.edu/WRCA/tsunamis.htmland in the International Journal of The Tsunami Society, Science of Tsunami Hazards (Vol. 24, No. 2, 2006, pp 58-171 at http://www.sthjournal.org/sth6.htm.This is Part 2 of the report. It has two components. They are: 1.(Sections A and B. Sources added since the first report, and corrections to a few listed in the first report. 2.(Sections C and D. References from both the first report and this report, listed in two categories:Section C. Planning and engineering design for tsunami mitigation/protection; adjustments to the hazard; damage to structures and infrastructureSection D. Tsunami propagation nearshore; induced oscillations; runup/inundation (flooding and drawdown.

Robert L. Wiegel

2006-01-01

158

Progress in Real-time Tsunami Forecast  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA is implementing new tsunami forecast system into tsunami warning operations of the Pacific and Alaska/West Coast Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs). The next-generation methodology combines the real-time deep ocean measurements with tested and verified model estimates to produce a real-time tsunami forecast for coastal communities. DARTTM technology is combined with NOAA's MOST numerical model for the development of the tsunami forecasting scheme called Short-term Inundation Forecast for Tsunamis (SIFT). To forecast tsunami inundation and other critical local tsunami impact parameters (amplitudes at tide gages, flow velocities, wave impact indices), seismic parameter estimates and tsunami measurements are used in combination with model results. The system sifts through a pre-computed generation/propagation forecast database and selects an appropriate (linear) combination of scenarios that most closely matches the observational data. This produces estimates of tsunami characteristics in deep water which can then be used as initial conditions for a site-specific (non-linear) inundation algorithm. The inundation model can provide a high-resolution tsunami forecast scenario showing predicted tsunami dynamics at a specific local community. The results are made available in real time for TWCs and, potentially, to local emergency managers to aid in hazard assessment and decision-making in real time, before the tsunami reaches the community. Including the 15 August 2007 Peru event, NOAA's tsunami forecasting system has produced experimental forecasts for far-field tsunami impact for eight Pacific tsunamis since its first real-time test in 17 November 2003 Rat Island tsunami. These verifications showed very promising performance and accuracy of the forecast system. SIFT is being implemented at NOAA's TWCs for operational use. Forecast system overview and tests will be presented.

Titov, V. V.

2008-12-01

159

Tsunami risk mapping simulation for Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The 26 December 2004 Andaman mega tsunami killed about a quarter of a million people worldwide. Since then several significant tsunamis have recurred in this region, including the most recent 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami. These tsunamis grimly remind us of the devastating destruction that a tsunami might inflict on the affected coastal communities. There is evidence that tsunamis of similar or higher magnitudes might occur again in the near future in this region. Of particular concern to Malaysia are tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring along the northern part of the Sunda Trench. Further, the Manila Trench in the South China Sea has been identified as another source of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes that might trigger large tsunamis. To protect coastal communities that might be affected by future tsunamis, an effective early warning system must be properly installed and maintained to provide adequate time for residents to be evacuated from risk zones. Affected communities must be prepared and educated in advance regarding tsunami risk zones, evacuation routes as well as an effective evacuation procedure that must be taken during a tsunami occurrence. For these purposes, tsunami risk zones must be identified and classified according to the levels of risk simulated. This paper presents an analysis of tsunami simulations for the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea for the purpose of developing a tsunami risk zone classification map for Malaysia based upon simulated maximum wave heights. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H.-L.; Moh, Y.T.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

2011-01-01

160

Spatiotemporal distributions of tsunami sources and discovered periodicities  

Science.gov (United States)

Both spatial and spatiotemporal distributions of the sources of tsunamigenic earthquakes of tectonic origin over the last 112 years have been analyzed. This analysis has been made using tsunami databases published by the Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States), as well as earthquake catalogs published by the National Earthquake Information Center (United States). It has been found that the pronounced activation of seismic processes and an increase in the total energy of tsunamigenic earthquakes were observed at the beginning of both the 20th (1905-1920) and 21st (2004-2011) centuries. Studying the spatiotemporal periodicity of such events on the basis of an analysis of the two-dimensional distributions of the sources of tectonic tsunamis has made it possible to determine localized latitudinal zones with a total lack of such events (90°-75° N, 45°-90° S, and 35°-25° N) and regions with a periodic occurrence of tsunamis mainly within the middle (65°-35° N and 25°-40° S) and subequatorial (15° N-20° S) latitudes of the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The objective of this work is to analyze the spatiotemporal distributions of sources of tsunamigenic earthquakes and the effect of the periodic occurrence of such events on the basis of data taken from global tsunami catalogs.

Levin, B. W.; Sasorova, E. V.

2014-09-01

161

A protocol for coordinating post-tsunami field reconnaissance efforts in the USA  

Science.gov (United States)

In the aftermath of a catastrophic tsunami, much is to be learned about tsunami generation and propagation, landscape and ecological changes, and the response and recovery of those affected by the disaster. Knowledge of the impacted area directly helps response and relief personnel in their efforts to reach and care for survivors and for re-establishing community services. First-hand accounts of tsunami-related impacts and consequences also help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in other parts of the world that lack recent events to better understand and manage their own societal risks posed by tsunami threats. Conducting post-tsunami surveys and disseminating useful results to decision makers in an effective, efficient, and timely manner is difficult given the logistical issues and competing demands in a post-disaster environment. To facilitate better coordination of field-data collection and dissemination of results, a protocol for coordinating post-tsunami science surveys was developed by a multi-disciplinary group of representatives from state and federal agencies in the USA. This protocol is being incorporated into local, state, and federal post-tsunami response planning through the efforts of the Pacific Risk Management ‘Ohana, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, and the U.S. National Plan for Disaster Impact Assessments. Although the protocol was designed to support a coordinated US post-tsunami response, we believe it could help inform post-disaster science surveys conducted elsewhere and further the discussion on how hazard researchers can most effectively operate in disaster environments.

Wilson, Rick I.; Wood, Nathan J.; Kong, Laura; Shulters, Michael V.; Richards, Kevin D.; Dunbar, Paula; Tamura, Gen; Young, Edward J.

2015-01-01

162

Tsunami observations in the open ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep-sea tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in the creation of an effective tsunami warning system. The paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the beginning (about 50 years ago) to the present day. It describes modern tsunami monitoring systems, including the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART), innovative Japanese bottom cable projects, and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with those recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom presure observations is exemplified based on analysis of distant (22000 km) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

Rabinovich, A. B.

2014-09-01

163

Deep-Ocean Measurements of Tsunami Waves  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep-ocean tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in improving the effectiveness of tsunami warning systems. This paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the earliest days, approximately 50 years ago, to the present day. Modern tsunami monitoring systems such as the self-contained Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis and innovative cabled sensing networks, including, but not limited to, the Japanese bottom cable projects and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory, are highlighted. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with observations recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom pressure observations is exemplified through analysis of distant (22,000 km from the source) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Eblé, Marie C.

2015-03-01

164

BASIC RELATIONSBETWEEN TSUNAMI CALCULATIONSAND THEIR PHYSICS  

OpenAIRE

Basic tsunami physics of propagation and run-up is discussed for the simple geometry of a channel. We will try to understand how linear and nonlinear processes occurring in a tsunami should influence approach taken to numerical computations.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2001-01-01

165

Statistical Analysis of Tsunami Variability  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to investigate statistical variability of seismically generated tsunami impact. The specific goal of the work was to evaluate the variability in tsunami wave run-up due to uncertainty in fault rupture parameters (source effects) and to the effects of local bathymetry at an individual location (site effects). This knowledge is critical to development of methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment. Two types of variability were considered: • Inter-event; • Intra-event. Generally, inter-event variability refers to the differences of tsunami run-up at a given location for a number of different earthquake events. The focus of the current study was to evaluate the variability of tsunami run-up at a given point for a given magnitude earthquake. In this case, the variability is expected to arise from lack of knowledge regarding the specific details of the fault rupture "source" parameters. As sufficient field observations are not available to resolve this question, numerical modelling was used to generate run-up data. A scenario magnitude 8 earthquake in the Hellenic Arc was modelled. This is similar to the event thought to have caused the infamous 1303 tsunami. The tsunami wave run-up was computed at 4020 locations along the Egyptian coast between longitudes 28.7° E and 33.8° E. Specific source parameters (e.g. fault rupture length and displacement) were varied, and the effects on wave height were determined. A Monte Carlo approach considering the statistical distribution of the underlying parameters was used to evaluate the variability in wave height at locations along the coast. The results were evaluated in terms of the coefficient of variation of the simulated wave run-up (standard deviation divided by mean value) for each location. The coefficient of variation along the coast was between 0.14 and 3.11, with an average value of 0.67. The variation was higher in areas of irregular coast. This level of variability is similar to that seen in ground motion attenuation correlations used for seismic hazard assessment. The second issue was intra-event variability. This refers to the differences in tsunami wave run-up along a section of coast during a single event. Intra-event variability investigated directly considering field observations. The tsunami events used in the statistical evaluation were selected on the basis of the completeness and reliability of the available data. Tsunami considered for the analysis included the recent and well surveyed tsunami of Boxing Day 2004 (Great Indian Ocean Tsunami), Java 2006, Okushiri 1993, Kocaeli 1999, Messina 1908 and a case study of several historic events in Hawaii. Basic statistical analysis was performed on the field observations from these tsunamis. For events with very wide survey regions, the run-up heights have been grouped in order to maintain a homogeneous distance from the source. Where more than one survey was available for a given event, the original datasets were maintained separately to avoid combination of non-homogeneous data. The observed run-up measurements were used to evaluate the minimum, maximum, average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for each data set. The minimum coefficient of variation was 0.12 measured for the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami at Nias Island (7 data) while the maximum is 0.98 for the Okushiri 1993 event (93 data). The average coefficient of variation is of the order of 0.45.

Zolezzi, Francesca; Del Giudice, Tania; Traverso, Chiara; Valfrè, Giulio; Poggi, Pamela; Parker, Eric J.

2010-05-01

166

Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

Satake, Kenji

2014-12-01

167

Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake  

OpenAIRE

The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997) estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq...

Tanioka, Y.; Seno, T.

2001-01-01

168

Study of Tsunamis by Dimensional Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Tsunamis are among the most terrifying natural hazards known to man and have been responsible for tre-mendous loss of life and property throughout history. In this paper by means of dimensional analysis, important non-dimensional groups in Tsunamis was studied and an equation to calculate the power of tsunamis was obtained. Also by this method and using tsunami basic physics, the height of waves near the coastline was estimated and results were compared by reported values.

Ghasemi, S.

2011-01-01

169

Impact of 2004 tsunami in the islands of Indian ocean: lessons learned.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami of 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most devastating tsunami in modern times, affecting 18 countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day, and leaving more than 1.7 million homeless. However, less reported, albeit real, is its impact in the islands of the Indian Ocean more than 1,000 miles away from its epicenter. This is the first peer-reviewed paper on the 2004 tsunami events specifically in the eleven nations bordering the Indian Ocean, as they constitute a region at risk, due to the presence of tectonic interactive plate, absence of a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean, and lack established communication network providing timely information to that region. Our paper has a dual objective: the first objective is to report the 2004 tsunami event in relation to the 11 nations bordering the Indian Ocean. The second one is to elaborate on lessons learned from it from national, regional, and international disaster management programs to prevent such devastating consequences of tsunami from occurring again in the future. PMID:22046551

Ramalanjaona, Georges

2011-01-01

170

New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source  

Science.gov (United States)

Friday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, Japan was struck by an 8.9-magnitude earthquake near its Northeastern coast. This is one of the largest earthquakes that Japan has ever experienced. Tsunami waves swept away houses and cars and caused massive human losses. To predict tsunami wave parameters better and faster, we propose to improve data inversion scheme and achieve the performance gain of data processing. One of the reasons of inaccurate predictions of tsunami parameters is that very little information is available about the initial disturbance of the sea bed at tsunami source. In this paper, we suggest a new way of improving the quality of tsunami source parameters prediction. Modern computational technologies can accurately calculate tsunami wave propagation over the deep ocean provided that the initial displacement (perturbation of the sea bed at tsunami source) is known [4]. Direct geophysical measurements provide the location of an earthquake hypocenter and its magnitude (the released energy evaluation). Among the methods of determination of initial displacement the following ones should be considered. Calculation through the known fault structure and available seismic information. This method is widely used and provides useful information. However, even if the exact knowledge about rock blocks shifts is given, recalculation in terms of sea bed displacement is needed. This results in a certain number of errors. GPS data analysis. This method was developed after the December 2004 event in the Indian Ocean. A good correlation between dry land based GPS sensors and tsunami wave parameters was observed in the particular case of the West coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This approach is very unique and can hardly been used in other geo locations. Satellite image analysis. The resolution of modern satellite images has dramatically improved. In the future, correct data of sea surface displacement will probably be available in real time, right after a tsunamigenic earthquake. However, today it is not yet possible. Ground-based sea radars. This is an effective tool for direct measurement of tsunami wave. At the same time, the wave is measured at a rather narrow area in front of the radar and does not include information about neighboring parts of the wave. Direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water [2]. Today, this technology is certainly among the most useful and promising. The DART II® system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system, capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. We focus our research on improving the later method, direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water. We suggest the new way to analyze DART data, modifying the methodology originally proposed by V. Titov. Smaller system of unit sources [3] should be considered to approximate all typical shapes of initial disturbance by several suitable basis functions. To successfully implement it, performance of data analysis should be dramatically improved. This could be done by using a signal orthogonalization procedure for considered system of unit sources and calculation of Fourier coefficients of the measured time series with respect to orthogonal basis. The approach suggested was used as a part of computerized workstation for tsunami hazard monitoring [5-6]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/honshu20110311/ National Data Buoy Center. URL: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://sift.pmel.noaa.gov/thredds/dodsC/uncompressed/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/model.html Alexey Romanenko, Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Vasily Titov, "Modern Architecture for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation" // Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS-2012), ISBN 978-981-07-2049-0 Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Andrey Marchuk, Alexey Romanenko, Konstantin Simonov, and Vasiliy T

Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

2013-04-01

171

Simulation Study on Tsunami Detection from Space Using GNSS-R  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sumatra earthquake of December 2004 was the second largest earthquake ever recorded by instruments and the following tsunami took more than 200,000 lives. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) commissioned the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centres (HGF) directly after the disaster with developing the German Indonesian tsunami early warning system (GITEWS) for the Indian Ocean. While this early warning system is being established concept studies and new technology developments using Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R) for tsunami detection from space have been initiated. This technique uses ocean reflected GNSS signals for sea surface altimetry. With a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) constellation of small satellites equipped with multi-frequency GNSS receivers densely spaced grids of sea surface heights could be established to detect tsunami waves within minutes. The simulation study analyzes the performance of various LEO satellite constellation scenarios with respect to tsunami detection time for two different tsunami events and with different GNSS-R concepts. Therefore, a reflection point calculation is combined with a tsunami wave propagation model. Different orbit heights, orbit inclinations and numbers of satellites are investigated. GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals are used as signal source. The impact of signal elevation angle and altimetric accuracy on the detection performance is evaluated. It can be shown that only a large number of LEO satellites can monitor the sea surface with sufficient high resolution in space and time when a detection time of 5 to 15 minutes is needed.

Stosius, R.; Beyerle, G.; Helm, A.; Höchner, A.; Rothacher, M.

2009-04-01

172

Revision of the tsunami catalogue affecting Turkish coasts and surrounding regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coasts of Turkey have been hit by tsunamis in the past. The first national earthquake-tsunami catalogues were compiled in the early 1980s while the most up-to-date tsunami catalogues are mainly the products of recent European projects. The EU projects GITEC and GITEC-TWO (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts and TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region have added important contributions in establishing and developing unified criteria for tsunami parameterisation, standards for the quality of the data, the data format and the database general architecture. On the basis of these new aspects and based on recent marine geophysical data, tsunamigenic earthquakes, tsunami intensities and their reliability have been revised. The current version of the database contains 134 events, most of which have affected the Turkish coasts seriously during the last 3500 years. The reliability index of 76 events was "probable" and "definite", so that they could be used for assessment of the risk along the Turkish coastal region and for implementation of prevention policies.

Y. Altinok

2011-02-01

173

TSUNAMI MITIGATION IN HAWAI`I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hawai`i has a long, though sporadic history of deadly tsunami attacks.Since the 1946 tsunami disaster the State of Hawaii has developed increasingly sophisticated and effective mitigation strategies. The evolution and operation of these strategies is described in this paper. Tsunamis will no longer be Hawai`i’s deadliest natural hazard.

George D. Curtis

2008-01-01

174

TSUNAMI MITIGATION IN HAWAI`I  

OpenAIRE

Hawai`i has a long, though sporadic history of deadly tsunami attacks.Since the 1946 tsunami disaster the State of Hawaii has developed increasingly sophisticated and effective mitigation strategies. The evolution and operation of these strategies is described in this paper. Tsunamis will no longer be Hawai`i’s deadliest natural hazard.

Curtis, George D.

2008-01-01

175

New Tsunami Forecast Tools for the French Polynesia Tsunami Warning System Part II: Numerical Modelling and Tsunami Height Estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami warning is classically based on two fundamental tools: the first one concerns the source parameters estimations, and the second one is the tsunami amplitude forecast. We presented in the first companion paper how the seismic source parameters are evaluated, and this second article describes the operational aspect and accuracy of the estimation of tsunami height using tsunami numerical modelling on a dedicated supercomputer (2.5 T-flops). The French Polynesian tsunami warning centre developed two new tsunami forecast tools for a tsunami warning context, based on our tsunami propagation numerical model named Taitoko. The first tool, named MERIT, that is very rapid, provides a preliminary forecast distribution of the tsunami amplitude for 30 sites located in French Polynesia in less than 5 min. In this case, the coastal tsunami height distribution is calculated from the numerical simulation of the tsunami amplitude in deep ocean using an empirical transfer function inspired by the Green Law. This method, which does not take into account resonance effects of bays and harbour, is suitable for rapid and first estimation of the tsunami danger. The second method, named COASTER, which uses 21 nested grids of increasing resolutions, gives more information about the coastal tsunami effects about the flow velocities, the arrival time of the maximal amplitude, and the maximal run-up height for five representative sites in 45 min. The historical tsunamis recorded over the last 22 years in French Polynesia have been simulated with these new tools to evaluate the accuracy of these methods. The results of the 23 historical tsunami simulations have been compared to the tide-gauge records of three sites in French Polynesia. The results, which are quite encouraging, shows standard errors of generally less than a 2 factor : the maximal standard error is 0.38 m for the Tahauku Bay of Hiva-Oa (Marquesas islands).

Jamelot, Anthony; Reymond, Dominique

2015-03-01

176

Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). TRIDEC focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application: The technical development is based on mature system architecture models and industry standards. The use of standards already applies to the operation of individual TRIDEC reference installations and their interlinking into an integrated service infrastructure for supranational warning services. This is a first step towards best practices and service lifecycles for Early Warning Centre IT service management, including Service Level Agreements (SLA) and Service Certification. While on a global scale the integration of TEWS progresses towards Systems of Systems (SoS), there is still an absence of accredited and reliable certifications for national TEWS or regional Tsunami Early Warning Systems of Systems (TEWSoS). Concepts for TEWS operations have already been published under the guidance of the IOC, and can now be complemented by the recent research advances concerning SoS architecture. Combined with feedback from the real world, such as the NEAMwave 2012 Tsunami exercise in the Mediterranean, this can serve as a starting point to formulate initial requirements for TEWS and TEWSoS certification: Certification activities will cover the establishment of new TEWS and TEWSoS, and also both maintenance and enhancement of existing TEWS/TEWSoS. While the IOC is expected to take a central role in the development of the certification strategy, it remains to be defined which bodies will actually conduct the certification process. Certification requirements and results are likely to become a valuable information source for various target groups, ranging from national policy decision makers, government agency planners, national and local government preparedness officials, TWC staff members, Disaster Responders, the media and the insurance industry.

Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

2013-04-01

177

Tsunami Source Specification for Southeast Alaska with Focus on Inundation Mapping and Hazard Risk Assessment in Sitka  

Science.gov (United States)

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska. This activity provides local emergency officials with tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation tools. At-risk communities are spread along several segments of the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, with each segment having a unique seismic history and potential tsunami hazard. As a result, almost every community has a distinct set of potential tsunami sources that need to be considered in order to make a tsunami inundation map. Therefore, an important component of the inundation mapping effort is identification and specification of potential tsunami sources. We are creating tsunami inundation maps for Sitka, Alaska, in the scope of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. Tsunami potential from tectonic and submarine landslide sources must be evaluated in this case for comprehensive mapping of areas at risk for inundation. The community of Sitka, the former capital of Russian Alaska, is located in Southeast Alaska, on the west coast of Baranof Island, facing the Pacific Ocean. In this area of southern Alaska, the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North America plate becomes a transform boundary that continues down the coast as the Fairweather - Queen Charlotte (FW-QC) transform fault system. The Sitka segment of the FW-QC fault system ruptured in large strike-slip earthquakes in 1927 (Ms7.1) and in 1972 (Ms7.6). We numerically model the extent of inundation in Sitka due to tsunami waves generated from earthquake and landslide sources. Tsunami scenarios include a repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake, repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami waves generated by a hypothetically extended 1964 rupture, a hypothetical Cascadia megathrust earthquake, and hypothetical earthquakes in the FW-QC fault system. Underwater landslide events off the continental shelf along the FW-QC fault zone are also considered as credible tsunamigenic scenarios. We perform simulations for each of the scenarios using AEIC's numerical model of tsunami propagation and runup, which was validated through a set of analytical benchmarks and tested against laboratory and field data. Results of numerical modeling combined with historical observations in the region will be delivered to local emergency management to be used in local tsunami hazard assessment, evacuation planning and public education.

Suleimani, E. N.; Nicolsky, D. J.; Hansen, R. A.

2012-12-01

178

Tsunami Generation Above a Sill  

Science.gov (United States)

The generation of surface waves by seafloor displacement is a classic problem that arises in the study of tsunamis. The generation of waves in a two-dimensional domain of uniform depth by uplift or subsidence of a portion of a flat bottom boundary has been elegantly studied by Hammack (Tsunamis: a model of their generation and propagation, Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1972), for idealized motions. The physical problem of tsunami generation is more complex; even when the final displacement is known from seismic analysis, the deforming seafloor includes relief features such as mounts and trenches. Here, following Kajiura (J Oceanogr Soc Jpn 28:260-277, 1972), we investigate analytically the effect of bathymetry on the surface wave generation, by solving the forced linear shallow water equation. While Kajiura's geometry consisted of a step-type bottom bathymetry with a rectangular uplift to understand the effect of the continental shelf on tsunami generation, our model bathymetry consists of an uplifting cylindrical sill initially resting on a flat bottom, a geometry which helps evaluate the effect of seamounts on tsunami generation. We find that as the sill height increases, partial wave trapping reduces the wave height in the far field, while amplifying it above the sill.

Stefanakis, Themistoklis S.; Dias, Frédéric; Synolakis, Costas

2015-03-01

179

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind - it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG - the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia - which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

2010-09-01

180

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010.

T. Steinmetz

2010-09-01

181

Uncertainty Quantification Techniques of SCALE/TSUNAMI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI). The TSUNAMI code suite can quantify the predicted change in system responses, such as keff, reactivity differences, or ratios of fluxes or reaction rates, due to changes in the energy-dependent, nuclide-reaction-specific cross-section data. Where uncertainties in the neutron cross-section data are available, the sensitivity of the system to the cross-section data can be applied to propagate the uncertainties in the cross-section data to an uncertainty in the system response. Uncertainty quantification is useful for identifying potential sources of computational biases and highlighting parameters important to code validation. Traditional validation techniques often examine one or more average physical parameters to characterize a system and identify applicable benchmark experiments. However, with TSUNAMI correlation coefficients are developed by propagating the uncertainties in neutron cross-section data to uncertainties in the computed responses for experiments and safety applications through sensitivity coefficients. The bias in the experiments, as a function of their correlation coefficient with the intended application, is extrapolated to predict the bias and bias uncertainty in the application through trending analysis or generalizedn through trending analysis or generalized linear least squares techniques, often referred to as 'data adjustment.' Even with advanced tools to identify benchmark experiments, analysts occasionally find that the application models include some feature or material for which adequately similar benchmark experiments do not exist to support validation. For example, a criticality safety analyst may want to take credit for the presence of fission products in spent nuclear fuel. In such cases, analysts sometimes rely on 'expert judgment' to select an additional administrative margin to account for gap in the validation data or to conclude that the impact on the calculated bias and bias uncertainty is negligible. As a result of advances in computer programs and the evolution of cross-section covariance data, analysts can use the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools in the TSUNAMI codes to estimate the potential impact on the application-specific bias and bias uncertainty resulting from nuclides not represented in available benchmark experiments. This paper presents the application of methods described in a companion paper.

182

Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Tsunami Program coordinated by CalOES and CGS in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine ';safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. This presentation will focus on the results from five California ports and harbors, and will include feedback we have received from initial discussion with local harbor masters and port authorities. This work in California will form the basis for tsunami hazard reduction for all U.S. maritime communities through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Son, S.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K.

2013-12-01

183

Tsunami and the Depth of the Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

An inquiry approach to using the celerity (=velocity) of a tsunami to measure the depth of the ocean along its path. Tsunami are shallow-water waves, because their wavelengths are so long relative to ocean depth. Shallow-water wave celerity depends on ocean depth. Students reason this out. They then determine the distance of the path of the tsunami from the epicenter of the 1964 Alaska Good Friday earthquake tsunami to various locations, use tsunami arrival times to calculate the velocity, and re-arrange the shallow-water celerity equation to calculate depth. Students evaluate the geographic distribution of water depths.

Martin Farley

184

Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by supercritical flows, resulting in the loss of landward seawall slopes. Such erosion was also observed at landward side of footpath between rice fields. The Sendai plain was subjected just after the main shock of the earthquake. Seawater inundation resulting from tsunami run-up lasted two months. The historical document Sandai-jitsuroku, which gives a detailed history of all of Japan, describes the Jogan earthquake and subsequent tsunami which have attacked Sendai plain in AD 869. The document describes the prolonged period of flooding, and it is suggested that co-seismic subsidence of the plain took place. The inundation area of the Jogan tsunami estimated by the distribution of tsunami deposit mostly overlaps with that of the 3.11 tsunami. Considering the very similarity of seismic shocks between the both, we interpreted the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami is the second coming of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami.

Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

2011-12-01

185

ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE / DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami com [...] o una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú. Abstract in english The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warnin [...] g system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI) and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA). This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

Gabriel, Alvarez; Jorge, Ramirez; Lorena, Paredes; Miguel, Canales.

2010-12-01

186

ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami como una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú.The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warning system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA. This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

Gabriel Alvarez

2010-12-01

187

Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume I"  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami." Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing tsunami warning systems and the development of new warning systems in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean region. Three more papers present the results of analytical studies and discuss benchmark problems. Four papers report the impacts of tsunamis, including the detailed calculation of inundation onshore and into rivers and probabilistic analysis for engineering purposes. The final two papers relate to important investigations of the source and tsunami generation. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean (Sumatra) and 2011 Japan (Tohoku) tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

2015-03-01

188

Tsunami Recurrence Function: Structure, Methods of Creation, and Application for Tsunami Hazard Estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers a theoretical basement for a Poissonian probability model for tsunami run-up heights, with emphasis on the tsunami recurrence function. It is shown that the tsunami recurrence function of a general type contains at least two scale parameters: asymptotic frequency of big tsunamis f related to the considered region and characteristic tsunami height H* for the considered location in the region. A method for the correct statistical evaluation of the parameters f and H*, and their variations, using observational data from tsunami catalogues, is created. The paper considers some theoretical and applied problems related to the tsunami recurrence function, an example of a two-parameter tsunami hazard map, and also the problem of probabilistic tsunami hazard estimation.

Kaistrenko, Victor

2014-12-01

189

Historic Tsunami in the Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami dramatically highlighted the need for a better understanding of the tsunami hazard in the Indian Ocean. One of the most important foundations on which to base such an assessment is knowledge of tsunami that have affected the region in the historical past. We present a summary of the previously published catalog of Indian Ocean tsunami and the results of a preliminary search of archival material held at the India Records Office at the British Library in London. We demonstrate that in some cases, normal tidal movements and floods associated with tropical cyclones have been erroneously listed as tsunami. We summarise interesting archival material for tsunami that occurred in 1945, 1941, 1881, 1819, 1762 and a tsunami in 1843 not previously identified or reported. We also note the recent discovery, by a Canadian team during a post-tsunami survey following the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami, of archival evidence that the Great Sumatra Earthquake of 1833 generated a teletsunami. Open ocean wave heights are calculated for some of the historical tsunami and compared with those of the Boxing Day Tsunami.

Dominey-Howes, D.; Cummins, P. R.; Burbidge, D.

2005-12-01

190

The 1755 Lisbon tsunami; evaluation of the tsunami parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

The tsunami generated by the 1755.01.11 earthquake affected mainly the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco and was observed all over the North Atlantic coasts. The catastrophic dimensions of that phenomenon had a tremendous impact on the city of Lisbon and on several villages along the south coast of Portugal. The earthquake was felt all over Europe and the seismic intensity was estimated as X-XI (Mercalli Intensity Scale) at Lisbon and Southwest Portugal (Cape S. Vicente). The most destructive waves were observed along the coast of Portugal, specially in Lisbon, in the area of the S. Vicente Cape, along the Gulf of Cadiz and Northwest Morocco. Throughout historic times, earthquakes have periodically affected the city of Lisbon causing severe damage and casualties. In spite of that, the city kept growing, so the extension of damage and the loss of human lives in 1755, was quite impressive. The down town of Lisbon was flooded by the rising of the waters of the river Tagus and most historical documents reported waves of 6 m height. At Cape S. Vicente (Southwest Portugal) the run-up height, evaluated from historical data, is greater than 15 m. The eye witness accounts from Spain and Morocco reported wave heights greater than 10 m and large flooded areas along the Gulf of Cadiz and in several harbours in Morocco, e.g. Safi and Agadir. In the city of Lisbon, the number of casualties due exclusively to the tsunami, is estimate around 900, and the penetration of the waters is evaluated to be 250 m. Most of the available literature concerning the 1755 earthquake is based on the compilation of Pereira de Sousa (1919) and, sometimes, incorporates both well established historical records and non reliable information. As the 1755 event evaluation is crucial to a quantitative approach of the tsunami hazard and risk assessment in Portugal, a new examination of the historical records was needed before the establishment of reliable tsunami parameters that can be used both in numerical models of tsunami propagation and in geodynamic studies. In this paper, we present a new compilation of almost all the available historical data from the countries affected by the tsunami. In the analysis of these records, the following tsunami parameters are inferred: travel time, polarity of the first movement, maximum run-up height, period, number of waves, duration of the sea disturbance and extent of flooding.

Baptista, M. A.; Heitor, S.; Miranda, J. M.; Miranda, P.; Victor, L. Mendes

1998-01-01

191

Development of a Tsunami Inundation Map in Detecting Tsunami Risk in Gulf of Fethiye, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

NAMIDANCE tsunami simulation and visualization tool is used to create tsunami inundation maps showing quantitative maximum tsunami flow depths in Fethiye. The risk of an extreme, but likely earthquake-generated tsunami is estimated at Fethiye Bay for 14 probabilistic earthquake scenarios. The bay is located 36°39'5?N 29°7'23?E, southwestern Turkey, which has coastline to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The tsunami simulation and inundation assessment are performed in three stages: (1) formation of a digital elevation model of the region from the best available topography/bathymetry dataset, (2) estimation of a maximum credible tsunami scenario for the region and determination of related earthquake parameters, (3) high resolution tsunami simulation and computation of near shore and overland tsunami dynamics in the study area using tsunami simulation and visualization code NAMIDANCE, (4) determination of spatial distributions of tsunami characteristics (maximum water elevations, water velocities, flow depths) under the critical tsunami condition. The results are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami sources, topographic and bathymetric databases, and tsunami numerical models. We present an innovative study concentrating on preparation of quantitative flow depths and inundation maps with a very high-resolution bathymetry/topographic dataset in the eastern Mediterranean. Inundation maps will be used to analyze the effects of possible tsunamis. The presented research is crucial to raising the awareness of government officials, the public, and other stake holders about the high probability of a tsunami event in Turkey. Moreover, the results of this study will help to plan for evacuation routes, establish safe zones, and assist in preparation for the tsunami, creating public awareness, and planning evacuation routes before the actual tsunami event happens.

Dilmen, Derya Itir; Kemec, Serkan; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet; Düzgün, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey

2015-03-01

192

Development of a Tsunami Inundation Map in Detecting Tsunami Risk in Gulf of Fethiye, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

NAMIDANCE tsunami simulation and visualization tool is used to create tsunami inundation maps showing quantitative maximum tsunami flow depths in Fethiye. The risk of an extreme, but likely earthquake-generated tsunami is estimated at Fethiye Bay for 14 probabilistic earthquake scenarios. The bay is located 36°39'5?N 29°7'23?E, southwestern Turkey, which has coastline to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The tsunami simulation and inundation assessment are performed in three stages: (1) formation of a digital elevation model of the region from the best available topography/bathymetry dataset, (2) estimation of a maximum credible tsunami scenario for the region and determination of related earthquake parameters, (3) high resolution tsunami simulation and computation of near shore and overland tsunami dynamics in the study area using tsunami simulation and visualization code NAMIDANCE, (4) determination of spatial distributions of tsunami characteristics (maximum water elevations, water velocities, flow depths) under the critical tsunami condition. The results are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami sources, topographic and bathymetric databases, and tsunami numerical models. We present an innovative study concentrating on preparation of quantitative flow depths and inundation maps with a very high-resolution bathymetry/topographic dataset in the eastern Mediterranean. Inundation maps will be used to analyze the effects of possible tsunamis. The presented research is crucial to raising the awareness of government officials, the public, and other stake holders about the high probability of a tsunami event in Turkey. Moreover, the results of this study will help to plan for evacuation routes, establish safe zones, and assist in preparation for the tsunami, creating public awareness, and planning evacuation routes before the actual tsunami event happens.

Dilmen, Derya Itir; Kemec, Serkan; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet; Düzgün, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey

2014-10-01

193

Performance Benchmarking Tsunami Models for NTHMP's Inundation Mapping Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal states and territories of the United States (US) are vulnerable to devastating tsunamis from near-field or far-field coseismic and underwater/subaerial landslide sources. Following the catastrophic 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) accelerated the development of public safety products for the mitigation of these hazards. In response to this initiative, US coastal states and territories speeded up the process of developing/enhancing/adopting tsunami models that can be used for developing inundation maps and evacuation plans. One of NTHMP's requirements is that all operational and inundation-based numerical (O&I) models used for such purposes be properly validated against established standards to ensure the reliability of tsunami inundation maps as well as to achieve a basic level of consistency between parallel efforts. The validation of several O&I models was considered during a workshop held in 2011 at Texas A&M University (Galveston). This validation was performed based on the existing standard (OAR-PMEL-135), which provides a list of benchmark problems (BPs) covering various tsunami processes that models must meet to be deemed acceptable. Here, we summarize key approaches followed, results, and conclusions of the workshop. Eight distinct tsunami models were validated and cross-compared by using a subset of the BPs listed in the OAR-PMEL-135 standard. Of the several BPs available, only two based on laboratory experiments are detailed here for sake of brevity; since they are considered as sufficiently comprehensive. Average relative errors associated with expected parameters values such as maximum surface amplitude/runup are estimated. The level of agreement with the reference data, reasons for discrepancies between model results, and some of the limitations are discussed. In general, dispersive models were found to perform better than nondispersive models, but differences were relatively small, in part because the BPs mostly featured long waves, such as solitary waves. The largest error found (e.g., the laboratory experiment case of a solitary wave on a simple beach) was 10 % for non-breaking wave conditions and 12 % for breaking conditions; these errors are equal or smaller than the thresholds (10 % and 20 %, respectively) defined by the OAR-PMEL-135 for predicting the surface profile; hence, all models examined here are deemed acceptable for inundation mapping purposes.

Horrillo, Juan; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Roeber, Volker; Zhang, Joseph

2015-03-01

194

Performance Benchmarking Tsunami Models for NTHMP's Inundation Mapping Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal states and territories of the United States (US) are vulnerable to devastating tsunamis from near-field or far-field coseismic and underwater/subaerial landslide sources. Following the catastrophic 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) accelerated the development of public safety products for the mitigation of these hazards. In response to this initiative, US coastal states and territories speeded up the process of developing/enhancing/adopting tsunami models that can be used for developing inundation maps and evacuation plans. One of NTHMP's requirements is that all operational and inundation-based numerical (O&I) models used for such purposes be properly validated against established standards to ensure the reliability of tsunami inundation maps as well as to achieve a basic level of consistency between parallel efforts. The validation of several O&I models was considered during a workshop held in 2011 at Texas A&M University (Galveston). This validation was performed based on the existing standard (OAR-PMEL-135), which provides a list of benchmark problems (BPs) covering various tsunami processes that models must meet to be deemed acceptable. Here, we summarize key approaches followed, results, and conclusions of the workshop. Eight distinct tsunami models were validated and cross-compared by using a subset of the BPs listed in the OAR-PMEL-135 standard. Of the several BPs available, only two based on laboratory experiments are detailed here for sake of brevity; since they are considered as sufficiently comprehensive. Average relative errors associated with expected parameters values such as maximum surface amplitude/runup are estimated. The level of agreement with the reference data, reasons for discrepancies between model results, and some of the limitations are discussed. In general, dispersive models were found to perform better than nondispersive models, but differences were relatively small, in part because the BPs mostly featured long waves, such as solitary waves. The largest error found (e.g., the laboratory experiment case of a solitary wave on a simple beach) was 10 % for non-breaking wave conditions and 12 % for breaking conditions; these errors are equal or smaller than the thresholds (10 % and 20 %, respectively) defined by the OAR-PMEL-135 for predicting the surface profile; hence, all models examined here are deemed acceptable for inundation mapping purposes.

Horrillo, Juan; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Roeber, Volker; Zhang, Joseph

2014-07-01

195

Mantle Decompression Thermal-Tsunami  

OpenAIRE

Previously in geophysics, only three heat transport processes have been considered: conduction, radiation, and convection or, more generally, bouyancy-driven mass transport. As a consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics, I add a fourth, called mantle decompression thermal-tsunami, which may emplace heat at the base of the crust from a heretofore unanticipated source.

Herndon, J. Marvin

2006-01-01

196

The Great 1787 Mexican Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis have proven to represent a significant hazard around the globe and there is increased awareness about their occurrence. The Pacific coast in southern México is no exception, because there is firm evidence of the effects of past large tsunamis. Here we present results from computer-aided modeling of the March 28, 1787 - 'San Sixto' earthquake and tsunami, and focus on the regions of Acapulco, Corralero, Jamiltepec, and Tehuantepec, located along the Guerrero- Oaxaca coast. The theoretical waveforms suggest wave heights in excess of 4 m, and 18 m at specific locations in Acapulco and Corralero, respectively, and wave heights of at least 2 m at locations in Jamiltepec and Tehuantepec. From our modelling results and based on historical documents and the topography of the area, we conclude that these wave heights would have been sufficient to cause inundations that in the case of Acapulco were restricted to several meters inland, but in other areas like Corralero reached at least 6 km inland. Our results are consistent with published and unpublished damage reports that attest to the hazards associated with great earthquakes and tsunamis along the subduction zone in Mexico.

Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Ortiz, M.; Sanchez, J. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

2008-12-01

197

Analysis of Coral Damage due to September, 29,2009 Samoa Tsunami on Tsunami Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

An earthquake of a magnitude Mw=8.0 occurred on September 29th, 2009 at 17:48 UTC in the central South Pacific Ocean with the epicenter at 15.5°S 172°. The tsunami waves, generated by the earthquake, hit islands of Samoa and American Samoa in about 15-20 minutes, killing over 150 people. The tsunami wave forces also generated adverse impacts to environmentally and economically valuable coral reef ecosystems, particularly in Tutuila Island of American Samoa. The aim of this research is to study coastal and near-shore tsunami impact and coastal tsunami damage with numerical techniques using high resolution bathymetry of Tutuila, to measure tsunami damage to the corals, to find a relationship between coral damage and tsunami impact, and to correlate this relationship with tsunami parameters. The results of a sensitivity study on the mitigation effects of corals on tsunami inundation will be presented.

Dilmen, Derya; Titov, Vasily

2014-05-01

198

Tsunami Observations in Rivers from a Perspective of Tsunami Interaction with Tide and Riverine Flow  

Science.gov (United States)

The observations of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and the 2010 Chilean tsunami in several rivers in Japan and in the Columbia River in the USA are analyzed for patterns of tsunami behavior in river environments. Tsunamis in rivers exhibit actions very different from those observed on an open coast, but very similar among different rivers, though the action scale in different rivers varies greatly. We describe two tsunami effects in rivers as observed in field data. First, the river tide modulates the tsunami wave in a very specific way common to all rivers. Second, a strong near-field tsunami can cause significant prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. Both effects are inherent in tidal river environments, and have been reproduced numerically in a simplified 1-D river using a non-linear, shallow-water model with bottom friction. The numerical experiments highlight the indispensable role of a tsunami's interaction with tide and riverine flow.

Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Roh, Min

2015-01-01

199

Tsunami Observations in Rivers from a Perspective of Tsunami Interaction with Tide and Riverine Flow  

Science.gov (United States)

The observations of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and the 2010 Chilean tsunami in several rivers in Japan and in the Columbia River in the USA are analyzed for patterns of tsunami behavior in river environments. Tsunamis in rivers exhibit actions very different from those observed on an open coast, but very similar among different rivers, though the action scale in different rivers varies greatly. We describe two tsunami effects in rivers as observed in field data. First, the river tide modulates the tsunami wave in a very specific way common to all rivers. Second, a strong near-field tsunami can cause significant prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. Both effects are inherent in tidal river environments, and have been reproduced numerically in a simplified 1-D river using a non-linear, shallow-water model with bottom friction. The numerical experiments highlight the indispensable role of a tsunami's interaction with tide and riverine flow.

Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Roh, Min

2015-03-01

200

Energy flux as a tool in locating tsunami secondary sources  

OpenAIRE

The sea levels recorded in the wake of Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 and of the Kuril Island Tsunami of November 2006 show strong tsunami signal enhancement of the late arriving secondary waves. Using these tsunami eventswe demonstrate thatsudden changes caused by higher energy pulses in the intermittent tsunami wave trains can be assessed by energy fluxes. Therefore, to delineate the regions of tsunami wave amplification and travel time we propose to use energy flux.A series of numer...

Zygmunt Kowalik

2008-01-01

201

Assessing Building Vulnerability to Tsunami Hazards using Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery (Case : Cilacap, Indonesia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The big tsunami disaster occurring on 26 December 2004 has destroyed many cities along the Indian Ocean rim and killed approximately 300,000 people and destroyed buildings and city infrastructures making it the deadliest tsunami as well as one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Furthermore, there are large numbers of world's cities located near coastal lines prone to tsunami hazard. Anticipation measures and disaster mitigation must be taken in order to minimize the negative impacts that may hit those living and built in the cities. The assessment of building vulnerability is an important measure in order to minimize disaster risks to the city. Measuring vulnerability for large number of buildings using conventional method is time consuming and costly. This paper offers a comprehensive framework in assessing building vulnerability by combining field assessment and remote sensing techniques. Field assessment was based on quantitative and qualitative building structural analysis and remote sensing technique was undertaken using object-oriented classification. Very high resolution satellite imagery (quickbird) and elevation data were employed in the remote sensing technique. Each building in the study area was classified automatically into 4 classes (Class A, B, C and Vertical Evacuation) based on their level of vulnerability to tsunami hazard using parameters extracted from remotely sensed data. This paper presents results from Cilacap City, South coast of Java, Indonesia. The research work was performed in the framework of the GITEWS project. The results show that remote sensing and GIS approaches are promising to be applied to measure building vulnerability to tsunami hazards. Outcomes of the research consist of : new concepts in assessing urban vulnerability to tsunami hazard, new algorithm for extracting information from very high resolution satellite images, map of building vulnerability and recommendations concerning to urban vulnerability reduction. Keywords : tsunami hazard, remote sensing, GIS, building vulnerability, very high resolution satellite imagery

Sumaryono, S.; Strunz, G.; Ludwig, R.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.

2009-04-01

202

Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully nonlinear tsunami generation model  

OpenAIRE

Case studies of landslide tsunamis require integration of marine geology data and interpretations into numerical simulations of tsunami attack. Many landslide tsunami generation and propagation models have been proposed in recent time, further motivated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, few of these models have proven capable of integrating the best available marine geology data and interpretations into successful case studies that reproduce all available tsunami observation...

Watts, P.; Grilli, S. T.; Kirby, J. T.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.

2003-01-01

203

Updating of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue for southern Italy with special emphasis on the reconstruction of the 1908 Messina Straits tsunami effects  

Science.gov (United States)

In the frame of the Project S1 entitled "Analysis of seismic potential in Italy for the evaluation of the seismic hazard", financed within the agreement between the Italian Civil Protection Department and the National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology, we undertook a systematic revision of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue in its portion relative to Calabria and Sicily. We searched for new primary sources containing information on the historical tsunamis that hit the area of interest, and we re-examined the already known documents with the goal of improving our knowledge on selected historical events. Major attention in the analysis is devoted to the 28 December 1908 tsunami due to the abundance of data and documents with respect to other events, because of its relevance in the Italian earthquake and tsunami history and also in relation to the 100-year anniversary of the event that was celebrated two years ago. A careful revision of the numerous available historical documents combined with the results of the studies published in the last few decades allowed us to determine on a site-by-site basis the way the tsunami attacked the Calabria and Sicily coasts. We setup a GIS database where the reconstructed data on earthquake-tsunami delay time, first tsunami arrival polarity, run-up height and inundation depth have been overlaid on geo-referenced maps. The major benefit is the possibility to combine a general view of the tsunami effects at a regional scale with the inspection of the variability of the effects themselves at very local level. The database is being integrated in the general GIS database that is one of the main results of the European Project called TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk And Strategies For the European Region), co-ordinated by the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna. In that database, it is possible to compare the historical data for the 1908 tsunami with the results of the numerical simulations which have been performed by different partners in TRANSFER and which are briefly presented in this work in terms of inundation maps.

Tinti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Sara; Armigliato, Alberto; Tonini, Roberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Manucci, Anna

2010-05-01

204

Numerical simulations of the tsunami induced by the 1627 earthquake affecting Gargano, Southern Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the historical tsunami that occurred on 30 July 1627 in Gargano, Apulia, southern Italy, has been conducted by performing numerical simulations based on integrating shallow water equations via a finite-element (FE) technique. The tsunami was generated by an I = XI earthquake which produced severe damage in the Gargano promontory. Macroseismic observations are not sufficient to determine, unambiguously, the epicentre and the generative fault position. In this study we have assumed a dip-slip focal mechanism which is known to be the most effective tsunami generation. Since the source location is uncertain, different simulations have been carried out assuming that the fault is placed on land (two cases) and offshore (two cases). The Adriatic basin facing the northern coast of Gargano has been covered by a triangle-based mesh, with triangle sizes adapted to the variable bathymetry, which proved to be advantageous in describing the irregular coastlines. The available historical observations concerning the tsunami are scarce and chiefly qualitative. Yet, comparing data with the results of the numerical simulations gives some important hints on the position of the genetic fault. Of all the sources studied, the one matching the observations better is the inshore fault causing the uplift of the sea block facing the Lésina lake. Accordingly, at the present stage of research, this fault can be assumed as that responsible for the 1627 earthquake and tsunami.

Tinti, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio

1996-03-01

205

Development of Tsunami PSA method for Korean NPP site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. The application of this method was applied to a nuclear power plant, Ulchin 56 NPP, which is located in the east coast of Korean peninsula. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real nuclear power plant in Korea

206

A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan  

OpenAIRE

The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard...

Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

2009-01-01

207

Results for the calibration of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm TEDA for the tide-gauge stations of Catania and Tremestieri, Sicily  

Science.gov (United States)

The calibration of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm TEDA (Bressan and Tinti, 2011) for a given tide-gauge station has the goal to maximize the algorithm efficiency by considering the site-specific characteristics of the background signal and at the same time the features of the potential tsunamis. Typical calibration analysis data are a sufficiently long series of background sea-level data and a sufficient number of tsunami signals, that can be either tsunami records or synthetic tsunami time histories from numerical simulations. Within the Italian national project Ritmare (Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE), the new tide gauge stations of Tremestieri and Catania, installed in 2008 and 2009 respectively in the frame of the previous project TSUNET, have been calibrated by making use of seven synthetic tsunami signals derived from a local hazard study based on tsunami worst-case scenarios (Tonini et al., 2011), due to the lack of real tsunami records. The synthetic tsunami signals have been added to the background sea-level series in four different sea conditions, for a total of 28 tsunami cases. The test of TEDA allows one to select the most appropriate parameter configuration for the algorithm, which is the one that detects most tsunami events in the shortest time. For both stations, the best configuration detects all events in all sea conditions in less than 10 min from the tsunami arrival time. Further, the detection times are not very affected by the different sea-state conditions. In addition, the study of the background has shown relevant features. An important result, both for Catania and Tremestieri, is the coherence and the statistical stability of the background over years, with clear year cyclicity and seasonal intra-year variability. If this were confirmed also for other sites, which is likely, this would entail that calibrating TEDA with background data shorter than one year would produce biased results. The detailed analysis for the calibration of Catania and Tremestieri allows us to conclude that TEDA seems a useful tool for tsunami detection. Bressan, L. and Tinti, S. (2011), Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1499-1521, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1499-2011. Tonini, R., Armigliato, A., Pagnoni, G., Zaniboni, F., and Tinti, S. (2011), Tsunami hazard for the city of Catania, eastern Sicily, Italy, assessed by means of Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA), Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1217-1232, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1217-2011.

Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Zaniboni, Filippo

2013-04-01

208

The tsunami geomorphology of coastal dunes  

OpenAIRE

An examination of the coastal geomorphology of bays along the Otago coastline, SE New Zealand, has identified a geomorphology consistent with tsunami inundation. A tsunami geomorphology consisting of a number of elements including dune pedestals, hummocky topography, parabolic dune systems, and post-tsunami features resulting from changes to the nearshore sediment budget is discussed. The most prominent features at Blueskin Bay are eroded pedestals although it is speculated that hummocky topo...

Goff, J. R.; Lane, E.; Arnold, J.

2009-01-01

209

Tohoku Tsunami Created Icebergs In Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

This website, from NASA, offers an article, images, and a video about the connection between the 2011 tsunami off the coast of Japan and a large ice calving event in Antarctica. Scientists observed ice calving soon after the Japan event and attributed it to the swell caused by the tsunami; this finding marks the first direct observation of such a connection between tsunamis and icebergs.

Patrick Lynch

210

Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground-motion measurements were available. Development of a global tsunami-warning system utilizing an expanded network of coastal GPS stations was under consideration at the time of reporting the information for this article.

Song, Y. Tony

2009-01-01

211

Tsunami watch and warning in Fiji  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami warning system needs further development in Fiji. The MRD earthquake and tsunami plan of action needs to be tested and appropriate authorities drilled in putting this plan into practice. It also needs to be supplemented with an alarm system such that people near the coasts, especially in built-up areas such as Suva can be made aware of impending tsunami danger. The plan of action becomes virtually ineffective when dealing with locally generated tsunamis and for this we have to rely on public education as it is not yet possible or practical to devise a warning system which can be activated within adequate time. 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

212

Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.

2008-05-01

213

TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA  

OpenAIRE

Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000) of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps) based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be rela...

Theilen-willige, B.

2006-01-01

214

Parallel Implementation of Dispersive Tsunami Wave Modeling with a Nesting Algorithm for the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of improvements in offshore tsunami observation technology, dispersion phenomena during tsunami propagation have often been observed in recent tsunamis, for example the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis. The dispersive propagation of tsunamis can be simulated by use of the Boussinesq model, but the model demands many computational resources. However, rapid progress has been made in parallel computing technology. In this study, we investigated a parallelized approach for dispersive tsunami wave modeling. Our new parallel software solves the nonlinear Boussinesq dispersive equations in spherical coordinates. A variable nested algorithm was used to increase spatial resolution in the target region. The software can also be used to predict tsunami inundation on land. We used the dispersive tsunami model to simulate the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on the Supercomputer K. Good agreement was apparent between the dispersive wave model results and the tsunami waveforms observed offshore. The finest bathymetric grid interval was 2/9 arcsec (approx. 5 m) along longitude and latitude lines. Use of this grid simulated tsunami soliton fission near the Sendai coast. Incorporating the three-dimensional shape of buildings and structures led to improved modeling of tsunami inundation.

Baba, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Narumi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ando, Kazuto; Matsuoka, Daisuke; Kato, Toshihiro

2015-02-01

215

Salinity in Soils and Tsunami Deposits in Areas Affected by the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

The accumulation of data sets of past tsunamis is the most basic but reliable way to prepare for future tsunamis because the frequency of tsunami occurrence and their magnitude can be estimated by historical records of tsunamis. Investigation of tsunami deposits preserved in geological layers is an effective measure to understand ancient tsunamis that occurred before historical records began. However, the areas containing tsunami deposits can be narrower than the area of tsunami inundation, thus resulting in underestimation of the magnitude of past tsunamis. A field survey was conducted after the 2010 Chile tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami to investigate the chemical properties of the tsunami-inundated soil to examine the applicability of tsunami inundation surveys considering water-soluble salts in soil. The soil and tsunami deposits collected in the tsunami-inundated areas are rich in water-soluble ions (Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, Br- and SO{4/2-}) compared with the samples collected in the non-inundated areas. The analytical result that the ratios of Na+, Mg2+, Br- and SO{4/2-} to Cl- are nearly the same in the tsunami deposits and in the tsunami-inundated soil suggests that the deposition of these ions resulting from the tsunami inundation does not depend on whether or not tsunami deposits exist. Discriminant analysis of the tsunami-inundated areas using the ion contents shows the high applicability of these ions to the detection of tsunami inundation during periods when the amount of rainfall is limited. To examine the applicability of this method to palaeotsunamis, the continuous monitoring of water-soluble ions in tsunami-inundated soil is needed as a future study.

Yoshii, Takumi; Imamura, Masahiro; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Koshimura, Syunichi; Matsuoka, Masashi; Mas, Erick; Jimenez, Cesar

2013-06-01

216

The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. Methods A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. Results Six themes emerged: (1 A sense of being overwhelmed, (2 A multitude of health issues, (3 critical challenges in providing health care, (4 access to health and settlement services, (5 overall successes and (6 need for a coordinated approach to migration health. Conclusions For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems.

Jafarpour Morteza

2005-01-01

217

Tsunami early warning system for the western coast of the Black Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The Black Sea area is liable to tsunamis generation and the statistics show that more than twenty tsunamis have been observed in the past. The last tsunami was observed on 31st of March 1901 in the western part of the Black Sea, in the Shabla area. An earthquake of magnitude generated at a depth of 15 km below the sea level , triggered tsunami waves of 5 m height and material losses as well. The oldest tsunami ever recorded close to the Romanian shore-line dates from year 104. This paper emphasises the participation of The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) to the development of a tsunami warning system for the western cost of the Black Sea. In collaboration with the National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar), the Institute of Oceanology and the Geological Institute, the last two belonging to the Bulgarian Academy of Science, NIEP has participated as partner, to the cross-border project "Set-up and implementation of key core components of a regional early-warning system for marine geohazards of risk to the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea coastal area - MARINEGEOHAZARDS", coordinated by GeoEcoMar. The main purpose of the project was the implementation of an integrated early-warning system accompanied by a common decision-support tool, and enhancement of regional technical capability, for the adequate detection, assessment, forecasting and rapid notification of natural marine geohazards for the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea cross-border area. In the last years, NIEP has increased its interest on the marine related hazards, such as tsunamis and, in collaboration with other institutions of Romania, is acting to strengthen the cooperation and data exchanges with institutions from the Black Sea surrounding countries which already have tsunami monitoring infrastructures. In this respect, NIEP has developed a coastal network for marine seismicity, by installing three new seismic stations in the coastal area of the Black Sea, Sea Level Sensors, Radar and Pressure sensors, Meteorological and GNSS stations at every site, providing tide gauges and seismic data exchange with the Black Sea countries. At the same time, the Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) software, for inundation modelling, along with it's RedPhone application, were also installed at the National Data Centre in Magurele city, and also at Dobrogea Seismic Observatory in the city of Eforie Nord, close to the Black Sea shore.

Ionescu, Constantin; Partheniu, Raluca; Cioflan, Carmen; Constantin, Angela; Danet, Anton; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ghica, Daniela; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Moldovan, Iren; Neagoe, Cristian; Radulian, Mircea; Raileanu, Victor; Verdes, Ioan

2014-05-01

218

Tsunami sediments and their foraminiferal assemblages  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami hazard assessment begins with a compilation of past events that have affected a specific location. Given the inherent limitations of historical archives, the geological record has the potential to provide an independent dataset useful for establishing a richer, chronologically deeper time series of past events. Recent geological studies of tsunami are helping to improve our understanding of the nature and character of tsunami sediments. Wherever possible, geologists should be working to improve the research ‘tool kit’ available to identify past tsunami events. Marine foraminifera (single celled heterotrophic protists) have often been reported as present within tsunami-deposited sediments but in reality, little information about environmental conditions, and by analogy, the tsunami that deposited them, has been reported even though foraminifera have an enormous capacity to provide meaningful palaeo-environmental data. We discuss the potential use of foraminifera within tsunami research using results from specific case studies from Japan, south Asia, North America, Europe, the UK and New Zealand. We review the gaps in our understanding, present a model for ‘better’ practice and make recommendations to assist researchers who examine foraminiferal assemblages in order to enhance their use within tsunami geology.

Mamo, B. L.; Strotz, L. C.; Dominey-Howes, D.

2009-12-01

219

Time Reversal Imaging of the Tsunami Source  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we apply time reversal imaging (TRI) to the problem of reconstructing the initial sea surface displacement that generates a tsunami. We discuss theoretical considerations in the application of TRI to the tsunami problem, including time reversibility and reciprocity of the shallow-water equations. Several numerical experiments are conducted to establish the efficacy of TRI in the tsunami context. TRI is applied to observations of the tsunami generated by the Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011, for which an unprecedented number of high-quality observations are available. Finally, we compare the findings of the TRI results with other, more conventional methods of source inversion. Results indicate that TRI is effective for imaging a tsunami source when a sufficient number of observations are available. Because it involves fewer assumptions about the nature of the tsunami source, in particular those regarding source location and fault geometry, we believe that TRI has the potential to improve our understanding of tsunami generation—for example, through detection of non-seismic components of the tsunami source.

Hossen, M. Jakir; Cummins, Phil R.; Roberts, Stephen G.; Allgeyer, Sebastien

2015-02-01

220

Time Reversal Imaging of the Tsunami Source  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we apply time reversal imaging (TRI) to the problem of reconstructing the initial sea surface displacement that generates a tsunami. We discuss theoretical considerations in the application of TRI to the tsunami problem, including time reversibility and reciprocity of the shallow-water equations. Several numerical experiments are conducted to establish the efficacy of TRI in the tsunami context. TRI is applied to observations of the tsunami generated by the Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011, for which an unprecedented number of high-quality observations are available. Finally, we compare the findings of the TRI results with other, more conventional methods of source inversion. Results indicate that TRI is effective for imaging a tsunami source when a sufficient number of observations are available. Because it involves fewer assumptions about the nature of the tsunami source, in particular those regarding source location and fault geometry, we believe that TRI has the potential to improve our understanding of tsunami generation—for example, through detection of non-seismic components of the tsunami source.

Hossen, M. Jakir; Cummins, Phil R.; Roberts, Stephen G.; Allgeyer, Sebastien

2015-03-01

221

Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) Data available from the 27 February 2010 Chilean Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is involved in processing and archiving the high-resolution Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) data. The DART system was developed by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) in the early 1980’s. Recently observations and data management are supported by NOAA’s National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) providing 15-minute data in real time and in the case of an earthquake and possible tsunami, the DART stations are set in “event mode transmitting regime” and higher-resolution (1-min to 15-sec) bottom pressure data is delivered real-time to the Tsunami Warning Centers. Long-term high-resolution 15-second observational data is also stored on an internal flash card in the station’s bottom pressure recorder (BPR) and these data are sent to NGDC upon DART retrieval. NGDC is involved in processing, archiving and distributing of these data, and integrating them with NGDC’s global historic tsunami events database. This paper describes the methodology and the steps in processing the recovered 15-second raw observations and demonstrates their application in hazard studies and physical oceanography. With some code modifications this methodology can also be applied for processing the real-time DART data, and results are presented for the tsunami waves in the Pacific following the Magnitude 8.8 Chilean Earthquake of 27 February 2010. At the time of this event there were 25 active DART stations in the Pacific basin. The fast-traveling, high-frequency seismic wave triggered the DART stations into event recording mode and most stations continued recording and transmitting real-time as the tsunami passed. However, several of these stations were not transmitting during the tsunami event and the high-resolution 15-sec data was recovered by ship visit. We will present the results from the processing of these 15-sec data.

Mungov, G.; Stroker, K. J.

2010-12-01

222

OBSERVATION OF TSUNAMI RADIATION AT TOHOKU BY REMOTE SENSING  

OpenAIRE

We present prima facie evidence that upon the onset of the Tohoku tsunami of Mar. 11, 2011 infrared radiation was emitted by the tsunami and was detected by the Japanese satellite MTSAT-IR1, in agreement with our earlier findings for the Great Sumatra Tsunami of 2004. Implications for a worldwide Tsunami Early Warning System are discussed.

Lin, Frank C.; Weiwei Zhu; Kingkarn Sookhanaphibarn

2011-01-01

223

OBSERVATION OF TSUNAMI RADIATION AT TOHOKU BY REMOTE SENSING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present prima facie evidence that upon the onset of the Tohoku tsunami of Mar. 11, 2011 infrared radiation was emitted by the tsunami and was detected by the Japanese satellite MTSAT-IR1, in agreement with our earlier findings for the Great Sumatra Tsunami of 2004. Implications for a worldwide Tsunami Early Warning System are discussed.

Frank C. Lin

2011-01-01

224

Improving tsunami warning using commercial ships  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate and rapid detection and assessment of tsunamis is critical for effective mitigation. We show here that a modest ˜10 cm tsunami from the M8.8 27 Feb 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake was detected by kinematic Global Positions System (GPS) solutions from a ship underway in the open ocean - the first time shipboard tsunami detection has been achieved. Our results illustrate how the commercial shipping fleet represents a vast infrastructure of potential open ocean GPS platforms on shipping lanes that provide extremely good spatial coverage around most tsunamigenic source regions. Given the affordability of geodetic GPS systems, and ever-improving satellite communications, it would be possible to equip a significant portion of the shipping fleet with real-time-streamed GPS systems and create a cost-effective tsunami monitoring network with denser and more distributed coverage. We project that such a system would have detected the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in less than an hour.

Foster, James H.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Wang, Dailin; Carter, Glenn S.; Merrifield, Mark A.

2012-05-01

225

Tsunamis in the New Zealand archaeological record  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical and geological records both indicate tsunami inundation of New Zealand in the 700 years since the first human settlement. In addition, Maori oral traditions refer to unusual waves that might have been tsunami waves, although the accounts are open to other interpretations. Tsunami evidence has rarely been proposed from archaeological sites, primarily because of a limited understanding of the requisite evidence and environmental context. We list a criteria suggesting possible tsunami inundation of archaeological sites based upon geoarchaeological data, and use them in a case study from the Archaic Maori occupation site at Wairau Bar. The list is possibly incomplete, but indicates that archaeological investigations can gain from assessments of changing environmental conditions through time at any individual site. Our intention is not to prove tsunami inundation; rather, it is to point to archaeological sites as possible sources of information. We highlight the potential of the Wairau Bar site for further investigation.

McFadgen, B. G.; Goff, J. R.

2007-08-01

226

Simulation of the short-term tsunami forecast  

Science.gov (United States)

The method of the short-term tsunami forecast based on a known reciprocity principle is applied for simulation of recent events. 2006, 2007, 2009 Simushir tsunamis, 2009 Samoa tsunami and 2009 Santa Cruz tsunami were simulated. The only seismological information about earthquakes epicenter coordinates was used. The transfer function permitting to compute the waveform of expected tsunami in any specific point is formed during an event, at once after receiving an information about earthquake epicenter coordinates. At once after passing the first half-wave of a tsunami through a point of registration and receiving information about it the forecasted tsunami waveform at specific point can be obtained. Tsunami waveforms at remote points are computed on data of DART system station near to epicenter. The result of computation demonstrates a good concurrence expected tsunami waveform with the recorded tsunami waveform during 60 minutes. The coefficient of correlation is estimated as 0.9.

Korolev, Yury; Lavrentiev-Jr, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey

2010-05-01

227

TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The threat of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves hitting the eastern United States is very real despite a general impression to the contrary. We have cataloged 40 tsunamis and tsunami-like waves that have occurred in the eastern United States since 1600. Tsunamis were generated from such events as the 1755 Queen Anne’s earthquake, the Grand Banks event of 1929, the Charleston earthquake of 1886, and the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. The Queen Anne tsunami was observed as far away as St. Martin in the West Indies and is the only known teletsunami generated in this source region.Since subduction zones are absent around most of the Atlantic basin, tsunamis and tsunami-like waves along the United States East Coast are not generated from this traditional source, but appear, in most cases to be the result of slumping or landsliding associated with local earthquakes or with wave action associated with strong storms. Other sources of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves along the eastern seaboard have recently come to light including volcanic debris falls or catastrophic failure of volcanic slopes; explosive decompression of underwater methane deposits or oceanic meteor splashdowns. These sources are considered as well.

James F. Lander

2002-01-01

228

Effect of earthquake and tsunami. Ground motion and tsunami observed at nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) were struck by the earthquake off the pacific coast in the Tohoku District, which occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011. Afterwards, tsunamis struck the Tohoku District. In terms of the earthquake observed at the Fukushima NPSs, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of reactor buildings exceeded the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss for partial periodic bands at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. As for the Fukushima Daini NPS, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of the reactor buildings was below the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss. Areas inundated by Tsunami at each NPS were investigated and tsunami inversion analysis was made to build tsunami source model to reproduce tide record, tsunami height, crustal movement and inundated area, based on tsunami observation records in the wide areas from Hokkaido to Chiba prefectures. Tsunami heights of Fukushima Daiichi and Daini NPSs were recalculated as O.P. +13m and +9m respectively and tsunami peak height difference was attributed to the extent of superposition of tsunami waves of tsunami earthquake type of wave source in the area along interplane trench off the coast in the Fukushima prefecture and interplane earthquake type of wave source interplane earthquake type of wave source in rather deep interplate area off the coast in the Miyagi prefecture. (T. Tanaka)

229

REWSET: A prototype seismic and tsunami early warning system in Rhodes island, Greece  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami warning in near-field conditions is a critical issue in the Mediterranean Sea since the most important tsunami sources are situated within tsunami wave travel times starting from about five minutes. The project NEARTOWARN (2012-2013) supported by the EU-DG ECHO contributed substantially to the development of new tools for the near-field tsunami early warning in the Mediterranean. One of the main achievements is the development of a local warning system in the test-site of Rhodes island (Rhodes Early Warning System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis - REWSET). The system is composed by three main subsystems: (1) a network of eight seismic early warning devices installed in four different localities of the island, one in the civil protection, another in the Fire Brigade and another two in municipality buildings; (2) two radar-type (ultrasonic) tide-gauges installed in the eastern coastal zine of the island which was selected since research on the historical earthquake and tsunami activity has indicated that the most important, near-field tsunami sources are situated offshore to the east of Rhodes; (3) a crisis Geographic Management System (GMS), which is a web-based and GIS-based application incorporating a variety of thematic maps and other information types. The seismic early warning devices activate by strong (magnitude around 6 or more) earthquakes occurring at distances up to about 100 km from Rhodes, thus providing immediate mobilization of the civil protection. The tide-gauges transmit sea level data, while during the crisis the GMS supports decisions to be made by civil protection. In the near future it is planned the REWSET system to be integrated with national and international systems. REWSET is a prototype which certainly could be developed in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean and beyond.

Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Argyris, Ilias; Aggelou, Savvas; Karastathis, Vasilis

2014-05-01

230

THE TSUNAMI ASSESSMENT MODELLING SYSTEM BY THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE  

OpenAIRE

The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System was developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, in order to serve Tsunami early warning systems such as the Global Disaster Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in the evaluation of possible consequences by a Tsunami of seismic nature. The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System is currently operational and is calculating in real time all the events occurring in the world, calculating the expected Tsunami wave height and identifying the loc...

Alessandro Annunziato

2007-01-01

231

TSUNAMI PROPAGATION OVER THE NORTH PACIFIC: DISPERSIVE AND NONDISPERSIVE MODELS  

OpenAIRE

Hydrostatic (HY) and non-hydrostatic (NHY) tsunami physics is compared by application to the Kuril Island Tsunami (KIT) of November 2006 and the Japan Tsunami (JT) of March 2011. Our purpose is to study the significance of dispersive vs. non-dispersive long waves on global tsunami propagation. A tool which is well suited to revealing tsunami wave transformations is the energy flux. Expressions for dispersive and non-dispersive fluxes have been formulated. This provides an understanding of the...

Juan Horrillo; William Knight; Zygmunt Kowalik

2012-01-01

232

Extreme tsunami runup simulation at Babi Island due to 1992 Flores tsunami and Okushiri due to 1993 Hokkido tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on a series of three dimensional numerical modeling experiments to understand the tsunami run-up and inundation process at the circular shape Babi Island in the Indonesia caused by 1992 Flores earthquake tsunami and at Monai valley in Okushiri Island, west part of East (Japan) Sea caused by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. The wave field in the coastal area is modeled within the framework of fully nonlinear dispersive Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations solved using the FLOW3D code. Boundary conditions for this model were extracted from computed wave characteristics obtained from the 2D tsunami propagation model based on the shallow water equations. This model has shown it effectivity to explain extreme runup characteristics during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami (Kim et al, 2013). In case of the 1992 Flores Island tsunami the results of numerical simulation run-up results are compared with field measured run-up heights. It has good agreement with measurement and computational run-up heights. The particle velocity distribution is also computed. In the case of 1993 Okushiri tsunami the numerical simulation reproduces extreme run-up at the Monai valley (31.7 m).

Chule Kim, Dong; Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Pelinovsky, Efim

2014-05-01

233

Detecting Near-Field Tsunamis off the Coast of British Columbia  

Science.gov (United States)

Geological and historical records of the coast of British Columbia (BC) and orally transmitted legends from the First Nations in the area indicate the recurrence of tsunamis in this region. Recent studies show a 40% to 80% probability of a local earthquake occurring in the next 50 years over the Cascadia subduction zone, generating a tsunami run-up higher than 1.5 meters. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates ocean observatories off the west coast of BC. Smart Oceans BC is a new multifaceted program to support coastal communities and decision makers by leveraging the unique capabilities of ONC's advanced cabled ocean observatories to inform public safety, marine safety, and environmental monitoring.

Insua, Tania Lado; Moran, Kate

2014-09-01

234

Second international tsunami workshop on the technical aspects of tsunami warning systems, tsunami analysis, preparedness, observation and instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Second Workshop on the Technical Aspects of Tsunami Warning Systems, Tsunami Analysis, Preparedness, Observation, and Instrumentation, sponsored and convened by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was held on 1-2 August 1989, in the modern and attractive research town of Academgorodok, which is located 20 km south from downtown Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia, USSR. The Program was arranged in eight major areas of interest covering the following: Opening and Introduction; Survey of Existing Tsunami Warning Centers - present status, results of work, plans for future development; Survey of some existing seismic data processing systems and future projects; Methods for fast evaluation of Tsunami potential and perspectives of their implementation; Tsunami data bases; Tsunami instrumentation and observations; Tsunami preparedness; and finally, a general discussion and adoption of recommendations. The Workshop presentations not only addressed the conceptual improvements that have been made, but focused on the inner workings of the Tsunami Warning System, as well, including computer applications, on-line processing and numerical modelling. Furthermore, presentations reported on progress has been made in the last few years on data telemetry, instrumentation and communications. Emphasis was placed on new concepts and their application into operational techniques that can result in improvements in data collection, rapid processing of the data, in analysis and prediction. A Summary Report on the Second International Tsunami Workshop, containing abstracted and annotated proceedings has been published as a separate report. The present Report is a Supplement to the Summary Report and contains the full text of the papers presented at this Workshop. Refs, figs and tabs

235

A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools. In addition to conventional sensors also unconventional sensors and sensor networks play an important role in TRIDEC. The system version presented is based on service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and on relevant standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). In this way the system continuously gathers, processes and displays events and data coming from open sensor platforms to enable operators to quickly decide whether an early warning is necessary and to send personalized warning messages to the authorities and the population at large through a wide range of communication channels. The system integrates OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of hazardous events, like earthquakes, sea level anomalies, ocean floor occurrences, and ground displacements. Using OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture. The integration of a simulation system to identify affected areas is considered using the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS). Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) together with addressing information defined via the OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The first system demonstrator has been designed and implemented to support plausible scenarios demonstrating the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC). The feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes in a hypothetical natural crisis situation caused by a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean. Developments of the system are based to the largest extent on free and open source software (FOSS) components and industry standards. Emphasis has been and will be made on leveraging open source technologies that support mature system architecture models wherever appropriate. All open source software produced is foreseen to be published on a publicly available software repository thus allowing others to reuse results achieved and enabling further development and collaboration with a wide community including scientists, developers, users and stakeholders. This live demonstration is linked with the talk "TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis" (EGU2012-7275) given in the session "Architecture of Future Tsunami Warning Systems" (NH5.7/ESSI1.7).

Hammitzsch, M.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.

2012-04-01

236

Tsunami relief. After the wave.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the official toll from the Boxing Day tsunami now standing at 300,000, Alexis Nolan and Emma Forrest talk to health service managers who gave more than money to the relief effort--they travelled to the disaster area and gave their time and expertise. The impact on their professional and personal lives was considerable. As Mathi Chandrakumar, clinical director of Kent Health Protection Unit, puts it: 'My heart is there, I feel very sad. I will probably go back.' PMID:15787421

Nolan, Alexis; Forrest, Emma

2005-03-01

237

Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century – a contribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

A. Maramai

2007-01-01

238

A program to acquire deep ocean tsunami measurements in the North Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deep ocean tsunami measurements are needed to provide open ocean boundary conditions for testing numerical models in hindcast studies, and for improving our understanding of tsunami generation and propagation. Jacob (1984) has identified a portion of the Aleutian Trench which includes the Shumagin Island group as a seismic gap (the Shumagin Gap); he has computed estimates which indicate that the probability of a great earthquake occurrence (Mw > 7.8) is significantly higher for this region than any other in the U.S. Because tsunamigenic earthquakes along a major portion of the seismically active Aleutian trench threaten Hawaii and the U.S. west coast, and because a large tsunami is possible in the event of a great earthquake in the Shumagin Gap, this region has become the focus of a long-term monitoring program by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (author). 22 refs, 1 fig

239

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands  

Science.gov (United States)

In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to the settlement and agricultural land. Our results may elucidate secure atoll and island type to mitigate the risk of future tsunamis on atoll nations/districts in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean.

Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.

2005-12-01

240

The tsunami geomorphology of coastal dunes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An examination of the coastal geomorphology of bays along the Otago coastline, SE New Zealand, has identified a geomorphology consistent with tsunami inundation. A tsunami geomorphology consisting of a number of elements including dune pedestals, hummocky topography, parabolic dune systems, and post-tsunami features resulting from changes to the nearshore sediment budget is discussed. The most prominent features at Blueskin Bay are eroded pedestals although it is speculated that hummocky topography may be present in the bay. Tsunami geomorphology at Long Beach is more comprehensive with a marked association between pedestals and a hummocky topography. A full suite of potential geomorphological features however, is not present at either site. The type of features formed by a tsunami, and the ability to detect and interpret a tsunami geomorphology, hinges on the interaction between five key variables; sand availability, embayment type, nature of the coast, accumulation space, and landward environmental conditions. An appreciation of the geomorphic setting and history of a coast is therefore of fundamental importance when identifying what to look for and where to look for tsunami evidence. It is also important to realise that these features can also be formed by other processes.

J. R. Goff

2009-06-01

241

Monitoring tsunami propagation using OTH radar  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionospheric anomalies following tsunamis are now observable after major events as Total Electron Content (TEC) fluctuations. GPS and altimeters are important tools for this purpose, but the detection depends on satellites-receivers geometry, when the line of sight crosses the moving perturbation parallel to the wave fronts. All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. Most of these ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the coupling mechanism between ocean, neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. This numerical modeling supplies useful information for the estimation of expected anomalies and to explore and identify new techniques to detect the ionospheric tsunami signature. [|#18#|][|#5#|][|#23#|]The Over-The-Horizon (OTH) radars recently proved to be able to measure seismic Rayleigh wave in the ionosphere, consequently we explore here numerically the possibility to detect the ionospheric signature of tsunamis. OTH operate in High Frequency (HF) band and can be used to monitor the bottomside ionosphere over large regions. Those regions can be strongly perturbed by tsunami generated IGW. We reproduce numerically those atmospheric/ionospheric waves as well as the effect that they produce on synthetic radar measurements. The effects of the tsunami directionality are analyzed underlining the radar capabilities to follow the ionospheric perturbations. The large coverage of OTH radar and its sensitivity to plasma anomalies open new perspectives in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning systems.

Coisson, P.; Occhipinti, G.; Lognonne, P.; Rolland, L. M.

2010-12-01

242

Tsunami Catalogues for the Eastern Mediterranean - Revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

We critically examine examine tsunami catalogues of tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean published in the last decade, by reference to the original sources, see Ambraseys (2008). Such catalogues have been widely used in the aftermath of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami for probabilistic hazard analysis, even to make projections for a ten year time frame. On occasion, such predictions have caused panic and have reduced the credibility of the scientific community in making hazard assessments. We correct classification and other spurious errors in earlier catalogues and posit a new list. We conclude that for some historic events, any assignment of magnitude, even on a six point intensity scale is inappropriate due to lack of information. Further we assert that any tsunami catalogue, including ours, can only be used in conjunction with sedimentologic evidence to quantitatively infer the return period of larger events. Statistical analyses correlating numbers of tsunami events derived solely from catalogues with their inferred or imagined intensities are meaningless, at least when focusing on specific locales where only a handful of tsunamis are known to have been historically reported. Quantitative hazard assessments based on scenario events of historic tsunamis for which -at best- only the size and approximate location of the parent earthquake is known should be undertaken with extreme caution and only with benefit of geologic studies to enhance the understanding of the local tectonics. Ambraseys N. (2008) Earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: multidisciplinary study of 2000 years of seimicity, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (ISBN 9780521872928).

Ambraseys, N.; Synolakis, C. E.

2008-12-01

243

Observed and modeled tsunami current velocities in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City Harbor, northern California  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot project was initiated in 2009 in Humboldt Bay, about 370 kilometers (km) north of San Francisco, California, to measure the currents produced by tsunamis. Northern California is susceptible to both near- and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located approximately 100 km north of Humboldt Bay, suffered US 20 million in damages from strong currents produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional US 20 million from the 2011 Japan tsunami. In order to better evaluate these currents in northern California, we deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600kHz 2D Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) with a one-minute sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge station. The instrument recorded the tsunamis produced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 and the Mw 9.0 Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. Currents from the 2010 tsunami persisted in Humboldt Bay for at least 30 hours with peak amplitudes of about 0.3 meters per second (m/s). The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 86 hours with peak amplitude of 0.95 m/s. Strongest currents corresponded to the maximum change in water level as recorded on the NOAA NOS tide gauge, and occurred 90 minutes after the initial wave arrival. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event. In Crescent City, currents for the first three and a half hours of the 2011 Japan tsunami were estimated using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master building across from the entrance to the small boat basin, approximately 70 meters away from the NOAA NOS tide gauge station. The largest amplitude tide gauge water-level oscillations and most of the damage occurred within this time window. The currents reached a velocity of approximately 4.5 m/s and six cycles exceeded 3 m/s during this period. Measured current velocities both in Humboldt Bay and in Crescent City were compared to calculated velocities from the Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) numerical model. For Humboldt Bay, the 2010 model tsunami frequencies matched the actual values for the first two hours after the initial arrival however the amplitudes were underestimated by approximately 65%. MOST replicated the first four hours of the 2011 tsunami signal in Humboldt Bay quite well although the peak flood currents were underestimated by about 50%. MOST predicted attenuation of the signal after four hours but the actual signal persisted at a nearly constant level for more than 48 hours. In Crescent City, the model prediction of the 2011 frequency agreed quite well with the observed signal for the first two and a half hours after the initial arrival with a 50% underestimation of the peak amplitude. The results from this project demonstrate that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami currents for small to moderate events and can be used to calibrate and validate models (i.e. MOST) in order to better predict hazardous tsunami conditions and improve planned responses to protect lives and property, especially within harbors. An ADCP will be installed in Crescent City Harbor and four additional ADCPs are being deployed in Humboldt Bay during the fall of 2012.

Admire, A. R.; Dengler, L.; Crawford, G. B.; uslu, B. U.; Montoya, J.

2012-12-01

244

French Polynesia tsunami warning center (CPPT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Geophysical Laboratory, which is also the French Polynesia Tsunami Warning Center (Centre Polynesien de Prevention des Tsunamis - CPPT) disposes of the data recorded by the Polynesian Seismic Network which includes 21 short-period stations, 4 broad-band three component long period stations and 2 tide gauge stations. These stations are, for the most, telemetred toward the CPPT in Tahiti which is equipped with data processing means. The data acquisition is performed on optic discs, tape drive recordings and graphic recordings. In the CPPT, the Tsunami Warning is based on the measurements of the Seismic Moment through the mantle magnitude Mm and the proportionality of observed tsunami height to this seismic moment. The new mantle magnitude scale, Mm used the measurement of the mantle Rayleigh and Love wave energy in the 50-300 s. period range and is directly related to the seismic moment through Mm = log Mo - 20. The knowledge of the seismic moment allows computation of an estimate of the high-seas amplitude of a range of expectable tsunami heights. In establishing seismic thresholds for tsunami warning, we assume that tsunami risk is substantial when the upper level found on the amplitude predicted at PPT reach 1 m. On this basis, the risk levels have been identified as a function of the magnitude Mm. For the Polynesian Islands the destructive tsunami danger would subsequently exist for Mm ? 8.7 (Mo ? 5 x 1028 dyn-cm), in the case of epicenters in Sam-cm), in the case of epicenters in Samoa, Tonga, Kermadec and Mm ? 9.0 (Mo ? 1029 dyn-cm) for other epicenters. This procedure is fully automatic: One computer detects, locates and estimates the seismic moment through the Mm magnitude and, in terms of moment, gives an amplitude window of the expected tsunami. These different operations are executed in real time. In addition, the operator can use the historic references and, if necessary, the acoustic T waves. 13 refs, 11 figs

245

Simulation systems for tsunami wave propagation forecasting within the French tsunami warning center  

OpenAIRE

A model-based tsunami prediction system has been developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center (operational since 1 July 2012). It involves a precomputed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored). For the Mediterranean basin, the faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults. An automated composite scenarios calculati...

Gailler, A.; He?bert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

2013-01-01

246

MODELING OF THE 1755 LISBON TSUNAMI  

OpenAIRE

The generation and propagation of the November 1, 1755 Lisbon earthquake generated tsunami is of current interest to the IOCARIBE Tsunami Scientific Steering Committee.The November 1, 1755 Lisbon earthquake generated a tsunami with a period of one hour and amplitudes of 20 meters at Lisbon and along the African and south European coasts, of 4 meters along the English coast, and of 7 meters at Saba in the Caribbean after 7 hours of travel. The modeling was performed using the SWAN code whi...

Mader, Charles L.

2001-01-01

247

Historical tsunami in the Azores archipelago (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of its exposed northern mid-Atlantic location, morphology and plate-tectonics setting, the Azores Archipelago is highly vulnerable to tsunami hazards associated with landslides and seismic or volcanic triggers, local or distal. Critical examination of available data - written accounts and geologic evidence - indicates that, since the settlement of the archipelago in the 15th century, at least 23 tsunami have struck Azorean coastal zones. Most of the recorded tsunami are generated by earthquakes. The highest known run-up (11-15 m) was recorded on 1 November 1755 at Terceira Island, corresponding to an event of intensity VII-VIII (damaging-heavily damaging) on the Papadopolous-Imamura scale. To date, eruptive activity, while relatively frequent in the Azores, does not appear to have generated destructive tsunami. However, this apparent paucity of volcanogenic tsunami in the historical record may be misleading because of limited instrumental and documentary data, and small source-volumes released during historical eruptions. The latter are in contrast with the geological record of massive pyroclastic flows and caldera explosions with potential to generate high-magnitude tsunami, predating settlement. In addition, limited evidence suggests that submarine landslides from unstable volcano flanks may have also triggered some damaging tsunamigenic floods that perhaps were erroneously attributed to intense storms. The lack of destructive tsunami since the mid-18th century has led to governmental complacency and public disinterest in the Azores, as demonstrated by the fact that existing emergency regulations concerning seismic events in the Azores Autonomous Region make no mention of tsunami and their attendant hazards. We suspect that the coastal fringe of the Azores may well preserve a sedimentary record of some past tsunamigenic flooding events. Geological field studies must be accelerated to expand the existing database to include prehistoric events-information essential for more precisely estimating the average tsunami recurrence rate for the Azores over a longer period. A present-day occurrence of a moderate to intense tsunami (i.e., the size of the 1755 event) would produce societal disruption and economic loss orders of magnitudes greater than those of previous events in Azorean history. To reduce risk from future tsunami, comprehensive assessment of tsunami hazards and the preparation of hazards-zonation maps are needed to guide governmental decisions on issues of prudent land-use planning, public education and emergency management.

Andrade, C.; Borges, P.; Freitas, M. C.

2006-08-01

248

A numerical simulation of the 1993 East Sea tsunami and estimations of potential tsunamis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami in the East Sea occurred after powerful earthquake July 12, 1993 is analyzed. Data of the measured runup heights along the eastern coast of the East Sea are processed. It is shown the log-normal function is best fit for the distribution of the wave heights. Numerical simulations of tsunami propagation in the East Sea is performed and computed, results are compared with observed data. Prognostic characteristics of potential tsunamis in the East Sea are discussed. Zones of potential danger tsunami sources are selected

249

Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is meaningful for tsunami assessment to evaluate phenomena beyond the design basis as well as seismic design. Because once we set the design basis tsunami height, we still have possibilities tsunami height may exceeds the determined design tsunami height due to uncertainties regarding the tsunami phenomena. Probabilistic tsunami risk assessment consists of estimating for tsunami hazard and fragility of structures and executing system analysis. In this report, we apply a method for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). We introduce a logic tree approach to estimate tsunami hazard curves (relationships between tsunami height and probability of excess) and present an example for Japan. Examples of tsunami hazard curves are illustrated, and uncertainty in the tsunami hazard is displayed by 5-, 16-, 50-, 84- and 95-percentile and mean hazard curves. The result of PTHA will be used for quantitative assessment of the tsunami risk for important facilities located on coastal area. Tsunami hazard curves are the reasonable input data for structures and system analysis. However the evaluation method for estimating fragility of structures and the procedure of system analysis is now being developed. (authors)

250

Sex differences in the experience of testing positive for genital chlamydia infection: a qualitative study with implications for public health and for a national screening programme  

OpenAIRE

Methods: Semistructured interviews with 24 heterosexual patients (12 men; 12 women) diagnosed with genital chlamydia infection, at a large sexual health clinic in central London were transcribed and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis.

Darroch, J.; Myers, L.; Cassell, J.

2003-01-01

251

Sedimentology of Coastal Deposits in the Seychelles Islands—Evidence of the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004  

Science.gov (United States)

The Seychelles, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean at a distance of 4,500-5,000 km from the west coast of Sumatra, were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami with wave heights up to 4 m. Since the tsunami history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historical record, it is important to study the geological traces of high energy events preserved along their coasts. We conducted a survey of the impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on the inner Seychelles islands. In detail we studied onshore tsunami deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond in the Curieuse Marine National Park on the east coast of Curieuse Island. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the tsunami in 2004 by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap and assuring a low energetic hydrodynamic environment for the protection of the mangroves. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The tsunami caused a change of habitat by the sedimentation of sand lobes in the mangrove forest. The dark organic rich mangrove soil (1.9 ?) was covered by bimodal fine to medium carbonate sand (1.7-2.2 ?) containing coarser carbonate shell fragments and debris. Intertidal sediments and the mangrove soil acted as sources of the lobe deposits. The sand sheet deposited by the tsunami is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of the morphology of the onshore area. The maximum extent of 180 m from the shoreline indicates the minimum inundation distance to the tsunami. The top parts of the sand lobes cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. There is no landward fining trend along the sand lobes and normal grading of the deposits is rare, occurring only in 1 of 7 sites. The sand lobe deposits also lack sedimentary structures. On the surface of the sand lobes numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and molluscs were distributed up to 150 m from the coastline. Intact bivalve shells were mostly found positioned with the convex side upwards. On small ledges of a granitic body at 130-150 m from the shore mostly fragmented and gravel sized shells were deposited at different elevations up to 4 m above sea level. This implies a run up height of at least 4 m above sea level up to 150 m from the present shoreline.

Nentwig, Vanessa; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Monthy, Devis

2015-03-01

252

Developing Tsunami Warnings Based on Model Output  

Science.gov (United States)

The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre is responsible for issuing tsunami warnings for the Australian mainland and offshore territories. Warnings are currently based on model output from the T2 scenario database. When a tsunami event occurs, the closest scenario is selected from the T2 scenario database according to the seismic parameters. The values of the maximum amplitude for the scenario are assessed within coastal regions to determine the threat level. Tsunami warnings are issued according to whether the maximum amplitudes exceed pre-determined threshold values. The threshold values have been derived empirically by consideration of past events and observed coastal impacts. This presentation will describe recent developments that have been made to improve this technique, such as consideration of percentile values of the maximum amplitude.

Allen, Stewart; Greenslade, Diana

2010-05-01

253

Could animals detect the approaching tsunami?  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of sources report the phenomenon of animals running to safety well before the recent southeast Asian tsunami struck. The phenomenon was apparently observed on both sides of the Bay of Bengal, from Thailand to Sri Lanka. The latter is far from the epicenter of the earthquake. Did the earthquake supply the only warning or is it possible that the tsunami radiated seismo-acoustic signals of sufficient amplitude and frequency for animals to detect and interpret it long before it struck shore? This possibility is quantitatively investigated by solving the coupled hydrodynamic-acoustic equations with a tsunami driving term in a range-dependent ocean acoustic waveguide. Cases where the tsunami is in deep water and on the continental shelf are considered. [The general topic of this research follows from a suggestion made by Herman Medwin.

Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Makris, Nicholas; Ratilal, Purnima

2005-04-01

254

The public health response to the tsunami  

OpenAIRE

At a meeting in the Maldives convened in April by the International Centre for Migration and Health, public health specialists from tsunami-affected states assessed lessons learned from the humanitarian response.

Bryan Heal; Manuel Carballo

2005-01-01

255

Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka  

OpenAIRE

Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

Simon Harris

2005-01-01

256

Post-tsunami protection concerns in Aceh  

OpenAIRE

The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement clearly state that those forced to flee natural disasters are to be regarded as IDPs. However, some agencies in post-tsunami Aceh have been reluctant to use the term andto address protection issues.

Marion Couldrey; Tim Morris

2005-01-01

257

Tsunamis and Hurricanes A Mathematical Approach  

CERN Document Server

Tsunamis and hurricanes have had a devastating impact on the population living near the coast during the year 2005. The calculation of the power and intensity of tsunamis and hurricanes are of great importance not only for engineers and meteorologists but also for governments and insurance companies. This book presents new research on the mathematical description of tsunamis and hurricanes. A combination of old and new approaches allows to derive a nonlinear partial differential equation of fifth order describing the steepening up and the propagation of tsunamis. The description includes dissipative terms and does not contain singularities or two valued functions. The equivalence principle of solutions of nonlinear large gas dynamics waves and of solutions of water wave equations will be used. An extension of the continuity equation by a source term due to evaporation rates of salt seawater will help to understand hurricanes. Detailed formula, tables and results of the calculations are given.

Cap, Ferdinand

2006-01-01

258

Paleo-tsunami run-up evaluated from landward fining pattern of the tsunami deposit  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on resent studies on tsunami deposits, eastern Hokkaido was known to be affected by large tsunamis caused by earthquakes along the Kuril Trench more than 10 times during the last 5,000 years. To consider whether these historical tsunamis are similar in size or not, we identified plural tsunami deposits lie between peat deposits and compare their thickness and grain size distribution. At Tokachibuto, six major tsunami layers were traced along a channel up to 1,500 meter inland from the beach. The tsunami deposits are sheet- like distributed and their mean grain sizes are getting finer landward, as seen in most modern tsunami deposits. However, the size-decreasing patterns are significantly different among the tsunami deposits. We speculate that these sedimentary faces of the tsunami deposits are mostly linked to the wave height, wavelength and wave velocity of each tsunami. It means that we can evaluate relative sizes of the ancient tsunamis by tracing grain sizes of associated tsunami deposits. This information must be useful to estimate source size and location of the earthquakes that occurred repeatedly in time. If tsunami deposit is traced over the invaded area, such as a valley facing the beach, run-up heights of the tsunami can be determined well. We identified the 17th century tsunami deposit at wetland near Seika-numa, eastern Hokkaido, and observed sedimentary characteristics of the deposits along the artificial channels at the wetland and traced them inland by hand excavation. Grain sizes of the deposits decrease not only along the valley extend from the beach but also along the slopes of both sides of the valley. On both valley slopes, the mean grain size of the deposits decreased from very coarse to coarse sand at the base of the valley to fine sand at the distribution limit. Based on these thickness and grain size distribution of the deposit, we determine the minimum run-up at the site as about 14 m at the eastern slope of the valley and 12 m at the western slope.

Nishimura, Y.; Miyaji, N.; Komatsu, M.; Hirakawa, K.; Nakamura, Y.

2006-12-01

259

Geomorphic Environments of Tsunami Deposits, Southeastern India  

Science.gov (United States)

As paleotsunami research progresses around the Indian Ocean, it is increasingly evident that tsunamis have occurred in this region in the past. The largest of these could have traversed the ocean and reached the southeastern coast of India, which highlights the importance of identifying key preservation sites in this potential repository of catastrophic basin-wide events. However, geologically enduring sites where tsunami deposits dependably survive are not yet well defined in India and other tropical environments. The purpose of this project was to identify the settings conducive to long-term preservation of tsunami deposits in tropical India and develop criteria for distinguishing them in the stratigraphic record. We documented the post- depositional fate of the tsunami deposits from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in various geomorphic environments along the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India from 10.5-13° N. Latitude. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami were mapped, described and surveyed at locations where they had been described immediately after the event, as well as at previously unstudied sites. At many sites, the tsunami deposits were recognizable in the stratigraphic column by characteristic fine mafic laminations, debris and an organic layer at the lower boundary. Field observations and initial grain-size analysis indicated a distinct difference between tsunami deposits and underlying sedimentary layers. For example, at Mamallapuram (12.5° N. Lat.) the mean grain size of the tsunami deposits was 0.25 phi finer than that of the underlying layers. However, only three years after the event, deposits in some locations had already been altered significantly by erosion, bioturbation and incipient weathering and were not readily recognizable in the stratigraphy. Although the 2004 tsunami deposits were thicker and more extensive in the hard-hit southern half of the study area, the degree of bioturbation and weathering was greater there than in the drier northern portion, where some thin tsunami sand layers behind coastal dunes remained unaltered since the original post- tsunami surveys. To date, no conclusive evidence of paleotsunami deposits has been found at the sites included in this study, but the results will guide the search for key settings that best satisfy the balance between sediment volume and preservation.

Johnston, P.; Ely, L.; Achyuthan, H.; Srinivasalu, S.

2008-12-01

260

DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

2013-09-01

261

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

OpenAIRE

An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populate...

Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

2010-01-01

262

Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

263

Tsunamis warning from space: Ionosphere seismology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

264

Historical tsunamis and present tsunami hazard in eastern Indonesia and the southern Philippines  

Science.gov (United States)

Eastern Indonesia and the southern Philippines comprise a huge and seismically highly active region that has received less than the deserved attention in tsunami research compared with the surrounding areas exposed to the major subduction zones. In an effort to redress the balance the tsunami hazard in this region is studied by establishing a tsunami event database which, in combination with seismological and tectonic information from the region, has allowed us to define and justify a number of `credible worst-case' tsunami scenarios. These scenarios have been used in numerical simulations of tsunami generation and propagation to study maximum water level along potentially affected shorelines. The scenarios have in turn been combined to provide regional tsunami hazard maps. In many cases the simulations indicate that the maximum water level may exceed 10 m locally and even reach above 20 m in the vicinity of the source, which is of the same order as what is forecasted along the Sumatra and Java trenches for comparable return periods. For sections of coastlines close to a source, a tsunami may strike only a few minutes after it is generated, providing little time for warning. Moreover, several of the affected areas are highly populated and are therefore also high risk areas. The combination of high maximum water levels, short warning times, dense populations, and relatively short return periods suggests strongly that the tsunami hazard and risk in these regions are alarmingly high.

LøVholt, Finn; Kühn, Daniela; Bungum, Hilmar; Harbitz, Carl B.; Glimsdal, Sylfest

2012-09-01

265

Development of an online tool for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

The devastating impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the need for an effective end-to-end tsunami early warning system in the region that connects the scientific components of warning with preparedness of institutions and communities to respond to an emergency. Essential to preparedness planning is knowledge of tsunami risks. In this study, development of an online tool named “INSPIRE” for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation is presented. The tool is designed to accommodate various accuracy levels of tsunami exposure data which will support the users to undertake preliminary tsunami risk assessment from the existing data with progressive improvement with the use of more detailed and accurate datasets. Sampling survey technique is introduced to improve the local vulnerability data with lower cost and manpower. The performance of the proposed methodology and the INSPIRE tool were tested against the dataset in Kamala and Patong municipalities, Phuket province, Thailand. The estimated building type ratios from the sampling survey show the satisfactory agreement with the actual building data at the test sites. Sub-area classification by land use can improve the accuracy of the building type ratio estimation. For the resulting loss estimation, the exposure data generated from detailed field survey can provide the agreeable results when comparing to the actual building damage recorded for the Indian Ocean tsunami event in 2004. However, lower accuracy exposure data derived from sampling survey and remote sensing can still provide a comparative overview of estimated loss.

Srivihok, P.; Honda, K.; Ruangrassamee, A.; Muangsin, V.; Naparat, P.; Foytong, P.; Promdumrong, N.; Aphimaeteethomrong, P.; Intavee, A.; Layug, J. E.; Kosin, T.

2014-05-01

266

Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"  

Science.gov (United States)

With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

2014-12-01

267

Tsunami Damage in Northwest Sumatra  

Science.gov (United States)

The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of the northern Sumatra. This pair of images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite shows the Aceh province of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 17, 2004, before the quake (bottom), and on December 29, 2004 (top), three days after the catastrophe. Although MODIS was not specifically designed to make the very detailed observations that are usually necessary for mapping coastline changes, the sensor nevertheless observed obvious differences in the Sumatran coastline. On December 17, the green vegetation along the west coast appears to reach all the way to the sea, with only an occasional thin stretch of white that is likely sand. After the earthquake and tsunamis, the entire western coast is lined with a noticeable purplish-brown border. The brownish border could be deposited sand, or perhaps exposed soil that was stripped bare of vegetation when the large waves rushed ashore and then raced away. Another possibility is that parts of the coastline may have sunk as the sea floor near the plate boundary rose. On a moderate-resolution image such as this, the affected area may seem small, but each pixel in the full resolution image is 250 by 250 meters. In places the brown strip reaches inland roughly 13 pixels, equal to a distance of 3.25 kilometers, or about 2 miles. On the northern tip of the island (shown in the large image), the incursion is even larger. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the MODIS Rapid Response team and the Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC.

2005-01-01

268

The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

Chague-Goff, C.

2013-12-01

269

The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plant (3). Outline of tsunami fragility analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) standard was issued in February 2012 by Standard Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). This article detailed tsunami fragility analysis, which calculated building and structure damage probability contributing core damage and consisted of five evaluation steps: (1) selection of evaluated element and damage mode, (2) selection of evaluation procedure, (3) evaluation of actual stiffness, (4) evaluation of actual response and (5) evaluation of fragility (damage probability and others). As an application example of the standard, calculation results of tsunami fragility analysis investigation by tsunami PRA subcommittee of AESJ were shown reflecting latest knowledge of damage state caused by wave force and others acted by tsunami from the 'off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake'. (T. Tanaka)

270

Radiologic findings in tsunami trauma: experience with 225 patients injured in the 2004 tsunami.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the spectrum of radiographic findings, frequency, and type of injuries in tsunami victims. From December 2004 to May 2005, all tsunami victims admitted to our hospital were retrospectively identified by a search of medical records. Patients who received radiologic examinations were reviewed for their radiographic findings. The authors identified 225 tsunami victims. One hundred eight victims received radiologic evaluations on admission that included 350 plain radiographs, 19 ultrasound exams, 18 computed tomography (CT) scans and 3 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Overall positivity rate was 48% (187/390). Most common trauma involved musculoskeleton (102/187, 54.5%). Retained foreign bodies in soft tissues, pneumonia/aspiration, and tsunami sinusitis were found in 22, 28, and 31 patients (9.8, 12.4, and 13.8%), respectively. These were unique findings in tsunami trauma. Imaging played an important role in detection of these abnormalities. PMID:17674064

Kaewlai, Rathachai; Srisuwan, Tanop; Prasitvoranant, Wittaya; Meennuch, Wananee; Yenarkarn, Panuch; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Chuapetcharasopon, Chamaree

2007-11-01

271

Data Fusion Concepts for Tsunami Warning  

Science.gov (United States)

The tsunami source region for subduction zone earthquakes is near the base of the acreationary wedge. In that region the material properties are weak, and are unable to store significant elastic energy. Therefore, the tsunamigenic rupture is nearly aseismic. Instead, the seismic energy primarily radiates from deeper within the fault; thus resolving or imaging this shallow rupture is extremely difficult, particularly when factoring in the real time requirements of tsunami warning. In the current U.S. Tsunami warning systems, the operational paradigm is to initially determine the most probable source parameters in a maximum likelihood sense, then establish alert level based, and wait for sea level measurements (DART or tide gauge) to validate or cancel the alert. This approach results in numerous false alarms, with some missed tsunamis based on the initial alert. In fact, the maximum likelihood approach works well for typical events; however, the tsunamigenic events are outliers; in the last 30 years, there have been about 130 events of size and location that would warrant a expanding warning. Of those events, 43 were associated with tsunamis of greater than 1 m; however, most of those were local, with only 13 events having significant far field tsunamis. So, even for large events, tsunamigenic earthquakes are statistical outliers. To address this issue, we have conceptualized a data fusion based approach to tsunami warning that will incorporate multiple data types simultaneously to provide better, rapid estimates of tsunami source, partially by identifying "statistical outliers" and partially by running multiple hypothesis of tsunami sources. For example, we can test to see the error bias of the preliminary magnitude estimate; that is, is the system more likely underestimating or overestimating the magnitude. In addition, incorporating non-seismic data, such as hydroactoustic (T-phase) and GPS data may improve the ability to image the shallow rupture. The approach also allows for the incorporation of evidence for slumping/landslides, including anomalous long period Rayleigh waves (e.g., Eksrom, 2006) and hydroacoustic signals. In summary, a fusion approach to tsunami warning should provide for lower false alarm rates while increasing the probability of detection of the events in time period prior to sea level measurements.

Hebenstreit, G. T.; Salzberg, D. H.

2007-12-01

272

Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

N. Zahibo

2001-01-01

273

The 15 August 2007 Peru tsunami runup observations and modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed two weeks after the event and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. Three tsunami fatalities were reported south of the Paracas Peninsula in a sparsely populated desert area where the largest tsunami runup heights were measured. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts to ensure successful self-evacuation.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Borrero, Jose C.; Broncano, Pablo; Ortega, Erick

2008-05-01

274

TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN  

OpenAIRE

Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events) times measures of elements at risk (human exposure) times measures of vulnerability (preparedness) in ...

William Proenza, X.; Maul, George A.

2010-01-01

275

Model-based tsunami warnings derived from observed impacts  

OpenAIRE

The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre uses the T2 tsunami scenario database to provide forecast guidance for potential tsunami threats to the coastlines of mainland Australia and its external territories. This study describes a method for generating coastal tsunami warnings from model data obtained from the T2 scenario database. Consideration of observed coastal impacts for nine past events leads to retrospective or "ideal" warning schemes being designed. The 95th percentile values of m...

Allen, S. C. R.; Greenslade, D. J. M.

2010-01-01

276

Evaluation of Indian nuclear coastal sites for tsunami hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents results of tsunami wave modelling based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The results of in-house finite element code Tsunami Solution(TSUSOL) is highlighted through numerical simulation of Sumatra-2004 and Makran-1945 tsunami events. The TSUSOL code is shown to have special capability of coupled tsunami and acoustic wave simulation, which is an important feature for the early warning system

277

UNDERSTANDING TSUNAMI RISK TO STRUCTURES: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE  

OpenAIRE

The potential catastrophic effects of tsunami-induced loading on built infrastructure in the vicinity of shorelines have been brought to the fore by recent global events. However, state- of-the-art building codes remain silent or provide conflicting guidance on designing near- shoreline structures in tsunami-prone areas. This paper focuses on tsunami-induced loading and its effect on structures within the Canadian context. The mechanics of tsunami-induced loading is described based on knowled...

Palermo, D.; Nistor, I.

2008-01-01

278

Tsunami "shadows" may allow remote detection of tidal waves  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an abstract. This study investigates tsunami shadows, extended dark strips on the ocean surface before a tsunami. Such shadows are found to result from an air-sea interaction induced by tsunami-related atmospheric disturbances. Results suggest that remote surface water observations can be used to detect deep ocean tsunamis via their shadows and thus provide significantly more reliable and earlier warning before the large waves strike vulnerable shores.

Godin

279

TWO DECADES OF GLOBAL TSUNAMIS - 1982-2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principal purpose of this catalog is to extend the cataloging of tsunami occurrences and effects begun in 1988 by Soloviev, Go, and Kim (Catalog of Tsunamis in the Pacific 1969 to 1982 to the period extending from 1982 through 2001, and to provide a convenient source of tsunami data and a reference list for tsunamis in this period. While the earlier catalogs by Soloviev were restricted to the Pacific region including Indonesia, this catalog reports on known tsunamis worldwide. The year 1982 was included in this catalog because the data in the Soloviev and Go catalog for that year was incomplete.The Pacific is by far the most active zone for tsunami generation but tsunamis have been generated in many other bodies of water including the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas, and Indian and Atlantic Oceans and other bodies of water. There were no known tsunamis generated in the Atlantic Ocean in the period from 1982 to 2001 but they have occurred there historically. North Atlantic tsunamis include the tsunami associated with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake that caused up to 60,000 fatalities in Portugal, Spain, and North Africa. This tsunami generated waves of up to seven meters in height into the Caribbean. Since 1498 the Caribbean has had 37 verified tsunamis (local and remote sourced plus an additional 52 events that may have resulted in tsunamis. The death toll from these events is about 9,500 fatalities. In 1929, the Grand Banks tsunami off the coast of Labrador generated waves of up to 15 meters in Newfoundland, Canada, killing 26 people, and the waves were recorded along the New Jersey coast. Smaller Atlantic coast tsunamis have been generated in the Norwegian fjords, Iceland, and off the coast of the New England states of the United States. Major tsunamis have also occurred in the Marmara Sea in Turkey associated with the Izmit earthquake of August 17, 1999.

Patricia A. Lockridge

2003-01-01

280

Tsunami Hazards in San Francisco Bay  

Science.gov (United States)

A prerequisite to probabilistic hazard assessment is a historic event database and identification of all potential sources. We review published and unpublished material to compile a history of tsunami events, peak tsunami heights and tsunami source regions for San Francisco Bay. Since 1850, 51 credible tsunamis have been recorded or observed within the San Francisco Bay area, all but 6 teletsunamis. Only the tsunamis generated by the 1960 Chile earthquake and the 1964 Alaska earthquake caused damage in San Francisco Bay. Both events are characterized by long duration (12 hours) short period oscillations (about 30 minutes) attributed to near-resonance within the Bay (Wilson and Torum, 1968). Magoon (1966) developed an attenuation relation based on the 1960 and 1964 events and shows an amplitude decay by 50 percent of the Presidio value at Alameda and a 90 percent decrease at the northern and southern ends of the Bay. The 1964 tsunami was the most damaging historic event and caused about 177,000 (US dollars) in damages to boats and floating structures, with 1.13 m amplitude waves recorded at the Presidio. Six credible local tsunami events were observed between 1851 and 1906, four attributed to earthquake sources and two to landslides. The largest (0.6 m near Benicia) was caused by the 1898 Mare Island earthquake and is attributed to slip on the Rogers Creep fault. Garcia and Houston (1975) made return estimates for San Francisco Bay, considering only Alaska sources and estimated 100- and 500-year heights of 2.5 and 4.8 meters respectively at the Presidio. These values need to be reassessed in light of other credible teletsunami sources, particularly the Cascadia subduction zone, and local sources including step-overs on regional strike-slip faults and landslides within the bay. We present the results of numerical modeling runs to test Magoon's attenuation models and to compare local and teletsunami source regions.

Dengler, L.; Borrero, J.; Patton, J.

2004-12-01

281

How Single-Parent Children Speak about Poverty and Social Exclusion: Policy Implications from a Comparative, Qualitative, Cross-National Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents some of the key findings from a comparative, qualitative research study carried out in the United Kingdom, Greece, and Cyprus. The main goal of the study was to investigate single-parent children's experiences and understandings of poverty and social exclusion in their everyday lives and to make relevant policy…

Spyrou, Spyros

2013-01-01

282

How soon is too soon? When to cancel a warning after a damaging tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Following an earthquake a tsunami warning center (TWC) must determine if a coastal evacuation is necessary and must do so fast enough for the warning to be useful to affected coastlines. Once a damaging tsunami has arrived, the TWC must decide when to cancel its warning, a task often more challenging than the initial hazard assessment. Here we demonstrate the difficulties by investigating the impact of the Tohoku tsunami of 11 March 2011 on the State of Hawaii, which relies on the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) for tsunami hazard guidance. PTWC issued a Tsunami Watch for Hawaii at 10 March 1956 HST (10 minutes after the earthquake) and upgraded to a Tsunami Warning at 2131 HST. The tsunami arrived in Hawaii just before 0300 HST the next day, reached a maximum runup of over 5 m, and did roughly $50 million in damage throughout the state. PTWC downgraded the Warning to an Advisory at 0730 HST, and canceled the Advisory at 1140 HST. The timing of the downgrade was appropriate—by then it was safe for coastal residents to re-enter the evacuation zone but not to enter the water—but in retrospect PTWC cancelled its Advisory too early. By late morning tide gauges throughout the state had all registered maximum wave heights of 30 cm or less for a couple of hours, so PTWC cancelled. The Center was unaware, however, of ocean behavior at locations without instruments. At Ma'alaea Harbor on the Island of Maui, for example, sea level oscillations exposed the harbor bottom every 20 minutes for several hours after the cancellation. At Waikiki on Oahu, lifeguards rescued 25 swimmers (who had either ignored or were unaware of the cancellation message's caution about hazardous currents) in the hours after the cancellation and performed CPR on one near-drowning victim. Fortunately, there were no deaths. Because of dangerous surges, ocean safety officials closed Hanauma Bay, a popular snorkeling spot on Oahu, for a full day after the tsunami hit. They reassessed the bay the following morning just as waves reflected from South America started to arrive (36 hours after the earthquake), and prudently chose to keep the bay closed for two further days. The Tohoku tsunami showed that resonances and trapped waves in shallow water can last for many hours and that energy reflected from distant shorelines can rejuvenate them. PTWC's real-time simulation of the tsunami, including animation of its propagation, now helps to identify which reflections will be most troublesome and should permit the Center to specify in advance how long a Warning should remain in effect. The current open-ended warnings, which specify when the tsunami will arrive but not how long the Warning should last, should be replaced with warnings active for a specified time ("until 3 a.m. tomorrow"), with PTWC adjusting the projected cancellation time based on coastal sea-level observations. Such warnings should greatly reduce public misconceptions and state and local government expectations about how long the hazard will last. The National Weather Service, parent agency of the US TWCs, already issues weather Warnings and Advisories active for specific durations, so this message format is already familiar to both the public and emergency managers.

Fryer, G. J.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Weinstein, S.; Richards, K.

2012-12-01

283

Research for developing precise tsunami evaluation methods. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis/numerical simulation method with dispersion and wave breaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report introduces main results of investigations on precise tsunami evaluation methods, which were carried out from the viewpoint of safety evaluation for nuclear power facilities and deliberated by the Tsunami Evaluation Subcommittee. A framework for the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) based on logic tree is proposed and calculation on the Pacific side of northeastern Japan is performed as a case study. Tsunami motions with dispersion and wave breaking were investigated both experimentally and numerically. The numerical simulation method is verified for its practicability by applying to a historical tsunami. Tsunami force is also investigated and formulae of tsunami pressure acting on breakwaters and on building due to inundating tsunami are proposed. (author)

284

Earthquake and Tsunami Potential of the Hikurangi Subduction Thrust, New Zealand: Insights from Paleoseismology, GPS, and Tsunami Modeling  

OpenAIRE

The Hikurangi subduction margin, where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the North Island of New Zealand, poses a major seismic and tsunami hazard to the New Zealand region, but its seismic and tsunami potential is largely unknown because of New Zealand's short (< 170 years) historical record of seismicity. This article discusses the implications of results from GPS, paleoseismology, and tsunami modeling studies for understanding Hikurangi subduction earthquake and tsunami potential. Paleose...

Wallace, Laura M.; Cochran, Ursula A.; Power, William L.; Clark, Kate J.

2014-01-01

285

Validating Velocities in the GeoClaw Tsunami Model using Observations Near Hawaii from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami  

OpenAIRE

The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velo...

Arcos, M. E. M.; Leveque, Randall J.

2014-01-01

286

Slip distribution of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake from inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami field survey data  

OpenAIRE

We study the 2010 Mentawai earthquake, a tsunami earthquake that occurred seaward of the southern Mentawai islands of Sumatra, and produced a locally devastating tsunami, with runup commonly in excess of 6 m. As a unique tsunami earthquake case, there is a significant discrepancy between the observed small GPS displacement and the very large tsunami runup (maximum value > 16 m), which cannot be explained by the conventional GPS or seismic inversion model. The goal of this work is to infer ...

Li, L.; Huang, Z.

2013-01-01

287

Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology  

Science.gov (United States)

The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future studies and improvements, enabling the integration of lateral variations of the solid earth, bathymetry or atmosphere, finite model sources, non-linearity of the waves and better attenuation and coupling processes. All these effects are revealed by phase or amplitude discrepancies in selected observations. We then present goals and first results of source inversions, with a focus on estimations of the sea level uplift location and amplitude, either by using GPS networks close from the epicentre or, for tsunamis, GPS of the Hawaii Islands.

Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

2014-05-01

288

Public Perceptions of Tsunamis and the NOAA TsunamiReady Program in Los Angeles  

Science.gov (United States)

After the devastating December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, California and other coastal states began installing "Tsunami Warning Zone" and "Evacuation Route" signs at beaches and major access roads. The geography of the Los Angeles area may not be conducive to signage alone for communication of the tsunami risk and safety precautions. Over a year after installation, most people surveyed did not know about or recognize the tsunami signs. More alarming is that many did not believe a tsunami could occur in the area even though earthquake generated waves have reached nearby beaches as recently as September 2009! UPDATE: FEB. 2010. Fifty two percent of the 147 people surveyed did not believe they would survive a natural disaster in Los Angeles. Given the unique geography of Los Angeles, how can the city and county improve the mental health of its citizens before and after a natural disaster? This poster begins to address the issues of community self-efficacy and resiliency in the face of tsunamis. Of note for future research, the data from this survey showed that most people believed climate change would increase the occurrence of tsunamis. Also, the public understanding of water inundation was disturbingly low. As scientists, it is important to understand the big picture of our research - how it is ultimately communicated, understood, and used by the public.

Rosati, A.

2010-12-01

289

The tsunami warning center in Alaska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (ATWC) has implemented many major changes in order to provide timely and effective tsunami warning services for coastal populations in Alaska, and the west coasts of Canada and the lower 48 States. The basis for these improvements was the integration of computers and associated developments into the ATWC's operations. New concepts, technique developments, procedures, computers, and equipment were implemented which resulted in a highly automated warning system which analyzes data from potential tsunamigenic earthquakes in real-time, and immediately disseminates necessary critical information to affected coastal populations. These advancements are leading toward an automated expert system. The present system has been exercised for seven recent potential tsunamigenic earthquakes and has proven to be very timely with tsunami warnings being issued in an average of 11 minutes after the origin time of an earthquake. Seismic and tide data networks have been enlarged to improve the accuracy and timeliness in locating and sizing earthquakes, and for confirming the existence of a tsunami. New techniques and equipment are being implemented to collect, analyze and process tide data via micro computers. All critical warning and watch information messages are generated by computers which are linked to a satellite and high speed teletypewriter communication systems for rapid dissemination of information. The ATWC's community preparedness efforts haveATWC's community preparedness efforts have been expanded to aid those individuals who may be caught in the immediate vicinity of a violent earthquake and its subsequent tsunami. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

290

Tsunami-tendenko and morality in disasters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disaster planning challenges our morality. Everyday rules of action may need to be suspended during large-scale disasters in favour of maxims that that may make prudential or practical sense and may even be morally preferable but emotionally hard to accept, such as tsunami-tendenko. This maxim dictates that the individual not stay and help others but run and preserve his or her life instead. Tsunami-tendenko became well known after the great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011, when almost all the elementary and junior high school students in one city survived the tsunami because they acted on this maxim that had been taught for several years. While tsunami-tendenko has been praised, two criticisms of it merit careful consideration: one, that the maxim is selfish and immoral; and two, that it goes against the natural tendency to try to save others in dire need. In this paper, I will explain the concept of tsunami-tendenko and then respond to these criticisms. Such ethical analysis is essential for dispelling confusion and doubts about evacuation policies in a disaster. PMID:23533054

Kodama, Satoshi

2013-03-26

291

Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes reduce the level of uncertainty in their results to the uncertainty in the geophysical initial conditions. Further, when coupled with real--time free--field tsunami measurements from tsunameters, validated codes are the only choice for realistic forecasting of inundation; the consequences of failure are too ghastly to take chances with numerical procedures that have not been validated. We discuss a ten step process of benchmark tests for models used for inundation mapping. The associated methodology and algorithmes have to first be validated with analytical solutions, then verified with laboratory measurements and field data. The models need to be published in the scientific literature in peer-review journals indexed by ISI. While this process may appear onerous, it reflects our state of knowledge, and is the only defensible methodology when human lives are at stake. Synolakis, C.E., and Bernard, E.N, Tsunami science before and beyond Boxing Day 2004, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364 1845, 2231--2263, 2005.

Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.

2006-12-01

292

Tsunami Forecast by Joint Inversion of Real-Time Tsunami Waveforms and Seismic or GPS Data: Application to the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model-data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

Wei, Yong; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

2014-12-01

293

The UBO-TSUFD tsunami inundation model: validation and application to a tsunami case study focused on the city of Catania, Italy  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays numerical models are a powerful tool in tsunami research since they can be used (i) to reconstruct modern and historical events, (ii) to cast new light on tsunami sources by inverting tsunami data and observations, (iii) to build scenarios in the frame of tsunami mitigation plans, and (iv) to produce forecasts of tsunami impact and inundation in systems of early warning. In parallel with the general recognition of the importance of numerical tsunami simulations, the demand has grown ...

Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

2013-01-01

294

Tsunami Forecast Progress Five Years After Indonesian Disaster  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost five years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, tsunami warnings are finally benefiting from decades of research toward effective model-based forecasts. Since the 2004 tsunami, two seminal advances have been (i) deep-ocean tsunami measurements with tsunameters and (ii) their use in accurately forecasting tsunamis after the tsunami has been generated. Using direct measurements of deep-ocean tsunami heights, assimilated into numerical models for specific locations, greatly improves the real-time forecast accuracy over earthquake-derived magnitude estimates of tsunami impact. Since 2003, this method has been used to forecast tsunamis at specific harbors for different events in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Recent tsunamis illustrated how this technology is being adopted in global tsunami warning operations. The U.S. forecasting system was used by both research and operations to evaluate the tsunami hazard. Tests demonstrated the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models. Several examples also showed potential of distributed forecast tools. With IOC and USAID funding, NOAA researchers at PMEL developed the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) tool and distributed it through extensive capacity-building sessions in the Indian Ocean. Over hundred scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. These same inundation models can also be used for real-time tsunami forecasts as was demonstrated during several events. Contact Information Vasily V. Titov, Seattle, Washington, USA, 98115

Titov, Vasily V.; Bernard, Eddie N.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas E.

2010-05-01

295

TSUNAMI AMPLITUDE PREDICTION DURING EVENTS: A TEST BASED ON PREVIOUS TSUNAMIS  

OpenAIRE

The U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center’s (WC/ATWC) far-field tsunami amplitude prediction method is tested by applying the technique to nine previous, well-recorded tsunamigenic events. Predicted tsunami amplitudes outside the source area are shown to be sufficiently accurate to guide warning cancellation/restriction/expansion decisions. Average error per event ranged from 0.04m to 0.29m with error defined as the absolute value of the difference between the recorded amplitude and...

Whitmore, Paul M.

2003-01-01

296

The elusive AD 1826 tsunami, South Westland, New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In AD 1826 sealers reported earthquake and tsunami activity in Fiordland, although contemporary or near-contemporary accounts of tsunami inundation at the time are elusive. A detailed analysis of recent sediments fom Okarito Lagoon builds on contextual evidence provided by earlier research concerning past tsunami inundation. Sedimentological, geochemical, micropalaeontological and geochronological data are used to determine palaeoenvironments before, during and after what was most probably tsunami inundation in AD 1826. The most compelling chronological control is provided by a young cohort of trees growing on a raised shoreline bench stranded by a drop in the lagoon water level following tsunami inundation. (author). 42 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

297

On the cause of the 1908 Messina tsunami, southern Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

A century after the catastrophic event, the sources of the 1908 Messina, Southern Italy, earthquake and tsunami, which caused at least 60,000 deaths, remain uncertain. Through a simple backward ray-tracing method, we convert the tsunami travel-time data reported in a 100-years-old paper into distances and find that the sources of the earthquake and tsunami are different. Overturning a long-held assumption, reconsideration of the available tsunami, bathymetric, seismic, and seismological data indicates that the tsunami was generated by an underwater landslide.

Billi, Andrea; Funiciello, Renato; Minelli, Liliana; Faccenna, Claudio; Neri, Giancarlo; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora

2008-03-01

298

The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

In this multi-part activity, students study seismograms from 3 different seismic stations recording the magnitude 9.0 Sumatra earthquake of December 26th, 2004. By comparing the arrival times of the P and S waves on each seismogram, students determine the distance from the epicenter to each station. Using that data, they can accurately map the location of the epicenter and the precise time of the earthquake. After locating the epicenter, students calculate the position of the tsunami generated by the quake at one hour intervals. From those determinations, predictions are made about how much time people had before the tsunami crashed onto their shores. Finally, students investigate some of the ways people can lessen the impact of the next great tsunami.

Steve Kluge

299

Relative Tsunami Hazard Maps, Humboldt County, California  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a series of maps depicting the relative tsunami hazard of coastal Humboldt County in Northern California. Unlike inundation maps that show a single line to show the inland extent of flooding, these maps use a four-color zonation to represent relative risk. The highest hazard area has experienced tsunami or storm wave inundation in historic times. These areas include beaches and low coastal bluffs on the open coast and low areas adjacent to Humboldt Bay and major river deltas. The high hazard zones are also mapped as zone A (100 year flooding) or zone V (100 year flood with wave action) on FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Moderate hazard zones are areas likely to be flooded by a major tsunami generated by the Cascadia subduction zone based on published paleotsunami studies, numerical modeling (Bernard and others, 1994) and observations of recent tsunamis elsewhere. Current estimates of major Cascadia earthquake recurrence averages about 500 years. Low hazard zones show no evidence of flooding in the paleotsunami record and are likely to provide refuge in all but the most extreme event. No hazard areas are too high in elevation and/or too far inland to be at risk. A continuous gradational color scale ranging from red (high hazard) through orange (medium), yellow (low) to gray (no hazard) depicts the zones. The blurred boundaries help convey the continuum of possible events and the uncertainty in delineating distinct inundation lines. The maps are GIS based to facilitate ready adaptation by planners and emergency managers. The maps are intended for educational purposes, to improve awareness of tsunami hazards and to encourage emergency planning efforts of local and regional organizations by illustrating the range of possible tsunami events.

Dengler, L. A.; Ludy, B. R.; Patton, J. R.

2003-12-01

300

A Guidebook to Help Coastal Sumatran Communities Prepare for Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

One way to save lives in future tsunamis in coastal Sumatran communities - where more than one million people live and where tsunamis can strike less than one half hour after the triggering earthquake - is to help these communities prepare themselves. To this end, GeoHazards International (GHI) has developed, with a team of advisors from the fields of earth science, civil engineering, emergency response management and social science, a tsunami preparedness guidebook that summarizes state-of-the-art research and worldwide experience in community tsunami preparedness. This guidebook (available at no cost on www.geohaz.org) introduces essential information about tsunamis, tsunami risk mapping, evacuation planning, community education, tsunami warning systems, and the reduction of damage that tsunamis can cause. It describes how to plan and conduct effective tsunami safety programs. Particular emphasis is placed on methods to evacuate quickly and safely all areas that could be flooded. Each section of the guidebook points to sources that provide supplementary, detailed information that may be important to particular communities. The guidebook is aimed at any person - a concerned citizen, government official, business leader, or member of a community organization - who is willing to become an advocate for local tsunami safety. Scientific expertise is not needed. GHI now seeks assistance in distributing this guidebook and in working with grassroots and international organizations to help Sumatran coastal communities use it to prepare for the next tsunami.

Samant, L.; Tobin, L. T.; Tucker, B. E.

2007-12-01

301

Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies  

CERN Document Server

The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

Joseph, Antony

2011-01-01

302

Integrating TWES and Satellite-based remote sensing: Lessons learned from the Honshu 2011 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The Boxing Day Tsunami killed 240,000 people and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Honshu 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for TEWS research still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages to areas at risk, but also to other stakeholders professionally involved in the unfolding event. Until now remote sensing products for Tsunami events, including crisis maps and change detection products, are exclusively linked to those phases of the disaster life cycle, which follow after the early warning stage: Response, recovery and mitigation. The International Charter for Space and Major Disasters has been initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in 1999. It coordinates a voluntary group of governmental space agencies and industry partners, to provide rapid crisis imaging and mapping to disaster and relief organisations to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life, property and the environment. The efficiency of this approach has been demonstrated in the field of Tsunami early warning by Charter activations following the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004, the Chile Tsunami 2010 and the Honshu Tsunami 2011. Traditional single-satellite operations allow at best bimonthly repeat rates over a given Area of Interest (AOI). This allows a lot of time for image acquisition campaign planning between imaging windows for the same AOI. The advent of constellations of identical remote sensing satellites in the early 21st century resulted both in daily AOI revisit capabilities and drastically reduced time frames for acquisition planning. However, the image acquisition planning for optical remote sensing satellite constellations is constrained by orbital and communication requirements: Defined time slots exist to commandeer the tasking of image acquisitions. If such a time slot has been missed, another attempt to image an AOI again can only be attempted ca. 24 hours later, due to the sun-synchronous satellite orbits Therefore it is critical to establish automated Disaster Early Warning dissemination services for the remote sensing community, to supply them with the timeliest opportunity to trigger the tasking process for the affected AOI. For very large events like a Tsunami in the Pacific, this approach provides the chance to gain additional pre-disaster imagery as a reference for change detection. In the case of the Tohoku earthquake, an ad-hoc warning dissemination process was manually dispatched by the Centre for Geoinformation Technology (CeGIT) at the German Research Centre for Geoscience, contacting RapidEye AG, once the severity of the earthquake event had been confirmed by the GEOFON geoseismic network. RapidEye AG decided to launch an imaging campaign which yielded 78 georectified image tiles (L3A) of Honshu island during the next imaging window. Of these, 26 tiles cover the affected coastline, resulting in 16,250km² of content for crisis mapping effort such as the Humanitarian Open Street Map (OSM) Team. This data was made available by RapidEye as a part of the Charter Activiation requested by Japan on March 11 2011. [1] Hoja, D., Schwinger, M.,Wendleder A.,Löwe, P., Konstanski, H., Weichelt, H.: Optimised Near-Real Time Data Acquisition for Disaster Related Rapid Mapping

Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Joachim

2013-04-01

303

Tsunami Forecasting in the Atlantic Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) is to provide advance tsunami warning and guidance to coastal communities within its Area-of-Responsibility (AOR). Predictive tsunami models, based on the shallow water wave equations, are an important part of the Center's guidance support. An Atlantic-based counterpart to the long-standing forecasting ability in the Pacific known as the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is now developed. The Atlantic forecasting method is based on ATFM version 2 which contains advanced capabilities over the original model; including better handling of the dynamic interactions between grids, inundation over dry land, new forecast model products, an optional non-hydrostatic approach, and the ability to pre-compute larger and more finely gridded regions using parallel computational techniques. The wide and nearly continuous Atlantic shelf region presents a challenge for forecast models. Our solution to this problem has been to develop a single unbroken high resolution sub-mesh (currently 30 arc-seconds), trimmed to the shelf break. This allows for edge wave propagation and for kilometer scale bathymetric feature resolution. Terminating the fine mesh at the 2000m isobath keeps the number of grid points manageable while allowing for a coarse (4 minute) mesh to adequately resolve deep water tsunami dynamics. Higher resolution sub-meshes are then included around coastal forecast points of interest. The WCATWC Atlantic AOR includes eastern U.S. and Canada, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are in very close proximity to well-known tsunami sources. Because travel times are under an hour and response must be immediate, our focus is on pre-computing many tsunami source "scenarios" and compiling those results into a database accessible and calibrated with observations during an event. Seismic source evaluation determines the order of model pre-computation - starting with those sources that carry the highest risk. Model computation zones are confined to regions at risk to save computation time. For example, Atlantic sources have been shown to not propagate into the Gulf of Mexico. Therefore, fine grid computations are not performed in the Gulf for Atlantic sources. Outputs from the Atlantic model include forecast marigrams at selected sites, maximum amplitudes, drawdowns, and currents for all coastal points. The maximum amplitude maps will be supplemented with contoured energy flux maps which show more clearly the effects of bathymetric features on tsunami wave propagation. During an event, forecast marigrams will be compared to observations to adjust the model results. The modified forecasts will then be used to set alert levels between coastal breakpoints, and provided to emergency management.

Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.; Sterling, K.; Hale, D. A.; Bahng, B.

2012-12-01

304

Understanding the tsunami with a simple model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we use the approximation of shallow water waves (Margaritondo G 2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) to understand the behaviour of a tsunami in a variable depth. We deduce the shallow water wave equation and the continuity equation that must be satisfied when a wave encounters a discontinuity in the sea depth. A short explanation about how the tsunami hit the west coast of India is given based on the refraction phenomenon. Our procedure also includes a simple numerical calculation suitable for undergraduate students in physics and engineering

305

Japan earthquake: Footage of moment tsunami hit  

Science.gov (United States)

This video footage shows the force at which the tsunami struck Japan's coast. In the fishing port of Miyako, in Iwate prefecture, boats were overturned, while video from Kamaishi city shows cars being dragged down city streets by the water. The tsunami that followed the 8.9-magnitude earthquake wreaked havoc along a huge stretch of Japan's north-east coast, sweeping far inland and devastating a number of towns and villages. Powerful aftershocks are continuing to hit the region. Footage courtesy of TV Asahi and TBS

BBC

306

The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Example of accident sequence analysis of tsunami PRA according to the standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for NPP had been established by the Standardization Committee of AESJ. Industry group had been conducting analysis of Tsunami PRA for PWR based on the standard under the cooperation with electric utilities. This article introduced overview of the standard and examples of accident sequence analysis of Tsunami PRA studied by the industry group according to the standard. The standard consisted of (1) investigation of NPP's composition, characteristics and site information, (2) selection of relevant components for Tsunami PRA and initiating events and identification of accident sequence, (3) evaluation of Tsunami hazards, (4) fragility evaluation of building and components and (5) evaluation of accident sequence. Based on the evaluation, countermeasures for further improvement of safety against Tsunami could be identified by the sensitivity analysis. (T. Tanaka)

307

Conflicts in qualitative research  

OpenAIRE

Volume 12 of the Qualitative Psychology Nexus series presents contributions to the XIV. Workshop on Qualitative Research in Psychology on the general topic of "Conflicts in Qualitative Research." It was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology and the Department of Pedagogy of the University of Jaén, Spain, during May 17-19, 2013. The presentations cover a broad spectrum of possible conflicts that social researchers using qualitative methods have to overcome, ranging from elabor...

Colmenero Ruiz, Mari?a Jesu?s; Domi?nguez Garrido, Mari?a Concepcio?n; Huber, Gu?nter L.; Jime?nez-garrido, Amador; Khan, Shahjehan; Lo?pez Go?mez, Ernesto; Medina Rivilla, Antonio; Medina Domi?nguez, Mari?a; Medina Domi?nguez, Conchita; Pegalajar Palomino, Mari?a Del Carmen; Pe?rez Navi?o, Eufrasio; Santoro Moreno, Jose? Mari?a; Sla?dkova?, Jana; Center for Qualitative Psychology e.V.

2014-01-01

308

Qualitative Research Process  

OpenAIRE

This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses ab...

Hossain, Dewan Mahboob

2011-01-01

309

A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA

310

A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA.

Rhee, Hyun Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Sheen, Dong Hoon; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

311

New contributions to the debate on the cause of the January 11th, 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (Italy): earthquake or offshore landslide source (or may be both)?  

Science.gov (United States)

Eastern Sicily is among the most exposed regions in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean to tsunami hazard and risk. The historical tsunamis recorded here were generally associated to moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes. The largest tsunami documented in the area occurred on January 11th, 1693. It followed the highest-magnitude earthquake (7.4) of the Italian seismic history. The tsunami, whose first significant motion was a retreat along the entire eastern Sicily coastline, produced the most devastating effects at Augusta (15 meters run-up) and Catania, being relevant at Siracusa and Messina too. A lively debate exists on whether the earthquake was the only source of the tsunami, or other causes (such as submarine landslides, possibly triggered by the earthquake) contributed to the tsunami generation. In the framework of the EC funded project TRANSFER, we investigate both hypotheses, starting from suitable onshore and offshore faults as well as from offshore landslide bodies, and hence simulating numerically the ensuing tsunami and comparing the results with the available historical information. We base on the results obtained during recent offshore surveys, in particular the multichannel seismic survey MESC2001, carried out in year 2001 on board the R/V Urania of the Italian National Council of Researches (CNR), which mapped both active normal faults and a number of possible landslide bodies along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, the most prominent tectonic structure found just few kilometres offshore eastern Sicily. From the modelling point of view, the initial condition for the earthquake- generated tsunamis coincides with the vertical coseismic deformation of the seafloor. Instead, the landslide motion is simulated through the Lagrangian block model UBO-BLOCK2, developed at the University of Bologna. Finally, the finite-element code UBO-TSUFE, implemented by the same research team, is used to simulate the tsunami generation and propagation. The main conclusions are: 1) if the earthquake is postulated to be the only responsible for the tsunami, then the historical information can be reproduced only by assuming an offshore tectonic source; 2) taking into account the largest of the mapped landslides, we are able to reproduce quite satisfactorily both the first polarity and the size distribution of the tsunami; 3) we cannot rule out the idea that there was a concurrent contribution of the earthquake and of the landslide in generating the tsunami.

Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Argnani, A.

2007-12-01

312

Observed and Modeled Currents from the Tohoku-oki, Japan and other Recent Tsunamis in Northern California  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the currents produced by recent tsunamis in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City, California. The region is susceptible to both near-field and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located approximately 100 kms north of Humboldt Bay, suffered US 28 million in damages from strong currents produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional US 26 million from the 2011 Japan tsunami. In order to better evaluate these currents in northern California, we deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz 2D acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) with a 1-min sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge station. The instrument recorded the tsunamis produced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 and the Mw 9.0 Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. One other tsunami was recorded on the Humboldt Bay tide gauge during the period of ADCP operation, but was not visible on the ADCP, suggesting a threshold water level value of about 0.2 m to produce an observable ADCP record. The 2010 tsunami currents persisted in Humboldt Bay for approximately 30 h with peak amplitudes of about 0.35 m/s. The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 40 h with peak amplitude of 0.84 m/s. The strongest currents corresponded to the maximum change in water level approximately 67 min after the initial wave arrival. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event. In Crescent City, currents for the first three and one-half hours of the 2011 Japan tsunami were estimated using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master, approximately 70 m away from the NOAA-NOS tide gauge station. The largest amplitude tide gauge water-level oscillations and most of the damage occurred within this time window. The currents reached a velocity of approximately 4.5 m/s and six cycles exceeded 3 m/s during this period. Measured current velocities both in Humboldt Bay and in Crescent City were compared to calculated velocities from the Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) numerical model. The frequency and pattern of current amplification and decay at both locations are replicated by the MOST model for the first several hours after the tsunami onset. MOST generally underestimates 2011 peak current velocities by about 10-30 %, with a few peaks by as much as 50 %. At Humboldt Bay, MOST predicted attenuation of the signal after 4 h but the actual signal persisted at a nearly constant level for at least twice as long. The results from this project demonstrate that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami currents for small to moderate events and can be used to calibrate and validate models (i.e., MOST) in order to better understand hazardous tsunami conditions within harbors.

Admire, Amanda R.; Dengler, Lori A.; Crawford, Gregory B.; Uslu, Burak U.; Borrero, Jose C.; Greer, S. Dougal; Wilson, Rick I.

2014-12-01

313

Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Galapagos Local Time), the Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan, spawning a Pacific-wide tsunami. Approximately 12,000 km away, the Galapagos Islands experienced moderate tsunami impacts, including flooding, structural damage, and strong currents. In this paper, we present observations and measurements of the tsunami effects in the Galapagos, focusing on the four largest islands in the archipelago; (from west to east) Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Access to the tsunami affected areas was one of the largest challenges of the field survey. Aside from approximately ten sandy beaches open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are restricted to anyone without a research permit; open cooperation with the Galapagos National Park provided the survey team complete access to the Islands coastlines. Survey locations were guided by numerical simulations of the tsunami performed prior to the field work. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum tsunami heights were generally in the range of 3-4 m with the highest runup of 6 m measured in a small pocket beach on Isla Isabela. Puerto Ayora, on Santa Cruz Island, the largest harbor in the Galapagos experienced significant flooding and damage to structures located at the shoreline. A current meter moored inside the harbor recorded relatively weak tsunami currents of less than 0.3 m/s (0.6 knot) during the event. Comparisons with detailed numerical simulations suggest that these low current speed observations are most likely the result of data averaging at 20-min intervals and that maximum instantaneous current speeds were considerably larger. Currents in the Canal de Itabaca, a natural waterway between Santa Cruz Island and a smaller island offshore, were strong enough to displace multiple 5.5-ton navigation buoys. Numerical simulations indicate that currents in the Canal de Itabaca exceeded 4 m/s (~8 knots), a very large flow speed for a navigational waterway.

Lynett, Patrick; Weiss, Robert; Renteria, Willington; De La Torre Morales, Giorgio; Son, Sangyoung; Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel

2013-06-01

314

A tsunami PSA methodology and application for NPP site in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. ? Tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. ? Procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. ? A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. ? Accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. - Abstract: A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. In this study, tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. In the case of system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the s developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real Nuclear Power Plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which located in east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real Nuclear Power Plant in Korea. But for more accurate tsunami PSA result, there are many researches needed for evaluation of hydrodynamic force, effect of debris, structural failure probability of break water structure and intake structure, functional failure criteria for offsite power.

315

Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is 1 November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.

Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.

2009-01-01

316

Inversion method for initial tsunami waveform reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the application of r-solution method to recover the initial tsunami waveform in a tsunami source area by remote water-level measurements. Wave propagation is considered within the scope of a linear shallow-water theory. An ill-posed inverse problem is regularized by means of least square inversion using a truncated SVD approach. The properties of obtained solution are determined to a large extent by the properties of an inverse operator, which were numerically investigated. The method presented allows one to control instability of the numerical solution and to obtain an acceptable result in spite of ill-posedness of the problem. It is shown that the accuracy of tsunami source reconstruction strongly depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the azimuthal coverage of recording stations with respect to the source area and bathymetric features along the wave path. The numerical experiments were carried out with synthetic data and various computational domains including a real bathymetry. The method proposed allows us to make a preliminary prediction of the efficiency of the inversion with a given set of the recording stations and to find out the most informative part of the existing observation system. This essential property of the method can prove to be useful in designing a monitoring system for tsunamis.

Voronin, V. V.; Voronina, T. A.; Tcheverda, V. A.

2014-12-01

317

Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is 1 November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.

M. A. Baptista

2009-01-01

318

Inversion method for initial tsunami waveform reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of r-solution method to recover the initial tsunami waveform in a tsunami source area by remote water-level measurements. Wave propagation is considered within the scope of a linear shallow-water theory. An ill-posed inverse problem is regularized by means of least square inversion using a truncated SVD approach. The properties of obtained solution are determined to a large extent by the properties of an inverse operator, which were numerically investigated. The method presented allows one to control instability of the numerical solution and to obtain an acceptable result in spite of ill-posedness of the problem. It is shown that the accuracy of tsunami source reconstruction strongly depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the azimuthal coverage of recording stations with respect to the source area and bathymetric features along the wave path. The numerical experiments were carried out with synthetic data and various computational domains including a real bathymetry. The method proposed allows us to make a preliminary prediction of the efficiency of the inversion with a given set of the recording stations and to find out the most informative part of the existing observation system. This essential property of the method can prove to be useful in designing a monitoring system for tsunamis.

V. V. Voronin

2014-12-01

319

Tsunami: Hope in the Midst of Disaster  

Science.gov (United States)

The lives of many were changed forever when a tsunami struck on the morning of December 26, 2004, as a result of an earthquake off the coast of Indonesia registering 9.0 on the Richter scale. Aftershocks in the nearby Andaman and Nicobar Islands sent waves of fear among the survivors, further debilitating their spirits. The aim of this article is…

Thirumurthy, Vidya; Uma, V.; Muthuram, R. N.

2008-01-01

320

Accessing IDPs in post-tsunami Aceh  

OpenAIRE

Half a million Acehnese – 12% of the province’s population– became IDPs as a result of the tsunami. For humanitarian actors, gaining access was a major challenge. Important lessons can be drawn in order to improve access to IDPs in future emergencies.

Claudia Hudspeth

2005-01-01

321

Tsunami--a first hand account.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first of two reports on the tsunami and its effects, to mark its first anniversary, young UK dentist Bob Bhamra describes first hand how and his wife Sukhi found themselves caught up in Thailand in the terrifying events of Boxing Day 2004. PMID:16415849

2006-01-14

322

Tsunami hazard and exposure on the global scale  

Science.gov (United States)

In the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, a large increase in the activity of tsunami hazard and risk mapping is observed. Most of these are site-specific studies with detailed modelling of the run-up locally. However, fewer studies exist on the regional and global scale. Therefore, tsunamis have been omitted in previous global studies comparing different natural hazards. Here, we present a first global tsunami hazard and population exposure study. A key topic is the development of a simple and robust method for obtaining reasonable estimates of the maximum water level during tsunami inundation. This method is mainly based on plane wave linear hydrostatic transect simulations, and validation against results from a standard run-up model is given. The global hazard study is scenario based, focusing on tsunamis caused by megathrust earthquakes only, as the largest events will often contribute more to the risk than the smaller events. Tsunamis caused by non-seismic sources are omitted. Hazard maps are implemented by conducting a number of tsunami scenario simulations supplemented with findings from literature. The maps are further used to quantify the number of people exposed to tsunamis using the Landscan population data set. Because of the large geographical extents, quantifying the tsunami hazard assessment is focusing on overall trends.

Løvholt, Finn; Glimsdal, Sylfest; Harbitz, Carl B.; Zamora, Natalia; Nadim, Farrokh; Peduzzi, Pascal; Dao, Hy; Smebye, Helge

2012-01-01

323

A Tsunami Fragility Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although Tsunami events were defined as an external event in 'PRA Procedure Guide (NUREG/CR- 2300)'after 1982, a Tsunami event was not considered in a design and construction of NPP before the Sumatra earthquake in 2004. But the Madras Atomic Power Station, a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), and located near Chennai, India, was affected by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (USNRC 2008). The condenser cooling pumps of Unit 2 of the installation were affected due to flooding of the pump house and subsequent submergence of the seawater pumps by tsunami waves. The turbine was tripped and the reactor shut down. The unit was brought to a cold-shutdown state, and the shutdown-cooling systems were reported as operating safely. After this event, Tsunami hazards were considered as one of the major natural disasters which can affect the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA performed an Extrabudgetary project for Tsunami Hazard Assessment and finally an International Seismic Safety Center (ISSC) established in IAEA for protection from natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami etc. For this reason, a tsunami hazard assessment method determined in this study. At first, a procedure for tsunami hazard assessment method was established, and second target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. Finally, a sample fragility calculation was perly, a sample fragility calculation was performed for one of equipment in Nuclear Power Plant

324

Tsunami Prediction and Earthquake Parameters Estimation in the Red Sea  

KAUST Repository

Tsunami concerns have increased in the world after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Consequently, tsunami models have been developed rapidly in the last few years. One of the advanced tsunami models is the GeoClaw tsunami model introduced by LeVeque (2011). This model is adaptive and consistent. Because of different sources of uncertainties in the model, observations are needed to improve model prediction through a data assimilation framework. Model inputs are earthquake parameters and topography. This thesis introduces a real-time tsunami forecasting method that combines tsunami model with observations using a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble Kalman smoother. The filter is used for state prediction while the smoother operates smoothing to estimate the earthquake parameters. This method reduces the error produced by uncertain inputs. In addition, state-parameter EnKF is implemented to estimate earthquake parameters. Although number of observations is small, estimated parameters generates a better tsunami prediction than the model. Methods and results of prediction experiments in the Red Sea are presented and the prospect of developing an operational tsunami prediction system in the Red Sea is discussed.

Sawlan, Zaid A

2012-12-01

325

A Tsunami Fragility Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although Tsunami events were defined as an external event in 'PRA Procedure Guide (NUREG/CR- 2300)'after 1982, a Tsunami event was not considered in a design and construction of NPP before the Sumatra earthquake in 2004. But the Madras Atomic Power Station, a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), and located near Chennai, India, was affected by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (USNRC 2008). The condenser cooling pumps of Unit 2 of the installation were affected due to flooding of the pump house and subsequent submergence of the seawater pumps by tsunami waves. The turbine was tripped and the reactor shut down. The unit was brought to a cold-shutdown state, and the shutdown-cooling systems were reported as operating safely. After this event, Tsunami hazards were considered as one of the major natural disasters which can affect the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA performed an Extrabudgetary project for Tsunami Hazard Assessment and finally an International Seismic Safety Center (ISSC) established in IAEA for protection from natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami etc. For this reason, a tsunami hazard assessment method determined in this study. At first, a procedure for tsunami hazard assessment method was established, and second target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. Finally, a sample fragility calculation was performed for one of equipment in Nuclear Power Plant.

Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keum Seok [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-10-15

326

A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunamis. The additional 53 events either are not described with sufficient detail in the literature to verify their tsunami nature or are judged to be reports of other phenomenasuch as sea quakes or hurricane storm surges which may have been reported as tsunamis. Included in these 91 reports are teletsunamis, tectonic tsunamis, landslide tsunamis, and volcanic tsunamis that have caused major damage and deaths. Nevertheless, in recent history these events have been relatively rare. In the interim since the last major tsunami event in the Caribbean Sea the coastal regions have greatly increased in population. Coastal development has also increased. Today tourism is a major industry that exposes thousands of non-residents to the disastrous effects of a tsunami. These factors make the islands in this region much more vulnerable today than they were when the last major tsunami occurred in this area. This paper gives an overview of the tsunami history in the area. This history illustrates what can be expected in the future from this geologic hazard and provides information that will be useful for mitigation purposes.

Patricia A. Lockridge

2002-01-01

327

Earthquake and Tsunami: a movie and a book for seismic and tsunami risk reduction in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Italy is a country well known for the seismic and volcanic hazard. However, a similarly great hazard, although not well recognized, is posed by the occurrence of tsunami waves along the Italian coastline. This is testified by a rich catalogue and by field evidence of deposits left over by pre- and historical tsunamis, even in places today considered safe. This observation is of great importance since many of the areas affected by tsunamis in the past are today touristic places. The Italian tsunamis can be caused by different sources: 1- off-shore or near coast in-land earthquakes; 2- very large earthquakes on distant sources in the Mediterranean; 3- submarine volcanic explosion in the Tyrrhenian sea; 4- submarine landslides triggered by earthquakes and volcanic activity. The consequence of such a wide spectrum of sources is that an important part of the more than 7000 km long Italian coast line is exposed to the tsunami risk, and thousands of inhabitants (with numbers increasing during summer) live near hazardous coasts. The main historical tsunamis are the 1783 and 1908 events that hit Calabrian and Sicilian coasts. The recent tsunami is that caused by the 2002 Stromboli landslide. In order to reduce this risk and following the emotional impact of the December 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami, we developed an outreach program consisting in talks given by scientists and in a movie and a book, both exploring the causes of the tsunami waves, how do they propagate in deep and shallow waters, and what are the effects on the coasts. Hints are also given on the most dangerous Italian coasts (as deduced by scientific studies), and how to behave in the case of a tsunami approaching the coast. These seminars are open to the general public, but special programs are developed with schools of all grades. In this talk we want to present the book and the movie used during the seminars and scientific expositions, that was realized from a previous 3D version originally developed for science festivals.

Nostro, C.; Baroux, E.; Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Tertulliani, A.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Casale, P.; Ciaccio, M. G.; Frepoli, A.

2009-04-01

328

New Tsunami Forecast Tools for the French Polynesia Tsunami Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the tsunami warning tools, which are used for the estimation of the seismic source parameters. These tools are grouped under a method called Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism_2 ( PDFM2), that has been developed at the French Polynesia Warning Center, in the framework of the system, as a plug-in concept. The first tool determines the seismic moment and the focal geometry (strike, dip, and slip), and the second tool identifies the "tsunami earthquakes" (earthquakes that cause much bigger tsunamis than their magnitude would imply). In a tsunami warning operation, initial assessment of the tsunami potential is based on location and magnitude. The usual quick magnitude methods which use waves, work fine for smaller earthquakes. For major earthquakes these methods drastically underestimate the magnitude and its tsunami potential because the radiated energy shifts to the longer period waves. Since French Polynesia is located far away from the subduction zones of the Pacific rim, the tsunami threat is not imminent, and this luxury of time allows to use the long period surface wave data to determine the true size of a major earthquake. The source inversion method presented in this paper uses a combination of surface waves amplitude spectra and P wave first motions. The advantage of using long period surface data is that there is a much more accurate determination of earthquake size, and the advantage of using P wave first motion is to have a better constrain of the focal geometry than using the surface waves alone. The method routinely gives stable results at minutes, with being the origin time of an earthquake. Our results are then compared to the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog for validating both the seismic moment and the source geometry. The second tool discussed in this paper is the slowness parameter and is the energy-to-moment ratio. It has been used to identify tsunami earthquakes, which are characterized by having unusual slow rupture velocity and release seismic energy that has been shifted to longer periods and, therefore, have low values. The slow rupture velocity would indicate weaker material and bigger uplift and, thus, bigger tsunami potential. The use of the slowness parameter is an efficient tool for monitoring the near real-time identification of tsunami earthquakes.

Clément, Joël; Reymond, Dominique

2015-03-01

329

The Transoceanic 1755 Lisbon Tsunami in Martinique  

Science.gov (United States)

On 1 November 1755, a major earthquake of estimated M w=8.5/9.0 destroyed Lisbon (Portugal) and was felt in the whole of western Europe. It generated a huge transoceanic tsunami that ravaged the coasts of Morocco, Portugal and Spain. Local extreme run-up heights were reported in some places such as Cape St Vincent (Portugal). Great waves were reported in the Madeira Islands, the Azores and as far as the Antilles (Caribbean Islands). An accurate search for historical data allowed us to find new (unpublished) information concerning the tsunami arrival and its consequences in several islands of the Lesser Antilles Arc. In some places, especially Martinique and the Guadeloupe islands, 3 m wave heights, inundation of low lands, and destruction of buildings and boats were reported (in some specific locations probably more enclined to wave amplification). In this study, we present the results of tsunami modeling for the 1755 event on the French island of Martinique, located in the Lesser Antilles Arc. High resolution bathymetric grids were prepared, including topographic data for the first tens of meters from the coastline, in order to model inundations on several sites of Martinique Island. In order to reproduce as well as possible the wave coastal propagation and amplification, the final grid was prepared taking into account the main coastal features and harbour structures. Model results are checked against historical data in terms of wave arrival, polarity, amplitude and period and they correlate well for Martinique. This study is a contribution to the evaluation of the tele-tsunami impact in the Caribbean Islands due to a source located offshore of Iberia and shows that an 8.5 magnitude earthquake located in the northeastern Atlantic is able to generate a tsunami that could impact the Caribbean Islands. This fact must be taken into account in hazard and risk studies for this area.

Roger, J.; Baptista, M. A.; Sahal, A.; Accary, F.; Allgeyer, S.; Hébert, H.

2011-06-01

330

The Great 1787 Corralero, Oaxaca, Tsunami Uncovered  

Science.gov (United States)

In 28th March 1787, more than two centuries ago, a deadly tsunami (related to the the San Sixto earthquake) poured over the coast of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas, along more than 500 km of the Mexican Pacific coast and up to 6 km inland, the tsunami destroyed mostly farmlands, and livestock and few villages since the density of population was sparse at the time, according to known historical accounts. We report the first geological evidence from the Corralero (Alotengo) lagoon coastal area to support these historical accounts. A transect was made with coring and test pits every 100 m from the coastline and up to 1.6 km inland. The test pits showed an anomalous sand layer that had been deposited in a single event in the swales of a series of beach ridges. The anomalous layer is continuous along the transect, about a 1000 m-long, and is formed of coarse to medium sand, at about 36 to 64 cm depth. It thickness varies, averaging 28 cm in the middle of a swale. Based on the accounts of the 1787 earthquake (M 8.6) and tsunami, we deduced that this might be the evidence of its existence. As the only major tsunami described at that time, the San Sixto earthquake-triggered tsunami. We used the stratigraphy, grain size, microfossils (foraminifera and diatoms), magnetic properties such as magnetic susceptibility, remanent magnetization analyses to reveal the nature of this anomalous sand layer. These proxies support a sudden and rapid event, consisting of sands transported by an extreme sea-wave inland. Further analysis will confirm the estimated age of this event.

Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Lagos, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Aguilar, B.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Caballero, M.; Ruíz-Fernández, A. C.; Suarez, G.; Ortuño, M.

2013-05-01

331

On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate the evolution of initial rectangular shaped humps of water propagating large distances over a constant depth. The objective is to clarify under which circumstances the front of the wave can develop into an undular bore with a leading soliton. In this connection we discuss and test various measures for the threshold distance necessary for nonlinear and dispersive effects to manifest in a transient wave train. In part 2, we simulate the shoaling of long smooth transient and periodic waves on a mild slope and conclude that these waves are effectively non-dispersive. In this connection we discuss the relevance of finite amplitude solitary wave theory in laboratory studies of tsunamis. We conclude that order-of-magnitude errors in effective temporal and spatial duration occur when this theory is used as an approximation for long waves on a sloping bottom. In part 3, we investigate the phenomenon of disintegration of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed e.g. in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficently steep, and as a result the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection with breaking and runup, and conclude that they do not justify a solitary wave model for the bulk tsunami.

Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

2008-01-01

332

Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

OpenAIRE

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing...

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

2010-01-01

333

Tsunami Early Warning System in Italy and involvement of local communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Italy is characterized by a great coastal extension, and by a series of possible tsunamigenic sources: many active faults, onshore and offshore, also near the shoreline and in shallow water, active volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Campi Flegrei for example), continental margins where landslides can occur. All these threats justify the establishment of a tsunami early warning system (TEWS), especially in Southern Italy where most of the sources capable of large disastrous tsunamis are located. One of the main characteristics of such sources, that however is common to other countries in not only in the Mediterranean, is their vicinity to the coast, which means that the tsunami lead time for attacking the coastal system is expected to be within 10-15 minutes in several cases. This constraint of time imposes to conceive and adopt specific plans aiming at a quick tsunami detection and alert dissemination for the TEWS, since obviously the TEWS alert must precede and not follow the tsunami first arrival. The need to be quick introduces the specific problem of uncertainty that is though inherent to any forecast system, but it is a very big issue especially when time available is short, since crucial decisions have to be taken in presence of incomplete data and incomplete processing. This is just the big problem that has to be faced by a system like the a TEWS in Italy. Uncertainties can be reduced by increasing the capabilities of the tsunami monitoring system by densifying the traditional instrumental networks (e.g. by empowering seismic and especially coastal and offshore sea-level observation systems) in the identified tsunamigenic source areas. However, uncertainties, though are expected to have a decreasing trend as time passes after the tsunami initiation, cannot be eliminated and have to be appropriately dealt with: uncertainties lead to under- and overestimation of the tsunami size and arrival times, and to missing or to false alerts, or in other terms they degrade the performance of the tsunami predictors. The role of the local communities in defining the strategies in case of uncertain data is essential: only involvement of such communities since the beginning of the planning and implementation phase of the TEWS as well as in the definition of a decision making matrix can ensure appropriate response in case of emergency, and most importantly, the acceptance of the system in the long run. The efforts to implement the Tsunami Warning System in Italy should take into proper account the above mentioned aspects. Involvement of local communities should be primarily realized through the involvement of the local components of the Civil Protection Agency that is responsible for the implementation of the system over the Italian territory. A pilot project is being conducted in cooperation between the Civil Protection Service of Sicily and the University of Bologna (UNIBO) that contemplates the empowering of the local sea-level monitoring system (TSUNET) and specific vulnerability and risk analyses, also exploiting results of national and European research projects (e.g. TRANSFER and SCHEMA) where UNIBO had a primary role.

Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

2010-05-01

334

The qualitative research proposal  

OpenAIRE

Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation c...

Klopper, H.

2008-01-01

335

Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

On 27 February 2010, a magnitude M w = 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life. Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake. Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event and surveyed 800 km of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín and the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Mocha, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter). The collected survey data include more than 400 tsunami flow depth, runup and coastal uplift measurements. The tsunami peaked with a localized runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución. The observed runup distributions exhibit significant variations on local and regional scales. Observations from the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis are compared.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Petroff, Catherine M.; Catalán, Patricio A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo; Winckler, Patricio; Kalligeris, Nikos; Weiss, Robert; Barrientos, Sergio E.; Meneses, Gianina; Valderas-Bermejo, Carolina; Ebeling, Carl; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Contreras, Manuel; Almar, Rafael; Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Synolakis, Costas E.

2011-11-01

336

Learning from Fukushima. A holistic approach to tsunami risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two devastating tsunamis in the 21st century were caused by large megathrust earthquakes on tectonic plate boundaries; the Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 and the Great Tohoku tsunami in 2011. Both of these events have led to a focus on tsunamis caused by megathrusts when assessing risks to coastal nuclear power plants. From a longer time perspective, however, such earthquakes are not the only - or even the most significant - sources of large tsunamis. It is important that the key lesson from the impact of the Great Tohoku earthquake and associated tsunami on the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant - that unexpected combinations of events can cause complete failure of defence in depth - is not lost by looking in too much detail at these particular incidents. Instead a wider assessment of events that can give rise to giant waves and major inundation should be considered. (author)

337

Interdisciplinary approach for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Algeria (West Mediterranean)  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous tsunamis occurred in the West Mediterranean with magnitudes ranging from m=-1 to m=2 (Imamura-Iida scale). In Algeria, tsunamis are reported from the 14th century to 2003. Northern Algeria is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian plate. Destructive earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.7 occurred 3 times in the last century. The North Algeria western region is characterized by the Murdjadjo anticline. A destructive earthquake hit Oran city on October 1790 (Intensity: X, West of Algeria). A tsunami was triggered in the Alboran sea. The Spanish and North Africa coasts were flooded. Run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents (Lopez Marinas and Salord, 1990). Here, the 1790 Alboran tsunami is studied from a modelling approach. The tsunami source is determined from the Okada equations and the tsunami propagation is estimated from the SWAN code (Mader, 2004). Results show that active thrust faulting related to the Murdjadjo structure is responsible for the tsunami. In the central part of Algeria, the Algiers city (capital of Algeria) was the location of destructive earthquakes (Intensity: X) that were followed by tsunamis in 1365 and in 1773. Flooding and run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents for the 1365 event. The central part of Algeria is the site of the Sahel anticline. A tsunami modelling is also performed considering the Sahel fault system as a potential tsunami source. Results show that it takes less than 15 minutes for the tsunami waves to reach the Spanish coast. Run-up’s are estimated lower than 2 meters in height. Discrepancies are attributed to the resolution of the bathymetry and the limits of the modelling. In the eastern region, historical reports also reveal run-up’s up to 5 meters in height after a tsunami triggered by a destructive earthquake in 1856 in Jijel city (intensity: VIII). From tsunami catalogs, seismic and tsunami data are plotted using a tsunami vulnerability parameter. The vulnerability index is estimated from the tsunami intensity and the seismic intensity using the Papadopoulos and the EMS scale. Results show that in Algeria, tsunami damages are minor relative to seismic damages. Since the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami, intergovernmental coordinated groups are working on an Indian and a Mediterranean tsunami alert system. To reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, it is very important to implement an efficiency warning system and a communication policy for fast urbanized coastal cities. In that context, lessons from the pacific case study are of major interest. Chile is marked by a very high seismic and tsunami hazard. The Iquique area is a threaten zone for a potential earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 and a local tsunami that could generate run-up’s up to 20 meters in height. In addition to the Pacific Tsunami Warning centre based in Hawaii, the Chile has elaborated a local tsunami warning centre. The Chilean case study is presented in discussion to highlight some lessons that may serve as an example for fast urbanized coastal cities that have to face local tsunamis.

Amir, L. A.; Cisternas, A.; Vigneresse, J. D.

2009-12-01

338

Relationship Between Maximum Tsunami Amplitude and Duration of Signal  

Science.gov (United States)

All available tsunami observations at tide gauges situated along the North American coast were examined to determine if there is any clear relationship between maximum amplitude and signal duration. In total, 89 historical tsunami recordings generated by 13 major earthquakes between 1952 and 2011 were investigated. Tidal variations were filtered out of the signal and the duration between the arrival time and the time at which the signals drops and stays below 0.3 m amplitude was computed. The processed tsunami time series were evaluated and a linear least-squares fit with a 95 % confidence interval was examined to compare tsunami durations with maximum tsunami amplitude in the study region. The confidence interval is roughly 20 h over the range of maximum tsunami amplitudes in which we are interested. This relatively large confidence interval likely results from variations in local resonance effects, late-arriving reflections, and other effects.

Kim, Yoo Yin; Whitmore, Paul M.

2014-12-01

339

Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Canadian Coastlines  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a preliminary probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment of Canadian coastlines from local and far-field, earthquake and large landslide sources. Our multifaceted analysis is based on published historical, paleotsunami and paleoseismic data, modelling, and empirical relations between fault area, earthquake magnitude and tsunami runup. We consider geological sources with known tsunami impacts on Canadian coasts (e.g., Cascadia and other Pacific subduction zones; the 1755 Lisbon tsunami source; Atlantic continental slope failures) as well as potential sources with previously unknown impact (e.g., Explorer plate subduction; Caribbean subduction zones; crustal faults). The cumulative estimated tsunami hazard for potentially damaging runup (? 1.5 m) of the outer Canadian Pacific coastline is ~40-80% in 50 y, respectively one and two orders of magnitude greater than the outer Atlantic (~1-15%) and the Arctic (Mackenzie River delta requires further study. We highlight areas susceptible to locally-damaging landslide-generated tsunamis, but do not quantify the hazard.

Leonard, L. J.; Rogers, G. C.; Mazzotti, S.

2012-12-01

340

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

341

Coping with the Asian tsunami: perspectives from Tamil Nadu, India on the determinants of resilience in the face of adversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 wreaked havoc along the southeastern coast of India and resulted in devastating losses. The high rates of long-term mental health consequences in adult survivors predicted immediately after the disaster have not been borne out by recent surveys. This qualitative study explored the psychological impact of the tsunami on survivors with a view to gaining insights into the ethno-cultural coping mechanisms of affected communities and evaluating resilience in the face of incomprehensible adversity. We conducted focus group discussions 9 months after the tsunami with two groups of fishermen, two groups of housewives, a group of village leaders and a group of young men in four affected villages of Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu, India. In spite of incomplete reconstruction of their lives, participants reconstructed meaning for the causes and the aftermath of the disaster in their cultural idiom. Qualitative changes in their social structure, processes and attitudes towards different aspects of life were revealed. Survivors valued their unique individual, social and spiritual coping strategies more than formal mental health services. Their stories confirm the assertion that the collective response to massive trauma need not necessarily result in social collapse but also includes positive effects. The results of this study suggest that interventions after disaster should be grounded in ethno-cultural beliefs and practices and should be aimed at strengthening prevailing community coping strategies. PMID:18562066

Rajkumar, Anto P; Premkumar, Titus S; Tharyan, Prathap

2008-09-01

342

The international humanitarian system and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis were an exceptional event. So too was the scale of the response, particularly the level of international funding. Unprecedented donations meant that for once, an international emergency response was largely free of financial constraints. This removal of the funding constraint facilitated observation of the capacity and quality of international disaster aid. The Tsunami Evaluation Coalition conducted five independent thematic assessments in 2005-an impact study was planned, but never implemented. The five evaluations were supported by 44 sub-studies. Based on this work, this paper compares international disaster response objectives, principles and standards with actual performance. It reaches conclusions on four salient aspects: funding; capacity and quality; recovery; and ownership. It ends by proposing a fundamental reorientation of international disaster response approaches that would root them in concepts of sustainable disaster risk reduction and recovery, based on local and national ownership of these processes. PMID:17367371

Telford, John; Cosgrave, John

2007-03-01

343

Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges  

OpenAIRE

Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS....

Wa?chter, J.; Babeyko, A.; Fleischer, J.; Ha?ner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Kloth, A.; Lendholt, M.

2012-01-01

344

Far-Field Tsunami Hazard in New Zealand Ports  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the effects of far-field tsunamis in New Zealand ports. Four sites (Marsden Point, Tauranga, Harbor, Port Taranaki and Lyttelton Harbor) were selected based on a combination of factors such as economic importance and the availability of historical and/or instrumental data. Numerical models were created using the ComMIT tsunami modeling tool and the Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) hydrodynamic model. Comparison of model results to measured data from recent historical events showed that, for particular sites and events, the model correlated well with the timing and amplitude of the observed tsunami, and, in most cases, there was generally good agreement between the and modeled tsunami heights and current speeds. A sensitivity analysis for tsunami heights and current speeds was conducted using a suite of large ( M W 9) tsunamigenic earthquake sources situated at regular 15° intervals in azimuth along the Pacific Rim while another set of scenarios focused on regional tsunami sources in the Southwest Pacific. Model results were analyzed for tsunami heights and current speeds as a function of the source region. In terms of currents, the analysis identified where speeds were greatest and which source was responsible. Results suggested that tsunamis originating from Central America produced the strongest response in New Zealand. The modeling was also used to determine the timing and duration of potentially dangerous current speeds as well as minimum `safe depths' for vessel evacuation offshore. This study was motivated by the desire to reduce damage and operational losses via improved forecasting of far-field tsunamis at New Zealand ports. It is important that forecasts are accurate since tsunami damage to ships and facilities is expensive and can be mitigated given timely warnings and because preventable false alarms are also costly in terms of lost productivity. The modeling presented here will underpin efforts to produce port-specific guidance and information in the event of future Pacific tsunamis.

Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.; Greer, S. Dougal; Power, William L.

2015-03-01

345

Warnings and reactions to the Tohoku tsunami in Hawaii  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2011 Tohoku tsunami was the first chance within the USA to document and interpret large-scale response and protective action behavior with regard to a large, destructive tsunami since 1964. The 2011 tsunami offered a unique, short-lived opportunity to transform our understanding of individual and collective behavior in the US in response to a well-publicized tsunami warning and, in particular, to look at the complex interplay of official information sources, informal warnings and information-seeking in communities with significant physical impact from the 2011 tsunami. This study is focused in Hawaii, which suffered significant ($30 M), but localized damage, from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and underwent a full-scale tsunami evacuation. The survey contrasts three Hawaiian communities which either experienced significant tsunami damage (Kona) or little physical impact (Hilo, Honolulu). It also contrasts a long-established local community with experience of evacuation, destruction and loss of life in two tsunamis (Hilo) with a metropolitan population with a large visitor presence (Honolulu) that has not experienced a damaging tsunami in decades. Many factors such as personal perceptions of risk, beliefs, past exposure to the hazard, forecast uncertainty, trust in information sources, channels of transmission of information, the need for message confirmation, responsibilities, obligations, mobility, the ability to prepare, the availability of transportation and transport routes, and an acceptable evacuation center affected behavior. We provide new information on how people reacted to warnings and tsunamis, especially with regard to social integration of official warnings and social media. The results of this study will strengthen community resilience to tsunamis, working with emergency managers to integrate strengths and weaknesses of the public responses with official response plans.

Houghton, B. F.; Gregg, C. E.

2012-12-01

346

Post tsunami environmental impact assessment using sediment analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this investigation is to understand the geochemical variation in east coast of marine environment near existing and proposed DAE facilities due to Tsunami. Hence interest in the post Tsunami Environmental Impact study is on the concentration and distribution of radioelement and associated heavy metals. It is therefore essential to study the impact of Tsunami on the marine ecosystem which has been subject to to the impact of industrialization and urbanization of land

347

Analytical investigation on tsunamis generated by submarine slides  

OpenAIRE

Tsunamis induced by landslides are a topic on which growing attention is being paid especially under the pressure of recent events in which movement of underwater masses have been recognised to be the certain or likely cause of the observed tsunami. Here analytical methods and idealised cases are used to investigate tsunami generation by submarine slides that undergo negligible deformation during their motion, such as slumps. The general solution of the 1D Cauchy linear problem for long water...

Bortolucci, E.; Tinti, S.

2000-01-01

348

Integration of Spatial Analysis for Tsunami Inundation and Impact Assessment  

OpenAIRE

Disaster mitigation and reconstruction plan due to tsunami can be implemented with various actions. An integration of spatial analysis through Geographical Information System (GIS) application and multi-criteria analysis through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the methods for tsunami inundation and impact assessment. In this study, vulnerability, inundation and impact assessment due to tsunami hazard in Ofunato city, Iwate Prefecture, Japan was carried out. Appropri...

Abu Bakar Sambah; Fusanori Miura

2014-01-01

349

A tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is an abstract. Using tidal gauge data from the time of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the authors were able to reconstruct the height and speed of the waves and the time it took them to reach coastal regions. Readings from the tidal gauges could have given advance warning to some areas hit by the tsunami, had a warning system been in place. Suggestions for creating a tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean region are given.

Merrifield et al.

350

TSUNAMI HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTHERN AEGEAN SEA  

OpenAIRE

Emergency planning for the assessment of tsunami hazard inundation and of secondary effects of erosion and landslides, requires mapping that can help identify coastal areas that are potentially vulnerable. The present study reviews tsunami susceptibility mapping for coastal areas of Turkey and Greece in the Aegean Sea. Potential tsunami vulnerable locations were identified from LANDSAT ETM imageries, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000) data and QuickBird imageries and from a GIS int...

Barbara Theilen-Willige

2008-01-01

351

Near Source 2007 Peru Tsunami Runup Observations and Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed two weeks after the event and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. Three tsunami fatalities were reported south of the Paracas Peninsula in a sparsely populated desert area where the largest tsunami runup heights and massive inundation distances up to 2 km were measured. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. As with all near field tsunamis, the waves struck within minutes of the massive ground shaking. Spontaneous evacuations coordinated by the Peruvian Coast Guard minimized the fatalities and illustrate the importance of community-based education and awareness programs. The residents of the fishing village Lagunilla were unaware of the tsunami hazard after an earthquake and did not evacuate, which resulted in 3 fatalities. Despite the relatively benign tsunami effects at Pisco from this event, the tsunami hazard for this city (and its liquefied natural gas terminal) cannot be underestimated. Between 1687 and 1868, the city of Pisco was destroyed 4 times by tsunami waves. Since then, two events (1974 and 2007) have resulted in partial inundation and moderate damage. The fact that potentially devastating tsunami runup heights were observed immediately south of the peninsula only serves to underscore this point.

Borrero, J. C.; Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Broncano, P.; Ortega, E.

2008-12-01

352

Overlooked threat of tsunamis to the Caribbean discussed  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis are a true threat to the Caribbean region. According to Jim Lander of the University of Colorado, since 1530, tsunamis have caused more deaths in the Caribbean than in Alaska, Hawaii, and the U.S. east coast combined. A group of scientists recently convened in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, to discuss the reality of the tsunami threat in the Caribbean. Workshop sessions also identified potential tsunamigenic Caribbean sources and discussed the need to establish some type of early warning system.

Mercado Irizarry, Aurelio

353

Tsunami prevention and mitigation necessities and options derived from tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk and vulnerability assessment is an important component of an effective End-to-End Tsunami Early Warning System and therefore contributes significantly to disaster risk reduction. Risk assessment is a key strategy to implement and design adequate disaster prevention and mitigation measures. The knowledge about expected tsunami hazard impacts, exposed elements, their susceptibility, coping and adaptation mechanisms is a precondition for the development of people-centred warning structures, local specific response and recovery policy planning. The developed risk assessment and its components reflect the disaster management cycle (disaster time line) and cover the early warning as well as the emergency response phase. Consequently the components hazard assessment, exposure (e.g. how many people/ critical facilities are affected?), susceptibility (e.g. are the people able to receive a tsunami warning?), coping capacity (are the people able to evacuate in time?) and recovery (are the people able to restore their livelihoods?) are addressed and quantified. Thereby the risk assessment encompasses three steps: (i) identifying the nature, location, intensity and probability of potential tsunami threats (hazard assessment); (ii) determining the existence and degree of exposure and susceptibility to those threats; and (iii) identifying the coping capacities and resources available to address or manage these threats. The paper presents results of the research work, which is conducted in the framework of the GITEWS project and the Joint Indonesian-German Working Group on Risk Modelling and Vulnerability Assessment. The assessment methodology applied follows a people-centred approach to deliver relevant risk and vulnerability information for the purposes of early warning and disaster management. The analyses are considering the entire coastal areas of Sumatra, Java and Bali facing the Sunda trench. Selected results and products like risk maps, guidelines, decision support information and other GIS products will be presented. The focus of the products is on the one hand to provide relevant risk assessment products as decision support to issue a tsunami warning within the early warning stage. On the other hand the maps and GIS products shall provide relevant information to enable local decision makers to act adequately concerning their local risks. It is shown that effective prevention and mitigation measures can be designed based on risk assessment results and information especially when used pro-active and beforehand a disaster strikes. The conducted hazard assessment provides the probability of an area to be affected by a tsunami threat divided into two ranked impact zones. The two divided impact zones directly relate to tsunami warning levels issued by the Early Warning Center and consequently enable the local decision maker to base their planning (e.g. evacuation) accordingly. Within the tsunami hazard assessment several hundred pre-computed tsunami scenarios are analysed. This is combined with statistical analysis of historical event data. Probabilities of tsunami occurrence considering probabilities of different earthquake magnitudes, occurrences of specific wave heights at coast and spatial inundation probability are computed. Hazard assessment is then combined with a comprehensive vulnerability assessment. Here deficits in e.g. people's ability to receive and understand a tsunami warning and deficits in their ability to respond adequately (evacuate on time) are quantified and are visualized for the respective coastal areas. Hereby socio-economic properties (determining peoples ability to understand a warning and to react) are combined with environmental conditions (land cover, slope, population density) to calculate the time needed to evacuate (reach a tsunami safe area derived through the hazard assessment). This is implemented using a newly developed GIS cost-distance weighting approach. For example, the amount of people affected in a certain area is dependent on expected tsunami intensity, inundated area, estimated tsuna

Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Steinmetz, T.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

2009-04-01

354

Qualitative and Hierarchical Analysis of Protective Factors against Illicit Use of Doping Substances in Athletes Calling a National Anti-Doping Phone-Help Service  

OpenAIRE

Evidence of a sport-specific hierarchy of protective factors against doping would thus be a powerful aid in adapting information and prevention campaigns to target the characteristics of specific athlete groups, and especially those athletes most vulnerable for doping control. The contents of phone calls to a free and anonymous national anti-doping service called ‘ecoute dopage’ were analysed (192 bodybuilders, 124 cyclists and 44 footballers). The results showed that the protective facto...

Mohamed, Sara A.; Jean Bilard; Denis Hauw

2013-01-01

355

Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand  

OpenAIRE

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous buildings and houses in Thailand. Estimation of tsunami impact to buildings from this event and evaluation of the potential risks are important but still in progress. The tsunami fragility curve is a function used to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazards. This study was undertaken to develop fragility curves using visual inspection of high-resolution satellite images (IKONOS) taken before and after tsunami events...

Suppasri, A.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.

2011-01-01

356

Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this paper is to present an original real-time algorithm devised for detection of tsunami or tsunami-like waves we call TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm), and to introduce a methodology to evaluate its performance. TEDA works on the sea level records of a single station and implements two distinct modules running concurrently: one to assess the presence of tsunami waves ("tsunami detection") and the other to identify high-amplitude long waves ("secure dete...

Bressan, L.; Tinti, S.

2011-01-01

357

Tsunami Early Warning: Introducing single frequency GPS receiver into the Tsunami Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

M. Ramatschi (1), C. Falck (1), M. Bartsch (1), A. Merx (1), J. Hoeberechts (1), G. Schmidt (1) Abstract After the disastrous tsunami event in Sumatra in 2004 the German government initiated the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) which was inaugurated in 2008 and is now known as the Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia (INA-TEWS). Within GITEWS, some new technologies were introduced into the Tsunami early warning, such as geodetic dual frequency GNSS receiver, which are installed on open sea buoys, coastal tide gauges and inland reference stations. This technology is able to support tsunami early warning systems, e.g., by detection of ground motions due to earthquakes. The major drawback of this sensor type is its high expense. Under certain circumstances cost effective single frequency receiver could achieve the same quality, as long as the network topology allows a precise data processing. In our presentation we will review the GNSS part of GITEWS to demonstrate the integration of the newly designed, low power single frequency GPS sensor station with respect to the real-time data flow and the precise near real-time data processing. Technical aspects of data transmission will be addressed as well. Benefits of a small GPS sensor array located next to the Sumatra trench will be discussed in detail. (1) GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 17, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany

Ramatschi, M.; Falck, C.

2009-12-01

358

Tsunami Inversion on 2010 Chile Earthquake with the Small Unit Tsunami Inverse Method  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the small unit tsunami inverse method (SUTIM) is developed to reconstruct the initial free-surface profile of a tsunami triggered by an earthquake event. The profile of the tsunami source can be treated as the seafloor vertical displacement which is important for understanding the characteristics of the earthquakes and local geology. The newly developed SUTIM is able to reproduce the initial free-surface displacement with a very fine resolution. The algorithm is speeded up by the Grid-Shifting method. A smoothing constrain is adopted as well to gain the accuracy. A series of performance tests and validations is presented in this paper. At the end, the SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks. Very good agreement can be seen in figure 1. The detailed discussion is presented in the full paper. Figure 1. The initial tsunami free-surface profile of 2010 Chile earthquake is obtained by using SUTIM. The big red circle shows the epicenter of the earthquake. The small black dots on the left show the aftershocks. The green triangles are the wave gauges. The color indicates the initial tsunami profile obtained from SUTIM. The contours on right plot show the water elevation from the Okada (1985) half-space semi-elastic model.

Wu, T.; He, D.

2010-12-01

359

Effects of rupture complexity on local tsunami inundation: Implications for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment by example  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the influence of earthquake source complexity on the extent of inundation caused by the resulting tsunami. We simulated 100 scenarios with collocated sources of variable slip on the Hikurangi subduction interface in the vicinity of Hawke's Bay and Poverty Bay in New Zealand and investigated the tsunami effects on the cities of Napier and Gisborne. Rupture complexity was found to have a first-order effect on flow depth and inundation extent for local tsunami sources. The position of individual asperities in the slip distribution on the rupture interface control to some extent how severe inundation will be. However, predicting inundation extent in detail from investigating the distribution of slip on the rupture interface proves difficult. Assuming uniform slip on the rupture interface in tsunami models can underestimate the potential impact and extent of inundation. For example, simulation of an Mw 8.7 to Mw 8.8 earthquake with uniform slip reproduced the area that could potentially be inundated by equivalent nonuniform slip events of Mw 8.4. Deaggregation, to establish the contribution of different sources with different slip distributions to the probabilistic hazard, cannot be performed based on magnitude considerations alone. We propose two predictors for inundation severity based on the offshore tsunami wavefield using the linear wave equations in an attempt to keep costly simulations of full inundation to a minimum.

Mueller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming

2015-01-01

360

Validating Velocities in the GeoClaw Tsunami Model using Observations Near Hawaii from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami  

CERN Document Server

The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities existed to compare with model results. During the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami 328 current meters were in place around the Hawaiian Islands, USA, that captured time series of water velocity in 18 locations, in both harbors and deep channels, at a series of depths. We compare several of these velocity records against numerical simulations performed using the GeoClaw numerical tsunami model, based on solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with adaptive mesh refinement, to confirm that this model can accurately predict velo...

Arcos, M E M

2014-01-01

361

GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

T. Schöne

2011-03-01

362

GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.

2011-03-01

363

Study of tsunami propagation in the Ligurian Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami propagation is analyzed for the Ligurian Sea with particular attention on the French coasts of the Mediterranean. Historical data of tsunami manifestation on the French coast are analyzed for the period 2000 B.C.–1991 A.D. Numerical simulations of potential and historical tsunamis in the Ligurian Sea are done in the context of the nonlinear shallow water theory. Tsunami wave heights as well as their distribution function is calculated for historical tsunamis and it is shown that the log-normal distribution describes reasonably the simulated data. This demonstrates the particular role of bottom irregularities for the wave height distribution function near the coastlines. Also, spectral analysis of numerical tide-gauge records is done for potential tsunamis, revealing the complex resonant interactions between the tsunami waves and the bottom oscillations. It is shown that for an earthquake magnitude of 6.8 (averaged value for the Mediterranean Sea the tsunami phenomenon has a very local character but with long duration. For sources located near the steep continental slope in the vicinity of the French-Italian Rivera, the tsunami tide-gauge records in the vicinity of Cannes – Imperia present irregular oscillations with a characteristic period of 20–30 min and a total duration of 10–20 h. For the western French coasts the amplitudes are significantly less with characteristic low-frequency oscillations (period of 40 min–1 h.

E. Pelinovsky

2001-01-01

364

Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a tsunami to impact a site and all quantifiable uncertainty. Although only earthquakes were initially considered for PTHA, recent efforts have also attempted to include landslide tsunami sources. Including these sources into PTHA is considerably more difficult because of a general lack of information on relating landslide area and volume to mean return period. The large variety of failure types and rheologies associated with submarine landslides translates to considerable uncertainty in determining the efficiency of tsunami generation. Resolution of these and several other outstanding problems are described that will further advance PTHA methodologies leading to a more accurate understanding of tsunami hazard.

Eric L. Geist

2014-06-01

365

Landslide tsunami hazard in the Indonesian Sunda Arc  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indonesian archipelago is known for the occurrence of catastrophic earthquake-generated tsunamis along the Sunda Arc. The tsunami hazard associated with submarine landslides however has not been fully addressed. In this paper, we compile the known tsunamigenic events where landslide involvement is certain and summarize the properties of published landslides that were identified with geophysical methods. We depict novel mass movements, found in newly available bathymetry, and determine their key parameters. Using numerical modeling, we compute possible tsunami scenarios. Furthermore, we propose a way of identifying landslide tsunamis using an array of few buoys with bottom pressure units.

S. Brune

2010-03-01

366

TSUNAMIS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA A GUIDE OF HISTORIC EVENTS  

OpenAIRE

The Arabian Peninsula has been affected by tsunamis in the past. The Peninsula is bounded by the Persian Gulf on its northeast side, the Red Sea on its west side, and the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean to its east and south. Each of these areas is very different geographically, tectonically, and bathymetrically.Only two, localized tsunamis have been recorded in the Red Sea and one, doubtful, tsunami in the Persian Gulf. Almost all of the recorded tsunamis along the Arabia...

Jordan, Benjamin R.

2008-01-01

367

Comparison of Tsunami Hazards between Japan and Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 11th, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukushima NPP sites, including their cores, were damaged. The term 'core damage' can be found in safety reports or textbooks on nuclear engineering. Therefore, in this study, a tsunami hazard assessment was performed for Korean NPP sites and was compared to a Japanese tsunami hazard assessment based on a previous tsunami PSA study

368

Survival of shrines from the 2011 Great Tsunami  

OpenAIRE

A massive earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 occurred on March 11, 2011, and a powerful tsunami devastated a large area along Japan???s eastern coastline. We investigated the tsunami damage using satellite images and aerial photographs, and visited damaged sites including 27 shrines near the coast in 2011 and 2012. It was found that all but two of these shrines survived the tsunami, even though the tsunami height differed from place to place. As a memorial to people who lost their lives in pr...

Sakai, K.; Uda, T.; Nami, T. S.

2013-01-01

369

Preservation potential of tsunami deposits on arid siliciclastic coasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous post-tsunami surveys have been conducted in the last two decades, especially since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. These studies have documented a variety of characteristic sedimentary and erosional features that can be ascribed to known events. Nevertheless, the question arises whether these structures are just ephemeral or have a potential to be preserved in the geological record. This review describes the changes that have affected muddy to sandy siliciclastic tsunami deposits in Peru. Each of these was surveyed in the first months after the tsunami: Chimbote (1996), Camaná (2001) and Pisco-Paracas (2007). Here, we describe the changes we observed during re-surveys in 2007 and 2008.

Spiske, Michaela; Piepenbreier, Jens; Benavente, Carlos; Bahlburg, Heinrich

2013-11-01

370

A CATALOG OF TSUNAMIS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A catalog of about ninety tsunamis in the Indian Ocean has been prepared from 326 BC to 2005 AD. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tsunamis have occurred once in three years or so. Sunda Arc is the most active region that has produced about seventy tsunamis. The source zones of the remaining tsunamis are Andaman-Nicobar islands, Burma-Bangladesh region in the eastern side, while Makran accretion zone and Kutch- Saurashtra region are in the west. These zones are subduction zones or zones of compression.

B. K. Rastogi

2006-01-01

371

MORTALITY, THE FAMILY AND THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 130,000 people died in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The correlates of survival are examined using data from the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a population-representative survey collected in Aceh and North Sumatra, Indonesia, before and after the tsunami. Children, older adults and females were the least likely to survive. Whereas socio-economic factors mattered relatively little, the evidence is consistent with physical strength playing a role. Pre-tsunami household composition is predictive of survival and suggests that stronger members sought to help weaker members: men helped their wives, parents and children, while women helped their children.

Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Preston, Samuel; Sikoki, Bondan; Thomas, Duncan

2015-01-01

372

Asian tsunami relief: Department of Defense public health response: policy and strategic coordination considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004, was one of the most devastating natural disasters in modern history. In particular, this disaster created massive, unique, public health threats, necessitating equally massive public health response efforts. The U.S. government (USG), including the Department of Defense (DoD), played a pivotal role in the response. This article examines some of the central policy issues and strategic coordination and planning measures involved in the public health response. The nearly unanimous consensus of international public health experts has been that the potential public health crisis in the aftermath of the Asian tsunami was averted largely because of the coordinated efforts of host nation officials and professionals, international and nongovernmental health organizations, and bilateral donors, especially the USG, including the DoD. The DoD played a central role in public health efforts through coordination and communication assistance, logistical and materiel support, disease surveillance activities, health needs assessments, and the contributions of the USS Mercy hospital ship. The core lessons involve the importance of an early, dedicated, public health response as a component of the overall disaster relief effort, as well as seamless coordination of health sector stakeholders in the USG and with those of the international community and affected host nations, which allows each organization to play to its strengths and to avoid duplication. The Asian tsunami relief effort highlighted the value of civil-military cooperation in disaster relief, particularly in the area of public health. The prominent role of the DoD in tsunami relief efforts, including public health efforts, also yielded beneficial secondary effects by bolstering security cooperation and winning "hearts and minds" in the region. PMID:17447615

Tarantino, Dave

2006-10-01

373

A New Method to Analyze the Tsunami Incitement Process and Site-selection for Tsunami Observations in China's Eastern Sea  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we present a CONTROL volume model for tsunami incitement process by combining the Navier-Stokes equation, the jet theory and relative velocity model. We conclude that the initial condition for tsunami propagation simulation is equivalent to the static near-field seismic displacement of earthquake that induces the tsunami. The error analyzed from this method is only about 1 percent for a common seafloor earthquake, and it is consistent with the result of Ansys/Ls-dyna numerical ...

Yuanqing Zhu; Shuangqing Liu; Yanlin Wen; Yan Xue

2009-01-01

374

Delayed Increase in Male Suicide Rates in Tsunami Disaster-Stricken Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study in Miyagi Prefecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas. PMID:25765170

Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

2015-01-01

375

Has the tsunami arrived? Part II.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthcare is an industry in the midst of significant change. After years of double-digit cost increases, the system has reached a tipping point. Where once only employers were heard crying out for change, the call is now coming from all levels of American society. The voice that is most important to effect change is the newest--that of the consumer. In part two of our overview of the healthcare tsunami, we hope to offer you some insights and practical ideas on how to improve the return on investment of your marketing. We believe those who work to understand the new market forces and react with insight will not just survive during the tsunami, they will thrive. PMID:19663358

Halverson, Dean; Glowac, Wayne

2009-01-01

376

Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR has been analyzed. For seismic design, safety components are confirmed to maintain their functions even against recent strong earthquakes. As for Tsunami, some parts of reactor building might be submerged including component cooling water system whose final heat sink is sea water. However, in the JSFR design, safety grade components are independent from component cooling water system (CCWS). The JSFR emergency power supply adopts a gas turbine system with air cooling, since JSFR does not basically require quick start-up of the emergency power supply thanks to the natural convection DHRS. Even in case of long station blackout, the DHRS could be activated by emergency batteries or manually and be operated continuously by natural convection. (authors)

Chikazawa, Y.; Enuma, Y.; Kisohara, N.; Yamano, H.; Kubo, S.; Hayafune, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraci (Japan); Sagawa, H.; Okamura, S.; Shimakawa, Y. [Mitsubishi FBR Systems Inc., 2-34-17 Jingumae, Shibuya, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-07-01

377

Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR has been analyzed. For seismic design, safety components are confirmed to maintain their functions even against recent strong earthquakes. As for Tsunami, some parts of reactor building might be submerged including component cooling water system whose final heat sink is sea water. However, in the JSFR design, safety grade components are independent from component cooling water system (CCWS). The JSFR emergency power supply adopts a gas turbine system with air cooling, since JSFR does not basically require quick start-up of the emergency power supply thanks to the natural convection DHRS. Even in case of long station blackout, the DHRS could be activated by emergency batteries or manually and be operated continuously by natural convection. (authors)

378

Thai tsunami victim identification overview to date.  

Science.gov (United States)

The boxing day tsunami of 26 December 2004 caused devastation and loss of life around the Indian ocean. International disaster victim identification efforts were centred in Thailand, with many odontologists from over 20 countries contributing to the examination of deceased, collection of antemortem information, comparison and reconciliation of data. The contribution of forensic odontology to the identification process conducted in Thailand in response to the tsunami devastation is presented in a composite of short reports focused on the five phases associated with disaster victim identification. To date 1,474 deceased have been identified. Dental comparison has been the primary identifier in 79% of cases and a contributor in another 8%, a total of 87%. PMID:16224829

James, H

2005-06-01

379

Inverse modeling of onshore tsunami flow speed and depth - examples from the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2006 Java tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Flow depth and speed are important parameters that describe the overland flow of a tsunami. These parameters are in many cases known for recent events, but are not available for historical or paleo-tsunami. Inverse modeling uses the thickness, grain-size distribution and grain density of a tsunami deposit to estimate flow speeds and depths necessary to entrain the given sediment. In our study we used TsuSedMod, an inverse model by Jaffe and Gelfenbaum (2007). The model assumes a steady and uniform flow, and an equilibrium distribution of sediment in the water column. Additionally, the model assumes that only 10% of the sediment is transported as bed load and that a typical tsunami sediment is normally graded. An a priori assumption of TsuSedMod is the fact that no erosion by subsequent wave runup or backwash has altered the tsunami deposit in question. This, however, cannot be verified. We applied TsuSedMod to invert sediments from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in India and Kenya, and of the 2006 Java tsunami in Southern Java. Model results for flow depths and observed field data were compared in order to validate the model. The comparisons show that model outputs appear to reasonably estimate the observed flow parameters along the surveyed tsunami runup sections. The computed flow depths and speeds of all runup sections show a landward decreasing trend. This is due to the general landward fining and thinning trends of tsunami layers; whereas thicker tsunami layers deposited in morphological depressions or coarser grained swash lines diverge from this general trend. Several subsequent waves of the tsunami wave train interfere close to the shoreline and result in an more scattered distribution of the computed runup parameters. The computed results become more diagnostic farther inland, where only single waves with higher inundation distances leave deposits. In one of the Java runup sections, an abrupt decrease of both flow depth and speed within a short distance can be traced. This decrease is probably the result of the tsunami destroying houses and the associated decrease of tsunami energy. Our study shows that TsuSedMod gives the best approximation of flow depths for grain-size data gained by settling tube measurements. This is because settling tube results represent hydraulic equivalents while digitally counted grain-size distributions do not include grain shape and density. Application of TsuSedMod to recent examples shows it to be a valuable tool for calculating flow depths and speeds of ancient tsunami, as long as individual sample parameters are thoroughly evaluated. Jaffe, B. & Gelfenbaum, G., 2007: A simple model for calculating tsunami flow speed from tsunami deposits. Sed. Geol., 200, 347-361.

Spiske, Michaela; Weiss, Robert; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Roskosch, Julia; Amijaya, Hendra

2010-05-01

380

New Edition of the UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

A subcommittee of the IUGG International Tsunami Commission was convened in 2010 to revise and update the 1998 UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide. The revised Guide addresses the developments in the tsunami field since 1998, the need to accommodate vastly increased amounts of data, and to incorporate disciplines that were not covered in the original guide. The Guide also advocates a systems-approach to assessing tsunami impacts that examines the full range of physical, environmental, and socio-economic effects and their interrelationship, bringing tsunami research efforts into a closer alignment with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). This Field Guide is intended to provide a flexible framework to facilitate the acquisition of critical data in the immediate aftermath of significant tsunamis and to balance the needs of international researchers with those of communities and agencies involved with response and recovery. It will be of use to a variety of people and organizations who may either participate in, assist in coordination, or host post-tsunami field surveys. It is hoped that this Guide will promote pre-event planning in countries at risk of tsunamis to reduce the stresses of developing organizational logistics in the post-emergency response phase and make the process of conducting an ITST easier and more productive for both participating researchers and host country organizations. A complete draft of the Guide will be presented at the meeting and members of the tsunami community invited to comment.

Dengler, L.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Yamamoto, M.; Borrero, J. C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Fritz, H. M.; Imamura, F.; Kong, L. S.; Koshimura, S.; McAdoo, B. G.; Satake, K.; Yalciner, A. C.; Yulianto, E.

2011-12-01

381

Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato  

OpenAIRE

On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate...

Mas, E.; Koshimura, S.; Suppasri, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Matsuyama, M.; Yoshii, T.; Jimenez, C.; Yamazaki, F.; Imamura, F.

2012-01-01

382

Tsunami modeling from the seismic CMT solution considering the dispersive effect: a case of the 2013 Santa Cruz Islands tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of real-time tsunami forecast and rapid tsunami warning systems is crucial in order to mitigate tsunami disasters. The present study shows that tsunami prediction from a seismic centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution would work satisfactorily for the 2013 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake (Mw 8.0) tsunami even though the earthquake source had been modeled as a complicated source characterized by two patches of slip in a past study. We numerically solved the equations for a linear dispersive wave on a spherical coordinate system from the initial tsunami height distribution derived from the CMT solution and a classical scaling law for earthquake faults. The tsunami simulations well explain the observed tsunami arrival times, polarities of initial wave, and maximum amplitudes obtained by deep-ocean pressure measurements. The comparison of the simulation results from dispersive and non-dispersive modeling indicates that the dispersive modeling reproduced the observed waveforms better than the conventional non-dispersive approach. Also, the area affected by a maximum height greater than 0.4 m is decreased by approximately 34% by using dispersion modeling. Those results indicate that the tsunami prediction based on CMT solutions is useful for early warning, and the modeling of dispersion can significantly improve performance.