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Tsunami  

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Full Text Available ... primary responsibility for providing tsunami warnings to the Nation, and a leadership role in tsunami observations and research. Information! NOAAWatch Tsunami website United States East Coast Tsunami Threat Tracking Marine Debris ...

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Update of the U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical Record and Sources for Waves  

Science.gov (United States)

The NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated to conduct the first qualitative United States tsunami hazard assessment, published in 2008 by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Since that time, significant events such as the 2009 Samoa and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis have affected the U.S. and reinforced the importance of considering all of the evidence when conducting an assessment. In addition, there has been progress in tsunami research that reduces some of the earlier uncertainties. In 2011, the National Academies released their assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program recommending that NOAA and its NTHMP partners, in collaboration with researchers in social and physical sciences, should complete an initial national assessment of tsunami risk and should institute a periodic assessment of the sources of tsunamis that threaten the United States. Therefore, the NTHMP is updating the national tsunami hazard assessment. Although the second assessment will not be a national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, areas where there is progress in this methodology will be presented. As a result, a national tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment is not possible at this time, but examples of ongoing work will be presented. This paper looks at the data sources in the first report, including an examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database that resulted in a qualitative assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of tsunami runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths were compared with the qualitative assessments based on frequency and amplitude. The 2009 American Samoa tsunami resulted in a change for the U.S. Pacific island territories qualitative tsunami hazard assessment from 'Moderate' to 'High'. The NGDC tsunami database contains reported tsunamis and is therefore limited to written records existing for an area. Some of the uncertainty in the completeness of the written record has been reduced by investigating the history of tide gauges in the different regions. The first tsunami hazard assessment also used the USGS National Seismic Hazard Map (NSHM) databases to partially extend the time interval. These databases are primarily meant to assess earthquakes affecting U.S. possessions and do not include all possible seismogenic tsunami sources in the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. However, the databases make it possible to estimate the rate of occurrence of larger magnitude earthquakes that could generate a tsunami. The USGS NSHM databases are based on tectonic models, and paleoseismic and paleotsunami data. These databases are periodically updated with new research. Inclusion of updated information can reduce uncertainties in tsunami sources such as the Cascadia subduction zone and others.

Dunbar, P. K.; Goldfinger, C.

2013-12-01

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Tsunami Awareness  

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Full Text Available ... Links: Tsunami.gov TsunamiReady Information from NWS NOAA Weather Radio Nat ional Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program NOAA Center for Tsunami Research Credits: NOAA National Weather Service NOAA National Ocean Service NOAA National Tsunami ...

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Tsunami  

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Full Text Available ... What's happening now? Tsunami YouTube videos Feature Archive Basics: The Tsunami Story : Generation, propagation, warning systems, forecasts and reduction of impacts. Basic information about Tsunamis Tsunami Terminology NOAA's Role NOAA's ...

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Tsunami  

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Full Text Available ... the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and Tsunamis Recent Tsunami Events Listen to the Honshu, Japan earthquake on YouTube Honshu, Japan tsunami, March 11, 2011 - ...

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Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

... with these terms to help identify a tsunami hazard: Warning A tsunami warning is issued when a tsunami with the potential to generate widespread inundation is imminent or expected. Warnings alert the public ...

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Tsunamis.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Tsunami' is the Japanese name for the gravity wave system formed in the sea following any large scale, short-duration disturbance of the free surface. American researchers now prefer 'tsunami' to 'tidal wave' because of the erroneous tidal connotation. B...

W. G. Van Dorn

1965-01-01

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New Activities of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is comprised of representatives from coastal states and federal agencies who, under the guidance of NOAA, work together to develop protocols and products to help communities prepare for and mitigate tsunami hazards. Within the NTHMP are several subcommittees responsible for complimentary aspects of tsunami assessment, mitigation, education, warning, and response. The Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee (MMS) is comprised of state and federal scientists who specialize in tsunami source characterization, numerical tsunami modeling, inundation map production, and warning forecasting. Until September 2012, much of the work of the MMS was authorized through the Tsunami Warning and Education Act, an Act that has since expired but the spirit of which is being adhered to in parallel with reauthorization efforts. Over the past several years, the MMS has developed guidance and best practices for states and territories to produce accurate and consistent tsunami inundation maps for community level evacuation planning, and has conducted benchmarking of numerical inundation models. Recent tsunami events have highlighted the need for other types of tsunami hazard analyses and products for improving evacuation planning, vertical evacuation, maritime planning, land-use planning, building construction, and warning forecasts. As the program responsible for producing accurate and consistent tsunami products nationally, the NTHMP-MMS is initiating a multi-year plan to accomplish the following: 1) Create and build on existing demonstration projects that explore new tsunami hazard analysis techniques and products, such as maps identifying areas of strong currents and potential damage within harbors as well as probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for land-use planning. 2) Develop benchmarks for validating new numerical modeling techniques related to current velocities and landslide sources. 3) Generate guidance and protocols for the production and use of new tsunami hazard analysis products. 4) Identify multistate collaborations and funding partners interested in these new products. Application of these new products will improve the overall safety and resilience of coastal communities exposed to tsunami hazards.

Wilson, R. I.; Eble, M. C.

2013-12-01

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A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform forming the upstream information flow, the DEWS project focused on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Based on these results, TRIDEC continues this task focusing on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data.

Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

2012-04-01

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2011 Tohoku, Japan tsunami data available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Geophysical Data Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility for providing tsunami warnings to the Nation, and a leadership role in tsunami observations and research. A key component of this effort is easy access to authoritative data on past tsunamis, a responsibility of the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and collocated World Service for Geophysics. Archive responsibilities include the global historical tsunami database, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART®) data, damage photos, as well as other related hazards data. Taken together, this integrated archive supports tsunami forecast, warning, research, mitigation and education efforts of NOAA and the Nation. Understanding the severity and timing of tsunami effects is important for tsunami hazard mitigation and warning. The global historical tsunami database includes the date, time, and location of the source event, magnitude of the source, event validity, maximum wave height, the total number of fatalities and dollar damage. The database contains additional information on run-ups (locations where tsunami waves were observed by eyewitnesses, field reconnaissance surveys, tide gauges, or deep ocean sensors). The run-up table includes arrival times, distance from the source, measurement type, maximum wave height, and the number of fatalities and damage for the specific run-up location. Tide gauge data are required for modeling the interaction of tsunami waves with the coast and for verifying propagation and inundation models. NGDC is the long-term archive for all NOAA coastal tide gauge data and is currently archiving 15-second to 1-minute water level data from the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) and the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. DART® buoys, which are essential components of tsunami warning systems, are now deployed in all oceans, giving coastal communities faster and more accurate tsunami warnings. NOAA's National Data Buoy Center disseminates real-time DART® data and NGDC processes and archives post-event 15-second high-resolution bottom pressure time series data. An event-specific archive of DART® observations recorded during recent significant tsunamis, including the March 2011 Tohoku, Japan event, are now available through new tsunami event pages integrated with the NGDC global historical tsunami database. These pages are developed to deliver comprehensive summaries of each tsunami event, including socio-economic impacts, tsunami travel time maps, raw observations, de-tided residuals, spectra of the tsunami signal compared to the energy of the background noise, and wavelets. These data are invaluable to tsunami researchers and educators as they are essential to providing a more thorough understanding of tsunamis and their propagation in the open ocean and subsequent inundation of coastal communities. NGDC has collected 289 tide gauge observations, 34 Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART®) and bottom pressure recorder (BPR) station observations, and over 5,000 eyewitness reports and post-tsunami field survey measurements for the 2011 Tohoku event.

Dunbar, P. K.; Mccullough, H. L.; Mungov, G.; Harris, E.

2012-12-01

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TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readi...

2002-01-01

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The Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Centre (HL-NTWC): Recent updates and future developments  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hellenic NTWC (HL-NTWC) was established officially by Greek Law in September 2010. HL-NTWC is hosted at the National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Geodynamics (NOA-IG), which also operates a 24/7 earthquake monitoring service in Greece and coordinates the newly established Hellenic Unified National Seismic Network. NOA-IG and HL-NTWC Operational Centre is linked to the Civil Protection Operational Centre and serves as the official alerting agency to the General Secretariat for Civil Protection in Greece, regarding earthquake events and tsunami watch. Since August 2012, HL-NTWC acts as Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (CTWP) under the UNESCO IOC - ICG NEAMTWS tsunami warning system (NEAM: North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas) and offers its services to the NEAMTWS system. HL-NTWC has participated in all Communication Test Exercises (CTE) under NEAMTWS and also it has provided tsunami scenarios for extended system testing exercises such as NEAMWAVE12. Some of the recent developments at HL-NTWC in Greece include: deployment of new tide gauge stations for tsunami watch purposes, computation of tsunami scenarios and extending the database in use, improving alerting response times, earthquake magnitude estimation and testing newly established software modules for tsunami and earthquake alerting (i.e. Early-Est, SeisComP3 etc.) in Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. Although funding today is limited, an advantage of the participation in important EC funded research projects, i.e. NERIES, NERA, TRANSFER, NEAMTIC and ASTARTE, demonstrates that collaboration of top class Research Institutions that care to produce important and useful results in the research front in Europe, can facilitate towards developing and operating top class Operational Centers, useful for Civil Protection purposes in regions in need. Last, it is demonstrated that HL-NTWC collaboration with important key role Research Centers in the Security and Safety issues (e.g. JRC-IPSC) at the Operational front, can further facilitate and secure everyday operation under a collaborative and experience exchanging manner. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3)

Melis, Nikolaos S.; Charalampakis, Marinos

2014-05-01

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Tsunami Awareness  

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Full Text Available ... Tsunami.gov TsunamiReady Information from NWS NOAA Weather Radio Nat ional Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program NOAA Center ... US Tsunami Warning Centers and NOAA All Hazards Radio. If you find yourself in a location of ...

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Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

2013-12-01

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Assessment of human immediate response capability related to tsunami threats in Indonesia at a sub-national scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human immediate response is contextualized into different time compartments reflecting the tsunami early warning chain. Based on the different time compartments the available response time and evacuation time is quantified. The latter incorporates accessibility of safe areas determined by a hazard assessment, as well as environmental and demographic impacts on evacuation speed properties assessed using a Cost Distance Weighting GIS approach.

Approximately 4.35 million Indonesians live in tsunami endangered areas on the southern coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali and have between 20 and 150 min to reach a tsunami-safe area. Most endangered areas feature longer estimated-evacuation times and hence the population possesses a weak immediate response capability leaving them more vulnerable to being directly impacted by a tsunami. At a sub-national scale these hotspots were identified and include: the Mentawai islands off the Sumatra coast, various sub-districts on Sumatra and west and east Java. Based on the presented approach a temporal dynamic estimation of casualties and displacements as a function of available response time is obtained for the entire coastal area. As an example, a worst case tsunami scenario for Kuta (Bali results in casualties of 25 000 with an optimal response time (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning and 120 000 for minimal response time (no evacuation. The estimated casualties correspond well to observed/reported values and overall model uncertainty is low with a standard error of 5%.

The results obtained allow for prioritization of intervention measures such as early warning chain, evacuation and contingency planning, awareness and preparedness strategies down to a sub-district level and can be used in tsunami early warning decision support.

J. Post

2009-07-01

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A User's Guide to the Tsunami Datasets at NOAA's National Data Buoy Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has maintained and operated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunameter network since 2003. The tsunameters employ the NOAA-developed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) technology. The technology measures the pressure and temperature every 15 seconds on the ocean floor and transforms them into equivalent water-column height observations. A complex series of subsampled observations are transmitted acoustically in real-time to a moored buoy or marine autonomous vehicle (MAV) at the ocean surface. The surface platform uses its satellite communications to relay the observations to NDBC. NDBC places the observations onto the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) for relay to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) in Hawai'i and Alaska and to the international community. It takes less than three minutes to speed the observations from the ocean floor to the TWCs. NDBC can retrieve limited amounts of the 15-s measurements from the instrumentation on the ocean floor using the technology's two-way communications. NDBC recovers the full resolution 15-s measurements about every 2 years and forwards the datasets and metadata to the National Geophysical Data Center for permanent archive. Meanwhile, NDBC retains the real-time observations on its website. The type of real-time observation depends on the operating mode of the tsunameter. NDBC provides the observations in a variety of traditional and innovative methods and formats that include descriptors of the operating mode. Datasets, organized by station, are available from the NDBC website as text files and from the NDBC THREDDS server in netCDF format. The website provides alerts and lists of events that allow users to focus on the information relevant for tsunami hazard analysis. In addition, NDBC developed a basic web service to query station information and observations to support the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT) model. NDBC and NOAA's Integrated Ocean Observing System have fielded the innovative Sensor Observation Service (SOS) that allows users access to observations by station, or groups of stations that have been organized into Features of Interest, such as the 2011 Honshu Tsunami. The user can elect to receive the SOS observations in several different formats, such as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) or delimiter-separated values. Recently, NDBC's Coastal and Offshore Buoys provided meteorological observations used in analyzing possible meteotsunamis on the U.S. East Coast. However, many of these observations are some distance away from the tsunameters. In a demonstration project, NDBC has added sensors to a tsunameter's surface buoy and a MAV to support program requirements for meteorological observations. All these observations are available from NDBC's website in text files, netCDF, and SOS. To aid users in obtaining information relevant to their applications, the presentation documents, in detail, the characteristics of the different types of real-time observations and the availability and organization of the resulting datasets at NDBC .

Bouchard, R. H.; O'Neil, K.; Grissom, K.; Garcia, M.; Bernard, L. J.; Kern, K. J.

2013-12-01

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Tacoma, Washington, Tsunami Hazard Mapping Project: Modeling Tsunami Inundation From Tacoma and Seattle Fault Earthquakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a tsunami hazard mapping project funded by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (formerly known as the NOAA Center for Tsunami Inundation Mapping Efforts) modeled tsunami inundation for the at-ris...

A. J. Venturato C. C. Chamberlin D. Arcas F. I. Gonzalez H. O. Mofjeld

2007-01-01

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Tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the framework of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) the assessment of tsunami risk is an essential part of the overall activities. The scientific and technical approach for the tsunami risk assessment has been developed and the results are implemented in the national Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre and are provided to the national and regional disaster management and spatial planning institutions in Indonesia.

The paper explains the underlyin...

Strunz, G.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Mu?ck, M.; Riedlinger, T.; Mehl, H.; Dech, S.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.; Harjono, H.; Anwar, H. Z.; Sumaryono; Khomarudin, R. M.; Muhari, A.

2011-01-01

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Tsunami Awareness  

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Full Text Available ... to the NOAA Web site This site NOAA home ocean news ocean life sci & tech discoveries about locations contribute subscribe resources faqs Home Ocean News Tsunami Awareness Tsunami Awareness Links: Tsunami. ...

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Hazard assessment of the Tidal Inlet landslide and potential subsequent tsunami, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

An unstable rock slump, estimated at 5 to 10????????10 6 m3, lies perched above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. This landslide mass has the potential to rapidly move into Tidal Inlet and generate large, long-period-impulse tsunami waves. Field and photographic examination revealed that the landslide moved between 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of the Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet in 1890. Global positioning system measurements over a 2-year period show that the perched mass is presently moving at 3-4 cm annually indicating the landslide remains unstable. Numerical simulations of landslide-generated waves suggest that in the western arm of Glacier Bay, wave amplitudes would be greatest near the mouth of Tidal Inlet and slightly decrease with water depth according to Green's law. As a function of time, wave amplitude would be greatest within approximately 40 min of the landslide entering water, with significant wave activity continuing for potentially several hours. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Wieczorek, G. F.; Geist, E. L.; Motyka, R. J.; Jakob, M.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Tsunami Event - March 11, 2011 Honshu (northeastern Taiheiyou)  

Science.gov (United States)

This website, from NOAA, hosts a collection of links to images, animations, and videos related to the 2011 tsunami in Japan. The graphics display forecast results, showing qualitative and quantitative information about the tsunami, including tsunami wave interaction with ocean floor bathymetric features, and neighboring coastlines. Tsunami model amplitude information is shown color-coded according the scale bar.

Noaa

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Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

2013-12-01

23

Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the sea surface. Tsunamis can be generated by landslides, volcanic eruptions, or even meteorite impacts in the ... The US Tsunami Warning Centers and NOAA All Hazards Radio. If you find yourself in a location ...

24

Tsunami Asymptotics  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical analogies, and some singularity theory, give new information about tsunamis. For most of their propagation, tsunamis are linear dispersive waves whose speed is limited by the depth of the ocean and which can be regarded as diffraction-decorated caustics in spacetime. For constant depth, uniform asymptotics gives a very accurate compact description of the tsunami profile generated by an arbitrary initial disturbance. Variations in depth act as lenses and can focus tsunamis onto cusped caustics, and this ``singularity on a singularity'' constitutes an unusual diffraction problem, whose solution indicates that focusing can amplify the tsunami energy by an order of magnitude.

Berry, Michael

2009-03-01

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Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated under the United Nations. This paper reviews historical tsunamis, their warning activities, and their sea level records to highlight lessons learned with the focus on how these insights have helped to drive further development of tsunami warning systems and their tsunami warning centers. While the international systems do well for teletsunamis, faster detection, more accurate evaluations, and widespread timely alerts are still the goals, and challenges still remain to achieving early warning against the more frequent and destructive local tsunamis.

Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

2011-11-01

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Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily – Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i) the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides infor...

Grezio, A.; Gasparini, P.; Marzocchi, W.; Patera, A.; Tinti, S.

2012-01-01

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Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily – Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i) the Italian National Institute of Statistics t...

Grezio, A.; Gasparini, P.; Marzocchi, W.; Patera, A.; Tinti, S.

2012-01-01

28

Tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS the assessment of tsunami risk is an essential part of the overall activities. The scientific and technical approach for the tsunami risk assessment has been developed and the results are implemented in the national Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre and are provided to the national and regional disaster management and spatial planning institutions in Indonesia.

The paper explains the underlying concepts and applied methods and shows some of the results achieved in the GITEWS project (Rudloff et al., 2009. The tsunami risk assessment has been performed at an overview scale at sub-national level covering the coastal areas of southern Sumatra, Java and Bali and also on a detailed scale in three pilot areas. The results are provided as thematic maps and GIS information layers for the national and regional planning institutions. From the analyses key parameters of tsunami risk are derived, which are integrated and stored in the decision support system of the national Indonesian Early Warning Centre. Moreover, technical descriptions and guidelines were elaborated to explain the developed approach, to allow future updates of the results and the further development of the methodologies, and to enable the local authorities to conduct tsunami risk assessment by using their own resources.

G. Strunz

2011-01-01

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The effect analysis of 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the West Coast of Japan to Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is very difficult to determine and assessment for tsunami hazard. For determining a tsunami risk for NPP site, a development of tsunami hazard is one of the most important. Through the tsunami hazard analysis, a tsunami return period can be determined. For the performing a tsunami hazard analysis, empirical method and numerical method should be needed. Kim et al, already developed tsunami hazard for east coast of Korea for the calculation of tsunami risk of nuclear power plant. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, a development of tsunami catalog should be performed. In the previous research of Kim et al, the maximum wave height was assumed by the author's decision based on historical record in the annals of Chosun dynasty for evaluating the tsunami catalog. Therefore, in this study, a literature survey was performed for a quantitative measure of historical tsunami record transform to qualitative tsunami wave height for the evaluation of tsunami catalog. In this study, the 1741 tsunami was determined by using a literature review for the evaluation of tsunami hazard. The 1741 tsunami reveals a same tsunami between the historical records in Korea and Japan. The tsunami source of 1741 tsunami was not an earthquake and volcanic. Using the numerical analysis, the wave height of 1741 tsunami can be determined qualitatively.

Kim, Minkyu; Rhee, Hyunme; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

30

The unperceived risk to Europe's coasts: tsunamis and the vulnerability of Cadiz, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of appropriate risk and vulnerability reduction strategies to cope with tsunami risks is a major challenge for countries, regions, and cities exposed to potential tsunamis. European coastal cities such as Cadiz are exposed to tsunami risks. However, most official risk reduction strategies as well as the local population are not aware of the probability of such a phenomenon and the potential threat that tsunami waves could pose to their littoral. This paper outlines how tsunami risks, and particularly tsunami vulnerability, could be assessed and measured. To achieve this, a vulnerability assessment framework was applied focusing on the city of Cadiz as a case study in order to highlight the practical use and the challenges and gaps such an assessment has to deal with. The findings yield important information that could assist with the systematic improvement of societal response capacities of cities and their inhabitants to potential tsunami risks. Hazard and vulnerability maps were developed, and qualitative data was obtained through, for example, focused group discussions. These maps and surveys are essential for the development of a people-centred early warning and response system. Therefore, in this regard, the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected seas promoted by the UNESCO-Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC should encompass these assessments to ensure that action is particularly intensified and fostered by those potentially exposed. That means that besides the necessary technical infrastructure for tsunami detection, additional response and adaptation measures need to be promoted – particularly those that reduce the vulnerability of people and regions exposed – in terms of national systems. In addition, it is important to develop emergency preparedness and awareness plans in order to create an integrated regional Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS by 2011. The findings of the paper are based on research conducted within the framework of the EC funded project TRANSFER: "Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region", a project that aims to improve the understanding of tsunami processes in the Euro-Mediterranean region, to develop methods and tools to assess vulnerability and risk, and to identify strategies for the reduction of tsunami risks.

J. Birkmann

2010-12-01

31

Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... But they are most often caused by an earthquake where there's a sudden displacement of the ocean ... warning signs of an incoming tsunami: a strong earthquake that causes difficulty standing; a rapid rise or ...

32

Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 100 feet high, traveling at 400 miles per hour. This ocean monster is known as a tsunami ... force. The series of waves may continue for hours. The first one may not be the last ...

33

Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... floor. When that happens, there's a transfer of energy from the seafloor to the ocean, causing waves ... or the largest. For your safety, know the potential warning signs of an incoming tsunami: a strong ...

34

Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a series of ocean waves caused by any large and sudden disturbance of the sea surface. Tsunamis ... water along the coast may recede noticeably. A large wall of turbulent water, called a "bore," may ...

35

Lost tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical simulations support the occurrence of a catastrophic tsunami impacting all of the eastern Mediterranean in early Holocene. The tsunami was triggered by a debris avalanche from Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) which entered the Ionian Sea in the order of minutes. Simulations show that the resulting tsunami waves were able to destabilize soft marine sediments across the Ionian Sea floor. This generated the well-known, sporadically located, ``homogenite'' deposits of the Ionian Sea, and the widespread megaturbidite deposits of the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains. It is possible that, ~8 ka B.P., the Neolithic village of Atlit-Yam (Israel) was abandoned because of impact by the same Etna tsunami. Two other Pleistocenic megaturbidite deposits of the Ionian Sea can be explained by previous sector collapses from the Etna area.

Pareschi, Maria Teresa; Boschi, Enzo; Favalli, Massimiliano

2006-11-01

36

Tsunamis: Are We Underestimating the Risk?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The horrific December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed over 230,000 people and displaced 1.7 million across 14 countries, stimulated governments of the world into addressing tsunami hazards. Many Indian Ocean nations did not even recognize the word "tsunami," and none had tsunami preparedness programs in place. Ignorance of the natural signs of a tsunami's presence led to inappropriate actions and decisions by nations, population centers, and tourist destinations. The world's response to this terrible natural disaster was an unprecedented $13.5 billion in international aid, including $5.5 billion from the general public in developed nations. The 2004 tsunami, one of the top 10 deadliest natural disasters the world has recorded, will probably be best remembered for the global outpouring of help to the innocent victims of this tragedy.

Eddie Bernard

2012-06-01

37

A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the first national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment considers tsunami generated from near-field earthquakes sources around Indonesia as well as regional and far-field sources, to define the tsunami hazard at the coastline. The PTHA methodology is based on the established stochastic event-based approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted for tsunami. The earthquake source information is primarily based on the recent Indonesian National Seismic Hazard Map and included a consensus-workshop with Indonesia's leading tsunami and earthquake scientists to finalize the seismic source models and logic trees to include epistemic uncertainty. Results are presented in the form of tsunami hazard maps showing the expected tsunami height at the coast for a given return period, and also as tsunami probability maps, showing the probability of exceeding a tsunami height of 0.5m and 3.0m at the coast. These heights define the thresholds for different tsunami warning levels in the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS). The results show that for short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, the islands of Nias and Mentawai. For longer return periods (>500 years), the tsunami hazard in Eastern Indonesia (north Papua, north Sulawesi) is nearly as high as that along the Sunda Arc. A sensitivity analysis of input parameters is conducted by sampling branches of the logic tree using a monte-carlo approach to constrain the relative importance of each input parameter. The results from this assessment can be used to underpin evidence-based decision making by disaster managers to prioritize tsunami mitigation, such as developing detailed inundation simulations for evacuation planning.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Koetapangwa, B.; Anugrah, S.; Thio, H. K.

2012-12-01

38

Integrated Historical Tsunami Event and Deposit Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides integrated access to historical tsunami event, deposit, and proxy data. The NGDC tsunami archive initially listed tsunami sources and locations with observed tsunami effects. Tsunami frequency and intensity are important for understanding tsunami hazards. Unfortunately, tsunami recurrence intervals often exceed the historic record. As a result, NGDC expanded the archive to include the Global Tsunami Deposits Database (GTD_DB). Tsunami deposits are the physical evidence left behind when a tsunami impacts a shoreline or affects submarine sediments. Proxies include co-seismic subsidence, turbidite deposits, changes in biota following an influx of marine water in a freshwater environment, etc. By adding past tsunami data inferred from the geologic record, the GTD_DB extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Although the best methods for identifying tsunami deposits and proxies in the geologic record remain under discussion, developing an overall picture of where tsunamis have affected coasts, calculating recurrence intervals, and approximating runup height and inundation distance provides a better estimate of a region’s true tsunami hazard. Tsunami deposit and proxy descriptions in the GTD_DB were compiled from published data found in journal articles, conference proceedings, theses, books, conference abstracts, posters, web sites, etc. The database now includes over 1,200 descriptions compiled from over 1,100 citations. Each record in the GTD_DB is linked to its bibliographic citation where more information on the deposit can be found. The GTD_DB includes data for over 50 variables such as: event description (e.g., 2010 Chile Tsunami), geologic time period, year, deposit location name, latitude, longitude, country, associated body of water, setting during the event (e.g., beach, lake, river, deep sea), upper and lower contacts, underlying and overlying material, etc. If known, the tsunami source mechanism (e.g., earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, asteroid impact) is also specified. Observations (grain size, sedimentary structure, bed thickness, number of layers, etc.) are stored along with the conclusions drawn from the evidence by the author (wave height, flow depth, flow velocity, number of waves, etc.). Geologic time periods in the GTD_DB range from Precambrian to Quaternary, but the majority (70%) are from the Quaternary period. This period includes events such as: the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis, the 1755 Lisbon tsunami, the A.D. 79 Vesuvius tsunami, the 3500 BP Santorini caldera collapse and tsunami, and the 7000 BP Storegga landslide-generated tsunami. Prior to the Quaternary period, the majority of the paleotsunamis are due to impact events such as: the Tertiary Chesapeake Bay Bolide, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) Boundary, Cretaceous Manson, and Devonian Alamo. The tsunami deposits are integrated with the historical tsunami event database where applicable. For example, users can search for articles describing deposits related to the 1755 Lisbon tsunami and view those records, as well as link to the related historic event record. The data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and display data (selection forms, Web Map Services, and Web Feature Services).

Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

2010-12-01

39

Tsunami diaries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inspired by recent discussion on how Serbian media influenced allegedly indifferent reaction of the public to the aftermath of tsunami, this paper examines the role of electronic media in Serbia, television in particular, in regard to their function as a central communication channel for acquiring knowledge about world surroundings. With a premise of having cultural and discursive power, Dnevnik, the central news program of the Serbian public broadcaster, is taken as a paradigmatic media text...

Radovi? Sr?an

2005-01-01

40

Assessment of human immediate response capability related to tsunami threats in Indonesia at a sub-national scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human immediate response is contextualized into different time compartments reflecting the tsunami early warning chain. Based on the different time compartments the available response time and evacuation time is quantified. The latter incorporates accessibility of safe areas determined by a hazard assessment, as well as environmental and demographic impacts on evacuation speed properties assessed using a Cost Distance Weighting GIS approach. Approximately 4.35 mi...

Post, J.; Wegscheider, S.; Mu?ck, M.; Zosseder, K.; Kiefl, R.; Steinmetz, T.; Strunz, G.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Using the story-telling technique in the qualitative research of national identity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contains the main results of a qualitative research onRomanians national identity. The research proposes a new approach to the national identity based on two methodological elements: the patriotic songs as a stimulus for reflection on national identity and the presentation of data in the form of story-telling. The theoretical background integrates the social identity theory and the theory of social representations. The main conclusionof the research is that Romanians have nowadays a negative social identity in relation with their own country and the political class is seen as the main culprit for the country’s bad situation.

?andru, C.

2011-01-01

42

Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

2012-12-01

43

Tsunami Modeling and Inundation Mapping in Southcentral Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) participates in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential tsunami inundation of coastal Alaska. We evaluate potential tsunami hazards for several coastal communities near the epicenter of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and numerically model the extent of their inundation due to tsunamis generated by earthquake and landslide sources. Tsunami scenarios include a repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake, as well as hypothetical tsunamis generated by an extended 1964 rupture, a Cascadia megathrust earthquake, earthquakes from the Prince William Sound and Kodiak asperities of the 1964 rupture, and a hypothetical Tohoku-type rupture in the Gulf of Alaska region. Local underwater landslide events in several communities are also considered as credible tsunamigenic scenarios. We perform simulations for each of the source scenarios using AEIC's recently developed and tested numerical model of tsunami wave propagation and runup. Results of the numerical modeling are verified by simulating the tectonic and landslide-generated tsunamis observed during the 1964 earthquake. The tsunami scenarios are intended to provide guidance to local emergency management agencies in tsunami hazard assessment, evacuation planning, and public education for reducing future casualties and damage from tsunamis. During the 1964 earthquake, locally generated waves of unknown origin were identified at several communities, located in the western part of Prince William Sound. The waves appeared shortly after the shaking began and swept away most of the buildings while the shaking continued. We model the tectonic tsunami assuming different tsunami generation processes and claim the importance of including both vertical and horizontal displacement into the 1964 tsunami generation process.

Nicolsky, D.; Suleimani, E.; Koehler, R. D.

2013-12-01

44

Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily - Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i) the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides information on the population, on buildings and on many relevant social aspects; (ii) the Italian National Territory Agency that provides updated economic values of the buildings on the basis of their typology (residential, commercial, industrial) and location (streets); and (iii) the Train and Port Authorities. For human beings, a factor of time exposition is introduced and calculated in terms of hours per day in different places (private and public) and in terms of seasons, considering that some factors like the number of tourists can vary by one order of magnitude from January to August. Since the tsunami risk is a function of the run-up levels along the coast, a variable tsunami risk zone is defined as the area along the Messina coast where tsunami inundations may occur.

Grezio, A.; Gasparini, P.; Marzocchi, W.; Patera, A.; Tinti, S.

2012-01-01

45

Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily – Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides information on the population, on buildings and on many relevant social aspects; (ii the Italian National Territory Agency that provides updated economic values of the buildings on the basis of their typology (residential, commercial, industrial and location (streets; and (iii the Train and Port Authorities. For human beings, a factor of time exposition is introduced and calculated in terms of hours per day in different places (private and public and in terms of seasons, considering that some factors like the number of tourists can vary by one order of magnitude from January to August. Since the tsunami risk is a function of the run-up levels along the coast, a variable tsunami risk zone is defined as the area along the Messina coast where tsunami inundations may occur.

A. Grezio

2012-01-01

46

Tsunami: the Great Waves  

Science.gov (United States)

... brochure is to increase awareness and knowledge of tsunamis. Please share what you learn; knowing the right ... at the time the July 30, 1995, Chilean tsunami was generated. A is Antofagasta, Chile. Right: Computer ...

47

Tsunami Risk and Vulnerability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research focuses on providing reliable spatial information in support of tsunami risk and vulnerability assessment within the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project. It contributes to three major components of the project: (1) the provision of spatial information on surface roughness as an important parameter for tsunami inundation modeling and hazard assessment; (2) the modeling of population distribution, which is an essential factor in tsunami ...

2010-01-01

48

Tsunami propagation modelling ? a sensitivity study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indian Ocean (2004) Tsunami and following tragic consequences demonstrated lack of relevant experience and preparedness among involved coastal nations. After the event, scientific and forecasting circles of affected countries have started a capacity building to tackle similar problems in the future. Different approaches have been used for tsunami propagation, such as Boussinesq and Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE). These approximations were obtained assuming different relevant importa...

Dao, M. H.; Tkalich, P.

2007-01-01

49

Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE  

Science.gov (United States)

The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

2014-05-01

50

Advanced Planning for Tsunamis in California  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Tsunami Program is comprised of the California Governor's Office of Emergency Services (CalOES) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) and funded through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The program works closely with the 20 coastal counties in California, as well as academic, and industry experts to improve tsunami preparedness and mitigation in shoreline communities. Inundation maps depicting 'worst case' inundation modeled from plausible sources around the Pacific were released in 2009 and have provided a foundation for public evacuation and emergency response planning in California. Experience during recent tsunamis impacting the state (Japan 2011, Chile 2010, Samoa 2009) has brought to light the desire by emergency managers and decision makers for even more detailed information ahead of future tsunamis. A solution to provide enhanced information has been development of 'playbooks' to plan for a variety of expected tsunami scenarios. Elevation 'playbook' lines can be useful for partial tsunami evacuations when enough information about forecast amplitude and arrival times is available to coastal communities and there is sufficient time to make more educated decisions about who to evacuate for a given scenario or actual event. NOAA-issued Tsunami Alert Bulletins received in advance of a distant event will contain an expected wave height (a number) for each given section of coast. Provision of four elevation lines for possible inundation enables planning for different evacuation scenarios based on the above number potentially alleviating the need for an 'all or nothing' decision with regard to evacuation. Additionally an analytical tool called FASTER is being developed to integrate storm, tides, modeling errors, and local tsunami run-up potential with the forecasted tsunami amplitudes in real-time when a tsunami Alert is sent out. Both of these products will help communities better implement evacuations and response activities for minor to moderate (less than maximum) tsunami events. A working group comprised of federal, state, and local governmental scientists, emergency managers, first responders, and community planners has explored details and delivery of the above tools for incorporation into emergency management protocols. The eventual outcome will be inclusion in plans, testing of protocols and methods via drills and exercises and application, as appropriate, during an impending tsunami event.

Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.; Larkin, D.; Reade, S.; Carnathan, D.; Davis, M.; Nicolini, T.; Johnson, L.; Boldt, E.; Tardy, A.

2013-12-01

51

Post-Tsunami Field Surveys are Essential for Mitigating the Next Tsunami Disaster  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Post-tsunami field investigations are an essential component in improving our understanding of tsunamis and in developing the tools and programs necessary to mitigate their effects. A destructive tsunami can attract a large number of international, national, and local tsunami professionals interested in conducting post-tsunami science surveys to investigate and document its scientific, economic, and social impact on affected coasts and communities. Science data collected immediately after a damaging tsunami are important for government decision makers. In the short term, these data help to better organize and deploy often-limited resources to the most critical areas needing response. In the long term, these data are used for recovery planning that will mitigate the losses of the next tsunami. Without a coordination plan that is integrated into government emergency response operations, perishable data may prove to be logistically difficult to gather before erosion or bulldozers eliminate the evidence, and in all likelihood, the operations could interfere and conflict with emergency activities. Additionally, during catastrophic tsunamis, affected areas and local jurisdictions may also be simultaneously overwhelmed by many government agencies, nongovernment organizations, and the media all demanding information and/or access, thus making collection of useful data even more challenging unless a coordination and information sharing plan is already in place.

Laura Kong

2011-06-01

52

TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean, the short-period tsunami wave rides on the longer-period tides. The question is whether these two waves can be superposed linearly for the purpose of determining the resulting sea surface height (SSH or rather in the shallow water they interact nonlinearly, enhancing/reducing the total sea level and currents. Since the near–shore bathymetry is important for the run-up computation, Weisz and Winter (2005 demonstrated that the changes of depth caused by tides should not be neglected in tsunami run-up considerations. On the other hand, we hypothesize that much more significant effect of the tsunami-tide interaction should be observed through the tidal and tsunami currents. In order to test this hypothesis we apply a simple set of 1-D equations of motion and continuity to demonstrate the dynamics of tsunami and tide interaction in the vicinity of the shelf break for two coastal domains: shallow waters of an elongated inlet and narrow shelf typical for deep waters of the Gulf of Alaska.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2006-01-01

53

Marin Tsunami (video)  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

2010-01-01

54

Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... deadly force in nature. Site Links Home Site Map Video Site Map Ocean News Ocean Life Science & Technology Discoveries Privacy ... Error | Disclaimer Acknowledgements | About this Site | Video Site Map Web Site Owner: National Ocean Service | NOAA | DOC | ...

55

TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), representing the Tsunami National Contact (TNC) and Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP) for Turkey, is one of the key partners in TRIDEC. KOERI is responsible for the operation of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) for Turkey and establishes Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (CTWP) responsibilities for the NEAM region. Based on this profound experience, KOERI is contributing valuable requirements to the overall TRIDEC system and is responsible for the definition and development of feasible tsunami-related scenarios. However, KOERI's most important input focuses on testing and evaluating the TRIDEC system according to specified evaluation and validation criteria. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools. In addition to conventional sensors also unconventional sensors and sensor networks play an important role in TRIDEC. The first system demonstrator, deployed at KOERI's crisis management room, has been designed and implemented to support plausible scenarios for the Turkish NTWC and to demonstrate the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a NTWC. The feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes in a hypothetical natural crisis situation caused by a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Hammitzsch, M.; Necmioglu, O.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.; Comoglu, M.; Ozel, N. M.; Wächter, J.

2012-04-01

56

Tsunami Awareness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Link to the NOAA Web site This site NOAA home ocean news ocean life sci & tech discoveries about locations contribute subscribe resources faqs Home Ocean ... Disclaimer Acknowledgements | About this Site | Video Site Map Web Site Owner: National Ocean Service | NOAA | DOC | USA. ...

57

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

2014-05-01

58

A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500–2500 years, the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1–10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1–1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

N. Horspool

2014-05-01

59

Chicxulub Tsunami Animation  

Science.gov (United States)

An animation that simulates the tsunami created by the Chicxulub impact off the coast of Mexico. The model simulates the height of the tsunami waves as they reached the surrounding parts of North, Central, South America as they are projected to have looked at the time of the impact.

Ward, Steven N.; Cruz, University O.

60

National targets, process transformation and local consequences in an NHS emergency department (ED): a qualitative study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In the attempt to reduce waiting times in emergency departments, various national health services have used benchmarking and the optimisation of patient flows. The aim of this study was to examine staff attitudes and experience of providing emergency care following the introduction of a 4 hour wait target, focusing on clinical, organisational and spatial issues. Methods A qualitative research design was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 clinical, managerial and administrative staff members working in an inner-city emergency department. A thematic analysis method was employed and NVivo 8 qualitative data analysis software was used to code and manage the emerging themes. Results The wait target came to regulate the individual and collective timescales of healthcare work. It has compartmentalised the previous unitary network of emergency department clinicians and their workspace. It has also speeded up clinical performance and patient throughput. It has disturbed professional hierarchies and facilitated the development of new professional roles. A new clinical information system complemented these reconfigurations by supporting advanced patient tracking, better awareness of time, and continuous, real-time management of emergency department staff. The interviewees had concerns that this target-oriented way of working forces them to have a less personal relationship with their patients. Conclusions The imposition of a wait-target in response to a perceived “crisis” of patients’ dissatisfaction led to the development of a new and sophisticated way of working in the emergency department, but with deep and unintended consequences. We show that there is a dynamic interrelation of the social and the technical in the complex environment of the ED. While the 4 hour wait target raised the profile of the emergency department in the hospital, the added pressure on clinicians has caused some concerns over the future of their relationships with their patients and colleagues. To improve the sustainability of such sudden changes in policy direction, it is important to address clinicians’ experience and satisfaction.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

Mosher, D. C.

2009-01-01

62

Influences of organizational features of healthcare settings on clinical decision making: Qualitative results from a cross-national factorial experiment*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A proliferating literature documents cross-national variation in medical practice and seeks to explain observed differences in terms of the presence of certain kinds of healthcare systems, economic, and cultural differences between countries. Less is known about how providers themselves understand these influences and perceive them as relevant to their clinical work. Using qualitative data from a cross-national factorial experiment in the United States and United Kingdom, we analyze 244 prima...

Lutfey, Karen E.; Campbell, Stephen M.; Marceau, Lisa D.; Roland, Martin O.; Mckinlay, John B.

2012-01-01

63

Engineering and Technology: The Public's Perspective--Part 2: A Qualitative Analysis for the National Academy of Engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report for the National Academy of Engineering's Office of Public Awareness represents the second phase of an examination of public opinion about engineering and technology. This document presents an analysis of six qualitative, focused group discussions or focus groups. Five of these groups were college educated Americans and one was…

Doble, John; Komarnicki, Mary

64

Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

2006-01-01

65

Beyond Age and Adjustment: A Cross-National Qualitative Study of Older Adults’ Perceptions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: To explore the older adults’ perceptions of age and aging, focusing on adjustment to aging (AtA and subjective age (SA. Methods: This cross-national and qualitative study comprised demographics and semistructured interviews. Complete information on 151 older adults aged between 75-101 years (M = 84.6; SD = 6.905 from Portugal, Romania Angola was available. Data was subjected to content analysis. Results: The most predominant response of the interviewed participants for indicators of AtA was ‘existential meaning’ (26.3%, whilst ‘balanced’ (36.5% was identified as the most prevalent SA response. In total, five categories were identified to be indicative of AtA: ‘sense of purpose and ambitions’, ‘health and wellness’, ‘social support’, ‘stability and accessibility’ and ‘existential meaning’ whereas, four categories were identified for SA: ‘balanced, ‘old’, ‘youthful’ and ‘dissatisfied’. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for a better understanding of what defines AtA and SA among the elderly. Furthermore, health care providers’ awareness of older adults’ conceptualizations will allow them to communicate more effectively and to reinforce aging well among older populations.Key words: Adjustment to aging; Subjective age; aging well; Older adults; Content analysis

Georgeta Niculescu

2012-10-01

66

Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami detection in real-time, both offshore and at the coastline, plays a key role in Tsunami Warning Systems since it provides so far the only reliable and timely proof of tsunami generation, and is used to confirm or cancel tsunami warnings previously issued on the basis of seismic data alone. Moreover, in case of submarine or coastal landslide generated tsunamis, which are not announced by clear seismic signals and are typically local, real-time detection at the coastline might be the fastest way to release a warning, even if the useful time for emergency operations might be limited. TEDA is an algorithm for real-time detection of tsunami signal on sea-level records, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The development and testing of the algorithm has been accomplished within the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3 and the European project TRANSFER. The algorithm is to be implemented at station level, and it is based therefore only on sea-level data of a single station, either a coastal tide-gauge or an offshore buoy. TEDA's principle is to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal, which implies the assumption that the tsunami waves introduce a difference in the previous sea-level signal. Therefore, in TEDA the instantaneous (most recent) and the previous background sea-level elevation gradients are characterized and compared by proper functions (IS and BS) that are updated at every new data acquisition. Detection is triggered when the instantaneous signal function passes a set threshold and at the same time it is significantly bigger compared to the previous background signal. The functions IS and BS depend on temporal parameters that allow the algorithm to be adapted different situations: in general, coastal tide-gauges have a typical background spectrum depending on the location where the instrument is installed, due to local topography and bathymetry, while offshore buoys are mainly characterized by the astronomical tide and white noise. TEDA has been tested on specific events recorded by Adak Island tide-gauge, in Alaska, and by DART buoys, located offshore Alaska, thanks to the collaboration with NCTR of PMEL/NOAA (NOAA Centre for Tsunami Research of Pacific and Marine Environmental Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Three methods for the characterization of the background signal have been tested and compared with different characterization settings, in order to find the most appropriate calibration. To evaluate the algorithm performance, different indicators have been taken into account, such as the number of false detections, the number of events detected, the delay of detection and the duration of the tsunami alert state. Particular attention has been reserved to the number of false detections, which compromise heavily the reliability of a detection algorithm and undermine the usefulness of the algorithm itself. The method to test TEDA is presented here and is proposed as an example of procedure to evaluate the performance of the tsunami detection algorithms used in the Tsunami Early Warning Systems practice.

Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

2010-05-01

67

Tsunami Travel Time Approximation  

Science.gov (United States)

Eric Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are asked to calculate approximate tsunami travel times across the Pacific basin. The assignment builds off of a lab introducing students to Spatial Analyst, and ...

Grosfils, Eric

68

Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

Thomas Angela N

2009-09-01

69

Tsunamis in Cuba?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

2011-01-01

70

Dynamics of tsunami waves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The life of a tsunami is usually divided into three phases: the generation (tsunami source), the propagation and the inundation. Each phase is complex and often described separately. A brief description of each phase is given. Model problems are identified. Their formulation is given. While some of these problems can be solved analytically, most require numerical techniques. The inundation phase is less documented than the other phases. It is shown that methods based on Smoo...

Dias, Fre?de?ric; Dutykh, Denys

2006-01-01

71

Tsunami: Ocean dynamo generator  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary magnetic fields are induced by the flow of electrically conducting seawater through the Earth's primary magnetic field (`ocean dynamo effect'), and hence it has long been speculated that tsunami flows should produce measurable magnetic field perturbations, although the signal-to-noise ratio would be small because of the influence of the solar magnetic fields. Here, we report on the detection of deep-seafloor electromagnetic perturbations of 10-micron-order induced by a tsunami, which propagated through a seafloor electromagnetometer array network. The observed data extracted tsunami characteristics, including the direction and velocity of propagation as well as sea-level change, first to verify the induction theory. Presently, offshore observation systems for the early forecasting of tsunami are based on the sea-level measurement by seafloor pressure gauges. In terms of tsunami forecasting accuracy, the integration of vectored electromagnetic measurements into existing scalar observation systems would represent a substantial improvement in the performance of tsunami early-warning systems.

Sugioka, Hiroko; Hamano, Yozo; Baba, Kiyoshi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Tada, Noriko; Suetsugu, Daisuke

2014-01-01

72

New Operational Tsunami Forecast: Accuracy Assessment of Tsunami Amplitude Predictions  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA has accepted a new tsunami forecast method in operational use to predict tsunami flooding, amplitudes and other tsunami parameters in real-time, while tsunami is still propagating. The method (called Short-term Inundation Forecast for Tsunamis -- SIFT) uses DART real-time data to improve the accuracy of coastal tsunami forecast, when compared with just the seismic data-based assessment. The main goal of the forecast system is to forecast flooding due to tsunami wave at specific coastal locations. Other tsunami parameters are also computed to estimate overall hazard at a given location for a specific tsunami event. Knowing the accuracy of the forecast is extremely important for making right decisions throughout tsunami warnings procedures. During operational testing of the system a comprehensive analysis of accuracy of the system has been performed. The presentation will present the accuracy analysis of the tsunami forecast and implications for future development and improvements of tsunami forecasting.The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

Titov, V.

2013-12-01

73

Preparing for the next Tsunami: Training in Seismology and Tsunami Warnings in the Indian Ocean Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The December, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the need to increase capacity building in the countries most severely affected by the international disaster. In response to this need, the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) Program, under the framework of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was developed in order to create "tsunami resilient" communities in the Indian Ocean region. The IOTWS has several components including technical assistance, regional hazard detection, prediction, and warning formulation, national dissemination and communication of warnings, local knowledge and preparedness to act, and regional or sub-regional exchange of lessons learned and best practices. A series of training courses are currently underway in the Indian Ocean region designed to improve the understanding of earthquake seismology and tsunami warnings of staff employed in the day-to-day running of the national tsunami warning systems. Learning is directed through lecturers complemented with computer- based practical sessions. To date five courses have been run, in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Each course was between 5 and 9 days in duration and was sponsored by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the IOC, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). An additional five "follow-on" courses are planned for the region and will be conducted in 2007.

Kong, L.; Mooney, W. D.; Kelly, A.

2006-12-01

74

Food Safety After a Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Food Safety After a Tsunami To prevent foodborne diseases, ... baby formula that requires no added water. Keeping Foods Cold If available, dry ice can be used ...

75

On the moroccan tsunami catalogue  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A primary tool for regional tsunami hazard assessment is a reliable historical and instrumental catalogue of events. Morocco by its geographical situation, with two marine sides, stretching along the Atlantic coast to the west and along the Mediterranean coast to the north, is the country of Western Africa most exposed to the risk of tsunamis. Previous information on tsunami events affecting Morocco are included in the Iberian and/or the Mediterranean lists of tsunami events...

Kaabouben, F.; Baptista, M. A.; Brahim, A. I.; Toto, A.; El Mouraouah, A.

2009-01-01

76

The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: a unique organization promoting earthquake and tsunami resilience on California's North Coast  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northern California counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino account for over 30% of California's coastline and is one of the most seismically active areas of the contiguous 48 states. The region is at risk from earthquakes located on- and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Geological Survey (CGS) published a scenario for a CSZ earthquake that included both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector, was formed to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation in the three-county region. The RCTWG and its member agencies projects include education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning. Since 2008, RCTWG has worked with the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) in conducting tsunami warning communications tests on the North Coast. In 2007, RCTWG members helped develop and carry out the first tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The RCTWG has facilitated numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises, and RCTWG county tsunami response plans have been a model for other regions of the state and country. Eight North Coast communities have been recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service, including the first National Park the first State Park and only tribe in California to be so recognized. Over 500 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in the RCTWG region since 2008. Eight assessment surveys from 1993 to 2010 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist concerns about tsunami hazard signs. Over the seventeen-year period covered by the surveys, the percent with houses secured to foundations has increased from 58 to 84 percent, respondents aware of a local tsunami hazard increased from 51 to 89 percent and knowing what the Cascadia subduction zone is from 16 to 57 percent. In 2009, the RCTWG was recognized by the Western States Seismic Policy Council (WSSPC) with an award for innovation and in 2010, the RCTWG-sponsored class "Living on Shaky Ground" was awarded WSSPC's overall Award in Excellence. The RCTWG works closely with CGS and Cal EMA on a number of projects including tsunami mapping, evacuation zone planning, siren policy, tsunami safety for boaters, and public education messaging. Current projects include working with CGS to develop a "playbook" tsunami mapping product to illustrate the expected effects from a range of tsunami source events and assist local governments in focusing future response actions to reflect the range expected impacts from distant source events. Preparedness efforts paid off on March 11, 2011 when a tsunami warning was issued for the region and significant damage occurred in harbor regions of Del Norte County and Mendocino County. Full-scale evacuations were carried out in a coordinated manner and the majority of the commercial fishing fleet in Crescent City was able to exit the harbor before the tsunami arrived.

Dengler, L.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

2012-12-01

77

Moral disengagement and associated processes in performance-enhancing drug use: a national qualitative investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated psychosocial processes associated with avoidance of health- and morality-based deterrents to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 64 English male bodybuilders with experience of doping. Resultant data were content analysed deductively using definitions for the eight mechanisms of moral disengagement (MD; Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development: Theory research and applications (pp. 71-129). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.), and three further themes from Boardley and Grix (2013. Doping in bodybuilders: A qualitative investigation of facilitative psychosocial processes. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise, and Health. Advance online publication, doi 10.1080/2159676X.2013.766809). These analyses evidenced six MD mechanisms, and all three of the themes from Boardley and Grix (2013. Doping in bodybuilders: A qualitative investigation of facilitative psychosocial processes. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise, and Health. Advance online publication). Subsequent frequency analyses revealed six of the eight MD mechanisms, and two of the three additional themes, were common across the sample. Overall, the findings suggest MD may help athletes circumvent health- and morality-based deterrents to doping, describe a process linking supplement and PED use and detail how some athletes may actively avoid social censure for doping by only discussing PED use with other PED users from within their training environment. PMID:24405120

Boardley, Ian D; Grix, Jonathan; Dewar, Andrew James

2014-01-01

78

The 1867 Virgin Island Tsunami  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1867 Virgin Island Tsunami reached large magnitude on the coasts of the Caribbean Islands. A maximum tsunami height of 10 m was reported for two coastal locations (Deshaies and Sainte-Rose in Guadeloupe. Modelling of the 1867 tsunami is performed in the framework of the nonlinear shallow-water theory. The directivity of the tsunami wave source in the Caribbean Sea according to the assumed initial waveform is investigated. The tsunami records at the several coastal regions in the Lesser Antilles, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and South America are simulated. The comparison between the computed and observed data is in reasonable agreement.

N. Zahibo

2003-01-01

79

Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigation of tsunami risk requires a combination of emergency preparedness for evacuation in addition to providing structural resilience of critical facilities, infrastructure, and key resources necessary for immediate response and economic and social recovery. Critical facilities would include emergency response, medical, tsunami refuges and shelters, ports and harbors, lifelines, transportation, telecommunications, power, financial institutions, and major industrial/commercial facilities. The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee is developing a proposed new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the 2016 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard. ASCE 7 provides the minimum design loads and requirements for structures subject to building codes such as the International Building Code utilized in the USA. In this paper we will provide a review emphasizing the intent of these new code provisions and explain the design methodology. The ASCE 7 provisions for Tsunami Loads and Effects enables a set of analysis and design methodologies that are consistent with performance-based engineering based on probabilistic criteria. . The ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects chapter will be initially applicable only to the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii. Ground shaking effects and subsidence from a preceding local offshore Maximum Considered Earthquake will also be considered prior to tsunami arrival for Alaska and states in the Pacific Northwest regions governed by nearby offshore subduction earthquakes. For national tsunami design provisions to achieve a consistent reliability standard of structural performance for community resilience, a new generation of tsunami inundation hazard maps for design is required. The lesson of recent tsunami is that historical records alone do not provide a sufficient measure of the potential heights of future tsunamis. Engineering design must consider the occurrence of events greater than scenarios in the historical record, and should properly be based on the underlying seismicity of subduction zones. Therefore, Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) consistent with source seismicity must be performed in addition to consideration of historical event scenarios. A method of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis has been established that is generally consistent with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in the treatment of uncertainty. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. Structural member acceptability criteria will be based on performance objectives for a 2,500-year Maximum Considered Tsunami. The approach developed by the ASCE Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE 7 Standard would result in the first national unification of tsunami hazard criteria for design codes reflecting the modern approach of Performance-Based Engineering.

Chock, G.

2013-12-01

80

National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse: qualitative and quantitative carcinogenic risk assessment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the basic principles and assumptions associated with a qualitative and quantitative carcinogenic risk assessment and illustrates these features using several examples of quantitative risk assessment done by State and local agencies. The report is intended to help readers better understand and interpret a risk assessment rather than to provide instructions that would enable them to conduct a risk assessment. The report is aimed at managers and staff members in State and local agencies who are concerned with the use of qualitative and quantitative carcinogenic risk assessment for evaluating emissions of toxic air pollutants. The report discusses the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization, focusing primarily on the dose-response assessment.

Cote, I.; Bayard, S.

1987-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR). METHODS: From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perina...

Kidanto, Hussein L.; Mogren, Ingrid; Roosmalen, Jos; Thomas, Angela N.; Massawe, Siriel N.; Nystro?m, Lennarth; Lindmark, Gunilla

2009-01-01

82

MULTIPLE LAYER IDENTIFICATION AND TRANSPORTATION PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR ONSHORE TSUNAMI DEPOSIT AS THE EXTENDING TSUNAMI DATA – A CASE STUDY FROM THE THAI ANDAMAN COAST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 26thDecember 2004, a strong Indian Ocean earthquake of moment magnitude 9 generated a deadly tsunami that hit the west coast of southern Thailand and many coastal nations of the Indian Ocean. Two tsunami-affected areas on the Thai Andaman coast (Ao Kheuy beach and Khuk Khak beach were investigated. Multiple sediment layers in the tsunami deposits are identified and are analyzed. The sediment transportation patterns are also determined. Tsunami deposits consist of graded sand layers overlying the pre-existing soil. The particle size profile of the tsunami sediment and the plot of grain-size standard deviation with depth are used to identify major layers in tsunami deposit. There are three major sediment layers in the tsunami deposit in the study areas. They reflect three depositional sequences created by three tsunami run-ups. The mean grain-size of tsunami deposit and the results of sediment trend analysis show that the tsunami deposit is generally fining upwards and landwards. Each major sediment layer is created by sediments settled from suspension in a set of run-up and backwash. The percentage by weight of sediment settled from suspension during the backwash is small when it is compared to the percentage by weight of sediment settled from suspension during the run-up. The 1stdepositional sequence has higher quantity of coarse grain particles than the following depositional sequences. At a mild slope shore face, sediments are transported and deposited on land far from their origins. The number of major sediment layers in tsunami deposit can be used as the extending data for reconstructing individual tsunami run-up by using numerical and/or simple models.

Jean-Frank Wagner

2009-01-01

83

Coordinating Post-Tsunami Field Surveys in the us  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-tsunami scientific field surveys are critical for improving the understanding of tsunamis and developing tools and programs to mitigate their effects. After a destructive tsunami, international, national, and local tsunami scientists need to gather information, much of which is perishable or degrades significantly with time. An influx of researchers can put stress on countries already overwhelmed by humanitarian response to the disaster and by the demands of emergency management and other support agencies. In the United States, in addition to university research scientists, government agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS), and state/territorial emergency management agencies and geological surveys endeavor to collect physical and social science data to better understand the physics of tsunamis and the impact they have on coastal communities and ecosystems. After a Presidential Major Disaster Declaration, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Joint Field Office works with state/territory emergency management agencies to coordinate response to disasters. In the short-term, the collection and immediate sharing of data enable decision-making that better organizes and deploys often-limited resources to the areas most critically in need of response; and in the long-term, improves recovery planning that will mitigate the losses from the next tsunami. Recent tsunamis have emphasized the need for improved coordination of data collection among scientists and federal, state, and local emergency managers. Improved coordination will ensure data collection efforts are carried out in a safe, secure, efficient, and timely manner. To improve coordination of activities that will better integrate the scientific investigations with government response, the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program and Pacific Risk Management 'Ohana (PRiMO) are working together to develop a consistent framework for a tsunami technical clearinghouse (TTC). The goals of the TTC, which would include at a minimum an electronic information server but could also include a physical location, are to: 1) assist in the response to, damage assessment of, and early recovery from the natural disaster; 2) facilitate researcher access to the affected areas; and 3) contribute to the capture of valuable and perishable data. The Working Group, composed of representatives from NOAA, USGS, FEMA, and state and local emergency managers and geoscientists, will engage with other stakeholders and the science community to review existing national standard operating procedures for post-tsunami scientific field surveys and data collection, as well as make recommendations for domestic application. The outcomes are intended to propose a national structure that can be consistently implemented within each state and territory.

Kong, L. S.; Chiesa, C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Huart, J.; Richards, K.; Shulters, M.; Stein, A.; Tamura, G.; Wilson, R. I.; Young, E.

2011-12-01

84

Tiché tsunami bez hranic.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Ro?. 6, ?. 24 (2008), s. 14. ISSN 1801-1446Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z70280505Klí?ová slova: food crisisKód oboru RIV: AO - Sociologie, demografiehttp://www.respekt.cz/search.php?f_search_text=tich%E9+tsunami+bez+hranic

Kone?ný, Tomáš

85

THE FRENCH TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NORTHEAST ATLANTIC: CENALT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CENALT (CENtre d’ALerte aux Tsunamis is responsible for the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC. The CENALT is established in the framework of the Unesco/IOC/ICG/NEAMTWS. Its objective is to transmit a warning message in less than fifteen minutes for any events that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North- Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions of European and North African countries is processed with software that permits early epicenter location of seismic events and measurements of expected tsunami impacts on the shore. On-duty analysts revise interactively all the generated information and use references of historical tsunami and earthquake databases - as well as computed tsunami scenarios – in order to disseminate the more comprehensive message possible.

H. Hébert

2013-01-01

86

Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis Data Quality Control  

Science.gov (United States)

From the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) page contains real time sea level data which can be modified by site and transmitter, type of data set, database, and time range. Data may be viewed through a browser or downloaded (.dbf, .gz).

1999-01-01

87

CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. The CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX 13 scenario simulated a tsunami generated by a magnitude 8.5 earthquake originating north of Oranjestad, Aruba in the Caribbean Sea. For the first time earthquake impact was included in addition to expected tsunami impact. The initial message was issued by the warning centers over the established channels, while different mechanisms were then used by participants for further dissemination. The enhanced PTWC tsunami products for the Caribbean were also made available to the participants. To provide feedback on the exercise an online survey tool with 85 questions was used. The survey demonstrated satisfaction with exercise, timely receipt of bulletins and interest in the enhanced PTWC products. It also revealed that while 93% of the countries had an activation and response process, only 59% indicated that they also had an emergency response plan for tsunamis and even fewer had tsunami evacuation plans and inundation maps. Given that 80% of those surveyed indicated that CARIBE WAVE should be conducted annually, CARIBE EWS decided that the next exercise be held on March 26, 2014, instead of waiting until 2015.

von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

2013-12-01

88

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami Information Sources, Part 4, was originally published, on 14 March 2008, as a Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Report UCB/HEL 2008-1, of the Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of California at Berkeley. It is published now in "SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS" with the permission of the author, so that it can receive wider distribution and use by the Tsunami Scientific Community.

Robert L. Wiegel

2009-01-01

89

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES PART 3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is Part 3 of Tsunami Information Sources published by Robert L. Wiegel, as Technical Report UCB/HEL 2006-3 of the Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory of the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering of the University of California at Berkeley. Part 3 is published in "SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS" -with the author's permission -so that it can receive wider distribution and use by the Tsunami Scientific Community.

Robert L. Wiegel

2009-01-01

90

TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.

Andrei G. Marchuk

2009-01-01

91

Partnership disengagement from primary community care networks (PCCNs): A qualitative study for a national demonstration project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Primary Community Care Network (PCCN) Demonstration Project, launched by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) in 2003, is still in progress. Partnership structures in PCCNs represent both contractual clinic-to-clinic and clinic-to-hospital member relationships of organizational aspects. The partnership structures are the formal relationships between individuals and the total network. Their organizational design aims to ensure effective commun...

Liau Chia-Yi; Lin Cheng-Chieh; Lin Yung-Kai; Lin Blossom

2010-01-01

92

Qualitative risk evaluation of environmental restoration programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the evaluation of risks associated with environmental restoration activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory using two tools supplied by DOE to provide a consistent set of risk estimates across the DOE complex: Risk Data Sheets (RDS) and Relative Risk Ranking. The tools are described, the process taken characterized, results provided and discussed. The two approaches are compared and recommendations provided for continuing improvement of the process.

Morris, S.C.

1996-05-01

93

Tsunami flood modelling for Aceh & west Sumatra and its application for an early warning system  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryFor implementation of a regional Tsunami Early Warning System (EWS) in Sumatra island in Indonesia, a set of detailed and accurate tsunami propagation and flooding models using Delft3D were developed. The purpose of the models was not only to reproduce the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but also to determine tsunami flood hazard maps with different return periods. The model outputs have then been used to build a tsunami flooding database covering 1250 hypothetical sources for different earthquake parameters along the Sunda Trench for an EWS called RiskMap. The model simulations produced detailed information of near-shore tsunami wave height, tsunami inundation length and run-up. Smart storage of computational results, in a geo-referenced database, allows quick access to the requisite information. The result is a system capable of issuing a warning within few minutes after a detection of an earthquake. The system has been successfully installed and tested in the last two years at national and regional emergency coordination centres, National Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) and at Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Research Centre (TDMRC) in Banda Aceh.

Van Veen, B. A. D.; Vatvani, D.; Zijl, F.

2014-05-01

94

A CRITICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF APPLYING SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (SVOCS AS A GEOCHEMICAL TRACER TO INDICATE TSUNAMI BACKWASH: The Bilateral, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT Funded Project “Tsunami Deposits in Near-Shore- and Coastal Waters of Thailand (TUNWAT”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunamis symbolize one of the most harmful natural disasters for low-lying coastal zones and their residents, due to both its destructive power and irregularity. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, which attack the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, resulted 5,395 of deaths and inestimable casualties, interrupted economies and social well-being in numerous coastal villages and caused in extreme alterations of both onshore and offshore coastal morphology. The Great Indian Ocean tsunami also highlighted that there are many missing jigsaw puzzle pieces in scientific knowledge, starting from the generating of tsunamis offshore to the countless influences to the marine ecosystems on the continental shelf, coastal areas and on land and to the economic and social systems consequences. As with all deposits that do not have a direct physical link to their causative sources, marine tsunami deposits must be distinguished from other deposits through regional correlation, dating and criteria for recognition within the deposits themselves. This study aims to provide comprehensive reviews on using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs as a chemical proxy to discriminate tsunami relateddeposits from typical marine sediments. The advantages and disadvantages of this chemical tracer will be critically reviewed and further discussed.

Siwatt Pongpiachan

2013-10-01

95

Tsunami Warning Criteria for Cascadia events based on Tsunami models  

Science.gov (United States)

Initial tsunami warning, advisory, and watch zones for potential Cascadia earthquakes have been revised based on maximum expected threat for tsunamis generated by earthquakes in this region. Presently, alert zones are initially based on travel time for earthquakes greater than magnitude 7.8 with all areas less than three hours away from the source being put into a tsunami warning. The impact of this change is to reduce the length of coastline which is immediately put it into a warning status. Tsunami Warning Centers often delineate initial tsunami alert zones based on pre-set criteria dependent on earthquake magnitude, location, depth, and tsunami travel time. In many cases, this approach can lead to over-warning. Over the last several years, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) has attempted to refine the amount of coastline immediately placed in a warning status based on maximum expected threat instead of travel time. Tsunami forecast models used to predict impacts during events (for example, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM), Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT), and Rapid Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis (RIFT)) can also be used a-priori to delineate zones at-risk for specified source zones. forecast models have proven reasonably accurate during recent events. For the Cascadia Subduction zone, several rupture scenarios ranging from magnitude 7.9 to 9.2, were computed. Forecasted wave heights at various points are then used to set the initial Warning/Watch/Advisory regions. This procedure is more efficient than a blanket warning - or a refined warning based on travel times - as appropriate threat levels are assigned based on expected impact. For example, after a magnitude 8.7 earthquake in the southern Cascadia Subduction zone, southern and most of central California can be left out of the warning zone and placed in an advisory, as none of this region contains expected impacts in the warning threshold (tsunami amplitude over 1m). Under previous criteria, these zones would have been placed in a warning. Several examples are shown which help refine criteria used by the Tsunami Warning Center during hypothetical Cascadia events.

Huang, P. Y.; Nyland, D. L.; Knight, W.; Gately, K.; Hale, D.; Urban, G.; Waddell, J.; Carrick, J.; Popham, C.; Bahng, B.; Kim, Y.; Burgy, M.; Langley, S.; Preller, C. C.; Whitmore, P.

2013-12-01

96

Online Dispute Resolution (ODR within Developing Nations: A Qualitative Evaluation of Transfer and Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field of online dispute resolution (ODR is developing both as practice and a profession. Evidence of this includes a growing community of scholars and practitioners. A Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA grant permitted 16 practitioners from developing countries to attend the 2008 ODR Forum in Victoria, British Columbia. In the year following the Forum, an evaluation was conducted to identify changes among these practitioners’ behaviors, knowledge, skills, abilities and credibility. Results indicate that ODR practitioners in developing countries are engaged in a wide range of activities, many of which are technologically and logistically complex. These practitioners also face a number of political and infrastructural challenges that are not as commonly experienced by those from developed nations. Taken together, these realities have implications both for the nature of ODR’s proliferation as a legitimate practice, as well as for the provision of education and training concerning its underpinnings.

Doug Leigh

2014-01-01

97

Survey of existing tsunami warning centers - Present status, results of work, plans for future development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tsunami Warning System of the Pacific exists as an example of participatory coordination between ICG/ITSU member nations throughout the Pacific Basin. The involvement and participation by many nations has continued to result in significant improvements in the TWS. Although recent operational improvements at PTWC have resulted in the provision of enhanced tsunami warning services, even greater improvements are anticipated over the coming year as PTWC implements the improved automation technology provided by the Concurrent/Masscomp 6600 minicomputer, increased coverage for both seismic and sea level data, improved tsunami evaluation techniques, and increased participation by ICG/ITSU participants. 2 figs

1989-08-04

98

Transient Tsunamis in Lakes  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free-waves moving away from it coexist. On an open coast, these two types of waves would never interact, but because of the lake's finite dimensions, here we show that local inundation height maxima are due to wave superposition on the shoreline. These interactions can be dramatic near the lake's corners. For instance, in a rectangular lake delimited by two opposite and plane beaches and two vertical walls, we find that a landslide tsunami results in an inundation height at a corner 50% larger than anywhere else. The nonlinear and linear models produce different inundation maps, and here we show that maximum wave runups can be increased by up to 56% when nonlinear terms are included.

Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

2013-12-01

99

Introducing CAT (Centro di Allerta Tsunami), the Italian candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (It-cTWP) for the Mediterranean  

Science.gov (United States)

The recently established CAT (Centro di Allerta Tsunami) at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) will be part of the Italian National Tsunami Warning Center (It-NTWC) and it is a candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) for the Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAMTWS). It-NTWC is a partnership of three Italian institutions: INGV, the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC) and the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, ISPRA) which provides the sea-level data of the Italian mareographic network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN) in quasi-real-time. CAT is the operational part of the It-NTWC based at the INGV 24/7 seismic monitoring centre in Rome. CAT will be committed to deliver tsunami warning messages to DPC and, when it will enter its operational cTWP phase, to any IOC/UNESCO member state that will subscribe for the service. The current implementation of CAT is based on the NEAMTWS Decision Matrix (DM). Earthquake parameters are determined automatically by the Early-Est (EE) software, and used as an input to DM and tsunami travel times calculation to provide warning messages, including earthquake parameters, plus level of alert and estimated tsunami arrival time at pre-defined forecast points along threatened coasts. Basing on updated automatic EE solutions, seismologist's revision, and sea-level readings subsequent messages can be delivered until warning status ends. The use of the DM allows a rapid implementation of a tsunami warning system, but it does not consider some important features to better characterize a tsunami forecast, such as the earthquake's focal mechanism, the directivity of tsunami propagation and the morphology of the coast. More sophisticated procedures are currently under development: a database of pre-calculated, or calculated on the fly on GPU cards, tsunami scenarios, and rapid moment tensor calculation. The deployment of deep-sea tsunami (pressure) sensors is envisaged as well subject to budgetary constraints. A Decision Support System (DSS) is under development in order to integrate the different sources of information (earthquake parameters estimates and prior knowledge of the tectonic setting, numerical tsunami forecast, sea-level readings), and assist decision making during the first minutes after an event. CAT participated successfully in several NEAM communication tests within its function of National Tsunami Warning Focal Point (NTWFP) and the delivery of messages to DPC, ISPRA, and local authorities has also been tested. Preliminary CAT procedures have been tested internally, that is without delivering messages, also for two recent Mediterranean earthquakes: the M=6.6 occurred the 12th October 2013 offshore Crete and the M=5.9 occurred the 28th December 2013 offshore between Turkey and Cyprus. Here, we will present the current CAT implementation and describe its future developments.

Michelini, Alberto; Amato, Alessandro; Badiali, Lucio; Basili, Roberto; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Govoni, Aladino; Lauciani, Valentino; Lomax, Anthony; Lorito, Stefano; Mele, Francesco; Melini, Daniele; Molinari, Irene; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Selva, Jacopo; Selvaggi, Giulio; Sensale, Giampaolo; Tonini, Roberto; Vazzoler, Stefano; Zanolin, Francesco

2014-05-01

100

Earthquake and Tsunami planning, outreach and awareness in Humboldt County, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Humboldt County has the longest coastline in California and is one of the most seismically active areas of the state. It is at risk from earthquakes located on and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ), other regional fault systems, and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Division of Mines and Geology published the first earthquake scenario to include both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of representatives from government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector from the three northern coastal California counties, was formed in 1996 to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation. The RCTWG and its member agencies have sponsored a variety of projects including education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning, and has sponsored an Earthquake - Tsunami Education Room at the Humboldt County fair for the past eleven years. Three editions of Living on Shaky Ground an earthquake-tsunami preparedness magazine for California's North Coast, have been published since 1993 and a fourth is due to be published in fall 2008. In 2007, Humboldt County was the first region in the country to participate in a tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD and the first area in California to conduct a full-scale tsunami evacuation drill. The County has conducted numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises using county-wide tsunami response plan. Two Humboldt County communities were recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service in 2007. Over 300 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in Humboldt County since March 2008. Six assessment surveys from 1993 to 2006 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist concerns about tsunami hazard signs. Over the thirteen year period covered by the surveys, the percent with houses secured to foundations has increased from 58 to 80 percent, respondents aware of a local tsunami hazard increased from 51 to 73 percent and knowing what the Cascadia subduction zone is from 16 to 42 percent.

Ozaki, V.; Nicolini, T.; Larkin, D.; Dengler, L.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Emergency management response to a warning-level Alaska-source tsunami impacting California: Chapter J in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter is directed towards two audiences: Firstly, it targets nonemergency management readers, providing them with insight on the process and challenges facing emergency managers in responding to tsunami Warning, particularly given this “short fuse” scenario. It is called “short fuse” because there is only a 5.5-hour window following the earthquake before arrival of the tsunami within which to evaluate the threat, disseminate alert and warning messages, and respond. This action initiates a period when crisis communication is of paramount importance. An additional dynamic that is important to note is that within 15 minutes of the earthquake, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Weather Service (NWS) will issue alert bulletins for the entire Pacific Coast. This is one-half the time actually presented by recent tsunamis from Japan, Chile, and Samoa. Second, the chapter provides emergency managers at all levels with insights into key considerations they may need to address in order to augment their existing plans and effectively respond to tsunami events. We look at emergency management response to the tsunami threat from three perspectives:“Top Down” (Threat analysis and Alert/Warning information from the Federal agency charged with Alert and Warning) “Bottom Up” (Emergency management’s Incident Command approach to responding to emergencies and disasters based on the needs of impacted local jurisdictions) “Across Time” (From the initiating earthquake event through emergency response) We focus on these questions: What are the government roles, relationships, and products that support Tsunami Alert and Warning dissemination? (Emergency Planning and Preparedness.) What roles, relationships, and products support emergency management response to Tsunami Warning and impact? (Engendering prudent public safety response.) What are the key emergency management activities, considerations, and challenges brought out by the SAFRR tsunami scenario? (Real emergencies) How do these activities, considerations, and challenges play out as the tsunami event unfolds across the “life” of the event? (Lessons)

Miller, Kevin M.; Long, Kate

2013-01-01

102

TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

B. Theilen-Willige

2006-01-01

103

Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability  

Science.gov (United States)

A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

104

University of Southern California: Tsunami Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California "is actively involved with all aspects of tsunami research; inundation field surveys, numerical and analytical modeling, and hazard assessment, mitigation and planning." The website supplies interactive maps and chilling images of the destruction caused by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Visitors can find out the latest tsunami news and research. Students and educators can view animations of seismic activity, landslides, and additional tsunami-related activity in various locations across the globe. Researchers can find abstracts and lists of publications of papers discussing field surveys, physical models, numerical methods, tsunami hazards, and more.

105

Integrating Caribbean Seismic and Tsunami Hazard into Public Policy and Action  

Science.gov (United States)

The Caribbean has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 80 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Almost 90% of all these historical tsunamis have been associated with earthquakes. Just since 1842, 3510 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along the Caribbean shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. Most of the countries also have a very high exposure to earthquakes. Given the elevated vulnerability, it is imperative that government officials take steps to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of these events. Nevertheless, given the low frequency of high impact earthquakes and tsunamis, in comparison to hurricanes, combined with social and economic considerations, the needed investments are not made and disasters like the 2010 Haiti earthquake occur. In the absence of frequent significant events, an important driving force for public officials to take action, is the dissemination of scientific studies. When papers of this nature have been published and media advisories issued, public officials demonstrate heightened interest in the topic which in turn can lead to increased legislation and funding efforts. This is especially the case if the material can be easily understood by the stakeholders and there is a local contact. In addition, given the close link between earthquakes and tsunamis, in Puerto Rico alone, 50% of the high impact earthquakes have also generated destructive tsunamis, it is very important that earthquake and tsunami hazards studies demonstrate consistency. Traditionally in the region, earthquake and tsunami impacts have been considered independently in the emergency planning processes. For example, earthquake and tsunami exercises are conducted separately, without taking into consideration the compounding effects. Recognizing this deficiency, the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) which was established in 2005, decided to include the tsunami and earthquake impacts for the upcoming March 20, 2013 regional CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX tsunami exercise. In addition to the tsunami wave heights predicted by the National Weather Service Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii, the USGS PAGER and SHAKE MAP results for the M8.5 scenario earthquake in the southern Caribbean were also integrated into the manual. Additionally, in recent catastrophic planning for Puerto Rico, FEMA did request the local researchers to determine both the earthquake and tsunami impacts for the same source. In the US, despite that the lead for earthquakes and tsunamis lies within two different agencies, USGS and NOAA/NWS, it has been very beneficial that the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program partnership includes both agencies. By working together, the seismic and tsunami communities can achieve an even better understanding of the hazards, but also foster more actions on behalf of government officials and the populations at risk.

von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

2012-12-01

106

Tsunami risk mapping simulation for Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The 26 December 2004 Andaman mega tsunami killed about a quarter of a million people worldwide. Since then several significant tsunamis have recurred in this region, including the most recent 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami. These tsunamis grimly remind us of the devastating destruction that a tsunami might inflict on the affected coastal communities. There is evidence that tsunamis of similar or higher magnitudes might occur again in the near future in this region. Of particular concern to Malaysia are tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring along the northern part of the Sunda Trench. Further, the Manila Trench in the South China Sea has been identified as another source of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes that might trigger large tsunamis. To protect coastal communities that might be affected by future tsunamis, an effective early warning system must be properly installed and maintained to provide adequate time for residents to be evacuated from risk zones. Affected communities must be prepared and educated in advance regarding tsunami risk zones, evacuation routes as well as an effective evacuation procedure that must be taken during a tsunami occurrence. For these purposes, tsunami risk zones must be identified and classified according to the levels of risk simulated. This paper presents an analysis of tsunami simulations for the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea for the purpose of developing a tsunami risk zone classification map for Malaysia based upon simulated maximum wave heights. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

Teh, S. Y.; Koh, H. L.; Moh, Y. T.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

2011-01-01

107

Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey : Status Update 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an update to EGU2011-3094 informing on the progress of the establishment of a National Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey (NTWC-TR) under the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (IOC-ICG/NEAMTWS) initiative. NTWC-TR is integrated into the 24/7 operational National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) of KOERI comprising 129 BB and 61 strong motion sensors. Based on an agreement with the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (DEMP), data from 10 BB stations located in the Aegean and Mediterranean Coast is now transmitted in real time to KOERI. Real-time data transmission from 6 primary and 10 auxiliary stations from the International Monitoring System will be in place in the very near future based on an agreement concluded with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2011. In an agreement with a major Turkish GSM company, KOERI is enlarging its strong-motion network to promote real-time seismology and to extend Earthquake Early Warning system countrywide. 25 accelerometers (included in the number given above) have been purchased and installed at Base Transceiver Station Sites in coastal regions within the scope of this initiative. Data from 3 tide gauge stations operated by General Command of Mapping (GCM) is being transmitted to KOERI via satellite connection and the aim is to integrate all tide-gauge stations operated by GCM into NTWC-TR. A collaborative agreement has been signed with the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and MOD1 Tsunami Scenario Database and TAT (Tsunami Analysis Tool) are received by KOERI and user training was provided. The database and the tool are linked to SeisComp3 and currently operational. In addition KOERI is continuing the work towards providing contributions to JRC in order to develop an improved database (MOD2), and also continuing work related to the development of its own scenario database using NAMI DANCE Tsunami Simulation and Visualization Software. Further improvement of the Tsunami Warning System at the NTWC-TR will be accomplished through KOERI's participation in the FP-7 Project TRIDEC focusing on new technologies for real-time intelligent earth information management to be used in Tsunami Early Warning Systems. In cooperation with Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS), KOERI has its own GTS system now and connected to GTS via its own satellite hub. The system has been successfully utilized during the First Enlarged Communication Test Exercise (NEAMTWS/ECTE1), where KOERI acted as the message provider. KOERI is providing guidance and assistance to a working group established within the DEMP on issues such as Communication and Tsunami Exercises, National Procedures and National Tsunami Response Plan. KOERI is also participating in NEAMTIC (North-Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Information Centre) Project. Finally, during the 8th Session of NEAMTWS in November 2011, KOERI has announced that NTWC-TR is operational as of January 2012 covering Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara and Black Seas and KOERI is also ready to operate as an Interim Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider.

Meral Ozel, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kalafat, D.; Yilmazer, M.; Comoglu, M.; Sanli, U.; Gurbuz, C.; Erdik, M.

2012-04-01

108

Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997) estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq equati...

Tanioka, Y.; Seno, T.

2001-01-01

109

Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective decision making is required to make financial allocations based on real, rather than perceived needs. With a large part of HIV program funding dedicated to public-private partnerships, it becomes imperative to develop public sector capacity to administer contracts, coordinate and monitor activities of the non-governmental sector.

Kadir Masood

2007-01-01

110

Tsunami and Earthquake Research at the USGS  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal provides access to information on United States Geological Survey (USGS) research and resources on tsunamis and earthquakes. Materials include news and events in USGS tsunami research, an overview of the program, and basic information on the life of a tsunami. There are also links to individual research projects. The site also features an extensive set of tsunami animations of real and hypothetical events, and links to VRML models of real and hypothetical events.

2011-07-20

111

Water level ingest, archive and processing system - an integral part of NOAA's tsunami database  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and collocated World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data. Archive responsibilities include the NOAA Global Historical Tsunami event and runup database, damage photos, as well as other related hazards data. Beginning in 2008, NGDC was given the responsibility of archiving, processing and distributing all tsunami and hazards-related water level data collected from NOAA observational networks in a coordinated and consistent manner. These data include the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) data provided by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), coastal-tide-gauge data from the National Ocean Service (NOS) network and tide-gauge data from the two National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) regional networks. Taken together, this integrated archive supports tsunami forecast, warning, research, mitigation and education efforts of NOAA and the Nation. Due to the variety of the water level data, the automatic ingest system was redesigned, along with upgrading the inventory, archive and delivery capabilities based on modern digital data archiving practices. The data processing system was also upgraded and redesigned focusing on data quality assessment in an operational manner. This poster focuses on data availability highlighting the automation of all steps of data ingest, archive, processing and distribution. Examples are given from recent events such as the October 2012 hurricane Sandy, the Feb 06, 2013 Solomon Islands tsunami, and the June 13, 2013 meteotsunami along the U.S. East Coast.

McLean, S. J.; Mungov, G.; Dunbar, P. K.; Price, D. J.; Mccullough, H.

2013-12-01

112

Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). TRIDEC focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application: The technical development is based on mature system architecture models and industry standards. The use of standards already applies to the operation of individual TRIDEC reference installations and their interlinking into an integrated service infrastructure for supranational warning services. This is a first step towards best practices and service lifecycles for Early Warning Centre IT service management, including Service Level Agreements (SLA) and Service Certification. While on a global scale the integration of TEWS progresses towards Systems of Systems (SoS), there is still an absence of accredited and reliable certifications for national TEWS or regional Tsunami Early Warning Systems of Systems (TEWSoS). Concepts for TEWS operations have already been published under the guidance of the IOC, and can now be complemented by the recent research advances concerning SoS architecture. Combined with feedback from the real world, such as the NEAMwave 2012 Tsunami exercise in the Mediterranean, this can serve as a starting point to formulate initial requirements for TEWS and TEWSoS certification: Certification activities will cover the establishment of new TEWS and TEWSoS, and also both maintenance and enhancement of existing TEWS/TEWSoS. While the IOC is expected to take a central role in the development of the certification strategy, it remains to be defined which bodies will actually conduct the certification process. Certification requirements and results are likely to become a valuable information source for various target groups, ranging from national policy decision makers, government agency planners, national and local government preparedness officials, TWC staff members, Disaster Responders, the media and the insurance industry.

Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

2013-04-01

113

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010.

T. Steinmetz

2010-09-01

114

Tsunami early warning and decision support  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind - it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal) of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010). While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system) which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG - the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia - which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC) and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG) to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010).

Steinmetz, T.; Raape, U.; Teßmann, S.; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; Kukofka, T.; Riedlinger, T.; Mikusch, E.; Dech, S.

2010-09-01

115

Tsunami Recurrence Function: Structure, Methods of Creation, and Application for Tsunami Hazard Estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers a theoretical basement for a Poissonian probability model for tsunami run-up heights, with emphasis on the tsunami recurrence function. It is shown that the tsunami recurrence function of a general type contains at least two scale parameters: asymptotic frequency of big tsunamis f related to the considered region and characteristic tsunami height H* for the considered location in the region. A method for the correct statistical evaluation of the parameters f and H*, and their variations, using observational data from tsunami catalogues, is created. The paper considers some theoretical and applied problems related to the tsunami recurrence function, an example of a two-parameter tsunami hazard map, and also the problem of probabilistic tsunami hazard estimation.

Kaistrenko, Victor

2014-03-01

116

Historic Tsunami in the Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami dramatically highlighted the need for a better understanding of the tsunami hazard in the Indian Ocean. One of the most important foundations on which to base such an assessment is knowledge of tsunami that have affected the region in the historical past. We present a summary of the previously published catalog of Indian Ocean tsunami and the results of a preliminary search of archival material held at the India Records Office at the British Library in London. We demonstrate that in some cases, normal tidal movements and floods associated with tropical cyclones have been erroneously listed as tsunami. We summarise interesting archival material for tsunami that occurred in 1945, 1941, 1881, 1819, 1762 and a tsunami in 1843 not previously identified or reported. We also note the recent discovery, by a Canadian team during a post-tsunami survey following the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami, of archival evidence that the Great Sumatra Earthquake of 1833 generated a teletsunami. Open ocean wave heights are calculated for some of the historical tsunami and compared with those of the Boxing Day Tsunami.

Dominey-Howes, D.; Cummins, P. R.; Burbidge, D.

2005-12-01

117

Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Tsunami Program coordinated by CalOES and CGS in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine ';safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. This presentation will focus on the results from five California ports and harbors, and will include feedback we have received from initial discussion with local harbor masters and port authorities. This work in California will form the basis for tsunami hazard reduction for all U.S. maritime communities through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Son, S.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K.

2013-12-01

118

Application of FACTS as a tool for modeling, archiving and sharing tsunami simulation results.  

Science.gov (United States)

FACTS (Facility for the Analysis and Comparison of Tsunami Simulations) is a system developed by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. The system uses a web interface to archive and access the results of numerical tsunami simulations. The system uses the tsunami propagation and runup model MOST to perform inundation computations. Recently, a standalone node of the FACTS system was brought online at the University of Southern California (http://usc-facts.usc.edu). The purpose of this node is to compile all of the modeling runs completed to date for the purposes of tsunami inundation and evacuation mapping for the California Office of Emergency Services, as part of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. One highlight of the system is the ability for the end user to specify a specific location for detailed analysis and data output. Time series information can be obtained for arbitrary points within the flow field. The results can be inspected in plots generated in real time by the system or the data can be output in text format for later use By archiving a database of numerical simulation results, a probabilistic analysis of tsunami hazards is beginning to take shape. Currently, the original FACTS node (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov/FACTS) gives the user the ability to create a `designer tsunami' from sources along the various circumpacific subduction zones. By discretizing the subduction zones into `unit' sources that can be switched on or off and combined, unique tsunami sources can be created and the results analyzed. Hopefully, this node will be the first of many in an expanding network linking tsunami researchers and modelers around the world. Future plans include nodes for the East Coast, Caribbean, New Zealand, Australia, and Turkey.

Borrero, J. C.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Titov, V. V.; Newman, J. C.; Venturato, A. J.; Legg, G.

2004-12-01

119

Capacity Building for Caribbean Tsunami Warnings: A Regional Training Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Between June 25 and June 30 the Seismic Research Unit (SRU) of the University of the West Indies (UWI) hosted a Caribbean regional training program in Seismology and Tsunami Warnings. A total of 43 participants from 21 countries and territories, representing meteorological, emergency management, and seismological institutions in the region, attended this training aimed at developing their understanding of the science of tsunamis, hazard and risk assessment, preparedness, education, and outreach, and operational best practices. As an outcome of the course the participants drafted six recommendations (outlined on the poster) that they felt were priority action items for expeditious realization of a Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System. The program was conducted under the UNESCO IOC banner in response to a call for such a training program at the Second Session of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS II), held in Cumanã, Venezuela, March 12-14, 2007. The majority of funding for the course was provided by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (ODFA) of the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Disaster Reduction Center of the UWI, and the US Geological Survey (USGS).

Kelly, A.; Robertson, R.; Kong, L.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; McCreery, C.; Yamamoto, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Lynch, L.

2007-12-01

120

O risco não percepcionado para as zonas costeiras da Europa: Os tsunamis e a vulnerabilidade de Cádis, Espanha The Unperceived Risk to Europe’s Coasts: Tsunamis and the Vulnerability of Cadiz, Spain Le risque non perçu dans les zones côtières de l’Europe : les tsunamis et la vulnérabilité de Cadix, en Espagne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de estratégias apropriadas de redução de riscos e de vulnerabilidades para lidar com os riscos de tsunamis é um desafio importante para países, regiões e cidades a eles expostos. Este artigo descreve a forma como os riscos da ocorrência de tsunamis e, em particular, a vulnerabilidade a esses riscos podem ser avaliados e medidos. Com este objectivo, aplicou?se um quadro de avaliação de vulnerabilidade à cidade de Cádis, o estudo de caso, de modo a destacar o uso prático e os desafios e as lacunas com que uma avaliação deste tipo tem de lidar. Os resultados revelam informações importantes para a melhoria sistemática da capacidade de resposta societal das cidades e dos seus habitantes a riscos potenciais de tsunamis. Elaboraram?se mapas de perigos e vulnerabilidades, assim como dados qualitativos obtidos, por exemplo, através de discussões de grupo. Estes mapas e inquéritos são fundamentais quando se destinam ao desenvolvimento de um sistema de alerta e resposta rápida centrado nas populações. As conclusões deste artigo têm por base investigação levada a cabo no quadro do projecto TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk and Strategies for the European Region, financiado pela Comissão Europeia, que tem por objectivo contribuir para melhorar o conhecimento dos processos envolvidos nos tsunamis na região Euro?Mediterrânica, desenvolver métodos e ferramentas para avaliar a vulnerabilidade e o risco e identificar estratégias para a redução dos riscos de tsunami.The development of appropriate risk and vulnerability reduction strategies to cope with tsunami risks is a major challenge for countries, regions, and cities exposed to potential tsunamis. European coastal cities such as Cadiz are exposed to tsunami risks. However, most official risk reduction strategies as well as the local population are not aware of the probability of such a phenomenon and the potential threat that tsunami waves could pose to their littoral. This paper outlines how tsunami risks, and particularly tsunami vulnerability, could be assessed and measured. To achieve this, a vulnerability assessment framework was applied focusing on the city of Cadiz as a case study in order to highlight the practical use and the challenges and gaps such an assessment has to deal with. The findings yield important information that could assist with the systematic improvement of societal response capacities of cities and their inhabitants to potential tsunami risks. Hazard and vulnerability maps were developed, and qualitative data was obtained through, for example, focused group discussions. The findings of the paper are based on research conducted within the framework of the European Commission funded project TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk and Strategies For the European Region, a project that aims to improve the understanding of tsunami processes in the Euro-Mediterranean region, to develop methods and tools to assess vulnerability and risk, and to identify strategies for the reduction of tsunami risks.Le développement de stratégies appropriées de réduction des risques et des vulnérabilités pour faire face aux risques de tsunamis est un défi majeur pour les pays, régions et villes qui y sont exposés. Cet article décrit comment les risques de survenue de tsunamis et, en particulier, la vulnérabilité à ces risques peuvent être évalués et mesurés. Avec cet objectif en vue, nous avons appliqué un cadre d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité de la ville de Cadix, l’étude de cas, afin de mettre en évidence l’utilisation pratique et les défis et les lacunes avec lesquels une évaluation de ce type doit faire face. Les résultats révèlent d’importantes informations pour l’amélioration systématique de la capacité de réponse sociale des villes et de leurs habitants face à de potentiels risques de tsunamis. Des cartes des dangers et des vulnérabilités ont été élaborées, ainsi qu’obtenues des données qualitatives à travers, par exemple, de discussions de groupe. Ces cartes et ces enquêt

Jörn Birkmann

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Short note: The earthquake of 16 November, 1925 (Ms=7.0 and the reported tsunami in Zihuatanejo, Mexico  

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Full Text Available A feasibility study to develop a tsunami alert system for Mexican earthquakes, using broadband seismograms from the Na-tional Seismological Service, is currently under way. A first step in this direction is a revision of the Mexican tsunami catalogs. In these catalogs, one of the largest tsunamis of this century is reported in the Port of Zihuatanejo and has been related to an earthquake which occurred on November 16, 1925. This earthquake was located at a distance of about 600 km from Zihuatanejo and had a surface-wave magnitude, Ms, of 7.0. In developing a tsunami alert system, it is important to know if the tsunami was indeed related to the earthquake of 1925. In this note we examine available evidence and find that the tsunami was not related to the earthquake. There is no evidence of a local earthquake near Zihuatanejo which may have resulted in the tsunami. We con-clude that the tsunami was either caused by slumping of the sea floor near Zihuatanejo or by a meteorological phenomenon in the region.

N. Shapiro

1998-01-01

122

How volcanic eruptions cause tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effect of pyroclastic flows on tsunami generation. The authors analyzed several possible mechanisms that occur when the particle rich flows encounter water and conclude that the volume and density of the basal flow has a close correlation with the wave's amplitude and wavelength, which can be used to model the water movement in lakes, bays and oceans.

Watts, Phil; Waythomas, C. F.; Agu

123

Do Larger Tsunamis Form Thicker Deposits?  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami hazard assessment using paleotsunami deposits requires knowing both magnitude and frequency of past tsunamis. Intuition leads us to postulate that larger tsunamis are capable of eroding and entraining a larger volume of sediment and therefore would form thicker deposits than smaller tsunamis given the same environment. To test this hypothesis, we use field data collected from 37 sites after 5 recent tsunamis of various size. Tsunami deposit characteristics, including thickness, are documented from 370 trenches and data on tsunami height, flow depth, and topography were collected at all sites. Typically, data are collected along a flow-parallel and approximately shore-normal transect to measure deposit variation in the direction of inundation. The strongest correlation between tsunami size and deposit thickness is between the maximum flow depth and maximum deposit thickness along a transect. Maximum flow depths from 5-10 m, 10-15 m, and 17 m created deposits with maximum thicknesses of 18 cm, 32 cm, and 33 cm, respectively. Correlation between the local tsunami flow depth and local tsunami deposit thickness is positive and weak (r2=0.12). We interpret the variability in thickness as reflecting the composite nature of tsunami deposits. Many tsunami deposits are amalgams of sediment laid down by multiple waves and may have unique layers formed during both uprush and return flow. The portions of a tsunami deposit formed from sediment falling out of suspension are thicker, given the same grain-size composition, for faster flows typically correlated with larger tsunamis that are capable of suspending more sediment. However, the deposit also reflects a contribution from spatial convergences in sediment transport, such as those caused by flow acceleration or deceleration, which occurs from local topographic variations. The hypothesis that thicker tsunami deposits are caused by a greater contribution from spatial transport convergences associated with larger tsunamis is explored in this presentation. (Top) Tsunami deposit thickness vs. maximum flow depth along transect, red circles are maximum thickness along transect (Bottom) local tsunami deposit thickness vs. local flow depth

Jaffe, B. E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Richmond, B. M.; Lunghino, B.; Watt, S.

2013-12-01

124

Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS  

Science.gov (United States)

This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 4. Song, Y. T. (2007) Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19602, doi:10.1029/2007GL031681.

Song, Y.

2013-12-01

125

Experiences with TRIDEC's Crisis Management Demonstrator in the Turkish NEAMWave12 exercise tsunami scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

On November 27-28, 2012, the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) joined other countries in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region as participants in an international tsunami response exercise. The exercise, titled NEAMWave12, simulated widespread Tsunami Watch situations throughout the NEAM region. It is the first international exercise as such, in this region, where the UNESCO-IOC ICG/NEAMTWS tsunami warning chain has been tested to a full scale for the first time with different systems. One of the systems is developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) and has been validated in this exercise among others by KOERI. KOERI, representing the Tsunami National Contact (TNC) and Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP) for Turkey, is one of the key partners in TRIDEC. KOERI is responsible for the operation of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) for Turkey and establishes candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (TWP) responsibilities for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara and Black Seas. Based on this profound experience KOERI is contributing valuable requirements to the overall TRIDEC system and is responsible for the definition and development of feasible tsunami-related scenarios in the context of UNESCO-IOC ICG/NEAMTWS activities. However, KOERI's, most important input focuses on testing and evaluating the TRIDEC system according to specified evaluation and validation criteria in order to meet ICG/NEAMTWS requirements. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing related challenges. The first and second phase system demonstrator, deployed at KOERI's crisis management room has been designed and implemented, firstly, to support plausible scenarios for the Turkish NTWC to demonstrate the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a NTWC. Secondly, the feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering ICG/NEAMTWS standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions beyond ICG/NEAMTWS requirements. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes for a hypothetical tsunami-related crisis situation in the context of the ICG/NEAMTWS NEAMWave12 exercise. Experiences and results gained with the TRIDEC system during the exercise will be reported.

Hammitzsch, Martin; Necmioglu, Ocal; Lendholt, Matthias; Reißland, Sven; Schulz, Jana; Aksari, Dogan; Koseoglu, Aysegul; Ozer, Ceren; Comoglu, Mustafa; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Wächter, Joachim

2013-04-01

126

Issues of tsunami hazard maps revealed by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami scientists are imposed responsibilities of selection for people's tsunami evacuation place after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Japan. A lot of matured people died out of tsunami hazard zone based on tsunami hazard map though students made a miracle by evacuation on their own judgment in Kamaishi city. Tsunami hazard maps were based on numerical model smaller than actual magnitude 9. How can we bridge the gap between hazard map and future disasters? We have to discuss about using tsunami numerical model better enough to contribute tsunami hazard map. How do we have to improve tsunami hazard map? Tsunami hazard map should be revised included possibility of upthrust or downthrust after earthquakes and social information. Ground sank 1.14m below sea level in Ayukawa town, Tohoku. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's research shows around 10% people know about tsunami hazard map in Japan. However, people know about their evacuation places (buildings) through experienced drills once a year even though most people did not know about tsunami hazard map. We need wider spread of tsunami hazard with contingency of science (See the botom disaster handbook material's URL). California Emergency Management Agency (CEMA) team practically shows one good practice and solution to me. I followed their field trip in Catalina Island, California in Sep 2011. A team members are multidisciplinary specialists: A geologist, a GIS specialist, oceanographers in USC (tsunami numerical modeler) and a private company, a local policeman, a disaster manager, a local authority and so on. They check field based on their own specialties. They conduct an on-the-spot inspection of ambiguous locations between tsunami numerical model and real field conditions today. The data always become older. They pay attention not only to topographical conditions but also to social conditions: vulnerable people, elementary schools and so on. It takes a long time to check such field information, however tsunami hazard map based on numerical model should be this process. Tsunami scientists should not enter into the inhumane business by using tsunami numerical model. It includes accountability to society therefore scientists need scientific ethics and humanitarian attention. Should only tsunami scientist have responsibility for human life? Multidisciplinary approach is essential for mitigation like CEMA. I am taking on hazard map training course for disaster management officers from developing countries in JICA training course. I would like to discuss how to improve tsunami hazard map after the 2011 Tohoku tsunami experience in this presentation. A multidisciplinary exparts team of CEMA's tsunami hazard map

Sugimoto, M.

2013-12-01

127

A Qualitative Exploration of Workarounds Related to the Implementation of National Electronic Health Records in Early Adopter Mental Health Hospitals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims To investigate the perceptions and reported practices of mental health hospital staff using national hospital electronic health records (EHRs) in order to inform future implementations, particularly in acute mental health settings. Methods: Thematic analysis of interviews with a wide range of clinical, information technology (IT), managerial and other staff at two early adopter mental health National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in London, UK, implementing national EHRs. Results: We an...

Ser, Gloria; Robertson, Ann; Sheikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

128

A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard...

Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

2009-01-01

129

Tsunami-tide interaction in 1964 Prince William Sound tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

We conduct a comprehensive modeling study of the impact of the 1964 Prince William Sound tsunami on the US Pacific Northwest coast. A 3D unstructured grid model, SELFE, is applied in its 2D spherical coordinate configuration. Simulations are conducted with and without dynamic tides to elucidate their influence. We compare numerical results with tide gauge records, maximum wave heights, runups, and inundation extents at several locations in the region. Detailed inundation patterns at Coos Bay and Cannon Beach, Oregon are compared to field estimates. The model results are shown to be in very good agreement with field observations. The results demonstrate that while negligible at the open coast, the tide-tsunami interaction is solely responsible for inundation around some estuaries and rivers.

Zhang, Yinglong J.; Witter, Robert C.; Priest, George R.

130

Updating of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue for southern Italy with special emphasis on the reconstruction of the 1908 Messina Straits tsunami effects  

Science.gov (United States)

In the frame of the Project S1 entitled "Analysis of seismic potential in Italy for the evaluation of the seismic hazard", financed within the agreement between the Italian Civil Protection Department and the National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology, we undertook a systematic revision of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue in its portion relative to Calabria and Sicily. We searched for new primary sources containing information on the historical tsunamis that hit the area of interest, and we re-examined the already known documents with the goal of improving our knowledge on selected historical events. Major attention in the analysis is devoted to the 28 December 1908 tsunami due to the abundance of data and documents with respect to other events, because of its relevance in the Italian earthquake and tsunami history and also in relation to the 100-year anniversary of the event that was celebrated two years ago. A careful revision of the numerous available historical documents combined with the results of the studies published in the last few decades allowed us to determine on a site-by-site basis the way the tsunami attacked the Calabria and Sicily coasts. We setup a GIS database where the reconstructed data on earthquake-tsunami delay time, first tsunami arrival polarity, run-up height and inundation depth have been overlaid on geo-referenced maps. The major benefit is the possibility to combine a general view of the tsunami effects at a regional scale with the inspection of the variability of the effects themselves at very local level. The database is being integrated in the general GIS database that is one of the main results of the European Project called TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk And Strategies For the European Region), co-ordinated by the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna. In that database, it is possible to compare the historical data for the 1908 tsunami with the results of the numerical simulations which have been performed by different partners in TRANSFER and which are briefly presented in this work in terms of inundation maps.

Tinti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Sara; Armigliato, Alberto; Tonini, Roberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Manucci, Anna

2010-05-01

131

The tsunami geomorphology of coastal dunes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An examination of the coastal geomorphology of bays along the Otago coastline, SE New Zealand, has identified a geomorphology consistent with tsunami inundation. A tsunami geomorphology consisting of a number of elements including dune pedestals, hummocky topography, parabolic dune systems, and post-tsunami features resulting from changes to the nearshore sediment budget is discussed. The most prominent features at Blueskin Bay are eroded pedestals although it is speculated ...

Goff, Jr; Lane, E.; Arnold, J.

2009-01-01

132

The global tsunami hazard due to long return period subduction zone earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical tsunamis and paleotsunami evidence indicate that massive megathrust earthquakes lead to the majority of the losses due to tsunamis. There is a need to quantify the tsunami hazard from megathrust events in order to compare tsunamis with other natural hazards on a global level, as previous attempts have been lacking. The global tsunami hazard induced by earthquakes is therefore computed for a return period of 500 years. To this end, the exposed elements at risk such as population, produced capital, and nuclear power plants are determined. It is shown that populous Asian countries account for the largest absolute number of people living in tsunami prone areas, more than 50% of the total exposed people live in Japan. Smaller nations like Macao and the Maldives are among the most exposed by population count. Exposed nuclear power plants are limited to Japan, China, India, Taiwan, and USA. The methods used to quantify the global hazard are obviously crude, and hence the expected accuracy using global methods are discussed.

Løvholt, Finn; Bonnevie Harbitz, Carl; Glimsdal, Sylfest; Horspool, Nick; Smebye, Helge; de Bono, Andrea; Nadim, Farrokh

2014-05-01

133

A Monte Carlo Approach for Estimating Tsunami Hazard from Submarine Mass Failure Along the U.S. East Coast  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is being conducted as part of the development of tsunami inundation maps for the U.S. East Coast (USEC), as mandated by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Along the USEC, which borders the Atlantic Ocean Basin, tsunami hazard may result from large distant co-seismic sources (e.g., in the Puerto Rico Trench or the Azores convergence zone) or volcanic flank collapse sources (e.g., in the Canary Islands). More importantly, however, tsunami hazard may result from Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs) occurring along the nearby continental shelf break and slope (e.g., 1929 Grand Bank). Indeed, potentially large tsunamigenic SMFs can be triggered by moderate seismic activity, such as could occur along the USEC, and cause large local tsunamis. While many past SMFs have been identified along the USEC and described in various publications (e.g., by USGS), due to the paucity of historical tsunami observations in this area, the associated tsunami hazard and its recurrence probability are largely unknown. To estimate the latter, in earlier work, we developed, validated with field data, and applied a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) approach (Grilli et al., Marine Geology, vol. 264, p74, 2009) to the upper USEC (north of New Jersey). Here, a similar methodology is applied to the entire USEC. In the present MCSs, distributions of relevant parameters (e.g., seismicity, sediment properties, type and location, volume, and dimensions of slide, water depth) are used to perform large numbers (O(105)) of stochastic stability analyses of submerged slopes (along actual shelf transects), based on standard pseudo-static limit equilibrium methods. The predicted SMF types (i.e., translational or rotational), surface area, and slope angle are found to match published field data quite well along the USEC. For each parameter configuration found to be unstable under a specified ground acceleration (of given return period), the tsunami source characteristic height, and corresponding runup distribution on nearby shores, are calculated using empirical equations based on earlier numerical simulation work. A final statistical analysis of generated runup values yields estimates of overall coastal hazard, from 100 and 500-yr SMF tsunami events. The latter allows identifying regions of the USEC with elevated hazard (and related SMF parameters), where complete and detailed SMF tsunami simulations should be performed. The latter will be the object of the continuation of this NTHMP work, in which inundation from SMF tsunamis thus identified will be combined with that from other tsunami sources, to develop a series of tsunami inundation maps for areas of elevated tsunami hazard along the USEC.

Baxter, C. D.; Krause, T.; Grilli, S. T.

2011-12-01

134

Results for the calibration of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm TEDA for the tide-gauge stations of Catania and Tremestieri, Sicily  

Science.gov (United States)

The calibration of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm TEDA (Bressan and Tinti, 2011) for a given tide-gauge station has the goal to maximize the algorithm efficiency by considering the site-specific characteristics of the background signal and at the same time the features of the potential tsunamis. Typical calibration analysis data are a sufficiently long series of background sea-level data and a sufficient number of tsunami signals, that can be either tsunami records or synthetic tsunami time histories from numerical simulations. Within the Italian national project Ritmare (Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE), the new tide gauge stations of Tremestieri and Catania, installed in 2008 and 2009 respectively in the frame of the previous project TSUNET, have been calibrated by making use of seven synthetic tsunami signals derived from a local hazard study based on tsunami worst-case scenarios (Tonini et al., 2011), due to the lack of real tsunami records. The synthetic tsunami signals have been added to the background sea-level series in four different sea conditions, for a total of 28 tsunami cases. The test of TEDA allows one to select the most appropriate parameter configuration for the algorithm, which is the one that detects most tsunami events in the shortest time. For both stations, the best configuration detects all events in all sea conditions in less than 10 min from the tsunami arrival time. Further, the detection times are not very affected by the different sea-state conditions. In addition, the study of the background has shown relevant features. An important result, both for Catania and Tremestieri, is the coherence and the statistical stability of the background over years, with clear year cyclicity and seasonal intra-year variability. If this were confirmed also for other sites, which is likely, this would entail that calibrating TEDA with background data shorter than one year would produce biased results. The detailed analysis for the calibration of Catania and Tremestieri allows us to conclude that TEDA seems a useful tool for tsunami detection. Bressan, L. and Tinti, S. (2011), Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1499-1521, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1499-2011. Tonini, R., Armigliato, A., Pagnoni, G., Zaniboni, F., and Tinti, S. (2011), Tsunami hazard for the city of Catania, eastern Sicily, Italy, assessed by means of Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA), Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1217-1232, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1217-2011.

Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Zaniboni, Filippo

2013-04-01

135

Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami: Performance of Tsunami Countermeasures, Coastal Buildings, and Tsunami Evacuation in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011, Japan was hit by a tsunami that was generated by the greatest earthquake in its history. The first tsunami warning was announced 3 min after the earthquake, as is normal, but failed to estimate the actual tsunami height. Most of the structural countermeasures were not designed for the huge tsunami that was generated by the magnitude M = 9.0 earthquake; as a result, many were destroyed and did not stop the tsunami. These structures included breakwaters, seawalls, water gates, and control forests. In this paper we discuss the performance of these countermeasures, and the mechanisms by which they were damaged; we also discuss damage to residential houses, commercial and public buildings, and evacuation buildings. Some topics regarding tsunami awareness and mitigation are discussed. The failures of structural defenses are a reminder that structural (hard) measures alone were not sufficient to protect people and buildings from a major disaster such as this. These defenses might be able to reduce the impact but should be designed so that they can survive even if the tsunami flows over them. Coastal residents should also understand the function and limit of the hard measures. For this purpose, non-structural (soft) measures, for example experience and awareness, are very important for promoting rapid evacuation in the event of a tsunami. An adequate communication system for tsunami warning messages and more evacuation shelters with evacuation routes in good condition might support a safe evacuation process. The combination of both hard and soft measures is very important for reducing the loss caused by a major tsunami. This tsunami has taught us that natural disasters can occur repeatedly and that their scale is sometimes larger than expected.

Suppasri, Anawat; Shuto, Nobuo; Imamura, Fumihiko; Koshimura, Shunichi; Mas, Erick; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet

2013-06-01

136

Tsunami simulation using submarine displacement calculated from simulation of ground motion due to seismic source model  

Science.gov (United States)

Since fault fracturing due to an earthquake can simultaneously cause ground motion and tsunami, it is appropriate to evaluate the ground motion and the tsunami by single fault model. However, several source models are used independently in the ground motion simulation or the tsunami simulation, because of difficulty in evaluating both phenomena simultaneously. Many source models for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake are proposed from the inversion analyses of seismic observations or from those of tsunami observations. Most of these models show the similar features, which large amount of slip is located at the shallower part of fault area near the Japan Trench. This indicates that the ground motion and the tsunami can be evaluated by the single source model. Therefore, we examine the possibility of the tsunami prediction, using the fault model estimated from seismic observation records. In this study, we try to carry out the tsunami simulation using the displacement field of oceanic crustal movements, which is calculated from the ground motion simulation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We use two fault models by Yoshida et al. (2011), which are based on both the teleseismic body wave and on the strong ground motion records. Although there is the common feature in those fault models, the amount of slip near the Japan trench is lager in the fault model from the strong ground motion records than in that from the teleseismic body wave. First, the large-scale ground motion simulations applying those fault models used by the voxel type finite element method are performed for the whole eastern Japan. The synthetic waveforms computed from the simulations are generally consistent with the observation records of K-NET (Kinoshita (1998)) and KiK-net stations (Aoi et al. (2000)), deployed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Next, the tsunami simulations are performed by the finite difference calculation based on the shallow water theory. The initial wave height for tsunami generation is estimated from the vertical displacement of ocean bottom due to the crustal movements, which is obtained from the ground motion simulation mentioned above. The results of tsunami simulations are compared with the observations of the GPS wave gauges to evaluate the validity for the tsunami prediction using the fault model based on the seismic observation records.

Akiyama, S.; Kawaji, K.; Fujihara, S.

2013-12-01

137

UN assesses tsunami response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A report to the UN’s Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC identifies lessons learned from the humanitarian response. Recommendations stress the need for national ownership and leadership of disaster response and recovery, improved coordination, transparent use of resources, civil society engagement and greater emphasis on risk reduction.

Marion Couldrey

2005-07-01

138

A simple model for calculating tsunami flow speed from tsunami deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a simple model for tsunami sedimentation that can be applied to calculate tsunami flow speed from the thickness and grain size of a tsunami deposit (the inverse problem). For sandy tsunami deposits where grain size and thickness vary gradually in the direction of transport, tsunami sediment transport is modeled as a steady, spatially uniform process. The amount of sediment in suspension is assumed to be in equilibrium with the steady portion of the long period, slowing varying uprush portion of the tsunami. Spatial flow deceleration is assumed to be small and not to contribute significantly to the tsunami deposit. Tsunami deposits are formed from sediment settling from the water column when flow speeds on land go to zero everywhere at the time of maximum tsunami inundation. There is little erosion of the deposit by return flow because it is a slow flow and is concentrated in topographic lows. Variations in grain size of the deposit are found to have more effect on calculated tsunami flow speed than deposit thickness. The model is tested using field data collected at Arop, Papua New Guinea soon after the 1998 tsunami. Speed estimates of 14??m/s at 200??m inland from the shoreline compare favorably with those from a 1-D inundation model and from application of Bernoulli's principle to water levels on buildings left standing after the tsunami. As evidence that the model is applicable to some sandy tsunami deposits, the model reproduces the observed normal grading and vertical variation in sorting and skewness of a deposit formed by the 1998 tsunami.

Jaffe, B. E.; Gelfenbuam, G.

2007-01-01

139

Salinity in Soils and Tsunami Deposits in Areas Affected by the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

The accumulation of data sets of past tsunamis is the most basic but reliable way to prepare for future tsunamis because the frequency of tsunami occurrence and their magnitude can be estimated by historical records of tsunamis. Investigation of tsunami deposits preserved in geological layers is an effective measure to understand ancient tsunamis that occurred before historical records began. However, the areas containing tsunami deposits can be narrower than the area of tsunami inundation, thus resulting in underestimation of the magnitude of past tsunamis. A field survey was conducted after the 2010 Chile tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami to investigate the chemical properties of the tsunami-inundated soil to examine the applicability of tsunami inundation surveys considering water-soluble salts in soil. The soil and tsunami deposits collected in the tsunami-inundated areas are rich in water-soluble ions (Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, Br- and SO{4/2-}) compared with the samples collected in the non-inundated areas. The analytical result that the ratios of Na+, Mg2+, Br- and SO{4/2-} to Cl- are nearly the same in the tsunami deposits and in the tsunami-inundated soil suggests that the deposition of these ions resulting from the tsunami inundation does not depend on whether or not tsunami deposits exist. Discriminant analysis of the tsunami-inundated areas using the ion contents shows the high applicability of these ions to the detection of tsunami inundation during periods when the amount of rainfall is limited. To examine the applicability of this method to palaeotsunamis, the continuous monitoring of water-soluble ions in tsunami-inundated soil is needed as a future study.

Yoshii, Takumi; Imamura, Masahiro; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Koshimura, Syunichi; Matsuoka, Masashi; Mas, Erick; Jimenez, Cesar

2013-06-01

140

The Indian Ocean Tsunami December 26, 2004  

Science.gov (United States)

This site contains photographs, video, and an online diary made by Dr. Jose Borrero of the University of Southern California Tsunami research group, who visited the Aceh province of Northern Sumatra, one of the areas hardest hit by the tsunami and earthquake, just days after the disaster occurred.

Borrero, Jose

 
 
 
 
141

TSUNAMI LOADING ON BUILDINGS WITH OPENINGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC buildings with openings in the masonry infill panels have shown superior performance to those without openings in the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Understanding the effect of openings and the resulting tsunami force is essential for an economical and safe design of vertical evacuation shelters against tsunamis. One-to-one hundred scale building models with square shape in plan were tested in a 40 m long hydraulic flume with 1 m x 1 m cross section. A mild slope of 0.5 degree representing the beach condition at Phuket, Thailand was simulated in the hydraulic laboratory. The model dimensions were 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm. Two opening configurations of the front and back walls were investigated, viz., 25% and 50% openings. Pressure sensors were placed on the faces of the model to measure the pressure distribution. A high frequency load cell was mounted at the base of the model to record the tsunami forces. A bi-linear pressure profile is proposed for determining the maximum tsunami force acting on solid square buildings. The influence of openings on the peak pressures on the front face of the model is found to be practically insignificant. For 25% and 50% opening models, the tsunami forces reduce by about 15% and 30% from the model without openings, respectively. The reduction in the tsunami force clearly demonstrates the benefit of openings in reducing the effect of tsunami on such buildings.

P. Lukkunaprasit

2009-01-01

142

BASIC RELATIONSBETWEEN TSUNAMI CALCULATIONSAND THEIR PHYSICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Basic tsunami physics of propagation and run-up is discussed for the simple geometry of a channel. We will try to understand how linear and nonlinear processes occurring in a tsunami should influence approach taken to numerical computations.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2001-01-01

143

OBSERVATION OF TSUNAMI RADIATION AT TOHOKU BY REMOTE SENSING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present prima facie evidence that upon the onset of the Tohoku tsunami of Mar. 11, 2011 infrared radiation was emitted by the tsunami and was detected by the Japanese satellite MTSAT-IR1, in agreement with our earlier findings for the Great Sumatra Tsunami of 2004. Implications for a worldwide Tsunami Early Warning System are discussed.

Frank C. Lin

2011-01-01

144

Report to the Government of India on the Qualitative Improvement of the Vocational Guidance Programme of the National Employment Service.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report, requested by the government of India, describes one of several projects related to vocational guidance services. Assistance in the continuing development of the national program of vocational guidance is provided by: examining the existing arrangements for giving guidance to young people to help them enter employment or training…

International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

145

Tsunamis: Detecting, Simulating, and Chasing Them  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tsunamis are gravitational oscillations of the water mass of an ocean basin set up by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, or bolide impacts. They represent an exceptional hazard capable of inflicting death and destruction on a global scale. Because their waves travel at a relatively slow speed (typically 200 m/s or the speed of a jetliner), there exists an opportunity for warning, at least in the far field. We will review the basic physics of the tsunami wave, the relationship between seismic source and tsunami excitation, and the scientific bases underlying the mitigation, warning, computer simulation, and real time detection of tsunami waves. In particular, we will describe the development of robust discriminants in the near and far fields for tsunamis generated by earthquakes and landslides, and will give examples of field methods for the recovery of quantitative databases of inundation measurements.

Okal, Emile A. (Northwestern University)

2005-02-23

146

Tsunami early warning system for the western coast of the Black Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The Black Sea area is liable to tsunamis generation and the statistics show that more than twenty tsunamis have been observed in the past. The last tsunami was observed on 31st of March 1901 in the western part of the Black Sea, in the Shabla area. An earthquake of magnitude generated at a depth of 15 km below the sea level , triggered tsunami waves of 5 m height and material losses as well. The oldest tsunami ever recorded close to the Romanian shore-line dates from year 104. This paper emphasises the participation of The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) to the development of a tsunami warning system for the western cost of the Black Sea. In collaboration with the National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar), the Institute of Oceanology and the Geological Institute, the last two belonging to the Bulgarian Academy of Science, NIEP has participated as partner, to the cross-border project "Set-up and implementation of key core components of a regional early-warning system for marine geohazards of risk to the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea coastal area - MARINEGEOHAZARDS", coordinated by GeoEcoMar. The main purpose of the project was the implementation of an integrated early-warning system accompanied by a common decision-support tool, and enhancement of regional technical capability, for the adequate detection, assessment, forecasting and rapid notification of natural marine geohazards for the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea cross-border area. In the last years, NIEP has increased its interest on the marine related hazards, such as tsunamis and, in collaboration with other institutions of Romania, is acting to strengthen the cooperation and data exchanges with institutions from the Black Sea surrounding countries which already have tsunami monitoring infrastructures. In this respect, NIEP has developed a coastal network for marine seismicity, by installing three new seismic stations in the coastal area of the Black Sea, Sea Level Sensors, Radar and Pressure sensors, Meteorological and GNSS stations at every site, providing tide gauges and seismic data exchange with the Black Sea countries. At the same time, the Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) software, for inundation modelling, along with it's RedPhone application, were also installed at the National Data Centre in Magurele city, and also at Dobrogea Seismic Observatory in the city of Eforie Nord, close to the Black Sea shore.

Ionescu, Constantin; Partheniu, Raluca; Cioflan, Carmen; Constantin, Angela; Danet, Anton; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ghica, Daniela; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Moldovan, Iren; Neagoe, Cristian; Radulian, Mircea; Raileanu, Victor; Verdes, Ioan

2014-05-01

147

Study of tsunami propagation in the Ligurian Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunami propagation is analyzed for the Ligurian Sea with particular attention on the French coasts of the Mediterranean. Historical data of tsunami manifestation on the French coast are analyzed for the period 2000 B.C.–1991 A.D. Numerical simulations of potential and historical tsunamis in the Ligurian Sea are done in the context of the nonlinear shallow water theory. Tsunami wave heights as well as their distribution function is calculated for historical tsunamis and it is shown that the...

Pelinovsky, E.; Kharif, C.; Riabov, I.; Francius, Marc

2001-01-01

148

Extreme tsunami runup simulation at Babi Island due to 1992 Flores tsunami and Okushiri due to 1993 Hokkido tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on a series of three dimensional numerical modeling experiments to understand the tsunami run-up and inundation process at the circular shape Babi Island in the Indonesia caused by 1992 Flores earthquake tsunami and at Monai valley in Okushiri Island, west part of East (Japan) Sea caused by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. The wave field in the coastal area is modeled within the framework of fully nonlinear dispersive Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations solved using the FLOW3D code. Boundary conditions for this model were extracted from computed wave characteristics obtained from the 2D tsunami propagation model based on the shallow water equations. This model has shown it effectivity to explain extreme runup characteristics during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami (Kim et al, 2013). In case of the 1992 Flores Island tsunami the results of numerical simulation run-up results are compared with field measured run-up heights. It has good agreement with measurement and computational run-up heights. The particle velocity distribution is also computed. In the case of 1993 Okushiri tsunami the numerical simulation reproduces extreme run-up at the Monai valley (31.7 m).

Chule Kim, Dong; Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Pelinovsky, Efim

2014-05-01

149

Second international tsunami workshop on the technical aspects of tsunami warning systems, tsunami analysis, preparedness, observation and instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Second Workshop on the Technical Aspects of Tsunami Warning Systems, Tsunami Analysis, Preparedness, Observation, and Instrumentation, sponsored and convened by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was held on 1-2 August 1989, in the modern and attractive research town of Academgorodok, which is located 20 km south from downtown Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia, USSR. The Program was arranged in eight major areas of interest covering the following: Opening and Introduction; Survey of Existing Tsunami Warning Centers - present status, results of work, plans for future development; Survey of some existing seismic data processing systems and future projects; Methods for fast evaluation of Tsunami potential and perspectives of their implementation; Tsunami data bases; Tsunami instrumentation and observations; Tsunami preparedness; and finally, a general discussion and adoption of recommendations. The Workshop presentations not only addressed the conceptual improvements that have been made, but focused on the inner workings of the Tsunami Warning System, as well, including computer applications, on-line processing and numerical modelling. Furthermore, presentations reported on progress has been made in the last few years on data telemetry, instrumentation and communications. Emphasis was placed on new concepts and their application into operational techniques that can result in improvements in data collection, rapid processing of the data, in analysis and prediction. A Summary Report on the Second International Tsunami Workshop, containing abstracted and annotated proceedings has been published as a separate report. The present Report is a Supplement to the Summary Report and contains the full text of the papers presented at this Workshop. Refs, figs and tabs

1989-08-04

150

REWSET: A prototype seismic and tsunami early warning system in Rhodes island, Greece  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami warning in near-field conditions is a critical issue in the Mediterranean Sea since the most important tsunami sources are situated within tsunami wave travel times starting from about five minutes. The project NEARTOWARN (2012-2013) supported by the EU-DG ECHO contributed substantially to the development of new tools for the near-field tsunami early warning in the Mediterranean. One of the main achievements is the development of a local warning system in the test-site of Rhodes island (Rhodes Early Warning System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis - REWSET). The system is composed by three main subsystems: (1) a network of eight seismic early warning devices installed in four different localities of the island, one in the civil protection, another in the Fire Brigade and another two in municipality buildings; (2) two radar-type (ultrasonic) tide-gauges installed in the eastern coastal zine of the island which was selected since research on the historical earthquake and tsunami activity has indicated that the most important, near-field tsunami sources are situated offshore to the east of Rhodes; (3) a crisis Geographic Management System (GMS), which is a web-based and GIS-based application incorporating a variety of thematic maps and other information types. The seismic early warning devices activate by strong (magnitude around 6 or more) earthquakes occurring at distances up to about 100 km from Rhodes, thus providing immediate mobilization of the civil protection. The tide-gauges transmit sea level data, while during the crisis the GMS supports decisions to be made by civil protection. In the near future it is planned the REWSET system to be integrated with national and international systems. REWSET is a prototype which certainly could be developed in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean and beyond.

Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Argyris, Ilias; Aggelou, Savvas; Karastathis, Vasilis

2014-05-01

151

A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools. In addition to conventional sensors also unconventional sensors and sensor networks play an important role in TRIDEC. The system version presented is based on service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and on relevant standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). In this way the system continuously gathers, processes and displays events and data coming from open sensor platforms to enable operators to quickly decide whether an early warning is necessary and to send personalized warning messages to the authorities and the population at large through a wide range of communication channels. The system integrates OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of hazardous events, like earthquakes, sea level anomalies, ocean floor occurrences, and ground displacements. Using OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture. The integration of a simulation system to identify affected areas is considered using the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS). Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) together with addressing information defined via the OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The first system demonstrator has been designed and implemented to support plausible scenarios demonstrating the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC). The feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes in a hypothetical natural crisis situation caused by a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean. Developments of the system are based to the largest extent on free and open source software (FOSS) components and industry standards. Emphasis has been and will be made on leveraging open source technologies that support mature system architecture models wherever appropriate. All open source software produced is foreseen to be published on a publicly available software repository thus allowing others to reuse results achieved and enabling further development and collaboration with a wide community including scientists, developers, users and stakeholders. This live demonstration is linked with the talk "TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis" (EGU2012-7275) given in the session "Architecture of Future Tsunami Warning Systems" (NH5.7/ESSI1.7).

Hammitzsch, M.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.

2012-04-01

152

Optical Dating of Tsunami-Laid Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

The ages of some tsunami deposits can be determined by optical dating, a key requirement being that the deposits are derived from sediment that was reworked and exposed to daylight by tidal currents, waves, wind, or bioturbation during the last years before the tsunami. Measurements have been made using 1.4 eV (infrared) excitation of K-feldspar grains separated from samples of prehistoric tsunami sand sheets and modern analogs of tsunami source sediments at four sites in Washington state and British Columbia. Source sands gave equivalent doses indicative of recent exposure to daylight. Tsunami sand at Cultus Bay, Washington, yielded an optical age of 1285 ± 95 yr (calendric years before A.D. 1995, ±1?). At 2?, this age overlaps the range of from 1030 to 1100 yr determined through a combination of high-precision radiocarbon dating and stratigraphic correlation. Tsunami sands at three sites near Tofino and Port Alberni on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, have optical ages of 260 ± 20, 325 ± 25, and 335 ± 45 yr. Historical records and radiocarbon dating show that the sand at each of the three sites is between 150 and 400 yr old. These optical ages support the hypothesis that the Vancouver Island sands were deposited by a tsunami generated by a large earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone about 300 yr ago.

Huntley, David J.; Clague, John J.

1996-09-01

153

Quakes and tsunamis detected by GOCE (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The aerodynamic accelerations measured by GOCE are used to calculate air density variations and air velocity estimates along GOCE orbit track. The detection of infrasonic waves generated by seismic surface waves and gravity waves generated by tsunamis are presented for earthquakes and tsunamis generated in Tohoku (11/03/2011) and Samoa (29/09/2009) regions. For the seismic/infrasonic waves, a wave propagation modelling is presented and synthetic data are compared to GOCE measurements. The travel time and amplitude discrepancies are discussed in terms of lateral velocity variations in the solid Earth and the atmosphere. For the tsunami/gravity waves, a plane wave analysis is performed and relations between vertical velocity, cross-track velocity and density variations are deduced. By using these relations, an indicator of gravity wave presence is constructed. It allows scanning of the GOCE data to search for gravity wave crossings. Simulations of the gravity wave crossing space/time ranges, using models of tsunami and gravity wave propagation, demonstrate that the observed gravity waves coincide with model-predicted tsunami generated gravity waves for the Tohoku event. This study demonstrates that very low earth orbit spacecraft with high-resolution accelerometers are able to detect atmospheric waves generated by the tectonic activity. Such spacecraft may supply additional data to tsunami alert systems in order to validate some tsunami alerts.

Garcia, R.; Doornbos, E.; Bruinsma, S.; Hebert, H.

2013-12-01

154

Title: Dispersive tsunamis; does it really matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Most tsunami modelers rely on the shallow water equations for predictions of propagation and runup, either by using one of the standard codes or by means of an in-house code. Some groups, on the other hand, insist on applying dispersive wave models, sometimes even with enhanced nonlinear properties. Dispersive models are also available as standard code, free or commercial, and some of these are fairly well suited for implementation of tsunami applications. Whereas the employment of dispersive codes for tsunami computation certainly boost the CPU times and memory requirements the gains are regarded as more uncertain by many in the tsunami community. It is clear that physical effects like frequency dispersion and formation of undular bores are beyond the shallow water theory. In this talk we draw on the experience from a series of earthquake and landslide tsunamis to address the significance of dispersion. While frequency dispersion is generally important for tsunamis generated by both submarine and subaerial landslides, the effect is apparent also for tsunamis of seismic origin, albeit to a lesser extent. The source dimensions, water depth and propagation distance all combine to determine the effect of dispersion in deep water propagation. Undular bores do also evolve under given conditions. However, their effect on inundation is still uncertain.

Pedersen, G. K.; Løvholt, F.; Glimsdal, S.; Harbitz, C. B.

2012-04-01

155

French Polynesia tsunami warning center (CPPT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Geophysical Laboratory, which is also the French Polynesia Tsunami Warning Center (Centre Polynesien de Prevention des Tsunamis - CPPT) disposes of the data recorded by the Polynesian Seismic Network which includes 21 short-period stations, 4 broad-band three component long period stations and 2 tide gauge stations. These stations are, for the most, telemetred toward the CPPT in Tahiti which is equipped with data processing means. The data acquisition is performed on optic discs, tape drive recordings and graphic recordings. In the CPPT, the Tsunami Warning is based on the measurements of the Seismic Moment through the mantle magnitude Mm and the proportionality of observed tsunami height to this seismic moment. The new mantle magnitude scale, Mm used the measurement of the mantle Rayleigh and Love wave energy in the 50-300 s. period range and is directly related to the seismic moment through Mm = log Mo - 20. The knowledge of the seismic moment allows computation of an estimate of the high-seas amplitude of a range of expectable tsunami heights. In establishing seismic thresholds for tsunami warning, we assume that tsunami risk is substantial when the upper level found on the amplitude predicted at PPT reach 1 m. On this basis, the risk levels have been identified as a function of the magnitude Mm. For the Polynesian Islands the destructive tsunami danger would subsequently exist for Mm ? 8.7 (Mo ? 5 x 1028 dyn-cm), in the case of epicenters in Samoa, Tonga, Kermadec and Mm ? 9.0 (Mo ? 1029 dyn-cm) for other epicenters. This procedure is fully automatic: One computer detects, locates and estimates the seismic moment through the Mm magnitude and, in terms of moment, gives an amplitude window of the expected tsunami. These different operations are executed in real time. In addition, the operator can use the historic references and, if necessary, the acoustic T waves. 13 refs, 11 figs

1989-08-04

156

Simulation systems for tsunami wave propagation forecasting within the French tsunami warning center  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A model-based tsunami prediction system has been developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center (operational since 1 July 2012). It involves a precomputed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored). For the Mediterranean basin, the faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults. An automated composite scenarios calculati...

Gailler, A.; He?bert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

2013-01-01

157

Plasmon tsunamis on metallic nanoclusters  

Science.gov (United States)

A model is constructed to describe inelastic scattering events accompanying electron capture by a highly charged ion flying by a metallic nanosphere. The electronic energy liberated by an electron leaving the Fermi level of the metal and dropping into a deep Rydberg state of the ion is used to increase the ion kinetic energy and, simultaneously, to excite multiple surface plasmons around the positively charged hole left behind on the metal sphere. This tsunami-like phenomenon manifests itself as periodic oscillations in the kinetic energy gain spectrum of the ion. The theory developed here extends our previous treatment (Lucas et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 013034) of the Arq+/C60 charge exchange system. We provide an analysis of how the individual multipolar surface plasmons of the metallic sphere contribute to the formation of the oscillatory gain spectrum. Gain spectra showing characteristic, tsunami-like oscillations are simulated for Ar15+ ions capturing one electron in distant collisions with Al and Na nanoclusters.

Lucas, A. A.; Sunjic, M.

2012-03-01

158

Football Coaches' Practical Sense of Talent. A Qualitative Study of Talent Identification in Danish National Youth Team Football  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study explores the practical sense of talent among top-level football coaches in Denmark, and aims to identify specific structures of the coaches' expert knowledge related to talent identification. The theoretical foundation of the study is Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework, in particular the concept of practical sense. The data compile from eight biographical, in-depth interviews with Danish national youth team football coaches. The interviews are analyzed through a process of coding and recoding. Thematic cross-case analyses as well as purposeful selected single-case analyses are used to explore the focus area. The results are grouped in three major themes, which characterize core elements of the coaches' practical sense: 1) visual experience and pattern recognition, 2) recognition of individual paths and personal styles, and 3) a model of top-level football coaches' classificatory schemes. Conclusively, the study supports the theory that talent identification in top-level football is strongly connected to the coach's practical sense of the game and taste for football talents. Furthermore, the study points at the importance of being aware of the person "behind" the coach, given that his practical sense will be identifying the future talents.

Christensen, Mette Krogh

159

Land-Water Boundary Treatment for a Tsunami Model With Dimensional Splitting  

Science.gov (United States)

The Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) model adapted by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for tsunami forecasting operations is praised for its computational efficiency, associated with the use of splitting technique. It will be shown, however, that splitting the computations between x and y directions results in specific sensitivity to the treatment of land-water boundary. Slight modification to the reflective boundary condition in MOST caused an appreciable difference in the results. This is demonstrated with simulations of the Tohoku-2011 tsunami from the source earthquake to Monterey Bay, California, and in southeast Alaska, followed by comparison with tide gage records. In the first case, the better representation of later waves (reflected from the coasts) by the modified model in a Pacific-wide simulation resulted in twice as long match between simulated and observed tsunami time histories at Monterey gage. In the second case, the modified model was able to propagate the tsunami wave and approach gage records at locations within narrow channels (Juneau, Ketchikan), to where MOST had difficulty propagating the wave. The modification was extended to include inundation computation. The resulting inundation algorithm (Cliffs) has been tested with the complete set of NOAA-recommended benchmark problems focused on inundation. The solutions are compared to the MOST solutions obtained with the version of the MOST model benchmarked for the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program in 2011. In two tests, Cliffs and MOST results are very close, and in another two tests, the results are somewhat different. Very different regimes of generation/disposal of water by Cliffs and MOST inundation algorithms, which supposedly affected the benchmarking results, have been discussed.

Tolkova, Elena

2014-04-01

160

The Sedimentary Signature of Recent Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami, which killed approximately 21,000 and at most locations in northeastern Japan inundated farther inland than historic tsunamis, underscores the need to use the geologic record for an accurate assessment of tsunami hazard. The ability to identify tsunami deposits, the primary geologic record of tsunamis, has greatly improved as teams of scientists have collected data on deposit and flow characteristics as soon as possible after recent tsunamis. Although sand and boulder transport and deposition were reported for the 1946 tsunami in Hawaii, detailed post-tsunami sedimentological surveys were not conducted until the early 1990s. Since then, documenting sedimentary deposits has been part of the scientific response to nearly all major tsunamis. In total, there have been detailed geologic surveys of more than a dozen tsunamis; these surveys have increased in scope and sophistication. Sandy tsunami deposits on coastal plains have common characteristics (Peters and Jaffe, 2010). They are typically deposited in sheets that drape pre-existing topography. Deposits are absent near the shoreline in a zone of bypass or erosion that increases in width with tsunami size and can extend more than 100 m inland. Deposits generally thin landward, typically are less than 30 cm thick near the shoreline, but in rare cases may be more than a meter thick locally in depressions and bends in rivers. Conversely deposits are thinner on local topographic highs, such as ridges. Deposits are comprised of layers that are interpreted as forming during half-wave cycles. Typically there are 1 to 4 layers, each with a sharp lower contact. Each layer's lower portion is often either massive or inversely graded and its top suspension graded, a form of normal grading created when sediment in suspension settles out of the water column as the flow speed decreases. In muddy environments, deposits commonly contain mud and soil rip-up clasts and mud often caps the deposits or separates layers. Sedimentary structures, which are not found in all deposits, included cross-bedding, laminations, scour and fill structures, and truncated flame structures. There have been fewer observations of coarse-clast deposits, including boulders, because surveys of most recent tsunamis have been in locations lacking a significant source of coarse clasts. Where found, coarse clasts are typically deposited in dispersed fields and may be partially buried by finer sediment (e.g., sand). Although tsunami deposits typically have common characteristics, they are strongly controlled by the availability of sediment and depositional environment. These controls can alter deposit characteristics. For example, in areas with limited sediment source (e.g., American Samoa, 2009; Tohoku-Oki 2011 at inland extents of inundation) deposits will be discontinuous and of limited extent. More research needs to be done to reveal where common characteristics do and do not apply, especially in non-coastal-plain environments. As knowledge of tsunami characteristics in non-coastal-plain environments expands, so will the utility of deposit signatures in tsunami hazard assessment. Reference: Peters and Jaffe, 2010, USGS OFR 2010-1239 http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1239/

Jaffe, B. E.; Peters, R. B.; Richmond, B. M.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

The public health response to the tsunami  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At a meeting in the Maldives convened in April by the International Centre for Migration and Health, public health specialists from tsunami-affected states assessed lessons learned from the humanitarian response.

Bryan Heal

2005-07-01

162

Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

Simon Harris

2005-07-01

163

Geomorphic Environments of Tsunami Deposits, Southeastern India  

Science.gov (United States)

As paleotsunami research progresses around the Indian Ocean, it is increasingly evident that tsunamis have occurred in this region in the past. The largest of these could have traversed the ocean and reached the southeastern coast of India, which highlights the importance of identifying key preservation sites in this potential repository of catastrophic basin-wide events. However, geologically enduring sites where tsunami deposits dependably survive are not yet well defined in India and other tropical environments. The purpose of this project was to identify the settings conducive to long-term preservation of tsunami deposits in tropical India and develop criteria for distinguishing them in the stratigraphic record. We documented the post- depositional fate of the tsunami deposits from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in various geomorphic environments along the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India from 10.5-13° N. Latitude. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami were mapped, described and surveyed at locations where they had been described immediately after the event, as well as at previously unstudied sites. At many sites, the tsunami deposits were recognizable in the stratigraphic column by characteristic fine mafic laminations, debris and an organic layer at the lower boundary. Field observations and initial grain-size analysis indicated a distinct difference between tsunami deposits and underlying sedimentary layers. For example, at Mamallapuram (12.5° N. Lat.) the mean grain size of the tsunami deposits was 0.25 phi finer than that of the underlying layers. However, only three years after the event, deposits in some locations had already been altered significantly by erosion, bioturbation and incipient weathering and were not readily recognizable in the stratigraphy. Although the 2004 tsunami deposits were thicker and more extensive in the hard-hit southern half of the study area, the degree of bioturbation and weathering was greater there than in the drier northern portion, where some thin tsunami sand layers behind coastal dunes remained unaltered since the original post- tsunami surveys. To date, no conclusive evidence of paleotsunami deposits has been found at the sites included in this study, but the results will guide the search for key settings that best satisfy the balance between sediment volume and preservation.

Johnston, P.; Ely, L.; Achyuthan, H.; Srinivasalu, S.

2008-12-01

164

New Tsunami Inundation Maps for California  

Science.gov (United States)

California is the first US State to complete its tsunami inundation mapping. A new generation of tsunami inundation maps is now available for 17 coastal counties.. The new maps offer improved coverage for many areas, they are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami farfield and nearfield sources and use the best available bathymetric and topographic data for modelling. The need for new tsunami maps for California became clear since Synolakis et al (1998) described how inundation projections derived with inundation models that fully calculate the wave evolution over dry land can be as high as twice the values predicted with earlier threshold models, for tsunamis originating from tectonic source. Since the 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami when the hazard from offshore submarine landslides was better understood (Bardet et al, 2003), the State of California funded the development of the first generation of maps, based on local tectonic and landslide sources. Most of the hazard was dominated by offshore landslides, whose return period remains unknown but is believed to be higher than 1000 years for any given locale, at least in Southern California. The new generation of maps incorporates local and distant scenarios. The partnership between the Tsunami Research Center at USC, the California Emergency Management Agency and the California Seismic Safety Commission let the State to be the first among all US States to complete the maps. (Exceptions include the offshore islands and Newport Beach, where higher resolution maps are under way). The maps were produced with the lowest cost per mile of coastline, per resident or per map than all other States, because of the seamless integration of the USC and NOAA databases and the use of the MOST model. They are a significant improvement over earlier map generations. As part of a continuous improvement in response, mitigation and planning and community education, the California inundation maps can contribute in reducing tsunami risk. References -Bardet, JP et al (2003), Landslide tsunamis: Recent findings and research directions, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160, (10-11), 1793-1809. -Eisner, R., Borrero, C., Synolakis, C.E. (2001) Inundation Maps for the State of California, International Tsunami Symposium, ITS 2001 Proceedings, NHTMP Review Paper #4, 67-81. -Synolakis, C.E., D. McCarthy, V.V. Titov, J.C. Borrero, (1998) Evaluating the Tsunami Risk in California, CALIFORNIA AND THE WORLD OCEAN '97, 1225-1236, Proceedings ASCE, ISBN: 0-7844-0297-3.

Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Borrero, Jose; Uslu, Burak; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

2010-05-01

165

Dispersion of tsunamis: does it really matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the effect of dispersion in the field of tsunami modeling. Frequency dispersion in the linear long-wave limit is first briefly discussed from a theoretical point of view. A single parameter, denoted as "dispersion time", for the integrated effect of frequency dispersion is identified. This parameter depends on the wavelength, the water depth during propagation, and the propagation distance or time. Also the role of long-time asymptotes is discussed in this context. The wave generation by the two main tsunami sources, namely earthquakes and landslides, are briefly discussed with formulas for the surface response to the bottom sources. Dispersive effects are then exemplified through a semi-idealized study of a moderate-strength inverse thrust fault. Emphasis is put on the directivity, the role of the "dispersion time", the significance of the Boussinesq model employed (dispersive effect, and the effects of the transfer from bottom sources to initial surface elevation. Finally, the experience from a series of case studies, including earthquake- and landslide-generated tsunamis, is presented. The examples are taken from both historical (e.g. the 2011 Japan tsunami and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and potential tsunamis (e.g. the tsunami after the potential La Palma volcanic flank collapse. Attention is mainly given to the role of dispersion during propagation in the deep ocean and the way the accumulation of this effect relates to the "dispersion time". It turns out that this parameter is useful as a first indication as to when frequency dispersion is important, even though ambiguity with respect to the definition of the wavelength may be a problem for complex cases. Tsunamis from most landslides and moderate earthquakes tend to display dispersive behavior, at least in some directions. On the other hand, for the mega events of the last decade dispersion during deep water propagation is mostly noticeable for transoceanic propagation.

S. Glimsdal

2013-06-01

166

Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

167

Understanding the tsunami with a simple model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we use the approximation of shallow water waves (Margaritondo G 2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) to understand the behaviour of a tsunami in a variable depth. We deduce the shallow water wave equation and the continuity equation that must be satisfied when a wave encounters a discontinuity in the sea depth. A short explanation about how the tsunami hit the west coast of India is given based on the refraction phenomenon. Our procedure also includes a simple numerical...

Helene, O.; Yamashita, M. T.

2006-01-01

168

Quakes and tsunamis detected by GOCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The aerodynamic accelerations measured by GOCE are used to calculate air density variations and air velocity estimates along GOCE orbit track. The detection of infrasonic waves generated by seismic surface waves and gravity waves generated by tsunamis are presented for earthquakes and tsunamis generated by the great Tohoku quake (11/03/2011). For the seismic/infrasonic waves, a wave propagation modelling is presented and synthetic data are compared to GOCE measurements. The travel time and amplitude discrepancies are discussed in terms of lateral velocity variations in the solid Earth and the atmosphere. For the tsunami/gravity waves, a plane wave analysis is performed and relations between vertical velocity, cross-track velocity and density variations are deduced. From theoretical relations between air density, and vertical and horizontal velocities inside the gravity wave, we demonstrate that the measured perturbations are consistent with a gravity wave generated by the tsunami, and provide a way to estimate the propagation azimuth of the gravity wave. By using these relations, an indicator of gravity wave presence is constructed. It will allow to scan the GOCE data set to search for gravity wave crossings. This study demonstrates that very low earth orbit spacecraft with high-resolution accelerometers are able to detect atmospheric waves generated by the tectonic activity. Such spacecraft may supply additional data to tsunami alert systems in order to validate some tsunami alerts.

Garcia, Raphael F.; Doornbos, Eelco; Bruinsma, Sean; Hebert, Hélène

2014-05-01

169

Tsunami Damage in Northwest Sumatra  

Science.gov (United States)

The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of the northern Sumatra. This pair of images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite shows the Aceh province of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 17, 2004, before the quake (bottom), and on December 29, 2004 (top), three days after the catastrophe. Although MODIS was not specifically designed to make the very detailed observations that are usually necessary for mapping coastline changes, the sensor nevertheless observed obvious differences in the Sumatran coastline. On December 17, the green vegetation along the west coast appears to reach all the way to the sea, with only an occasional thin stretch of white that is likely sand. After the earthquake and tsunamis, the entire western coast is lined with a noticeable purplish-brown border. The brownish border could be deposited sand, or perhaps exposed soil that was stripped bare of vegetation when the large waves rushed ashore and then raced away. Another possibility is that parts of the coastline may have sunk as the sea floor near the plate boundary rose. On a moderate-resolution image such as this, the affected area may seem small, but each pixel in the full resolution image is 250 by 250 meters. In places the brown strip reaches inland roughly 13 pixels, equal to a distance of 3.25 kilometers, or about 2 miles. On the northern tip of the island (shown in the large image), the incursion is even larger. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the MODIS Rapid Response team and the Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC.

2005-01-01

170

Development of an online tool for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

The devastating impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the need for an effective end-to-end tsunami early warning system in the region that connects the scientific components of warning with preparedness of institutions and communities to respond to an emergency. Essential to preparedness planning is knowledge of tsunami risks. In this study, development of an online tool named “INSPIRE” for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation is presented. The tool is designed to accommodate various accuracy levels of tsunami exposure data which will support the users to undertake preliminary tsunami risk assessment from the existing data with progressive improvement with the use of more detailed and accurate datasets. Sampling survey technique is introduced to improve the local vulnerability data with lower cost and manpower. The performance of the proposed methodology and the INSPIRE tool were tested against the dataset in Kamala and Patong municipalities, Phuket province, Thailand. The estimated building type ratios from the sampling survey show the satisfactory agreement with the actual building data at the test sites. Sub-area classification by land use can improve the accuracy of the building type ratio estimation. For the resulting loss estimation, the exposure data generated from detailed field survey can provide the agreeable results when comparing to the actual building damage recorded for the Indian Ocean tsunami event in 2004. However, lower accuracy exposure data derived from sampling survey and remote sensing can still provide a comparative overview of estimated loss.

Srivihok, P.; Honda, K.; Ruangrassamee, A.; Muangsin, V.; Naparat, P.; Foytong, P.; Promdumrong, N.; Aphimaeteethomrong, P.; Intavee, A.; Layug, J. E.; Kosin, T.

2014-05-01

171

ISSN 8755-6839 SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS Journal of Tsunami Society International Number 2 2013 IMPACT OF TSUNAMI FORCES ON STRUCTURES The University of Ottawa Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past seven years, a comprehensive interdisciplinary research program has been conducted between researchers at the University of Ottawa and at the Canadian Hydraulics Centre (CHC of the National Research Council of Canada. The objectives of this on-going research program are to identify and quantify forces that are imposed on near-shoreline structures when exposed to tsunami- induced hydraulic bores and to investigate mitigation strategies to dampen these forces. The experimental component of this research program involves two structural models (square and circular that are tested in the High Discharge Flume at CHC. The structural models are instrumented to record base shear force-, base overturning moment-, pressure-, acceleration-, lateral displacement- and bore depth-time histories continually during testing. Impact loading resulting from wood debris of different sizes and located at pre-determined distances from the structural models is also studied. Furthermore, this research program aims to review tsunami-induced forces on structures prescribed by recent design documents.

A. Cornett

2013-01-01

172

Development of a new Tsunami Monitoring System Using a GPS Buoy  

Science.gov (United States)

A tsunami monitoring system using a GPS buoy has been developed for more than ten years. Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS technology was used for this purpose. After a series of preliminary experimental studies, the third experiment was conducted offshore Ofunato city, northern Tohoku, Japan. GPS antenna was set at the top of the buoy and the 1-sec sampling data were transmitted to the ground base of about 1.6km distance together with other ancillary data. The data was processed at the ground base and the estimated 3D positions were disseminated through internet. This system operated for about three years of 2001-2003 and succeeded to detect two tsunamis of about 10cm amplitude; 2001 Peru earthquake and 2003 Tokachi earthquake, by applying a simple filtering technique. After this successful experiment, the fourth system was newly designed and was established about 12km south of Muroto Promontory, southwestern Japan in early April 2004. The buoy has experienced nearby passages of several typhoons with a maximum wave of about 20meter and has shown a total integrity for an operational use. On September 5th 2004, a large earthquake of Mw7.4 occurred about 200km east of the buoy. The GPS buoy successfully recorded the tsunami with about 10cm amplitude at the first peak arrival of about 10 minutes before its arrival at the nearest coast of Muroto Promontory. The simulated record has shown excellent consistency with the observed tsunami, suggesting high potential for predicting tsunami height at the coast before its arrival, if the record is efficiently implemented in the tsunami warning system. The system has been adopted as a national sea-surface monitoring project and has been deployed at several locations around the Japanese coasts for monitoring also wind-waves.

Kato, T.; Terada, Y.; Nagai, T.; Shimizu, K.; Tomita, T.; Koshimura, S.

2008-12-01

173

The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

Chague-Goff, C.

2013-12-01

174

DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

2013-09-01

175

Tsunami Hazards in San Francisco Bay  

Science.gov (United States)

A prerequisite to probabilistic hazard assessment is a historic event database and identification of all potential sources. We review published and unpublished material to compile a history of tsunami events, peak tsunami heights and tsunami source regions for San Francisco Bay. Since 1850, 51 credible tsunamis have been recorded or observed within the San Francisco Bay area, all but 6 teletsunamis. Only the tsunamis generated by the 1960 Chile earthquake and the 1964 Alaska earthquake caused damage in San Francisco Bay. Both events are characterized by long duration (12 hours) short period oscillations (about 30 minutes) attributed to near-resonance within the Bay (Wilson and Torum, 1968). Magoon (1966) developed an attenuation relation based on the 1960 and 1964 events and shows an amplitude decay by 50 percent of the Presidio value at Alameda and a 90 percent decrease at the northern and southern ends of the Bay. The 1964 tsunami was the most damaging historic event and caused about 177,000 (US dollars) in damages to boats and floating structures, with 1.13 m amplitude waves recorded at the Presidio. Six credible local tsunami events were observed between 1851 and 1906, four attributed to earthquake sources and two to landslides. The largest (0.6 m near Benicia) was caused by the 1898 Mare Island earthquake and is attributed to slip on the Rogers Creep fault. Garcia and Houston (1975) made return estimates for San Francisco Bay, considering only Alaska sources and estimated 100- and 500-year heights of 2.5 and 4.8 meters respectively at the Presidio. These values need to be reassessed in light of other credible teletsunami sources, particularly the Cascadia subduction zone, and local sources including step-overs on regional strike-slip faults and landslides within the bay. We present the results of numerical modeling runs to test Magoon's attenuation models and to compare local and teletsunami source regions.

Dengler, L.; Borrero, J.; Patton, J.

2004-12-01

176

TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN  

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Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events) times measures of elements at risk (human exposure) times measures of vulnerability (preparedness) in ...

2010-01-01

177

Adaptive Mesh Refinement Applied to Tsunami Modeling: TsunaFLASH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The devastating Sumatra-Andaman tsunami of December 2004, is a milestone for the internationalcommunity striving to introduce measures to prevent hazards from (future) tsunamis. One of themeasures is numerical modeling which plays a key role for predictions as well as inundation mappingdevelopments.Numerical modeling has been used as a tool for analyzing and reconstructing tsunamis foralmost 40 years. Nowadays, many tsunami codes are available as open-source or free-ware andwidely used in the...

Pranowo, Widodo Setiyo

2010-01-01

178

TWO DECADES OF GLOBAL TSUNAMIS - 1982-2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principal purpose of this catalog is to extend the cataloging of tsunami occurrences and effects begun in 1988 by Soloviev, Go, and Kim (Catalog of Tsunamis in the Pacific 1969 to 1982 to the period extending from 1982 through 2001, and to provide a convenient source of tsunami data and a reference list for tsunamis in this period. While the earlier catalogs by Soloviev were restricted to the Pacific region including Indonesia, this catalog reports on known tsunamis worldwide. The year 1982 was included in this catalog because the data in the Soloviev and Go catalog for that year was incomplete.The Pacific is by far the most active zone for tsunami generation but tsunamis have been generated in many other bodies of water including the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas, and Indian and Atlantic Oceans and other bodies of water. There were no known tsunamis generated in the Atlantic Ocean in the period from 1982 to 2001 but they have occurred there historically. North Atlantic tsunamis include the tsunami associated with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake that caused up to 60,000 fatalities in Portugal, Spain, and North Africa. This tsunami generated waves of up to seven meters in height into the Caribbean. Since 1498 the Caribbean has had 37 verified tsunamis (local and remote sourced plus an additional 52 events that may have resulted in tsunamis. The death toll from these events is about 9,500 fatalities. In 1929, the Grand Banks tsunami off the coast of Labrador generated waves of up to 15 meters in Newfoundland, Canada, killing 26 people, and the waves were recorded along the New Jersey coast. Smaller Atlantic coast tsunamis have been generated in the Norwegian fjords, Iceland, and off the coast of the New England states of the United States. Major tsunamis have also occurred in the Marmara Sea in Turkey associated with the Izmit earthquake of August 17, 1999.

Patricia A. Lockridge

2003-01-01

179

A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA  

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The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunami...

2002-01-01

180

Model-based tsunami warnings derived from observed impacts  

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The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre uses the T2 tsunami scenario database to provide forecast guidance for potential tsunami threats to the coastlines of mainland Australia and its external territories. This study describes a method for generating coastal tsunami warnings from model data obtained from the T2 scenario database. Consideration of observed coastal impacts for nine past events leads to retrospective or "ideal" warning schemes being designed. The 95th perc...

Allen, S. C. R.; Greenslade, D. J. M.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Historical tsunami database for France and its overseas territories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A search and analysis of a large number of historical documents has made it possible: (i) to discover so-far unknown tsunamis that have hit the French coasts during the last centuries, and (ii) conversely, to disprove the tsunami nature of several events referred to in recent catalogues. This information has been structured into a database and also made available as a website (tsunamis.f/" target="_blank">http://www.tsunamis.fr) that is acces...

2011-01-01

182

Introduction to "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World: Volume II. Tsunamis from 1755 to 2010"  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen papers on past and recent destructive tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World." Three papers discuss deep-sea (DART) and coastal tsunami observations, warning systems and risk management in the Pacific Ocean. Four papers examine the 1755 Lisbon, 1964 Alaska, 2003 Algeria, and 2011 Haiti tsunamis. Four more papers, as well as some papers in Volume I, report on various aspects of the 2010 Chile tsunami. Two papers present some results of field survey and modelling investigation of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia, tsunami. Three papers report on modelling efforts of tsunami generation by earthquake and landslide, and of tsunami propagation. Finally, two papers discuss hazard assessment using a probabilistic approach.

Satake, Kenji; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Borrero, José C.

2013-09-01

183

Tohoku, Japan Tsunami Sets us West Coast Into Ringing  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis can last a long time compared to the geophysical events that generate them. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami of March 11, 2011 was an extreme event that continued to disturb the Pacific Ocean for many days following its initiation. Historically Japan was considered a source of low tsunami wave energy for the US West Coast. However, damage in California from the last great Japan tsunami was second to that suffered during the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Computer animations of the catastrophic Japan tsunami and other recent significant tsunamis combined with seismological techniques help to identify multiple paths of tsunami waves refracted and reflected by complex bathymetry across the Pacific Ocean basin. Using recent large tsunamigenic earthquakes we demonstrate that the long duration and damage noticed during the last great Japan tsunami in the farfield is a result of several factors. Waveguides acting as tsunami lenses and mirrors, including continental margins, direct the tsunami wave energy to diverse locations around the ocean basin; directionality affected by islands and seamounts, large reflections off of South America, bathymetric features far and near the area of impact and shelf geometry may delay and further amplify the main tsunami energy. This has direct implications on the prediction of tsunami impacts since the US West Coast appears to receive maximum waves much later than first wave arrivals.

Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M. R.; Gica, E.; Legg, G.

2011-12-01

184

How soon is too soon? When to cancel a warning after a damaging tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Following an earthquake a tsunami warning center (TWC) must determine if a coastal evacuation is necessary and must do so fast enough for the warning to be useful to affected coastlines. Once a damaging tsunami has arrived, the TWC must decide when to cancel its warning, a task often more challenging than the initial hazard assessment. Here we demonstrate the difficulties by investigating the impact of the Tohoku tsunami of 11 March 2011 on the State of Hawaii, which relies on the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) for tsunami hazard guidance. PTWC issued a Tsunami Watch for Hawaii at 10 March 1956 HST (10 minutes after the earthquake) and upgraded to a Tsunami Warning at 2131 HST. The tsunami arrived in Hawaii just before 0300 HST the next day, reached a maximum runup of over 5 m, and did roughly $50 million in damage throughout the state. PTWC downgraded the Warning to an Advisory at 0730 HST, and canceled the Advisory at 1140 HST. The timing of the downgrade was appropriate—by then it was safe for coastal residents to re-enter the evacuation zone but not to enter the water—but in retrospect PTWC cancelled its Advisory too early. By late morning tide gauges throughout the state had all registered maximum wave heights of 30 cm or less for a couple of hours, so PTWC cancelled. The Center was unaware, however, of ocean behavior at locations without instruments. At Ma'alaea Harbor on the Island of Maui, for example, sea level oscillations exposed the harbor bottom every 20 minutes for several hours after the cancellation. At Waikiki on Oahu, lifeguards rescued 25 swimmers (who had either ignored or were unaware of the cancellation message's caution about hazardous currents) in the hours after the cancellation and performed CPR on one near-drowning victim. Fortunately, there were no deaths. Because of dangerous surges, ocean safety officials closed Hanauma Bay, a popular snorkeling spot on Oahu, for a full day after the tsunami hit. They reassessed the bay the following morning just as waves reflected from South America started to arrive (36 hours after the earthquake), and prudently chose to keep the bay closed for two further days. The Tohoku tsunami showed that resonances and trapped waves in shallow water can last for many hours and that energy reflected from distant shorelines can rejuvenate them. PTWC's real-time simulation of the tsunami, including animation of its propagation, now helps to identify which reflections will be most troublesome and should permit the Center to specify in advance how long a Warning should remain in effect. The current open-ended warnings, which specify when the tsunami will arrive but not how long the Warning should last, should be replaced with warnings active for a specified time ("until 3 a.m. tomorrow"), with PTWC adjusting the projected cancellation time based on coastal sea-level observations. Such warnings should greatly reduce public misconceptions and state and local government expectations about how long the hazard will last. The National Weather Service, parent agency of the US TWCs, already issues weather Warnings and Advisories active for specific durations, so this message format is already familiar to both the public and emergency managers.

Fryer, G. J.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Weinstein, S.; Richards, K.

2012-12-01

185

Slip distribution of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake from inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami field survey data  

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We study the 2010 Mentawai earthquake, a tsunami earthquake that occurred seaward of the southern Mentawai islands of Sumatra, and produced a locally devastating tsunami, with runup commonly in excess of 6 m. As a unique tsunami earthquake case, there is a significant discrepancy between the observed small GPS displacement and the very large tsunami runup (maximum value > 16 m), which cannot be explained by the conventional GPS or seismic inversion model. The goal of this work is to infer ...

Li, L.; Huang, Z.

2013-01-01

186

Application of heavy minerals analysis in studies of tsunami deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami deposits are very important for assessment of tsunami hazard. However, their identification is often difficult because they are depended on many factors and there is no unique set of features, which could be applied. The presence of heavy minerals (HM) have been frequently noted in tsunami deposits, however, so far they were little studied in detail. The HM analyses may be useful in finding the sediment provenance (e.g. marine), and trends (vertical and spatial) in HM assemblages within the tsunami deposits resulting from hydraulic sorting processes that had been acting during the tsunami. To test usefulness of HM analysis in tsunami deposits studies the modern tsunami deposits left by 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on Kho Khao Island, Thailand (details in Jagodzi?ski et al. 2009), and by 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on Sendai plain, Japan, were studied. The HM fraction content and mineral assemblages significantly differs between the two studied cases. Tsunami deposits from 2004 tsunami contained only ~ 1.7 % of HM and 99 % of them were tourmalines, micas, limonites, zircon and opaque minerals. The Tohoku-oki tsunami deposits were composed on average in 34 % from HM. They were in 97 % represented by amphiboles, pyroxenes and opaque minerals. The HM assemblages of 2004 tsunami were different from beach sediments and pre-tsunami soils, and were partly derived from marine sediments. Moreover, observed variations within HM suit, in particular in share of flake-shaped micas, reflected sedimentation from suspension by particular waves. The HM analyses of Tohoku-oki tsunami deposits revealed no significant difference between tsunami deposits, beach sediments and pre-tsunami soils. It suggested that the contribution of marine sediments may be very small, as suggested also by micropaleontological studies. There is also no regular trend within tsunami deposits apart from steady landward decrease of HM fraction content. The HM analysis may be useful supplementary tool in tsunami deposits studies, however, the interpretation must be always put in local geological context and faced against other "tsunami proxies" (e.g. diatoms). Jagodzi?ski R., Sternal B., Szczuci?ski W., Lorenc S., 2009: Heavy minerals in the 2004 tsunami deposits on Kho Khao island, Thailand. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 18:103-110.

Jagodzi?ski, R.; Sternal, B.; Szczuci?ski, W.

2012-04-01

187

Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology  

Science.gov (United States)

The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future studies and improvements, enabling the integration of lateral variations of the solid earth, bathymetry or atmosphere, finite model sources, non-linearity of the waves and better attenuation and coupling processes. All these effects are revealed by phase or amplitude discrepancies in selected observations. We then present goals and first results of source inversions, with a focus on estimations of the sea level uplift location and amplitude, either by using GPS networks close from the epicentre or, for tsunamis, GPS of the Hawaii Islands.

Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

2014-05-01

188

Simulation systems for tsunami wave propagation forecasting within the French tsunami warning center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A model-based tsunami prediction system has been developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center (operational since 1 July 2012. It involves a precomputed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored. For the Mediterranean basin, the faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults. An automated composite scenarios calculation tool is implemented to allow the simulation of any tsunami propagation scenario (i.e., of any seismic moment. Uncertainty on the magnitude of the detected event and inaccuracy of the epicenter location are taken into account in the composite scenarios calculation. Together with this forecasting system, another operational tool based on real time computing is implemented as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center. This second tsunami simulation tool takes advantage of multiprocessor approaches and more realistic seismological parameters, once the focal mechanism is established. Three examples of historical earthquakes are presented, providing warning refinement compared to the rough tsunami risk map given by the model-based decision matrix.

A. Gailler

2013-10-01

189

NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE GLOBAL TSUNAMI: Indonesian Tsunami of 26 December 2004  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new model for the global tsunami computation is constructed. It includes a high order of approximation for the spatial derivatives. The boundary condition at the shore line is controlled by the total depth and can be set either to runup or to the zero normal velocity. This model, with spatial resolution of one minute, is applied to the tsunami of 26 December 2004 in the World Ocean from 80?S to 69?N. Because the computational domain includes close to 200 million grid points, a parallel version of the code was developed and run on a supercomputer. The high spatial resolution of one minute produces very small numerical dispersion even when tsunamis wave travel over large distances. Model results for the Indonesian tsunami show that the tsunami traveled to every location of the World Ocean. In the Indian Ocean the tsunami properties are related to the source function, i.e., to the magnitude of the bottom displacement and directional properties of the source. In the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica, in the Pacific, and especially in the Atlantic, tsunami waves propagate over large distances by energy ducting over oceanic ridges. Tsunami energy is concentrated by long wave trapping over the oceanic ridges. Our computations show the Coriolis force plays a noticeable but secondary role in the trapping. Travel times obtained from computations as arrival of the first significant wave show a clear and consistent pattern only in the region of the high amplitude and in the simply connected domains. The tsunami traveled from Indonesia, around New Zealand, and into the Pacific Ocean. The path through the deep ocean to North America carried miniscule energy, while the stronger signal traveled a much longer distance via South Pacific ridges. The time difference between first signal and later signals strong enough to be recorded at North Pacific locations was several hours.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2005-01-01

190

Tsunami forecast by joint inversion of real-time tsunami waveforms and seismic of GPS data: application to the Tohoku 2011 tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model–data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

Yong, Wei; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

2014-01-01

191

Tsunami Forecast by Joint Inversion of Real-Time Tsunami Waveforms and Seismic or GPS Data: Application to the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model-data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

Wei, Yong; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

2014-04-01

192

Tsunami Speed Variations in Density-stratified Compressible Global Oceans  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent tsunami observations in the deep ocean have accumulated unequivocal evidence that tsunami traveltime delays compared with the linear long-wave tsunami simulations occur during tsunami propagation in the deep ocean. The delay is up to 2% of the tsunami traveltime. Watada et al. [2013] investigated the cause of the delay using the normal mode theory of tsunamis and attributed the delay to the compressibility of seawater, the elasticity of the solid earth, and the gravitational potential change associated with mass motion during the passage of tsunamis. Tsunami speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed propagator matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4-km deep ocean, the total tsunami speed reduction is 0.45% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. Tsunami speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles and characteristic structures are discussed. Tsunami speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except for in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on tsunami traveltime should be included for precise modeling of trans-oceanic tsunamis. Data locations where a vertical ocean profile deeper than 2500 m is available in World Ocean Atlas 2009. The dark gray area indicates the Pacific Ocean defined in WOA09. a) Tsunami speed variations. Red, gray and black bars represent global, Pacific, and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. b) Regression lines of the tsunami velocity reduction for all oceans. c)Vertical ocean profiles at grid points indicated by the stars in Figure 1.

Watada, S.

2013-12-01

193

The UBO-TSUFD tsunami inundation model: validation and application to a tsunami case study focused on the city of Catania, Italy  

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Nowadays numerical models are a powerful tool in tsunami research since they can be used (i) to reconstruct modern and historical events, (ii) to cast new light on tsunami sources by inverting tsunami data and observations, (iii) to build scenarios in the frame of tsunami mitigation plans, and (iv) to produce forecasts of tsunami impact and inundation in systems of early warning. In parallel with the general recognition of the importance of numerical tsunami simulations, the...

Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

2013-01-01

194

The UBO-TSUFD tsunami inundation model: validation and application to a tsunami case study focused on the city of Catania, Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays numerical models are a powerful tool in tsunami research since they can be used (i) to reconstruct modern and historical events, (ii) to cast new light on tsunami sources by inverting tsunami data and observations, (iii) to build scenarios in the frame of tsunami mitigation plans, and (iv) to produce forecasts of tsunami impact and inundation in systems of early warning. In parallel with the general recognition of the importance of numerical tsunami simulations, the demand has grown ...

Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

2013-01-01

195

The Impacts of Tsunami on the Well-Being of the Affected Community in Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available The tsunami of 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating tragedy ever occurred to men in the history of human civilization. Approximately 250,000 lives perished, millions injured and suffered, while the destruction of property loss of opportunities cannot be accurately estimated. The impact of the tsunami on environmental destruction shows that damage was inflicted on natural resources such as coral reefs, mangroves, sand dunes and other coastal ecosystem that acted as wave defense barriers. Moreover, inlands, wetlands and agricultural land were salinated and natural resources for livelihood and for source of income were badly affected, especially for coastal communities who were involve in fisheries. The situation worsened as basic facilities were also destroyed. As such, this research focuses on assessing and identifying on how the impacts of the tsunami on the infrastructure and environmental resources affected the community well-being inKuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. This study focuses on the impacts of tsunami on the affected community well-being in the coastal zone on the basis of available primary and secondary sources. Primary sources included questionnaires, interviews and observations while the secondary resources included books, government and international reports, scientific journals, maps and articles that highlighted tsunami related issues. The study tries to seek for both qualitative and quantitative impacts and also tries to find out some solutions that would help to minimize the impact of the tsunami on the community well-being. The information gained from this study can be used to help the community as well as the agencies involve in order to minimize the impacts of the tsunami on the community and develop a more effective mitigation measures for other environmental disasters such as tsunami. Besides, the research may help to create awareness on the community to be prepared in facing disastrous situation such as the tsunami. Through community preparedness, the impact can be minimized and reduced. As for the authority, this research may be of great assistance by allowing them to make better decision.

M. Zainora Asmawi

2013-07-01

196

Japan earthquake: Footage of moment tsunami hit  

Science.gov (United States)

This video footage shows the force at which the tsunami struck Japan's coast. In the fishing port of Miyako, in Iwate prefecture, boats were overturned, while video from Kamaishi city shows cars being dragged down city streets by the water. The tsunami that followed the 8.9-magnitude earthquake wreaked havoc along a huge stretch of Japan's north-east coast, sweeping far inland and devastating a number of towns and villages. Powerful aftershocks are continuing to hit the region. Footage courtesy of TV Asahi and TBS

Bbc

197

Integrating TWES and Satellite-based remote sensing: Lessons learned from the Honshu 2011 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The Boxing Day Tsunami killed 240,000 people and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Honshu 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for TEWS research still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages to areas at risk, but also to other stakeholders professionally involved in the unfolding event. Until now remote sensing products for Tsunami events, including crisis maps and change detection products, are exclusively linked to those phases of the disaster life cycle, which follow after the early warning stage: Response, recovery and mitigation. The International Charter for Space and Major Disasters has been initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in 1999. It coordinates a voluntary group of governmental space agencies and industry partners, to provide rapid crisis imaging and mapping to disaster and relief organisations to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life, property and the environment. The efficiency of this approach has been demonstrated in the field of Tsunami early warning by Charter activations following the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004, the Chile Tsunami 2010 and the Honshu Tsunami 2011. Traditional single-satellite operations allow at best bimonthly repeat rates over a given Area of Interest (AOI). This allows a lot of time for image acquisition campaign planning between imaging windows for the same AOI. The advent of constellations of identical remote sensing satellites in the early 21st century resulted both in daily AOI revisit capabilities and drastically reduced time frames for acquisition planning. However, the image acquisition planning for optical remote sensing satellite constellations is constrained by orbital and communication requirements: Defined time slots exist to commandeer the tasking of image acquisitions. If such a time slot has been missed, another attempt to image an AOI again can only be attempted ca. 24 hours later, due to the sun-synchronous satellite orbits Therefore it is critical to establish automated Disaster Early Warning dissemination services for the remote sensing community, to supply them with the timeliest opportunity to trigger the tasking process for the affected AOI. For very large events like a Tsunami in the Pacific, this approach provides the chance to gain additional pre-disaster imagery as a reference for change detection. In the case of the Tohoku earthquake, an ad-hoc warning dissemination process was manually dispatched by the Centre for Geoinformation Technology (CeGIT) at the German Research Centre for Geoscience, contacting RapidEye AG, once the severity of the earthquake event had been confirmed by the GEOFON geoseismic network. RapidEye AG decided to launch an imaging campaign which yielded 78 georectified image tiles (L3A) of Honshu island during the next imaging window. Of these, 26 tiles cover the affected coastline, resulting in 16,250km² of content for crisis mapping effort such as the Humanitarian Open Street Map (OSM) Team. This data was made available by RapidEye as a part of the Charter Activiation requested by Japan on March 11 2011. [1] Hoja, D., Schwinger, M.,Wendleder A.,Löwe, P., Konstanski, H., Weichelt, H.: Optimised Near-Real Time Data Acquisition for Disaster Related Rapid Mapping

Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Joachim

2013-04-01

198

Test of TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm) on the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami marigrams  

Science.gov (United States)

The records of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami have been used to test TEDA, a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm (Bressan and Tinti, 2011) that aims to detect tsunamis and potentially dangerous long period oscillations on sea level data. TEDA is composed of two parallel detection algorithms: the tsunami detection algorithm is built on the detided slope of the sea-level signal and it triggers a detection based on a dynamic threshold that varies according to the level of the previous background signal, while the secure detection activates an alert according to a filtered sea-level amplitude threshold. Both modules are designed to work at a station level after being calibrated for the station's site, i.e. their performance should be optimized to the local typical background by carefully setting the temporal parameters that define TEDA functions and the thresholds that define the detection. In this work the performance of TEDA has first been evaluated by testing TEDA with the calibration found best for Adak, USA, on 123 tsunami records from the 11 March 2011 Tohoku event located along the coasts around the Pacific Ocean, characterized by different background oscillations and tsunami response. The main goal was to evaluate the efficiency of TEDA and to assess whether a particular calibration could have a general validity for different situations. To further check the sensitivity of TEDA, additional tests have been performed by slightly increasing and decreasing the threshold for detection. The results are positive and show that TEDA is able to detect the majority of the tsunami signals in a robust way and therefore it could be used within a Tsunami Warning System.

Bressan, L.; Tinti, S.

2012-04-01

199

Operational Performance of the Second Generation Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART (trademark) II).  

Science.gov (United States)

In March 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) completed the transition from research to operations of the second generation of the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(TM) II). DART(TM) II systems are a part of...

K. J. Kern L. Locke R. Bouchard S. McArthur W. Hansen

2007-01-01

200

Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis  

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Full Text Available Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is 1 November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.

M. A. Baptista

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Post-tsunami protection concerns in Aceh  

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Full Text Available The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement clearly state that those forced to flee natural disasters are to be regarded as IDPs. However, some agencies in post-tsunami Aceh have been reluctant to use the term andto address protection issues.

Marion Couldrey

2005-07-01

202

The geological record of the oldest historical tsunamis in southwestern Spain  

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A regressive sequence was determined in the late Ho- locene evolution of the southwestern Donana National Park (SW Spain), based on a multidisciplinary study of sediments obtained in a drill core. In an initial phase (> cal. 2400 years BP), a shallow coastal lagoon with a partial marine connection occupied this area, with a pro¬gressive transition from subtidal to supratidal conditions. The following phase (cal. 2400-2350 years BP) is characterized by a tsunami, with the deposition of an upp...

Ruiz Mun?oz, Francisco; Abad Los Santos, Manuel; Rodri?guez Vidal, Joaqui?n; Ca?ceres Puro, Luis Miguel; Gonza?lez-regalado Montero, Mari?a Luz; Carretero, Mari?a Isabel; Pozo, Manuel; Go?mez Toscano, Francisco

2008-01-01

203

Migration due to the tsunami in Sri Lanka: analyzing vulnerability and migration at the household level  

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To achieve a better understanding of the diverse vulnerabilities of different social groups affected by the tsunami in December 2004 in Sri Lanka, a survey of 500 households in the Sri Lankan urban area of Galle has been conducted in cooperation with several institutes under the direction of the Institute of Environment and Human Security of the United Nations University (UNU-EHS). An important aim of the project is to analyze the determinants and effects of the migration decision at the hous...

Grote, Ulrike; Engel, Stefanie; Schraven, Benjamin

2006-01-01

204

Vulnerability assessment and protective effects of coastal vegetation during the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka  

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The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities expose...

Kaplan, M.; Renaud, F. G.; Lu?chters, G.

2009-01-01

205

Tsunami Inundation Mapping for Alaska Communities of Homer, Seldovia, and Seward  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys continue to participate in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential inundation of coastal communities in Alaska. The two Kachemak Bay communities of Homer and Seldovia were selected in coordination with the Alaska Division of Emergency Services. We considered two earthquake scenarios as potential sources of tsunami waves that can affect Homer and Seldovia. For both communities, we calculated the extent of maximum inundation for the two scenarios, depths of inundation on dry land, and the maximum velocity current distribution in the inundation zones. The work is under way for Seward, the next community on the list. One of the most significant sources of errors in tsunami inundation mapping is inaccuracy of topographic and bathymetric data used in the model. Many of the Alaskan communities of interest have topographic data of limited quality, and new data must be developed in order to produce accurate inundation maps. The Alaska Tsunami Modeling Team cooperated with the local USGS glaciology office to perform photogrammetry in the Seward area. Using ten air photos and the APEX software, along with several precisely located GPS points, we developed a new georeferenced and highly accurate DEM with a 5-meter grid spacing. A variety of techniques was used to remove the effects of buildings and trees to yield a bald earth model. Finally, we resampled the new DEM to match the finest resolution grid, and combined it with all other data, using the most recent and accurate data in each region. The new dataset has contours that deviate by more then 100 meters in some places from the contours in the previous dataset, showing significant improvement in accuracy for the purpose of tsunami modeling.

Suleimani, E.; Marriott, D.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.

2003-12-01

206

Tsunami Prediction and Earthquake Parameters Estimation in the Red Sea  

Tsunami concerns have increased in the world after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Consequently, tsunami models have been developed rapidly in the last few years. One of the advanced tsunami models is the GeoClaw tsunami model introduced by LeVeque (2011). This model is adaptive and consistent. Because of different sources of uncertainties in the model, observations are needed to improve model prediction through a data assimilation framework. Model inputs are earthquake parameters and topography. This thesis introduces a real-time tsunami forecasting method that combines tsunami model with observations using a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble Kalman smoother. The filter is used for state prediction while the smoother operates smoothing to estimate the earthquake parameters. This method reduces the error produced by uncertain inputs. In addition, state-parameter EnKF is implemented to estimate earthquake parameters. Although number of observations is small, estimated parameters generates a better tsunami prediction than the model. Methods and results of prediction experiments in the Red Sea are presented and the prospect of developing an operational tsunami prediction system in the Red Sea is discussed.

Sawlan, Zaid A

2012-12-01

207

Tsunami magnetic signals in the Northwestern Pacific seafloor magnetic measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past two decades, underwater cables and seafloor magnetometers have observed motional inductance from ocean tsunamis. This study aimed to characterize the electromagnetic signatures of tsunamis from seafloor stations to assist in the long-term goal of real-time tsunami detection and warning systems. Four ocean seafloor stations (T13, T14, T15, T18) in the Northeastern Philippine Sea collected vector measurements of the electric and magnetic fields every minute during the period of 10/05/2005 to 11/30/2007 (Baba et al., 2010 PEPI). During this time, four major tsunamis occurred as a result of moment magnitude 8.0-8.1 earthquakes. These tsunamis include the 05/03/2006 Tonga event, the 01/13/2007 Kuril Islands event, the 04/01/2007 Solomon Islands event, and the 08/15/2007 Peru event. The Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami model (COMCOT) was used to predict the arrival time of the tsunamis at each of the seafloor stations. The stations' raw magnetic field signals underwent a high pass filter to then be examined for signals of the tsunami arrival. The high pass filtering showed clear tsunami signals for the Tonga event, but a clear signal was not seen for the other events. This may be due to signals from near Earth space with periods similar to tsunamis. To remove extraneous atmospheric magnetic signals, a cross-wavelet analysis was conducted using the horizontal field components from three INTERMAGNET land stations and the vertical component from the seafloor stations. The cross-wavelet analysis showed that for three of the six stations (two of the four tsunami events) the peak in wavelet amplitude matched the arrival of the tsunami. We discuss implications of our finding in magnetic monitoring of tsunamis.

Schnepf, N. R.; An, C.; Nair, M. C.; Maus, S.

2013-12-01

208

A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA  

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Full Text Available The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunamis. The additional 53 events either are not described with sufficient detail in the literature to verify their tsunami nature or are judged to be reports of other phenomenasuch as sea quakes or hurricane storm surges which may have been reported as tsunamis. Included in these 91 reports are teletsunamis, tectonic tsunamis, landslide tsunamis, and volcanic tsunamis that have caused major damage and deaths. Nevertheless, in recent history these events have been relatively rare. In the interim since the last major tsunami event in the Caribbean Sea the coastal regions have greatly increased in population. Coastal development has also increased. Today tourism is a major industry that exposes thousands of non-residents to the disastrous effects of a tsunami. These factors make the islands in this region much more vulnerable today than they were when the last major tsunami occurred in this area. This paper gives an overview of the tsunami history in the area. This history illustrates what can be expected in the future from this geologic hazard and provides information that will be useful for mitigation purposes.

Patricia A. Lockridge

2002-01-01

209

The Asian Tsunami in Sri Lanka: A Personal Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

AGU Fellow Chris Chapman experienced the devastating Asian tsunami firsthand in Sri Lanka. The following is his account, written in the immediate aftermath of the disaster; the footnotes were added later. Chapman is a scientific advisor at Schlumberger Cambridge Research and a specialist in theoretical seismology. At 9:30 A.M. local time (0330 GMT) on Boxing Day, 26 December, my wife, Lillian, and I were eating breakfast at the beachside Triton Hotel1 in Ahungalla, Sri Lanka (about 30 km north of Galle). The previous week we had toured Sri Lanka, ending our trip traveling through Yala National Park and Galle. These were places we hardly knew of before, but now images of them are indelibly imprinted on the world. Of about 150 staying at the Yala Safari Game Lodge, only 11 survived. The center of Galle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, a sixteenth- to seventeenth-century Portuguese/Dutchfort and port, is essentially gone.

Chapman, Chris

2005-01-01

210

Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Source regions of concern to U.S. interests derived from NOAA Tsunami Forecast Model Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic tsunamis generated from source regions around the Pacific Basin are analyzed in terms of their relative impact on United States coastal locations.. The region of tsunami origin is as important as the expected magnitude and the predicted inundation for understanding tsunami hazard. The NOAA Center for Tsunami Research has developed high-resolution tsunami models capable of predicting tsunami arrival time and amplitude of waves at each location. These models have been used to conduct tsunami hazard assessments to assess maximum impact and tsunami inundation for use by local communities in education and evacuation map development. Hazard assessment studies conducted for Los Angeles, San Francisco, Crescent City, Hilo, and Apra Harbor are combined with results of tsunami forecast model development at each of seventy-five locations. Complete hazard assessment, identifies every possible tsunami variation from a pre-computed propagation database. Study results indicate that the Eastern Aleutian Islands and Alaska are the most likely regions to produce the largest impact on the West Coast of the United States, while the East Philippines and Mariana trench regions impact Apra Harbor, Guam. Hawaii appears to be impacted equally from South America, Alaska and the Kuril Islands.

Eble, M. C.; uslu, B. U.; Wright, L.

2013-12-01

211

Concept study of radar sensors for near-field tsunami early warning  

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Off-shore detection of tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective tsunami early warning system (TEWS). Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local tsunamis, namely tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes after generation. In this paper we propose new concepts for near-field tsunami early detection, based on innovative and up-to-date microwave remote sensing techniques. We particularly introduce the NESTRAD (NEar-Space Tsunami RADar) concept, which consists of a...

Bo?rner, T.; Galletti, M.; Marquart, N. P.; Krieger, G.

2010-01-01

212

Concept study of radar sensors for near-field tsunami early warning  

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Off-shore detection of tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective tsunami early warning system (TEWS). Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local tsunamis, namely tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes after generation. In this paper we propose new concepts for near-field tsunami early detection, based on innovative and up-to-date microwave remote sensing techniques. We particularly introduce the NESTRAD (NEar-Space Tsunami RADar) concept, w...

Bo?rner, T.; Galletti, M.; Marquart, Np; Krieger, G.

2010-01-01

213

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami hazard assessments for nuclear power stations (NPS) in Japan had been conducted by a deterministic method, but probabilistic methods are being adopted following the accident of Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The deterministic tsunami hazard assessment (DTHA), proposed by Japan Society of Civil Engineers in 2002 (Yanagisawa et al., 2007, Pageoph) considers various uncertainties by parameter studies. The design tsunami height at Fukushima NPS was set as 6.1 m, based on parameter studies by varying location, depth, and strike, dip and slip angles of the 1938 off-Fukushima earthquake (M 7.4). The maximum tsunami height for a hypothetical "tsunami earthquake" off Fukushima, similar to the 1896 Sanriku earthquake (Mt 8.2), and that for the 869 Jogan earthquake model (Mw 8.4) were estimated as 15.7 m and 8.9 m, respectively, before the 2011 accident (TEPCO report, 2012). The actual tsunami height at the Fukushima NPS on March 11, 2011 was 12 to 16 m. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) has been also proposed by JSCE (An'naka et al., 2007, Pageoph), and recently adopted in "Implementation Standard of Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NPPs" published in 2012 by Atomic Energy Society of Japan. In PTHA, tsunami hazard curves, or probability of exeedance for tsunami heights, are constructed by integrating over aleatory uncertainties. The epistemic uncertainties are treated as branches of logic trees. The logic-tree branches for the earthquake source include the earthquake type, magnitude range, recurrence interval and the parameters of BPT distribution for the recurrent earthquakes. Because no "tsunami earthquake" was recorded off the Fukushima NPS, whether or not a "tsunami earthquake" occurs along the Japan trench off Fukushima, was a one of logic-tree branches, and the weight was determined by experts' opinions. Possibilities for multi-segment earthquakes are now added as logic-tree branches, after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which is considered as a combination of Jogan-type interplate earthquake and a "tsunami earthquake". Uncertainties are also considered for tsunami numerical simulation, by assuming that the computed tsunami height is a median value of log-normal distribution, and probability distribution of exeedance in tsunami height is calculated. While the variance is introduced for taking account for aleatory uncertainty, choice of the variance value and the truncation limit are considered as epistemic uncertainties and included in the logic-tree branches. The PTHA provides probability of excedance for coastal tsunami height only. Other parameters such as wave force or current velocity are needed for the fragility assessments of NPS facilities, and these need to be calculated from scenario earthquakes.

Satake, K.

2012-12-01

214

Modelling of Charles Darwin's tsunami reports  

Science.gov (United States)

Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great 1835 earthquake. He described his impressions and results of the earthquake-induced natural catastrophe in The Voyage of the Beagle. His description of the tsunami could easily be read as a report from Indonesia or Sri Lanka, after the catastrophic tsunami of 26 December 2004. In particular, Darwin emphasised the dependence of earthquake-induced waves on a form of the coast and the coastal depth: ‘… Talcuhano and Callao are situated at the head of great shoaling bays, and they have always suffered from this phenomenon; whereas, the town of Valparaiso, which is seated close on the border of a profound ocean... has never been overwhelmed by one of these terrific deluges…' . He reports also, that ‘… the whole body of the sea retires from the coast, and then returns in great waves of overwhelming force ...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). The coastal evolution of a tsunami was analytically studied in many publications (see, for example, Synolakis, C.E., Bernard, E.N., 2006. Philos. Trans. R. Soc., Ser. A, 364, 2231-2265; Tinti, S., Tonini, R. 205. J.Fluid Mech., 535, 11-21). However, the Darwin's reports and the influence of the coastal depth on the formation and the evolution of the steep front and the profile of tsunami did not practically discuss. Recently, a mathematical theory of these phenomena was presented in researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474. The theory describes the waves which are excited due to nonlinear effects within a shallow coastal zone. The tsunami elevation is described by two components: . Here is the linear (prime) component. It describes the wave coming from the deep ocean. is the nonlinear component. This component may become very important near the coastal line. After that the theory of the shallow waves is used. This theory yields the linear equation for and the weakly-nonlinear equation for . The last equation contains the forcing term which is generated by nonlinearity and depends on . The nonlinear shock-like solution for is constructed which is valid within the narrow coastal zone. Then the tsunami evolution near a coast is studied. It is found that the coastal evolution strongly depends on the profile of the bottom and the distance from the coastline. Far from this the wave surface is smooth and the wave is long enough. The wave profile begins to change quickly, if the coastal water is shallow. The steep (discontinuous) front of the tsunami can be generated. The water level reduces ahead of the front, or the ebb can appear there. Then this front begins to move away from the coast - into the ocean. This direction is opposite to the motion of the whole wave. The amplitude of the front is increased. The water wall is formed. This process explains the catastrophic effect of a tsunami, when a water-wall appears instantly. The wave, having two steep peaks, may be generated in the case of very shallow water. In contrast with this, the tsunami, practically, does not change, if the coastal water is deep. On the whole, the conclusions agree with the Darwin's reports.

Galiev, Shamil

2010-05-01

215

Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Canadian Coastlines  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a preliminary probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment of Canadian coastlines from local and far-field, earthquake and large landslide sources. Our multifaceted analysis is based on published historical, paleotsunami and paleoseismic data, modelling, and empirical relations between fault area, earthquake magnitude and tsunami runup. We consider geological sources with known tsunami impacts on Canadian coasts (e.g., Cascadia and other Pacific subduction zones; the 1755 Lisbon tsunami source; Atlantic continental slope failures) as well as potential sources with previously unknown impact (e.g., Explorer plate subduction; Caribbean subduction zones; crustal faults). The cumulative estimated tsunami hazard for potentially damaging runup (? 1.5 m) of the outer Canadian Pacific coastline is ~40-80% in 50 y, respectively one and two orders of magnitude greater than the outer Atlantic (~1-15%) and the Arctic (River delta requires further study. We highlight areas susceptible to locally-damaging landslide-generated tsunamis, but do not quantify the hazard.

Leonard, L. J.; Rogers, G. C.; Mazzotti, S.

2012-12-01

216

DID A SUBMARINE SLIDE TRIGGER THE 1918 PUERTO RICO TSUNAMI?  

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Full Text Available The 1918 tsunami that inundated northwest Puerto Rico with up to 6 m waves has been attributed to seafloor faulting associated with the 1918 Mona Canyon earthquake. During the earthquake a series of submarine cable breaks occurred directly off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico where the largest tsunami waves came ashore. Here, we use a recently compiled geophysical data set to reveal that a 9 km long landslide headwall exists in the region where cable breaks occurred during the 1918 earthquake. We incorporate our interpretations into a near-field tsunami wave model to evaluate whether the slide may have triggered the observed 1918 tsunami. Our analysis indicates that this slide could generate a tsunami with phase, arrival times, and run-ups similar to observations along the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. We therefore suggest that a submarine slide offers a plausible alternative explanation for generation of this large tsunami.

Matthew J. Hornbach

2008-01-01

217

How Single-Parent Children Speak about Poverty and Social Exclusion: Policy Implications from a Comparative, Qualitative, Cross-National Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents some of the key findings from a comparative, qualitative research study carried out in the United Kingdom, Greece, and Cyprus. The main goal of the study was to investigate single-parent children's experiences and understandings of poverty and social exclusion in their everyday lives and to make relevant policy…

Spyrou, Spyros

2013-01-01

218

TSUNAMI HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTHERN AEGEAN SEA  

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Emergency planning for the assessment of tsunami hazard inundation and of secondary effects of erosion and landslides, requires mapping that can help identify coastal areas that are potentially vulnerable. The present study reviews tsunami susceptibility mapping for coastal areas of Turkey and Greece in the Aegean Sea. Potential tsunami vulnerable locations were identified from LANDSAT ETM imageries, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000) data and QuickBird imageries and from a GIS int...

2008-01-01

219

Pacific Tsunami warning system is credible or not  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

#Tsunami, one of the most horrible disasters in the earth, the killer wave contains incogitable powerful energy rushing to the shore and coastline. Nowadays the best way for avoiding the tragedy is to use Tsunami Warning System (TWS) to forecast. How does it work? Does it could be reliable enough? These questions attract us to find answer and make discovery. Before understanding the truth of TWS, the first important knowledge that can not be missed is Plate tectonic. Because most of tsunamis ...

Lei, Hong; Yang, Liu; Ru, Liu; Jing Jing, Liu; Shen Yuan, Wang; Hui, Zhao; Kang Min, Wu

2006-01-01

220

Warnings and reactions to the Tohoku tsunami in Hawaii  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2011 Tohoku tsunami was the first chance within the USA to document and interpret large-scale response and protective action behavior with regard to a large, destructive tsunami since 1964. The 2011 tsunami offered a unique, short-lived opportunity to transform our understanding of individual and collective behavior in the US in response to a well-publicized tsunami warning and, in particular, to look at the complex interplay of official information sources, informal warnings and information-seeking in communities with significant physical impact from the 2011 tsunami. This study is focused in Hawaii, which suffered significant ($30 M), but localized damage, from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and underwent a full-scale tsunami evacuation. The survey contrasts three Hawaiian communities which either experienced significant tsunami damage (Kona) or little physical impact (Hilo, Honolulu). It also contrasts a long-established local community with experience of evacuation, destruction and loss of life in two tsunamis (Hilo) with a metropolitan population with a large visitor presence (Honolulu) that has not experienced a damaging tsunami in decades. Many factors such as personal perceptions of risk, beliefs, past exposure to the hazard, forecast uncertainty, trust in information sources, channels of transmission of information, the need for message confirmation, responsibilities, obligations, mobility, the ability to prepare, the availability of transportation and transport routes, and an acceptable evacuation center affected behavior. We provide new information on how people reacted to warnings and tsunamis, especially with regard to social integration of official warnings and social media. The results of this study will strengthen community resilience to tsunamis, working with emergency managers to integrate strengths and weaknesses of the public responses with official response plans.

Houghton, B. F.; Gregg, C. E.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Feasibility of Tsunami Early Warning Systems for small volcanic islands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the feasibility of Tsunami Early Warning Systems for small volcanic islands focusing on warning of waves generated by landslides at the coast of the island itself. The critical concern is if there is enough time to spread the alarm once the system has recognized that a tsunami has been generated. We use the results of a large scale physical model experiment in order to estimate the time that tsunamis take to travel around the island inundating the coa...

Bellotti, G.; Di Risio, M.; Girolamo, P.

2009-01-01

222

Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS....

Wa?chter, J.; Babeyko, A.; Fleischer, J.; Ha?ner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Kloth, A.; Lendholt, M.

2012-01-01

223

Hydrodynamics of tsunamis in subduction zones. The differences between the Chile 2010 and Japan 2011 tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis due to large earthquakes in subduction zones have different hydrodynamic behaviors, depending on the location, the bathymetry and the geometry of the rupture associated to the large earthquake. When the width of the rupture (related to the length of the tsunami) is larger than its distance to the shore, the hydrodynamics in the near zone is completely different than the alternate case. In the first case, the earthquake triggers a tsunami composed by one or a group of a few waves with a few minutes in between propagating from the rupture, which reach the coast a few minutes after the earthquake. In the second case, the earthquake triggers a deformation in the water surface which cannot create a complete tsunami wave; there is not enough distance to complete it. Then, a succession of secondary effects are triggered, which are composed by several floods, up to seven or eight, separated several minutes (up to forty or more) and propagate parallel to the coast, which can be even perpendicular to the coast. This case is still poorly understood, even it has been observed and described in the literature over the past three centuries. The difference in hydrodynamic behavior was evidenced in the tsunamis of February of 2010 in Chile and March of 2011 in Japan. In this work we show a theory, which has been validated by field observations and numerical simulations based only on the hydrodynamics of the area, that explains the phenomena and it has been extended to other historical tsunamis in Chile. The effects of the Chile 2010 tsunami in the near field zone were complex. The small township of Cobquecura, located at 20 km from the epicenter, did not suffer major damage from the tsunami. The major port zone of Talcahuano at 100 km from the epicenter, received four destructive waves every forty minutes approximately, and lasted three hours after the occurrence of the earthquake, while the bay of San Vicente, adjacent to the above, only suffered a minor, but abrupt, rise in the sea level about 20 minutes after the end of the earthquake. Flux in general was reported to be parallel to the coast, from the north. In the case of Japan 2012 tsunami, the first wave arrived to shore from 1 to 50 min after the earthquake, depending on the distance to the rupture. This first wave was in the order of a few centimeters. The maximum wave arrived from 30 minutes to two hours after the earthquake, with high waves larger than 3 m, with flux perpendicular/diagonal to the coast.

Monardez, P.; Salinas, R.; Comte, D.

2012-04-01

224

Microbial Ecology of Thailand Tsunami and Non-Tsunami Affected Terrestrials  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of tsunamis on microbial ecologies have been ill-defined, especially in Phang Nga province, Thailand. This ecosystem was catastrophically impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as well as the 600 year-old tsunami in Phra Thong island, Phang Nga province. No study has been conducted to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. This study represents the first to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. We utilized metagenomics with 16S and 18S rDNA-barcoded pyrosequencing to obtain prokaryotic and eukaryotic profiles for this terrestrial site, tsunami affected (S1), as well as a parallel unaffected terrestrial site, non-tsunami affected (S2). S1 demonstrated unique microbial community patterns than S2. The dendrogram constructed using the prokaryotic profiles supported the unique S1 microbial communities. S1 contained more proportions of archaea and bacteria domains, specifically species belonging to Bacteroidetes became more frequent, in replacing of the other typical floras like Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Basidiomycota. Pathogenic microbes, including Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Flavobacterium spp. and Photobacterium spp., were also found frequently in S1. Furthermore, different metabolic potentials highlighted this microbial community change could impact the functional ecology of the site. Moreover, the habitat prediction based on percent of species indicators for marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial niches pointed the S1 to largely comprise marine habitat indicating-species.

Somboonna, Naraporn; Wilantho, Alisa; Jankaew, Kruawun; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tongsima, Sissades

2014-01-01

225

Microbial ecology of Thailand tsunami and non-tsunami affected terrestrials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of tsunamis on microbial ecologies have been ill-defined, especially in Phang Nga province, Thailand. This ecosystem was catastrophically impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as well as the 600 year-old tsunami in Phra Thong island, Phang Nga province. No study has been conducted to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. This study represents the first to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. We utilized metagenomics with 16S and 18S rDNA-barcoded pyrosequencing to obtain prokaryotic and eukaryotic profiles for this terrestrial site, tsunami affected (S1), as well as a parallel unaffected terrestrial site, non-tsunami affected (S2). S1 demonstrated unique microbial community patterns than S2. The dendrogram constructed using the prokaryotic profiles supported the unique S1 microbial communities. S1 contained more proportions of archaea and bacteria domains, specifically species belonging to Bacteroidetes became more frequent, in replacing of the other typical floras like Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Basidiomycota. Pathogenic microbes, including Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Flavobacterium spp. and Photobacterium spp., were also found frequently in S1. Furthermore, different metabolic potentials highlighted this microbial community change could impact the functional ecology of the site. Moreover, the habitat prediction based on percent of species indicators for marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial niches pointed the S1 to largely comprise marine habitat indicating-species. PMID:24710002

Somboonna, Naraporn; Wilantho, Alisa; Jankaew, Kruawun; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tongsima, Sissades

2014-01-01

226

Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand  

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The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous buildings and houses in Thailand. Estimation of tsunami impact to buildings from this event and evaluation of the potential risks are important but still in progress. The tsunami fragility curve is a function used to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazards. This study was undertaken to develop fragility curves using visual inspection of high-resolution satellite images (IKONOS) taken before and after tsunami events...

Suppasri, A.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.

2011-01-01

227

Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis  

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The goal of this paper is to present an original real-time algorithm devised for detection of tsunami or tsunami-like waves we call TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm), and to introduce a methodology to evaluate its performance. TEDA works on the sea level records of a single station and implements two distinct modules running concurrently: one to assess the presence of tsunami waves ("tsunami detection") and the other to identify high-amplitude long waves ("secure detection&...

2011-01-01

228

Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis  

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The goal of this paper is to present an original real-time algorithm devised for detection of tsunami or tsunami-like waves we call TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm), and to introduce a methodology to evaluate its performance. TEDA works on the sea level records of a single station and implements two distinct modules running concurrently: one to assess the presence of tsunami waves ("tsunami detection") and the other to identify high-amplitude long waves ("secure dete...

Bressan, L.; Tinti, S.

2011-01-01

229

WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY FUNCTION FOR LARGE TSUNAMI WAVES?  

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Full Text Available Most coastal locations have few if any records of tsunami wave heights obtained over various time periods. Still one sees reference to the 100- year and 500-year tsunamis. In fact, in the USA, FEMA requires that at all coastal regions, those wave heights due to tsunamis and hurricanes be specified. The same is required for stream flooding at any location where stream flooding is possible. How are the 100 and 500-year tsunami wave and stream flooding heights predicted and how defensible are they? This paper discusses these questions.

Harold G. Loomis

2006-01-01

230

Landslide tsunami hazard in the Indonesian Sunda Arc  

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Full Text Available The Indonesian archipelago is known for the occurrence of catastrophic earthquake-generated tsunamis along the Sunda Arc. The tsunami hazard associated with submarine landslides however has not been fully addressed. In this paper, we compile the known tsunamigenic events where landslide involvement is certain and summarize the properties of published landslides that were identified with geophysical methods. We depict novel mass movements, found in newly available bathymetry, and determine their key parameters. Using numerical modeling, we compute possible tsunami scenarios. Furthermore, we propose a way of identifying landslide tsunamis using an array of few buoys with bottom pressure units.

S. Brune

2010-03-01

231

GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System  

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Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

T. Schöne

2011-03-01

232

UNDERSTANDING TSUNAMI RISK TO STRUCTURES: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE  

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Full Text Available The potential catastrophic effects of tsunami-induced loading on built infrastructure in the vicinity of shorelines have been brought to the fore by recent global events. However, state- of-the-art building codes remain silent or provide conflicting guidance on designing near- shoreline structures in tsunami-prone areas. This paper focuses on tsunami-induced loading and its effect on structures within the Canadian context. The mechanics of tsunami-induced loading is described based on knowledge gained during reconnaissance visits after the 2004 south-east Asia Tsunami, as well as post-construction visits to countries significantly affected by the destructive forces of the tsunami. To gain an appreciation of the magnitude of tsunami-induced bores for a given seismic event along the western coastal region of Canada, structural analysis of a simple near-shoreline structure was performed considering a proposed loading protocol for tsunami-induced hydraulic bores. These loads were further compared to seismic loading in order to provide an estimation of the tsunami risk and its impact. The work was complemented by experimental results from a large-scale testing program conducted with the purpose of estimating the forces experienced on structural components. Square-, rectangular-, and diamond-shaped columns were used to study the influence of shape. Furthermore, results from debris impact testing are also discussed.

D. Palermo

2008-01-01

233

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

234

Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR has been analyzed. For seismic design, safety components are confirmed to maintain their functions even against recent strong earthquakes. As for Tsunami, some parts of reactor building might be submerged including component cooling water system whose final heat sink is sea water. However, in the JSFR design, safety grade components are independent from component cooling water system (CCWS). The JSFR emergency power supply adopts a gas turbine system with air cooling, since JSFR does not basically require quick start-up of the emergency power supply thanks to the natural convection DHRS. Even in case of long station blackout, the DHRS could be activated by emergency batteries or manually and be operated continuously by natural convection. (authors)

Chikazawa, Y.; Enuma, Y.; Kisohara, N.; Yamano, H.; Kubo, S.; Hayafune, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraci (Japan); Sagawa, H.; Okamura, S.; Shimakawa, Y. [Mitsubishi FBR Systems Inc., 2-34-17 Jingumae, Shibuya, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-07-01

235

Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato  

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On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate...

2012-01-01

236

New Edition of the UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

A subcommittee of the IUGG International Tsunami Commission was convened in 2010 to revise and update the 1998 UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide. The revised Guide addresses the developments in the tsunami field since 1998, the need to accommodate vastly increased amounts of data, and to incorporate disciplines that were not covered in the original guide. The Guide also advocates a systems-approach to assessing tsunami impacts that examines the full range of physical, environmental, and socio-economic effects and their interrelationship, bringing tsunami research efforts into a closer alignment with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). This Field Guide is intended to provide a flexible framework to facilitate the acquisition of critical data in the immediate aftermath of significant tsunamis and to balance the needs of international researchers with those of communities and agencies involved with response and recovery. It will be of use to a variety of people and organizations who may either participate in, assist in coordination, or host post-tsunami field surveys. It is hoped that this Guide will promote pre-event planning in countries at risk of tsunamis to reduce the stresses of developing organizational logistics in the post-emergency response phase and make the process of conducting an ITST easier and more productive for both participating researchers and host country organizations. A complete draft of the Guide will be presented at the meeting and members of the tsunami community invited to comment.

Dengler, L.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Yamamoto, M.; Borrero, J. C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Fritz, H. M.; Imamura, F.; Kong, L. S.; Koshimura, S.; McAdoo, B. G.; Satake, K.; Yalciner, A. C.; Yulianto, E.

2011-12-01

237

JMSE | Special Issue : Tsunami Science and Engineering  

...JMSE | Special Issue : Tsunami Science and Engineering Submit to JMSE Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors For Librarians About Open Access ... JLPEA JMSE JPM JRFM JSAN Land Laws Life Lubricants Machines Marine Drugs Materials Mathematics Medical Sciences Membranes Metabolites Metals Microarrays Micromachines Microorganisms Minerals ...Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for Authors Publication Fees Special Issues Editorial Board E-Mail Alert Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:... 1 (2013) Special Issue \\

238

A new approach to UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Field Surveys  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST-Samoa, Oct 14-23, 2009), and the Report presented to the Government of Samoa (GoS) immediately upon conclusion, was an unprecedented science effort, setting a benchmark for future coordinated international post-tsunami science surveys that will support national early recovery efforts, and through tsunami research, improve tsunami mitigation and preparedness and so build a stronger resilience of coastal communities. By working together, we achieved outcomes much stronger and more valuable than any one of us could produce alone. For the first time, strong principles of professional conduct, mutual respect, collaboration, partnership, and concern for the welfare of the affected communities, were explictly embeded in the work plan. The 29 September 2009 regional tsunami resulted in loss of life and damage to human infrastructure and environmental systems. Common to many tsunamis, international scientists expressed the intent to undertake science assessments. Traditionally, these surveys, sometimes under UNESCO-IOC auspices, have been single-discipline, and conducted individually with moderate government coordination, so that afterward, the country was left with a large integration task to produce a single coherent study. This changed in Samoa, where an integrated and coordinated approach emerged. The ITST-Samoa was comprised of more than 60 scientists (seismologists, geologists, engineers, social scientists, modellers) from Australia, Fiji, French-Polynesia, Italy, Japan, New Zealand and USA who volunteered to work in collaboration with the GoS, Samoa Red Cross Society, Samoa scientists, and non-government representatives. They worked as one survey team to collect data and assist the GoS to prioritise short- and long-term risk reduction strategies. Their novel work (1) partnered with a regional university to include South Pacific expertise and with the GoS to ensure that (a) international scientists worked in a culturally-sensitive and appropriate way and, (b) outputs achieved were relevant to both GoS and ITST scientists; (2) was interdisciplinary and multisectoral to capture a thorough understanding; and (3) used a ‘coupled human-environment systems framework’ to examine vulnerability and resilience before, during and after the tsunami. ITST succeeded because of (1) the scientists’ strong desire to share their knowledge; (2) GoS’s belief that science will improve disaster risk reduction practices; (3) immediate engagement of UN and regional organizations to provide an umbrella framework for working together; (4) local support to provide the ITST’s command center and; (5) dedicated Science Coordinators to manage the scientific planning, logistics, information sharing, and Report preparation. In 2010, UNESCO/IOC will revise its Post-Tsunami Field Survey Guide to document ITST-Samoa best practices and so provide guidance for future International Tsunami Survey Teams.

Kong, L. S.; Steffen, J.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Biukoto, L.; Titimaea, A.; Thaman, R.; Vaa, R.

2009-12-01

239

Geographical Information Analysis of Tsunami Flooded Area by the Great East Japan Earthquake Using Mobile Mapping System  

Science.gov (United States)

The great earthquake occurred in Tohoku District, Japan on 11th March, 2011. This earthquake is named "the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake", and the damage by this earthquake is named "the Great East Japan Earthquake". About twenty thousand people were killed or lost by the tsunami of this earthquake, and large area was flooded and a large number of buildings were destroyed by the tsunami. The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has provided the data of tsunami flooded area interpreted from aerial photos taken just after the great earthquake. This is fundamental data of tsunami damage and very useful for consideration of reconstruction planning of tsunami damaged area. The authors analyzed the relationship among land use, landform classification, DEMs data flooded depth of the tsunami flooded area by the Great East Japan Earthquake in the Sendai Plain using GIS. Land use data is 100 meter grid data of National Land Information Data by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism (MLIT). Landform classification data is vector data of Land Condition Map produced by GSI. DEMs data are 5 meters grid data measured with LiDAR by GSI after earthquake. Especially, the authors noticed the relationship between tsunami hazard damage and flooded depth. The authors divided tsunami damage into three categories by interpreting aerial photos; first is the completely destroyed area where almost wooden buildings were lost, second is the heavily damaged area where a large number of houses were destroyed by the tsunami, and third is the flooded only area where houses were less destroyed. The flooded depth was measured by photogrammetric method using digital image taken by Mobile Mapping System (MMS). The result of these geographic analyses show the distribution of tsunami damage level is as follows: 1) The completely destroyed area was located within 1km area from the coastline, flooded depth of this area is over 4m, and no relationship between damaged area and landform classification. 2) The heavily damaged area was observed up to 3 or 4km from the coastline. Flooded depth of this area is over 1.5m, and there is a good relationship between damaged area and height of DEMs. 3) The flood only area was observed up to 4 or 5km from the coastline. Flooded depth of this area was less than 1.5m, and there is a good relationship between damaged area and landform. For instance, a certain area in valley plain or flooded plain was not affected by the tsunami, even though an area with almost the same height in coastal plain or delta was flooded. These results mean that it is important for tsunami disaster management to consider not only DEMs but also landform classification.

Koarai, M.; Okatani, T.; Nakano, T.; Nakamura, T.; Hasegawa, M.

2012-07-01

240

Applying and validating the PTVA-3 Model at the Aeolian Islands, Italy: assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy) is included on the UNESCO World Heritage list and is visited by more than 200 000 tourists per year. Due to its geological characteristics, the risk related to volcanic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by eight local tsunamis. The most recent and intense of these events happened on 30 December 2002. It was triggered by two successive landslides along the north-western side of the Stromboli volcano (Sciara del Fuoco), which poured approximately 2-3×107 m3 of rocks and debris into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The waves impacted across the whole archipelago, but most of the damage to buildings and infrastructures occurred on the islands of Stromboli (maximum run-up 11 m) and Panarea. The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of buildings to damage from tsunamis located within the same area inundated by the 2002 event. The assessment is carried out by using the PTVA-3 Model (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment, version 3). The PTVA-3 Model calculates a Relative Vulnerability Index (RVI) for every building, based on a set of selected physical and structural attributes. Run-up values within the area inundated by the 2002 tsunami were measured and mapped by the Istituto Italiano di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the University of Bologna during field surveys in January 2003. Results of the assessment show that if the same tsunami were to occur today, 54 buildings would be affected in Stromboli, and 5 in Panarea. The overall vulnerability level obtained in this analysis for Stromboli and Panarea are "average"/"low" and "very low", respectively. Nonetheless, 14 buildings in Stromboli are classified as having a "high" or "average" vulnerability. For some buildings, we were able to validate the RVI scores calculated by the PTVA-3 Model through a qualitative comparison with photographs taken by INGV and the University of Bologna during the post-tsunami survey. With the exception of a single structure, which is partially covered by a coastal dune on the seaward side, we found a good degree of accuracy between the PTVA-3 Model forecast assessments and the actual degree of damage experienced by buildings. This validation of the model increases our confidence in its predictive capability. Given the high tsunami risk for the archipelago, our results provide a framework for prioritising investments in prevention measures and addressing the most relevant vulnerability issues of the built environment, particularly on the island of Stromboli.

Dall'Osso, F.; Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Brizuela, B.; Cavalletti, A.; Gonella, M.; Tinti, S.

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Tsunami Hazard Modeling and Mitigation: Runup and Inundation Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study demonstrates the use of a numerical model of tsunami runup an inundation in investigating the potential tsunami threat faced by specific coastal locations in Peru, Chile, the Philippines, and Papua-New Guinea. Earlier studies had shown that thes...

G. T. Hebenstreit R. E. Whitaker

1983-01-01

242

Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

Chilcote, Rebekah L.

2007-01-01

243

Tsunami-induced groundwater salinization in southeastern India  

Science.gov (United States)

On 26 December 2004, a northern Indonesia earthquake generated a tsunami that devastated coastal Indian Ocean regions. The impact of the tsunami on groundwater quality was unexpected as inundation and retreat of the tsunami wave lasted just 5 min. We report data showing salinization of the regionally extensive "Dune aquifer" in southeastern India. We present evidence that tsunami inundation resulted in contamination of groundwater supplies by locally raising salinity from potable levels up to 13,000 ?S/cm, which is approximately one quarter the salinity of seawater. Peak salinity occurred within 1 month as the saline water infiltrated. Salinization persisted for more than 10 months in the contaminated coastal region delimited by half of the run-up distance of the tsunami. Then, during the subsequent monsoon season, a second salinity peak was recorded. The timing and extent of natural attenuation of the saline groundwater is greatly influenced by recharge occurring from semiannual monsoons. Given the tsunami damage, our results highlight the fragile nature of water resources in this subsistence-level environment, which is densely populated within 500 m of the coast. We suggest guidelines for future protection of vulnerable coastal groundwater resources based on the tsunami experience. India has at least 750 km of coast bordered by the sand-dune aquifer that was flooded by the tsunami.

Violette, Sophie; Boulicot, Gilles; Gorelick, Steven M.

2009-04-01

244

Potential inundation of Lisbon downtown by a 1755-like tsunami  

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Full Text Available In this study, we present 10 m resolution tsunami flooding maps for Lisbon downtown and the Tagus estuary. To compute these maps we use the present bathymetry and topographic maps and a reasonable estimate for the maximum credible tsunami scenario. Tsunami modeling was made with a non-linear shallow water model using four levels of nested grids. The tsunami flood is discussed in terms of flow depth, run-up height and maximum inundation area. The results show that, even today, in spite of the significant morphologic changes in the city river front after the 1755 earthquake, a similar event would cause tsunami flow depths larger than one meter in a large area along the Tagus estuary and Lisbon downtown. Other areas along the estuary with a high population density would also be strongly affected. The impact of the tide on the extent of tsunami inundation is discussed, due to the large amplitude range of the tide in Lisbon, and compared with the historical descriptions of the 1755 event. The results presented here can be used to identify the potential tsunami inundation areas in Lisbon; this identification comprises a key element of the Portuguese tsunami emergency management system.

M. A. Baptista

2011-12-01

245

TSUNAMI PROPAGATION OVER THE NORTH PACIFIC: DISPERSIVE AND NONDISPERSIVE MODELS  

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Full Text Available Hydrostatic (HY and non-hydrostatic (NHY tsunami physics is compared by application to the Kuril Island Tsunami (KIT of November 2006 and the Japan Tsunami (JT of March 2011. Our purpose is to study the significance of dispersive vs. non-dispersive long waves on global tsunami propagation. A tool which is well suited to revealing tsunami wave transformations is the energy flux. Expressions for dispersive and non-dispersive fluxes have been formulated. This provides an understanding of the role of dispersion in tsunami propagation and dissipation. Separating the pressure field into two parts i.e., HY and NHY shows that dispersive waves extract energy from the main wave, directing the dispersive energy flux away from the wave front. The major result of the application of the energy flux to non-dispersive waves is an enhanced understanding of later tsunami wave train arrivals at distant points – with arrivals sometimes occurring several hours after an initial forerunner wave. Computations show that strong differences between non-dispersive and dispersive waves develop along the length of the main energy beam. This has important consequences for accurate tsunami prediction and warnings.

Juan Horrillo

2012-01-01

246

Energy flux as a tool in locating tsunami secondary sources  

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Full Text Available The sea levels recorded in the wake of Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 and of the Kuril Island Tsunami of November 2006 show strong tsunami signal enhancement of the late arriving secondary waves. Using these tsunami eventswe demonstrate thatsudden changes caused by higher energy pulses in the intermittent tsunami wave trains can be assessed by energy fluxes. Therefore, to delineate the regions of tsunami wave amplification and travel time we propose to use energy flux.A series of numerical experimentsdefinedinexplicitwaythe bathymetric features which scatter tsunami signal towards ports, like Crescent City. Identification of the distant bathymetric featureswas achievable sincethe energy fluxvectordelineatedthe energy pathways that coupled distant bathymetric features to portslocated thousands of kilometers apart. Calculations of the energy flux vector involves simple formulas based on two components of velocity and sea level. The maximum of the energy flux (which has no directional properties can be evaluated from the sea level amplitude, hence both observed and computed sea level can be used for this purpose. The main task of this paper is to suggest that tsunami warning and prediction services should use numerical-hydrodynamical models with wider scope of physical processes by incorporating the energy balance equation into presently used tools.

Zygmunt Kowalik

2008-01-01

247

Historical Tsunami Deposits on the Sanriku Coast, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

At least six layers of tsunami deposit during the recent 500 years were found in a small valley on the Sanriku coast, just north of Taro (Miyako city, Iwate prefecture), where the 2011 tsunami heights from the Tohoku earthquake ranged from 17 to 34 m. The Sanriku coast is a Ria coast characterized by sawtooth-shaped coastline. Because of the steep-sloped valleys, alluvial deposits are very limited and tsunami traces are difficult to be preserved. Around the survey site, however, a marsh is separated from open sea by a beach ridge with the maximum altitude of about 4.5 m above mean sea level. In the marsh, well-decomposed peat has been developed. The sand deposits were brought by large tsunamis over the beach ridge and preserved in the marsh peat. We conducted drilling survey using the 3-m long Geo-slicer, trench survey, and outcrop observations. We sketch the sedimentary structure, conduct grain size analysis, reconstruct paleo-environment from microfossils, estimate the deposition age on the basis of radiocarbon dating and 210Pb/137Cs analysis, and correlate them with historical tsunamis. The uppermost sand layer which covers the ground surface is probably due to the 2011 tsunami. At least six event deposit layers can be identified in Geo-slicer's sample. Some sandy layers show normal or inverse grading structures and/or lamination, indicating a strong water flow. Some sand layers can be traced up to 400 m inland from the coast, while others can be identified only near the coast. The sandy layers well correlate with abrupt increases in marine microfossils floating near the sea surface. We use it as indicators of inflow of sea water into the marsh. The bottom peat layer of Geo-slicer's sample shows the AD 15th century, indicating that all the sand layers are from tsunamis in historical age during the recent 500 years. These tsunami deposits can be correlated with local tsunamis or distant tsunamis on the basis of radiocarbon dating and 210Pb/137Cs analysis. According to Japanese historical documents, candidates of tsunamis are from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the 1933 and 1896 Sanriku earthquakes, the 1793 Miyagi-oki earthquake, the 1763 Aomori-oki earthquake, the 1677 Boso-oki earthquake, and the 1611 Sanriku earthquake. Some trans-Pacific tsunamis such as the 1700 Cascadia and 1960 Chilean tsunamis also caused severe damage along the Sanriku coast and these tsunami deposits may be also preserved.

Goto, T.; Satake, K.; Sugai, T.; Ishibe, T.; Harada, T.; Murotani, S.

2013-12-01

248

2004 Indian Ocean tsunami flow velocity measurements from survivor videos  

Science.gov (United States)

The tsunami of 26th December 2004 severely affected Banda Aceh along the North tip of Sumatra (Indonesia) at a distance of 250 km from the epicenter of the magnitude 9.0 earthquake. This tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded within Banda Aceh more than 3 km from the open ocean. The exact locations of the tsunami eyewitness video recordings were revisited by the survey team between February 22 and 25, 2005 to record camera calibration ground control points. The motion of the camera during the recordings was determined. The individual video images were rectified with a direct linear transformation (DLT) assuming a planar water surface at the level. Finally a cross-correlation based particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis was applied to the rectified video images to determine instantaneous tsunami flow velocity fields. The measured tsunami flow velocities were within the range of 2 to 5 m/s.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Yoo, Jeseon

2006-12-01

249

TSUNAMIS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA A GUIDE OF HISTORIC EVENTS  

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Full Text Available The Arabian Peninsula has been affected by tsunamis in the past. The Peninsula is bounded by the Persian Gulf on its northeast side, the Red Sea on its west side, and the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean to its east and south. Each of these areas is very different geographically, tectonically, and bathymetrically.Only two, localized tsunamis have been recorded in the Red Sea and one, doubtful, tsunami in the Persian Gulf. Almost all of the recorded tsunamis along the Arabian Peninsula have occurred on its eastern and southern edge, some, such as the one formed by the 1945 Makran earthquake, were extremely destructive. The Indian Ocean is the most likely source area for future destructive tsunamis that would impact the Arabian Peninsula.

Benjamin R. Jordan

2008-01-01

250

Numerical tsunami simulation including elastic loading and seawater density stratification  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic discrepancies between observed and modeled tsunami wave speeds were previously identified for two recent major tsunamis: the 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku events. To account for these discrepancies, we developed a numerical tsunami propagation code solving the shallow water equation and including the effects of elastic loading of the seafloor by the tsunami as well as a linear density profile in the seawater column. We show here that both effects are important to explain the commonly observed difference between observations and simulations. We conclude that the density variation in the seawater column affects the wave speed without changing the waveform, whereas the loading effect has an effect on the wave speed and the waveform showing a negative phase before the main arrival due to the depression of the seafloor surrounding the tsunami wave. The combination of both effects is needed to achieve a better match between observations and simulations.

Allgeyer, Sébastien; Cummins, Phil

2014-04-01

251

Assessment of the tsunami-induced current hazard  

Science.gov (United States)

occurrence of tsunami damage is not limited to events causing coastal inundation. Even without flooding, maritime assets are vulnerable to significant damage from strong currents and associated drag forces. While such impacts have been observed in the past, they have not been well studied in any context. Nearshore tsunami currents are governed by nonlinear and turbulent physics and often have large spatial and temporal variability making high-fidelity modeling particularly challenging. Furthermore, measured data for the validation of numerical simulations is limited, with few quality data sets appearing after recent tsunami events. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the interpretation of measured tsunami-induced current impacts as well as a validation approach for simulation tools. The methods and results provided here lay the foundation for much needed efforts to assess tsunami hazards in ports and harbors.

Lynett, Patrick J.; Borrero, Jose; Son, Sangyoung; Wilson, Rick; Miller, Kevin

2014-03-01

252

THE TSUNAMI ASSESSMENT MODELLING SYSTEM BY THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE  

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Full Text Available The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System was developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, in order to serve Tsunami early warning systems such as the Global Disaster Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS in the evaluation of possible consequences by a Tsunami of seismic nature. The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System is currently operational and is calculating in real time all the events occurring in the world, calculating the expected Tsunami wave height and identifying the locations where the wave height should be too high. The first part of the paper describes the structure of the system, the underlying analytical models and the informatics arrangement; the second part shows the activation of the system and the results of the calculated analyses. The final part shows future development of this modeling tool.

Alessandro Annunziato

2007-01-01

253

Adaptive triangular discontinuous Galerkin schemes for tsunami propagation and inundation  

Science.gov (United States)

A tsunami simulation framework is presented, which is based on adaptive triangular meshes and a finite element discontiuous Galerkin discretization. This approach allows for high local resolution and geometric accuracy, while maintaining the opportunity to simulate large spatial domains. The dynamically adaptive mesh is generated by the grid library amatos, which is based on a conforming tree based refinement strategy. While the tsunami propagation in the deep ocean is well represented by the nonlinear shallow water equations, special interest is given to the near-shore characteristics of the flow. For this purpose a new mass-conservative well-balanced inundation scheme is developed. This work is part of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project, which aims to better understand the generation of tsunami events. In this course, a simulation framework is developed which couples physics-based rupture generation with hydrodynamic tsunami propagation and inundation.

Vater, Stefan; Behrens, Jörn

2014-05-01

254

Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded the recommended concentrations for freshwater plants after one year. The new soil formation and vegetation recovery depends mainly on the rate of biological production. In tropical climate the vegetation largely recovered already after the first rainy season and supported the new soil formation. In temperate climate this process was much slower, in particular in flat lying areas and on coastal dunes with poor sandy soils. In polar climate only limited vegetation recovery (mainly of Salix species) has been observed after 12 years and vegetation withered due to salt stress still marked the tsunami inundation limit and the new soil formation was very slow and focused on low lying, wet areas buried with thin tsunami deposits cover. The post-tsunami recovery processes may be grouped into climate-related (vegetation recovery, removal of salts from soils) and non climate-related (e.g. beach recovery) or modified by climatic and local factors (for instance, the rate of tsunami deposits reworking and thus new soil formation). The rate of recovery varies from days / weeks as in case of beach recovery to several decades as in case of new soil formation on tsunami deposits. The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. The review results from studies in collaboration with number of researchers from Australia, Japan, Poland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States to whom I express sincere thanks.

Szczucinski, W.

2013-12-01

255

Detecting the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami arrival on sea-level records in the Pacific Ocean: application and performance of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm (TEDA)  

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Real-time detection of a tsunami on instrumental sea-level records is quite an important task for a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), and in case of alert conditions for an ongoing tsunami it is often performed by visual inspection in operational warning centres. In this paper we stress the importance of automatic detection algorithms and apply the TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm) to identify tsunami arrivals of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami in a real-time virtual exercise. TEDA is designed to ...

2012-01-01

256

Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato  

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Full Text Available On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST, to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazard in this area, tsunami fragility curves were developed. Surveyed data of inundation depth and visual inspection of satellite images of Dichato were used to classify the damage to housing. A practical method suitable when there are limitations on available data for numerical simulation or damage evaluation from surveys is presented here. This study is the first application of tsunami fragility curves on the South American Pacific coast and it might be of practical use for communities with similar characteristics along the west Pacific coast. The proposed curve suggests that structures in Dichato will be severely damaged – with a 68% probability – already at 2 m tsunami inundation depth.

E. Mas

2012-08-01

257

Numerical modeling of the 26 November 1999 Vanuatu tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

On 26 November 1999, at 1321 UT, central Vanuatu was struck by a large offshore earthquake (Mw 7.5) followed by a tsunami that killed five people and caused significant damage to nearshore structures, mainly at Martelli Bay, south Pentecost Island. The tsunami is simulated using the Geowave model. The Tsunami Open and Progressive Initial Conditions System (TOPICS) source component of the model simulates the initial water column deformation, and the propagation and runup are simulated with the FUNWAVE fully nonlinear Boussinesq and dispersive model. A special effort was made on the construction of the computational grid through comprehensive bathymetry data sets obtained especially from two multibeam bathymetric surveys performed after the earthquake and tsunami. Three different tsunami sources have been considered. The first one is the fault rupture itself, the second is a landslide located east of Ambrym Island, and the third source is a submarine structure within the Selwyn Strait that will be considered as a landslide, however, with a large uncertainty because it could be a result of lava deposit as well. It is found that the earthquake-derived tsunami source fits most of the postsurvey observations, in particular the overall wave amplitudes (up to 6-7 m observed and simulated). The timing of the tsunami is also satisfactory when objective interpretation of the eyewitnesses is processed. Thus it is found that the hypothetical landslide-derived tsunami contributions are not necessary to predict the tsunami. This is because they do not help in the tsunami timing but also because their wave amplitude contributions are one order of magnitude lower than that of the earthquake source.

Ioualalen, M.; Pelletier, B.; Watts, P.; Regnier, M.

2006-06-01

258

Integrated warning system for tsunami and storm surges in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunami and storm surges result in unusual oscillation of seal level, flooding the coastal zones and constitute the major marine disasters in China. Damage by storm surges occurs frequently. According to statistics there are 14 storm surge events exceeding 1 every year on the average. Six of them are typhoon surges and the other eight are extra-tropical surges. In general, in China, there is one severe disaster of storm surge every two years. Monitoring, forecasting and warning for storm surges, including the drop of water level, are the major part of the operational oceanographic services in China. Such a warning system has been set up and is operated by the State Oceanic Administration since 1974. The results of the historical study of tsunami in the last few years pointed out that the anomaly of sea level generated by tele-tsunamis originating in the Pacific Ocean Basin is less than 30 cm on the mainland coast, but local tsunami in the China Seas can be very dangerous. For example, more than 50,000 people were killed by a tsunami in Taiwan and in Taiwan Strait in 1781. It resulted in more deaths than any other tsunami in recorded history. However, the frequency of tsunami disaster is very low for the coast of China, averaging only one every 100 years. It is impossible to set up an independent tsunami warning system in China. It is more practical to set up an integrated warning system on tsunami and on storm surges consisting of: A sea level observing network with real time sea level data acquisition capability; A monitoring system of weather causing the storm surges and of seismic stations monitoring tsunamigenic earthquakes; A tidal prediction scheme for operational use; A forecasting scheme for storm surges and tsunami analysis; The means for warning dissemination. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

1989-08-04

259

A New Method to Analyze the Tsunami Incitement Process and Site-selection for Tsunami Observations in China's Eastern Sea  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we present a CONTROL volume model for tsunami incitement process by combining the Navier-Stokes equation, the jet theory and relative velocity model. We conclude that the initial condition for tsunami propagation simulation is equivalent to the static near-field seismic displacement of earthquake that induces the tsunami. The error analyzed from this method is only about 1 percent for a common seafloor earthquake, and it is consistent with the result of Ansys/Ls-dyna numerical analysis. EDGRN/EDCMP and COMCOT program provide some new acquirement for the tsunami studies. In the second part of the paper, we develop a site-selection method for anchor-grounded tsunami observation in Chinese eastern sea.

Yuanqing Zhu

2009-01-01

260

ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES  

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Evaluation of the effects of tsunami damage relative to earthquake damage may help to identify critical coastal zone structures and exposed populations for near field tsunami risk. In this work, we propose to define the ratio between tsunami intensity and earthquake intensity as a measure of near field tsunami vulnerability for coastal communities. This parameter is estimated for 13 tsunami events reported in North Algeria from the 14th century to present. Although the results show that there...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

EL TERREMOTO Y POSTERIOR TSUNAMI DEL 26 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2004 EN INDONESIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in english A short compilation of the cause, characteristics and effects of the tsunami generated on the 26 of December of 2004 in Indonesia is presented here. The general context of generation of this phenomena is illustrated together with the tectonic environment in which this tsunami in particular was produ [...] ced. Finally, a brief introduction to tsunamis in Colombia including tsunami cases and areas of higher tsunami hazard is considered.

ESTRADA ROLDÁN, BEATRIZ ELENA; FARBIARZ FARBIARZ, JOSEF.

262

A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Makran subduction zone at the northwestern Indian Ocean  

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Due to lack of sufficient historical data of tsunami in the Makran subduction zone (MSZ) at the northwestern Indian Ocean, a probabilistic method is employed to assess the tsunami hazards in this region. The method employs a combination of probability evaluation of offshore earthquake occurrence and numerical modeling of tsunami to determine the probability of tsunami wave height exceeding a certain level. The method allowed us to determine the likelihood of tsunami in the region ...

Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Kijko, Andrzej

2011-01-01

263

Operational tsunami modelling with TsunAWI – recent developments and applications  

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In this article, the tsunami model TsunAWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) and its application for hindcasts, inundation studies, and the operation of the tsunami scenario repository for the Indonesian tsunami early warning system are presented. TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and simulates all stages of a tsunami from the origin and the propagation in the ocean to the arrival at the coast and the inundation on ...

Rakowsky, N.; Harig, S.; Immerz, A.; Androsov, A.; Fuchs, A.; Danilov, S.; Hiller, W.; Schroeter, J.

2013-01-01

264

A new multi-sensor approach to simulation assisted tsunami early warning  

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A new tsunami forecasting method for near-field tsunami warning is presented. This method is applied in the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, as part of the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Center in Jakarta, Indonesia. The method employs a rigorous approach to minimize uncertainty in the assessment of tsunami hazard in the near-field. Multiple independent sensors are evaluated simultaneously in order to achieve an accurate estimation of coastal arrival times and wav...

Behrens, J.; Androsov, A.; Babeyko, A.; Harig, S.; Klaschka, F.; Mentrup, L.

2010-01-01

265

STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS IN THE INTRA-AMERICAS SEA  

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Full Text Available The potential impact of past Caribbean tsunamis generated by earthquakes and/or massive submarine slides/slumps, as well as the tsunamigenic potential and population distribution within the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS is examined to help define the optimal location for coastal sea level gauges intended to serve as elements of a regional tsunami warning system. The goal of this study is to identify the minimum number of sea level gauge locations to aid in tsunami detection and provide the most warning time to the largest number of people. We identified 12 initial, prioritized locations for coastal sea level gauge installation. Our study area approximately encompasses 7oN, 59oW to 36oN, 98oW. The results of this systematic approach to assess priority locations for coastal sea level gauges will assist in developing a tsunami warning system (TWS for the IAS by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA and the Regional Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE-GOOS.

Joshua I. Henson

2006-01-01

266

Tsunami Intensity Mapping Along the Coast of Tamilnadu (India) During the Deadliest Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 26, 2004  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents tsunami intensity mapping and damage patterns along the surveyed coast of Tamilnadu (India) of the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004. The tsunami caused severe damage and claimed many victims in the coastal areas of eleven countries bordering the Indian Ocean. A twelve-stage tsunami intensity scale proposed by Papadopoulos and Imamura (2001) was followed to assign the intensity at the visited localities. Along the coast of the Indian mainland, tsunami damage sustained exclusively. Most severe damage was observed in Nagapattinam Beach, Nabiyarnagar, Vellaipalyam, and the Nagapattinam Port of Nagapattinum District on the east coast and Keelamanakudy village of Kanyakumari District on the western coast of Tamilnadu. The maximum assigned tsunami intensity was X+ at these localities. Minimum intensity V+ was received along the coast of Thanjavur, Puddukkotai and Ramnathpuram Districts in Palk Strait. The general observation reported by many people was that the first arrival was a tsunami crest. The largest tsunami waves were first arrivals on the eastern coast and the second arrivals on the western coast. Along the coast, people were unaware of the tsunami, and no anomalous behavior of ocean animals was reported. Good correlation was observed between the severity of damage and the presence of shadow zone of Sri Lanka, reflected waves from Sri Lanka and the Maldives Islands, variation in the width of the continental shelf, elevation of the coast and the presence of breakwaters. The presence of medu (naturally elevated landmass very close to the sea shore and elongated parallel to the coast) reduced the impact of the tsunami on the built environment.

Narayan, J. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Maheshwari, B. K.

2006-07-01

267

Sources of information for tsunami forecasting in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami science has evolved considerably in the last two decades due to technological advancements which also helped push for better numerical modelling of the tsunami phases (generation to inundation). The deployment of DART buoys has also been a considerable milestone in tsunami forecasting. Tsunami forecasting is one of the parts that tsunami modelling feeds into and is related to response, preparedness and planning. Usually tsunami forecasting refers to short-term forecasting that takes place in real-time after a tsunami has or appears to have been generated. In this report we refer to all types of forecasting (short-term or long-term) related to work in advance of a tsunami impacting a coastline that would help in response, planning or preparedness. We look at the standard types of data (seismic, GPS, water level) that are available in New Zealand for tsunami forecasting, how they are currently being used, other ways to use these data and provide recommendations for better utilisation. The main findings are: -Current investigations of the use of seismic parameters quickly obtained after an earthquake, have potential to provide critical information about the tsunamigenic potential of earthquakes. Further analysis of the most promising methods should be undertaken to determine a path to full implementation. -Network communication of the largest part of the GPS network is not currently at a stage that can provide sufficient data early enough for tsunami warning. It is believed that it has potential, but changes including data transmission improvements may have to happen before real-time processing oriented to tsunami early warning is implemented on the data that is currently provided. -Tide gauge data is currently under-utilised for tsunami forecasting. Spectral analysis, modal analysis based on identified modes and arrival times extracted from the records can be useful in forecasting. -The current study is by no means exhaustive of the ways the different types of data can be used. We are only presenting an overview of what can be done. More extensive studies with each one of the types of data collected by GeoNet and other relevant networks will help improve tsunami forecasting in New Zealand.

Barberopoulou, A.; Ristau, J. P.; D'Anastasio, E.; Wang, X.

2013-12-01

268

Global Financial Tsunami Impacts Russian Economy  

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Russian economy depends on energy resources highly. Due to impacts of the financial crisis and the sharp decrease of oil price, Russian economy driven by “Petro-dollar” tends to develop slowly. The overwhelming financial tsunami not only impacts Russian finan...

Chunyang Shi

2010-01-01

269

Global Financial Tsunami Impacts Russian Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Russian economy depends on energy resources highly. Due to impacts of the financial crisis and the sharp decrease of oil price, Russian economy driven by “Petro-dollar” tends to develop slowly. The overwhelming financial tsunami not only impacts Russian financial system but also influences Russian substantial economy. Russian government adopts relevant financial policies in time, keeping the stability of domestic currency, depressing the inflation, and enhancing the support for SMEs and substantial economy. In 2009, Russian economy recovers its vitality, stepping forward steadily.

Chunyang Shi

2010-01-01

270

GNF - Measures of the Post Tsunami Project  

...conservation, mangrove, Maduganga, Madampe, Bolgoda, root, system, tidal, waves, ecosystem, firewood, draining, reclamation,...Constance Agriculture East Africa Baikal Seal Slow Tour Sea Buckthorn Farming Mongolia Mangrove Swamps Sri Lanka Strengthering of structures LED / CF lamps ... Mangroves India Coffee Cultivation Irrawaddy Dolphin Macaw Species Fishery Green Filter Living Fences Mangroves Sri Lanka Eco Tourism Umeme Kwa Wote Gardens for Peace ...Kids for Dolphins Post Tsunami Project Project Partners Supporters Measures LED Lamps Mangrove Restoration Fisheries Education Handicraft Agriculture Mangrove Network Events Progress Network Eastern ...

271

Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Method and Application to an NPP in Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period was evaluated with empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipment and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in a Nuclear Power Plant. For the system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event was developed according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real nuclear power plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which is located on the east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) working procedure was established and an example calculation was performed for one nuclear power plant in Korea.

Kim, M. K.; Choi, Ik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

272

Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Method and Application to an NPP in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period was evaluated with empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipment and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in a Nuclear Power Plant. For the system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event was developed according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real nuclear power plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which is located on the east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) working procedure was established and an example calculation was performed for one nuclear power plant in Korea

2012-03-01

273

Modeling Tidal Uncertainty in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is often performed by running a tsunami propagation/inundation code with initial seafloor deformations sampled from some presumed probability distribution of possible earthquake responses. For many ports or coastal communities with large tidal range, an important component of PTHA is the manner in which tides are incorporated into the model, since a wave arriving at high tide will generally cause more extensive and deeper inundation than the same wave arriving at low tide. A new technique has been developed to produce improved hazard curves that show the probability of exceeding a range of inundation exceedance levels at any fixed geographical point. For each earthquake source, multiple runs of a tsunami modeling code are performed at different values of sea level (typically at MLLW, MSL, and MHHW) and used to determine the minimum tide stage necessary to observe flooding above a given exceedance value. The tidal record over the duration of a year is then combined with the particular pattern of waves associated with the tsunami in order to estimate the probability that this tsunami happening at a random time will lead to exceedance. This approach will be compared with other methods from the literature that have been used in the past, and results will be shown for a pilot project of PTHA for Crescent City, CA. For this work the GeoClaw tsunami model has been used, but the technique could be used with any tsunami model that allows doing multiple runs at different tidal stages.

Adams, L. M.; Leveque, R. J.; Gonzalez, F. I.

2013-12-01

274

Forecasting Wave Amplitudes after the Arrival of a Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The destructive Pacific Ocean tsunami generated off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 prompted the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) to issue a tsunami warning and advisory for the coastal regions of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. Estimating the length of time the warning or advisory would remain in effect proved difficult. To address this problem, the WCATWC developed a technique to estimate the amplitude decay of a tsunami recorded at tide stations within the Warning Center's Area of Responsibly (AOR). At many sites along the West Coast of North America, the tsunami wave amplitudes will decay exponentially following the arrival of the maximum wave (uc(Mofjeld) et al., Nat Hazards 22:71-89, 2000). To estimate the time it will take before wave amplitudes drop to safe levels, the real-time tide gauge data are filtered to remove the effects of tidal variations. The analytic envelope is computed and a 2 h sequence of amplitude values following the tsunami peak is used to obtain a least squares fit to an exponential function. This yields a decay curve which is then combined with an average West Coast decay function to provide an initial tsunami amplitude-duration forecast. This information may then be provided to emergency managers to assist with response planning.

Nyland, David; Huang, Paul

2013-08-01

275

Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

J. Wächter

2012-06-01

276

2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON THE MALDIVES ISLANDS: INITIAL OBSERVATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Post-tsunami field surveys of the Maldives Islands where carried out to document the effects of the tsunami inundation. The study area was situated in the islands of South Male Atoll that were some of the most heavily damaged islands of the Maldive Islands. The tsunami damaged the natural environment, vegetation, man-made structures, and residents. The maximum tsunami wave height was 3-4 m. This level of inundation exceeded the height of most residents. The wave height was greatest on the eastern rim of the South Male Atoll (closest to the tsunami source and these islands were completely flooded. The islands within the interior of the atoll saw the lowest wave heights, and these were only marginally flooded.Surveys of flood lines left on the exterior and interior of structures were measured but proved to be substantially less than that reported by survivors. It appears that the highest inundation was not preserved as flood lines. We suggest that the turbulence associated with the tsunami inundation erased the highest lines or that they did not form due to an absence of debris and organic compounds that acted as adhesion during the initial flooding.Significant erosion was documented. Deposition took place in the form of sand sheets while only desultory deposition of coral clasts in marginal areas was found. Seasonal erosion, and storms are likely to remove most or all of the traces of the tsunami within these islands.

Barbara H. Keating

2005-01-01

277

Historical tsunami database for France and its overseas territories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A search and analysis of a large number of historical documents has made it possible: (i to discover so-far unknown tsunamis that have hit the French coasts during the last centuries, and (ii conversely, to disprove the tsunami nature of several events referred to in recent catalogues. This information has been structured into a database and also made available as a website (tsunamis.f/" target="_blank">http://www.tsunamis.fr that is accessible in French, English and Spanish. So far 60 genuine ("true" tsunamis have been described (with their dates, causes, oceans/seas, places observed, number of waves, flood and ebb distances, run-up, and intensities and referenced against contemporary sources. Digitized documents are accessible online. In addition, so as to avoid confusion, tsunamis revealed as "false" or "doubtful" have been compiled into a second catalogue.

Both the database and the website are updated annually corresponding to the state of knowledge, so as to take into account newly discovered historical references and the occurrence of new tsunamis on the coasts of France and many of its overseas territories: Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Réunion, and Mayotte.

J. Lambert

2011-04-01

278

Tsunami Arrival Detection with High Frequency (HF Radar  

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Full Text Available Quantitative real-time observations of a tsunami have been limited to deep-water, pressure-sensor observations of changes in the sea surface elevation and observations of sea level fluctuations at the coast, which are essentially point measurements. Constrained by these data, models have been used for predictions and warning of the arrival of a tsunami, but to date no system exists for local detection of an actual incoming wave with a significant warning capability. Networks of coastal high frequency (HF-radars are now routinely observing surface currents in many countries. We report here on an empirical method for the detection of the initial arrival of a tsunami, and demonstrate its use with results from data measured by fourteen HF radar sites in Japan and USA following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off Sendai, Japan, on 11 March 2011. The distance offshore at which the tsunami can be detected, and hence the warning time provided, depends on the bathymetry: the wider the shallow continental shelf, the greater this time. We compare arrival times at the radars with those measured by neighboring tide gauges. Arrival times measured by the radars preceded those at neighboring tide gauges by an average of 19 min (Japan and 15 min (USA The initial water-height increase due to the tsunami as measured by the tide gauges was moderate, ranging from 0.3 to 2 m. Thus it appears possible to detect even moderate tsunamis using this method. Larger tsunamis could obviously be detected further from the coast. We find that tsunami arrival within the radar coverage area can be announced 8 min (i.e., twice the radar spectral time resolution after its first appearance. This can provide advance warning of the tsunami approach to the coastline locations.

Donald Barrick

2012-05-01

279

Ocean-Scale Tsunami Propagation: Boussinesq Approximations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis propagating over trans-oceanic distances can be significantly modified by effects of frequency dispersion, leading to (among other effects) alteration of wave fronts and wave packets, and changes in spatial distribution of wave energy due to alteration of ray patterns over complex bathymetry. In this presentation, we describe the theory and implementation of an ocean-scale tsunami propagation model in the Boussinesq approximation. The work focuses on the usual weakly dispersive, weakly nonlinear formulation of the classical theory. Working in spherical polar coordinates, we introduce a parameter which characterizes a horizontal wave packet length scale, leading to an aspect ratio which characterizes dispersion effects. Boussinesq equations are then obtained from the Euler equations with rotation included. Although the spherical coordinate model is aimed mainly at basin scale propagation problems, we describe an extension retaining several aspects of the formulation which would be more appropriate to local wave evolution either near the source or in the final runup stage, in order to obtain a more unified model. These effects include a representation of bottom motion, and a fully nonlinear treatment of surface conditions in order to represent large runup amplitudes during inundation. Numerical implementation of the code is described, and we discuss several examples of idealized and real-world applications.

Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Watts, P.; Grilli, S. T.

2004-05-01

280

Tsunami observations using ocean bottom pressure gauge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some seismologists in Japan pointed out about fifteen years ago that a large earthquake may occur off the Tokai District, south of Honshu, in the near future and cause serious damage in the area near the origin. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has been improving the system processing, in real time, data on earthquakes, tsunami and other geophysical events. Under these circumstances the Permanent Ocean Bottom Seismograph System was developed and installed off Cape Omaezaki in 1978 by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). This OBS system has four seismographs and one pressure gauge, which may detect the crustal movement precursors of the large earthquake. JMA has been routinely operating this system for eleven years and observing seismic events and ocean tides. Another OBS system has four seismographs and three pressure gauges. The anchored buoy OBS or the pop-up OBS could be used to observe in the sea areas. However, we cannot use these instruments on a real time basis. The OBS system with signal transmission in real time over long cable lines, is much more expensive than the anchored buoy or pop-up OBS, but we risked adopting the telemetering system by submarine cable, for the purpose of earthquake prediction and tsunami warning. 7 figs, 1 tab

1989-08-04

 
 
 
 
281

Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra  

Science.gov (United States)

The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

2004-01-01

282

Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous buildings and houses in Thailand. Estimation of tsunami impact to buildings from this event and evaluation of the potential risks are important but still in progress. The tsunami fragility curve is a function used to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazards. This study was undertaken to develop fragility curves using visual inspection of high-resolution satellite images (IKONOS) taken before and af...

Suppasri, A.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.

2011-01-01

283

Calibration of a real-time tsunami detection algorithm for sites with no instrumental tsunami records: application to coastal tide-gauge stations in eastern Sicily, Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal tide gauges play a very important role in a tsunami warning system, since sea-level data are needed for a correct evaluation of the tsunami threat, and the tsunami arrival has to be recognized as early as possible. Real-time tsunami detection algorithms serve this purpose. For an efficient detection, they have to be calibrated and adapted to the specific local characteristics of the site where they are installed, which is easily done when the station has recorded a s...

Bressan, L.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

2013-01-01

284

OCEAN-WIDE TSUNAMIS, MAGNITUDE THRESHOLDS, AND 1946 TYPE EVENTS  

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Full Text Available An analysis of magnitudes and runups in Hawaii for more than 200 tsunamigenic earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific reveals that all of the earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.6 or greater produced significant Pacific-wide tsunamis. Such findings can be used as a basis for early warnings of significant ocean-wide tsunamis as a supplement to, or in the absence of, more comprehensive data from other sources. Additional analysis of magnitude and runup data suggests that 1946 type earthquakes and tsunamis may be more common than previously believed.

Daniel A. Walker

2005-01-01

285

Surviving a Tsunami: Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains true stories that illustrate how to survive (and how not to survive) a tsunami. It is meant for people who live, work, or play along coasts that tsunamis may strike. The stories are personal accounts selected from interviews with people who survived a Pacific Ocean tsunami generated by the magnitude 9.5 earthquake that occurred along the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960. Important points include the necessity to heed all warnings (official and natural), head for higher ground, expect many waves, and not to attempt to recover personal belongings.

286

Earthquake related tsunami hazard along the western coast of Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The primary background for the present study was a project to assist the authorities in Thailand with development of plans for how to deal with the future tsunami risk in both short and long term perspectives, in the wake of the devastating 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and tsunami. The study is focussed on defining and analyzing a number of possible future earthquake scenarios (magnitudes 8.5, 8.0 and 7.5) with associated return periods, each one accompanied by specific tsunami...

Løvholt, F.; Bungum, H.; Harbitz, C. B.; Glimsdal, S.; Lindholm, C. D.; Pedersen, G.

2006-01-01

287

Pérdidas de vidas, viviendas, infraestructura y embarcaciones por el tsunami del 27 de Febrero de 2010 en la costa central de Chile / Casualties, housing, infrastructure and vessel losses due to the February 27, 2010 Chile tsunami on the central coast of Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El terremoto Mw = 8.8 del 27 de febrero de 2010 en Chile se encuentra entre los sismos de mayor magnitud registrados por instrumentos a la fecha, posicionándose como el segundo más fuerte en la historia del país y uno de los diez más fuertes en el mundo registrados mediante instrumentos. Una de sus [...] principales consecuencias fue la generación de un tsunami destructivo por la deformación del fondo marino. Las olas asolaron casi 600 km de la costa de Chile central y fueron la causa de un tercio de las víctimas fatales (181 sobre un total de 521), convirtiéndose así en el tsunami con mayor número de muertes asociadas a este tipo de eventos en Sudamérica en los últimos 30 años. En el presente trabajo se reúnen y sistematizan una serie de antecedentes entre los que se contemplan informes, artículos y campañas de investigación y evaluación post-tsunami, realizados en el litoral afectado. Se establece una caracterización cualitativa y estadística de las pérdidas de vidas humanas, viviendas, infraestructura costera y embarcaciones, separando pérdidas asociadas al tsunami de aquellas atribuibles exclusivamente al sismo. Mediante este catastro que integra información proveniente de fuentes de diferente naturaleza, se espera contribuir a evaluar los daños asociados al tsunami. Abstract in english The Mw = 8.8 2010 Chile Earthquake is among the largest recorded by instruments to date, ranking as the second strongest in the country's history and one of the ten strongest worldwide. One of its main consequences was a destructive tsunami caused by the deformation of seafloor. The waves struck nea [...] rly 600 km of the coast of central Chile and the event caused about one third of the total casualties (181 out of 521), becoming the highest death toll due to this type of phenomena in South America in the last 30 years. In this paper the authors gather and systematize information from reports, papers and post-tsunami surveys carried out along the affected coastline. A qualitative and statistical characterization of the loss in lives, homes, infrastructure and fishing vessels is provided, separating tsunami effects to those attributable solely to the earthquake. Through the classification and integration of various data sources the authors expect to better explain and assess the damage specifically associated with the tsunami.

Contreras, Manuel; Winckler, Patricio.

288

Qualitative and Hierarchical Analysis of Protective Factors against Illicit Use of Doping Substances in Athletes Calling a National Anti-Doping Phone-Help Service  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence of a sport-specific hierarchy of protective factors against doping would thus be a powerful aid in adapting information and prevention campaigns to target the characteristics of specific athlete groups, and especially those athletes most vulnerable for doping control. The contents of phone calls to a free and anonymous national anti-doping service called ‘ecoute dopage’ were analysed (192 bodybuilders, 124 cyclists and 44 footballers). The results showed that the protective facto...

2013-01-01

289

Sediment resuspension, transportation and redeposition by tsunami: Example from the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on Sendai and Sanriku shelves  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is accepted that large tsunami waves impact the sea floor, the response of surface sediments to tsunami is not yet fully understood. Tsunami by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake caused considerable damage to Northeast Japan. Large friction velocity at sea floor by the tsunami waves might agitate and resuspend the surface sediments especially on the shallow shelf. Therefore, formation of event deposits is expected at the wide area off Sanriku region. To understand the phenomena by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami at sea floor, we conducted several surveys on Sendai and Sanriku shelf to forearc area. Large resuspension, transportation and redeposition of shelf mud and sand by the 2011 tsunami was recognized on mid-inner shelf in Sendai Bay. Resuspension of shelf mud made highly turbid water on the shelf. Settling of the suspended mud formed upward-fining graded (sometimes parallel-laminated) mud on the inner-mid shelf. Collapse of such high turbid water mass generated the turbidity currents, and formed turbidite on the outer shelf. Sediment resuspension and turbidity current generation also occurred on Sanriku shelf. Benthic foraminifera assemblage of the uppermost layer of event deposit occurred on the forearc basin floor contained shelf to upper slope species. This also indicates transportation of tsunami-induced gravity flow from shelf to forearc basin. Low gradient of shelf suggests that tsunami is most possible origin of sediment resuspension and turbidity current generation. Therefore, the tsunami-related sediment resuspension occurred at least on shelf to upper slope area, and turbidity currents generated with relation to such sediment resuspension is an important process to transport sediment from shelf to offshore basins.

Ikehara, K.; Usami, K.; Irino, T.

2013-12-01

290

USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region  

Science.gov (United States)

USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa, Honduras. These stations complement the existing GSN stations SJG - San Juan, Puerto Rico, SDV - Santo Domingo, Venezuela, TEIG - Tepich, Yucatan, Mexico, and JTS - Costa, Rica. 2007 will see the construction of two additional stations in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and Barbuda. Planned stations in Jamaica and Grand Turks are awaiting local approval. In this presentation we examine noise conditions at the five operating sites and assess the capabilities of the current seismic network using three different measures of capability. The three measures of network capability are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) response time of the automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location errors. The new seismic stations are part of a larger effort to monitor and mitigate tsunami hazard in the region. Destructive earthquakes and tsunamis are known to be a threat in various parts of the Caribbean. We demonstrate that considerable improvement in network magnitude threshold, response time and earthquake location error have been achieved.

McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

2007-05-01

291

The Tsunami and the Chit Fund- Evidence from the Indian Ocean Tsunami Hit on Credit Demand in South India  

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We analyze the effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on credit demand in South India. Combining data from a semi-formal financial intermediary with geophysical data on the Tsunami, we estimate the extent to which the price of credit and the structure of credit flows changed in response to this shock. We find a significant increase in the interest rate by 5.3 per cent on average in the affected branches around the Tsunami. Interest rates increased most dramatically in the first three months...

Czura, Kristina; Klonner, Stefan

2010-01-01

292

Perceptions and attitudes of clinicians in Spain toward clinical practice guidelines and grading systems: a protocol for a qualitative study and a national survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs have become a very popular tool for decision making in healthcare. While there is some evidence that CPGs improve outcomes, there are numerous factors that influence their acceptability and use by healthcare providers. While evidence of clinicians' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward CPGs is extensive, results are still disperse and not conclusive. Our study will evaluate these issues in a large and representative sample of clinicians in Spain. Methods/Design A mixed-method design combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques will evaluate general practitioners (GPs and hospital-based specialists in Spain with the objective of exploring attitudes and perceptions about CPGs and evidence grading systems. The project will consist of two phases: during the first phase, group discussions will be carried out to gain insight into perceptions and attitudes of the participants, and during the second phase, this information will be completed by means of a survey, reaching a greater number of clinicians. We will explore these issues in GPs and hospital-based practitioners, with or without previous experience in guideline development. Discussion Our study will identify and gain insight into the perceived problems and barriers of Spanish practitioners in relation to guideline knowledge and use. The study will also explore beliefs and attitudes of clinicians towards CPGs and evidence grading systems used to rate the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations. Our results will provide guidance to healthcare researchers and healthcare decision makers to improve the use of guidelines in Spain and elsewhere.

Martínez Flora

2010-12-01

293

Qualitative research in psychology  

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"The first 'Workshop Qualitative Research in Psychology' took place in Blaubeuren, Germany from October 20-22, 2000. The meeting was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology of the University of Tübingen, Germany. The purpose of the meeting was to begin a network of qualitative psychologists. Thirty-two participants got to know each other, presented and discussed their research, discussed potential further developments within the field of qualitative psychology, and inspired each o...

Kiegelmann, Mechthild

2004-01-01

294

Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing...

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

2010-01-01

295

TSUNAMI WAVE LOADING ON A BRIDGE DECK WITH PERFORATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunamis have damaged bridges to various extents in the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. This paper reports an experimental investigation of the effect of perforations in the girders and parapets on the horizontal tsunami loads. The results reveal that the maximum pressures impinging on the front face of the pier and deck are 4.5 and 3 times the hydrostatic pressure at 80mm nominal wave heights. The percentage of force reduction of the bridge deck with 10% perforated girders and 60% perforated parapets is found to be close to the percentage of perforation area in the deck. However, it is also noted that perforations in the bridge deck can substantially reduce the tsunami forces acting on it throughout the force time history. Thus, less damage to the bridge is anticipated for the bridge deck with perforations in girders and parapets.

P. Lukkunaprasit

2011-01-01

296

The 17 July 2006 Tsunami earthquake in West Java, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

A tsunami earthquake (Mw = 7.7) occurred south of Java on 17 July 2006. The event produced relatively low levels of high-frequency radiation, and local felt reports indicated only weak shaking in Java. There was no ground motion damage from the earthquake, but there was extensive damage and loss of life from the tsunami along 250 km of the southern coasts of West Java and Central Java. An inspection of the area a few days after the earthquake showed extensive damage to wooden and unreinforced masonry buildings that were located within several hundred meters of the coast. Since there was no tsunami warning system in place, efforts to escape the large waves depended on how people reacted to the earthquake shaking, which was only weakly felt in the coastal areas. This experience emphasizes the need for adequate tsunami warning systems for the Indian Ocean region.

Mori, J.; Mooney, W. D.; Afnimar; Kurniawan, S.; Anaya, A. I.; Widiyantoro, S.

2007-01-01

297

Scientists to Evaluate Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

... Social Effectiveness of Tsunami Warning Methods Key social and psychological variables influence ... It will aim to identify the most effective methods to alert the public. "This research is critically ...

298

The 1888 shoreline landslide and tsunami in Trondheimsfjorden, central Norway  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1888 landslide and tsunami along the shore of the bay of Trondheim, central Norway, killed one person and caused major damage to port facilities. Recent bathymetric surveys, high-resolution seismic profiles and CPTU piezocone tests provide detail information about the morphology of the seafloor and landslide mechanisms, which can be used in tsunami simulations. Based on our integrated data set we suggest the 1888 sequence of events started with an initial underwater landslide near-shore, by detachment along a weak clayey sediment layer. Geomorphology indicates the landslide transformed rapidly into a debris flow, which subsequently triggered slope failures on the flanks of a deep underwater channel. One of the slope failures is associated with the triggering of the 1888 tsunami wave, with documented run-up heights of several meters. The interpreted sequence of events is supported by eyewitness testimony and further validated by slope stability analysis, slide dynamics modelling and 2D tsunami simulations.

L'Heureux, J.-S.; Glimsdal, S.; Longva, O.; Hansen, L.; Harbitz, C. B.

2011-03-01

299

Team in South Pacific Studies Source of Historic Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

... Tip: Team in South Pacific Studies Source of Historic Tsunami Summer Sport for Father-Son Team Means ... Safety Science Teachers Experience the Arctic Team in South Pacific Studies Source of Historic ...

300

TSUNAMI HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTHERN AEGEAN SEA  

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Full Text Available Emergency planning for the assessment of tsunami hazard inundation and of secondary effects of erosion and landslides, requires mapping that can help identify coastal areas that are potentially vulnerable. The present study reviews tsunami susceptibility mapping for coastal areas of Turkey and Greece in the Aegean Sea. Potential tsunami vulnerable locations were identified from LANDSAT ETM imageries, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 data and QuickBird imageries and from a GIS integrated spatial database. LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the SRTM-Mission were investigated to help detect traces of past flooding events. LANDSAT ETM imageries, merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data, clearly indicate the areas that may be prone to flooding if catastrophic tsunami events or storm surges occur.

Barbara Theilen-Willige

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Applications of the TSUNAMI sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TSUNAMI sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools under development for the SCALE code system have recently been applied in four criticality safety studies. TSUNAMI is used to identify applicable benchmark experiments for criticality code validation, assist in the design of new critical experiments for a particular need, reevaluate previously computed computational biases, and assess the validation coverage and propose a penalty for noncoverage for a specific application. (author)

2003-10-01

302

Assessing tsunami vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent tsunami have caused massive loss of life, destruction of coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activity. To date, tsunami hazard studies have concentrated on determining the frequency and magnitude of events and in the production of simplistic flood maps. In general, such maps appear to have assumed a uniform vulnerability of population, infrastructure and business. In reality however, a complex set of factors interact to produce a pattern of vulnerability that vari...

2003-01-01

303

Assessing tsunami vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent tsunami have caused massive loss of life, destruction of coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activity. To date, tsunami hazard studies have concentrated on determining the frequency and magnitude of events and in the production of simplistic flood maps. In general, such maps appear to have assumed a uniform vulnerability of population, infrastructure and business. In reality however, a complex set of factors interact to produce a pattern of vulnerability that varies spat...

2003-01-01

304

Impact of a 1755-like tsunami in Huelva, Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal areas are highly exposed to natural hazards associated with the sea. In all cases where there is historical evidence for devastating tsunamis, as is the case of the southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, there is a need for quantitative hazard tsunami assessment to support spatial planning. Also, local authorities must be able to act towards the population protection in a preemptive way, to inform "what to do" and "where to go" and in an alarm, to make people aware ...

2010-01-01

305

Does MoSE cope with inland tsunamis hazard?  

CERN Document Server

In this work we use morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition techniques to identify a potential seismic source located inland very near Venice, and then we evaluate how a tsunami wave generated from this source can affect the MoSE gates if they are standing up (closed) during the tsunami event. From our simulation we get both peaks and troughs as first arrivals: the behavior of the barriers in these two situations could be a very important design matter.

Panza, Giuliano Francesco; Romanelli, Fabio

2014-01-01

306

High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake  

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We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method) is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to ...

Wu, T. -r; Ho, T. -c

2011-01-01

307

PREDICTION OF TSUNAMI PROPAGATION IN THE PEARL RIVER ESTUARY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunamis entering into shallow water regions may become highly nonlinear and this may be due to the irregularity of sea bottom roughness relative to the water depth and the complex coastline geometry. The elliptic mild-slope equation is commonly used to predict the nonlinear wave propagation in shallow water regions but it requires huge amount of computer resources which may not be practical for tsunami propagation predictions. An efficient finite element approach has been adopted in the pres...

2009-01-01

308

Estimating an Applying Uncertainties in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

An integral part of the a probabilistic analysis is the formal inclusion of uncertainties, both due to a limited understanding of the physics processes (epistemic) as well their natural variability (aleatory). Because of the strong non-linearity of the tsunami inundation process, it is also important to not only understand the extent of the uncertainties, but also how and where to apply them. We can divide up the uncertainties into several stages: the source, ocean propagation and nearshore/inundation. On the source side, many of the uncertainties are identical to those used in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). However, the details of slip distributions are very significant in tsunami excitation, especially for near-field tsunamis.. We will show several ways of including slip variability, both stochastic and non-stochastic, by developing a probabilistic set of source scenarios. The uncertainties in ocean propagation are less significant since modern algorithms are very successful in modeling open ocean tsunami propagation. However, in the near-shore regime and the inundation, the situation is much more complex. Here, errors in the local elevation models, variability in bottom friction and the omission of built environment can lead to significant errors. Details of the implementation of the tsunami algorithms can yield different results. We will discuss the most significant sources of uncertainty and the alternative ways to implement them using examples for the probabilistic tsunami hazard mapping that we are currently carrying out for the state of California and other regions.

Thio, H. K.

2013-12-01

309

The Boxing Day Tsunami: Could the Disaster have been Anticipated?  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of the 26 December, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the accompanying "Boxing Day" Tsunami, which killed over 280,00, has been described as one of the most lethal natural disasters in human history. Many lives could have been saved had a tsunami warning system, similar to that which exists for the Pacific Ocean, been in operation for the Indian Ocean. The former exists because great subduction zone earthquakes have generated destructive, Pacific-wide tsunami in the Pacific Ocean with some frequency. Prior to 26 December, 2004, all of the world's earthquakes with magnitude > 9 were widely thought to have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, where they caused destructive tsunami. Could the occurrence of similar earthquakes and tsunami in the Indian Ocean been predicted prior to the 2004 Box Day Tragedy? This presentation will argue that the answer is "Yes". Almost without exception (the exception being the 1952 Kamchatka earthquake) the massive subduction zone earthquakes and tsunami of the Pacific Ocean have been associated with the subduction of relatively young ocean lithosphere (Boxing day event, the effects in the Bay of Bengal would not have been as severe. Thus, it seems to this author that the Boxing Day event could and should have been anticipated. This presentation will further consider why it was not, and what steps can be taken to anticipate and mitigate the effects of future events that may occur in the Indian Ocean and elsewhere.

Cummins, P. R.; Burbdige, D.

2005-05-01

310

Field Survey Following the 28 October 2012 Haida Gwaii Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This article documents the near-field effects of the largest tsunami of 2012 (globally), which occurred following Canada's second-largest recorded earthquake, on a thrust fault offshore western Haida Gwaii on October 28 (UTC). Despite a lack of reported damaging waves on the coast of British Columbia (largest amplitudes were recorded in Hawaii), three field surveys in the following weeks and months reveal that much of the remote unpopulated, uninstrumented coastline of western Haida Gwaii was impacted by significant tsunami waves that reached up to 13 m above the state of tide. Runup exceeded 3 m at sites spanning ~200 km of the coastline. Greatest impacts were apparent at the heads of narrow inlets and bays on western Moresby Island, where natural and manmade debris with a clear oceanward origin was found on the forest floor and caught in tree branches, inferring flow depths up to 2.5 m. Bays that see regular exposure to storm waves were generally less affected; at these sites a storm origin cannot be ruled out for the debris surveyed. Logs disturbed from their apparent former footprints on the forest floor at the head of Pocket Inlet provide evidence of complex runup, backwash and oblique flow patterns, as noted in other tsunamis. Discontinuous muddy sediments were found at a few sites; sedimentation was not proportional to runup. Lessons learned from our study of the impacts of the Haida Gwaii tsunami may prove useful to future post-tsunami and paleotsunami surveys, as well as tsunami hazard assessments.

Leonard, L. J.; Bednarski, J. M.

2014-03-01

311

Hydrodynamics of impact-induced tsunami over the Martian ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Large bodies of liquid water ranging from lakes to oceans have been hypothesized to have occupied the surface of ancient Mars episodically. Such inferences have been founded largely on geomorphological observations of putative shoreline features during the period ranging from the 1980s to the early 2000s. High-resolution satellite images obtained during various Mars missions conducted since the early 2000s have enabled detailed sedimentological studies. One phenomenon that might leave sedimentological traces of the purported Martian paleo-oceans is a bolide impact and consequent generation of large tsunami waves. Numerical modeling of impact-induced tsunami waves on a hypothesized northern plains paleo-ocean was performed to elucidate their potential propagation characteristics on Mars, including the ranges of wave height and velocity. When considering a tsunami triggered by a 50 km-diameter impact cratering event, the offshore and shore-zone wave heights respectively reached 40-50 m and 120 m. In the same test scenario, the tsunami wave velocity reached 20 m/s near the crater and 16 m/s at the shore zone. The wave height and velocity in highly cratered regions, such as Arabia Terra, tend to be relatively low because tsunami inundation is diffused by impact crater rims existing along the tsunami passage.

Iijima, Yasutaka; Goto, Kazuhisa; Minoura, Koji; Komatsu, Goro; Imamura, Fumihiko

2014-05-01

312

TSUNAMI ON 26 DECEMBER 2004: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TSUNAMI HEIGHT AND THE EXTENT OF INUNDATION IN SRI LANKA  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had been significantly greater for most parts of the east and the south-eastcoastal areas than the south, south-west and the west coasts of Sri Lanka. The results alsoindicate the possible influence of the coastal geomorphology on the extent of inundation. On theother hand, the measurements suggest maximum tsunami heights of 3 m – 7 m along the eastcoast, 3 m – 11 m on the south coast, and 1.5 m – 6 m on the west coast.

Janaka J. Wijetunge

2006-01-01

313

Entanglement Tsunami: Universal Scaling in Holographic Thermalization  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in a strongly coupled holographic system, whose subsequent equilibration is described in the gravity dual by the gravitational collapse of a thin shell of matter resulting in a black hole. In the limit of large regions of entanglement, the evolution of entanglement entropy is controlled by the geometry around and inside the event horizon of the black hole, resulting in regimes of pre-local-equilibration quadratic growth (in time), post-local-equilibration linear growth, a late-time regime in which the evolution does not carry memory of the size and shape of the entangled region, and a saturation regime with critical behavior resembling those in continuous phase transitions. Collectively, these regimes suggest a picture of entanglement growth in which an "entanglement tsunami" carries entanglement inward from the boundary. We also make a conjecture on the maximal rate of entanglement growth in relativistic systems.

Liu, Hong; Suh, S. Josephine

2014-01-01

314

The Source Mechanism of 1939 Black Sea Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The Black sea is surrounded by Turkey at South, Bulgaria, Romania and Moldovia at west, Russia and Ukraine at North, Georgia at East. The Great Erzincan Earthquake occurred on December 26, 1939 at 23:57 (GMT) in Turkey. This earthquake is remarkable not only because of its devastating casualties (39000), but also because of the tsunami generation in the Black sea [Richter, 1958]. The recorded epicenter coordinates (39.51oE, 39.80oN) was on land and approximately 60 km away from the south coast of the Black sea. The earthquake was shallow (26 km). The surface magnitude was 8 (maximal value for tsunami-generic earthquake in the Black Sea), and intensity of the earthquake was 11-12 [Nikonov, 1997]. Tsunami waves were observed at south coast of the Black sea near Fatsa, Ordu and Giresun towns in Turkey and recorded at North coast near Sebastopol, Yalta, Novorossiysk, Tuapse, and at East near poti and Batumi. The sea receded 50m, and then advanced 20m near Fatsa town. The sea also receded 50-60 m in Giresun, moreover in Ordu, the eyewitnesses at the harbor observed that sea initially was calm, then receded about 15 m. and returned its original position in 5-10 minutes [Altynok and Ersoy, 2000]. The tsunami crossed the Black Sea and was recorded on tide-gauges in Soviet harbors with height 50 cm in Sevastopol and Novorossiysk, and 40 cm in Tuapse. The intensity of this tsunami can be considered as intensity III-V according to new tsunami intensity scale of [Papadopoulos and Imamura, 2001]. Since the epicenter of the earthquake is far from the sea, the source mechanism of this tsunami is uncertain. The wave might have originated by either directly from rupture, or by the secondary fault in the Black sea, or by a submarine landslide triggered by the earthquake. The available data of tide gauge measurements, and observations can be used to compare the model results with different source mechanisms and initial conditions. The initial wave with different assumptions of source mechanisms for 1939 event are used in simulation. The arrival times of the tsunami waves, the initial sign of the wave form, the wave period and the nearshore tsunami amplitudes are computed at selected coastal stations. The computed tsunami records at the coastal locations are compared with the available data. The comparison of the observational, instrumental and numerical data at the shore locations are used for analysis and comparison of the assumed source mechanisms. The probable source mechanism of 1939 Black sea Tsunami is also discussed. Altynok, Y. and _. Ersoy (2000), Tsunamis observed on and near the Turkish coast. Natural Hazards, 21, 185-20. Nikonov, A. A. (1997), Tsunami occurrence on the coasts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Izvestiya, Physics of Solid Earth, 33, 72 - 87. Papadopoulos, G.A. and F. Imamura (2001), A proposal for a new tsunami intensity scale, Proceedings of International Tsunami Symposium 2001, Seattle, Washington, Aug. 7 -10, 2001, 569- 577. Richter C. F. (1958), Elementary Seismology, W. H, Freeman and Co., San Francisco, California, 1958

Yalciner, A. C.; Pelinovsky, E. N.

2004-05-01

315

2006: STATUS OF TSUNAMI SCIENCE RESEARCH AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2005, Dr. Robert Wiegel compiled “Tsunami Information Sources”. The compilation has been made available via a website and has been published as an issue in Science of Tsunami Hazards. The compiled references have been assigned keyword descriptions, and compiled in order to review the breath and depth of Tsunami Science publications.The review indicates that tsunami research involves eight major scientific disciplines: Geology, Seismology, Tsunami Science, Engineering, Disaster Management, Meteorology and Communications. These disciplines were subdivided into many topical subjects and the results were tabulated.The topics having the largest number of publications include: tsunamigenic earthquakes, numerical modeling, field surveys, engineering models, harbor, bay, and canal modeling and observations, energy of tsunamis, workshops, tsunami warning centers, instrumentation, tsunami catalogs, tsunami disaster mitigation, evaluation of hazards, the aftermath of tsunamis on humans, and AID provided to Tsunami Damaged Communities.Several areas of research were identified as likely directions for future research, including: paleotsunami studies, risk assessments, instrumentation, numerical modeling of earthquakes and tsunami, particularly the 2004 Indian Ocean event. There is a dearth of recent publications available on tsunami hazards education for the general public.

Barbara H. Keating

2006-01-01

316

Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System: a case study of the 2010 Kepulaunan Mentawai Earthquake and Tsunami  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the response of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in relation to a case study: the Kepulaunan Mentawai earthquake and related tsunami, which occurred on 25 October 2010. The GDACS, developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center, combines existing web-based disaster information management systems with the aim to alert the international community in case of major disasters. The tsunami simulation system is an integral part of the GDACS. ...

Ulutas, E.; Inan, A.; Annunziato, A.

2012-01-01

317

Tsunami Rapid Assessment Using High Resolution Images and Field Surveys: the 2010 , Central Chile, and the 2011, Tohoku Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent extreme tsunamis have shown their major socioeconomic impact and imprint in the coastal landscape. Extensive destruction, erosion, sediment transport and deposition resculpted coastal landscape within few minutes along hundreds of kilometers of the Central Chile, in 2010, and the Northeast coast of Japan, in 2011. In the central coast of Chile, we performed a post-tsunami survey a week after the tsunami due to access restrictions. Our observations focus on the inundation and geomorphic effects of the 2010 tsunami and included an air reconnaissance flight, analysis of pre- and post-event low fly air-photographs and Google Earth satellite images, together with ground reconnaissance and mapping in the field, including topographic transects, during a period of 13 days. Eyewitness accounts enabled us to confirm our observations on effects produced by the tsunami along ~ 500km along the coastline landscape in central Chile For the Tohoku case study, we assessed in a day tsunami inundation distances and runup heights using satellite data (very high resolution satellite images from the GeoEye1 satellite and from the DigitalGlobe worldview through the Google crisis response project, SRTM and ASTER GDEM) of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Field survey data by Japanese, other international scientists and us validated our results. The rapid assessment of damage using high-resolution images has proven to be an excellent tool neccessary for effcient postsunami surveys as well as for rapid assessment of areas with access restrictions. All countries, in particular those with less access to technology and infrastructure, can benefit from the use of freely available satellite imagery and DEMs for an initial, pre-field survey, rapid estimate of inundated areas, distances and runup, tsunami effects in the coastal geomorphology and for assisting in hazard management and mitigation after a natural disaster. These data provide unprecedented opportunities for rapid assessment and to describe both damage and how tsunamis impacted the coastal geomorphology .

Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Navarrete-Pacheco, J.; Lagos, M.; Arcas, D.

2013-12-01

318

Simulations of Tsunami Triggered by the 1883 Krakatau Volcanic Eruption: Implications for Tsunami Hazard in the South China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1883 Krakatau eruption in Indonesia is one of the largest recorded volcanic eruptions in recent history. The associated tsunami claimed about 36,000 lives and recorded run-up heights up to 30 m along the coastal regions in the Sunda Straits between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Our study aims to better understand the generation and propagation mechanisms of this volcano-induced tsunami through modeling quantitatively the tsunami triggering processes at the source region. Comparison of non-linear simulations using the Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) with observations reveals that a donut-shape 'hole and ring' initial condition for the tsunami source is able to explain the key characteristics of the observed tsunami: A 'hole' of about 6 km in diameter and 270 m in depth corresponds to the collapse of the Krakatau volcano on August 27, 1883, while a 'ring' of uplift corresponds to the deposition of the erupted volcanic materials. We found that the shallowness and narrowness of the entrance pathway of the Sunda Straits limited the northward transfer of the tsunami energy from the source region into the South China Sea. Instead, the topographic and bathymetric characteristics favored the southward transfer of the energy into the Indian Ocean. This might explain why Sri Lanka and India suffered casualties from this event, while areas inside the South China Sea, such as Singapore, did not record significant tsunami signals. Modeling results further suggest that the shallow topography of the surrounding islands around the Krakatau source region might have contributed to a reduction in maximum run-up heights in the coastal regions of the Sunda Straits.

Tan, Y.; Lin, J.

2013-12-01

319

Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java – field observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A team of scientists from New Zealand and Indonesia undertook a reconnaissance mission to the South Java area affected by the tsunami of 17 July 2006. The team used GPS-based surveying equipment to measure ground profiles and inundation depths along 17 transects across affected areas near the port city of Cilacap and the resort town of Pangandaran. The purpose of the work was to acquire data for calibration of models used to estimate tsunami inundations, casualty rates and damage levels. Addi...

Reese, S.; Cousins, W. J.; Power, W. L.; Palmer, N. G.; Tejakusuma, I. G.; Nugrahadi, S.

2007-01-01

320

Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System: a case study of the 2010 Kepulaunan Mentawai Earthquake and Tsunami  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the response of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in relation to a case study: the Kepulaunan Mentawai earthquake and related tsunami, which occurred on 25 October 2010. The GDACS, developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center, combines existing web-based disaster information management systems with the aim to alert the international community in case of major disasters. The tsunami simulation system is an integral p...

Ulutas, E.; Inan, A.; Annunziato, A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income-generating activities. In normal times, building houses is seen as a multi-stage process often fitted around the local economic calendar: annual farming or fishing cycles for example. Disaster victims may choose to stay in makeshift shelters in the short term, hoping to have more time, money or materials for rebuilding later. A major challenge for the tsunami-stricken areas in Sri Lanka is to find ways of widening public participation in what to date has been a governmental framework that operates on two disconnected scales in its reconstruction efforts. There is a general absence of mechanisms for incorporating community participation into the governmental decision-making process. Local governments might have also been expected to play a larger role in recovery decision making, but frequently lack both the resources and the authority to become actively involved. Lack of participation in the construction process, has led on an over-reliance on outsiders, reinforcing an attitude of raised expectations.

Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

2005-12-01

322

Impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants <12?months of age. Ten FGDs, two in each of the five administrative blocks of the study district were conducted. The groups were composed of a minimum of 5 and maximum of 8 participants, giving a total of 62 mothers. Thematic analysis was conducted to assess patterns and generate emergent themes. Results Four major themes were identified—‘mothers' employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.

Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

2014-01-01

323

On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system  

Science.gov (United States)

Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

2010-05-01

324

Dinoflagellates, a new proxy for evidencing (paleo)tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

As a preliminary investigation, dinoflagellates have been searched in the Sri Lanka tsunami deposits (2004, Sumatra earthquake). The goals of this analysis were (1) to establish if dinoflagellate cysts (marine algae) are preserved in such types of deposits, and (2) to delimit the inland flooded surface. This work was performed on only 1-2 grams of sands, which had been sterilized at 121°C to prevent any microbial activity. The analysis points out the presence of several marine dinoflagellate cysts with a poor to moderate preservation, allowing to estimate the extent of the flooded area. In addition, a sample provided two dinoflagellate thecae, an exceptional occurrence because the cellulosic form of a dinoflagellate (i.e. the theca) is generally considered as unable to be preserved within sediments. In laboratory experiments, thecae are known to persist between 2 and 72 hours, depending of the species. If we accept a possible preservation of thecae in "peculiar" conditions, their presence in a tsunami sedimentary sequence may sign a precise instant of a tsunami event. Dinoflagellates have been searched in sedimentary basins affected by intense seismic activity: the Black Sea (Quaternary) and Alboran Sea (Messinian - Zanclean), two areas marked by important environmental changes. Marine dinoflagellate cysts are recorded in the Black Sea before its Holocene connection with Mediterranean through the Bosphorus Strait. Their occurrence constitutes a robust support for tsunamis already described in the region. In Late Messinian and Early Pliocene deposits from the Sorbas and Malaga basins (Alboran Sea region), cysts and thecae of marine dinoflagellates have been evidenced for the first time, maybe in relation with possible tsunamis. This new approach is to be developed on other recent tsunami deposits in order to contribute to identify past tsunami events. One must mention that dinoflagellates may help in reconstruction of past sea-surface physical parameters (salinity, temperature and nutrient content). In addition, pollen grains may allow to identify which forcing caused huge marine floodings, geodynamics (earthquakes, megaslumps) or climate (storms, hurricanes).

Popescu, S.; Do Couto, D.; Suc, J.; Gorini, C.

2012-12-01

325

VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION  

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Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pelée on Martinique, of Soufriere on St. Vincent and of the Kick’em Jenny underwater volcano near Grenada and provides an overall risk assessment of tsunami generation from volcanic sources in the Caribbean region.

George Pararas-Carayannis

2004-01-01

326

Modeling propagation and inundation of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami  

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On 11 March 2011 the Tohoku tsunami devastated the east coast of Japan, claiming thousands of casualties and destroying coastal settlements and infrastructure. In this paper tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation are modeled to hindcast the event. Earthquake source models with heterogeneous slips are developed in order to match tsunami observations, including a best fit initial sea surface elevation with water levels up to 8 m. Tsunami simulations were compared to buoys in the Pacifi...

2012-01-01

327

Tsunami hazard in La Réunion island from numerical modeling of historical events  

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Whereas major tsunamis have recently affected the southwest Indian Ocean, tsunami hazard in this basin has never been thoroughly examined. Our study contributes to fill in this lack and focuses on La Réunion island for which tsunami hazard related to great earthquakes is evaluated by modeling the scenarios of major historical events. Then, our numerical modeling allow us to compare the tsunami impact at regional scale according to the seismic sources; we thus identify earth...

Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; He?bert, H.; Allgeyer, S.

2013-01-01

328

SEVERAL TSUNAMI SCENARIOS AT THE NORTH SEA AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES AT THE GERMAN BIGHT  

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Full Text Available Tsunamis occurred in the past at the North Sea, but not frequently. There are historical and geological records of several tsunamis: the Storegga tsunami caused sediment deposits in Scotland 8,000 years ago and records of at least six earthquake-generated tsunamis exist from 842 to 1761 AC. The highest tsunami height witnessed at the German Bight is comparable to the maximum storm surge recorded and could thus cause similar or higher damage. However, there is little research on tsunami modeling in the North Sea. Here, we performed ten numerical experiments imposing N-waves at the open boundaries of a North Sea model system to study the potential consequences of tsunamis for the German Bight. One of the experiments simulated the second Storegga slide tsunami, seven more explored the influence of the incidence direction of the tsunami when entering the North Sea domain, and the other two explored the influence of tides on tsunami heights. We found that the German Bight is not exempt from tsunami risk. The main impact was from waves entering the North Sea from the north, even for tsunamis with sources south of the North Sea. Waves entering from the English Channel were attenuated after crossing the Dover strait. For some scenarios, the tsunami energy got focused directly at the Frisian Islands. The tidal phase had a strong influence on tsunami heights, although in this study the highest heights were obtained in the absence of tides. The duration of tsunamis is significantly smaller than that of storm surges, even though their flow velocities were found to be comparable or larger, thus increasing their possible damage. Therefore, tsunamis should not be dismissed as a threat at the North Sea basin and particularly at the German Bight.

Silvia Chacón-Barrantes

2013-01-01

329

Applicability of the Decision Matrix of North Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System to the Italian tsunamis  

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After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami catastrophe, UNESCO through the IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission) sponsored the establishment of Intergovernmental Coordination Groups (ICG) with the aim to devise and implement Tsunami Warning Systems (TWSs) in all the oceans exposed to tsunamis, in addition to the one already in operation in the Pacific (PTWS). In this context, since 2005, efforts have begun for the establishment of TWSs in the Indian Ocean (IOTWS), in the Caribbean area (CARIBE EWS) and in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAMTWS). In this paper, we focus on a specific tool that was first introduced in the PTWS routine operations, i.e., the Decision Matrix (DM). This is an easy-to-use table establishing a link between the main parameters of an earthquake and the possible ensuing tsunami in order to make quick decision on the type of alert bulletins that a Tsunami Warning Center launches to its recipients. In the process of implementation of a regional TWS for the NEAM area, two distinct DMs were recently proposed by the ICG/NEAMTWS, one for the Atlantic and the other for the entire Mediterranean area. This work applies the Mediterranean NEAMTWS DM to the earthquakes recorded in Italy and compares the action predicted by the DM vs. the action that should be appropriate in view of the observed tsunami characteristics with the aim to establish how good the performance of the Italian TWS will be when it uses the DM for future events. To this purpose, we make use of the parametric catalogue of the Italian earthquakes (CPTI04) compiled in 2004 and the most recent compilation of the Italian tsunami, based on the Italian Tsunami Catalogue of 2004 and the subsequent revisions. In order to better compare the TWS actions, we have identified four different kinds of action coding them from 0 to 3 according to the tsunami severity and have further considered three different distance ranges where these actions apply, that is local, regional and basin-wide, that refer to the distance of the message recipients from the tsunami source. The result of our analysis is that the actions prescribed by the DM are adequate only in 45%-55% of the cases, overestimations are about 37% and underestimations are the rest. As a whole, the predictive ability of the DM is not satisfactory, which implies that recipients have the difficult task in managing bulletins carrying a great deal of uncertainty and on the other hand also suggests that strategies to improve the DM or to go beyond the DM need to be found.

Tinti, S.; Graziani, L.; Brizuela, B.; Maramai, A.; Gallazzi, S.

2012-03-01

330

Applicability of the Decision Matrix of North Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System to the Italian tsunamis  

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Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami catastrophe, UNESCO through the IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission sponsored the establishment of Intergovernmental Coordination Groups (ICG with the aim to devise and implement Tsunami Warning Systems (TWSs in all the oceans exposed to tsunamis, in addition to the one already in operation in the Pacific (PTWS. In this context, since 2005, efforts have begun for the establishment of TWSs in the Indian Ocean (IOTWS, in the Caribbean area (CARIBE EWS and in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAMTWS.

In this paper, we focus on a specific tool that was first introduced in the PTWS routine operations, i.e., the Decision Matrix (DM. This is an easy-to-use table establishing a link between the main parameters of an earthquake and the possible ensuing tsunami in order to make quick decision on the type of alert bulletins that a Tsunami Warning Center launches to its recipients. In the process of implementation of a regional TWS for the NEAM area, two distinct DMs were recently proposed by the ICG/NEAMTWS, one for the Atlantic and the other for the entire Mediterranean area.

This work applies the Mediterranean NEAMTWS DM to the earthquakes recorded in Italy and compares the action predicted by the DM vs. the action that should be appropriate in view of the observed tsunami characteristics with the aim to establish how good the performance of the Italian TWS will be when it uses the DM for future events. To this purpose, we make use of the parametric catalogue of the Italian earthquakes (CPTI04 compiled in 2004 and the most recent compilation of the Italian tsunami, based on the Italian Tsunami Catalogue of 2004 and the subsequent revisions. In order to better compare the TWS actions, we have identified four different kinds of action coding them from 0 to 3 according to the tsunami severity and have further considered three different distance ranges where these actions apply, that is local, regional and basin-wide, that refer to the distance of the message recipients from the tsunami source. The result of our analysis is that the actions prescribed by the DM are adequate only in 45%–55% of the cases, overestimations are about 37% and underestimations are the rest. As a whole, the predictive ability of the DM is not satisfactory, which implies that recipients have the difficult task in managing bulletins carrying a great deal of uncertainty and on the other hand also suggests that strategies to improve the DM or to go beyond the DM need to be found.

S. Tinti

2012-03-01

331

USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula  

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The U.S. Geological Survey's Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) project, in collaboration with the California Geological Survey, the California Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other agencies and institutions are developing a Tsunami Scenario to describe in detail the impacts of a tsunami generated by a hypothetical, but realistic, M9 earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula. The overarching objective of SAFRR and its predecessor, the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, is to help communities reduce losses from natural disasters. As requested by emergency managers and other community partners, a primary approach has been comprehensive, scientifically credible scenarios that start with a model of a geologic event and extend through estimates of damage, casualties, and societal consequences. The first product was the ShakeOut scenario, addressing a hypothetical earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, that spawned the successful Great California ShakeOut, an annual event and the nation's largest emergency preparedness exercise. That was followed by the ARkStorm scenario, which addresses California winter storms that surpass hurricanes in their destructive potential. Some of the Tsunami Scenario's goals include developing advanced models of currents and inundation for the event; spurring research related to Alaskan earthquake sources; engaging the port and harbor decision makers; understanding the economic impacts to local, regional and national economy in both the short and long term; understanding the ecological, environmental, and societal impacts of coastal inundation; and creating enhanced communication products for decision-making before, during, and after a tsunami event. The state of California, through CGS and Cal EMA, is using the Tsunami Scenario as an opportunity to evaluate policies regarding tsunami impact. The scenario will serve as a long-lasting resource to teach preparedness and inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

2012-12-01

332

The qualitative research proposal  

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Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

H Klopper

2008-09-01

333

Qualitative Research Methods: Statement  

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Qualitative research methods play an important role in empirical research practices in practically all humanities and social science disciplines. Qualitative methods are used in many fields and make important scientific contributions. The interest of, and demand from, students and researchers in a broad education in qualitative procedures is consequently very large indeed. At most universities, however, these methods are not well established, while dubious assumptions borne of either prejudic...

Christoph Maeder

2010-01-01

334

The July 17, 2006 Java Tsunami: Tsunami Modeling and the Probable Causes of the Extreme Run-up  

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On 17 July 2006, an Earthquake magnitude Mw 7.8 off the south coast of west Java, Indonesia generated tsunami that affected over 300 km of south Java coastline and killed more than 600 people. Observed tsunami heights and field measurement of run-up distributions were uniformly scattered approximately 5 to 7 m along a 200 km coastal stretch; remarkably, a locally focused tsunami run-up height exceeding 20 m at Nusakambangan Island has been observed. Within the framework of the German Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project, a high-resolution near-shore bathymetrical survey equipped by multi-beam echo-sounder has been recently conducted. Additional geodata have been collected using Intermap Technologies STAR-4 airborne interferometric SAR data acquisition system on a 5 m ground sample distance basis in order to establish a most-sophisticated Digital Terrain Model (DTM). This paper describes the outcome of tsunami modelling approaches using high resolution data of bathymetry and topography being part of a general case study in Cilacap, Indonesia, and medium resolution data for other area along coastline of south Java Island. By means of two different seismic deformation models to mimic the tsunami source generation, a numerical code based on the 2D nonlinear shallow water equations is used to simulate probable tsunami run-up scenarios. Several model tests are done and virtual points in offshore, near-shore, coastline, as well as tsunami run-up on the coast are collected. For the purpose of validation, the model results are compared with field observations and sea level data observed at several tide gauges stations. The performance of numerical simulations and correlations with observed field data are highlighted, and probable causes for the extreme wave heights and run-ups are outlined. References Ammon, C.J., Kanamori, K., Lay, T., and Velasco, A., 2006. The July 2006 Java Tsunami Earthquake, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(L24308). Fritz, H.M., Kongko, W., Moore, A., McAdoo, B., Goff, J., Harbitz, C., Uslu, B., Kalligeris, N., Suteja, D., Kalsum, K., Titov, V., Gusman, A., Latief, H., Santoso, E., Sujoko, S., Djulkarnaen, D., Sunendar, H., and Synolakis, C., 2007. Extreme Run-up from the 17 July 2006 Java Tsunami. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(L12602). Fujii, Y., and Satake, K., 2006. Source of the July 2006 Java Tsunami Estimated from Tide Gauge Records. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(L23417). Intermap Federal Services Inc., 2007. Digital Terrain Model Cilacap, version 1. Project of GITEWS, DLR Germany. Kongko, W., and Leschka, S., 2008. Nearshore Bathymetry Measurements in Indonesia: Part 1. Cilacap, Technical Report, DHI-WASY GmbH Syke Germany. Kongko, W., Suranto, Chaeroni, Aprijanto, Zikra, and SUjantoko, 2006, Rapid Survey on Tsunami Jawa 17 July 2006, http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/java20060717/tsunami-java170706_e.pdf Lavigne, F., Gomes, C., Giffo, M., Wassmer, P., Hoebreck, C., Mardiatno, D., Prioyono, J., and Paris R., 2007. Field Observation of the 17 July 2006 Tsunami in Java. Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 7: 177-183.

Kongko, W.; Schlurmann, T.

2009-04-01

335

Impact Ejecta in a Possible Tsunami Layer in the Hudson River: Regional or Local Event?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent discoveries point to a tsunami event in the New York metropolitan area approximately 2300 BP. Our discovery of impact ejecta deposited by the tsunami in the Hudson River suggests that the tsunami was caused by an impact in the Atlantic Ocean.

Cagen, K. T.; Abbott, D.; Nitsche, F.; West, A.; Bunch, T.; Breger, D.; Slagle, A.; Carbotte, S.

2009-03-01

336

A Model Experiment on the Generation of the Tsunami of March 28, 1964 in Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the wave record for this tsunami, obtained from a special tsunami recording station at Wake Island, suggests that the tsunami originated from a line source in the form of a monopolar uplift of half-breadth about 20-30 km. Dispersive waves supe...

W. G. Van Dorn

1969-01-01

337

Broadband Analysis of the Energetics of Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Sunda Forearc from 1987-2012  

Science.gov (United States)

In the eighteen years before the 2004 Sumatra Mw 9.1 earthquake, the forearc off Sumatra experienced only one large (Mw > 7.0) thrust event and experienced no earthquakes that generated measurable tsunami wave heights. In the subsequent eight years, twelve large thrust earthquakes occurred of which half generated measurable tsunamis. The number of broadband earthquakes (those events with Mw > 5.5 for which broadband teleseismic waveforms have sufficient signal to compute depths, focal mechanisms, moments and radiated energies) jumped six fold after 2004. The progression of tsunami earthquakes, as well as the profuse increase in broadband activity, strongly suggests regional stress adjustments following the Sumatra 2004 megathrust earthquake. Broadband source parameters, published routinely in the Source Parameters (SOPAR) database of the USGS's NEIC (National Earthquake Information Center), have provided the most accurate depths and locations of big earthquakes since the implementation of modern digital seismographic networks. Moreover, radiated energy and seismic moment (also found in SOPAR) are related to apparent stress which is a measure of fault maturity. In mapping apparent stress as a function of depth and focal mechanism, we find that about 12% of broadband thrust earthquakes in the subduction zone are unequivocally above or below the slab interface. Apparent stresses of upper-plate events are associated with failure on mature splay faults, some of which generated measurable tsunamis. One unconventional source for local wave heights was a large intraslab earthquake. High-energy upper-plate events, which are dominant in the Aceh Basin, are associated with immature faults, which may explain why the region was bypassed by significant rupture during the 2004 Sumatra earthquake. The majority of broadband earthquakes are non-randomly concentrated under the outer-arc high. They appear to delineate the periphery of the contiguous rupture zones of large earthquakes. A not uncommon occurrence at the outer-arc high is that of a large (Mw >7.0) earthquake followed by another event, also of large magnitude, in very close spatial (<50 km) proximity within a short time (days to months). The physical separation between these events provides constraints on the nature of barriers to rupture propagation. Some of the glaring disparities in seismic damage and tsunami excitation for earthquakes with the same magnitude can be attributed to differences between rupture properties landward and seaward of the outer-arc high. Although most of the studied broadband earthquakes occurred in the wake of the Sumatra 2004 megathrust event, they illuminate tectonic features that exert a strong influence on rupture growth and extent. The application of broadband analysis to other island arcs will complement current criteria for evaluating seismic and tsunami potential

Choy, G. L.; Kirby, S. H.; Hayes, G. P.

2013-12-01

338

Calibration of a real-time tsunami detection algorithm for sites with no instrumental tsunami records: application to coastal tide-gauge stations in eastern Sicily, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal tide gauges play a very important role in a tsunami warning system, since sea-level data are needed for a correct evaluation of the tsunami threat, and the tsunami arrival has to be recognized as early as possible. Real-time tsunami detection algorithms serve this purpose. For an efficient detection, they have to be calibrated and adapted to the specific local characteristics of the site where they are installed, which is easily done when the station has recorded a sufficiently large number of tsunamis. In this case the recorded database can be used to select the best set of parameters enhancing the discrimination power of the algorithm and minimizing the detection time. This chance is however rare, since most of the coastal tide-gauge stations, either historical or of new installation, have recorded only a few tsunamis in their lifetimes, if any. In this case calibration must be carried out by using synthetic tsunami signals, which poses the problem of how to generate them and how to use them. This paper investigates this issue and proposes a calibration approach by using as an example a specific case, which is the calibration of a real-time detection algorithm called TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm) for two stations (namely Tremestieri and Catania) in eastern Sicily, Italy, which were recently installed in the frame of the Italian project TSUNET, aiming at improving the tsunami monitoring capacity in a region that is one of the most hazardous tsunami areas of Italy and of the Mediterranean.

Bressan, L.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

2013-12-01

339

Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review  

Science.gov (United States)

The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the Azores is mostly driven from the events triggered by distant earthquakes and local earthquakes and landslides. In this context, were identified 12 tsunami events. In another context, it were identified 6 events associated with coastal areas flooding due to floods and/or extreme weather phenomena, hypothetically identified as meteotsunamis. It should be stressed that, despite the differences associated with their triggering mechanisms, both the tsunamis generated by geological factors and those related to atmospheric phenomena may have similar impact. Although the absence of reports identifying tsunamis associated with volcanic activity, the eruptive history of the Azores active volcanoes shows high magnitude eruptions with considerable tsunamigenic potential.

Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

2010-05-01

340

Tsunami science before and beyond Boxing Day 2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami science has evolved differently from research on other extreme natural hazards, primarily because of the unavailability until recently of instrumental recordings of tsunamis in the open ocean. Here, the progress towards developing tsunami inundation modelling tools for use in inundation forecasting is discussed historically from the perspective of hydrodynamics. The state-of-knowledge before the 26 December 2004 tsunami is described. Remaining aspects for future research are identified. One, validated inundation models need to be further developed through benchmark testing and instrumental tsunameter measurements and standards for operational codes need to be established. Two, a methodology is needed to better quantify short-duration impact forces on structures. Three, the mapping of vulnerable continental margins to identify unrecognized hazards must proceed expeditiously, along with palaeotsunami research to establish repeat intervals. Four, the development of better coupling between deforming seafloor motions and model initialization needs further refinement. Five, in an era of global citizenship, more comprehensive educational efforts on tsunami hazard mitigation are necessary worldwide. PMID:16844658

Synolakis, Costas E; Bernard, Eddie N

2006-08-15

 
 
 
 
341

TSUNAMI CATALOG AND VULNERABILITY OF MARTINIQUE (LESSER ANTILLES, FRANCE  

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Full Text Available In addition to meteorological hazards (hurricanes, heavy rainfalls, long-period swells, etc., the Caribbean Islands are vulnerable to geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions caused by the complex tectonic activity and interactions in the region. Such events have generated frequently local or regional tsunamis, which often have affected the island of Martinique in the French West Indies. Over the past centuries, the island has been struck by destructive waves associated with local or regional events - such as those associated with the eruption of the Saint-Vincent volcano in 1902 and by tsunamis of distant origin as that generated by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.The present study includes a classification of tsunamis that have affected Martinique since its discovery in 1502. It is based on international tsunami catalogs, historical accounts, and previous scientific studies and identifies tsunamigenic areas that could potentially generate destructive waves that could impact specific coastal areas of Martinique Island. The potential threat from tsunamis has been greatly increasing because of rapid urban expansion of coastal areas and development of tourism on the island.

Roger, J.

2010-01-01

342

Processing of the Tsunami Catalogue for Martinique Island  

Science.gov (United States)

A part of the French West Indies, the Martinique Island is known to be affected by natural hazards like hurricanes and heavy rains, and more specifically by earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions directly linked to the complex tectonic activity in the Caribbean. Destructive tsunami waves have been widely associated to local geological events such as the St Vincent volcano's eruption (1902), or distant events such as the Lisbon teletsunami in 1755. In this study, a classification of the tsunamis having occurred in the Martinique Island since its colonization by the European in 1502 has been realized. It is based on historical accounts and previous scientific studies. It allows to identify the potentially tsunamigenic regions (and associated features as faults, volcanoes,etc.) and the areas on the Martinique Island which could be affected by such waves. With the fast growth of costal urbanization linked to the increasing tourism in the Martinique Island (heliotropism), the tsunami risk increases constantly. In this context, a preliminary study of coastal vulnerability to tsunami hazard has been carried out in the city of La Trinité (eastern coast). It aims at estimating whether the risks represented by tsunamis had been correctly taken into consideration into hazard preparedness plans for the Martinique Island.

Roger, J.; Accary, F.

2010-12-01

343

TSUNAMI RELICS ON THE COASTAL LANDSCAPE WEST OF LISBON, PORTUGAL  

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Full Text Available Lisbon and the mouth of the river Tagus (Tejo are known to have suffered from the great earthquake and tsunami of November 1st, 1755. Whereas historical sources mention tsunami waves and describe inundation in Lisbon, field evidence from this event has been found only along the Algarve coast and the Spanish Atlantic coast in the south. Our observations in the Cabo da Roca-Cascais area west of Lisbon resulted in the discovery of several very significant tsunami relics in the form of single large boulders, boulder ridges, pebbles and shells high above the modern storm level. Deposition of large amounts of sand by the tsunami waves has intensified eolian rock sculpturing. Abrasion of soil and vegetation still visible in the landscape may point to the great Lisbon event of only some 250 years ago, but radiocarbon and ESR datings also yielded older data. Therefore, we have evidence that the Portuguese coastline has suffered more than one strong tsunami in the Younger Holocene.

Anja Scheffers

2005-01-01

344

TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN  

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Full Text Available Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events times measures of elements at risk (human exposure times measures of vulnerability (preparedness in a given epoch (Nott, 2006. While the tsunami hazard in the Caribbean (averaging 19 ± 22 years between deadly events is lower than Pacific coastal areas, the total risk to life and property is at least as high as the USA West Coast, Hawaii, or Alaska, because of the higher Caribbean population density and beach tourism so attractive to more than 35 million visitors a year. Viewed in this light, the allocation of resources by governments, industry, and insurers needs to be adjusted for the better protection of life, for coastal engineering, and for infrastructure.

X. William Proenza

2010-01-01

345

Qualitative Research in Psychology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers writ...

Fattah Hanurawan

2013-01-01

346

Re-evaluation of Probable Maximum Tsunamis for Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of tsunami-triggering earthquakes occur in subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean area including the East Sea surrounded by Korea, Japan and Russia. In the East Sea, there were three major historical tsunami events occurred in 1964, 1983 and 1993. Among them, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred in 1983, in special, caused huge losses of human lives and property damage at Korean coastal communities. There are several nuclear power plants under operation and several more plants will be built along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula. These historical tsunamis were considered individually to evaluate the probable maximum tsunamis for Korean nuclear power plant sites. Recently, several catastrophic tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the East Japan Tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 has attracted social attention due to the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The accident is still going on. Therefore, new approach to evaluate the probable maximum tsunamis for the Korean sites is investigated in this study. Joint rupture of historical tsunami sources and hypothetical tsunami sources is employed to define the new source parameters of the probable maximum tsunami. The hypothetical tsunamis are inferred from the seismic gap theories. The numerical model using the modified leap-frog finite difference scheme is used to simulate the propagation of the new probable maximum tsunami across the East Sea and the numerical model simulating the associated run-up process of tsunamis is then employed to estimate the maximum run-up heights. Predicted results will be used to make a measure against unexpected tsunami attacks.

Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Park, Sang ho; Bae, Jae Seok; Cho, Yong-Sik; Yoon, Sung Bum

2014-05-01

347

Field Survey on The Coastal Impacts of March 11, 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami  

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The March 11, 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake triggered a tsunami and caused massive damage in NE coast of Japan. A field survey has been performed in the tsunami hit areas. A filed survey has been performed in Sendai Airport, Yuriage, Natori, Sendai port, Taro, Miyako, Yamada, Kamaishi, Rikuzentakata, Ofunato and Kesennuma. The tsunami energy focused inside narrow bays and huge volumes of water overtopped tsunami walls, penetrated from the estuaries and propagated along the rivers inland and on the low lands with the extensive damage on the coastal settlements. The measurements and observations on tsunami nearshore amplitude, flow and overtopping characteristics, current velocities, flow depth, damage levels are presented. A series of simulations covering the generation, propagation and coastal amplification of the tsunami is performed. The simulation resuts are used for comparisons with deep water measurement data and used to input the incoming tsunami characteristics to the selected bays (i.e. Kamaishi and Miyako) in order to investigate and visualize the tsunami behaviour in the bays. The fine grid simulations of the tsunami in Kamaishi bay are performed using the bathymetric data with and without breakwater. Hence the existance of the protection structures and their performance are compared by using the modeling results. Furthermore, the tsunami impact, building response and tsunami mitigation strategies are discussed. As summary, the observations from the tsunami impact of 11 March 2011 tsunami is presented. The results of simulations focusing on tsunami inundation which covers teh computed nearshore tsunami parameters with emphasis in Kamaishi and Miyako are discussed. The findings concerning structural damage to different structures are presented.

Yalciner, A. C.; Suppasri, A.; Mas, E.; Kalligeris, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Imamura, F.; Ozer, C.; Zaytsev, A.; Synolakis, C.; Takahashi, S.; Tomita, T.; Yon, G.

2011-12-01

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Health care response to the tsunami in Taro District, Miyako, Iwate Prefecture  

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Full Text Available Problem : In the Taro District (population: 4434, the great tsunami of 11 March 2011 destroyed the central region including the clinic, the sole medical facility (one physician, 13 nurses and other staff in the district, and many citizens were forced to live in evacuation centres.Context: The Taro District experienced massive damage during the tsunamis of 1896 and 1933. Since then countermeasures to tsunamis have been implemented. The great tsunami on 11 March 2011 caused catastrophic damage to the low-lying areas where approximately 2500 people lived; 1609 buildings were completely destroyed, and approximately 200 people died or were missing across the district.Action: The Taro National Health Insurance Clinic, the sole medical facility in the Taro District, was required to play a central role in a variety of activities to care for residents in severely affected areas. First of all, evacuees needed to move to neighbouring hospitals or safer evacuation centres because lifeline services were cut off to the first evacuation centre. Then, the clinic staff worked in a temporary clinic; they visited the evacuation centres to assess the public health and medical situation, cared for wounded residents, managed infection control and encouraged a normal lifestyle where possible. Additional medical, pharmaceutical and logistical support was received from outside the district.Outcome: There was no noticeably severe damage to health, although there was manifestation of and deterioration in lifestyle-related diseases (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, obesity. Health care activities gradually returned to their pre-disaster levels. At the end of July 2011, the evacuation centres closed, and all evacuees moved to temporary accommodations.Discussion: Isolated rural health practitioners were required to be involved in a wide variety of activities related to the disaster in addition to their routine work: e.g. preventive health (public health and safety activities, routine medical care, acute medical care, psychological care, post-mortems and recovery of medical facilities. Although the whole health care system returned to near-normal six months after the disaster, it is important to plan how to develop more resilient medical systems to respond to disasters, especially in rural areas. This article describes my experience and lessons learnt in responding to this disaster.

Hitoshi Kuroda

2011-12-01

349

Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts  

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Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

2005-01-01

350

Soil taxonomical units and influence of species composition on the selected qualitative humus parameters in the flysch belt of the National Nature Reserve ?ert?v Mlýn (6th and 7th forest vegetation belt  

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Full Text Available The Moravian Silesian Beskids are situated in the northwestern section of the Extend Western Carpathians characteristics. The isolated peaks with unusual sites heterogeneity and biodiversity can be found there. Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karsten and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dominate in the National Nature Reserve Kn?hyn? -- ?ert?v mlýn in the altitude 865 to 966 m. The basic soil units were determined on the selected experimental sites. Soil taxonomical units of Podzols predominate. Specific evaluation based on the selected parameters or group of selected parameters should be used for confirmation of determined soil units. The ration of oxalate iron to total iron is the main parameter for differentiation of Cambisols, Entic Podzols and Podzols. On the contrary, soil acidity values (as independent parameter for site evaluation or its detail interpretation can be misleading in response to anthropogenic pressure as acid or basic deposition. Species compositions of the stand types have significant influence on the qualitative parameters of humus substances in the top-soil layers. The spruce litter has significant negative influence on the humus quality in the organic horizons and also in the top-soil horizons. There is opposite trend with predominate deposition of the beech litter.

Pavlína Pancová Šimková

2008-12-01

351

Worst-case scenario approach to the tsunami hazard assessment for the Apulian coasts (southern Italy)  

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In the framework of the Mediterranean basin, Apulia cannot be counted among the most active areas in terms of earthquake and tsunami activity. Nonetheless, in its northern part, which includes the Gargano peninsula, several earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred historically, some of which were also tsunamigenic. The most famous one is the 30 July 1627 event, which produced extensive inundation in the northern part of Gargano and relevant effects also in some portions of its southern side. Its parent fault is still a matter of debate, since both the inland epicentral location determined by macroseismic studies and the strike-slip dominant focal mechanism inferred from local geology are incompatible with a tsunami excitation capable of producing the effects reported by the coeval sources. Moreover, Apulia is bounded by much more tectonically active and tsunamigenic regions, such as the Dalmatia-Montenegro-Albania coastal belt to the East, the western Hellenic Arc to the South-East and the Calabrian arc to the South-West. Finally, Apulia is located in a strategic position in between eastern and western Europe, involving the installation of crucial international infrastructures, such as the Trans-Adriatic gas pipeline. For all the reasons mentioned above, performing an accurate assessment of the hazard related (at least) to earthquakes and tsunami impact in Apulia represents a need. The OTRIONS project developed a multi-parametric network for this purpose, and in its framework we studied the tsunami hazard along the Apulian coasts by means of a worst-case credible scenario approach. This involved the selection and characterisation of all possible tsunamigenic sources both at local and remote distances: this task was carried out as a shared effort with the Italian national RITMARE project. The recognised sources, mainly retrieved from the published literature and from databases available online, include tectonic faults as well as submarine landslides. The tectonic faults we selected are located mainly in the Gargano region, in the central and southern Adriatic offshore, along the coastal belt ranging from Dalmatia to Albania, in different sectors of the western Hellenic Arc and along the eastern Calabria coasts. The landslide scenario is based on the Pleistocene (circa 25 Ka BP) Gondola slide mapped offshore southern Gargano. Coherently with the worst-case approach, a key problem we faced and discuss here is the definition of the maximum magnitude for all the selected tectonic sources. For all scenarios, the tsunami simulations have been performed by means of the in-house UBO-TSUFD numerical code: the main outputs, that we present and discuss for few selected examples, include wave elevation time series in selected coastal sites, maximum wave amplitudes and wave propagation snapshots over the entire computational domain. Finally, we will go into finer spatial detail by studying the tsunami impact inside two Apulian harbours, namely Brindisi and Otranto, that represent important sites from the industrial and infrastructure point of view.

Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

2014-05-01

352

Subsurface Images Shed Light on Past Tsunamis in India  

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The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive devastation and left a lasting impact along many of the major coastal regions in South Asia, including the coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in the southeastern tip of India. Following the event, sand deposits draped the low-lying areas and buried the muddy sediments of the coastal plain [Babu et al., 2007; Srinivasalu et al., 2007]. In addition, erosional features related to the tsunami, such as channels and scarps, have been observed along many parts of the coast (Figure 1a). This tsunami, along with a recorded history of intense monsoons, has highlighted the need for focused research on the role of extreme events in shaping the geological character of India's coastal plains.

Nair, Rajesh R.; Buynevich, Ilya; Goble, Ronald J.; Srinivasan, P.; Murthy, S. G. N.; Kandpal, S. C.; Lakshmi, C. S. Vijaya; Trivedi, D.

2010-12-01

353

A tsunami wave recorded near a glacier front  

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Full Text Available We observed a tsunami wave near the glacier front in the Temple Fjord (Spitsbergen. Two temperature and pressure recorders were deployed on a wire from the ice approximately 300 m from the glacier front. A pressure recorder was located under them on the bottom. The vertical displacement of the ice was approximately 30 cm and the period of the tsunami wave was 90 s. We attribute the generation of this wave to the displacement of the glacier similarly to the landslide tsunami generated by the motion of a block of rocks down the sloping bottom. The glacier motion also generated a short-period (12 s deformation wave in the ice cover. The measurements allowed us to estimate the wave number of these waves and the Young's modulus of the ice.

A. V. Marchenko