WorldWideScience

Sample records for qualitative national tsunami

  1. Update of the U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical Record and Sources for Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated to conduct the first qualitative United States tsunami hazard assessment, published in 2008 by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Since that time, significant events such as the 2009 Samoa and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis have affected the U.S. and reinforced the importance of considering all of the evidence when conducting an assessment. In addition, there has been progress in tsunami research that reduces some of the earlier uncertainties. In 2011, the National Academies released their assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program recommending that NOAA and its NTHMP partners, in collaboration with researchers in social and physical sciences, should complete an initial national assessment of tsunami risk and should institute a periodic assessment of the sources of tsunamis that threaten the United States. Therefore, the NTHMP is updating the national tsunami hazard assessment. Although the second assessment will not be a national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, areas where there is progress in this methodology will be presented. As a result, a national tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment is not possible at this time, but examples of ongoing work will be presented. This paper looks at the data sources in the first report, including an examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database that resulted in a qualitative assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of tsunami runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths were compared with the qualitative assessments based on frequency and amplitude. The 2009 American Samoa tsunami resulted in a change for the U.S. Pacific island territories qualitative tsunami hazard assessment from 'Moderate' to 'High'. The NGDC tsunami database contains reported tsunamis and is therefore limited to written records existing for an area. Some of the uncertainty in the completeness of the written record has been reduced by investigating the history of tide gauges in the different regions. The first tsunami hazard assessment also used the USGS National Seismic Hazard Map (NSHM) databases to partially extend the time interval. These databases are primarily meant to assess earthquakes affecting U.S. possessions and do not include all possible seismogenic tsunami sources in the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. However, the databases make it possible to estimate the rate of occurrence of larger magnitude earthquakes that could generate a tsunami. The USGS NSHM databases are based on tectonic models, and paleoseismic and paleotsunami data. These databases are periodically updated with new research. Inclusion of updated information can reduce uncertainties in tsunami sources such as the Cascadia subduction zone and others.

  2. The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program: Successes in Tsunami Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Formed in 1995 by Congressional Action, the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP) provides the framework for tsunami preparedness activities in the United States. The Program consists of the 28 U.S. coastal states, territories, and commonwealths (STCs), as well as three Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Since its inception, the NTHMP has advanced tsunami preparedness in the United States through accomplishments in many areas of tsunami preparedness: - Coordination and funding of tsunami hazard analysis and preparedness activities in STCs; - Development and execution of a coordinated plan to address education and outreach activities (materials, signage, and guides) within its membership; - Lead the effort to assist communities in meeting National Weather Service (NWS) TsunamiReady guidelines through development of evacuation maps and other planning activities; - Determination of tsunami hazard zones in most highly threatened coastal communities throughout the country by detailed tsunami inundation studies; - Development of a benchmarking procedure for numerical tsunami models to ensure models used in the inundation studies meet consistent, NOAA standards; - Creation of a national tsunami exercise framework to test tsunami warning system response; - Funding community tsunami warning dissemination and reception systems such as sirens and NOAA Weather Radios; and, - Providing guidance to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers regarding warning dissemination and content. NTHMP activities have advanced the state of preparedness of United States coastal communities, and have helped save lives and property during recent tsunamis. Program successes as well as future plans, including maritime preparedness, are discussed.

  3. Impact of the tsunami response on local and national capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Arjuna Parakrama

    2007-01-01

    The largest ever evaluation of an international humanitarian response found that most lives were saved by affected and neighbouring communities in the immediate aftermath of the December 2004 tsunami. When the international community bypassed or appropriated local and national response, the impact was inefficient in terms of cost, effort and time.

  4. Impact of the tsunami response on local and national capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna Parakrama

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The largest ever evaluation of an international humanitarian response found that most lives were saved by affected and neighbouring communities in the immediate aftermath of the December 2004 tsunami. When the international community bypassed or appropriated local and national response, the impact was inefficient in terms of cost, effort and time.

  5. The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, D.H.; Bittenbinder, A.N.; Bogaert, B.M.; Buland, R.P.; Dietz, L.D.; Hansen, R.A.; Malone, S.D.; McCreery, C.S.; Sokolowski, T.J.; Whitmore, P.M.; Weaver, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

  6. New Activities of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Eble, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is comprised of representatives from coastal states and federal agencies who, under the guidance of NOAA, work together to develop protocols and products to help communities prepare for and mitigate tsunami hazards. Within the NTHMP are several subcommittees responsible for complimentary aspects of tsunami assessment, mitigation, education, warning, and response. The Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee (MMS) is comprised of state and federal scientists who specialize in tsunami source characterization, numerical tsunami modeling, inundation map production, and warning forecasting. Until September 2012, much of the work of the MMS was authorized through the Tsunami Warning and Education Act, an Act that has since expired but the spirit of which is being adhered to in parallel with reauthorization efforts. Over the past several years, the MMS has developed guidance and best practices for states and territories to produce accurate and consistent tsunami inundation maps for community level evacuation planning, and has conducted benchmarking of numerical inundation models. Recent tsunami events have highlighted the need for other types of tsunami hazard analyses and products for improving evacuation planning, vertical evacuation, maritime planning, land-use planning, building construction, and warning forecasts. As the program responsible for producing accurate and consistent tsunami products nationally, the NTHMP-MMS is initiating a multi-year plan to accomplish the following: 1) Create and build on existing demonstration projects that explore new tsunami hazard analysis techniques and products, such as maps identifying areas of strong currents and potential damage within harbors as well as probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for land-use planning. 2) Develop benchmarks for validating new numerical modeling techniques related to current velocities and landslide sources. 3) Generate guidance and protocols for the production and use of new tsunami hazard analysis products. 4) Identify multistate collaborations and funding partners interested in these new products. Application of these new products will improve the overall safety and resilience of coastal communities exposed to tsunami hazards.

  7. The Puerto Rico Component of the National Tsunami Hazard and Mitigation Program Pr-Nthmp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Hincapie-Cardenas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment, detection, warning, education and outreach efforts are intended to reduce losses to life and property. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) is participating in an effort with local and federal agencies, to developing tsunami hazard risk reduction strategies under the National Tsunami Hazards and Mitigation Program (NTHMP). This grant supports the TsunamiReady program which is the base of the tsunami preparedness and mitigation in PR. The Caribbean region has a documented history of damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault systems around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for local, regional and tele tsunamis have been identified and modeled and tsunami evacuation maps were prepared for PR. These maps were generated in three phases: First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios on the basis of the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes were developed. Secondly, each of these scenarios was simulated. The third step was to determine the worst case scenario (MOM). The run-ups were drawn on GIS referenced maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Online maps and related evacuation products are available to the public via the PR-TDST (PR Tsunami Decision Support Tool). Currently all the 44 coastal municipalities were recognized as TsunamiReady by the US NWS. The main goal of the program is to declare Puerto Rico as TsunamiReady, including two cities that are not coastal but could be affected by tsunamis. Based on these evacuation maps, tsunami signs were installed, vulnerability profiles were created, communication systems to receive and disseminate tsunami messages were installed in each TWFP, and tsunami response plans were approved. Also, the existing tsunami protocol and criteria in the PR/VI was updated. This paper describes the PR-NTHMP project, including the real time earthquake and tsunami monitoring as well as the specific protocols used to broadcast tsunami messages. The paper highlights tsunami hazards assessment, detection, warning, education and outreach in Puerto Rico.

  8. A communication model for interlinking national tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, M.; Hammitzsch, M.; Esbri Palomares, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of national Tsunami Early Earning Systems (TEWS) to ocean-wide networks is a main objective of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) tsunami programme. The intention is to interlink national TEWSs leveraging warning communication during hazards. For this purpose a communication model has been developed enabling an efficient message exchange within a centre-to-centre (C2C) communication in a system-of-systems environment. The model, designed to be robust and simple, is based on existing interoperability standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization of the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). For the exchange of tsunami warning bulletins the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is used. It supports geospatial referencing by addressing geocoded Points of Interests (POIs), Areas of Interest (AOIs) and Coastal Forecast Zones (CFZs). Moreover it supports hazard classification by standardized criticality parameters and the transmission of attachments, e.g. situation maps. The communication model also supports the exchange of sensor observations and measurements such as sea level data or earthquake parameters. For this purpose markup languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite are used. Both communication products, warning bulletins and sensor observations, are embedded in an envelope providing addressing and routing information using the Emergency Data Exchange Language Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The communication model has been implemented in a first pilot based on Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Implementation, test and validation was started in the European research project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) and is continued successively in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC). Stimulated by the concepts and results of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and based on its sensor integration platform forming the upstream information flow, the DEWS project focused on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Based on these results, TRIDEC continues this task focusing on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data.

  9. TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hubbard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS, National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readily available for tsunami hazard assessment and mapping applications.Tsunami inundation maps and modeling are just two of the more important products which may be derived from NWLON data. In addition to the seven water level gauges that are hardwired into the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WClATWC, NOS has a significant number of gauges with real-time satellite telemetry capabilities located along the Pacific Northwest coastline, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. These gauges, in concert with near shore buoy systems, have the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the existing tsunami warning system.The recent expansion of the Caribbean Sea Level Gauge Network through the NOS regional partnerships with Central American and Caribbean countries have opened an opportunity for a basin-wide tsunami warning network in a region which is ill prepared for a major tsunami event.

  10. TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Hubbard; Scott A. Duncan

    2002-01-01

    With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readi...

  11. Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be Informed Get Involved America's Prepareathon! Citizen Corps Youth Preparedness Preparing Your Community Be a Preparedness Leader Volunteer Opportunities National Preparedness Month (NPM) Calendar & Social Media Toolkits Ready2015 About Us Social Media Contact Us ...

  12. Tsunami.gov: NOAA's Tsunami Information Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiro, B.; Carrick, J.; Hellman, S. B.; Bernard, M.; Dildine, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the new Tsunami.gov website, which delivers a single authoritative source of tsunami information for the public and emergency management communities. The site efficiently merges information from NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC's) by way of a comprehensive XML feed called Tsunami Event XML (TEX). The resulting unified view allows users to quickly see the latest tsunami alert status in geographic context without having to understand complex TWC areas of responsibility. The new site provides for the creation of a wide range of products beyond the traditional ASCII-based tsunami messages. The publication of modern formats such as Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) can drive geographically aware emergency alert systems like FEMA's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Supported are other popular information delivery systems, including email, text messaging, and social media updates. The Tsunami.gov portal allows NOAA staff to easily edit content and provides the facility for users to customize their viewing experience. In addition to access by the public, emergency managers and government officials may be offered the capability to log into the portal for special access rights to decision-making and administrative resources relevant to their respective tsunami warning systems. The site follows modern HTML5 responsive design practices for optimized use on mobile as well as non-mobile platforms. It meets all federal security and accessibility standards. Moving forward, we hope to expand Tsunami.gov to encompass tsunami-related content currently offered on separate websites, including the NOAA Tsunami Website, National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research, National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Database, and National Data Buoy Center's DART Program. This project is part of the larger Tsunami Information Technology Modernization Project, which is consolidating the software architectures of NOAA's existing TWC's into a single system. We welcome your feedback to help Tsunami.gov become an effective public resource for tsunami information and a medium to enable better global tsunami warning coordination.

  13. Tsunamis - General

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning harbor wave. It is a water wave or a series of waves generated by an impulsive vertical displacement of the surface of the ocean...

  14. Quality of life, vulnerability and resilience: a qualitative study of the tsunami impact on the affected population of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Josephine Fauci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This qualitative study is aimed at analysing the impact of the 2004 tsunami on the Quality of Life of the Sri Lankan population. It focused on the factors that have contributed to an increase in the people's susceptibility to the impact of hazards - their vulnerability - as well as of the natural ability to cope of the populations affected - their resilience. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on the conduction of 10 Focus Group discussions and 18 In-depth Interviews, then analysed through a qualitative analysis software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that each factor involved in the interplay among the different processes that produced the changes in the affected people's quality of life is at the same time a damaged asset, a vulnerability factor and a resource to draw upon for coping. The complexity of this situation opens further speculation as to how disasters and relief interventions influence relationships and dynamics in society. This should thus be further investigated, together with the effects of individual and group trauma on society.

  15. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  16. NOAA/WDC Global Tsunami Deposits Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Discover where, when and how severely tsunamis affected Earth in geologic history. Information regarding Tsunami Deposits and Proxies for Tsunami Events complements...

  17. Parenting after a Natural Disaster: A Qualitative Study of Norwegian Families Surviving the 2004 Tsunami in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, Gertrud S.; Haavind, Hanne; Jensen, Tine K.

    2012-01-01

    How do parents support their children after a high-impact disaster? To answer this question, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 51 Norwegian parents. These parents and children were all severely exposed to the trauma of the tsunami disaster. The analyses show how parents interpret their children's signs of distress, as well as their own…

  18. Assessment of human immediate response capability related to tsunami threats in Indonesia at a sub-national scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Post

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human immediate response is contextualized into different time compartments reflecting the tsunami early warning chain. Based on the different time compartments the available response time and evacuation time is quantified. The latter incorporates accessibility of safe areas determined by a hazard assessment, as well as environmental and demographic impacts on evacuation speed properties assessed using a Cost Distance Weighting GIS approach.

    Approximately 4.35 million Indonesians live in tsunami endangered areas on the southern coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali and have between 20 and 150 min to reach a tsunami-safe area. Most endangered areas feature longer estimated-evacuation times and hence the population possesses a weak immediate response capability leaving them more vulnerable to being directly impacted by a tsunami. At a sub-national scale these hotspots were identified and include: the Mentawai islands off the Sumatra coast, various sub-districts on Sumatra and west and east Java. Based on the presented approach a temporal dynamic estimation of casualties and displacements as a function of available response time is obtained for the entire coastal area. As an example, a worst case tsunami scenario for Kuta (Bali results in casualties of 25 000 with an optimal response time (direct evacuation when receiving a tsunami warning and 120 000 for minimal response time (no evacuation. The estimated casualties correspond well to observed/reported values and overall model uncertainty is low with a standard error of 5%.

    The results obtained allow for prioritization of intervention measures such as early warning chain, evacuation and contingency planning, awareness and preparedness strategies down to a sub-district level and can be used in tsunami early warning decision support.

  19. A User's Guide to the Tsunami Datasets at NOAA's National Data Buoy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, R. H.; O'Neil, K.; Grissom, K.; Garcia, M.; Bernard, L. J.; Kern, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has maintained and operated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunameter network since 2003. The tsunameters employ the NOAA-developed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) technology. The technology measures the pressure and temperature every 15 seconds on the ocean floor and transforms them into equivalent water-column height observations. A complex series of subsampled observations are transmitted acoustically in real-time to a moored buoy or marine autonomous vehicle (MAV) at the ocean surface. The surface platform uses its satellite communications to relay the observations to NDBC. NDBC places the observations onto the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) for relay to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC) in Hawai'i and Alaska and to the international community. It takes less than three minutes to speed the observations from the ocean floor to the TWCs. NDBC can retrieve limited amounts of the 15-s measurements from the instrumentation on the ocean floor using the technology's two-way communications. NDBC recovers the full resolution 15-s measurements about every 2 years and forwards the datasets and metadata to the National Geophysical Data Center for permanent archive. Meanwhile, NDBC retains the real-time observations on its website. The type of real-time observation depends on the operating mode of the tsunameter. NDBC provides the observations in a variety of traditional and innovative methods and formats that include descriptors of the operating mode. Datasets, organized by station, are available from the NDBC website as text files and from the NDBC THREDDS server in netCDF format. The website provides alerts and lists of events that allow users to focus on the information relevant for tsunami hazard analysis. In addition, NDBC developed a basic web service to query station information and observations to support the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT) model. NDBC and NOAA's Integrated Ocean Observing System have fielded the innovative Sensor Observation Service (SOS) that allows users access to observations by station, or groups of stations that have been organized into Features of Interest, such as the 2011 Honshu Tsunami. The user can elect to receive the SOS observations in several different formats, such as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) or delimiter-separated values. Recently, NDBC's Coastal and Offshore Buoys provided meteorological observations used in analyzing possible meteotsunamis on the U.S. East Coast. However, many of these observations are some distance away from the tsunameters. In a demonstration project, NDBC has added sensors to a tsunameter's surface buoy and a MAV to support program requirements for meteorological observations. All these observations are available from NDBC's website in text files, netCDF, and SOS. To aid users in obtaining information relevant to their applications, the presentation documents, in detail, the characteristics of the different types of real-time observations and the availability and organization of the resulting datasets at NDBC .

  20. Quality of life, vulnerability and resilience: a qualitative study of the tsunami impact on the affected population of Sri Lanka / Qualità della vita, vulnerabilità e resilienza: uno studio qualitativo dell'impatto dello tsunami sulla popolazione colpita dello Sri Lanka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alice Josephine, Fauci; Manila, Bonciani; Raniero, Guerra.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This qualitative study is aimed at analysing the impact of the 2004 tsunami on the Quality of Life of the Sri Lankan population. It focused on the factors that have contributed to an increase in the people's susceptibility to the impact of hazards - their vulnerability - as well as of the natur [...] al ability to cope of the populations affected - their resilience. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on the conduction of 10 Focus Group discussions and 18 In-depth Interviews, then analysed through a qualitative analysis software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that each factor involved in the interplay among the different processes that produced the changes in the affected people's quality of life is at the same time a damaged asset, a vulnerability factor and a resource to draw upon for coping. The complexity of this situation opens further speculation as to how disasters and relief interventions influence relationships and dynamics in society. This should thus be further investigated, together with the effects of individual and group trauma on society.

  1. Tsunamis: Are We Underestimating the Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The horrific December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed over 230,000 people and displaced 1.7 million across 14 countries, stimulated governments of the world into addressing tsunami hazards. Many Indian Ocean nations did not even recognize the word "tsunami," and none had tsunami preparedness programs in place. Ignorance of the natural signs of a tsunami's presence led to inappropriate actions and decisions by nations, population centers, and tourist destinations. The world's resp...

  2. RSS Feed for Tsunami Advisories for Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center uses regularly updated RSS feed to disseminate tsunami information statements for Hawaii.

  3. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-01

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  4. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami

  5. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hock Lye, E-mail: kohhl@ucsiuniversity.edu.my [Office of Deputy Vice Chancellor for Research and Post Graduate Studies, UCSI University, Jalan Menara Gading, 56000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Teh, Su Yean, E-mail: syteh@usm.my [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che [Malaysian Meteorological Department, MOSTI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  6. Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

    2013-12-01

    The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

  7. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  8. Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce

    2007-07-01

    The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products. PMID:17368868

  9. NOAA's Integrated Tsunami Database: Data for improved forecasts, warnings, research, and risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, Kelly; Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; McCullough, Heather; Carignan, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility in the United States for tsunami forecast, warning, research, and supports community resiliency. NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics provide a unique collection of data enabling communities to ensure preparedness and resilience to tsunami hazards. Immediately following a damaging or fatal tsunami event there is a need for authoritative data and information. The NGDC Global Historical Tsunami Database (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/) includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. The long-term data from these events, including photographs of damage, provide clues to what might happen in the future. NGDC catalogs the information on global historical tsunamis and uses these data to produce qualitative tsunami hazard assessments at regional levels. In addition to the socioeconomic effects of a tsunami, NGDC also obtains water level data from the coasts and the deep-ocean at stations operated by the NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, and the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and produces research-quality data to isolate seismic waves (in the case of the deep-ocean sites) and the tsunami signal. These water-level data provide evidence of sea-level fluctuation and possible inundation events. NGDC is also building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support real-time forecasts, implemented at 75 US coastal communities. After a damaging or fatal event NGDC begins to collect and integrate data and information from many organizations into the hazards databases. Sources of data include our NOAA partners, the U.S. Geological Survey, the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and International Tsunami Information Center, Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program, news organizations, etc. NGDC assesses the data and then works to promptly distribute the data and information. For example, when a major tsunami occurs, all of the related tsunami data are combined into one timely resource, posted in an online report, which includes: 1) event summary; 2) eyewitness and instrumental recordings from preliminary field surveys; 3) regional historical observations including similar past events and effects; 4) observed water heights and calculated tsunami travel times; and 5) near-field effects. This report is regularly updated to incorporate the most recent data and observations. Providing timely access to authoritative data and information ultimately benefits researchers, state officials, the media and the public. This paper will demonstrate the extensive collection of data and how it is used.

  10. Post-Tsunami Field Surveys are Essential for Mitigating the Next Tsunami Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Kong

    2011-01-01

    Post-tsunami field investigations are an essential component in improving our understanding of tsunamis and in developing the tools and programs necessary to mitigate their effects. A destructive tsunami can attract a large number of international, national, and local tsunami professionals interested in conducting post-tsunami science surveys to investigate and document its scientific, economic, and social impact on affected coasts and communities. Science data collected immediately after a d...

  11. Tsunami Forecasting: The 10 August 2009 Andaman tsunami Demonstrates Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vasily; Moore, Christopher; Uslu, Burak; Kanoglu, Utku

    2010-05-01

    The 10 August 2009 Andaman non-destructive tsunami in the Indian Ocean demonstrated advances in creating a tsunami-resilient global society. Following the Indian Ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004, scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) developed an interface for its validated and verified tsunami numerical model Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST). MOST has been benchmarked substantially through analytical solutions, experimental results and field measurements (Synolakis et al., 2008). MOST and its interface the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) are distributed through extensive capacity-building sessions for the Indian Ocean nations using UNESCO/Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), AusAID, and USAID funding. Over one hundred-sixty scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. During the 10 August 2009 Andaman tsunami event, NCTR scientists exercised the forecast system in research mode using the first generation inundation models developed during ComMIT trainings. Assimilating key data from a Kingdom of Thailand tsunameter, coastal tsunami amplitudes were predicted in Indonesia, Thailand, and India coastlines, before the first tsunami arrival, using models developed by ComMIT trainees. Since its first test in 2003, one more time, NCTR's forecasting methodology proved the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models (Wei et al., 2008 and Titov, 2009). The 2009 Andaman tsunami demonstrated that operational tsunami forecasting tools are now available and coupled with inundation mapping tools can be effective and can reduce false alarms. International collaboration is required to fully utilize this technology's potential. Enhanced educational efforts both at government and community levels are necessary to further reduce risk. References Synolakis, C.E., et al. (2008), Validation and verification of tsunami numerical models, Pure and Applied Geophysics. 165(11-12), 2197-2228. Titov, V.V. (2009), Chapter 12: Tsunami forecasting, The SEA, Tsunamis, vol. 15, Harvard University Press, p. 371-400. Wei, Y., et al. (2008), Real-time experimental forecast of the Peruvian tsunami of August 2007 for U.S. coastlines, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04609.

  12. Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated under the United Nations. This paper reviews historical tsunamis, their warning activities, and their sea level records to highlight lessons learned with the focus on how these insights have helped to drive further development of tsunami warning systems and their tsunami warning centers. While the international systems do well for teletsunamis, faster detection, more accurate evaluations, and widespread timely alerts are still the goals, and challenges still remain to achieving early warning against the more frequent and destructive local tsunamis.

  13. Coping with the Asian tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajamani, Anto Praveen Rajkumar; Premkumar, Titus S; Tharyan, Prathap

    2008-01-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 wreaked havoc along the southeastern coast of India and resulted in devastating losses. The high rates of long-term mental health consequences in adult survivors predicted immediately after the disaster have not been borne out by recent surveys. This qualitative study explored the psychological impact of the tsunami on survivors with a view to gaining insights into the ethno-cultural coping mechanisms of affected communities and evaluating resilience in the...

  14. Tsunami Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    An important issue that vexes tsunami warning centers (TWCs) is when to cancel a tsunami warning once it is in effect. Emergency managers often face a variety of pressures to allow the public to resume their normal activities, but allowing coastal populations to return too quickly can put them at risk. A TWC must, therefore, exercise caution when cancelling a warning. Kim and Whitmore (2013) show that in many cases a TWC can use the decay of tsunami oscillations in a harbor to forecast when its amplitudes will fall to safe levels. This technique should prove reasonably robust for local tsunamis (those that are potentially dangerous within only 100 km of their source region) and for regional tsunamis (whose danger is limited to within 1000km of the source region) as well. For ocean-crossing destructive tsunamis such as the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami, however, this technique may be inadequate. When a tsunami propagates across the ocean basin, it will encounter topographic obstacles such as seamount chains or coastlines, resulting in coherent reflections that can propagate great distances. When these reflections reach previously-impacted coastlines, they can recharge decaying tsunami oscillations and make them hazardous again. Warning center scientists should forecast sea-level records for 24 hours beyond the initial tsunami arrival in order to observe any potential reflections that may pose a hazard. Animations are a convenient way to visualize reflections and gain a broad geographic overview of their impacts. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has developed tools based on tsunami simulations using the RIFT tsunami forecast model. RIFT is a linear, parallelized numerical tsunami propagation model that runs very efficiently on a multi-CPU system (Wang et al, 2012). It can simulate 30-hours of tsunami wave propagation in the Pacific Ocean at 4 arc minute resolution in approximately 6 minutes of real time on a 12-CPU system. Constructing a 30-hour animation using 1 minute simulated time steps takes approximately 50 minutes on the same system. These animations are generated quickly enough to provide decision support for emergency managers whose coastlines may be impacted by the tsunami several hours later. Tsunami reflections can also aid in determining the source region for those tsunamis generated by non-seismic mechanisms without a clear source such as meteotsunamis, tsunamis generated by meteorological phenomena. A derecho that crossed the New Jersey coast and entered the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 1500 UTC June 13, 2013 generated a meteotsunami that struck the northeast coast of the US causing several injuries. A DART sensor off Montauk, NY, recorded tsunami waves approximately 200 minutes apart. We show how the arrival times of the tsunamis recorded by this DART can help to constrain the source region of the meteotsunami. We also examine other reflections produced by the Haida Gwaii 2012, Tohoku 2011, and other tsunamis.

  15. RSS Feeds for Tsunami Advisories for Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center uses regularly updated RSS feed to disseminate tsunami information statements for the Pacific Ocean.

  16. RSS Feeds for Tsunami Advisories for Caribbean Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center uses regularly updated RSS feed to disseminate tsunami information statements for the Caribbean Sea.

  17. RSS Feed for Tsunami Advisories for Indian Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center uses regularly updated RSS feed to disseminate tsunami information statements for the Indian Ocean.

  18. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  19. The effect analysis of 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the West Coast of Japan to Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult to determine and assessment for tsunami hazard. For determining a tsunami risk for NPP site, a development of tsunami hazard is one of the most important. Through the tsunami hazard analysis, a tsunami return period can be determined. For the performing a tsunami hazard analysis, empirical method and numerical method should be needed. Kim et al, already developed tsunami hazard for east coast of Korea for the calculation of tsunami risk of nuclear power plant. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, a development of tsunami catalog should be performed. In the previous research of Kim et al, the maximum wave height was assumed by the author's decision based on historical record in the annals of Chosun dynasty for evaluating the tsunami catalog. Therefore, in this study, a literature survey was performed for a quantitative measure of historical tsunami record transform to qualitative tsunami wave height for the evaluation of tsunami catalog. In this study, the 1741 tsunami was determined by using a literature review for the evaluation of tsunami hazard. The 1741 tsunami reveals a same tsunami between the historical records in Korea and Japan. The tsunami source of 1741 tsunami was not an earthquake and volcanic. Using the numerical analysis, the wave height of 1741 tsunami can be determined qualitatively

  20. The unperceived risk to Europe's coasts: tsunamis and the vulnerability of Cadiz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Birkmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate risk and vulnerability reduction strategies to cope with tsunami risks is a major challenge for countries, regions, and cities exposed to potential tsunamis. European coastal cities such as Cadiz are exposed to tsunami risks. However, most official risk reduction strategies as well as the local population are not aware of the probability of such a phenomenon and the potential threat that tsunami waves could pose to their littoral. This paper outlines how tsunami risks, and particularly tsunami vulnerability, could be assessed and measured. To achieve this, a vulnerability assessment framework was applied focusing on the city of Cadiz as a case study in order to highlight the practical use and the challenges and gaps such an assessment has to deal with. The findings yield important information that could assist with the systematic improvement of societal response capacities of cities and their inhabitants to potential tsunami risks. Hazard and vulnerability maps were developed, and qualitative data was obtained through, for example, focused group discussions. These maps and surveys are essential for the development of a people-centred early warning and response system. Therefore, in this regard, the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected seas promoted by the UNESCO-Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC should encompass these assessments to ensure that action is particularly intensified and fostered by those potentially exposed. That means that besides the necessary technical infrastructure for tsunami detection, additional response and adaptation measures need to be promoted – particularly those that reduce the vulnerability of people and regions exposed – in terms of national systems. In addition, it is important to develop emergency preparedness and awareness plans in order to create an integrated regional Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS by 2011. The findings of the paper are based on research conducted within the framework of the EC funded project TRANSFER: "Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region", a project that aims to improve the understanding of tsunami processes in the Euro-Mediterranean region, to develop methods and tools to assess vulnerability and risk, and to identify strategies for the reduction of tsunami risks.

  1. Tsunami Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your School Prepare Your Workplace Types of Emergency Chemical Emergency Drought Preparedness Earthquake Home Fire Flood Flu Food Safety Heat Wave Highway Safety Hurricane Landslide Pet Safety Poisoning Power Outage Terrorism Thunderstorm Tornado Tsunami Volcano Water Safety Wildfire Winter ...

  2. Investigation of tsunami signal isolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eble, M. C.; Walsh, D.; Denbo, D. W.; Mungov, G.; Stroker, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    A tsunami forecasting capability based on models and observations is under collaborative development between NOAA’s two Tsunami Warning Centers, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory and the National Geophysical Data Center. Isolation of a tsunami signal is essential to this forecasting capability and for validation of tsunami impact at vulnerable coastal communities. The 27 February 2010 Chilean Tsunami provides an opportunity to evaluate methods commonly employed to isolate a tsunami from ambient signals at numerous locations throughout the Pacific Basin. We compare different filtering techniques applied to coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean tsunameter observations in the Pacific Ocean during the 27 February Chile tsunami. Pre and post filtering spectral analysis are compared to investigate the sensitivity of results to cut-off frequency and the effectiveness of traditional tidal harmonic analysis. A baseline of technique effectiveness is established using synthetic data.

  3. Tsunami response system for ports in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H.-R.; Cho, J.-S.; Cho, Y.-S.

    2015-09-01

    The tsunamis that have occurred in many places around the world over the past decade have taken a heavy toll on human lives and property. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is not safe from tsunamis, particularly the eastern coastal areas, which have long sustained tsunami damage. The eastern coast had been attacked by 1983 and 1993 tsunami events. The aim of this study was to mitigate the casualties and property damage against unexpected tsunami attacks along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula by developing a proper tsunami response system for important ports and harbors with high population densities and high concentrations of key national industries. The system is made based on numerical and physical modelings of 3 historical and 11 virtual tsunamis events, field surveys, and extensive interviews with related people.

  4. CO-OPS 1-minute Raw Tsunami Water Level Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CO-OPS has been involved with tsunami warning and mitigation since the Coast & Geodetic Survey started the Tsunami Warning System in 1948 to provide warnings to...

  5. Develop Probabilistic Tsunami Design Maps for ASCE 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Thio, H. K.; Chock, G.; Titov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    A national standard for engineering design for tsunami effects has not existed before and this significant risk is mostly ignored in engineering design. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee is completing a chapter for the 2016 edition of ASCE/SEI 7 Standard. Chapter 6, Tsunami Loads and Effects, would become the first national tsunami design provisions. These provisions will apply to essential facilities and critical infrastructure. This standard for tsunami loads and effects will apply to designs as part of the tsunami preparedness. The provisions will have significance as the post-tsunami recovery tool, to plan and evaluate for reconstruction. Maps of 2,500-year probabilistic tsunami inundation for Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii need to be developed for use with the ASCE design provisions. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. The NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) has developed 75 tsunami inundation models as part of the operational tsunami model forecast capability for the U.S. coastline. NCTR, UW, and URS are collaborating with ASCE to develop the 2,500-year tsunami design maps for the Pacific states using these tsunami models. This ensures the probabilistic criteria are established in ASCE's tsunami design maps. URS established a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment approach consisting of a large amount of tsunami scenarios that include both epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability (Thio et al., 2010). Their study provides 2,500-year offshore tsunami heights at the 100-m water depth, along with the disaggregated earthquake sources. NOAA's tsunami models are used to identify a group of sources that produce these 2,500-year tsunami heights. The tsunami inundation limits and runup heights derived from these sources establish the tsunami design map for the study site. ASCE's Energy Grad Line Analysis then uses these modeling constraints to derive hydrodynamic forces for structures within the tsunami design zone. The probabilistic tsunami design maps will be validated by comparison to state inundation maps under the coordination of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  6. Integrated Historical Tsunami Event and Deposit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides integrated access to historical tsunami event, deposit, and proxy data. The NGDC tsunami archive initially listed tsunami sources and locations with observed tsunami effects. Tsunami frequency and intensity are important for understanding tsunami hazards. Unfortunately, tsunami recurrence intervals often exceed the historic record. As a result, NGDC expanded the archive to include the Global Tsunami Deposits Database (GTD_DB). Tsunami deposits are the physical evidence left behind when a tsunami impacts a shoreline or affects submarine sediments. Proxies include co-seismic subsidence, turbidite deposits, changes in biota following an influx of marine water in a freshwater environment, etc. By adding past tsunami data inferred from the geologic record, the GTD_DB extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Although the best methods for identifying tsunami deposits and proxies in the geologic record remain under discussion, developing an overall picture of where tsunamis have affected coasts, calculating recurrence intervals, and approximating runup height and inundation distance provides a better estimate of a region’s true tsunami hazard. Tsunami deposit and proxy descriptions in the GTD_DB were compiled from published data found in journal articles, conference proceedings, theses, books, conference abstracts, posters, web sites, etc. The database now includes over 1,200 descriptions compiled from over 1,100 citations. Each record in the GTD_DB is linked to its bibliographic citation where more information on the deposit can be found. The GTD_DB includes data for over 50 variables such as: event description (e.g., 2010 Chile Tsunami), geologic time period, year, deposit location name, latitude, longitude, country, associated body of water, setting during the event (e.g., beach, lake, river, deep sea), upper and lower contacts, underlying and overlying material, etc. If known, the tsunami source mechanism (e.g., earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, asteroid impact) is also specified. Observations (grain size, sedimentary structure, bed thickness, number of layers, etc.) are stored along with the conclusions drawn from the evidence by the author (wave height, flow depth, flow velocity, number of waves, etc.). Geologic time periods in the GTD_DB range from Precambrian to Quaternary, but the majority (70%) are from the Quaternary period. This period includes events such as: the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis, the 1755 Lisbon tsunami, the A.D. 79 Vesuvius tsunami, the 3500 BP Santorini caldera collapse and tsunami, and the 7000 BP Storegga landslide-generated tsunami. Prior to the Quaternary period, the majority of the paleotsunamis are due to impact events such as: the Tertiary Chesapeake Bay Bolide, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) Boundary, Cretaceous Manson, and Devonian Alamo. The tsunami deposits are integrated with the historical tsunami event database where applicable. For example, users can search for articles describing deposits related to the 1755 Lisbon tsunami and view those records, as well as link to the related historic event record. The data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and display data (selection forms, Web Map Services, and Web Feature Services).

  7. Using the story-telling technique in the qualitative research of national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?andru, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the main results of a qualitative research onRomanians national identity. The research proposes a new approach to the national identity based on two methodological elements: the patriotic songs as a stimulus for reflection on national identity and the presentation of data in the form of story-telling. The theoretical background integrates the social identity theory and the theory of social representations. The main conclusionof the research is that Romanians have nowadays a negative social identity in relation with their own country and the political class is seen as the main culprit for the country’s bad situation.

  8. Tsunami Science for Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    As the decade of mega-tsunamis has unfolded with new data, the science of tsunami has advanced at an unprecedented pace. Our responsibility to society should guide the use of these new scientific discoveries to better prepare society for the next tsunami. This presentation will focus on the impacts of the 2004 and 2011 tsunamis and new societal expectations accompanying enhanced funding for tsunami research. A list of scientific products, including tsunami hazard maps, tsunami energy scale, real-time tsunami flooding estimates, and real-time current velocities in harbors will be presented to illustrate society's need for relevant, easy to understand tsunami information. Appropriate use of these tsunami scientific products will be presented to demonstrate greater tsunami resilience for tsunami threatened coastlines. Finally, a scientific infrastructure is proposed to ensure that these products are both scientifically sound and represent today's best practices to protect the scientific integrity of the products as well as the safety of coastal residents.

  9. Improving Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness Using Real-Time and Post-Tsunami Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The February 27, 2010 Chile and March 11, 2011 Japan tsunamis caused dramatic loss of life and damage in the near-source region, and notable impacts in distant coastal regions like California. Comprehensive real-time and post-tsunami field surveys and the availability of hundreds of videos within harbors and marinas allow for detailed documentation of these two events by the State of California Tsunami Program, which receives funding through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. Although neither event caused significant inundation of dry land in California, dozens of harbors sustained damage totaling nearly $100-million. Information gathered from these events has guided new strategies in tsunami evacuation planning and maritime preparedness. Scenario-specific, tsunami evacuation "playbook" maps and guidance are being produced detailing inundation from tsunamis of various size and source location. These products help coastal emergency managers prepare local response plans when minor distant source tsunamis or larger tsunamis from local and regional sources are generated. In maritime communities, evaluation of strong tsunami currents and damage are being used to validate/calibrate numerical tsunami model currents and produce in-harbor hazard maps and identify offshore safety zones for potential boat evacuation when a tsunami Warning is issued for a distant source event. Real-time and post-tsunami field teams have been expanded to capture additional detailed information that can be shared in a more timely manner during and after an event through a state-wide clearinghouse. These new products and related efforts will result in more accurate and efficient emergency response by coastal communities, potentially reducing the loss of lives and property during future tsunamis.

  10. The Puerto Rico Tsunami Program after the 2004 Tsunami: Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment, Public Outreach and the Tsunami-Ready Program for Coastal Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado Irizarry, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico had implemented the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program, with a grant from the USA’s FEMA. This program ended in 2003. For several years we had asked NOAA for Puerto Rico to be included in the in the USA National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, to no avail. But right after the Sumatra tsunami we were asked to join. This resulted in the complete revision of the (local) tsunami flood maps finalized in 2...

  11. Modern Hardware Architectures for Tsunami Wave Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentiev, M., Jr.; Romanenko, A.; Titov, V.; Vazhenin, A.

    2009-04-01

    Strongest earthquake of December 26, 2004 generated catastrophic tsunami in Indian Ocean. This shows that, in spite of recent technology progress, population at coastal zone is not protected against tsunami hazard. Here, we address the problem of tsunami risks mitigation. Note that prediction of tsunami wave parameters at certain locations should be made as early as possible to provide enough time for evacuation. Therefore, fast tsunami propagation code that can calculate tsunami evolution from estimated model source becomes critical for timely evacuation decision for many coastal communities in case of a strong tsunami. Numerical simulation of tsunami wave is very important task for risk evaluation, assessment and mitigation. Here we discuss a part of MOST [1] (Method of Splitting Tsunami) software package, which has been accepted by the USA National Ocean and Atmosphere Administration as the basic tool to calculate tsunami wave propagation and evaluation of inundation parameters. Our main objectives are speed up the sequential program, and adaptation of this program for shared memory systems (OpenMP) and CELL architecture. For caring out this research we use SMP server and a system build on IBM CELL BE CPU. We perform optimization of the existing parallel and sequential code for the task of tsunami wave propagation modeling as well as an adaptation of this code for systems based on CELL BE processors. We achieve 10 times performance gain for SMP system using OpenMP technology compared to sequential application and about 50 times performance gain for single CELL BE CPU. Thus, we show that significant acceleration for this program is possible. The results also show that non-standard equipment for HPC like Sony PlayStation3 could be used for solving this kind of problems. 1. Chawla, A., J. Borrero and V. Titov, (2008), Evaluating wave propagation and inundation characteristics of the MOST tsunami model over a complex 3D beach, Advances in Coastal and Ocean Engineering, v. 10, 261-267 (in press).

  12. Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(R))

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), the Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(R)) Project is an ongoing effort...

  13. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  14. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning System, with the Greek NWTC actively participating as a Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider. In addition, Greece designed and conducted the first tsunami exercise program in the Union Civil Protection Mechanism in 2011, which also considered the attrition of response capabilities by the earthquake generating the tsunami. These exercises have demonstrated the capability of the Greek NWTC to provide early warning to local civil protection authorities, but warning dissemination to the population remains an issue, especially during the summer season. However, there is no earthquake or tsunami national emergency operations plan, and we found that tsunami disaster planning and preparedness activities are rather limited at the local level. We acknowledge partial support by the project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe) FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839 to the Technical University of Crete.

  15. Long-Term Tsunami Data Archive Supports Tsunami Forecast, Warning, Research, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Paula K.; Stroker, Kelly J.; Brocko, Vanita R.; Varner, Jesse D.; McLean, Susan J.; Taylor, Lisa A.; Eakins, Barry W.; Carignan, Kelly S.; Warnken, Robin R.

    2008-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the United States began a careful review and strengthening of its programs aimed at reducing the consequences of tsunamis. Several reports and calls to action were drafted, including the Tsunami Warning and Education Act (Public Law 109-424) signed into law by the President in December 2006. NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology (WDC-GMG) maintain a national and international tsunami data archive that fulfills part of the P.L. 109-424. The NGDC/WDC-GMG long-term tsunami data archive has expanded from the original global historical event databases and damage photo collection, to include tsunami deposits, coastal water-level data, DART™ buoy data, and high-resolution coastal DEMs. These data are used to validate models, provide guidance to warning centers, develop tsunami hazard assessments, and educate the public about the risks from tsunamis. In this paper we discuss current steps and future actions to be taken by NGDC/WDC-GMG to support tsunami hazard mitigation research, to ultimately help save lives and improve the resiliency of coastal communities.

  16. TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Kowalik; Tatiana Proshutinsky; Andrey Proshutinsky

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean...

  17. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  18. Tsunami response system for ports in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H.-R.; Cho, J.-S.; Cho, Y.-S.

    2015-03-01

    The tsunamis that have occurred in many places around the world over the past decade have taken a heavy toll on human lives and property. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is not safe from tsunamis, particularly the eastern coastal areas, which have long sustained tsunami damage. The aim of this study was to mitigate the casualties and property damage on the east eastern coast by developing a proper tsunami response system for important ports and harbors with high population densities and high concentrations of key national industries. For study purposes, the government-managed major international trade ports and coastal harbors were selected and an effective tsunami response system was formulated based on field surveys and related literature.

  19. Tsunamis: Global Exposure and Local Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbitz, C. B.; Løvholt, F.; Glimsdal, S.; Horspool, N.; Griffin, J.; Davies, G.; Frauenfelder, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami led to a better understanding of the likelihood of tsunami occurrence and potential tsunami inundation, and the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) was one direct result of this event. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UN-ISDR) adopted HFA in January 2005 in order to reduce disaster risk. As an instrument to compare the risk due to different natural hazards, an integrated worldwide study was implemented and published in several Global Assessment Reports (GAR) by UN-ISDR. The results of the global earthquake induced tsunami hazard and exposure analysis for a return period of 500 years are presented. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods (PTHA) are used. The resulting hazard levels for both methods are compared quantitatively for selected areas. The comparison demonstrates that the analysis is rather rough, which is expected for a study aiming at average trends on a country level across the globe. It is shown that populous Asian countries account for the largest absolute number of people living in tsunami prone areas, more than 50% of the total exposed people live in Japan. Smaller nations like Macao and the Maldives are among the most exposed by population count. Exposed nuclear power plants are limited to Japan, China, India, Taiwan, and USA. On the contrary, a local tsunami vulnerability and risk analysis applies information on population, building types, infrastructure, inundation, flow depth for a certain tsunami scenario with a corresponding return period combined with empirical data on tsunami damages and mortality. Results and validation of a GIS tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment model are presented. The GIS model is adapted for optimal use of data available for each study. Finally, the importance of including landslide sources in the tsunami analysis is also discussed.

  20. Predicting natural catastrophes tsunamis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    1. Tsunamis - Introduction - Definition of phenomenon - basic properties of the waves Propagation and dispersion Interaction with coasts - Geological and societal effects Origin of tsunamis - natural sources Scientific activities in connection with tsunamis. Ideas about simulations 2. Tsunami generation - The earthquake source - conventional theory The earthquake source - normal mode theory The landslide source Near-field observation - The Plafker index Far-field observation - Directivity 3. Tsunami warning - General ideas - History of efforts Mantle magnitudes and TREMOR algorithms The challenge of "tsunami earthquakes" Energy-moment ratios and slow earthquakes Implementation and the components of warning centers 4. Tsunami surveys - Principles and methodologies Fifteen years of field surveys and related milestones. Reconstructing historical tsunamis: eyewitnesses and geological evidence 5. Lessons from the 2004 Indonesian tsunami - Lessons in seismology Lessons in Geology The new technologies Lessons in civ...

  1. Tsunami diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovi? Sr?an

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by recent discussion on how Serbian media influenced allegedly indifferent reaction of the public to the aftermath of tsunami, this paper examines the role of electronic media in Serbia, television in particular, in regard to their function as a central communication channel for acquiring knowledge about world surroundings. With a premise of having cultural and discursive power, Dnevnik, the central news program of the Serbian public broadcaster, is taken as a paradigmatic media text for analysis in order to examine ways in which global affairs and phenomena are portrayed and structured in television representation of reality. It is suggested that it is fair to conclude that world affairs are marginalized within the representational frame of news broadcasts, and that the media discourse could be depicted as dominantly introverted when it comes to global flow of information and cultural meanings, which is significant regarding cultural perception of world realities among Serbian audiences.

  2. Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily – Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grezio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides information on the population, on buildings and on many relevant social aspects; (ii the Italian National Territory Agency that provides updated economic values of the buildings on the basis of their typology (residential, commercial, industrial and location (streets; and (iii the Train and Port Authorities. For human beings, a factor of time exposition is introduced and calculated in terms of hours per day in different places (private and public and in terms of seasons, considering that some factors like the number of tourists can vary by one order of magnitude from January to August. Since the tsunami risk is a function of the run-up levels along the coast, a variable tsunami risk zone is defined as the area along the Messina coast where tsunami inundations may occur.

  3. Tsunami Casualty Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  4. NGDC/WDS Global Historical Tsunami Database, 2100 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Tsunami Database provides information on over 2,400 tsunamis from 2100 BC to the present in the the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; and...

  5. The First Real-Time Tsunami Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C.; Weinstein, S.; Ward, B.

    2014-12-01

    For the first time a U.S. tsunami warning center created and issued a tsunami forecast model animation while the tsunami was still crossing an ocean. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists had predicted they would have this ability (Becker et al., 2012) with their RIFT forecast model (Wang et al., 2009) by using rapidly-determined W-phase centroid-moment tensor earthquake focal mechanisms as tsunami sources in the RIFT model (Wang et al., 2012). PTWC then acquired its own YouTube channel in 2013 for its outreach efforts that showed animations of historic tsunamis (Becker et al., 2013), but could also be a platform for sharing future tsunami animations. The 8.2 Mw earthquake of 1 April 2014 prompted PTWC to issue official warnings for a dangerous tsunami in Chile, Peru and Ecuador. PTWC ended these warnings five hours later, then issued its new tsunami marine hazard product (i.e., no coastal evacuations) for the State of Hawaii. With the international warning canceled but with a domestic hazard still present PTWC generated a forecast model animation and uploaded it to its YouTube channel six hours before the arrival of the first waves in Hawaii. PTWC also gave copies of this animation to television reporters who in turn passed it on to their national broadcast networks. PTWC then created a version for NOAA's Science on a Sphere system so it could be shown on these exhibits as the tsunami was still crossing the Pacific Ocean. While it is difficult to determine how many people saw this animation since local, national, and international news networks showed it in their broadcasts, PTWC's YouTube channel provides some statistics. As of 1 August 2014 this animation has garnered more than 650,000 views. Previous animations, typically released during significant anniversaries, rarely get more than 10,000 views, and even then only when external websites share them. Clearly there is a high demand for a tsunami graphic that shows both the speed and the severity of a tsunami before it reaches impacted coastlines, similar to how radar and satellite images show the advancement of storms. Though this animation showed that most of the tsunami waves would not be dangerous, future publication of these animations will require additional outreach and education to avoid any unnecessary alarm. https://www.youtube.com/user/PacificTWC

  6. Tsunami Risk and Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Khomarudin, Muhammad Rokhis

    2010-01-01

    The research focuses on providing reliable spatial information in support of tsunami risk and vulnerability assessment within the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project. It contributes to three major components of the project: (1) the provision of spatial information on surface roughness as an important parameter for tsunami inundation modeling and hazard assessment; (2) the modeling of population distribution, which is an essential factor in tsunami ...

  7. RSS Feeds for Tsunami Advisories in the mainland US, Canada, Alaska, and Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center uses regularly updated RSS feed to disseminate tsunami information statements for US...

  8. THE INAPPROPRIATE TSUNAMI ICON

    OpenAIRE

    DoakC. Cox

    2001-01-01

    The supposition that the Japanese printmaker Hokusai intended to represent a tsunami in his print of the “Great Wave at Kanagawa” is unfounded and the use of his “Great Wave” as a tsunami icon gives a false impression of the nature of tsunami waves.

  9. Tsunami propagation modelling ? a sensitivity study

    OpenAIRE

    P. Tkalich; Dao, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    Indian Ocean (2004) Tsunami and following tragic consequences demonstrated lack of relevant experience and preparedness among involved coastal nations. After the event, scientific and forecasting circles of affected countries have started a capacity building to tackle similar problems in the future. Different approaches have been used for tsunami propagation, such as Boussinesq and Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE). These approximations were obtained assuming different relevant importa...

  10. Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  11. Global Tsunami Deposits Database, a demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocko, V. R.; Dunbar, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    A result of collaboration between NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES), the Global Tsunami Database includes instrumental records, human observations, and now, information inferred from the geologic record. Historical reports, tide gauge data, Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) data, and information gleaned from published tsunami deposit research build a multi-faceted view of tsunami hazards and their history around the world. Tsunami history provides clues to what might happen in the future, including frequency of occurrence and maximum wave heights. However, instrumental and written records commonly span too little time to reveal the full range of a region's tsunami hazard. The sedimentary deposits of tsunamis, identified with the aid of modern analogs, increasingly complement instrumental and human observations. By adding the component of tsunamis inferred from the geologic record, the database extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Deposit locations, their estimated age and descriptions of the deposits themselves fill in the tsunami record. Tsunamis inferred from proxies, such as evidence for coseismic subsidence, are included to estimate recurrence intervals, but are flagged to highlight the absence of a physical deposit. NGDC and CIRES welcome contributions and suggestions to improve the content and presentation of the database. Authors may submit their own descriptions and upload digital versions of publications. The data and information may be searched and viewed using tools designed to extract and display data from the Oracle database (selection forms, Web Map Services, and Web Feature Services). For example, users may select or sort by many fields, including event, location, region, age of deposit, author, publication type, grain size, composition, presence/absence of plant material. They may find tsunami deposit references for a given location, event or author; search for particular properties of tsunami deposits; and even identify potential collaborators. Users looking for all the information regarding an historical event may gather human observations, deposit descriptions gathered during field surveys, DART data, even tide gage information when available. Finally, users may download the original publications that are in the public domain.

  12. MULTIPLE LAYER IDENTIFICATION AND TRANSPORTATION PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR ONSHORE TSUNAMI DEPOSIT AS THE EXTENDING TSUNAMI DATA – A CASE STUDY FROM THE THAI ANDAMAN COAST

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Frank Wagner; Chanchai Srisutam

    2009-01-01

    On 26thDecember 2004, a strong Indian Ocean earthquake of moment magnitude 9 generated a deadly tsunami that hit the west coast of southern Thailand and many coastal nations of the Indian Ocean. Two tsunami-affected areas on the Thai Andaman coast (Ao Kheuy beach and Khuk Khak beach) were investigated. Multiple sediment layers in the tsunami deposits are identified and are analyzed. The sediment transportation patterns are also determined. Tsunami deposits consist of graded sand layers overly...

  13. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: Promoting Earthquake and Tsunami Resilience on California's North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L. A.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

    2014-12-01

    In historic times, Northern California has suffered the greatest losses from tsunamis in the U.S. contiguous 48 states. 39 tsunamis have been recorded in the region since 1933, including five that caused damage. This paper describes the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization formed in 1996 to address the tsunami threat from both near and far sources. It includes representatives from government agencies, public, private and volunteer organizations, academic institutions, and individuals interested in working to reduce tsunami risk. The geographic isolation and absence of scientific agencies such as the USGS and CGS in the region, and relatively frequent occurrence of both earthquakes and tsunami events has created a unique role for the RCTWG, with activities ranging from basic research to policy and education and outreach programs. Regional interest in tsunami issues began in the early 1990s when there was relatively little interest in tsunamis elsewhere in the state. As a result, the group pioneered tsunami messaging and outreach programs. Beginning in 2008, the RCTWG has partnered with the National Weather Service and the California Office of Emergency Services in conducting the annual "live code" tsunami communications tests, the only area outside of Alaska to do so. In 2009, the RCTWG joined with the Southern California Earthquake Alliance and the Bay Area Earthquake Alliance to form the Earthquake Country Alliance to promote a coordinated and consistent approach to both earthquake and tsunami preparedness throughout the state. The RCTWG has produced and promoted a variety of preparedness projects including hazard mapping and sign placement, an annual "Earthquake - Tsunami Room" at County Fairs, public service announcements and print material, assisting in TsunamiReady community recognition, and facilitating numerous multi-agency, multidiscipline coordinated exercises, and community evacuation drills. Nine assessment surveys from 1993 to 2013 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of tsunami hazards. Over the twenty-year period covered by the surveys, respondents aware of a local tsunami hazard increased from 51 to 90 percent and awareness of the Cascadia subduction zone increased from 16 to 60 percent.

  14. DETERMINISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE TSUNAMI HAZARD IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Yefei Ren; Ruizhi Wen; Baofeng Zhou; Dacheng Shi

    2010-01-01

    Seismic hazard analysis has reached a level of maturity in China. Such work has contributed significantly towards improvements of the national infrastructure in effecting programs of disaster preparedness and mitigation. However, the work on tsunami risk assessment is still in a preliminary stage. The present study proposes a deterministic method of tsunami hazard analysis based on coastal bathymetry and morphology, as well as on mathematical simulations, and evaluates the potential tsunami r...

  15. Post-Tsunami Field Surveys are Essential for Mitigating the Next Tsunami Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Post-tsunami field investigations are an essential component in improving our understanding of tsunamis and in developing the tools and programs necessary to mitigate their effects. A destructive tsunami can attract a large number of international, national, and local tsunami professionals interested in conducting post-tsunami science surveys to investigate and document its scientific, economic, and social impact on affected coasts and communities. Science data collected immediately after a damaging tsunami are important for government decision makers. In the short term, these data help to better organize and deploy often-limited resources to the most critical areas needing response. In the long term, these data are used for recovery planning that will mitigate the losses of the next tsunami. Without a coordination plan that is integrated into government emergency response operations, perishable data may prove to be logistically difficult to gather before erosion or bulldozers eliminate the evidence, and in all likelihood, the operations could interfere and conflict with emergency activities. Additionally, during catastrophic tsunamis, affected areas and local jurisdictions may also be simultaneously overwhelmed by many government agencies, nongovernment organizations, and the media all demanding information and/or access, thus making collection of useful data even more challenging unless a coordination and information sharing plan is already in place.

  16. A culture of tsunami preparedness and applying knowledge from recent tsunamis affecting California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. M.; Wilson, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    It is the mission of the California Tsunami Program to ensure public safety by protecting lives and property before, during, and after a potentially destructive or damaging tsunami. In order to achieve this goal, the state has sought first to use finite funding resources to identify and quantify the tsunami hazard using the best available scientific expertise, modeling, data, mapping, and methods at its disposal. Secondly, it has been vital to accurately inform the emergency response community of the nature of the threat by defining inundation zones prior to a tsunami event and leveraging technical expertise during ongoing tsunami alert notifications (specifically incoming wave heights, arrival times, and the dangers of strong currents). State scientists and emergency managers have been able to learn and apply both scientific and emergency response lessons from recent, distant-source tsunamis affecting coastal California (from Samoa in 2009, Chile in 2010, and Japan in 2011). Emergency managers must understand and plan in advance for specific actions and protocols for each alert notification level provided by the NOAA/NWS West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center. Finally the state program has provided education and outreach information via a multitude of delivery methods, activities, and end products while keeping the message simple, consistent, and focused. The goal is a culture of preparedness and understanding of what to do in the face of a tsunami by residents, visitors, and responsible government officials. We provide an update of results and findings made by the state program with support of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program through important collaboration with other U.S. States, Territories and agencies. In 2009 the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) completed tsunami inundation modeling and mapping for all low-lying, populated coastal areas of California to assist local jurisdictions on the coast in the identification of areas possible to be inundated in a tsunami. "Tsunami Inundation Maps for Emergency Planning" have provided the basis for some of the following preparedness, planning, and education activities in California: Improved evacuation and emergency response plans; Production of multi-language brochures: statewide, community, and boating; Development and support of tsunami scenario-driven exercises and drills; Development of workshops to educate both emergency managers and public; and Establishment of a comprehensive information website www.tsunami.ca.gov; and a preparedness website myhazards.calema.ca.gov. In addition, the California Tsunami Program has a number of initiatives underway through existing work plans to continue to apply scientifically vetted information toward comprehensive public understanding of the threat from future tsunamis to constituents on the coast. These include projects to: Complete tsunami land-use planning maps for California communities, Develop in-harbor tsunami hazard maps statewide, Complete modeling of offshore safety zones for the maritime community, Complete preliminary tsunami risk analysis for state utilizing new HAZUS tsunami module and probabilistic analysis results, and Develop a post-tsunami recovery and resiliency plan for the state.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL AND IN VARIOUS NATIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cristina Breahna Pravat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative characteristics of accounting information presented by financial-accounting reports represent a concept which was subsequently introduced in the national legal accounting framework and, as a rule, the national conceptual frameworks represent the documents by means of which these quality criteria are established. At a worldwide level, there are more international or national organisms that have an important role in the elaboration of accounting standards in general and more specifically in the formulation of qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. We find two important ones among them, and these are: International Accounting Standards Board, which creates and promotes International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, and Financial Accounting Standards Board, which elaborates Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. However, at the level of each country a standardizing authority decides the rules for producing the financial reports and the qualitative characteristics that must be respected by the information contained in these documents. In this context, this paper aims to present a few general considerations concerning the treatment of the qualitative characteristics of the financial-accounting information in different accounting systems, such as the American one, or the British, French, German, Romanian ones, with insistence on the international approach to qualitative characteristics.

  18. Tsunami-HySEA: A GPU based model for the Italian candidate Tsunami Service Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Vida, Jose Manuel; Macias, Jorge; Castro, Manuel; de la Asuncion, Marc; Melini, Daniele; Romano, Fabrizio; Tonini, Roberto; Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio; Molinari, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Service Providers (TSP), providing tsunami warnings in the framework of the systems coordinated by IOC/UNESCO worldwide, and other national tsunami warning centers, are striving to complement, or replace, decision matrices and pre-calculated tsunami scenario databases with FTRT (Faster Than Real Time) tsunami simulations. The aim is to increase the accuracy of tsunami forecast by assimilating the largest possible amount of data in quasi real time, and performing simulations in a few minutes wall-clock time, possibly including the coastal inundation stage. This strategy of direct real time computation, that could seem unfeasible a decade ago, it is now foreseeable thanks to the astonishingly recent increase in the computational power and bandwidth evolution of modern GPUs. The INGV in collaboration with the EDANYA Group (University of Málaga) are developing and implementing a FTRT Tsunami Simulation approach for the Italian candidate TSP, namely the Centro Allerta Tsunami (CAT), which is in pre-operational stage starting from 1 October 2014, in the 24/7 seismic monitoring room at INGV. The mandate of CAT is to provide warnings for potential tsunamis within the Mediterranean basin to its subscribers, in the framework of NEAMTWS (http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=70:neamtws-home&catid=9&Itemid=14&lang=es). CAT also performs global monitoring, for continuous testing, training, and validation purposes. The tsunami-HySEA model, developed by EDANYA Group, implements in the same code the three phases of an earthquake generated tsunami: generation, propagation and coastal inundation. At the same time it is implemented in nested meshes with different resolution and multi-GPU environment, which allows much faster than real time simulations. The challenge set by the Italian TSP for warning in the NEAMTWS region is twofold: to be able to reasonably constrain the earthquake source in the absence of deep sea tsunami sensors, and to be able to compute the generation, propagation and a first inundation stage of a seismically generated in the Mediterranean Sea, within a few minutes after the earthquake origin time. The approach will then be extensively tested with past tsunamis worldwide, as well as with any future event in the framework of CAT global monitoring training mode.

  19. REVIEW OF THE 1994 SKAGWAY, AKASKA TSUNAMI AND FUTURE PLANS

    OpenAIRE

    Den& Nottingham, P.E. Pres&M

    2002-01-01

    On November 3,1994 a nine meter amplitude submarine landslide-created tsunami with a resonate wave tram lasting about 30 minutes struck the Skagway, Alaska., watafiont causing extensive damage and loss of one life.Numerous scientists and engineers have studied the 1994 tsunami and at a workshop on the subject in Seattle, Washington, on October 30-3 1,2001, have generally concluded that large down inlet submarine landslide(s) created the tsunami. A general plan under the National Tsunami Hazar...

  20. Rapid Estimation of Tsunami Impact Following the Samoa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Polet, J.

    2009-12-01

    Rapid estimation of the tsunami waveheight after a large earthquake can significantly aid in disaster recovery efforts, planning of post-tsunami surveys and even early warning for more distant regions. We are exploring methods for refining these estimates by addressing variability due to uncertainties in the source parameters. After the Samoa earthquake, we used the solution from the near real-time Research CMT system at the National Earthquake Information Center to compute the tsunami wavefield. Given the close proximity to Samoa and American Samoa, details of the rupture geometry are very important for the character of the tsunami wavefield and we computed tsunami waveforms for several different geometries that are consistent with the rCMT solution. We will evaluate these results by comparing them with observed runups and explore ways to express the uncertainties in the simulated runup maps. We will also evaluate other real-time source estimates for use in rapid tsunami impact simulation.

  1. TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean, the short-period tsunami wave rides on the longer-period tides. The question is whether these two waves can be superposed linearly for the purpose of determining the resulting sea surface height (SSH or rather in the shallow water they interact nonlinearly, enhancing/reducing the total sea level and currents. Since the near–shore bathymetry is important for the run-up computation, Weisz and Winter (2005 demonstrated that the changes of depth caused by tides should not be neglected in tsunami run-up considerations. On the other hand, we hypothesize that much more significant effect of the tsunami-tide interaction should be observed through the tidal and tsunami currents. In order to test this hypothesis we apply a simple set of 1-D equations of motion and continuity to demonstrate the dynamics of tsunami and tide interaction in the vicinity of the shelf break for two coastal domains: shallow waters of an elongated inlet and narrow shelf typical for deep waters of the Gulf of Alaska.

  2. Tsunami force on low building and the effect of surrounding buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Benazir; Triatmadja, R.; Yuwono, N.; Nurhasanah, A.; Kuswandi

    2013-01-01

    Today tsunami hazard has become an important aspect in national security of Indonesia and generated many researches. Tsunami disaster in the Hindian Ocean 2004 has caused a lot of buildings damaged and probably the greatest loss of lives ever due to tsunami. This research aims to analyze the tsunami force acting on the low building or overtopping building and the effect of other buildings nearby. The research was conducted using physical model at the Hydraulic and Hydrology Laboratory, Resear...

  3. Tsunami mitigation and preparedness activities in California: Chapter L in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick; Miller, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Scenario planning and final results associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami project are providing great benefits to the ongoing tsunami risk-reduction efforts of the California Tsunami Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Program. This program, led by the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services and the California Geological Survey, works with coastal communities to improve tsunami preparedness and mitigation at the local level through various efforts, such as improving tsunami hazard analysis, establishing consistent evacuation communications and planning, and leveraging national risk-reduction efforts associated with the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The recent 2010 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis did not cause notable inundation of dry land in California, but dozens of harbors sustained damages totaling nearly $100 million (Wilson and others, 2012a). Estimates associated with the SAFRR distant tsunami scenario suggest socioeconomic and environmental losses could be even larger. Information gathered from these events and the SAFRR scenario is guiding the development and implementation of new strategies for emergency response, maritime planning, and land-use planning, including a reassessment of the tsunami threat along the California coast;

  4. Tsunami currents in ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends. PMID:26392622

  5. Marin Tsunami (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  6. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  7. Partnership disengagement from primary community care networks (PCCNs: A qualitative study for a national demonstration project

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    Lin Cheng-Chieh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Primary Community Care Network (PCCN Demonstration Project, launched by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI in 2003, is still in progress. Partnership structures in PCCNs represent both contractual clinic-to-clinic and clinic-to-hospital member relationships of organizational aspects. The partnership structures are the formal relationships between individuals and the total network. Their organizational design aims to ensure effective communication, coordination, and integration across the total network. Previous studies have focused largely on how contractual integration among the partnerships works and on its effects. Few studies, however, have tried to understand partnership disengagement in PCCNs. This study explores why some partnerships in PCCNs disengage. Methods This study used a qualitative methodology with semi-structured questions for in-depth interviews. The semi-structured questions were pre-designed to explore the factors driving partnership disengagement. Thirty-seven clinic members who had withdrawn from their PCCNs were identified from the 2003-2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network Lists. Results Organization/participant factors (extra working time spend and facility competency, network factors (partner collaboration, and community factors (health policy design incompatibility, patient-physician relationship, and effectiveness are reasons for clinic physicians to withdraw or change their partnerships within the PCCNs. Conclusions To strengthen partnership relationships, several suggestions are made, including to establish clinic and hospital member relationships, and to reduce administrative work. In addition, both educating the public about the concept of family doctors and ensuring well-organized national health policies could help health care providers improve the integration processes.

  8. Perceptions of radiography and the National Health Service: a qualitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify the factors that determine the attractiveness of radiography as a career choice and of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer to potential recruits and returners. Methods: Individual and group interviews were conducted in the East Midlands region to explore participants' perceptions of the attractiveness of the NHS as an employer to potential radiography staff. Interviews were conducted with school pupils, radiography students, mature students, radiography assistants, agency radiographers and independent sector radiographers. Results: Eighty-eight individuals participated in the qualitative stage of the study. Analysis of the interview transcripts indicated that radiography as a career choice is perceived as boring and routine, involving high workloads and little recognition from the general public. Working with patients is the source of considerable job satisfaction but is offset by staff shortages, lack of flexibility over working hours and a lack of consideration of family commitments in the NHS. Financial costs are highlighted as dissuading many participants from considering a career as a radiographer in the NHS or returning to work for the NHS. Greater use of open days in conjunction with more advertising of the profession is suggested as tactics to improve recruitment. Conclusions: The provision of more flexible working hours, greater consideration of family commitments and increased financial support for training are necessary to improve the attractiveness of a radiography career. NHS Human Resource Managers should consider these findings concerning the applicant and returner pools when developing strategies to address the current shortfall of radiographers

  9. Beyond Age and Adjustment: A Cross-National Qualitative Study of Older Adults’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Niculescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To explore the older adults’ perceptions of age and aging, focusing on adjustment to aging (AtA and subjective age (SA. Methods: This cross-national and qualitative study comprised demographics and semistructured interviews. Complete information on 151 older adults aged between 75-101 years (M = 84.6; SD = 6.905 from Portugal, Romania Angola was available. Data was subjected to content analysis. Results: The most predominant response of the interviewed participants for indicators of AtA was ‘existential meaning’ (26.3%, whilst ‘balanced’ (36.5% was identified as the most prevalent SA response. In total, five categories were identified to be indicative of AtA: ‘sense of purpose and ambitions’, ‘health and wellness’, ‘social support’, ‘stability and accessibility’ and ‘existential meaning’ whereas, four categories were identified for SA: ‘balanced, ‘old’, ‘youthful’ and ‘dissatisfied’. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for a better understanding of what defines AtA and SA among the elderly. Furthermore, health care providers’ awareness of older adults’ conceptualizations will allow them to communicate more effectively and to reinforce aging well among older populations.Key words: Adjustment to aging; Subjective age; aging well; Older adults; Content analysis

  10. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed surveyed again. The run-up heights for both 1983 and 1993 Tsunami events are computed along the Eastern Coastline of the Korean Peninsula. Finally, a tsunami hazard map is generated based on the computed and observed run-up heights. Significant information such as proper evacuation routes, shelters and hot lines are included in the map. Acknowledgements The research described in this publication was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Reference No. 2010-0022337).

  11. TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Necmioglu, O.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.; Comoglu, M.; Ozel, N. M.; Wächter, J.

    2012-04-01

    The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), representing the Tsunami National Contact (TNC) and Tsunami Warning Focal Point (TWFP) for Turkey, is one of the key partners in TRIDEC. KOERI is responsible for the operation of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) for Turkey and establishes Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (CTWP) responsibilities for the NEAM region. Based on this profound experience, KOERI is contributing valuable requirements to the overall TRIDEC system and is responsible for the definition and development of feasible tsunami-related scenarios. However, KOERI's most important input focuses on testing and evaluating the TRIDEC system according to specified evaluation and validation criteria. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools. In addition to conventional sensors also unconventional sensors and sensor networks play an important role in TRIDEC. The first system demonstrator, deployed at KOERI's crisis management room, has been designed and implemented to support plausible scenarios for the Turkish NTWC and to demonstrate the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a NTWC. The feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes in a hypothetical natural crisis situation caused by a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  12. Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chao

    Ever since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the technique of inversion of tsunami data and the importance of tsunami warning have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, since tsunamis are rare and extreme events, developed inverse techniques lack validation, and open questions rise when they are applied to a real event. In this study, several of those open questions are investigated, i.e., the wave dispersion, bathymetry grid size and subfault division. First, tsunami records from three large tsunami events -- 2010 Maule, 2011 Tohoku and 2012 Haida Gwaii -- are analyzed to extract the main characteristics of the leading tsunami waves. Using the tool of wavelet transforming, the instant wave period can be obtained and thus the dispersive parameter mu2 can be calculated. mu2 is found to be smaller than 0.02 for all records, indicating that the wave dispersion is minor for the propagation of tsunami leading waves. Second, inversions of tsunami data are carried out for three tsunami events -- 2011 Tohoku, 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2014 Iquique. By varying the subfault size and the bathymetry grid size in the inversions, general rules are established for choosing those two parameters. It is found that the choice of bathymetry grid size depends on various parameters, such as the subfault size and the depth of subfaults. The global bathymetry data GEBCO with spatial resolution of 30 arcsec is generally good if the subfault size is larger than 40 km x 40 km; otherwise, bathymetry data with finer resolution is desirable. Detailed instructions of choosing the bathymetry size can be found in Chapter 2. By contrast, the choice of subfault size has much more freedom; our study shows that the subfault size can be very large without significant influence on the predicted tsunami waves. For earthquakes with magnitude of 8.0 ˜ 9.0, the subfault size can be 60 km ˜ 100 km. In our study, the maximum subfault size results in 9 ˜ 16 subfault patches on the ruptured fault surface, so we infer that the maximum size of the subfault can be 1/4 to 1/3 of the scale of the faulting area. In Chapter 2, we also developed a method using the inverse residual to evaluate the effectiveness of tsunami buoys of different number and locations in the inversion. Results show that 2 ˜ 4 tsunami buoys are sufficient to constrain the source parameters quite well if they are optimally located. Adding data from more tsunami buoys into the inversion does not significantly improve the results. In addition, near-field stations in the source region do not have advantage against far-field stations in constraining the earthquake source parameters. Conversely, if the near-field data have short but large-amplitude waves and only such data are used in the inversion, it can result in very large but unreal slip near the seabed. The optimal locations for tsunami buoys of different number can also be obtained from this method. Inversions of tele-seismic data show that the inverse results do not necessarily predict the tsunami waves, unless iterative forward modeling techniques are applied to adjust the inverse parameters. Thus, from the standpoint of tsunami warning, tele-seismic data are not able to precisely predict the tsunami wave height or an accurate inundation map, although the estimation of earthquake magnitude and depth might be enough to issue a crude warning. In addition, numerical experiments are conducted and measurements of the computational time show that the calculation of tsunami Green's functions for an area of ˜ 30° only takes several minutes using 256 computational cores. Thus, it is possible to calculate the Green's functions in real time for a tsunami warning system. Finally, a case study is conducted for the South China Sea using the method of inverse residual, leading to recommendations of number and location of tsunami buoys required for a warning system near the Manila trench.

  13. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Angela N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

  14. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  15. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Horspool

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500–2500 years, the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1–10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1–1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  16. Tsunami Modeling: Development of Benchmarked Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss the progress towards the development of benchmarked models for forecasting tsunami inundation. Tsunami hydrodynamics has progressed slower than research in other natural hazards, because for several decades only the largest tsunamis were being reported. With the exception of the 1960 and 1964 events, there had been only qualitative information on inundation. While the basic equations for analysis have been known for decades, the existing synthesis leading to real time forecasts as currently available had to await the development of sophisticated modeling tools, the large-scale laboratory experiments in the 1980s-1990s and the tsunameter recordings of 2003 and since. The field survey results in the 1990s (Synolakis and Okal, 2005) served as crude proxies to free-field tsunami recordings and allowed for the validation and verification of numerical procedures. State-of-the-art inundation and forecasting codes have evolved through a painstaking process of careful validation and verification which can be traced back to the 1990 NSF Catalina workshop on Long-Wave Runup Models (Liu et al., 1991). Operational tsunami forecasting was only made possible through the availability of deep ocean measurements. We will describe this journey from development of the basic field equations to forecasts, through the scientific milestones that served as benchmarks and reality checks. In summary, as research in live networks -where problems and solution ideas arise spontaneously- tsunami hydrodynamic modeling was driven by milestone scientific meetings, and post tsunami surveys that kept identifying novel problem geometries and previously unrecognized phenomena. We discuss necessary validation and verification steps for numerical codes to be used for inundation mapping, design and operations (Synolakis et al., 2007). Liu, P. L.-F., C. E. Synolakis and H. H. Yeh, 1991. Report on the International Workshop on Long-Wave Run- up. J. Fluid Mech., 229, 675-688. Synolakis, C. E. and E. A. Okal, 2005. 1992-2002: perspective on a decade of post tsunami surveys. Adv. Nat. Technol. Hazards, 23, 1-30. Synolakis, C. E., E. N. Bernard, V. V. Titov, U. Kanoglu and F. Gonzalez, 2007. Standards, criteria, and procedures for NOAA evaluation of tsunami numerical models. NOAA OAR Special Report, Contribution No 3053, NOAA/OAR/PMEL, Seattle, WA, 55 pp.

  17. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami warning system that serves regionally and delivers locally, saving lives and livelihoods, not only from tsunamis, but all coastal hazards. Through this and other platforms, physical and social scientists, emergency managers and elected officials have been working together via different mechanisms. Community based recognition programs, like the TsunamiReadyTM Program, regional tsunami exercises, sub-regional public education activities such as the Tsunami Smart campaigns, internet technologies, social media, meetings and conferences, identification of local and national champions, capitalization of news breaking tsunamis and earthquakes, economic resources for equipment and training have all been key to developing a tsunami safer Caribbean. Given these efforts, according to a 2013 survey, 93% of the countries covered by CARIBE EWS have tsunami response protocols in place, although much more work is required. In 2010 the US National Weather Service established the Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program as the first step towards a Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center in the region. In 2013 the Caribbean Tsunami Information Center was established in Barbados. Both these institutions which serve the region play a key role for promoting both the warning and educational components of the warning system.

  18. Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

  19. Real-time tsunami inundation forecasting and damage mapping towards enhancing tsunami disaster resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimura, S.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Musa, A.; Murashima, Y.

    2014-12-01

    With use of modern computing power and advanced sensor networks, a project is underway to establish a new system of real-time tsunami inundation forecasting, damage estimation and mapping to enhance society's resilience in the aftermath of major tsunami disaster. The system consists of fusion of real-time crustal deformation monitoring/fault model estimation by Ohta et al. (2012), high-performance real-time tsunami propagation/inundation modeling with NEC's vector supercomputer SX-ACE, damage/loss estimation models (Koshimura et al., 2013), and geo-informatics. After a major (near field) earthquake is triggered, the first response of the system is to identify the tsunami source model by applying RAPiD Algorithm (Ohta et al., 2012) to observed RTK-GPS time series at GEONET sites in Japan. As performed in the data obtained during the 2011 Tohoku event, we assume less than 10 minutes as the acquisition time of the source model. Given the tsunami source, the system moves on to running tsunami propagation and inundation model which was optimized on the vector supercomputer SX-ACE to acquire the estimation of time series of tsunami at offshore/coastal tide gauges to determine tsunami travel and arrival time, extent of inundation zone, maximum flow depth distribution. The implemented tsunami numerical model is based on the non-linear shallow-water equations discretized by finite difference method. The merged bathymetry and topography grids are prepared with 10 m resolution to better estimate the tsunami inland penetration. Given the maximum flow depth distribution, the system performs GIS analysis to determine the numbers of exposed population and structures using census data, then estimates the numbers of potential death and damaged structures by applying tsunami fragility curve (Koshimura et al., 2013). Since the tsunami source model is determined, the model is supposed to complete the estimation within 10 minutes. The results are disseminated as mapping products to responders and stakeholders, e.g. national and regional municipalities, to be utilized for their emergency/response activities. In 2014, the system is verified through the case studies of 2011 Tohoku event and potential earthquake scenarios along Nankai Trough with regard to its capability and robustness.

  20. Impact of Near-Field, Deep-Ocean Tsunami Observations on Forecasting the 7 December 2012 Japanese Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Wei, Yong; Tang, Liujuan; Titov, Vasily

    2014-12-01

    Following the devastating 11 March 2011 tsunami, two deep-ocean assessment and reporting of tsunamis (DART®)(DART® and the DART® logo are registered trademarks of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, used with permission) stations were deployed in Japanese waters by the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Two weeks after deployment, on 7 December 2012, a M w 7.3 earthquake off Japan's Pacific coastline generated a tsunami. The tsunami was recorded at the two Japanese DARTs as early as 11 min after the earthquake origin time, which set a record as the fastest tsunami detecting time at a DART station. These data, along with those recorded at other DARTs, were used to derive a tsunami source using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami forecast system. The results of our analysis show that data provided by the two near-field Japanese DARTs can not only improve the forecast speed but also the forecast accuracy at the Japanese tide gauge stations. This study provides important guidelines for early detection and forecasting of local tsunamis.

  1. Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Tsunami, July 12, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake occurred off the west coast of Hokkaido and the small offshore island of Okushiri in the Sea of Japan. In two to five minutes the tsunami, one of the...

  2. Evaluation of Intensity of Recent Seismogenic Tsunamis in the World Ocean from 2000 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiakov, Viacheslav K.

    2015-05-01

    Tsunami intensity on the Suc(oloviev)-Iuc(mamura) scale is one of the most important parameters for characterizing the overall size of a tsunami generated by submarine earthquakes. Consequently, this parameter is included in both global tsunami databases maintained by the National Centers for Environmental Information/World Data Service (NCEI/WDS) and the Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory of the Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (NTL/ICMMG). S. Soloviev made the initial evaluation of the intensities of a large number of destructive historical tsunamis while compiling his two historical catalogs of tsunamis in the Pacific. The Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory under the Expert Tsunami Database Project made further determinations of tsunami intensity for the events after 1975. These intensities have been periodically incorporated into the NCEI/WDS tsunami database under the Global Tsunami Database Joint ICG/ITSU-IUGG/TC Project. In the on-line version of the NCEI/WDS Tsunami Database, the data on tsunami intensity are available only for the events prior to 2003. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the temporal coverage of this important parameter for characterizing tsunamigenic events to the present in order to provide researchers with more data for analyzing the temporal and spatial tsunami occurrence. However, of the 164 tsunamigenic events in the World Ocean from 2000 to the present, we could determine the intensity value for only 44 events that is less than 27 % of the total. For the rest of the events (that is, 73 %), the intensity value cannot be determined due to the lack of data on wave heights from the nearest coast. This shows that despite a great improvement in the tsunami-recording network in the Pacific and other oceanic basins during the last two decades, the data for reliable estimates of tsunami intensity are still problematic.

  3. Response to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimura, Shunichi; Shuto, Nobuo

    2015-10-28

    We revisited the lessons of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami disaster specifically on the response and impact, and discussed the paradigm shift of Japan's tsunami disaster management policies and the perspectives for reconstruction. Revisiting the modern histories of Tohoku tsunami disasters and pre-2011 tsunami countermeasures, we clarified how Japan's coastal communities have prepared for tsunamis. The discussion mainly focuses on structural measures such as seawalls and breakwaters and non-structural measures of hazard map and evacuation. The responses to the 2011 event are discussed specifically on the tsunami warning system and efforts to identify the tsunami impacts. The nation-wide post-tsunami survey results shed light on the mechanisms of structural destruction, tsunami loads and structural vulnerability to inform structural rehabilitation measures and land-use planning. Remarkable paradigm shifts in designing coastal protection and disaster mitigation measures were introduced, leading with a new concept of potential tsunami levels: Prevention (Level 1) and Mitigation (Level 2) levels according to the level of 'protection'. The seawall is designed with reference to Level 1 tsunami scenario, while comprehensive disaster management measures should refer to Level 2 tsunami for protection of human lives and reducing potential losses and damage. Throughout the case study in Sendai city, the proposed reconstruction plan was evaluated from the tsunami engineering point of view to discuss how the post 2011 paradigm was implemented in coastal communities for future disaster mitigation. The analysis revealed that Sendai city's multiple protection measures for Level 2 tsunami will contribute to a substantial reduction of the tsunami inundation zone and potential losses, combined with an effective tsunami evacuation plan. PMID:26392623

  4. Major Tsunamis of 1992 - Nicaragua and Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At 7:16 p.m. on September 1, 1992, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.0 generated a tsunami with waves between eight and fifteen meters high that struck twenty-six...

  5. Development of tsunami hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidebooks on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guidebook of tsunami deposits survey and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, and (2) field survey on tsunami deposit to prepare the guidebook. As to (1), we especially gear to tsunami deposits distributed in the Pacific coast of Tohoku region, and organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. In addition, as to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. These results are reflected in the guidebook on the tsunami deposits in the lake as needed. (author)

  6. The Catalog of Event Data of the Operational Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) Stations at the National Data Buoy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, R.; Locke, L.; Hansen, W.; Collins, S.; McArthur, S.

    2007-12-01

    DART systems are a critical component of the tsunami warning system as they provide the only real-time, in situ, tsunami detection before landfall. DART systems consist of a surface buoy that serves as a position locater and communications transceiver and a Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) on the seafloor. The BPR records temperature and pressure at 15-second intervals to a memory card for later retrieval for analysis and use by tsunami researchers, but the BPRs are normally recovered only once every two years. The DART systems also transmit subsets of the data, converted to an estimation of the sea surface height, in near real-time for use by the tsunami warning community. These data are available on NDBC's webpages, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml. Although not of the resolution of the data recorded to the BPR memory card, the near real-time data have proven to be of value in research applications [1]. Of particular interest are the DART data associated with geophysical events. The DART BPR continuously compares the measured sea height with a predicted sea-height and when the difference exceeds a threshold value, the BPR goes into Event Mode. Event Mode provides an extended, more frequent near real-time reporting of the sea surface heights for tsunami detection. The BPR can go into Event Mode because of geophysical triggers, such as tsunamis or seismic activity, which may or may not be tsunamigenic. The BPR can also go into Event Mode during recovery of the BPR as it leaves the seafloor, or when manually triggered by the Tsunami Warning Centers in advance of an expected tsunami. On occasion, the BPR will go into Event Mode without any associated tsunami or seismic activity or human intervention and these are considered "False'' Events. Approximately one- third of all Events can be classified as "False". NDBC is responsible for the operations, maintenance, and data management of the DART stations. Each DART station has a webpage with a drop-down list of all Events. NDBC maintains the non-geophysical Events in order to maintain the continuity of the time series records. In 2007, NDBC compiled all DART Events that occurred while under NDBC's operational control and made an assessment on their validity. The NDBC analysts performed the assessment using the characteristics of the data time series, triggering criteria, and associated seismic events. The compilation and assessments are catalogued in a NDBC technical document. The Catalog also includes a listing of the one-hour, high-resolution data, retrieved remotely from the BPRs that are not available on the web pages. The Events are classified by their triggering mechanism and listed by station location and, for those Events associated with geophysical triggers, they are listed by their associated seismic events. The Catalog provides researchers with a valuable tool in locating, assessing, and applying near real-time DART data to tsunami research and will be updated following DART Events. A link to the published Catalog can be found on the NDBC DART website, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml. Reference: [1] Gower, J. and F. González (2006), U.S. Warning System Detected the Sumatra Tsunami, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(10), 105-112.

  7. Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…

  8. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  9. Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Specific Types of Emergencies Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for you to remember to practice basic hygiene during the emergency period. Always wash your hands ...

  10. Modelling of Tsunami Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeeruddin Yaacob; Norhafizah Md Sarif; Zainal Abdul Aziz

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear dispersive model based on the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation (fKdV) is developed from the approximation of Boussinesq shallow water type model. This provides the possibility of observing, in particular, the process of tsunami generation by atmospheric disturbances. The fKdV is then solved numerically via an explicit finite difference method. From the simulations, the roles of nonlinearity, dispersion and forcing terms in the process of tsunami generation are shown explicitly.

  11. Modelling of Tsunami Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeeruddin Yaacob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dispersive model based on the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation (fKdV is developed from the approximation of Boussinesq shallow water type model. This provides the possibility of observing, in particular, the process of tsunami generation by atmospheric disturbances. The fKdV is then solved numerically via an explicit finite difference method. From the simulations, the roles of nonlinearity, dispersion and forcing terms in the process of tsunami generation are shown explicitly.

  12. Dynamics of tsunami waves

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Frédéric; Dutykh, Denys

    2006-01-01

    The life of a tsunami is usually divided into three phases: the generation (tsunami source), the propagation and the inundation. Each phase is complex and often described separately. A brief description of each phase is given. Model problems are identified. Their formulation is given. While some of these problems can be solved analytically, most require numerical techniques. The inundation phase is less documented than the other phases. It is shown that methods based on Smoo...

  13. Tsunamis in Cuba?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  14. Voices from the Museum : Qualitative Research Conducted in Europe's National Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Jocelyn; Jones, Ceri; Sawyer, Andy; Tseliou, Marie-Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the findings from interviews and focus groups carried out at six European national museums with visitors and minority groups. It looks at the connections that can be made between national, European and minority identities and how these frame very different experiences of the national museum. Whilst visitors were, on the whole, convinced that national museums represented a shared, collective identity, the inclusion of minority groups in the research revealed a discernible d...

  15. A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Luchuan

    2015-04-01

    A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters Luchuan Ren, Jianwei Tian, Mingli Hong Institute of Disaster Prevention, Sanhe, Heibei Province, 065201, P.R. China It is obvious that the uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights in offshore area are partly from uncertainties of the potential seismic tsunami source parameters. A global sensitivity analysis method on the maximum tsunami wave heights to the potential seismic source parameters is put forward in this paper. The tsunami wave heights are calculated by COMCOT ( the Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model), on the assumption that an earthquake with magnitude MW8.0 occurred at the northern fault segment along the Manila Trench and triggered a tsunami in the South China Sea. We select the simulated results of maximum tsunami wave heights at specific sites in offshore area to verify the validity of the method proposed in this paper. For ranking importance order of the uncertainties of potential seismic source parameters (the earthquake's magnitude, the focal depth, the strike angle, dip angle and slip angle etc..) in generating uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights, we chose Morris method to analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to the aforementioned parameters, and give several qualitative descriptions of nonlinear or linear effects of them on the maximum tsunami wave heights. We quantitatively analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to these parameters and the interaction effects among these parameters on the maximum tsunami wave heights by means of the extended FAST method afterward. The results shows that the maximum tsunami wave heights are very sensitive to the earthquake magnitude, followed successively by the epicenter location, the strike angle and dip angle, the interactions effect between the sensitive parameters are very obvious at specific site in offshore area, and there exist differences in importance order in generating uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights for same group parameters at different specific sites in offshore area. These results are helpful to deeply understand the relationship between the tsunami wave heights and the seismic tsunami source parameters. Keywords: Global sensitivity analysis; Tsunami wave height; Potential seismic tsunami source parameter; Morris method; Extended FAST method

  16. Preparing for the next Tsunami: Training in Seismology and Tsunami Warnings in the Indian Ocean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L.; Mooney, W. D.; Kelly, A.

    2006-12-01

    The December, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the need to increase capacity building in the countries most severely affected by the international disaster. In response to this need, the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) Program, under the framework of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was developed in order to create "tsunami resilient" communities in the Indian Ocean region. The IOTWS has several components including technical assistance, regional hazard detection, prediction, and warning formulation, national dissemination and communication of warnings, local knowledge and preparedness to act, and regional or sub-regional exchange of lessons learned and best practices. A series of training courses are currently underway in the Indian Ocean region designed to improve the understanding of earthquake seismology and tsunami warnings of staff employed in the day-to-day running of the national tsunami warning systems. Learning is directed through lecturers complemented with computer- based practical sessions. To date five courses have been run, in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Each course was between 5 and 9 days in duration and was sponsored by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the IOC, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). An additional five "follow-on" courses are planned for the region and will be conducted in 2007.

  17. Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo González González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de ondas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México.We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which provides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

  18. Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante / Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, González González; Modesto, Ortiz Figueroa; José Miguel, Montoya Rodríguez.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de o [...] ndas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México. Abstract in english We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which p [...] rovides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

  19. 2004 Sumatra Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongvisessomjai, S.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A catastrophic tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused devastation in the coastal region of six southern provinces of Thailand on the Andaman Sea coast. This paper summaries the characteristics of tsunami with the aim of informing and warning the public and reducing future casualties and damage.The first part is a review of the records of past catastrophic tsunamis, namely those in Chile in 1960, Alaska in 1964, and Flores, Java, Indonesia, in 1992, and the lessons drawn from these tsunamis. An analysis and the impact of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami is then presented and remedial measures recommended.Results of this study are as follows:Firstly, the 2004 Sumatra tsunami ranked fourth in terms of earthquake magnitude (9.0 M after those in 1960 in Chile (9.5 M, 1899 in Alaska (9.2 M and 1964 in Alaska (9.1 M and ranked first in terms of damage and casualties. It was most destructive when breaking in shallow water nearshore.Secondly, the best alleviation measures are 1 to set up a reliable system for providing warning at the time of an earthquake in order to save lives and reduce damage and 2 to establish a hazard map and implement land-use zoning in the devastated areas, according to the following principles:- Large hotels located at an elevation of not less than 10 m above mean sea level (MSL- Medium hotels located at an elevation of not less than 6 m above MSL- Small hotel located at elevation below 6 m MSL, but with the first floor elevated on poles to allow passage of a tsunami wave- Set-back distances from shoreline established for various developments- Provision of shelters and evacuation directionsFinally, public education is an essential part of preparedness.

  20. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2009-01-01

    I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms), propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic) modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/ero...

  1. The March 2011 Japan tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Tappin, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The March 11th 2011 Tohoku-iki earthquake was the fifth largest on Earth in the last 50 years, it created one of the most devastating tsunamis in history. Dave Tappin describes the background to the tsunami and its impact based on his research on tsunamis and visits to Japan over the past three months.

  2. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  3. Tsunami: scientific frontiers, mitigation, forecasting and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E N; Mofjeld, H O; Titov, V; Synolakis, C E; González, F I

    2006-08-15

    Tsunamis are an ever-present threat to lives and property along the coasts of most of the world's oceans. As the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 reminded the world, we must be more proactive in developing ways to reduce their impact on our global society. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of tsunamis, presents some challenges confronting advances in the field and identifies some promising frontiers leading to a global warning system. This overview is then used to develop guidelines for advancing the science of forecasting, hazard mitigation programmes and the development of public policy to realize a global system. Much of the information on mitigation and forecasting draws upon the development and accomplishments of a joint state/federal partnership that was forged to reduce tsunami hazards along US coastlines-the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Programme. By integrating hazard assessment, warning guidance and mitigation activities, the programme has created a roadmap and a set of tools to make communities more resilient to local and distant tsunamis. Among the tools are forecasting, educational programmes, early warning systems and design guidance for tsunami-resilient communities. Information on international cooperation is drawn from the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). GEOSS provides an international framework to assure international compatibility and interoperability for rapid exchange of data and information. PMID:16844645

  4. The role of deposits in tsunami risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, B.

    2008-01-01

    An incomplete catalogue of tsunamis in the written record hinders tsunami risk assessment. Tsunami deposits, hard evidence of tsunami, can be used to extend the written record. The two primary factors in tsunami risk, tsunami frequency and magnitude, can be addressed through field and modeling studies of tsunami deposits. Recent research has increased the utility of tsunami deposits in tsunami risk assessment by improving the ability to identify tsunami deposits and developing models to determine tsunami magnitude from deposit characteristics. Copyright ASCE 2008.

  5. Alternative tsunami models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation

  6. May Gravity detect Tsunami ?

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D

    2004-01-01

    The present gravitational wave detectors are reaching lowest metric deviation fields able to detect galactic and extra-galactic gravitational waves, related to Supernova explosions up to Virgo cluster. The same gravitational wave detector are nevertheless almost able to reveal near field gravitational perturbations due to fast huge mass displacements as the ones occurring during largest Earth-Quake or Tsunami as the last on 26th December 2004 in Asiatic area. The prompt gravitational near field deformation by the Tsunami may reach the LIGO threshold sensitivity within 3000-10000 km distances. Their eventual discover (in LIGO data or in future on-line detector arrays) may offer the most rapid warning alarm system on earth. Nevertheless the later continental mass rearrangement and their gravitational field assessment on Earth must induce, for Richter Magnitude 9 Tsunami, a different terrestrial inertia momentum and a different rotation axis, as well as a detectable shrinking of the Earth radius of nearly R =1.7...

  7. ASTARTE: Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis are low frequency but high impact natural disasters. In 2004, the Boxing Day tsunami killed hundreds of thousands of people from many nations along the coastlines of the Indian Ocean. Tsunami run-up exceeded 35 m. Seven years later, and in spite of some of the best warning technologies and levels of preparedness in the world, the Tohoku-Oki tsunami in Japan dramatically showed the limitations of scientific knowledge on tsunami sources, coastal impacts and mitigation measures. The experience from Japan raised serious questions on how to improve the resilience of coastal communities, to upgrade the performance of coastal defenses, to adopt a better risk management, and also on the strategies and priorities for the reconstruction of damaged coastal areas. Societal resilience requires the reinforcement of capabilities to manage and reduce risk at national and local scales.ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe), a 36-month FP7 project, aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in this region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all CTWPs of NEAM and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) basic knowledge of tsunami generation and recurrence going beyond simple catalogues, with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas of NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation, with focus on real-time codes and novel statistical emulation approaches, and iii) methods for assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better tools for forecast and warning for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning and forecast, governance and resilience. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  8. A CRITICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF APPLYING SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (SVOCS) AS A GEOCHEMICAL TRACER TO INDICATE TSUNAMI BACKWASH: The Bilateral, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) Funded Project “Tsunami Deposits in Near-Shore- and Coastal Waters of Thailand (TUNWAT)”

    OpenAIRE

    Siwatt Pongpiachan; Klaus Schwarzer

    2013-01-01

    Tsunamis symbolize one of the most harmful natural disasters for low-lying coastal zones and their residents, due to both its destructive power and irregularity. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, which attack the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, resulted 5,395 of deaths and inestimable casualties, interrupted economies and social well-being in numerous coastal villages and caused in extreme alterations of both onshore and offshore coastal morphology. The Great Indian Ocean tsunami also highlighted t...

  9. Tsunami Inundation Mapping for Seward, Alaska: Tectonic and Landslide Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimani, E.; Begét, J.; Hansen, R.; Marriott, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Alaska Tsunami Modeling Team participates in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential tsunami inundation of coastal communities in Alaska. We address the problem of predicting runup of tsunami waves by solving nonlinear shallow-water equations with a finite-difference method. Embedded grids of different resolution are employed to increase spatial resolution in the shelf area. Numerical simulations yield runup heights, extent of maximum inundation for chosen tsunami scenarios, depths of inundation on dry land, and maximum velocity current distribution in inundation zones. Seward, a community in the Prince William Sound area, suffered an extensive damage and 12 fatalities during the 1964 tsunami. The 1964 Good Friday earthquake induced submarine landsliding in deltaic sediments underlying Seward. Local tsunami waves as much as 10 m high devastated Seward minutes later. Using high resolution bathymetric imagery we identified and mapped the extent of submarine landslides which originated near Seward, as well as multiple submarine landslides from other deltas around upper Resurrection Bay. Three distinct slides occurred at Seward, but only the largest slide produced subaerial failures in the delta fan, affecting 1250 m of the Seward waterfront. Estimated slide volumes, based on our imagery analysis and post-1964 coring studies, ranged from about 15,000,000 m3 to 33,000,000 m3. Previously unrecognized submarine landslides were also mapped at Fourth of July valley and other deltas in Resurrection Bay. These slides were smaller in volume then the slides from Seward itself. Some of these slides may predate the 1964 earthquake, and indicate repeated occurrences of submarine landslides and tsunamis following great earthquakes. We consider several tsunami scenarios for Seward inundation mapping that include both tectonic and landslide sources.

  10. Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Eskijian, M.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase tsunami hazard preparedness and mitigation in maritime communities (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The initial goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine 'safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. We will present details of a new initiative to evaluate the future likelihood of failure for different structural components of a harbor, leading to the identification of high priority areas for mitigation. This presentation will focus on the results from California ports and harbors across the State, and will include feedback we have received from discussions with local harbor masters and port authorities. To help promote accurate and consistent products, the authors are also working through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to organize a tsunami current model benchmark workshop.

  11. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerasinghe Priyanie H

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets and increased monitoring in the affected area. Internationally donated antimalarials were either redundant or did not comply with national drug policy, however, few seem to have entered circulation outside government control. Despite distribution of mosquito nets, still a large population is relatively exposed to mosquito bites due to inadequate housing. There were no indications of increased malaria vector abundance. Overall it is concluded that the tsunami has not negatively influenced the malaria situation in Sri Lanka.

  12. Healthy universities--time for action: a qualitative research study exploring the potential for a national programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-03-01

    Despite the absence of national or international steers, there is within England growing interest in the Healthy University approach. This article introduces Healthy Universities; reports on a qualitative study exploring the potential for a national programme contributing to health, well-being and sustainable development; and concludes with reflections and recommendations. The study used questionnaires and interviews with key informants from English higher education institutions and national stakeholder organizations. The findings confirmed that higher education offers significant potential to impact positively on the health and well-being of students, staff and wider communities through education, research, knowledge exchange and institutional practice. There was strong support for extending the healthy settings approach beyond schools and further education, through a National Healthy Higher Education Programme that provides a whole system Healthy University Framework. Informants argued that although there are important public health drivers, it will also be necessary to show how a Healthy Universities can help achieve core business objectives and contribute to related agendas such as sustainability. Two models were discussed: an accreditation scheme with externally assessed standardized achievement criteria; and a flexible and light-touch framework focusing on change-related processes and utilizing self-assessment. While highlighting the appeal of league tables, many informants feared that a top-down approach could backfire, generating resistance and resulting in minimal compliance. In contrast, the majority felt that a process-focused aspirational model would be more likely to win hearts and minds and facilitate system-level change. Key recommendations relate to national programme development, research and evaluation and international collaboration and networking. PMID:20167825

  13. Alternative Tsunami Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A.; Lyatskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 "Eur. J. Phys." 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 "Eur. J. Phys." 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional,…

  14. Tiché tsunami bez hranic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kone?ný, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 6, ?. 24 (2008), s. 14. ISSN 1801-1446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : food crisis Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.respekt.cz/search.php?f_search_text=tich%E9+ tsunami +bez+hranic

  15. Partnership disengagement from primary community care networks (PCCNs): A qualitative study for a national demonstration project

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Cheng-Chieh; Liau Chia-Yi; Lin Yung-Kai; Lin Blossom

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Primary Community Care Network (PCCN) Demonstration Project, launched by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) in 2003, is still in progress. Partnership structures in PCCNs represent both contractual clinic-to-clinic and clinic-to-hospital member relationships of organizational aspects. The partnership structures are the formal relationships between individuals and the total network. Their organizational design aims to ensure effective communication, coordina...

  16. A review of tsunami simulation activities for NPPs safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on finite difference numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The present paper evaluate the results of various simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatra model, four and five fault Sumatra Model, Nias insignificant tsunami and also some parametric studies results for tsunami waring system scenario generation. A study is carried for the tsunami due to Sumatra earthquake in 2004 with TUNAMI-N2 software. Bathymetry data available from the National Geophysical Data Center was used for this study. The single fault and detailed four and five fault data were used to calculate sea surface deformations which were subsequently used as initial conditions for Sumatra 2004 tsunami propagation simulation. The paper also presents a hypothetical study by assuming the earthquake rupture on northern fault only as compared to complete (northern and southern) rupture segment and the resulting tsunami propagation scenario. All of the studies provide the results in terms of wave heights and compare them with the reported simulation, satellite observation and field observed reported data. The paper includes the parametric studies on the possible fault line for Sumatra fault line for support for early tsunami warning. The various other events i.e Java, Nias, Makaran, Andaman etc are also discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM IN THE PACIFIC: Brief Historical Review of its Establishment and Institutional Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2015 marks the 50th anniversary of operations of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific Ocean. The present report describes briefly the establishment of the rudimentary early tsunami warning system in 1948 by the USA after the disastrous tsunami of April 1, 1946, generated by a great earthquake in the Aleutian Islands, struck without warning the Hawaiian Islands and other parts of the Pacific. Also reviewed are the progressive improvements made to the U.S. warning system, following the destructive tsunamis of 1952, 1957, 1960 and 1964, and of the early, support efforts undertaken in the U.S.A., initially by the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics of the University of Hawaii, by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and by the Honolulu Observatory - later renamed Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC. Following the 1964 Alaska tsunami, there was increased international cooperation, which resulted in a better understanding of the tsunami phenomenon and the development of a new field of Science of Tsunami Hazards in support of the early U.S. Warning System. Continuous supporting international cooperative efforts after 1965, resulted in the integration of the U.S. early warning system with other early regional tsunami warning systems of other nations to become the International Tsunami Warning System under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNESCO for the purpose of mitigating the disaster’s impact in the Pacific, but later expanded to include other regions. Briefly reviewed in this paper is the subsequent institutional support of the International Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific, by the International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC, the International Tsunami Coordination Group (ICG/ITS, the Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (ATWC, the Joint Tsunami Research Effort (JTRE, NOAA’s National Geophysical Center (NGDC, the Pacific Marine Laboratory (PMEL of NOAA and of the later-established Joint Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research (JIMAR and the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST of the University of Hawaii, in close cooperation with scientists at the Pacific Division of the National Weather Service (NWS of NOAA. Additionally, the present paper reviews briefly the significant supportive roles of the U.S. Geological Survey, of U.S. Universities and of other national and international governmental and of non-governmental institutions. A historical review of the pioneering research efforts in support of the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific will be provided in a separate paper.

  18. THE FRENCH TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NORTHEAST ATLANTIC: CENALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hébert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CENALT (CENtre d’ALerte aux Tsunamis is responsible for the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC. The CENALT is established in the framework of the Unesco/IOC/ICG/NEAMTWS. Its objective is to transmit a warning message in less than fifteen minutes for any events that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North- Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions of European and North African countries is processed with software that permits early epicenter location of seismic events and measurements of expected tsunami impacts on the shore. On-duty analysts revise interactively all the generated information and use references of historical tsunami and earthquake databases - as well as computed tsunami scenarios – in order to disseminate the more comprehensive message possible.

  19. CAT: the INGV Tsunami Alert Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, A.

    2014-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the tsunami threat posed by large earthquakes occurring in the Mediterranean sea was formally taken into account by many countries around the Mediterranean basin. In the past, large earthquakes that originated significant tsunamis occurred nearly once per century (Maramai et al., 2014, Annals of Geophysics). The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) received a mandate from the international community to coordinate the establishment of the ICG/NEAMTWS (http://neamtic.ioc-unesco.org) through Resolution IOC-XXIII-14. Since then, several countries (France, Turkey, Greece) have started operating as candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) in the Mediterranean. Italy started operating as cTWP on October 1st, 2014. The Italian cTWP is formed by INGV ("Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)", DPC ("Dipartimento di Protezione Civile") and ISPRA ("Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale"). INGV is in charge of issuing the alert for potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes, ISPRA provides the sea level recordings and DPC is in charge of disseminating the alert. INGV established the tsunami alert center (CAT, "Centro di Allerta Tsunami") at the end of 2013. CAT is co-located with the INGV national seismic surveillance center operated since many years. In this work, we show the technical and personnel organization of CAT, its response to recent earthquakes, and the new procedures under development for implementation. (*) INGV-CAT WG: Amato A., Basili R., Bernardi F., Bono A., Danecek P., De Martini P.M., Govoni A., Graziani L., Lauciani V., Lomax, A., Lorito S., Maramai A., Mele F., Melini D., Molinari I., Nostro C., Piatanesi A., Pintore S., Quintiliani M., Romano F., Selva J., Selvaggi G., Sorrentino D., Tonini R.

  20. Speeding up tsunami wave propagation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    Trans-oceanic wave propagation is one of the most time/CPU consuming parts of the tsunami modeling process. The so-called Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package, developed at PMEL NOAA USA (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA), is widely used to evaluate the tsunami parameters. However, it takes time to simulate trans-ocean wave propagation, that is up to 5 hours CPU time to "drive" the wave from Chili (epicenter) to the coast of Japan (even using a rather coarse computational mesh). Accurate wave height prediction requires fine meshes which leads to dramatic increase in time for simulation. Computation time is among the critical parameter as it takes only about 20 minutes for tsunami wave to approach the coast of Japan after earthquake at Japan trench or Sagami trench (as it was after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011). MOST solves numerically the hyperbolic system for three unknown functions, namely velocity vector and wave height (shallow water approximation). The system could be split into two independent systems by orthogonal directions (splitting method). Each system can be treated independently. This calculation scheme is well suited for SIMD architecture and GPUs as well. We performed adaptation of MOST package to GPU. Several numerical tests showed 40x performance gain for NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU vs. single core of Intel i7 processor. Results of numerical experiments were compared with other available simulation data. Calculation results, obtained at GPU, differ from the reference ones by 10^-3 cm of the wave height simulating 24 hours wave propagation. This allows us to speak about possibility to develop real-time system for evaluating tsunami danger.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Six Historical Transoceanic Tsunami Events Using a Robust Finite Volume Method on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali Farahani, R.; Li, S.; Mohammed, F.; Astill, S.; Williams, C. R.; Lee, R.; Wilson, P. S.; Srinvias, B.

    2014-12-01

    Six transoceanic historical tsunami events including Japan Tohoku tsunami (2011), Chile Maule tsunami (2010), Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), Japan Nankai tsunami (1946), Chile Valdivia tsunami (1960), and Alaska tsunami (1964) have been modeled using a 2D well-balanced shallow water numerical model. The model solves the nonlinear 2D shallow water equations using an upwind finite volume method and is shown in this study to be capable of modeling the tsunami waves and resulting inundations over complex topography and bathymetry. The finite volume method is capable of modeling the wetting and drying of the bed surface at the coastline with no numerical instabilities and the inundation is modeled by allowing the computational cells to dynamically change from dry to wet. The numerical model implements parallel computations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which enables the model to implement detailed modeling of inundation of small-scale coastal regions in a short simulation time. The slip distribution and seismic moment of the six earthquake driven tsunami events are introduced to the model as the initial condition including coastal uplift and subsidence. Both local regions and far-field regions affected by these tsunami waves are numerically studied and the resulting run-up and tsunami inundations are compared with the recorded observation data provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) including coastal tide gauges and eyewitness observation data. The GPU-based finite volume model indicates accuracy and robustness as well as short simulation time that can be used for transoceanic tsunami waves modeling including real-time numerical modeling of tsunami events and their inland inundations.

  2. Tsunami Impacts in River Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, E.; Tanaka, H.; Roh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Chilean and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami events demonstrated the tsunami's ability to penetrate much farther along rivers than the ground inundation. At the same time, while tsunami impacts to the coastal areas have been subject to countless studies, little is known about tsunami propagation in rivers. Here we examine the field data and conduct numerical simulations to gain better understanding of the tsunami impacts in rivers.The evidence which motivated our study is comprised of water level measurements of the aforementioned tsunamis in multiple rivers in Japan, and the 2011 Tohoku and some other tsunamis in the Columbia River in the US. When the available tsunami observations in these very different rivers are brought together, they display remarkably similar patterns not observed on the open coast. Two phenomena were discovered in the field data. First, the phase of the river tide determines the tsunami penetration distance in a very specific way common to all rivers. Tsunami wave progressively disappears on receding tide, whereas high tide greatly facilitates the tsunami intrusion, as seen in the Figure. Second, a strong near-field tsunami causes substantial and prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. As the 2011 tsunami intruded rivers in Japan, the water level along rivers rose 1-2 m and stayed high for many hours, with the maximum rise occurring several km from the river mouth. The rise in the water level at some upstream gaging stations even exceeded the tsunami amplitude there.Using the numerical experiments, we attempt to identify the physics behind these effects. We will demonstrate that the nonlinear interactions among the flow components (tsunami, tide, and riverine flow) are an essential condition governing wave dynamics in tidal rivers. Understanding these interactions might explain some previous surprising observations of waves in river environments. Figure: Measurements of the 2010/02/27 tsunami along Naruse and Yoshida rivers, Japan, showing progressive development of the tsunami wave modulation by tide. The two rivers flow together the first 0.9 km from Sendai Bay. The distance from the river mouth (rkm) is shown in the plots. Blue dots - original data sampled at 10 min; cyan - deduced tide; red - de-tided surface elevation.

  3. When is a Tsunami a Mega-Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.; Goto, K.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami is commonly called a mega-tsunami, and this attribute has also been linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. However, since this term was first coined in the early 1990's there have been very few attempts to define it. As such it has been applied in a rather arbitrary fashion to a number of tsunami characteristics, such as wave height or amplitude at both the source and at distant locations, run-up height, geographical extent and impact. The first use of the term is related to a tsunami generated by a large bolide impact and indeed it seems entirely appropriate that the term should be used for such rare events on geological timescales. However, probably as a result of media-driven hyperbole, scientists have used this term at least twice in the last decade, which is hardly a significant portion of the geological timescale. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that these recent unexpectedly large events do not fall in the category of mega-tsunami but into a category of exceptional events within historical experience and local perspective. The use of the term mega-tsunami over the past 14 years is discussed and a definition is provided that marks the relative uniqueness of these events and a new term, appropriately Japanese in origin, namely that of souteigai-tsunami, is proposed. Examples of these tsunamis will be provided.

  4. A qualitative analysis of exemplary elementary science teachers' use and practice of the National Science Education Teaching Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Margaret Evans

    The dissertation's purpose was to document and discuss what 10 elementary science teachers, deemed exemplary by administrators, do in the science classroom to reflect the National Science Education Teaching Standards. To make implications for teacher education this report also explored these teachers' science professional development backgrounds. A qualitative triangulated approach of surveys, interviews and observations was used to document actualities, of what theorists have proposed should take place in a standards-based elementary science classroom. Several behavior patterns were identified among these exemplary teachers and their students. These teachers organized for collaborative and individual responsibility; planned according to the needs and interests of their students; encouraged scientific discourse and decision making among their students; facilitated the scientific inquiry process with hands-on, higher-order activities; and used alternative assessment strategies. They were involved in collaboration with peers in planning, training, and decision malting at the school, district, state, and national levels. Exposure to professional development and experience were identified as having the greatest influence on these exemplary teachers. During science lessons taught by these teachers, students were observed in high degrees of cooperation and collaboration with peers while engaging in higher-order discourse and process inquiry, regardless of their academic or social levels. Implications for science teachers' professional development are made, as are suggestions for future research in this area.

  5. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Coral Damage and Tsunami Dynamics; Case Study: 2009 Samoa Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya I.; Titov, Vasily V.; Roe, Gerard H.

    2015-08-01

    On September 29, 2009, an Mw = 8.1 earthquake at 17:48 UTC in Tonga Trench generated a tsunami that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga islands. Tutuila island, which is located 250 km from the earthquake epicenter, experienced tsunami flooding and strong currents on the north and east coasts, causing 34 fatalities (out of 192 total deaths from this tsunami) and widespread structural and ecological damage. The surrounding coral reefs also suffered heavy damage. The damage was formally evaluated based on detailed surveys before and immediately after the tsunami. This setting thus provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between tsunami dynamics and coral damage. In this study, estimates of the maximum wave amplitudes and coastal inundation of the tsunami are obtained with the MOST model (Tuc(itov) and Suc(ynolakis), J. Waterway Port Coast Ocean Eng: pp 171, 1998; Tuc(itov) and Guc(onzalez,) NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL 112:11, 1997), which is now the operational tsunami forecast tool used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The earthquake source function was constrained using the real-time deep-ocean tsunami data from three DART® (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting for Tsunamis) systems in the far field, and by tide-gauge observations in the near field. We compare the simulated run-up with observations to evaluate the simulation performance. We present an overall synthesis of the tide-gauge data, survey results of the run-up, inundation measurements, and the datasets of coral damage around the island. These data are used to assess the overall accuracy of the model run-up prediction for Tutuila, and to evaluate the model accuracy over the coral reef environment during the tsunami event. Our primary findings are that: (1) MOST-simulated run-up correlates well with observed run-up for this event (r = 0.8), it tends to underestimated amplitudes over coral reef environment around Tutuila (for 15 of 31 villages, run-up is underestimated by more than 10 %; in only 5 was run-up overestimated by more than 10 %), and (2) the locations where the model underestimates run-up also tend to have experienced heavy or very heavy coral damage (8 of the 15 villages), whereas well-estimated run-up locations characteristically experience low or very low damage (7 of 11 villages). These findings imply that a numerical model may overestimate the energy loss of the tsunami waves during their interaction with the coral reef. We plan future studies to quantify this energy loss and to explore what improvements can be made in simulations of tsunami run-up when simulating coastal environments with fringing coral reefs.

  6. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES PART 3

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2009-01-01

    This is Part 3 of Tsunami Information Sources published by Robert L. Wiegel, as Technical Report UCB/HEL 2006-3 of the Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory of the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering of the University of California at Berkeley. Part 3 is published in "SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS" -with the author's permission -so that it can receive wider distribution and use by the Tsunami Scientific Community.

  7. TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei G. Marchuk

    2009-01-01

    This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numer...

  8. Everyday networks, politics, and inequalities in post-tsunami recovery: fisher livelihoods in South Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, K. N.; Daley, P. O.; Jeffrey, C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how livelihoods are recovering in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka through the lens of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the social networks approach—methods of inquiry that have gained considerable impetus in livelihoods research. The study is conducted with reference to two tsunami-affected fisher villages in the Hambantota District, Southern Province. It employs a qualitative ethnographic methodology that examines narratives emergi...

  9. A review of potential tsunami impacts to the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkl, C.; Pelinovsky, E.

    2012-04-01

    Destructive tsunamis in the eastern Mediterranean and Red seas, induced by earthquakes and/or volcanic activity, pose potential hazards to docked seaport shipping and fixed harbor infrastructure as well as to in-transit international shipping within the Suez Canal. Potential vulnerabilities of the Suez Canal to possible tsunami impacts are reviewed by reference to geological, historical, archaeoseismological, and anecdotal data. Tsunami catalogues and databases compiled by earlier researchers are perused to estimate potential return periods for tsunami events that could affect directly the Suez Canal and its closely associated operational infrastructures. Analysis of these various records indicates a centurial return period, or multiples thereof, for long-wave repetition that could generally affect the Nile Delta. It is estimated that tsunami waves 2 m high would have a breaking length about 5 km down Canal whereas a 10 m wave break would occur about 1 km into the Canal. Should a tsunami strike the eastern flanks of the Nile Delta, it would damage Egypt's maritime infrastructure and multi-national commercial vessels and military ships then using the Canal.

  10. Implementing a National Scottish Digital Health & Wellbeing Service at Scale: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholders' Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakoba, Ruth; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Watson, Nicholas; Mair, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are being used as part of international efforts to revolutionize healthcare in order to meet increasing demands such as the rising burden of chronic disease and ageing populations. In Scotland there is a government push towards a national service (Living It Up) as a single point of reference where citizens can access information, products and services to support their health and wellbeing. The aim of the study is to examine implementation issues including the challenges or facilitators which can help to sustain this intervention. We gathered data in three ways: a) participant observation to gain an understanding of LiU (N=16); b) in-depth interviews (N=21) with stakeholders involved in the process; and c) analysis of documentary evidence about the progress of the implementation (N=45). Barriers included the need to "work at risk" due to delays in financing, inadequate infrastructure and skill-set deficiencies, whilst facilitators included trusted relationships, champions and a push towards normalisation. The findings suggest that a Scottish ehealth service is achievable but identifies key considerations for future large scale initiatives. PMID:26262098

  11. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES PART 2

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2006-01-01

    Tsunami Information Sources (Robert L. Wiegel, University of California, Berkeley, CA, UCB/HEL 2005-1, 14 December 2005, 115 pages), is available in printed format, and on a diskette. It is also available in electronic format at the Water Resources Center Archives, University of California, Berkeley, CA http:www.lib.berkeley.edu/WRCA/tsunamis.htmland in the International Journal of The Tsunami Society, Science of Tsunami Hazards (Vol. 24, No. 2, 2006, pp 58-171) at http://www.sthjournal.org/s...

  12. Tsunami Tallinna lahel / Vivika Veski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veski, Vivika

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Küberneetika Instituudis tehtav mere- ja rannikuteaduse alane töö on pälvinud rahvusvahelist tähelepanu. Tallinna laht võib anda maailmale vastuse, kuidas kaitsta end tsunami eest

  13. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: from Publication to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.; Burkett, E. R.; Bwarie, J.; Campbell, N. M.; Johnson, L. A.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Porter, K.; Real, C. R.; Ritchie, L. A.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario modeled a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. We presented the likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the scenario tsunami. The intended users were those responsible for making mitigation decisions before and those who need to make rapid decisions during future tsunamis. The Tsunami Scenario process is being evaluated by the University of Colorado's Natural Hazards Center; this is the first time that a USGS scenario of this scale has been formally and systematically evaluated by an external party. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario was publicly introduced in September, 2013, through a series of regional workshops in California that brought together emergency managers, maritime authorities, first responders, elected officials and staffers, the business sector, state agencies, local media, scientific partners, and special districts such as utilities (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1170/). In March, 2014, NOAA's annual tsunami warning exercise, PACIFEX, was based on the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Many groups conducted exercises associated with PACIFEX including the State of Washington and several counties in California. San Francisco had the most comprehensive exercise with a 3-day functional exercise based on the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. In addition, the National Institutes of Health ran an exercise at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach in April, 2014, building on the Tsunami Scenario, focusing on the recovery phase and adding a refinery fire. The benefits and lessons learned include: 1) stimulating dialogue among practitioners to solve problems; 2) seeing groups add extra components to their exercises that best address their specific concerns; 3) providing groups with information packaged specifically for them; 4) recognizing the value of having scenario developers personally present the scenario to user groups and 5) having the SAFRR work applied to support ongoing activities by and future directions of the California state tsunami program.

  14. The Tsunami challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Pietro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Many lives could have been saved on 26 December 2004, when the tsunami unleashed by an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra struck a dozen coastal villages along the Indian Ocean. Those lives could have been saved if, on that day, science communication had not resulted in a complete failure to communicate scientific information adequately in many cases, in different places and at different levels.

  15. Tsunami Field Survey for the Solomon Islands Earthquake of April 1, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Y.; Tanioka, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsuji, Y.; Namegaya, Y.; Murata, M.; Woodward, S.

    2007-12-01

    Two weeks after the 2007 off-Solomon earthquake, an international tsunami survey team (ITST) of Japanese and US researchers performed a post tsunami survey in Ghizo and adjacent islands. Main purpose of the team was to provide information on the earthquake and tsunami to the national disaster council of the Solomon Islands, who was responsible for the disaster management at that time. The ITST had interview with the affected people and conducted reconnaissance mapping of the tsunami heights and flow directions. Tsunami flow heights at beach and inland were evaluated from watermarks on buildings and the position of broken branches and stuck materials on trees. These tsunami heights along the southern to western coasts of Ghizo Island were ca. 5m (a.s.l.). Tsunami run-up was traced by distribution of floating debris that carried up by the tsunami and deposited at their inundation limit. The maximum run-up was measured at Tapurai of Simbo Island to be ca. 9 m. Most of the inundation area was covered by 0-10 cm thick tsunami deposit that consists of beach sand, coral peaces and eroded soil. Coseismic uplift and subsidence were clearly identified by changes of the sea level before and after the earthquake, that were inferred by eyewitness accounts and evidences such as dried up coral reeves. These deformation patterns, as well as the tsunami height distribution, could constrain the earthquake fault geometry and motion. It is worthy of mention that the tsunami damage in villages in Ranongga Island has significantly reduced by 2-3 m uplift before the tsunami attack.

  16. A qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Cruz, Jason Dela; Massetti, Greta M; Mahendra, Reshma

    2015-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) funded eight National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2005 to 2010 and two Urban Partnership Academic Centers of Excellence (UPACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2006 to 2011. The ACEs and UPACEs constitute DVP's 2005-2011 ACE Program. ACE Program goals include partnering with communities to promote youth violence (YV) prevention and fostering connections between research and community practice. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 ACE Program using an innovative approach for collecting and analyzing data from multiple large research centers via a web-based Information System (ACE-IS). The ACE-IS was established as an efficient mechanism to collect and document ACE research and programmatic activities. Performance indicators for the ACE Program were established in an ACE Program logic model. Data on performance indicators were collected through the ACE-IS biannually. Data assessed Centers' ability to develop, implement, and evaluate YV prevention activities. Performance indicator data demonstrate substantial progress on Centers' research in YV risk and protective factors, community partnerships, and other accomplishments. Findings provide important lessons learned, illustrate progress made by the Centers, and point to new directions for YV prevention research and programmatic efforts. PMID:26319174

  17. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms, propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/erosion; hazard mitigation; land use planning; zoning; siting, design, construction and maintenance of structures and infrastructure; public awareness and education; distant and local sources; tsunami warning and evacuation programs; tsunami probability and risk criteria. A few references are on "sedimentary signatures" useful in the study of historic and prehistoric tsunamis (paleo-tsunamis. In addition to references specifically on tsunamis, there are references on long water wave and solitary wave theory; wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection; shelf and basin free and forced oscillations (bay and harbor response; seiches; edge waves; Mach- reflection of long water waves ("stem waves"; wave run-up on shore; energy dissipation. All are important in understanding tsunamis, and in hazard mitigation. References are given on subaerial and submarine landslide (and rockfall generated waves in reservoirs, fjords, bays, and ocean; volcano explosive eruptions/collapse; underwater and surface explosions; asteroid impact. This report is in two parts: 1 Bibliographies, books and pamphlets, catalogs, collections, journals and newsletters, maps, organizations, proceedings, videos and photos; 2 Articles, papers, reports listed alphabetically by author.Many papers on the Indian Ocean (Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004, were given at the 22nd IUGG International Tsunami Symposium, Chania, Crete, 27-29 June 2005, but had not been published at the date of this report. For the program, see http://www.gein.noa.gr/English/tsunamis.htmThis list of tsunami information sources (115 pp, about 3,300 entries is also available on a diskette, at the Water Resources Center Archives, 410 O'Brien Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1718. Most of the publications are available in the Water Resources Center Archives or the Earth Sciences Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA.I wish to acknowledge my appreciation of the great help of the staff of the Water Resources Center Archives in finding some difficult to obtain publications; in particular Paul S. Atwood for his help for those on websites and other computer sources. I want to thank John M. Wiegel for his continuous help in searching for sources on websites via computer search-engines.

  18. Generation, Propagation and Impact of Giant Tsunamis of Tectonic Origin in the Mediterranean Sea: Some Hints From Preliminary Scenario Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Tonini, R.; Zaniboni, F.

    2006-12-01

    The recent catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami occurred on December 26, 2004 raised a number of urgent issues regarding tsunamis worldwide. The event pointed out that we have very little knowledge on mega- tsunamis and on their potential impact on human habitat. The international community is starting to define a common strategy of how to deal with these mega-events, and several projects focussed on tsunamis, with emphasis on hazard and risk assessment, have recently started or are going to start soon worldwide both at national and international levels. Properly dealing with tsunami hazard and risk is of great importance also for the Mediterranean countries, that are known to have been attacked by numerous tsunamis in the past, several of which had catastrophic size and impact. Scenarios represent a very useful technique for the definition and evaluation of tsunami hazard and risk for any given region, and a basic step in the frame of tsunami mitigation and preparedness and of sustainable coastal zone development. We present some simple scenarios of earthquake-generated tsunamis in the Mediterranean. Based on earthquake and tsunami catalogues as well as on basic seismotectonics, we identify four different seismogenic areas in the western, central and eastern sectors of the Mediterranean Sea. In each case, we choose a fault system capable of generating an earthquake with magnitude equal or larger than the highest magnitude registered in that region in historical times. We simulate the propagation of each scenario tsunami by means of a shallow-water finite-element numerical code, discuss the basic features of the wave propagation and roughly identify the Mediterranean coastal sectors expected to suffer the heaviest tsunami effects. One important outcome is that all the studied scenario tsunamis are able to produce relevant effects both locally and at trans-Mediterranean distances. Furthermore, the tsunami waves attack the nearest coasts within at most 15 minutes, which poses serious constraints for designing appropriate TEWS for the Mediterranean.

  19. Tsunami flood modelling for Aceh & west Sumatra and its application for an early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Veen, B. A. D.; Vatvani, D.; Zijl, F.

    2014-05-01

    SummaryFor implementation of a regional Tsunami Early Warning System (EWS) in Sumatra island in Indonesia, a set of detailed and accurate tsunami propagation and flooding models using Delft3D were developed. The purpose of the models was not only to reproduce the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but also to determine tsunami flood hazard maps with different return periods. The model outputs have then been used to build a tsunami flooding database covering 1250 hypothetical sources for different earthquake parameters along the Sunda Trench for an EWS called RiskMap. The model simulations produced detailed information of near-shore tsunami wave height, tsunami inundation length and run-up. Smart storage of computational results, in a geo-referenced database, allows quick access to the requisite information. The result is a system capable of issuing a warning within few minutes after a detection of an earthquake. The system has been successfully installed and tested in the last two years at national and regional emergency coordination centres, National Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) and at Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Research Centre (TDMRC) in Banda Aceh.

  20. Northern Caribbean Tsunami Hazard: Earthquake and Gravity Source Contribution of the Tsunami of 2010 in Haïti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupardin, Adrien; Hébert, Hélène; Calais, Eric; Gailler, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    The Mw 7 earthquake of January 12, 2010, in Haïti was followed by a tsunami with wave heights reaching 3 m in some locations (Grand Goâve, Jacmel) on either side of the Presqu'Ile du Sud where the event took place. The tsunami was also recorded at DART buoy 42407 (about 600 km southeast of the earthquake source) and at a tide gauge in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). In the hours following the event, the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) suggested rupture of a south-dipping segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). Fritz et al. (2013) used the NEIC source model to simulate the tsunami height and match coastal run-up measurements and DART data by (1) increasing coseismic slip on the EPGF while keeping a constant Mo by scaling the regional rigidity, and (2) invoking a coastal submarine landslide in addition to ground motion. Since then, several studies have considerably improved our understanding of the 2010 Haiti earthquake source using GPS, InSAR, seismological, geological, and/or teleseismic data (Meng et al., 2012; Hayes et al., 2010, Symithe et al., 2013). All show that rupture occurred on a north-dipping blind fault (Leogâne fault) with 1/3 of its moment expressed by reverse motion and up to 60 cm of coastal uplift. Here we revisit the January 12, 2010 Haiti tsunami by modeling runup heights, DART, and tide gauge observations using these recent source models as input parameters. We propagate the tsunami using a non linear shallow water tsunami model able to account for the shoaling effect thanks to imbricated bathymetric grids. Simulations indicate run-up heights much lower than observed (1) in the Grand Goâve Bay, consistent with the hypoythesis of a landslide-triggered tsunami at this location, (2) along the southern coast of Hispaniola and at the DART buoy, closest to observations however when using Symithe et al.'s source model. We also find wave heights up to 1 m in Port-au-Prince (harbor and coastal shantytowns) when using Fritz et al.'s scaled NEIC source model, which have not been reported by the population. We conclude that this early model lacks accuracy, but additional work is needed to understand the significant wave heights observed along the southern coast and to the south of the island.

  1. A CRITICAL REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF APPLYING SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (SVOCS AS A GEOCHEMICAL TRACER TO INDICATE TSUNAMI BACKWASH: The Bilateral, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG and National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT Funded Project “Tsunami Deposits in Near-Shore- and Coastal Waters of Thailand (TUNWAT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis symbolize one of the most harmful natural disasters for low-lying coastal zones and their residents, due to both its destructive power and irregularity. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, which attack the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, resulted 5,395 of deaths and inestimable casualties, interrupted economies and social well-being in numerous coastal villages and caused in extreme alterations of both onshore and offshore coastal morphology. The Great Indian Ocean tsunami also highlighted that there are many missing jigsaw puzzle pieces in scientific knowledge, starting from the generating of tsunamis offshore to the countless influences to the marine ecosystems on the continental shelf, coastal areas and on land and to the economic and social systems consequences. As with all deposits that do not have a direct physical link to their causative sources, marine tsunami deposits must be distinguished from other deposits through regional correlation, dating and criteria for recognition within the deposits themselves. This study aims to provide comprehensive reviews on using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs as a chemical proxy to discriminate tsunami relateddeposits from typical marine sediments. The advantages and disadvantages of this chemical tracer will be critically reviewed and further discussed.

  2. SOME OPPORTUNITITES OF THE LANDSLIDE TSUNAMI HYPOTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Watts

    2001-01-01

    Tsunami sources are intimately linked to geological events. Earthquakes and landslides are shown to be part of a continuum of complicated geological phenomena. Advances in landslide tsunami research will remain coupled with marine geology research. The landslide tsunami hypothesis is shown to have originated in the scientific literature in the early 1900s. Tsunami science has been slow to embrace the hypothesis in part because of the tremendous uncertainity that it introduces into tsunami gne...

  3. Processing and presentation of high-resolution DART° data for recent significant tsunami events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; Stroker, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colorado, is an integral part of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. One of three NOAA data centers, NGDC hosts the long-term archive and management of tsunami data for research and mitigation of tsunami hazards under collaborative development between the National Weather Service, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Data Buoy Center. Archive responsibilities include the global historic tsunami event and run-up database, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART°) event and native bottom pressure and temperature observations, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, historic marigrams, and other hazards-related data and information. In terms of tsunami observations, NGDC currently process and archives all recovered native or 15 seconds high-resolution DART° bottom pressure observation time series. Tsunami signal-to-noise ratios in the deep-ocean are such that de-tiding based on a combination of tidal harmonic predictions and carefully constructed filters are necessary to obtain clean tsunami records. The processing includes removing tides using a customized version of the IOS tidal package of Mike Foreman. Additional processing is applied for parts of the records with registered tsunami events where the noise from the intra-gravity waves and components representing larger scale oceanic processes are removed by band-pass Kaiser-Bessel filters. The NGDC tsunami archive contains processed full record high-resolution observations for the period 2002-2010. An event-specific archive of real-time and native high-resolution observations recorded during recent significant tsunamis, including the March 2011 Japan Tohoku event are now available through new event pages that have been integrated with the NOAA Global Historical Tsunami Event Database. Event pages are developed to deliver comprehensive summaries of each tsunami event, including socio-economic impacts, tsunami travel time maps, raw observations, de-tided residuals, spectra of the tsunami signal compared to the energy of the background noise, and wavelets. These data are invaluable to tsunami researchers and educators as they are essential to providing a more thorough understanding of tsunamis and their propagation in the open ocean and subsequent inundation of coastal communities. All tsunami data are accessible at http://ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/recenttsunamis.shtml. Details of filtering and tide removal techniques applied during the processing of all tsunami time series are discussed and spatial distribution and density of the observations along with general statistics are presented. Results obtained from analysis of all recently recovered 15-second high-resolution DART observations for the 11 March 2011 Japan Tohoku tsunami after application of the described processing techniques are presented and show the historic nature of this event; the largest deep-ocean tsunami amplitude in recorded history.

  4. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free-waves moving away from it coexist. On an open coast, these two types of waves would never interact, but because of the lake's finite dimensions, here we show that local inundation height maxima are due to wave superposition on the shoreline. These interactions can be dramatic near the lake's corners. For instance, in a rectangular lake delimited by two opposite and plane beaches and two vertical walls, we find that a landslide tsunami results in an inundation height at a corner 50% larger than anywhere else. The nonlinear and linear models produce different inundation maps, and here we show that maximum wave runups can be increased by up to 56% when nonlinear terms are included.

  5. 77 FR 6785 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Feedback Survey for Annual Tsunami Warning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...Annual Tsunami Warning Communications Tests AGENCY: National...to gather specific feedback information following...the associated NWS communications systems. The tests...September. Post-test feedback information will be...performance of the functions of the agency,...

  6. System for Reporting High Resolution Ocean Pressures in Near Realtime for the Purposes of Tsunami Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This invention is the NOAA Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) system, which utilizes a seafloor tsunameter linked to an ocean surface buoy via...

  7. Introducing CAT (Centro di Allerta Tsunami), the Italian candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (It-cTWP) for the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Amato, Alessandro; Badiali, Lucio; Basili, Roberto; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Govoni, Aladino; Lauciani, Valentino; Lomax, Anthony; Lorito, Stefano; Mele, Francesco; Melini, Daniele; Molinari, Irene; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Selva, Jacopo; Selvaggi, Giulio; Sensale, Giampaolo; Tonini, Roberto; Vazzoler, Stefano; Zanolin, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The recently established CAT (Centro di Allerta Tsunami) at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) will be part of the Italian National Tsunami Warning Center (It-NTWC) and it is a candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) for the Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAMTWS). It-NTWC is a partnership of three Italian institutions: INGV, the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC) and the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, ISPRA) which provides the sea-level data of the Italian mareographic network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN) in quasi-real-time. CAT is the operational part of the It-NTWC based at the INGV 24/7 seismic monitoring centre in Rome. CAT will be committed to deliver tsunami warning messages to DPC and, when it will enter its operational cTWP phase, to any IOC/UNESCO member state that will subscribe for the service. The current implementation of CAT is based on the NEAMTWS Decision Matrix (DM). Earthquake parameters are determined automatically by the Early-Est (EE) software, and used as an input to DM and tsunami travel times calculation to provide warning messages, including earthquake parameters, plus level of alert and estimated tsunami arrival time at pre-defined forecast points along threatened coasts. Basing on updated automatic EE solutions, seismologist's revision, and sea-level readings subsequent messages can be delivered until warning status ends. The use of the DM allows a rapid implementation of a tsunami warning system, but it does not consider some important features to better characterize a tsunami forecast, such as the earthquake's focal mechanism, the directivity of tsunami propagation and the morphology of the coast. More sophisticated procedures are currently under development: a database of pre-calculated, or calculated on the fly on GPU cards, tsunami scenarios, and rapid moment tensor calculation. The deployment of deep-sea tsunami (pressure) sensors is envisaged as well subject to budgetary constraints. A Decision Support System (DSS) is under development in order to integrate the different sources of information (earthquake parameters estimates and prior knowledge of the tectonic setting, numerical tsunami forecast, sea-level readings), and assist decision making during the first minutes after an event. CAT participated successfully in several NEAM communication tests within its function of National Tsunami Warning Focal Point (NTWFP) and the delivery of messages to DPC, ISPRA, and local authorities has also been tested. Preliminary CAT procedures have been tested internally, that is without delivering messages, also for two recent Mediterranean earthquakes: the M=6.6 occurred the 12th October 2013 offshore Crete and the M=5.9 occurred the 28th December 2013 offshore between Turkey and Cyprus. Here, we will present the current CAT implementation and describe its future developments.

  8. Implementation and Challenges of the Tsunami Warning System in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelé, F.; Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Gutierrez, E.; Monnier, A.; Roudil, P.; Reymond, D.; Rivera, L.

    2015-03-01

    The French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT) has been in operation since 2012. It is contributing to the North-eastern and Mediterranean (NEAM) tsunami warning and mitigation system coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, and benefits from data exchange with several foreign institutes. This center is supported by the French Government and provides French civil-protection authorities and member states of the NEAM region with relevant messages for assessing potential tsunami risk when an earthquake has occurred in the Western Mediterranean sea or the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean. To achieve its objectives, CENALT has developed a series of innovative techniques based on recent research results in seismology for early tsunami warning, monitoring of sea level variations and detection capability, and effective numerical computation of ongoing tsunamis.

  9. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Masood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective decision making is required to make financial allocations based on real, rather than perceived needs. With a large part of HIV program funding dedicated to public-private partnerships, it becomes imperative to develop public sector capacity to administer contracts, coordinate and monitor activities of the non-governmental sector.

  10. Tsunami 2004 and the biological oceanography of Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Rahman, H.; Karuppasamy, P.K.; Nair, K.K.C.

    . Marine Biologists are faced with environmental crisis of new complexity, properties and consequences which are to be closely monitored. PROC. NATIONAL COMMEMORATIVE CONFERENCE ON TSUNAMI. MADURAl. - 28-29, DEC, 2006 23 Fig. 1 Cruise station positions... their gratitude to the Department of Ocean Development for the financial support and onboard facilities. References 1. Chadha, R.K., G. Latha, H. Yeh, C. Peterson and T. Katada, 2005. The tsunami of the great Sumatra earthquake of M 9.0 on 26 December 2004...

  11. Tsunami Questionnaire Survey in Heraklion Test Site, Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Antonia; Tsimi, Christina; Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Sachpazi, Maria; Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    The Heraklion city (Crete Island, Greece) has been chosen as one of the test-sites for the EU-FP7ASTARTE tsunami project. Heraklion is the biggest city in Crete Isl. and the fourth biggest in Greece with a population of about 120,000 which, however, during the summer vacation period nearly doubles. In the past, Heraklion was hit by strong, destructive tsunamis such as the ones of AD 8 August 1303, 10 October 1650 and 9 July 1956. The first and the third were caused by large tectonic earthquakes associated with the eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc the first and with the back-arc extensional regime the third. The one of 1650 was associated with the eruption of the Columbo submarine volcano in the Santorini volcanic complex. One of the activities scheduled for WP9 of ASTARTE project, which aims at building tsunami resilient societies in Europe, is dedicated to organize questionnaire surveys among the populations of the several ASTARTE test-sites. Although the questionnaire is comprised by more than 50 questions, the central concept is to better understand what people know about tsunamis and if they are ready to cope with risks associated with future tsunami occurrences. In Heraklion the survey was conducted during tourism peak season of July 2014, thus questionnaires were collected by both local people and tourists, thus representing a variety of countries. We attempted to keep balance between males and females, while the age ranged from 15 to 65. Totally, 113 persons were interviewed of which 62 were females and 51 males. From the point of view of origin, 58 out of 113 were local people and residents, 22 were Greek tourists and 29 foreign tourists. Generally, the questionnaire consists of four parts. In the first, people were asked about their relation with the area of Heraklion. In the second part, the questions considered the knowledge that people have on tsunamis as a natural, hazardous phenomenon. More precisely, people were asked questions such as what a tsunami is, if Heraklion could be affected by a tsunami, how a tsunami is generated etc. In the third part of the survey, people were asked questions regarding evacuation practices in case of a tsunami attack. In the last part, personal data, such as nationality, age, education level and more were collected. To analyse the replies received we used the statistical software SPSS. The results are really interesting showing that most people have only a general idea about the phenomenon of tsunamis while they don't feel sure about what to do or to avoid in case of a tsunami. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  12. New Approaches to Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Demonstrated in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, G. R.; Rizzo, A.; Madin, I.; Lyles Smith, R.; Stimely, L.

    2012-12-01

    Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and Oregon Emergency Management collaborated over the last four years to increase tsunami preparedness for residents and visitors to the Oregon coast. Utilizing support from the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP), new approaches to outreach and tsunami hazard assessment were developed and then applied. Hazard assessment was approached by first doing two pilot studies aimed at calibrating theoretical models to direct observations of tsunami inundation gleaned from the historical and prehistoric (paleoseismic/paleotsunami) data. The results of these studies were then submitted to peer-reviewed journals and translated into 1:10,000-12,000-scale inundation maps. The inundation maps utilize a powerful new tsunami model, SELFE, developed by Joseph Zhang at the Oregon Health & Science University. SELFE uses unstructured computational grids and parallel processing technique to achieve fast accurate simulation of tsunami interactions with fine-scale coastal morphology. The inundation maps were simplified into tsunami evacuation zones accessed as map brochures and an interactive mapping portal at http://www.oregongeology.org/tsuclearinghouse/. Unique in the world are new evacuation maps that show separate evacuation zones for distant versus locally generated tsunamis. The brochure maps explain that evacuation time is four hours or more for distant tsunamis but 15-20 minutes for local tsunamis that are invariably accompanied by strong ground shaking. Since distant tsunamis occur much more frequently than local tsunamis, the two-zone maps avoid needless over evacuation (and expense) caused by one-zone maps. Inundation mapping for the entire Oregon coast will be complete by ~2014. Educational outreach was accomplished first by doing a pilot study to measure effectiveness of various approaches using before and after polling and then applying the most effective methods. In descending order, the most effective methods were: (1) door-to-door (person-to-person) education, (2) evacuation drills, (3) outreach to K-12 schools, (4) media events, and (5) workshops targeted to key audiences (lodging facilities, teachers, and local officials). Community organizers were hired to apply these five methods to clusters of small communities, measuring performance by before and after polling. Organizers were encouraged to approach the top priority, person-to-person education, by developing Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) or CERT-like organizations in each community, thereby leaving behind a functioning volunteer-based group that will continue the outreach program and build long term resiliency. One of the most effective person-to-person educational tools was the Map Your Neighborhood program that brings people together so they can sketch the basic layout of their neighborhoods to depict key earthquake and tsunami hazards and mitigation solutions. The various person-to-person volunteer efforts and supporting outreach activities are knitting communities together and creating a permanent culture of tsunami and earthquake preparedness. All major Oregon coastal population centers will have been covered by this intensive outreach program by ~2014.

  13. TSUNAMI_DEPOSITS - Tsunami Deposits at Seaside, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a point shapefile representing tsunami deposits within the Seaside, Oregon region obtained by Brooke Fiedorowicz and Curt Peterson in 1997 and...

  14. Integrated Tsunami Data Supports Forecast, Warning, Research, Hazard Assessment, and Mitigation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Stroker, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    With nearly 230,000 fatalities, the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the deadliest tsunami in history, illustrating the importance of developing basinwide warning systems. Key to creating these systems is easy access to quality-controlled, verified data on past tsunamis. It is essential that warning centers, emergency managers, and modelers can determine if and when similar events have occurred. Following the 2004 tsunami, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) began examining all aspects of the tsunami data archive to help answer questions regarding the frequency and severity of past tsunamis. Historical databases span insufficient time to reveal a region’s full tsunami hazard, so a global database of citations to articles on tsunami deposits was added to the archive. NGDC further expanded the archive to include high-resolution tide gauge data, deep-ocean sensor data, and digital elevation models used for propagation and inundation modeling. NGDC continuously reviews the data for accuracy, making modifications as new information is obtained. These added databases allow NGDC to provide the tsunami data necessary for warning guidance, hazard assessments, and mitigation efforts. NGDC is also at the forefront of standards-based Web delivery of integrated science data through a variety of tools, from Web-form interfaces to interactive maps. The majority of the data in the tsunami archive are discoverable online. Scientists, journalists, educators, planners, and emergency managers are among the many users of these public domain data, which may be used without restriction provided that users cite data sources.

  15. Sensitivity analysis based on numerical results of various logic tree Fault parameters in the East-Sea tsunami simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chaewook; Park, Beomjin; Woo, Seungbuhm [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minkyu; Rhee, Hyunme [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    If nuclear power plants are damaged, it will cause huge amounts of damage to local country, as well as neighboring countries such as Fukushima case in 2011. Therefore nuclear power plants must prepare to extreme limit tsunami damage. Research to analyze, 1993 Okusiri Tsunami 1983 Akita Tsunami made in the existing national was done. The research area of this study is around Uljin nuclear power plant. 80 cases of tsunami near East sea of Korea was simulated and value each cases for estimating sensitivity of the fault parameter. Simulated based on the logic tree the Tsunami that might be using the COMCOT(Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model), occurring in the fault zone west of Japan. By simulating the total 80 case, to analyze the sensitivity depending on the fault parameter in the breakwater near the front of the Uljin nuclear power plant.

  16. Sensitivity analysis based on numerical results of various logic tree Fault parameters in the East-Sea tsunami simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If nuclear power plants are damaged, it will cause huge amounts of damage to local country, as well as neighboring countries such as Fukushima case in 2011. Therefore nuclear power plants must prepare to extreme limit tsunami damage. Research to analyze, 1993 Okusiri Tsunami 1983 Akita Tsunami made in the existing national was done. The research area of this study is around Uljin nuclear power plant. 80 cases of tsunami near East sea of Korea was simulated and value each cases for estimating sensitivity of the fault parameter. Simulated based on the logic tree the Tsunami that might be using the COMCOT(Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model), occurring in the fault zone west of Japan. By simulating the total 80 case, to analyze the sensitivity depending on the fault parameter in the breakwater near the front of the Uljin nuclear power plant

  17. On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Frédéric; Dutykh, Denys; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

    2012-01-01

    While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solut...

  18. On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Frédéric; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

    2012-01-01

    While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the kinematics of the rupturing process. We also consider an unusual source for tsunami generation: the sinking of a cruise ship. Then we review some aspects of tsunami run-up. In particular, we explain why the first wave of a tsunami is sometimes less devastating than the subsequent waves. A resonance effect can boost the waves that come later. We also look at a particular feature of the 11 March 2011 tsunami in Japan - the formation of macro-scale vortices - and show that these macr...

  19. Atypical infections in tsunami survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Garzoni, Christian; Emonet, Stéphane Paul; Legout, Laurence; Rilliet, Bénédict; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Bernard, Louis; Garbino, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    After a tsunami hit Asia in December 2004, 2 survivors had severe infections due to multidrug-resistant and atypical bacteria and rare fungi weeks afterwards. Treating these infections is challenging from a clinical and microbiologic point of view.

  20. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. PMID:26392617

  1. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Winter Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Food Safety After a Tsunami Language: English Español (Spanish) ... baby formula that requires no added water. Keeping Foods Cold If available, dry ice can be used ...

  2. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  3. Sedimentary Record and Morphological Effects of a Landslide-Generated Tsunami in a Polar Region: The 2000 AD Tsunami in Vaigat Strait, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.; Rosser, N. J.; Strzelecki, M. C.; Long, A. J.; Lawrence, T.; Buchwal, A.; Chague-Goff, C.; Woodroffe, S.

    2012-12-01

    To date, the effects of tsunami erosion and deposition have mainly been reported from tropical and temperate climatic zones yet tsunamis are also frequent in polar zones, particularly in fjord settings where they can be generated by landslides. Here we report the geological effects of a landslide-triggered tsunami that occurred on 21st November 2000 in Vaigat, northern Disko Bugt in west Greenland. To characterise the typical features of this tsunami we completed twelve detailed coastal transects in a range of depositional settings: cliff coasts, narrow to moderate width coastal plains, lagoons and a coastal lake. At each setting we completed a detailed map using a laser scanner and DGPS survey. The tsunami deposits were described from closely spaced trenches and, from the lake, by a series of sediment cores . At each setting we examined the sedimentological properties of the deposits, as well as their bulk geochemistry and diatom content. Selected specimens of arctic willow from inundated and non-inundated areas were collected to assess the impact of the event in their growth ring records. Samples of sediments beneath the AD 2000 deposit were studied for 137Cs to confirm the age of the tsunami and to assess the extent of erosion. Offshore sediment samples, modern beach and soils/sediments underlying the AD 2000 tsunami deposits were sampled to determine tsunami deposit sources. The observed tsunami run-up exceeded 20 m next to the tsunami trigger - a rock avalanche at Paatuut - and up to 10 m on the opposite coast of the fjord. The inland inundation distance ranged from several tens of meters to over 300 m. The wave was recorded as far as 180 km away from the source. The tsunami inundated the coast obliquely to the shoreline in all locations studied. The tsunami frequently caused erosion of existing beach ridges whilst erosional niches were formed inland. The tsunami deposits mainly comprise gravels and very coarse sand. They are over 30 cm thick close to the coast and in front of inland scarps. In the most inland parts of the inundation they are often marked only by patches of coarse sand left on the pre-tsunami soil. At several sites we observed boulder deposits, although in many cases they were likely transported as boulders in icebergs. A characteristic feature related to tsunami deposits were "mud pats" - up to 1 m in diameter and about 20 cm thick silty deposits with occasional gravels - which cover the tsunami deposit. They are interpreted as the result of melting of icebergs washed inland by the tsunami. They often occur close to the inundation limit. The mud pats are a characteristic feature for the tsunami deposits in iceberg dominated settings and are unlikely to be left by storms. The results of this study will serve as a guide for further studies of palaeotsunami in the Vaigat region and elsewhere in polar regions. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Fieldwork was supported by the Arctic Station, Disko (Danish Polar Centre). The police at Ilulissat is acknowledged for providing photographic documentation of the tsunami taken one day after the event.

  4. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami Information Sources (Robert L. Wiegel, University of California, Berkeley, CA, UCB/HEL 2005-1, 14 December 2005, 115 pages, is available in printed format, and on a diskette. It is also available in electronic format at the Water Resources Center Archives, University of California, Berkeley, CA http:www.lib.berkeley.edu/WRCA/tsunamis.htmland in the International Journal of The Tsunami Society, Science of Tsunami Hazards (Vol. 24, No. 2, 2006, pp 58-171 at http://www.sthjournal.org/sth6.htm.This is Part 2 of the report. It has two components. They are: 1.(Sections A and B. Sources added since the first report, and corrections to a few listed in the first report. 2.(Sections C and D. References from both the first report and this report, listed in two categories:Section C. Planning and engineering design for tsunami mitigation/protection; adjustments to the hazard; damage to structures and infrastructureSection D. Tsunami propagation nearshore; induced oscillations; runup/inundation (flooding and drawdown.

  5. Tsunami Forecast: Connecting Science with Warning Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunami modeling capability had been rapidly developing even before the watershed event of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami. During 1990-2000, the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, the tsunami scientific community took on the difficult task of developing the modeling capability that would provide accuracy needed for long-term tsunami forecast — tsunami hazard maps. After exhaustive field, laboratory and modeling efforts by the international scientific community, the modeling capability has been achieved with accuracy deemed sufficient for operational use. Several real-time model forecast tools started to be used at TWCs in the US and Japan. In parallel, the observational component of tsunami warning systems had been improving, including updated existing seismic and coastal sea-level stations array. New early detection and measurement system (DART) has been developed specifically for tsunami forecast applications. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami has triggered the efforts of intensive implementation of science results into operational tsunami warning capabilities. At present, several tsunami forecast systems, based on various modeling and detection capabilities, are operational. Since 2004, over 40 tsunamis, including the 2011 Japanese tsunami, provided real-time tests for the tsunami forecast system capabilities. Preliminary assessment of tsunami forecast performance will be presented based on the analysis of the U.S. operational tsunami inundation forecast. Assessing forecast performance is important to evaluate the needs for improvement and further research. Baseline of the tsunami forecast skills has now been established and will be presented based on the data from the tsunamis during the decade. Future improvements and future challenges will also be discussed.

  6. Integrating Caribbean Seismic and Tsunami Hazard into Public Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Caribbean has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 80 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Almost 90% of all these historical tsunamis have been associated with earthquakes. Just since 1842, 3510 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along the Caribbean shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. Most of the countries also have a very high exposure to earthquakes. Given the elevated vulnerability, it is imperative that government officials take steps to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of these events. Nevertheless, given the low frequency of high impact earthquakes and tsunamis, in comparison to hurricanes, combined with social and economic considerations, the needed investments are not made and disasters like the 2010 Haiti earthquake occur. In the absence of frequent significant events, an important driving force for public officials to take action, is the dissemination of scientific studies. When papers of this nature have been published and media advisories issued, public officials demonstrate heightened interest in the topic which in turn can lead to increased legislation and funding efforts. This is especially the case if the material can be easily understood by the stakeholders and there is a local contact. In addition, given the close link between earthquakes and tsunamis, in Puerto Rico alone, 50% of the high impact earthquakes have also generated destructive tsunamis, it is very important that earthquake and tsunami hazards studies demonstrate consistency. Traditionally in the region, earthquake and tsunami impacts have been considered independently in the emergency planning processes. For example, earthquake and tsunami exercises are conducted separately, without taking into consideration the compounding effects. Recognizing this deficiency, the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) which was established in 2005, decided to include the tsunami and earthquake impacts for the upcoming March 20, 2013 regional CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX tsunami exercise. In addition to the tsunami wave heights predicted by the National Weather Service Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii, the USGS PAGER and SHAKE MAP results for the M8.5 scenario earthquake in the southern Caribbean were also integrated into the manual. Additionally, in recent catastrophic planning for Puerto Rico, FEMA did request the local researchers to determine both the earthquake and tsunami impacts for the same source. In the US, despite that the lead for earthquakes and tsunamis lies within two different agencies, USGS and NOAA/NWS, it has been very beneficial that the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program partnership includes both agencies. By working together, the seismic and tsunami communities can achieve an even better understanding of the hazards, but also foster more actions on behalf of government officials and the populations at risk.

  7. Tsunami risk mapping simulation for Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H.-L.; Moh, Y.T.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Andaman mega tsunami killed about a quarter of a million people worldwide. Since then several significant tsunamis have recurred in this region, including the most recent 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami. These tsunamis grimly remind us of the devastating destruction that a tsunami might inflict on the affected coastal communities. There is evidence that tsunamis of similar or higher magnitudes might occur again in the near future in this region. Of particular concern to Malaysia are tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring along the northern part of the Sunda Trench. Further, the Manila Trench in the South China Sea has been identified as another source of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes that might trigger large tsunamis. To protect coastal communities that might be affected by future tsunamis, an effective early warning system must be properly installed and maintained to provide adequate time for residents to be evacuated from risk zones. Affected communities must be prepared and educated in advance regarding tsunami risk zones, evacuation routes as well as an effective evacuation procedure that must be taken during a tsunami occurrence. For these purposes, tsunami risk zones must be identified and classified according to the levels of risk simulated. This paper presents an analysis of tsunami simulations for the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea for the purpose of developing a tsunami risk zone classification map for Malaysia based upon simulated maximum wave heights. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  8. Vulnerability Analysis of Buildings Exposed to the Tohoku Tsunami and Implications for Use of Multi-Story Buildings for Tsunami Vertical Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, G.; Robertson, I.; Carden, L.

    2012-12-01

    Fluid and impact loads and scouring from tsunami inundation creates substantial collapse risk for coastal buildings. An April 2011 survey after the Tohoku Tsunami led by the principal author investigated cases of structural failures, successes and near failures. During the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, aerial and land-based video cameras captured the inundation at numerous locations along the Tohoku coastline of Japan. Tsunami flow depths and velocities were determined based on analysis of video records and the effects on simple benchmark structures in the flow path. Detailed field measurements and material samples were used to verify critical dimensions and properties of structures. A subsequent National Science Foundation-sponsored survey captured even more detailed LiDAR data of selected structures which was used to validate structural deformations from the structural analysis. The ASCE Structural Engineering Institute will be incorporating tsunami design provisions in the next update of the national load standard, ASCE 7-2016, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. We will present several relevant case studies of full-scale tsunami loads on structures used to evaluate design provisions being considered for these provisions. The first two authors are also working on the performance-based tsunami design criteria, where a building's performance objective for design is based on the role it plays in the community. Drawing on findings from research and post-tsunami building vulnerability analyses, the authors will discuss how these findings are informing the direction of the forthcoming ASCE 7-2016 chapter on Tsunami Loads and Effects that will be the first national tsunami design provisions applicable for all US states with Pacific Ocean coastlines. During the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, many thousands of people were saved by taking shelter in multi-story reinforced concrete buildings after the tsunami warning was issued. The first two authors visited a number of these structures that were inundated in the tsunami, and incorporated these lessons in updated provisions for the second edition of FEMA P646, Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis (2012). The significant changes to these revised guidelines for new, specially designed and constructed facilities will be explained. Regardless of whether or not a multi-story building is designated as a tsunami evacuation refuge, a sufficiently robust and tall building may offer significant basic life safety protection to occupants. Therefore, with the emergence of new guidelines and code standards, and with expertise in evaluating particular modes of structural failures caused during a tsunami, it will be feasible to design buildings to withstand tsunami events. This is desirable for taller buildings that may serve as refuges, taller buildings that may not be easily evacuated, buildings whose failure may pose a substantial risk to human life, and essential facilities that by necessity of function may exist in the inundated coastal zone.

  9. Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey : Status Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kalafat, D.; Yilmazer, M.; Comoglu, M.; Sanli, U.; Gurbuz, C.; Erdik, M.

    2012-04-01

    This is an update to EGU2011-3094 informing on the progress of the establishment of a National Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey (NTWC-TR) under the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (IOC-ICG/NEAMTWS) initiative. NTWC-TR is integrated into the 24/7 operational National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) of KOERI comprising 129 BB and 61 strong motion sensors. Based on an agreement with the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (DEMP), data from 10 BB stations located in the Aegean and Mediterranean Coast is now transmitted in real time to KOERI. Real-time data transmission from 6 primary and 10 auxiliary stations from the International Monitoring System will be in place in the very near future based on an agreement concluded with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2011. In an agreement with a major Turkish GSM company, KOERI is enlarging its strong-motion network to promote real-time seismology and to extend Earthquake Early Warning system countrywide. 25 accelerometers (included in the number given above) have been purchased and installed at Base Transceiver Station Sites in coastal regions within the scope of this initiative. Data from 3 tide gauge stations operated by General Command of Mapping (GCM) is being transmitted to KOERI via satellite connection and the aim is to integrate all tide-gauge stations operated by GCM into NTWC-TR. A collaborative agreement has been signed with the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and MOD1 Tsunami Scenario Database and TAT (Tsunami Analysis Tool) are received by KOERI and user training was provided. The database and the tool are linked to SeisComp3 and currently operational. In addition KOERI is continuing the work towards providing contributions to JRC in order to develop an improved database (MOD2), and also continuing work related to the development of its own scenario database using NAMI DANCE Tsunami Simulation and Visualization Software. Further improvement of the Tsunami Warning System at the NTWC-TR will be accomplished through KOERI's participation in the FP-7 Project TRIDEC focusing on new technologies for real-time intelligent earth information management to be used in Tsunami Early Warning Systems. In cooperation with Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS), KOERI has its own GTS system now and connected to GTS via its own satellite hub. The system has been successfully utilized during the First Enlarged Communication Test Exercise (NEAMTWS/ECTE1), where KOERI acted as the message provider. KOERI is providing guidance and assistance to a working group established within the DEMP on issues such as Communication and Tsunami Exercises, National Procedures and National Tsunami Response Plan. KOERI is also participating in NEAMTIC (North-Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Information Centre) Project. Finally, during the 8th Session of NEAMTWS in November 2011, KOERI has announced that NTWC-TR is operational as of January 2012 covering Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara and Black Seas and KOERI is also ready to operate as an Interim Candidate Tsunami Watch Provider.

  10. Google Earth Views of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Pilot Study, Seaside, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, F. L.; Venturato, A. J.; Geist, E. L.

    2006-12-01

    Virtual globes such as Google Earth provide immediate geographic context for research data for coastal hazard planning. We present Google Earth views of data from a Tsunami Pilot Study conducted within and near Seaside and Gearhart, Oregon, as part of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100- year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities along the Cascadia subduction zone that extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. State and local stakeholders also expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study report will be augmented by a separate geographic information systems (GIS) data publication that provides model data and results. In addition to traditional GIS data formats, Google Earth kmz files are available to provide rapid visualization of the data against the rich base map provided by the interface. The data include verbal and geologic observations of historic tsunami events, newly constructed DEMs, historic shorelines, earthquake sources, models of tsunami wave heights, and maps of the estimated 100- and 500-year probabilistic floods. Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study - Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2006-1234, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1234/.

  11. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Ramalanjaona

    2011-01-01

    Tsunami of 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most devastating tsunami in modern times, affecting 18 countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day, and leaving more than 1.7 million homeless. However, less reported, albeit real, is its impact in the islands of the Indian Ocean more than 1,000 miles away from its epicenter. This is the first peer-reviewed paper on the 2004 tsunami events specifically in the eleven nations bord...

  12. Statistical Analysis of Tsunami Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Francesca; Del Giudice, Tania; Traverso, Chiara; Valfrè, Giulio; Poggi, Pamela; Parker, Eric J.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate statistical variability of seismically generated tsunami impact. The specific goal of the work was to evaluate the variability in tsunami wave run-up due to uncertainty in fault rupture parameters (source effects) and to the effects of local bathymetry at an individual location (site effects). This knowledge is critical to development of methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment. Two types of variability were considered: • Inter-event; • Intra-event. Generally, inter-event variability refers to the differences of tsunami run-up at a given location for a number of different earthquake events. The focus of the current study was to evaluate the variability of tsunami run-up at a given point for a given magnitude earthquake. In this case, the variability is expected to arise from lack of knowledge regarding the specific details of the fault rupture "source" parameters. As sufficient field observations are not available to resolve this question, numerical modelling was used to generate run-up data. A scenario magnitude 8 earthquake in the Hellenic Arc was modelled. This is similar to the event thought to have caused the infamous 1303 tsunami. The tsunami wave run-up was computed at 4020 locations along the Egyptian coast between longitudes 28.7° E and 33.8° E. Specific source parameters (e.g. fault rupture length and displacement) were varied, and the effects on wave height were determined. A Monte Carlo approach considering the statistical distribution of the underlying parameters was used to evaluate the variability in wave height at locations along the coast. The results were evaluated in terms of the coefficient of variation of the simulated wave run-up (standard deviation divided by mean value) for each location. The coefficient of variation along the coast was between 0.14 and 3.11, with an average value of 0.67. The variation was higher in areas of irregular coast. This level of variability is similar to that seen in ground motion attenuation correlations used for seismic hazard assessment. The second issue was intra-event variability. This refers to the differences in tsunami wave run-up along a section of coast during a single event. Intra-event variability investigated directly considering field observations. The tsunami events used in the statistical evaluation were selected on the basis of the completeness and reliability of the available data. Tsunami considered for the analysis included the recent and well surveyed tsunami of Boxing Day 2004 (Great Indian Ocean Tsunami), Java 2006, Okushiri 1993, Kocaeli 1999, Messina 1908 and a case study of several historic events in Hawaii. Basic statistical analysis was performed on the field observations from these tsunamis. For events with very wide survey regions, the run-up heights have been grouped in order to maintain a homogeneous distance from the source. Where more than one survey was available for a given event, the original datasets were maintained separately to avoid combination of non-homogeneous data. The observed run-up measurements were used to evaluate the minimum, maximum, average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for each data set. The minimum coefficient of variation was 0.12 measured for the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami at Nias Island (7 data) while the maximum is 0.98 for the Okushiri 1993 event (93 data). The average coefficient of variation is of the order of 0.45.

  13. Development of Parallel Code for the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, B.; Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is a numerical model used to forecast propagation and inundation of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and other means in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. At the U.S. National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC), the model is mainly used in a pre-computed fashion. That is, results for hundreds of hypothetical events are computed before alerts, and are accessed and calibrated with observations during tsunamis to immediately produce forecasts. ATFM uses the non-linear, depth-averaged, shallow-water equations of motion with multiply nested grids in two-way communications between domains of each parent-child pair as waves get closer to coastal waters. Even with the pre-computation the task becomes non-trivial as sub-grid resolution gets finer. Currently, the finest resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) used by ATFM are 1/3 arc-seconds. With a serial code, large or multiple areas of very high resolution can produce run-times that are unrealistic even in a pre-computed approach. One way to increase the model performance is code parallelization used in conjunction with a multi-processor computing environment. NTWC developers have undertaken an ATFM code-parallelization effort to streamline the creation of the pre-computed database of results with the long term aim of tsunami forecasts from source to high resolution shoreline grids in real time. Parallelization will also permit timely regeneration of the forecast model database with new DEMs; and, will make possible future inclusion of new physics such as the non-hydrostatic treatment of tsunami propagation. The purpose of our presentation is to elaborate on the parallelization approach and to show the compute speed increase on various multi-processor systems.

  14. Deep-Ocean Measurements of Tsunami Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Eblé, Marie C.

    2015-03-01

    Deep-ocean tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in improving the effectiveness of tsunami warning systems. This paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the earliest days, approximately 50 years ago, to the present day. Modern tsunami monitoring systems such as the self-contained Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis and innovative cabled sensing networks, including, but not limited to, the Japanese bottom cable projects and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory, are highlighted. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with observations recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom pressure observations is exemplified through analysis of distant (22,000 km from the source) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

  15. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  16. BASIC RELATIONSBETWEEN TSUNAMI CALCULATIONSAND THEIR PHYSICS

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2001-01-01

    Basic tsunami physics of propagation and run-up is discussed for the simple geometry of a channel. We will try to understand how linear and nonlinear processes occurring in a tsunami should influence approach taken to numerical computations.

  17. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  18. Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

  19. Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Tanioka, Y; Seno, T

    2001-01-01

    The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997) estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq...

  20. Mass transport events and their tsunami hazard

    OpenAIRE

    D. R. Tappin

    2010-01-01

    Mass transport events, such as those from submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapse at convergent margins and on oceanic islands, and subaerial failure are reviewed and found to be all potential tsunami sources. The intensity and frequency of the tsunamis resulting is dependent upon the source. Most historical records are of devastating tsunamis from volcanic collapse at convergent margins. Although the database is limited, tsunamis sourced from submarine landslides and collapse on oceani...

  1. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  2. Tsunami Preparedness: Building On Past Efforts to Reach More People… California and Beyond!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Siegel, J.; Pridmore, C. L.; Benthien, M. L.; Wilson, R. I.; Long, K.; Ross, S.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program has continued to build upon past preparedness efforts, carried out year-round, while leveraging government support at all levels during National Tsunami Preparedness Week, the last week of March. A primary goal is for everyone who lives at or visits the coast to understand basic safety measures when responding to official tsunami alerts or natural warnings. In 2014, more so than ever before, many local, coastal jurisdictions conducted grass-roots activities in their areas. When requested, state and federal programs stepped in to contribute subject matter expertise, lessons learned, and support. And, this year, the new website, www.TsunamiZone.org, was developed. With a goal of establishing a baseline for future years, this website builds on the successes of the Great Shakeout Earthquake Drills (www.ShakeOut.org) by allowing people to locate and register for tsunami preparedness events in their area. Additionally, it provides a central location for basic tsunami preparedness information, and links to find out more. The idea is not only to empower people with the best available, vetted, scientifically-based public safety information, but also to provide ways in which individuals can take physical action to educate themselves and others. Several broad categories of preparedness actions include: official acknowledgement of National Tsunami Preparedness Week, local "tsunami walk" drills, simulated tsunami-based exercises, testing of sirens and notification systems, outreach materials (brochures, videos, maps), workshops, presentations, media events, and websites. Next steps include building on the foundation established in 2014 by leveraging ShakeOut audiences, providing people with more information about how they can participate in 2015, and carrying the effort forward to other states and territories.

  3. A protocol for coordinating post-tsunami field reconnaissance efforts in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick I.; Wood, Nathan J.; Kong, Laura; Shulters, Michael V.; Richards, Kevin D.; Dunbar, Paula; Tamura, Gen; Young, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of a catastrophic tsunami, much is to be learned about tsunami generation and propagation, landscape and ecological changes, and the response and recovery of those affected by the disaster. Knowledge of the impacted area directly helps response and relief personnel in their efforts to reach and care for survivors and for re-establishing community services. First-hand accounts of tsunami-related impacts and consequences also help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in other parts of the world that lack recent events to better understand and manage their own societal risks posed by tsunami threats. Conducting post-tsunami surveys and disseminating useful results to decision makers in an effective, efficient, and timely manner is difficult given the logistical issues and competing demands in a post-disaster environment. To facilitate better coordination of field-data collection and dissemination of results, a protocol for coordinating post-tsunami science surveys was developed by a multi-disciplinary group of representatives from state and federal agencies in the USA. This protocol is being incorporated into local, state, and federal post-tsunami response planning through the efforts of the Pacific Risk Management ‘Ohana, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, and the U.S. National Plan for Disaster Impact Assessments. Although the protocol was designed to support a coordinated US post-tsunami response, we believe it could help inform post-disaster science surveys conducted elsewhere and further the discussion on how hazard researchers can most effectively operate in disaster environments.

  4. TSUNAMI MITIGATION IN HAWAI`I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawai`i has a long, though sporadic history of deadly tsunami attacks.Since the 1946 tsunami disaster the State of Hawaii has developed increasingly sophisticated and effective mitigation strategies. The evolution and operation of these strategies is described in this paper. Tsunamis will no longer be Hawai`i’s deadliest natural hazard.

  5. TSUNAMI MITIGATION IN HAWAI`I

    OpenAIRE

    George D. Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Hawai`i has a long, though sporadic history of deadly tsunami attacks.Since the 1946 tsunami disaster the State of Hawaii has developed increasingly sophisticated and effective mitigation strategies. The evolution and operation of these strategies is described in this paper. Tsunamis will no longer be Hawai`i’s deadliest natural hazard.

  6. New Tsunami Forecast Tools for the French Polynesia Tsunami Warning System Part II: Numerical Modelling and Tsunami Height Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamelot, Anthony; Reymond, Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Tsunami warning is classically based on two fundamental tools: the first one concerns the source parameters estimations, and the second one is the tsunami amplitude forecast. We presented in the first companion paper how the seismic source parameters are evaluated, and this second article describes the operational aspect and accuracy of the estimation of tsunami height using tsunami numerical modelling on a dedicated supercomputer (2.5 T-flops). The French Polynesian tsunami warning centre developed two new tsunami forecast tools for a tsunami warning context, based on our tsunami propagation numerical model named Taitoko. The first tool, named MERIT, that is very rapid, provides a preliminary forecast distribution of the tsunami amplitude for 30 sites located in French Polynesia in less than 5 min. In this case, the coastal tsunami height distribution is calculated from the numerical simulation of the tsunami amplitude in deep ocean using an empirical transfer function inspired by the Green Law. This method, which does not take into account resonance effects of bays and harbour, is suitable for rapid and first estimation of the tsunami danger. The second method, named COASTER, which uses 21 nested grids of increasing resolutions, gives more information about the coastal tsunami effects about the flow velocities, the arrival time of the maximal amplitude, and the maximal run-up height for five representative sites in 45 min. The historical tsunamis recorded over the last 22 years in French Polynesia have been simulated with these new tools to evaluate the accuracy of these methods. The results of the 23 historical tsunami simulations have been compared to the tide-gauge records of three sites in French Polynesia. The results, which are quite encouraging, shows standard errors of generally less than a 2 factor : the maximal standard error is 0.38 m for the Tahauku Bay of Hiva-Oa (Marquesas islands).

  7. Vulnerability assessment and protective effects of coastal vegetation during the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, M.; Renaud, F.G.; Lüchters, G.

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 caused extensive human and economic losses along many parts of the Sri Lankan coastline. Thanks to extensive national and international solidarity and support in the aftermath of the event, most people managed to restore their livelihoods completely but some households did not manage to recover completely from the impacts of the event. The differential in recovery highlighted the various vulnerabilities and coping capacities of communities exposed to the tsunami. ...

  8. ISSN 8755-6839 SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS Journal of Tsunami Society International Number 2 2013 IMPACT OF TSUNAMI FORCES ON STRUCTURES The University of Ottawa Experience

    OpenAIRE

    A. Cornett; T. Al-Faesly; Nistor, I.; D. Palermo

    2013-01-01

    Over the past seven years, a comprehensive interdisciplinary research program has been conducted between researchers at the University of Ottawa and at the Canadian Hydraulics Centre (CHC) of the National Research Council of Canada. The objectives of this on-going research program are to identify and quantify forces that are imposed on near-shoreline structures when exposed to tsunami- induced hydraulic bores and to investigate mitigation strategies to dampen these forces. The experimental co...

  9. Simulation Study on Tsunami Detection from Space Using GNSS-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosius, R.; Beyerle, G.; Helm, A.; Höchner, A.; Rothacher, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Sumatra earthquake of December 2004 was the second largest earthquake ever recorded by instruments and the following tsunami took more than 200,000 lives. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) commissioned the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centres (HGF) directly after the disaster with developing the German Indonesian tsunami early warning system (GITEWS) for the Indian Ocean. While this early warning system is being established concept studies and new technology developments using Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R) for tsunami detection from space have been initiated. This technique uses ocean reflected GNSS signals for sea surface altimetry. With a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) constellation of small satellites equipped with multi-frequency GNSS receivers densely spaced grids of sea surface heights could be established to detect tsunami waves within minutes. The simulation study analyzes the performance of various LEO satellite constellation scenarios with respect to tsunami detection time for two different tsunami events and with different GNSS-R concepts. Therefore, a reflection point calculation is combined with a tsunami wave propagation model. Different orbit heights, orbit inclinations and numbers of satellites are investigated. GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals are used as signal source. The impact of signal elevation angle and altimetric accuracy on the detection performance is evaluated. It can be shown that only a large number of LEO satellites can monitor the sea surface with sufficient high resolution in space and time when a detection time of 5 to 15 minutes is needed.

  10. Spectral Characteristics of Wave Breaking and Dissipation in Combined Tsunami - Swell Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihatu, J. M.; Goertz, J.; Sheremet, A.; Weiss, R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been observed that the front face of landfalling tsunamis often feature dispersive "fission" waves. These are short, almost monochromatic coherent waves which result from the piling up of water as the tsunami rapidly decelerates upon encountering land. Photographs taken during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami show these waves to resemble cnoidal waves in shape and have a spatial and temporal scale of the same order as swell waves. As part of our goal to study the tsunami in concert with other aspects of the physical environment, we investigate possible physical linkages between the background random swell, monochromatic fission waves, and the long-scale tsunami waves. This particular investigation involves the modification of the dissipation characteristics of random surface waves when interacting with a coherent wavefield (e.g., laboratory proxies for the fission wave or the tsunami). Data from laboratory experiments conducted at the Large Wave Flume at Oregon State University (part of the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation supported by the National Science Foundation) were analyzed and the dissipation characteristics inferred using a steepness-regulated instantaneous dissipation mechanism. It is shown that, for random waves, the instances of significant dissipation events temporally correspond to the appearance of high frequency energy in the time-frequency spectrogram. Furthermore, these observations are strongly affected by the presence of an underlying coherent wave signal, particularly in the case of interaction with a tsunami. We further discuss the possible effect of these interactions on the forces in the hydrodynamic field responsible for sediment transport.

  11. Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). TRIDEC focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application: The technical development is based on mature system architecture models and industry standards. The use of standards already applies to the operation of individual TRIDEC reference installations and their interlinking into an integrated service infrastructure for supranational warning services. This is a first step towards best practices and service lifecycles for Early Warning Centre IT service management, including Service Level Agreements (SLA) and Service Certification. While on a global scale the integration of TEWS progresses towards Systems of Systems (SoS), there is still an absence of accredited and reliable certifications for national TEWS or regional Tsunami Early Warning Systems of Systems (TEWSoS). Concepts for TEWS operations have already been published under the guidance of the IOC, and can now be complemented by the recent research advances concerning SoS architecture. Combined with feedback from the real world, such as the NEAMwave 2012 Tsunami exercise in the Mediterranean, this can serve as a starting point to formulate initial requirements for TEWS and TEWSoS certification: Certification activities will cover the establishment of new TEWS and TEWSoS, and also both maintenance and enhancement of existing TEWS/TEWSoS. While the IOC is expected to take a central role in the development of the certification strategy, it remains to be defined which bodies will actually conduct the certification process. Certification requirements and results are likely to become a valuable information source for various target groups, ranging from national policy decision makers, government agency planners, national and local government preparedness officials, TWC staff members, Disaster Responders, the media and the insurance industry.

  12. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Friday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, Japan was struck by an 8.9-magnitude earthquake near its Northeastern coast. This is one of the largest earthquakes that Japan has ever experienced. Tsunami waves swept away houses and cars and caused massive human losses. To predict tsunami wave parameters better and faster, we propose to improve data inversion scheme and achieve the performance gain of data processing. One of the reasons of inaccurate predictions of tsunami parameters is that very little information is available about the initial disturbance of the sea bed at tsunami source. In this paper, we suggest a new way of improving the quality of tsunami source parameters prediction. Modern computational technologies can accurately calculate tsunami wave propagation over the deep ocean provided that the initial displacement (perturbation of the sea bed at tsunami source) is known [4]. Direct geophysical measurements provide the location of an earthquake hypocenter and its magnitude (the released energy evaluation). Among the methods of determination of initial displacement the following ones should be considered. Calculation through the known fault structure and available seismic information. This method is widely used and provides useful information. However, even if the exact knowledge about rock blocks shifts is given, recalculation in terms of sea bed displacement is needed. This results in a certain number of errors. GPS data analysis. This method was developed after the December 2004 event in the Indian Ocean. A good correlation between dry land based GPS sensors and tsunami wave parameters was observed in the particular case of the West coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This approach is very unique and can hardly been used in other geo locations. Satellite image analysis. The resolution of modern satellite images has dramatically improved. In the future, correct data of sea surface displacement will probably be available in real time, right after a tsunamigenic earthquake. However, today it is not yet possible. Ground-based sea radars. This is an effective tool for direct measurement of tsunami wave. At the same time, the wave is measured at a rather narrow area in front of the radar and does not include information about neighboring parts of the wave. Direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water [2]. Today, this technology is certainly among the most useful and promising. The DART II® system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system, capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. We focus our research on improving the later method, direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water. We suggest the new way to analyze DART data, modifying the methodology originally proposed by V. Titov. Smaller system of unit sources [3] should be considered to approximate all typical shapes of initial disturbance by several suitable basis functions. To successfully implement it, performance of data analysis should be dramatically improved. This could be done by using a signal orthogonalization procedure for considered system of unit sources and calculation of Fourier coefficients of the measured time series with respect to orthogonal basis. The approach suggested was used as a part of computerized workstation for tsunami hazard monitoring [5-6]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/honshu20110311/ National Data Buoy Center. URL: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://sift.pmel.noaa.gov/thredds/dodsC/uncompressed/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/model.html Alexey Romanenko, Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Vasily Titov, "Modern Architecture for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation" // Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS-2012), ISBN 978-981-07-2049-0 Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Andrey Marchuk, Alexey Romanenko, Konstantin Simonov, and Vasiliy T

  13. A Decade After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Progress in Disaster Preparedness and Future Challenges in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppasri, Anawat; Goto, Kazuhisa; Muhari, Abdul; Ranasinghe, Prasanthi; Riyaz, Mahmood; Affan, Muzailin; Mas, Erick; Yasuda, Mari; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the most devastating tsunamis in world history. The tsunami caused damage to most of the Asian and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. After a decade, reconstruction has been completed with different levels of tsunami countermeasures in most areas; however, some land use planning using probabilistic tsunami hazard maps and vulnerabilities should be addressed to prepare for future tsunamis. Examples of early-stage reconstruction are herein provided alongside a summary of some of the major tsunamis that have occurred since 2004, revealing the tsunami countermeasures established during the reconstruction period. Our primary objective is to report on and discuss the vulnerabilities found during our field visits to the tsunami-affected countries—namely, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives. For each country, future challenges based on current tsunami countermeasures, such as land use planning, warning systems, evacuation facilities, disaster education and disaster monuments are explained. The problem of traffic jams during tsunami evacuations, especially in well-known tourist areas, was found to be the most common problem faced by all of the countries. The readiness of tsunami warning systems differed across the countries studied. These systems are generally sufficient on a national level, but local hazards require greater study. Disaster reduction education that would help to maintain high tsunami awareness is well established in most countries. Some geological evidence is well preserved even after a decade. Conversely, the maintenance of monuments to the 2004 tsunami appears to be a serious problem. Finally, the reconstruction progress was evaluated based on the experiences of disaster reconstruction in Japan. All vulnerabilities discussed here should be addressed to create long-term, disaster-resilient communities.

  14. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinmetz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen as one step towards the development of a "system of systems" enabling all countries around the Indian Ocean to have such early warning systems in place. It is within the responsibility of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceonographic Commission (IOC and in particular its Intergovernmental Coordinating Group (ICG to coordinate and give recommendations for such a development. Therefore the Decision Support System presented here is designed to be modular, extensible and interoperable (Raape et al., 2010.

  15. Harm reduction services for British Columbia's First Nation population: a qualitative inquiry into opportunities and barriers for injection drug users

    OpenAIRE

    Quantz Darryl; Wardman Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Aboriginal injection drug users are the fastest growing group of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus cases in Canada. However, there remains a lack of comprehensive harm reduction services available to First Nation persons, particularly for First Nation people dwelling in rural and reserve communities. This paper reports findings from an exploratory study of current harm reduction practices in First Nation communities. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of t...

  16. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume I"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami." Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing tsunami warning systems and the development of new warning systems in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean region. Three more papers present the results of analytical studies and discuss benchmark problems. Four papers report the impacts of tsunamis, including the detailed calculation of inundation onshore and into rivers and probabilistic analysis for engineering purposes. The final two papers relate to important investigations of the source and tsunami generation. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean (Sumatra) and 2011 Japan (Tohoku) tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  17. Tsunami numerical modeling and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asima Nusrath

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The numerical modeling and wave theory are used in tsunami mitigation analysis. It is assumed sea forest is simulating offshore structure submitted to wave loads. The sea forest acts simulate break waves in conservation of coastal territory and facility installed over there. The result reveal that mathematical modeling and numerical simulation can be used to understand tsunami ability in design and urban construction, the research indicates reduction of water deep by sea forest resulted in reducing geometry and all wave ability.

  18. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    China Sea Institute of Oceanology, China, near-shore as well as deep-sea observations by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India, National Institute of Ocean Technology, India (NIOT), Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture (CIBA...

  19. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami como una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú.The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warning system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA. This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  20. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE / DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Alvarez; Jorge, Ramirez; Lorena, Paredes; Miguel, Canales.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami com [...] o una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú. Abstract in english The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warnin [...] g system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI) and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA). This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  1. First oceanographic expedition to survey the impact of the Sumatra earthquake and the tsunami of 26 December 2004

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    The preliminary observations of the First Post-Tsunami Oceanographic Expedition in Andaman Nicobar region are presented in this paper. Thirty one scientists from National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India; NIO, Regional Centre...

  2. Dispersive mudslide-induced tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rubino

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear nested model for mudslide-induced tsunamis is proposed in which three phases of the life of the wave, i.e. the generation, far-field propagation and costal run-up are described by means of different mathematical models, that are coupled through appropriate matching procedures. The generation and run-up dynamics are simulated through a nonlinear shallow-water model with movable lateral boundaries: in the generation region two active layers are present, the lower one describing the slide descending on a sloping topography. For the intermediate phase, representing wave propagation far from the generation region, the hydrostatic assumption is not assumed as appropriate in general and, therefore, a nonlinear model allowing for weak phase dispersion, namely a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, is used. This choice is made in order to assess the relevance of dispersive features such as solitary waves and dispersive tails. It is shown that in some realistic circumstances dispersive mudslide-induced tsunami waves can be produced over relatively short, distances. In such cases the use of a hydrostatic model throughout the whole tsunami history turns out to give erroneous results. In particular, when solitary waves are generated during the tsunami propagation in the open sea, the resulting run-up process yields peculiar wave forms leading to amplified coastal inundations with respect to a mere hydrostatic context.

  3. Mantle Decompression Thermal-Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Previously in geophysics, only three heat transport processes have been considered: conduction, radiation, and convection or, more generally, bouyancy-driven mass transport. As a consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics, I add a fourth, called mantle decompression thermal-tsunami, which may emplace heat at the base of the crust from a heretofore unanticipated source.

  4. Development of a Tsunami Inundation Map in Detecting Tsunami Risk in Gulf of Fethiye, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya Itir; Kemec, Serkan; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet; Düzgün, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    NAMIDANCE tsunami simulation and visualization tool is used to create tsunami inundation maps showing quantitative maximum tsunami flow depths in Fethiye. The risk of an extreme, but likely earthquake-generated tsunami is estimated at Fethiye Bay for 14 probabilistic earthquake scenarios. The bay is located 36°39'5?N 29°7'23?E, southwestern Turkey, which has coastline to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The tsunami simulation and inundation assessment are performed in three stages: (1) formation of a digital elevation model of the region from the best available topography/bathymetry dataset, (2) estimation of a maximum credible tsunami scenario for the region and determination of related earthquake parameters, (3) high resolution tsunami simulation and computation of near shore and overland tsunami dynamics in the study area using tsunami simulation and visualization code NAMIDANCE, (4) determination of spatial distributions of tsunami characteristics (maximum water elevations, water velocities, flow depths) under the critical tsunami condition. The results are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami sources, topographic and bathymetric databases, and tsunami numerical models. We present an innovative study concentrating on preparation of quantitative flow depths and inundation maps with a very high-resolution bathymetry/topographic dataset in the eastern Mediterranean. Inundation maps will be used to analyze the effects of possible tsunamis. The presented research is crucial to raising the awareness of government officials, the public, and other stake holders about the high probability of a tsunami event in Turkey. Moreover, the results of this study will help to plan for evacuation routes, establish safe zones, and assist in preparation for the tsunami, creating public awareness, and planning evacuation routes before the actual tsunami event happens.

  5. Advances in Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M.; Arenas, F.; Lillo, I.; Tamburini, L.

    2012-12-01

    Chile has records of recurring tsunamis. This is confirmed by its geological evidences, long historical records and instrumental data. However, tsunamis were always an underestimated hazard. In 2010 its coasts were affected by a large near-field tsunami and in 2011 for a far-field tsunami generated in Japan, confirming the high vulnerability of coastal communities. Both events had different magnitudes and impacts on coastal areas. The near-field tsunami was generated by an earthquake (Mw 8.8) that occurred on the 27th of February 2010, the waves arrived at the coast in a few minutes and mostly impacted small coastal communities located within the rupture area, there were 156 victims and 25 missing. While the far-field tsunami was generated by a giant earthquake (Mw 9) that occurred on the 11th of March 2011 in Japan, arriving their first waves on the coast of Chile twenty one hours later, displacing thousands of people to high ground. These two recent events have resulted in advances in tsunami hazard mitigation, mainly in the localities that were affected by both events, incorporating the tsunami risk and the emergency management in territorial planning. Example of this is the consideration of risk based on worst case scenarios, design and assessment of mitigation scenarios (e.g. tsunami forest, mitigation parks, dikes and fills) using tsunami modeling and land use policies more rigorous. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

  6. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60?000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  7. Performance Benchmarking Tsunami Models for NTHMP's Inundation Mapping Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrillo, Juan; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Roeber, Volker; Zhang, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    The coastal states and territories of the United States (US) are vulnerable to devastating tsunamis from near-field or far-field coseismic and underwater/subaerial landslide sources. Following the catastrophic 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) accelerated the development of public safety products for the mitigation of these hazards. In response to this initiative, US coastal states and territories speeded up the process of developing/enhancing/adopting tsunami models that can be used for developing inundation maps and evacuation plans. One of NTHMP's requirements is that all operational and inundation-based numerical (O&I) models used for such purposes be properly validated against established standards to ensure the reliability of tsunami inundation maps as well as to achieve a basic level of consistency between parallel efforts. The validation of several O&I models was considered during a workshop held in 2011 at Texas A&M University (Galveston). This validation was performed based on the existing standard (OAR-PMEL-135), which provides a list of benchmark problems (BPs) covering various tsunami processes that models must meet to be deemed acceptable. Here, we summarize key approaches followed, results, and conclusions of the workshop. Eight distinct tsunami models were validated and cross-compared by using a subset of the BPs listed in the OAR-PMEL-135 standard. Of the several BPs available, only two based on laboratory experiments are detailed here for sake of brevity; since they are considered as sufficiently comprehensive. Average relative errors associated with expected parameters values such as maximum surface amplitude/runup are estimated. The level of agreement with the reference data, reasons for discrepancies between model results, and some of the limitations are discussed. In general, dispersive models were found to perform better than nondispersive models, but differences were relatively small, in part because the BPs mostly featured long waves, such as solitary waves. The largest error found (e.g., the laboratory experiment case of a solitary wave on a simple beach) was 10 % for non-breaking wave conditions and 12 % for breaking conditions; these errors are equal or smaller than the thresholds (10 % and 20 %, respectively) defined by the OAR-PMEL-135 for predicting the surface profile; hence, all models examined here are deemed acceptable for inundation mapping purposes.

  8. VALIDATION OF JOKO TINGKIR SOFTWARE USING TSUNAMI IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlazim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joko Tingkir program, an application for tsunami early warning, has been utilised using real-time data processing at the Research and Development Centre, Indonesian Agency for Geophysics, Climatology and Meteorology since 2013. The program can also be used to analyse earthquake events before 2013. The aim of this study is thus to validate Joko Tingkir program for an improved performance of the Indonesian tsunami early warning system using the data recorded by at least 6 seismic stations managed by BMKG-Net where data collecting for each event is limited to only 3 minutes after origin time. The data were used to determine new tsunami parameters: the duration of rupture (Tdur, the 50 second exceed duration (T50Ex, and the dominant period (Td. Hierarchical Product Platform Realisation Method (HPPRM, which had three different phases: defining phase, modeling phase and solving phase, was used to validate the program. This study exercises records before 2014 and during 2014-2015 available at the intranet 172.19.0.13/litbang/www. For earthquakes that occurred before 2008, we make use of IRIS DMC seismic stations at http://ww.iris.edu since BMKG-Net has not yet operated. All of the data in the present study were events having magnitudes of greater than 6.5. After a conversion of quantitative data into qualitative data, the results are compared to those of tsunami importance provided by NOAA database. It was found that there is no significant differences between the results derived from the current study and the NOAA database, leading to a conclusion that the software developed is valid.

  9. Elders Recall an Earlier Tsunami on Indian Ocean Shores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Din Mohammad; Naeem, Ghazala; Usman, Abdullah; Hasan, Haider; Lohdi, Hira Ashfaq; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Andrade, Vanessa; Rajendran, C. P.; Beni, Abdolmajid Naderi; Hamzeh, Mohammad Ali; Hoffmann, Goesta; Balushi, Noora Al; Gale, Nora; Kodijat, Ardito M.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Atwater, Brian F.

    2014-12-01

    Ten years later, the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 still looms large in efforts to reduce tsunami risk. The disaster has spurred worldwide advances in tsunami detection and warning, risk assessment, and awareness [Satake, 2014].

  10. Tsunamis: Detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami...

  11. Tsunami Observations in Rivers from a Perspective of Tsunami Interaction with Tide and Riverine Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Roh, Min

    2015-03-01

    The observations of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and the 2010 Chilean tsunami in several rivers in Japan and in the Columbia River in the USA are analyzed for patterns of tsunami behavior in river environments. Tsunamis in rivers exhibit actions very different from those observed on an open coast, but very similar among different rivers, though the action scale in different rivers varies greatly. We describe two tsunami effects in rivers as observed in field data. First, the river tide modulates the tsunami wave in a very specific way common to all rivers. Second, a strong near-field tsunami can cause significant prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. Both effects are inherent in tidal river environments, and have been reproduced numerically in a simplified 1-D river using a non-linear, shallow-water model with bottom friction. The numerical experiments highlight the indispensable role of a tsunami's interaction with tide and riverine flow.

  12. Issues of tsunami hazard maps revealed by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tsunami scientists are imposed responsibilities of selection for people's tsunami evacuation place after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Japan. A lot of matured people died out of tsunami hazard zone based on tsunami hazard map though students made a miracle by evacuation on their own judgment in Kamaishi city. Tsunami hazard maps were based on numerical model smaller than actual magnitude 9. How can we bridge the gap between hazard map and future disasters? We have to discuss about using tsunami numerical model better enough to contribute tsunami hazard map. How do we have to improve tsunami hazard map? Tsunami hazard map should be revised included possibility of upthrust or downthrust after earthquakes and social information. Ground sank 1.14m below sea level in Ayukawa town, Tohoku. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's research shows around 10% people know about tsunami hazard map in Japan. However, people know about their evacuation places (buildings) through experienced drills once a year even though most people did not know about tsunami hazard map. We need wider spread of tsunami hazard with contingency of science (See the botom disaster handbook material's URL). California Emergency Management Agency (CEMA) team practically shows one good practice and solution to me. I followed their field trip in Catalina Island, California in Sep 2011. A team members are multidisciplinary specialists: A geologist, a GIS specialist, oceanographers in USC (tsunami numerical modeler) and a private company, a local policeman, a disaster manager, a local authority and so on. They check field based on their own specialties. They conduct an on-the-spot inspection of ambiguous locations between tsunami numerical model and real field conditions today. The data always become older. They pay attention not only to topographical conditions but also to social conditions: vulnerable people, elementary schools and so on. It takes a long time to check such field information, however tsunami hazard map based on numerical model should be this process. Tsunami scientists should not enter into the inhumane business by using tsunami numerical model. It includes accountability to society therefore scientists need scientific ethics and humanitarian attention. Should only tsunami scientist have responsibility for human life? Multidisciplinary approach is essential for mitigation like CEMA. I am taking on hazard map training course for disaster management officers from developing countries in JICA training course. I would like to discuss how to improve tsunami hazard map after the 2011 Tohoku tsunami experience in this presentation. A multidisciplinary exparts team of CEMA's tsunami hazard map

  13. Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully nonlinear tsunami generation model

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, P.; Grilli, S.T.; J. T. Kirby; Fryer, G. J.; D. R. Tappin

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of landslide tsunamis require integration of marine geology data and interpretations into numerical simulations of tsunami attack. Many landslide tsunami generation and propagation models have been proposed in recent time, further motivated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, few of these models have proven capable of integrating the best available marine geology data and interpretations into successful case studies that reproduce all available tsunami observation...

  14. Energy flux as a tool in locating tsunami secondary sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2008-01-01

    The sea levels recorded in the wake of Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 and of the Kuril Island Tsunami of November 2006 show strong tsunami signal enhancement of the late arriving secondary waves. Using these tsunami eventswe demonstrate thatsudden changes caused by higher energy pulses in the intermittent tsunami wave trains can be assessed by energy fluxes. Therefore, to delineate the regions of tsunami wave amplification and travel time we propose to use energy flux.A series of numer...

  15. Sandy signs of a tsunami's onshore depth and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, K.; Bourgeois, J.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Lynett, P.; Jaffe, B.; Yeh, H.; Weiss, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tsunamis rank among the most devastating and unpredictable natural hazards to affect coastal areas. Just 3 years ago, in December 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami caused more than 225,000 deaths. Like many extreme events, however, destructive tsunamis strike rarely enough that written records span too little time to quantify tsunami hazard and risk. Tsunami deposits preserved in the geologic record have been used to extend the record of tsunami occurrence but not the magnitude of past events. To quantify tsunami hazard further, we asked the following question: Can ancient deposits also provide guidance on the expectable water depths and speeds for future tsunamis?

  16. Development of Tsunami PSA method for Korean NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. The application of this method was applied to a nuclear power plant, Ulchin 56 NPP, which is located in the east coast of Korean peninsula. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real nuclear power plant in Korea

  17. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard” and ...

  18. TSUNAMI LOADING ON BUILDINGS WITH OPENINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Lukkunaprasit, P.; A. Ruangrassamee

    2009-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with openings in the masonry infill panels have shown superior performance to those without openings in the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Understanding the effect of openings and the resulting tsunami force is essential for an economical and safe design of vertical evacuation shelters against tsunamis. One-to-one hundred scale building models with square shape in plan were tested in a 40 m long hydraulic flume with 1 m x 1 m cross section. A mild sl...

  19. The tsunami geomorphology of coastal dunes

    OpenAIRE

    GOFF, J.R.; E. Lane; Arnold, J.

    2009-01-01

    An examination of the coastal geomorphology of bays along the Otago coastline, SE New Zealand, has identified a geomorphology consistent with tsunami inundation. A tsunami geomorphology consisting of a number of elements including dune pedestals, hummocky topography, parabolic dune systems, and post-tsunami features resulting from changes to the nearshore sediment budget is discussed. The most prominent features at Blueskin Bay are eroded pedestals although it is speculated that hummocky topo...

  20. GIS data for the Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study to modernize FEMA flood hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Venturato, Angie J.; Geist, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A Tsunami Pilot Study was conducted for the area surrounding the coastal town of Seaside, Oregon, as part of the Federal Emergency Management's (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). The Cascadia subduction zone extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to Vancouver Island, Canada. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities subject to tsunamis generated by far- and near-field (Cascadia) earthquakes. Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100-year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improving tsunami hazard assessment guidelines for FEMA and state and local agencies. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study model data and results are published separately as a geographic information systems (GIS) data report (Wong and others, 2006). The flood maps and GIS data are briefly described here.

  1. The global tsunami hazard due to long return period subduction zone earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvholt, Finn; Bonnevie Harbitz, Carl; Glimsdal, Sylfest; Horspool, Nick; Smebye, Helge; de Bono, Andrea; Nadim, Farrokh

    2014-05-01

    Historical tsunamis and paleotsunami evidence indicate that massive megathrust earthquakes lead to the majority of the losses due to tsunamis. There is a need to quantify the tsunami hazard from megathrust events in order to compare tsunamis with other natural hazards on a global level, as previous attempts have been lacking. The global tsunami hazard induced by earthquakes is therefore computed for a return period of 500 years. To this end, the exposed elements at risk such as population, produced capital, and nuclear power plants are determined. It is shown that populous Asian countries account for the largest absolute number of people living in tsunami prone areas, more than 50% of the total exposed people live in Japan. Smaller nations like Macao and the Maldives are among the most exposed by population count. Exposed nuclear power plants are limited to Japan, China, India, Taiwan, and USA. The methods used to quantify the global hazard are obviously crude, and hence the expected accuracy using global methods are discussed.

  2. Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground-motion measurements were available. Development of a global tsunami-warning system utilizing an expanded network of coastal GPS stations was under consideration at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  3. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afif, Haunan, E-mail: afif@vsi.esdm.go.id [Geological Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Cipta, Athanasius [Geological Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2015-04-24

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  4. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography

  5. The Seismicity and Tsunamis of Canada: 1663-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, R.; Mooney, W.

    2005-12-01

    Evaluations of seismic risk on national and regional scales are an important factor in preventing and mitigating natural disasters caused by earthquakes. We review the history of earthquakes and tsunamis in Canada and summarize the current knowledge of seismogenic zones, the frequency of large events and the risk of tsunamis. We also describe the response of the Canadian government, universities and industry to better understand the seismic risk in the country. This includes the current Canadian monitoring and research activities using the National Canadian Seismograph Networks as well as the more specialized Southern Ontario Seismic and POLARIS (portable) networks. In addition to the research carried out to improve our understanding of seismicity, we discuss briefly the work done in the past twenty years by the LITHOPROBE (deep crustal exploration) project which was designed to help clarify the tectonic history of the country. The paper concludes with a description of the current and planned applications of advanced technology to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards in Canada.

  6. Assessment of Landslide-Tsunami Hazard for the Gulf of Mexico Using a Probabilistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampell, A.; Horrillo, J. J.; Parambath, L.; Shigihara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The devastating consequences of recent tsunami events in Indonesia (2004) and Japan (2011) have prompted a scientific response in assessing tsunami hazard even in regions where an apparent low risk or/and lack of complete historical tsunami record exists. Although a great uncertainty exists regarding the recurrence rate of large-scale tsunami events in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) due to sparsity of data, geological and historical evidences indicate that the most likely tsunami hazard could come from a submarine landslide triggered by a moderate earthquake. Under these circumstances, the assessment of the tsunami hazard in the region could be better accomplished by means of a probabilistic approach to identify tsunami sources. This study aims to customize for the GOM a probabilistic hazard assessment based on recurrence rates of tsunamigenic submarine mass failures (SMFs). The Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique is employed utilizing matrix correlations for landslide parameters to incorporate the uncertainty related to location/water-depth and landslide dimension based on lognormal/normal distributions obtained from observed data. Along fixed transects over the continental slope of the GOM, slide angle of failure, sediment properties and seismic peak horizontal accelerations (PHA) are determined by publicly available data. These parameter values are used to perform slope stability analyses in randomly generated translational SMFs obtained from the MCS technique. Once the SMF is identified as tsunamigenic for a given PHA recurrence rate, a preliminary tsunami amplitude can be estimated using empirical formulations. Thus, the annual probability of a tsunamigenic SMF is determined by the joint probability of failure with the annual PHA. By using the probabilistic approach, we identified tsunami sources with recurrence rates from few thousands to 10,000 years which produce extreme wave amplitudes for each transect. The most likely extreme tsunamigenic SMF events for a given transect are then modeled to determine hazard to specific coastal locations, including maximum runup heights, inundation depth/extent, and strong currents affecting communities and infrastructure, thus mitigating the impact of tsunamis according to the guidelines of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  7. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Theilen-Willige, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000) of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps) based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be rela...

  8. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard” and “soft” countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5–6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning. PMID:19838008

  9. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a "tsunami earthquake". In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 "hard" and "soft" countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5-6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning. PMID:19838008

  10. Parallel Implementation of Dispersive Tsunami Wave Modeling with a Nesting Algorithm for the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Narumi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ando, Kazuto; Matsuoka, Daisuke; Kato, Toshihiro

    2015-02-01

    Because of improvements in offshore tsunami observation technology, dispersion phenomena during tsunami propagation have often been observed in recent tsunamis, for example the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis. The dispersive propagation of tsunamis can be simulated by use of the Boussinesq model, but the model demands many computational resources. However, rapid progress has been made in parallel computing technology. In this study, we investigated a parallelized approach for dispersive tsunami wave modeling. Our new parallel software solves the nonlinear Boussinesq dispersive equations in spherical coordinates. A variable nested algorithm was used to increase spatial resolution in the target region. The software can also be used to predict tsunami inundation on land. We used the dispersive tsunami model to simulate the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on the Supercomputer K. Good agreement was apparent between the dispersive wave model results and the tsunami waveforms observed offshore. The finest bathymetric grid interval was 2/9 arcsec (approx. 5 m) along longitude and latitude lines. Use of this grid simulated tsunami soliton fission near the Sendai coast. Incorporating the three-dimensional shape of buildings and structures led to improved modeling of tsunami inundation.

  11. Successive estimation of a tsunami wavefield without earthquake source data: A data assimilation approach toward real-time tsunami forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuto; Obara, Kazushige; Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Uehira, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    We propose a tsunami forecasting method based on a data assimilation technique designed for dense tsunameter networks. Rather than using seismic source parameters or initial sea surface height as the initial condition of for a tsunami forecasting, it estimates the current tsunami wavefield (tsunami height and tsunami velocity) in real time by repeatedly assimilating dense tsunami data into a numerical simulation. Numerical experiments were performed using a simple 1-D station array and the 2-D layout of the new S-net tsunameter network around the Japan Trench. Treating a synthetic tsunami calculated by the finite-difference method as observed data, the data assimilation reproduced the assumed tsunami wavefield before the tsunami struck the coastline. Because the method estimates the full tsunami wavefield, including velocity, these wavefields can be used as initial conditions for other tsunami simulations to calculate inundation or runup for real-time forecasting.

  12. A simple model for calculating tsunami flow speed from tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbuam, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple model for tsunami sedimentation that can be applied to calculate tsunami flow speed from the thickness and grain size of a tsunami deposit (the inverse problem). For sandy tsunami deposits where grain size and thickness vary gradually in the direction of transport, tsunami sediment transport is modeled as a steady, spatially uniform process. The amount of sediment in suspension is assumed to be in equilibrium with the steady portion of the long period, slowing varying uprush portion of the tsunami. Spatial flow deceleration is assumed to be small and not to contribute significantly to the tsunami deposit. Tsunami deposits are formed from sediment settling from the water column when flow speeds on land go to zero everywhere at the time of maximum tsunami inundation. There is little erosion of the deposit by return flow because it is a slow flow and is concentrated in topographic lows. Variations in grain size of the deposit are found to have more effect on calculated tsunami flow speed than deposit thickness. The model is tested using field data collected at Arop, Papua New Guinea soon after the 1998 tsunami. Speed estimates of 14??m/s at 200??m inland from the shoreline compare favorably with those from a 1-D inundation model and from application of Bernoulli's principle to water levels on buildings left standing after the tsunami. As evidence that the model is applicable to some sandy tsunami deposits, the model reproduces the observed normal grading and vertical variation in sorting and skewness of a deposit formed by the 1998 tsunami.

  13. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data ...

  14. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  15. Football Coaches' Practical Sense of Talent. A Qualitative Study of Talent Identification in Danish National Youth Team Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    This study explores the practical sense of talent among top-level football coaches in Denmark, and aims to identify specific structures of the coaches' expert knowledge related to talent identification. The theoretical foundation of the study is Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework, in particular the concept of practical sense. The data compile from eight biographical, in-depth interviews with Danish national youth team football coaches. The interviews are analyzed through a process of coding and recoding. Thematic cross-case analyses as well as purposeful selected single-case analyses are used to explore the focus area. The results are grouped in three major themes, which characterize core elements of the coaches' practical sense: 1) visual experience and pattern recognition, 2) recognition of individual paths and personal styles, and 3) a model of top-level football coaches' classificatory schemes. Conclusively, the study supports the theory that talent identification in top-level football is strongly connected to the coach's practical sense of the game and taste for football talents. Furthermore, the study points at the importance of being aware of the person "behind" the coach, given that his practical sense will be identifying the future talents.

  16. OBSERVATION OF TSUNAMI RADIATION AT TOHOKU BY REMOTE SENSING

    OpenAIRE

    Frank C. Lin; Weiwei Zhu; Kingkarn Sookhanaphibarn

    2011-01-01

    We present prima facie evidence that upon the onset of the Tohoku tsunami of Mar. 11, 2011 infrared radiation was emitted by the tsunami and was detected by the Japanese satellite MTSAT-IR1, in agreement with our earlier findings for the Great Sumatra Tsunami of 2004. Implications for a worldwide Tsunami Early Warning System are discussed.

  17. Progress in developing an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.; Kelly, A.; Atwater, B.; Sipkin, S.; Petersen, M.; Hudnut, K.

    2007-12-01

    Nearly three years following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, there is much progress to report on building a new Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) which will provide tsunami early warnings and framework for disaster management and response systems. To date, the IOTWS has utilized the leadership and technical expertise of many countries including Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, together with assistance from international partners. Inter-agency cooperation has combined expertise in a broad range of disciplines to accomplish several goals including: 1) developing infrastructures for both real-time analysis of seismic data and rapid communication and warnings (including the upgrade of several Indonesian seismic and GPS stations), 2) land use planning and community preparation aimed at minimizing damage and loss of life from future disasters, and 3) international support for logistics, communications, training, management and administration. Throughout the implementation of the IOTWS, a primary focus was placed on "in-country capacity building," so that individual nations can be self-sustaining in their efforts. We believe that this has been accomplished through extensive training sessions, workshops and site visits.

  18. Tsunami mortality in Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Doocy

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nine tsunami-affected districts in Aceh, Indonesia, were surveyed between February and August 2005 to characterize tsunami mortality. METHODS: The surveys employed a two-stage cluster methodology with probability proportional to size sampling, and encompassed 1653 tsunami-displaced households with a pre-tsunami population of 10 063 individuals. FINDINGS: Of the original pre-tsunami population, a total of 1642 people, or 17%, were reported as dead or missing in the tsunami. Crude mortality rates in the four survey areas ranged from a high of 23.6% in Aceh Jaya district on the west coast to 5.3% on the east coast. Age-specific mortality rates followed a similar pattern across the four survey areas, with the highest mortality concentrating in the youngest children (aged 0-9 years and oldest adults (70+. The risk of mortality was significantly greater among females than males; this difference was most pronounced among individuals between ages 10 and 69 years, and diminished among younger and older age groups. CONCLUSION: Mortality risk in the 2004 Asian tsunami varied by geographic location, age and sex. The districts of Aceh Jaya, Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar experienced the greatest mortality. Risk of death was highest among females, and among the oldest and youngest population subgroups. While the full human impact of the Asian tsunami in Aceh Province, in terms of lives lost or damaged, may never be fully measured, the resulting female deficit will likely be the tsunami’s most deeply felt and prolonged impact.

  19. Effect of earthquake and tsunami. Ground motion and tsunami observed at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) were struck by the earthquake off the pacific coast in the Tohoku District, which occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011. Afterwards, tsunamis struck the Tohoku District. In terms of the earthquake observed at the Fukushima NPSs, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of reactor buildings exceeded the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss for partial periodic bands at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. As for the Fukushima Daini NPS, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of the reactor buildings was below the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss. Areas inundated by Tsunami at each NPS were investigated and tsunami inversion analysis was made to build tsunami source model to reproduce tide record, tsunami height, crustal movement and inundated area, based on tsunami observation records in the wide areas from Hokkaido to Chiba prefectures. Tsunami heights of Fukushima Daiichi and Daini NPSs were recalculated as O.P. +13m and +9m respectively and tsunami peak height difference was attributed to the extent of superposition of tsunami waves of tsunami earthquake type of wave source in the area along interplane trench off the coast in the Fukushima prefecture and interplane earthquake type of wave source in rather deep interplate area off the coast in the Miyagi prefecture. (T. Tanaka)

  20. TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Lander

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves hitting the eastern United States is very real despite a general impression to the contrary. We have cataloged 40 tsunamis and tsunami-like waves that have occurred in the eastern United States since 1600. Tsunamis were generated from such events as the 1755 Queen Anne’s earthquake, the Grand Banks event of 1929, the Charleston earthquake of 1886, and the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. The Queen Anne tsunami was observed as far away as St. Martin in the West Indies and is the only known teletsunami generated in this source region.Since subduction zones are absent around most of the Atlantic basin, tsunamis and tsunami-like waves along the United States East Coast are not generated from this traditional source, but appear, in most cases to be the result of slumping or landsliding associated with local earthquakes or with wave action associated with strong storms. Other sources of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves along the eastern seaboard have recently come to light including volcanic debris falls or catastrophic failure of volcanic slopes; explosive decompression of underwater methane deposits or oceanic meteor splashdowns. These sources are considered as well.

  1. Mathematics of tsunami: modelling and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivorotko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami (long waves in the deep water) motion caused by underwater earthquakes is described by shallow water equations ( { ?tt = div (gH (x,y)-grad?), (x,y) ? ?, t ? (0,T ); ?|t=0 = q(x,y), ?t|t=0 = 0, (x,y) ? ?. ( (1) Bottom relief H(x,y) characteristics and the initial perturbation data (a tsunami source q(x,y)) are required for the direct simulation of tsunamis. The main difficulty problem of tsunami modelling is a very big size of the computational domain (? = 500 × 1000 kilometres in space and about one hour computational time T for one meter of initial perturbation amplitude max|q|). The calculation of the function ?(x,y,t) of three variables in ? × (0,T) requires large computing resources. We construct a new algorithm to solve numerically the problem of determining the moving tsunami wave height S(x,y) which is based on kinematic-type approach and analytical representation of fundamental solution. Proposed algorithm of determining the function of two variables S(x,y) reduces the number of operations in 1.5 times than solving problem (1). If all functions does not depend on the variable y (one dimensional case), then the moving tsunami wave height satisfies of the well-known Airy-Green formula: S(x) = S(0)° --- 4H (0)/H (x). The problem of identification parameters of a tsunami source using additional measurements of a passing wave is called inverse tsunami problem. We investigate two different inverse problems of determining a tsunami source q(x,y) using two different additional data: Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) measurements and satellite altimeters wave-form images. These problems are severely ill-posed. The main idea consists of combination of two measured data to reconstruct the source parameters. We apply regularization techniques to control the degree of ill-posedness such as Fourier expansion, truncated singular value decomposition, numerical regularization. The algorithm of selecting the truncated number of singular values of an inverse problem operator which is agreed with the error level in measured data is described and analysed. In numerical experiment we used conjugate gradient method for solving inverse tsunami problems. Gradient methods are based on minimizing the corresponding misfit function. To calculate the gradient of the misfit function, the adjoint problem is solved. The conservative finite-difference schemes for solving the direct and adjoint problems in the approximation of shallow water are constructed. Results of numerical experiments of the tsunami source reconstruction are presented and discussed. We show that using a combination of two types of data allows one to increase the stability and efficiency of tsunami source reconstruction. Non-profit organization WAPMERR (World Agency of Planetary Monitoring and Earthquake Risk Reduction) in collaboration with Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of SB RAS developed the Integrated Tsunami Research and Information System (ITRIS) to simulate tsunami waves and earthquakes, river course changes, coastal zone floods, and risk estimates for coastal constructions at wave run-ups and earthquakes. The special scientific plug-in components are embedded in a specially developed GIS-type graphic shell for easy data retrieval, visualization and processing. We demonstrate the tsunami simulation plug-in for historical tsunami events (2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, Simushir tsunami 2006 and others). This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

  2. Recent Tsunamis That Affected the Japanese Coasts and Evaluation of JMA's Tsunami Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Nishimae, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

    2008-12-01

    During the last two years (Sep 2006 to Aug 2008), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued tsunami advisories or warnings for eight events. Tsunami estimations in the advisories or warnings are considered appropriate for six cases. No tsunami was confirmed for the other two cases, one of which was thought to be a quite peculiar case. The November 2006 and January 2007 Kuril earthquakes, for which tsunami warnings were issued on the Hokkaido coasts, impelled JMA to improve its methods in estimating tsunamis. The JMA magnitude (M) was larger for the 2007 earthquake than the 2006 event, but other magnitude scales as well as the observed tsunamis were smaller (Fujii and Satake, 2008, BSSA). The long duration of these Kuril tsunamis were due to reflected wave at Emperor seamount chain (Koshimura et al., 2007, GRL). These features have become to be considered in the current JMA's system. The Noto-hanto earthquake (M 6.9) on March 25 in 2007 generated a small (tsunami. Tsunami advisory (expected height ~ 0.5 m) was issued in less than 2 min of the earthquake. On April 20, tsunami advisory was issued following an earthquake near Miyakojima, but no tsunami was recorded. The JMA magnitude was 6.7, but the moment magnitude (Mw) was 6.3 (cf. Global CMT catalog). It is a difficult case to evaluate the magnitude accurately as this is islands region. On July 16, the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake (M 6.8) caused moderate tsunami without any damage; the amplitude was up to a few tens of cm at most tidal stations while one station located nearby the source region recorded 1m. JMA issued tsunami advisory within 1 min of the earthquake. On August 2, following a shallow earthquake off southern Sakhalin coast (Mw 6.2), JMA at first did not issue advisory or warning because the estimations did not exceed the criteria for advisory. But a sea level fluctuation was observed at a few tide stations on the Japanese coast, then, JMA issued tsunami advisory for the northern coast of Hokkaido. The post-event analysis showed that the sea level disturbances recorded at Rumoi does not match with the numerical simulation, hence considered as meteorological origin. On August 16, for the great earthquake (Mw 8.0) off Peru coast, JMA issued tsunami advisory, based on the tsunami numerical simulation and actual tsunami data in Hawaii. The tsunami heights recorded on tide gauges were 0.2 m or less in Japan. On May 8, 2008, an earthquake off Ibaraki (M 7.0) occurred and JMA did not issue tsunami advisory. Instead, JMA issued a tsunami forecast, which informed that the maximum tsunami height would be below 0.2m and that such tsunami would not cause damage. Some tide stations recorded very weak tsunami, around 0.1m. On July 19, an earthquake (M 6.6) off Fukushima prefecture caused tsunami up to 0.2 m. JMA issued tsunami advisory for this event.

  3. Tsunami deposits as paleoseismic indicators: examples from the Spanish coast

    OpenAIRE

    Goy, José Luis; Luque Ripoll, L. de; Zazo, Caridad; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Gabriel Silva, Pablo; Lario, J.

    2001-01-01

    [EN] Tsunamis are usually associated with submarine tectonic activity. Tsunamis transform the shore owing to their erosive and sedimentary capacity. Evidence of tsunamis can be preserved in the geological record for millions of years. The tsunami sedimentary record is a useful tool for obtaining paleoseismic information since it is the only record available that allows us to detect and to analyze ancient offshore seismicity. Three examples of tsunami deposits which contribute to the ...

  4. Tsunami deposits as paleoseismic indicators: examples from the Spanish coast

    OpenAIRE

    Luque Ripoll, Luis de; Lario Gómez, Javier; Zazo Cardeña, Caridad; Goy Goy, José Luis; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Silva Barroso, Pablo Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    Tsunamis are usually associated with submarine tectonic activity. Tsunamis transform the shore owing to their erosive and sedimentary capacity. Evidence of tsunamis can be preserved in the geological record for millions of years. The tsunami sedimentary record is a useful tool for obtaining paleoseismic information since it is the only record available that allows us to detect and to analyze ancient offshore seismicity. Three examples of tsunami deposits which contribute to the knowledge of t...

  5. Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Eric L. Geist; Patrick J. Lynett

    2014-01-01

    The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a ts...

  6. TSUNAMI PROPAGATION OVER THE NORTH PACIFIC: DISPERSIVE AND NONDISPERSIVE MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Horrillo; William Knight; Zygmunt Kowalik

    2012-01-01

    Hydrostatic (HY) and non-hydrostatic (NHY) tsunami physics is compared by application to the Kuril Island Tsunami (KIT) of November 2006 and the Japan Tsunami (JT) of March 2011. Our purpose is to study the significance of dispersive vs. non-dispersive long waves on global tsunami propagation. A tool which is well suited to revealing tsunami wave transformations is the energy flux. Expressions for dispersive and non-dispersive fluxes have been formulated. This provides an understanding of the...

  7. THE TSUNAMI ASSESSMENT MODELLING SYSTEM BY THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Annunziato

    2007-01-01

    The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System was developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, in order to serve Tsunami early warning systems such as the Global Disaster Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in the evaluation of possible consequences by a Tsunami of seismic nature. The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System is currently operational and is calculating in real time all the events occurring in the world, calculating the expected Tsunami wave height and identifying the loc...

  8. Tsunami engineering study in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    s mologists have headed the ocean development d e- partment and despite this, our long - term plans and vision have appa r ently not paid enough attention to the expected co u- pling b e tween earthquakes (at subduction zone) and tsunamis. Otherwise... with re q- uisite aler t ness, smart thinking and earth - quake information dissemin a tion system in place, this could have saved a signif i- cant percentage o f lives lost, as has been done after the earthquake ( M 8.2) of 29 March 2005...

  9. Role of Aquifer Heterogeneity in Salinity Persistence in Tsunami Affected Coastal Aquifers - Need for Better Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Vithanage, M.; Jensen, K. H.; Engesgaard, P.; Obeysekera, J.; Villholth, K. G.; Perera, L.

    2007-05-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused extensive contamination of coastal aquifers. Seawater entered the aquifers through open dug wells and also via direct infiltration. In Sri Lanka alone, an estimated 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. Based on an initial conceptual model, it was hypothesized that salinity should decrease with recharge from seasonal rains associated with monsoons within a couple of seasons. However, monitoring data collected at some sites for more than two years after the tsunami show that concentrations still have not returned to pre-tsunami levels. This persistence is attributed to a combination of factors that were not taken into consideration in the earlier model. These factors include sub-normal recharge, subsurface heterogeneity, preferential flushing of freshwater through permeable channels, inappropriate cleaning and pumping activities from wells, bathymetry, coastal land topography and local hydrologic and geohydrologic conditions. This paper presents the results from a laboratory study conducted in a 2D intermediate scale test tank to generate both qualitative and quantitative data for preliminary validation of a new conceptual model that takes these factors into account. The focus was to evaluate the effects of heterogeneity on the propagation of an infiltrating salt-water plume and the effectiveness of subsequent flushing with freshwater. Tsunami flooding events were simulated in a large soil tank packed to represent various heterogeneous configurations. Both the tsunami event and flushing from ambient fresh groundwater and infiltrating rainwater were simulated. In addition to qualitative observations, the spatial and temporal variations of salinity were monitored using a set of in-situ electrical conductivity probes. The data strongly suggest that the plume development and persistence is highly controlled by the geological heterogeneity that needs to be characterized using methods other than conventional coring (e.g. geophysical methods).

  10. Second international tsunami workshop on the technical aspects of tsunami warning systems, tsunami analysis, preparedness, observation and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Workshop on the Technical Aspects of Tsunami Warning Systems, Tsunami Analysis, Preparedness, Observation, and Instrumentation, sponsored and convened by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was held on 1-2 August 1989, in the modern and attractive research town of Academgorodok, which is located 20 km south from downtown Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia, USSR. The Program was arranged in eight major areas of interest covering the following: Opening and Introduction; Survey of Existing Tsunami Warning Centers - present status, results of work, plans for future development; Survey of some existing seismic data processing systems and future projects; Methods for fast evaluation of Tsunami potential and perspectives of their implementation; Tsunami data bases; Tsunami instrumentation and observations; Tsunami preparedness; and finally, a general discussion and adoption of recommendations. The Workshop presentations not only addressed the conceptual improvements that have been made, but focused on the inner workings of the Tsunami Warning System, as well, including computer applications, on-line processing and numerical modelling. Furthermore, presentations reported on progress has been made in the last few years on data telemetry, instrumentation and communications. Emphasis was placed on new concepts and their application into operational techniques that can result in improvements in data collection, rapid processing of the data, in analysis and prediction. A Summary Report on the Second International Tsunami Workshop, containing abstracted and annotated proceedings has been published as a separate report. The present Report is a Supplement to the Summary Report and contains the full text of the papers presented at this Workshop. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. A simplified 3-D Navier-Stokes numerical model for landslide-tsunami: Application to the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrillo, J.; Wood, A.; Kim, G.-B.; Parambath, A.

    2013-12-01

    A simplified three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (3-D NS) model for two fluids, water and landslide material (mudslide) is presented and validated with standard laboratory experiments. Dubbed TSUNAMI3D (Tsunami Solution Using Navier-Stokes Algorithm with Multiple Interfaces) is applied to a 3-D full-scale landslide scenario in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), i.e., the East-Breaks underwater landslide. The simplified 3-D NS model is conceived to be computationally efficient for tsunami calculations. The simplification is derived from the large aspect ratio of the tsunami waves (wavelength/wave-height) and the selected computational grid that has a smaller aspect ratio. This allows us to assume a horizontal fluid surface in each individual cell containing the interface (air-water, air-mudslide, and water-mudslide). The tracking of fluid interfaces is based on the Volume of Fluid method and the surfaces are obtained by integrating the fluxes of each individual fluid cell along the water column. In the momentum equation, the pressure term is split into two components, hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic. The internal friction is solved in a simplified manner by adjusting the viscosity coefficient. Despite the simplification to get an efficient solution, the numerical results agree fairly well with standard landslide laboratory experiments required by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program for tsunami model validation. The numerical effect caused by using a sharp versus a diffusive water-mudslide interface for a full-scale landslide-tsunami scenario is also investigated. Observations from this experiment indicated that choosing a sharp or diffusive interface seems to have no remarkable effect at early stages of the tsunami wave propagation. Last, a large scale 3-D numerical simulation is carried out for the ancient GOM's East-Breaks landslide by using the simplified model to calculate the early stages of the tsunami wave propagation.

  12. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information in the context of potentially limited space in evolving tsunami messages issued by the warning centers.

  13. Annual Live Code Tsunami Warning System tests improve EAS services in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, C. C.; Albanese, S.; Grueber, M.; Osiensky, J. M.; Curtis, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service, in partnership with the State of Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (DHSEM) and the Alaska Broadcasters Association (ABA), has made tremendous improvements to Alaska's Emergency Alert System (EAS) with the use of an annual live code Tsunami System test. The annual test has been implemented since 2007 during the 3rd week of March commemorating the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 and promoting Tsunami Preparedness Week. Due to the antiquity of hardware, this test had always been conducted state-wide. This resulted in over-warn testing large areas of the largest state with no tsunami risk. The philosophy being that through over-warning, the most rural high risk areas would be warned. In 2012, the State of Alaska upgraded their dissemination hardware and the NWS was able to limit the test to a regional area eliminating most of the unthreatened areas from the test. While this occurred with several great successes, it also exposed a myriad of unknown problems and challenges. In addition, the NWS and the State of Alaska, with support from the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Committee (NTHMP), has engaged in an aggressive education, outreach, and mitigation campaign with Alaska's coastal high-risk community Emergency Managers. The resultant situation has produced a tight team between local Emergency Managers, State Emergency Managers and Emergency Operations Center, the NWS' National Tsunami Warning Center, NWS' Weather Forecast Offices and Regional Managers, and Alaska's Broadcasters coming together as a dynamic and creative problem solving force. This poster will address the leaps of progress as well as the upcoming hurdles. Ultimately, live code testing is improving how we warn and save lives and property during the shortest fuse disaster his planet offers; the tsunami.

  14. A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The management of natural crises is an important application field of the technology developed in the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme. TRIDEC is based on the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) providing a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination. In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend the existing platform realising a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems for deployment, e.g. in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAM) region. The TRIDEC system will be implemented in three phases, each with a demonstrator. Successively, the demonstrators are addressing challenges, such as the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulation tools and data fusion tools. In addition to conventional sensors also unconventional sensors and sensor networks play an important role in TRIDEC. The system version presented is based on service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and on relevant standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). In this way the system continuously gathers, processes and displays events and data coming from open sensor platforms to enable operators to quickly decide whether an early warning is necessary and to send personalized warning messages to the authorities and the population at large through a wide range of communication channels. The system integrates OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of hazardous events, like earthquakes, sea level anomalies, ocean floor occurrences, and ground displacements. Using OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture. The integration of a simulation system to identify affected areas is considered using the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS). Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) together with addressing information defined via the OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The first system demonstrator has been designed and implemented to support plausible scenarios demonstrating the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC). The feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes in a hypothetical natural crisis situation caused by a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean. Developments of the system are based to the largest extent on free and open source software (FOSS) components and industry standards. Emphasis has been and will be made on leveraging open source technologies that support mature system architecture models wherever appropriate. All open source software produced is foreseen to be published on a publicly available software repository thus allowing others to reuse results achieved and enabling further development and collaboration with a wide community including scientists, developers, users and stakeholders. This live demonstration is linked with the talk "TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis" (EGU2012-7275) given in the session "Architecture of Future Tsunami Warning Systems" (NH5.7/ESSI1.7).

  15. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that recognize these characteristics, and then immediately alerts a tsunami warning center through the communications buoy when the processor senses one of these waves. In addition to the tsunami detection buoy system, an end-to-end tsunami warning system was developed that builds upon the country's existing disaster warning infrastructure. This warning system includes 1) components that receive, process, and analyze buoy, seismic and tide gauge data; 2) predictive tools and a consequence assessment tool set to provide decision support; 3) operation center design and implementation; and 4) tsunami buoy operations and maintenance support. The first buoy was deployed Oct. 25, 2006, approximately 200 nautical miles west of San Diego in 3,800 meters of water. Just three weeks later, it was put to the test during an actual tsunami event. On Nov. 15, 2006, an 8.3 magnitude earthquake rocked the Kuril Islands, located between Japan and the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. That quake generated a small tsunami. Waves from the tsunami propagated approximately 4,000 nautical miles across the Pacific Ocean in about nine hours-- a speed of about 445 nautical miles per hour when this commercial buoy first detected them. Throughout that event, the tsunami buoy system showed excellent correlation with data collected by a NOAA DART buoy located 28 nautical miles north of it. Subsequent analysis revealed that the STB matched DART operational capabilities and performed flawlessly. The buoy proved its capabilities again on Jan. 13, 2007, when an 8.1 magnitude earthquake occurred in the same region, and the STB detected the seismic event. As a result of the successes of this entire project, SAIC recently applied for and received a license from NOAA to build DART systems.

  16. Optical Dating of Tsunami-Laid Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, David J.; Clague, John J.

    1996-09-01

    The ages of some tsunami deposits can be determined by optical dating, a key requirement being that the deposits are derived from sediment that was reworked and exposed to daylight by tidal currents, waves, wind, or bioturbation during the last years before the tsunami. Measurements have been made using 1.4 eV (infrared) excitation of K-feldspar grains separated from samples of prehistoric tsunami sand sheets and modern analogs of tsunami source sediments at four sites in Washington state and British Columbia. Source sands gave equivalent doses indicative of recent exposure to daylight. Tsunami sand at Cultus Bay, Washington, yielded an optical age of 1285 ± 95 yr (calendric years before A.D. 1995, ±1?). At 2?, this age overlaps the range of from 1030 to 1100 yr determined through a combination of high-precision radiocarbon dating and stratigraphic correlation. Tsunami sands at three sites near Tofino and Port Alberni on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, have optical ages of 260 ± 20, 325 ± 25, and 335 ± 45 yr. Historical records and radiocarbon dating show that the sand at each of the three sites is between 150 and 400 yr old. These optical ages support the hypothesis that the Vancouver Island sands were deposited by a tsunami generated by a large earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone about 300 yr ago.

  17. Simulation systems for tsunami wave propagation forecasting within the French tsunami warning center

    OpenAIRE

    Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2013-01-01

    A model-based tsunami prediction system has been developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center (operational since 1 July 2012). It involves a precomputed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored). For the Mediterranean basin, the faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults. An automated composite scenarios calculati...

  18. Inflation from tsunami-waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate inflation driven by the evolution of highly excited quantum states within the framework of out of equilibrium field dynamics. These states are characterized by a non-perturbatively large number of quanta in a band of momenta but with vanishing expectation value of the scalar field. They represent the situation in which initially a non-perturbatively large energy density is localized in a band of high energy quantum modes and are coined tsunami-waves. The self-consistent evolution of this quantum state and the scale factor is studied analytically and numerically. It is shown that the time evolution of these quantum states lead to two consecutive stages of inflation under conditions that are the quantum analogue of slow-roll. The evolution of the scale factor during the first stage has new features that are characteristic of the quantum state. During this initial stage the quantum fluctuations in the highly excited band build up an effective homogeneous condensate with a non-perturbatively large amplitude as a consequence of the large number of quanta. The second stage of inflation is similar to the usual classical chaotic scenario but driven by this effective condensate. The excited quantum modes are already superhorizon in the first stage and do not affect the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. Thus, this tsunami quantum state provides a field theoretical justification for chaotic scenarios driven by a classical homogeneous scalar field of large amplitude

  19. Quantification of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast; implications for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen G.; Delaney, Keith B.

    2015-04-01

    Our assessment of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast (i.e., the coast of British Columbia) begins with a review of the 1964 tsunami generated by The Great Alaska Earthquake (M9.2) that resulted in significant damage to coastal communities and infrastructure. In particular, the tsunami waves swept up inlets on the west coast of Vancouver Island and damaged several communities; Port Alberni suffered upwards of 5M worth of damage. At Port Alberni, the maximum tsunami wave height was estimated at 8.2 m above mean sea level and was recorded on the stream gauge on the Somass River located at about 7 m a.s.l, 6 km upstream from its mouth. The highest wave (9.75 m above tidal datum) was reported from Shields Bay, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii). In addition, the 1964 tsunami was recorded on tide gauges at a number of locations on the BC coast. The 1964 signal and the magnitude and frequency of traces of other historical Pacific tsunamis (both far-field and local) are analysed in the Tofino tide gauge records and compared to tsunami traces in other tide gauges in the Pacific Basin (e.g., Miyako, Japan). Together with a review of the geological evidence for tsunami occurrence along Vancouver Island's west coast, we use this tide gauge data to develop a quantitative framework for tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific coast. In larger time scales, tsunamis are a major component of the hazard from Cascadia megathrust events. From sedimentological evidence and seismological considerations, the recurrence interval of megathrust events on the Cascadia Subduction Zone has been estimated by others at roughly 500 years. We assume that the hazard associated with a high-magnitude destructive tsunami thus has an annual frequency of roughly 1/500. Compared to other major natural hazards in western Canada this represents a very high annual probability of potentially destructive hazard that, in some coastal communities, translates into high levels of local risk including life-loss risk. Our analysis further indicates that in terms of life-loss risk, communities on Canada's Pacific Coast that are exposed to high tsunami hazard, experience the highest natural risk in Canada. Although sparsely populated, the (outer) coast of British Columbia has important critical infrastructure that includes port developments, shoreline facilities related to forest resource exploitation, a large number of First Nations Reserves, small municipal centres, towns, and villages, (some of which are ecotourism and sport fishing centres), and a limited number of industrial facilities. For selected areas on the west coast of Vancouver Island inundation maps have been prepared for a range of tsunami scenarios. We find that key facilities and critical infrastructure are exposed to the hazards associated with tsunami inundation.

  20. Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tanioka

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997 estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq equation to determine the fault model which explains the observed tsunami waveforms including the large second pulse observed at Honolulu. The estimated fault width is 40–60 km which is much narrower than the fault widths of the typical great underthrust earthquakes, the 1957 Aleutian and the 1964 Alasuka earthquakes. A previous study of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake, another typical tsunami earthquake, suggested that the additional uplift of the sediments near the Japan Trench had a large effect on the tsunami generation. In this study, we also show that the additional uplift of the sediments near the trench, due to a large coseismic horizon-tal movement of the backstop, had a significant effect on the tsunami generation of the 1946 Aleutian earthquake. The estimated seismic moment of the 1946 Aleutian earthquake is 17–19 × 1020 20 Nm (Mw 8.1.

  1. Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Irizarry, A.; Schmidt, W.

    2007-05-01

    After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the USA Congress gave a mandate to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess the tsunami threat for all USA interests, and adapt to them the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT) methodology first developed for the USA Pacific seaboard states. This methodology would be used with the DART buoys deployed in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The first step involved the evaluation and characterization of the major tsunamigenic regions in both regions, work done by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This was followed by the modeling of the generation and propagation of tsunamis due to unit slip tsunamigenic earthquakes located at different locations along the tsunamigenic zones identified by the USGS. These pre-computed results are stored and are used as sources (in an inverse modeling approach using the DART buoys) for so-called Standby Inundation Models (SIM's) being developed for selected coastal cities in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and others along the Atlantic seaboard of the USA. It is the purpose of this presentation to describe the work being carried out in the Caribbean Sea region, where two SIM's for Puerto Rico have already being prepared, allowing for near real-time assessment (less than 10 minutes after detection by the DART buoys) of the expected tsunami impact for two major coastal cities.

  2. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century - a contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Tinti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  3. Post-crisis analysis of an ineffective tsunami alert: the 2010 earthquake in Maule, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulé, Bastien

    2014-04-01

    Considering its huge magnitude and its location in a densely populated area of Chile, the Maule seism of 27 February 2010 generated a low amount of victims. However, post-seismic tsunamis were particularly devastating on that day; surprisingly, no full alert was launched, not at the national, regional or local level. This earthquake and associated tsunamis are of interest in the context of natural hazards management as well as crisis management planning. Instead of focusing exclusively on the event itself, this article places emphasis on the process, systems and long-term approach that led the tsunami alert mechanism to be ineffectual. Notably, this perspective reveals interrelated forerunner signs of vulnerability. PMID:24601922

  4. Evaluating Tsunami Hazard in the Northwestern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Pirooz, Moharram D.; Zaker, Nasser H.; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2008-12-01

    We evaluate here the tsunami hazard in the northwestern Indian Ocean. The maximum regional earthquake calculated from seismic hazard analysis, was used as the characteristic earthquake for our tsunami hazard assessment. This earthquake, with a moment magnitude of M w 8.3 and a return period of about 1000 years, was moved along the Makran subduction zone (MSZ) and its possible tsunami wave height along various coasts was calculated via numerical simulation. Both seismic hazard analysis and numerical modeling of the tsunami were validated using historical observations of the Makran earthquake and tsunami of the 1945. Results showed that the possible tsunami may reach a maximum height of 9.6 m in the region. The distribution of tsunami wave height along various coasts is presented. We recommend the development of a tsunami warning system in the region, and emphasize the value of education as a measure to mitigate the death toll of a possible tsunami in this region.

  5. Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is meaningful for tsunami assessment to evaluate phenomena beyond the design basis as well as seismic design. Because once we set the design basis tsunami height, we still have possibilities tsunami height may exceeds the determined design tsunami height due to uncertainties regarding the tsunami phenomena. Probabilistic tsunami risk assessment consists of estimating for tsunami hazard and fragility of structures and executing system analysis. In this report, we apply a method for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). We introduce a logic tree approach to estimate tsunami hazard curves (relationships between tsunami height and probability of excess) and present an example for Japan. Examples of tsunami hazard curves are illustrated, and uncertainty in the tsunami hazard is displayed by 5-, 16-, 50-, 84- and 95-percentile and mean hazard curves. The result of PTHA will be used for quantitative assessment of the tsunami risk for important facilities located on coastal area. Tsunami hazard curves are the reasonable input data for structures and system analysis. However the evaluation method for estimating fragility of structures and the procedure of system analysis is now being developed. (authors)

  6. Land-Water Boundary Treatment for a Tsunami Model With Dimensional Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, Elena

    2014-09-01

    The Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) model adapted by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for tsunami forecasting operations is praised for its computational efficiency, associated with the use of splitting technique. It will be shown, however, that splitting the computations between and directions results in specific sensitivity to the treatment of land-water boundary. Slight modification to the reflective boundary condition in MOST caused an appreciable difference in the results. This is demonstrated with simulations of the Tohoku-2011 tsunami from the source earthquake to Monterey Bay, California, and in southeast Alaska, followed by comparison with tide gage records. In the first case, the better representation of later waves (reflected from the coasts) by the modified model in a Pacific-wide simulation resulted in twice as long match between simulated and observed tsunami time histories at Monterey gage. In the second case, the modified model was able to propagate the tsunami wave and approach gage records at locations within narrow channels (Juneau, Ketchikan), to where MOST had difficulty propagating the wave. The modification was extended to include inundation computation. The resulting inundation algorithm (Cliffs) has been tested with the complete set of NOAA-recommended benchmark problems focused on inundation. The solutions are compared to the MOST solutions obtained with the version of the MOST model benchmarked for the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program in 2011. In two tests, Cliffs and MOST results are very close, and in another two tests, the results are somewhat different. Very different regimes of generation/disposal of water by Cliffs and MOST inundation algorithms, which supposedly affected the benchmarking results, have been discussed.

  7. ON THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF TSUNAMI RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the spectrum of the tsunami radiation at the following wavelengths: 0.73 ?m, 10.8?m, 12.0?m, 6.8?m and 3.8 ?m (or 13,698 cm-1, 925 cm-1, 833 cm-1, 1,470 cm-1 and 2,631 cm-1 in wave numbers. By comparing with infrared spectroscopic measurements of water, we are able to identify these transitions corroborating our hypothesis that the radiation originates from the transition of vibrational quantum energy levels of water molecules in aggregate. We have also repeated our previous study of the decay rate of tsunamis for a different tsunami. An estimate of the intensity of the tsunami radiation is made.

  8. Livelihoods in post-tsunami Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Harris

    2005-01-01

    Livelihoods in Sri Lanka have been affected not only by the initial devastation of the tsunami but also by the policies and practices of the government and the humanitarian aid community’s post-disaster response.

  9. The public health response to the tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Heal; Manuel Carballo

    2005-01-01

    At a meeting in the Maldives convened in April by the International Centre for Migration and Health, public health specialists from tsunami-affected states assessed lessons learned from the humanitarian response.

  10. Post-tsunami protection concerns in Aceh

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Couldrey; Tim Morris

    2005-01-01

    The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement clearly state that those forced to flee natural disasters are to be regarded as IDPs. However, some agencies in post-tsunami Aceh have been reluctant to use the term andto address protection issues.

  11. Standardized procedure for tsunami PRA by AESJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Fukushima Accident (March 11, 2011), the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the standard of Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plants in May 2011. As Japan is one of the countries with frequent earthquakes, a great deal of efforts has been made in the field of seismic research since the early stage. To our regret, the PRA procedures guide for tsunami has not yet been developed although the importance is held in mind of the PRA community. Accordingly, AESJ established a standard to specify the standardized procedure for tsunami PRA considering the results of investigation into the concept, the requirements that should have and the concrete methods regarding tsunami PRA referring the opinions of experts in the associated fields in December 2011 (AESJ-SC-RK004:2011). (author)

  12. Tsunamis and Hurricanes A Mathematical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Tsunamis and hurricanes have had a devastating impact on the population living near the coast during the year 2005. The calculation of the power and intensity of tsunamis and hurricanes are of great importance not only for engineers and meteorologists but also for governments and insurance companies. This book presents new research on the mathematical description of tsunamis and hurricanes. A combination of old and new approaches allows to derive a nonlinear partial differential equation of fifth order describing the steepening up and the propagation of tsunamis. The description includes dissipative terms and does not contain singularities or two valued functions. The equivalence principle of solutions of nonlinear large gas dynamics waves and of solutions of water wave equations will be used. An extension of the continuity equation by a source term due to evaporation rates of salt seawater will help to understand hurricanes. Detailed formula, tables and results of the calculations are given.

  13. New Tsunami Inundation Maps for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Borrero, Jose; Uslu, Burak; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    California is the first US State to complete its tsunami inundation mapping. A new generation of tsunami inundation maps is now available for 17 coastal counties.. The new maps offer improved coverage for many areas, they are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami farfield and nearfield sources and use the best available bathymetric and topographic data for modelling. The need for new tsunami maps for California became clear since Synolakis et al (1998) described how inundation projections derived with inundation models that fully calculate the wave evolution over dry land can be as high as twice the values predicted with earlier threshold models, for tsunamis originating from tectonic source. Since the 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami when the hazard from offshore submarine landslides was better understood (Bardet et al, 2003), the State of California funded the development of the first generation of maps, based on local tectonic and landslide sources. Most of the hazard was dominated by offshore landslides, whose return period remains unknown but is believed to be higher than 1000 years for any given locale, at least in Southern California. The new generation of maps incorporates local and distant scenarios. The partnership between the Tsunami Research Center at USC, the California Emergency Management Agency and the California Seismic Safety Commission let the State to be the first among all US States to complete the maps. (Exceptions include the offshore islands and Newport Beach, where higher resolution maps are under way). The maps were produced with the lowest cost per mile of coastline, per resident or per map than all other States, because of the seamless integration of the USC and NOAA databases and the use of the MOST model. They are a significant improvement over earlier map generations. As part of a continuous improvement in response, mitigation and planning and community education, the California inundation maps can contribute in reducing tsunami risk. References -Bardet, JP et al (2003), Landslide tsunamis: Recent findings and research directions, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160, (10-11), 1793-1809. -Eisner, R., Borrero, C., Synolakis, C.E. (2001) Inundation Maps for the State of California, International Tsunami Symposium, ITS 2001 Proceedings, NHTMP Review Paper #4, 67-81. -Synolakis, C.E., D. McCarthy, V.V. Titov, J.C. Borrero, (1998) Evaluating the Tsunami Risk in California, CALIFORNIA AND THE WORLD OCEAN '97, 1225-1236, Proceedings ASCE, ISBN: 0-7844-0297-3.

  14. Global Tsunami Warning System Development Since 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.; McCreery, C.; Hirshorn, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The 9.1 Mw Great Sumatra Earthquake of Dec. 26, 2004, generated the most destructive tsunami in history killing 227,000 people along Indian Ocean coastlines and was recorded by sea-level instruments world-wide. This tragedy showed the Indian Ocean needed a tsunami warning system to prevent another tragedy on this scale. The Great Sumatra Earthquake also highlighted the need for tsunami warning systems in other ocean basins. Instruments for recording earthquakes and sea-level data useful for tsunami monitoring did not exist outside of the Pacific Ocean in 2004. Seismometers were few in number, and even fewer were high-quality long period broadband instruments. Nor was much of their data made available to the US tsunami warning centers (TWCs). In 2004 the US TWCs relied exclusively on instrumentation provided and maintained by IRIS and the USGS for areas outside of the Pacific.Since 2004, the US TWCs and their partners have made substantial improvements to seismic and sea-level monitoring networks with the addition of new and better instruments, densification of existing networks, better communications infrastructure, and improved data sharing among tsunami warning centers. In particular, the number of sea-level stations transmitting data in near real-time and the amount of seismic data available to the tsunami warning centers has more than tripled. The DART network that consisted of a half-dozen Pacific stations in 2004 now totals nearly 60 stations worldwide. Earthquake and tsunami science has progressed as well. It took nearly three weeks to obtain the first reliable estimates of the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake's magnitude. Today, thanks to improved seismic networks and modern computing power, TWCs use the W-phase seismic moment method to determine accurate earthquake magnitudes and focal mechanisms for great earthquakes within 25 minutes. TWC scientists have also leveraged these modern computers to generate tsunami forecasts in a matter of minutes.Progress towards a global tsunami warning system has been substantial and today fully-functioning TWCs protect most of the world's coastlines. These improvements have also led to a substantial reduction of time required by the TWCs to detect, locate, and assess the tsunami threat from earthquakes occurring worldwide.

  15. Sedimentology of Coastal Deposits in the Seychelles Islands—Evidence of the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Vanessa; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Monthy, Devis

    2015-03-01

    The Seychelles, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean at a distance of 4,500-5,000 km from the west coast of Sumatra, were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami with wave heights up to 4 m. Since the tsunami history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historical record, it is important to study the geological traces of high energy events preserved along their coasts. We conducted a survey of the impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on the inner Seychelles islands. In detail we studied onshore tsunami deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond in the Curieuse Marine National Park on the east coast of Curieuse Island. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the tsunami in 2004 by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap and assuring a low energetic hydrodynamic environment for the protection of the mangroves. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The tsunami caused a change of habitat by the sedimentation of sand lobes in the mangrove forest. The dark organic rich mangrove soil (1.9 ?) was covered by bimodal fine to medium carbonate sand (1.7-2.2 ?) containing coarser carbonate shell fragments and debris. Intertidal sediments and the mangrove soil acted as sources of the lobe deposits. The sand sheet deposited by the tsunami is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of the morphology of the onshore area. The maximum extent of 180 m from the shoreline indicates the minimum inundation distance to the tsunami. The top parts of the sand lobes cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. There is no landward fining trend along the sand lobes and normal grading of the deposits is rare, occurring only in 1 of 7 sites. The sand lobe deposits also lack sedimentary structures. On the surface of the sand lobes numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and molluscs were distributed up to 150 m from the coastline. Intact bivalve shells were mostly found positioned with the convex side upwards. On small ledges of a granitic body at 130-150 m from the shore mostly fragmented and gravel sized shells were deposited at different elevations up to 4 m above sea level. This implies a run up height of at least 4 m above sea level up to 150 m from the present shoreline.

  16. Nationwide tsunami hazard assessment project in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, we began a project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) in Japan to support various measures (Fujiwara et al., 2013, JpGU; Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS). The most important strategy in the nationwide PTHA is predominance of aleatory uncertainty in the assessment but use of epistemic uncertainty is limited to the minimum, because the number of all possible combinations among epistemic uncertainties diverges quickly when the number of epistemic uncertainties in the assessment increases ; we consider only a type of earthquake occurrence probability distribution as epistemic uncertainty. We briefly show outlines of the nationwide PTHA as follows; (i) we consider all possible earthquakes in the future, including those that the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japanese Government, already assessed. (ii) We construct a set of simplified earthquake fault models, called "Characterized Earthquake Fault Models (CEFMs)", for all of the earthquakes by following prescribed rules (Toyama et al., 2014, JpGU; Korenaga et al., 2014, JpGU). (iii) For all of initial water surface distributions caused by a number of the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. (iv) Finally, we integrate information about the tsunamis calculated from the numerous CEFMs to get nationwide tsunami hazard assessments. One of the most popular representations of the integrated information is a tsunami hazard curve for coastal tsunami heights, incorporating uncertainties inherent in tsunami simulation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU). We will show a?PTHA along the eastern coast of Honshu, Japan, based on approximately 1,800 tsunami sources located within the subduction zone along the Japan Trench, as a prototype of the nationwide PTHA. This study is supported by part of the research project on research on evaluation of hazard and risk of natural disasters, under the direction of the HERP of Japanese Government.

  17. Tsunamis warning from space: Ionosphere seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

  18. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, T; U. Raape; Teßmann, S; Strobl, C.; Friedemann, M.; T. Kukofka; Riedlinger, T.; E. Mikusch; Dech, S.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS) is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populate...

  19. Dispersion of tsunamis: does it really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Glimsdal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the effect of dispersion in the field of tsunami modeling. Frequency dispersion in the linear long-wave limit is first briefly discussed from a theoretical point of view. A single parameter, denoted as "dispersion time", for the integrated effect of frequency dispersion is identified. This parameter depends on the wavelength, the water depth during propagation, and the propagation distance or time. Also the role of long-time asymptotes is discussed in this context. The wave generation by the two main tsunami sources, namely earthquakes and landslides, are briefly discussed with formulas for the surface response to the bottom sources. Dispersive effects are then exemplified through a semi-idealized study of a moderate-strength inverse thrust fault. Emphasis is put on the directivity, the role of the "dispersion time", the significance of the Boussinesq model employed (dispersive effect, and the effects of the transfer from bottom sources to initial surface elevation. Finally, the experience from a series of case studies, including earthquake- and landslide-generated tsunamis, is presented. The examples are taken from both historical (e.g. the 2011 Japan tsunami and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and potential tsunamis (e.g. the tsunami after the potential La Palma volcanic flank collapse. Attention is mainly given to the role of dispersion during propagation in the deep ocean and the way the accumulation of this effect relates to the "dispersion time". It turns out that this parameter is useful as a first indication as to when frequency dispersion is important, even though ambiguity with respect to the definition of the wavelength may be a problem for complex cases. Tsunamis from most landslides and moderate earthquakes tend to display dispersive behavior, at least in some directions. On the other hand, for the mega events of the last decade dispersion during deep water propagation is mostly noticeable for transoceanic propagation.

  20. Evaluation and Application of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K.

    2014-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) and URS Corporation are in the process of generating tsunami hazard map products for land-use planning and construction through the California Seismic Hazard Mapping Act (Public Resources Code, sec 2690 et seq.). Similar to seismic hazard zonation, these products for land-use and development decision-making are typically based on a probabilistic analysis, and require information on the frequency of occurrence through a probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). In Phase 1 of CGS's work, the California PTHA Work Group was established to evaluate the results of PTHA demonstration projects in Crescent City and Huntington Beach. The results of this Phase 1 review of the two independent analyses indicate PTHA's can be developed with recommended improvements in source characterization, PTHA methods, and numerical model use. An immediate significant improvement is to align the characterization of the Cascadia Subduction Zone PTHA with the seismic characterization of the National Seismic Hazard Map Program of the USGS. In addition to applying PTHA to land-use planning and the two demonstration projects, CGS and the CA-PTHA Work Group identified other potential applications for various PTHA risk levels (ARP = Average Return Period), including flood insurance (100 and 500 year ARP), building codes (2,500 year ARP), and emergency response planning (1000 year ARP or larger). CGS is working with URS Corp., the California Office of Emergency Services, and FEMA on a Phase 2 plan to produce a single set of reliable and consistent PTHA maps for multiple risk levels and work with various end-users to determine how to use the maps. The California PTHA and the results of the Work Group review are also proposed to be used by the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to develop guidelines for production in other coastal states.

  1. Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Podcasts Winter FAQs Send eCards Email Reminders & RSS Feed Related Links and Resources Bibliography PSAs for Disasters Health and Safety Concerns for All Disasters Animals and Insects Fact Sheet: Protection from Animal and Insect Hazards ...

  2. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  3. Improving Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Lessons from Deposits from Seven Modern Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghino, B.; Jaffe, B. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Watt, S.; La Selle, S.; Buckley, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial paleotsunami deposits are studied to understand the timing and inundation extent of past tsunamis. Developing techniques to extract more information, such as flow depth, from paleotsunami deposits will improve understanding of the tsunami history in vulnerable areas and provide data for tsunami hazard assessment and planning. The analysis of deposits from recent tsunamis enables the comparison between deposit characteristics and event processes because data on the source and hydrodynamics of the tsunami can be collected. We compile and analyze data on tsunami hydrodynamics, deposits, and depositional environments collected in field studies over the last 16 years from 50 study sites from 7 tsunami events, including Papua New Guinea 1998, Peru 2001, Indian Ocean 2004, Sumatra 2005, Samoa 2009, Chile 2010, and Japan 2011. This approach allows comparisons of tsunami deposit characteristics across events and depositional environments. We find a moderate positive correlation between the mean grain size of a deposit and the flow depth of the tsunami, likely because more coarse material is transported by faster tsunami flows that are typical of greater flow depths. We also find that the local deposit thickness is not primarily controlled by flow depth and is strongly influenced by the contributions of bedload, variations in sediment supply, and local topography. We find that deposits often thicken when local topographic slope decreases and vice versa. Further study will investigate if the thicknesses of individual suspension graded layers within deposits are controlled by tsunami flow depth. By ignoring the portions of the deposit formed by bedload transport or spatial flow deceleration, the parts of the deposit formed from sediment falling out of suspension during the temporal flow deceleration of each tsunami wave may be identified. Focusing on individual layers of tsunami deposits, hypothetically formed by a single process and wave, may reveal relationships between deposit characteristics and hydrodynamic conditions that are not apparent when analyzing deposits as a whole. Refining the understanding of depositional processes occurring in modern tsunami events provides a foundation for developing techniques to reconstruct flow conditions from paleotsunami deposits.

  4. The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plant (3). Outline of tsunami fragility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) standard was issued in February 2012 by Standard Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). This article detailed tsunami fragility analysis, which calculated building and structure damage probability contributing core damage and consisted of five evaluation steps: (1) selection of evaluated element and damage mode, (2) selection of evaluation procedure, (3) evaluation of actual stiffness, (4) evaluation of actual response and (5) evaluation of fragility (damage probability and others). As an application example of the standard, calculation results of tsunami fragility analysis investigation by tsunami PRA subcommittee of AESJ were shown reflecting latest knowledge of damage state caused by wave force and others acted by tsunami from the 'off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake'. (T. Tanaka)

  5. ISSN 8755-6839 SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS Journal of Tsunami Society International Number 2 2013 IMPACT OF TSUNAMI FORCES ON STRUCTURES The University of Ottawa Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cornett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past seven years, a comprehensive interdisciplinary research program has been conducted between researchers at the University of Ottawa and at the Canadian Hydraulics Centre (CHC of the National Research Council of Canada. The objectives of this on-going research program are to identify and quantify forces that are imposed on near-shoreline structures when exposed to tsunami- induced hydraulic bores and to investigate mitigation strategies to dampen these forces. The experimental component of this research program involves two structural models (square and circular that are tested in the High Discharge Flume at CHC. The structural models are instrumented to record base shear force-, base overturning moment-, pressure-, acceleration-, lateral displacement- and bore depth-time histories continually during testing. Impact loading resulting from wood debris of different sizes and located at pre-determined distances from the structural models is also studied. Furthermore, this research program aims to review tsunami-induced forces on structures prescribed by recent design documents.

  6. Effects of tsunami magnitude and terrestrial topography on sedimentary processes and distribution of tsunami deposits in flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naofumi; Sekiguchi, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    To identify and interpret tsunami deposits correctly, a better understanding of the effects of both tsunami magnitude and topographic setting are required. In the present study, laboratory experiments were performed to model these effects on sedimentary processes and the distribution of tsunami deposits on coastal lowlands. The experiments directed tsunamis of eight different magnitudes on to three different models of terrestrial topography: one with flat topography, one with a shallow water-filled pool, and one with a deep water-filled pool. The results suggested a relationship between the distribution of tsunami deposits and the hydraulic condition of the tsunami flow onto the terrestrial topography. In particular, the tsunami deposits in the pools were spatially more variable than those on land because of the variation in flow intensity associated with transformation of the flow from supercritical to subcritical with a hydraulic jump. We observed a gap between the landward extent of deposits and the tsunami inundation distance, particularly in the experiments with a pool. The total amount of sediment in tsunami deposits on the terrestrial area was found to depend on the magnitude of the tsunami, but the thickness of the deposits at any one given spot did not always depend on the tsunami magnitude, even in the same topographic. These results show that terrestrial topography has significant effects on the spatial distribution of tsunami deposits that must be taken into consideration when interpreting the history and magnitude of paleotsunami events from tsunami deposits.

  7. Tsunami Early Warning in Europe: NEAMWave Exercise 2012 - the Portuguese Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammmitzsch, Martin; Schulz, Jana; Reißland, Sven

    2013-04-01

    On 27th and 28th November 2012 the first European-wide tsunami exercise took place under the auspices of UNESCO Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (ICG/NEAMTWS). Four international scenarios were performed - one for each candidate tsunami watch provider France, Greece, Portugal and Turkey. Their task was to generate and disseminate tsunami warning bulletins in-time and in compliance with the official NEAMTWS specifications. The Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA, [1]) in Lissabon and the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI [2]) in Istanbul are the national agencies of Portugal and Turkey responsible for tsunami early warning. Both institutes are partners in the TRIDEC [3] project and were using the TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management (NCM) system during NEAMWave exercise. The software demonstrated the seamless integration of diverse components including sensor systems, simulation data, and dissemination hardware. The functionalities that were showcased significantly exceeded the internationally agreed range of capabilities. Special attention was given to the Command and Control User Interface (CCUI) serving as central application for the operator. Its origins lie in the DEWS project [4] but numerous new functionalities were added to master all requirements defined by the complex NEAMTWS workflows. It was of utmost importance to develop an application handling the complexity of tsunami science but providing a clearly arranged and comprehensible interface that disburdens the operator during time-critical hazard situations. [1] IPMA: www.ipma.pt/ [2] KOERI: www.koeri.boun.edu.tr/ [3] TRIDEC: www.tridec-online.eu [4] DEWS: www.dews-online.org

  8. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

  9. DART® Tsunameter Retrospective and Real-Time Data: A Reflection on 10 Years of Processing in Support of Tsunami Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, George; Eblé, Marie; Bouchard, Richard

    2013-09-01

    In the early 1980s, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory established the fundamentals of the contemporary tsunameter network deployed throughout the world oceans. The decades of technological and scientific advancements that followed led to a robust network that now provides real-time deep-ocean tsunami observations routinely incorporated into operational procedures of tsunami warning centers around the globe. All aspects of the network, from research to operations, to data archive and dissemination, are conducted collaboratively between the National Data Buoy Center, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Geophysical Data Center, with oversight by the National Weather Service. The National Data Buoy Center manages and conducts all operational network activities and distributes real-time data to the public. The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory provides the research component in support of modeling and network enhancements for improved forecasting capability. The National Geophysical Data Center is responsible for the processing, archiving, and distribution of all retrospective data and integrates DART® tsunameter data with the National Geophysical Data Center global historical tsunami database. The role each agency plays in collecting, processing, and disseminating observations of deep-ocean bottom pressure is presented along with brief descriptions of data processing procedures. Specific examples of challenges and the approaches taken to address these are discussed. National Geophysical Data Center newly developed and available tsunami event web pages are briefly described and demonstrated with processed data for both the Tohoku 11 March 2011 and the Haiti 12 January 2010 tsunami events.

  10. 2011 Tohoku tsunami survey and its historical comparison at Rikuzentakata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Shimozono, T.; Takagawa, T.; Okayasu, A.; Fritz, H. M.; Sato, S.; Tajima, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we conducted detailed field reconnaissance in the City of Rikuzentakata, Iwate Prefecture, Japan during two time periods of 26-29 March and 9-11 April, 2011. Figure 1 shows a typical panoramic photo taken in our survey. Comparing with three historical tsunami events occurred in this region, i.e., the 1896 Meiji tsunami, the 1933 Showa tsunami and the 1960 Chilean tsunami, the 2011 Tohoku tsunami presents the largest values with respect to the wave height, the flooding area and the inundation distance. Relatively uniform tsunami heights were recorded along the Hirota Bay with a representative tsunami height of 15 m, and an increased wave height of 20 m was documented at rocky cape tips. The inundation area of the 2011 tsunami is even larger than the sum of other three previous events. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami exceeded by almost 2.6 times the area flooded by the 1960 Chilean tsunami, which although ranks second. Quite a few new observations were made during the 2011 Tohoku tsunami attack, e.g., the significant tsunami overland flooding even in the rear side of mountains and the entire transfixion of tsunami inundation area at the base of the Hirota Peninsula. The maximum tsunami inundation distance along the Kesen River of 8.1 km from the river mouth, exceeds by 6.2/2.7 times recorded of the 1933 Showa/1960 Chilean tsunami events. Tsunami inundation height linearly decreases along the Kesen River at a rate of 1 m/km. The tsunami inland flooding distance is less than 2 km in Rikuzentakata urban area. A sophisticated variation on the tsunami inundation and runup heights is observed overland, and the relevant tsunami height gradually amplifies towards the east following the corresponding topography. A 2 km longshore coastal forest, originally supposed to act as an artificial tsunami breakwater to protect the inland communities, completely failed during the 2011 event. At the same time, many designated tsunami shelters, such as the city's indoor sports arena and the ancient temple, were within the tsunami flooding zone and failed to save human lives - a risk that was underestimated at present.

  11. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

    2011-12-01

    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly three meters. The evacuation of Hawaii's coastlines commenced at 7:31 UTC. Concurrent with this tsunami event, a widely-felt Mw 4.6 earthquake occurred beneath the island of Hawai`i at 8:58 UTC. PTWC responded within three minutes of origin time with a Tsunami Information Statement stating that the Hawaii earthquake would not generate a tsunami. After issuing 27 international tsunami bulletins to Pacific basin countries, and 16 messages to the State of Hawaii during a period of 25 hours after the event began, PTWC concluded its role during the Tohoku tsunami event with the issuance of the corresponding warning cancellation message at 6:36 UTC on 12 March 2011. During the following weeks, however, the PTWC would continue to respond to dozens of aftershocks related to the earthquake. We will present a complete timeline of PTWC's activities, both domestic and international, during the Tohoku tsunami event. We will also illustrate the immense number of website hits, phone calls, and media requests that flooded PTWC during the course of the event, as well as the growing role social media plays in communicating tsunami hazard information to the public.

  12. TWO DECADES OF GLOBAL TSUNAMIS - 1982-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lockridge

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal purpose of this catalog is to extend the cataloging of tsunami occurrences and effects begun in 1988 by Soloviev, Go, and Kim (Catalog of Tsunamis in the Pacific 1969 to 1982 to the period extending from 1982 through 2001, and to provide a convenient source of tsunami data and a reference list for tsunamis in this period. While the earlier catalogs by Soloviev were restricted to the Pacific region including Indonesia, this catalog reports on known tsunamis worldwide. The year 1982 was included in this catalog because the data in the Soloviev and Go catalog for that year was incomplete.The Pacific is by far the most active zone for tsunami generation but tsunamis have been generated in many other bodies of water including the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas, and Indian and Atlantic Oceans and other bodies of water. There were no known tsunamis generated in the Atlantic Ocean in the period from 1982 to 2001 but they have occurred there historically. North Atlantic tsunamis include the tsunami associated with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake that caused up to 60,000 fatalities in Portugal, Spain, and North Africa. This tsunami generated waves of up to seven meters in height into the Caribbean. Since 1498 the Caribbean has had 37 verified tsunamis (local and remote sourced plus an additional 52 events that may have resulted in tsunamis. The death toll from these events is about 9,500 fatalities. In 1929, the Grand Banks tsunami off the coast of Labrador generated waves of up to 15 meters in Newfoundland, Canada, killing 26 people, and the waves were recorded along the New Jersey coast. Smaller Atlantic coast tsunamis have been generated in the Norwegian fjords, Iceland, and off the coast of the New England states of the United States. Major tsunamis have also occurred in the Marmara Sea in Turkey associated with the Izmit earthquake of August 17, 1999.

  13. A Model for TSUnami FLow INversion from Deposits (TSUFLIND)

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hui; Weiss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Modern tsunami deposits are employed to estimate the overland flow characteristics of tsunamis. With the help of the overland-flow characteristics, the characteristics of the causative tsunami wave can be estimated. The understanding of tsunami deposits has tremendously improved over the last decades. There are three prominent inversion models: Moore advection model, Soulsby's model and TsuSedMod model. TSUFLIND incorporates all three models and adds new modules to better si...

  14. Evaluation of Indian nuclear coastal sites for tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of tsunami wave modelling based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The results of in-house finite element code Tsunami Solution(TSUSOL) is highlighted through numerical simulation of Sumatra-2004 and Makran-1945 tsunami events. The TSUSOL code is shown to have special capability of coupled tsunami and acoustic wave simulation, which is an important feature for the early warning system

  15. TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    X. William Proenza; George A. Maul

    2010-01-01

    Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events) times measures of elements at risk (human exposure) times measures of vulnerability (preparedness) in ...

  16. UNDERSTANDING TSUNAMI RISK TO STRUCTURES: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    D. Palermo; Nistor, I.

    2008-01-01

    The potential catastrophic effects of tsunami-induced loading on built infrastructure in the vicinity of shorelines have been brought to the fore by recent global events. However, state- of-the-art building codes remain silent or provide conflicting guidance on designing near- shoreline structures in tsunami-prone areas. This paper focuses on tsunami-induced loading and its effect on structures within the Canadian context. The mechanics of tsunami-induced loading is described based on knowled...

  17. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Schöne, T.; W. Pandoe; I. Mudita; Roemer, S.; J. Illigner; Zech, C.; R. Galas

    2011-01-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The s...

  18. MORTALITY, THE FAMILY AND THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI

    OpenAIRE

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Preston, Samuel; Sikoki, Bondan; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Over 130,000 people died in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The correlates of survival are examined using data from the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a population-representative survey collected in Aceh and North Sumatra, Indonesia, before and after the tsunami. Children, older adults and females were the least likely to survive. Whereas socio-economic factors mattered relatively little, the evidence is consistent with physical strength playing a role. Pre-tsunami househo...

  19. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  20. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Lockridge; LowellS. Whiteside; James F. Lander

    2002-01-01

    The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunami...

  1. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of tsunami monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean region since the first meeting of the UNESCO ICG-Caribe EWS in 2006. The three measures of network capability modeled in this study are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) P-wave detection time of an automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location uncertainty. By modeling three measures of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and along the coast will also be addressed. With the support of Member States and other countries and organizations it has been possible to significantly expand the sea level network thus reducing the amount of time it now takes to verify tsunamis.

  2. Introduction to "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World: Volume II. Tsunamis from 1755 to 2010"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Borrero, José C.

    2013-09-01

    Eighteen papers on past and recent destructive tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World." Three papers discuss deep-sea (DART) and coastal tsunami observations, warning systems and risk management in the Pacific Ocean. Four papers examine the 1755 Lisbon, 1964 Alaska, 2003 Algeria, and 2011 Haiti tsunamis. Four more papers, as well as some papers in Volume I, report on various aspects of the 2010 Chile tsunami. Two papers present some results of field survey and modelling investigation of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia, tsunami. Three papers report on modelling efforts of tsunami generation by earthquake and landslide, and of tsunami propagation. Finally, two papers discuss hazard assessment using a probabilistic approach.

  3. Research for developing precise tsunami evaluation methods. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis/numerical simulation method with dispersion and wave breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report introduces main results of investigations on precise tsunami evaluation methods, which were carried out from the viewpoint of safety evaluation for nuclear power facilities and deliberated by the Tsunami Evaluation Subcommittee. A framework for the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) based on logic tree is proposed and calculation on the Pacific side of northeastern Japan is performed as a case study. Tsunami motions with dispersion and wave breaking were investigated both experimentally and numerically. The numerical simulation method is verified for its practicability by applying to a historical tsunami. Tsunami force is also investigated and formulae of tsunami pressure acting on breakwaters and on building due to inundating tsunami are proposed. (author)

  4. A Tsunami PSA for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied in this study. At first, an empirical tsunami hazard analysis performed for an evaluation of tsunami return period. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. Finally, a system analysis performed in the case of tsunami event for an evaluation of a CDF of Ulchin 56 NPP site. For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. As a result, in the case of tsunami event, functional failure is mostly governed total failure probability of facilities in NPP site

  5. Hunting for Ancient Tsunamis in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.

    2007-05-01

    Paleotsunami deposits may prove harder to find in tidal wetlands and beach-ridge plains around the tropical Indian Ocean than in temperate but otherwise comparable settings on the Pacific Rim. The reasons for this challenge are probably unrelated to tsunami size or recurrence. Estuarine marshes and grassy beach-ridge plains provide widespread opportunities for tsunamis to lay down preservable sand sheets in northeastern Japan, Kamchatka, the northwestern United States, and south-central Chile. The small plants of these lowlands offered little resistance to tsunami flow. Coseismic subsidence and net late Holocene submergence provided caps of tidal mud that help preserve the sand. By contrast in tidal wetlands overrun by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, mangrove swamps and their inhibit the formation and preservation of tsunami sand sheets. For example, in mangrove swamps along tidal inlets near Ban Nam Kem and Tab Lamu, Thailand, sandy deposits of the 2004 tsunami were probably limited to feather- shaped channel-margin areas where the tsunami lost much of its momentum to the toppling of leafy trees. When these deposits were examined in July 2006, deposit-feeding crabs were busily mixing the sand into muddy, peaty mangrove soils. Such limitations of mangrove swamps as paleotsunami recorders may help explain why a reconnaissance in May 2006 turned up no sand sheets in the soils of mangroves near Cilacap, on the south coast of Java. Thus far it is unclear whether this coast, which faces the Sunda Trench, lacks potential for tsunamis as enormous as Aceh's in 2004, or whether it has a history of enormous tsunamis that simply failed to leave a long-lasting record in the Cilacap mangroves. Disturbance by humans limits the paleotsunami targets on beach-ridge plains facing the Indian Ocean. Thai coastal plains, though apparently grassy where undisturbed, have been extensively modified by placer mining for tin. In Java and southeastern India, most coastal plains have been under the plow for centuries. The outlook for paleotsunami hunting in South and Southeast Asia probably depends on new targets that include coral boulders and scarcely disturbed beach-ridge plains in Thailand; archaeological sites that provide cultural timelines in India; lagoons of Sri Lanka; coastal rivers that offer cutbanks and oxbows on beach-ridge plains of Java; delicately laminated deposits of salt flats routinely overrun by storm surges on the arid northern shores of the Arabian Sea; and records of prehistoric land-level change close to fault-rupture areas along the Sunda Trench.

  6. Validating Velocities in the GeoClaw Tsunami Model using Observations Near Hawaii from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Arcos, M. E. M.; LeVeque, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velo...

  7. Earthquake and Tsunami Potential of the Hikurangi Subduction Thrust, New Zealand: Insights from Paleoseismology, GPS, and Tsunami Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Laura M. Wallace; Ursula A. Cochran; William L. Power; Kate J. Clark

    2014-01-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin, where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the North Island of New Zealand, poses a major seismic and tsunami hazard to the New Zealand region, but its seismic and tsunami potential is largely unknown because of New Zealand's short (< 170 years) historical record of seismicity. This article discusses the implications of results from GPS, paleoseismology, and tsunami modeling studies for understanding Hikurangi subduction earthquake and tsunami potential. Paleose...

  8. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  9. Tsunami-tendenko and morality in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Disaster planning challenges our morality. Everyday rules of action may need to be suspended during large-scale disasters in favour of maxims that that may make prudential or practical sense and may even be morally preferable but emotionally hard to accept, such as tsunami-tendenko. This maxim dictates that the individual not stay and help others but run and preserve his or her life instead. Tsunami-tendenko became well known after the great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011, when almost all the elementary and junior high school students in one city survived the tsunami because they acted on this maxim that had been taught for several years. While tsunami-tendenko has been praised, two criticisms of it merit careful consideration: one, that the maxim is selfish and immoral; and two, that it goes against the natural tendency to try to save others in dire need. In this paper, I will explain the concept of tsunami-tendenko and then respond to these criticisms. Such ethical analysis is essential for dispelling confusion and doubts about evacuation policies in a disaster. PMID:23533054

  10. Public Perceptions of Tsunamis and the NOAA TsunamiReady Program in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A.

    2010-12-01

    After the devastating December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, California and other coastal states began installing "Tsunami Warning Zone" and "Evacuation Route" signs at beaches and major access roads. The geography of the Los Angeles area may not be conducive to signage alone for communication of the tsunami risk and safety precautions. Over a year after installation, most people surveyed did not know about or recognize the tsunami signs. More alarming is that many did not believe a tsunami could occur in the area even though earthquake generated waves have reached nearby beaches as recently as September 2009! UPDATE: FEB. 2010. Fifty two percent of the 147 people surveyed did not believe they would survive a natural disaster in Los Angeles. Given the unique geography of Los Angeles, how can the city and county improve the mental health of its citizens before and after a natural disaster? This poster begins to address the issues of community self-efficacy and resiliency in the face of tsunamis. Of note for future research, the data from this survey showed that most people believed climate change would increase the occurrence of tsunamis. Also, the public understanding of water inundation was disturbingly low. As scientists, it is important to understand the big picture of our research - how it is ultimately communicated, understood, and used by the public.

  11. The Impacts of Tsunami on the Well-Being of the Affected Community in Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zainora Asmawi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami of 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating tragedy ever occurred to men in the history of human civilization. Approximately 250,000 lives perished, millions injured and suffered, while the destruction of property loss of opportunities cannot be accurately estimated. The impact of the tsunami on environmental destruction shows that damage was inflicted on natural resources such as coral reefs, mangroves, sand dunes and other coastal ecosystem that acted as wave defense barriers. Moreover, inlands, wetlands and agricultural land were salinated and natural resources for livelihood and for source of income were badly affected, especially for coastal communities who were involve in fisheries. The situation worsened as basic facilities were also destroyed. As such, this research focuses on assessing and identifying on how the impacts of the tsunami on the infrastructure and environmental resources affected the community well-being inKuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. This study focuses on the impacts of tsunami on the affected community well-being in the coastal zone on the basis of available primary and secondary sources. Primary sources included questionnaires, interviews and observations while the secondary resources included books, government and international reports, scientific journals, maps and articles that highlighted tsunami related issues. The study tries to seek for both qualitative and quantitative impacts and also tries to find out some solutions that would help to minimize the impact of the tsunami on the community well-being. The information gained from this study can be used to help the community as well as the agencies involve in order to minimize the impacts of the tsunami on the community and develop a more effective mitigation measures for other environmental disasters such as tsunami. Besides, the research may help to create awareness on the community to be prepared in facing disastrous situation such as the tsunami. Through community preparedness, the impact can be minimized and reduced. As for the authority, this research may be of great assistance by allowing them to make better decision.

  12. Tsunami forecast by joint inversion of real-time tsunami waveforms and seismic of GPS data: application to the Tohoku 2011 tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wei; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

    2014-01-01

    Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model–data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

  13. Tsunami Forecast by Joint Inversion of Real-Time Tsunami Waveforms and Seismic or GPS Data: Application to the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

    2014-12-01

    Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model-data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

  14. Tsunami Forecast Progress Five Years After Indonesian Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vasily V.; Bernard, Eddie N.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2010-05-01

    Almost five years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, tsunami warnings are finally benefiting from decades of research toward effective model-based forecasts. Since the 2004 tsunami, two seminal advances have been (i) deep-ocean tsunami measurements with tsunameters and (ii) their use in accurately forecasting tsunamis after the tsunami has been generated. Using direct measurements of deep-ocean tsunami heights, assimilated into numerical models for specific locations, greatly improves the real-time forecast accuracy over earthquake-derived magnitude estimates of tsunami impact. Since 2003, this method has been used to forecast tsunamis at specific harbors for different events in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Recent tsunamis illustrated how this technology is being adopted in global tsunami warning operations. The U.S. forecasting system was used by both research and operations to evaluate the tsunami hazard. Tests demonstrated the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models. Several examples also showed potential of distributed forecast tools. With IOC and USAID funding, NOAA researchers at PMEL developed the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) tool and distributed it through extensive capacity-building sessions in the Indian Ocean. Over hundred scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. These same inundation models can also be used for real-time tsunami forecasts as was demonstrated during several events. Contact Information Vasily V. Titov, Seattle, Washington, USA, 98115

  15. TSUNAMI AMPLITUDE PREDICTION DURING EVENTS: A TEST BASED ON PREVIOUS TSUNAMIS

    OpenAIRE

    Paul M. Whitmore

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center’s (WC/ATWC) far-field tsunami amplitude prediction method is tested by applying the technique to nine previous, well-recorded tsunamigenic events. Predicted tsunami amplitudes outside the source area are shown to be sufficiently accurate to guide warning cancellation/restriction/expansion decisions. Average error per event ranged from 0.04m to 0.29m with error defined as the absolute value of the difference between the recorded amplitude and t...

  16. Preliminary Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Uljin NPP Site using Tsunami Propagation Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyunme; KIm, Minkyu; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Donghoon [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The tsunami hazard analysis is based on the seismic hazard analysis method. The seismic hazard analysis had been performed by using the deterministic or probabilistic method. Recently, the probabilistic method has been received more attention than the deterministic method because the probabilistic approach can be considered well uncertainties of hazard analysis. Therefore the studies on the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) have been performed in this study. This study was focused on the wave propagation analysis which was the most different thing between seismic hazard analysis and tsunami hazard analysis.

  17. Preliminary Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Uljin NPP Site using Tsunami Propagation Analysis Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tsunami hazard analysis is based on the seismic hazard analysis method. The seismic hazard analysis had been performed by using the deterministic or probabilistic method. Recently, the probabilistic method has been received more attention than the deterministic method because the probabilistic approach can be considered well uncertainties of hazard analysis. Therefore the studies on the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) have been performed in this study. This study was focused on the wave propagation analysis which was the most different thing between seismic hazard analysis and tsunami hazard analysis

  18. Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2006-12-01

    An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes reduce the level of uncertainty in their results to the uncertainty in the geophysical initial conditions. Further, when coupled with real--time free--field tsunami measurements from tsunameters, validated codes are the only choice for realistic forecasting of inundation; the consequences of failure are too ghastly to take chances with numerical procedures that have not been validated. We discuss a ten step process of benchmark tests for models used for inundation mapping. The associated methodology and algorithmes have to first be validated with analytical solutions, then verified with laboratory measurements and field data. The models need to be published in the scientific literature in peer-review journals indexed by ISI. While this process may appear onerous, it reflects our state of knowledge, and is the only defensible methodology when human lives are at stake. Synolakis, C.E., and Bernard, E.N, Tsunami science before and beyond Boxing Day 2004, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364 1845, 2231--2263, 2005.

  19. The UBO-TSUFD tsunami inundation model: validation and application to a tsunami case study focused on the city of Catania, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays numerical models are a powerful tool in tsunami research since they can be used (i) to reconstruct modern and historical events, (ii) to cast new light on tsunami sources by inverting tsunami data and observations, (iii) to build scenarios in the frame of tsunami mitigation plans, and (iv) to produce forecasts of tsunami impact and inundation in systems of early warning. In parallel with the general recognition of the importance of numerical tsunami simulations, the...

  20. The meteorite impact-induced tsunami hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünnemann, K; Weiss, R

    2015-10-28

    When a cosmic object strikes the Earth, it most probably falls into an ocean. Depending on the impact energy and the depth of the ocean, a large amount of water is displaced, forming a temporary crater in the water column. Large tsunami-like waves originate from the collapse of the cavity in the water and the ejecta splash. Because of the far-reaching destructive consequences of such waves, an oceanic impact has been suggested to be more severe than a similar-sized impact on land; in other words, oceanic impacts may punch over their weight. This review paper summarizes the process of impact-induced wave generation and subsequent propagation, whether the wave characteristic differs from tsunamis generated by other classical mechanisms, and what methods have been applied to quantify the consequences of an oceanic impact. Finally, the impact-induced tsunami hazard will be evaluated by means of the Eltanin impact event. PMID:26392614

  1. Inversion method for initial tsunami waveform reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, V. V.; Voronina, T. A.; Tcheverda, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper deals with the application of the r-solution method to recover the initial tsunami waveform in a tsunami source area by remote water-level measurements. Wave propagation is considered within the scope of a linear shallow-water theory. An ill-posed inverse problem is regularized by means of least square inversion using a truncated SVD (singular value decomposition) approach. The method presented allows one to control instability of the numerical solution and to obtain an acceptable result in spite of ill-posedness of the problem. It is shown that the accuracy of tsunami source reconstruction strongly depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the azimuthal coverage of recording stations with respect to the source area and bathymetric features along the wave path. The numerical experiments were carried out with synthetic data and various computational domains including a real bathymetry.

  2. Tsunamis: bridging science, engineering and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kâno?lu, U; Titov, V; Bernard, E; Synolakis, C

    2015-10-28

    Tsunamis are high-impact, long-duration disasters that in most cases allow for only minutes of warning before impact. Since the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, there have been significant advancements in warning methodology, pre-disaster preparedness and basic understanding of related phenomena. Yet, the trail of destruction of the 2011 Japan tsunami, broadcast live to a stunned world audience, underscored the difficulties of implementing advances in applied hazard mitigation. We describe state of the art methodologies, standards for warnings and summarize recent advances in basic understanding, and identify cross-disciplinary challenges. The stage is set to bridge science, engineering and society to help build up coastal resilience and reduce losses. PMID:26392618

  3. The elusive AD 1826 tsunami, South Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In AD 1826 sealers reported earthquake and tsunami activity in Fiordland, although contemporary or near-contemporary accounts of tsunami inundation at the time are elusive. A detailed analysis of recent sediments fom Okarito Lagoon builds on contextual evidence provided by earlier research concerning past tsunami inundation. Sedimentological, geochemical, micropalaeontological and geochronological data are used to determine palaeoenvironments before, during and after what was most probably tsunami inundation in AD 1826. The most compelling chronological control is provided by a young cohort of trees growing on a raised shoreline bench stranded by a drop in the lagoon water level following tsunami inundation. (author). 42 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. Numerical analysis of tsunami flow around coastal dyke

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, T.; Shibayama, T.

    2013-01-01

    Japan has a long stretch of coastal dykes along its shoreline to protect against storm surges, tsunamis and high wind waves. The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami caused serious damage to these coastal dykes. To improve the coastal dykes along the damaged coast and also to reconsider tsunami risks in other parts of the Japanese coast, it is important to understand the effect that a tsunami can have on a coastal dyke. The present paper thus aims to analyze a tsunami flow around a coastal d...

  5. New computational methods in tsunami science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J; Dias, F

    2015-10-28

    Tsunamis are rare events with severe consequences. This generates a high demand on accurate simulation results for planning and risk assessment purposes because of the low availability of actual data from historic events. On the other hand, validation of simulation tools becomes very difficult with such a low amount of real-world data. Tsunami phenomena involve a large span of spatial and temporal scales-from ocean basin scales of [Formula: see text] to local coastal wave interactions of [Formula: see text] or even [Formula: see text], or from resonating wave phenomena with durations of [Formula: see text] to rupture with time periods of [Formula: see text]. The scale gap of five orders of magnitude in each dimension makes accurate modelling very demanding, with a number of approaches being taken to work around the impossibility of direct numerical simulations. Along with the mentioned multi-scale characteristic, the tsunami wave has a multitude of different phases, corresponding to different wave regimes and associated equation sets. While in the deep ocean, wave propagation can be approximated relatively accurately by linear shallow-water theory, the transition to a bore or solitary wave train in shelf areas and then into a breaking wave in coastal regions demands appropriate mathematical and numerical treatments. The short duration and unpredictability of tsunami events pose another challenging requirement to tsunami simulation approaches. An accurate forecast is sought within seconds with very limited data available. Thus, efficiency in numerical solution processes and at the same time the consideration of uncertainty play a big role in tsunami modelling applied for forecasting purposes. PMID:26392612

  6. How Single-Parent Children Speak about Poverty and Social Exclusion: Policy Implications from a Comparative, Qualitative, Cross-National Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some of the key findings from a comparative, qualitative research study carried out in the United Kingdom, Greece, and Cyprus. The main goal of the study was to investigate single-parent children's experiences and understandings of poverty and social exclusion in their everyday lives and to make relevant policy…

  7. NOAA Tsunami Inundation DEM Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  9. Simulation of Andaman 2004 tsunami for assessing impact on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Liu, Philip Li-Fan; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md.; Lee, Hooi Ling

    2009-09-01

    Mistakenly perceived as safe from the hazards of tsunami, Malaysia faced a rude awakening by the 26 December 2004 Andaman tsunami. Since the event, Malaysia has started active research on some aspects of tsunami, including numerical simulations of tsunami and the role of mangrove as a mitigation measure against tsunami hazards. An in-house tsunami numerical simulation model TUNA has been developed and applied to the 26 December 2004 Andaman tsunami to simulate the generation, propagation and inundation processes along affected beaches in Malaysia. Mildly nonlinear bottom friction term in the deeper ocean is excluded, as it is insignificant to the simulation results, consistent with theoretical expectation. On the other hand, in regions with shallow depth near the beaches, friction and nonlinearity are significant and are included in TUNA. Simulation results with TUNA indicate satisfactory performance when compared with COMCOT and on-site survey results.

  10. The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Example of accident sequence analysis of tsunami PRA according to the standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for NPP had been established by the Standardization Committee of AESJ. Industry group had been conducting analysis of Tsunami PRA for PWR based on the standard under the cooperation with electric utilities. This article introduced overview of the standard and examples of accident sequence analysis of Tsunami PRA studied by the industry group according to the standard. The standard consisted of (1) investigation of NPP's composition, characteristics and site information, (2) selection of relevant components for Tsunami PRA and initiating events and identification of accident sequence, (3) evaluation of Tsunami hazards, (4) fragility evaluation of building and components and (5) evaluation of accident sequence. Based on the evaluation, countermeasures for further improvement of safety against Tsunami could be identified by the sensitivity analysis. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Tsunami Generation from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.

    2005-12-01

    The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, Sumatra earthquake (Mw 9.1) propagated across the Indian Ocean and caused the worst tsunami disaster. Factors contributed to the tragedy include the giant size of the earthquake, absence of both tsunami warning system and long-term forecast of future earthquakes in the Indian Ocean. Seismological developments since 1960, when the Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) caused Pacific-wide tsunami damage, make it possible to estimate the earthquake source parameters within minutes after the occurrence and utilize it for the tsunami warning purposes. The length of the tsunami source of the December Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is enigmatic. The aftershock zone extended from west of Sumatra through Nicobar Islands all the way to Andaman Islands; the total length is over 1,200 km. The seismic wave analyses indicate the southern half ruptured in rather rapidly while the northern half did slowly. Sea level changes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands indicate that the coseismic crustal deformation extended to Andaman Islands. The tsunami source size was estimated to be about 700 km long from the tsunami arrival times recorded on tide gauges, but the northern end was not well constrained. The tsunami heights in Indian Ocean, captured by Jason-1 and other satellites, support that the tsunami source was about 1,100 km long. For more accurate tsunami computations requires detailed shallow bathymetry data. To document the 2004 tsunami, many scientists from all over the world visited the affected coasts. From Japan alone, several survey teams visited coasts of Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, India and Sri Lanka, with collaborators in each country. The tsunami heights in Sumatra Island, particularly around Band Aceh, were mostly larger than 20 m with the maximum of 30 m. The tsunami heights along the Andaman Sea coast were highly variable; they were 5 to 15 m in Thailand but less than 3 m in Myanmar. In fact, the tsunami damage and casualties, reportedly 61, were much slighter in Myanmar than other countries. The tsunami heights were also up to 5 m on India_fs Andaman Islands. In Sri Lanka, the tsunami heights were 5 to 15 m. The tsunami height distribution is consistent with the damage distribution, and supports that the tsunami source was concentrated in the southern 700 km section of the aftershock zone.

  12. Integrating TWES and Satellite-based remote sensing: Lessons learned from the Honshu 2011 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami killed 240,000 people and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Honshu 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for TEWS research still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages to areas at risk, but also to other stakeholders professionally involved in the unfolding event. Until now remote sensing products for Tsunami events, including crisis maps and change detection products, are exclusively linked to those phases of the disaster life cycle, which follow after the early warning stage: Response, recovery and mitigation. The International Charter for Space and Major Disasters has been initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in 1999. It coordinates a voluntary group of governmental space agencies and industry partners, to provide rapid crisis imaging and mapping to disaster and relief organisations to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life, property and the environment. The efficiency of this approach has been demonstrated in the field of Tsunami early warning by Charter activations following the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004, the Chile Tsunami 2010 and the Honshu Tsunami 2011. Traditional single-satellite operations allow at best bimonthly repeat rates over a given Area of Interest (AOI). This allows a lot of time for image acquisition campaign planning between imaging windows for the same AOI. The advent of constellations of identical remote sensing satellites in the early 21st century resulted both in daily AOI revisit capabilities and drastically reduced time frames for acquisition planning. However, the image acquisition planning for optical remote sensing satellite constellations is constrained by orbital and communication requirements: Defined time slots exist to commandeer the tasking of image acquisitions. If such a time slot has been missed, another attempt to image an AOI again can only be attempted ca. 24 hours later, due to the sun-synchronous satellite orbits Therefore it is critical to establish automated Disaster Early Warning dissemination services for the remote sensing community, to supply them with the timeliest opportunity to trigger the tasking process for the affected AOI. For very large events like a Tsunami in the Pacific, this approach provides the chance to gain additional pre-disaster imagery as a reference for change detection. In the case of the Tohoku earthquake, an ad-hoc warning dissemination process was manually dispatched by the Centre for Geoinformation Technology (CeGIT) at the German Research Centre for Geoscience, contacting RapidEye AG, once the severity of the earthquake event had been confirmed by the GEOFON geoseismic network. RapidEye AG decided to launch an imaging campaign which yielded 78 georectified image tiles (L3A) of Honshu island during the next imaging window. Of these, 26 tiles cover the affected coastline, resulting in 16,250km² of content for crisis mapping effort such as the Humanitarian Open Street Map (OSM) Team. This data was made available by RapidEye as a part of the Charter Activiation requested by Japan on March 11 2011. [1] Hoja, D., Schwinger, M.,Wendleder A.,Löwe, P., Konstanski, H., Weichelt, H.: Optimised Near-Real Time Data Acquisition for Disaster Related Rapid Mapping

  13. Qualitative Research Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Dewan Mahboob

    2011-01-01

    This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses ab...

  14. A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA

  15. A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyun Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Sheen, Dong Hoon; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA.

  16. Scientific Animations for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation: The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's YouTube Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Shiro, B.; Ward, B.

    2013-12-01

    Outreach and education save lives, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) has a new tool--a YouTube Channel--to advance its mission to protect lives and property from dangerous tsunamis. Such outreach and education is critical for coastal populations nearest an earthquake since they may not get an official warning before a tsunami reaches them and will need to know what to do when they feel strong shaking. Those who live far enough away to receive useful official warnings and react to them, however, can also benefit from PTWC's education and outreach efforts. They can better understand a tsunami warning message when they receive one, can better understand the danger facing them, and can better anticipate how events will unfold while the warning is in effect. The same holds true for emergency managers, who have the authority to evacuate the public they serve, and for the news media, critical partners in disseminating tsunami hazard information. PTWC's YouTube channel supplements its formal outreach and education efforts by making its computer animations available 24/7 to anyone with an Internet connection. Though the YouTube channel is only a month old (as of August 2013), it should rapidly develop a large global audience since similar videos on PTWC's Facebook page have reached over 70,000 viewers during organized media events, while PTWC's official web page has received tens of millions of hits during damaging tsunamis. These animations are not mere cartoons but use scientific data and calculations to render graphical depictions of real-world phenomena as accurately as possible. This practice holds true whether the animation is a simple comparison of historic earthquake magnitudes or a complex simulation cycling through thousands of high-resolution data grids to render tsunami waves propagating across an entire ocean basin. PTWC's animations fall into two broad categories. The first group illustrates concepts about seismology and how it is critical to tsunami warning operations, such as those about earthquake magnitudes, how earthquakes are located, where and how often earthquakes occur, and fault rupture length. The second group uses the PTWC-developed tsunami forecast model, RIFT (Wang et al., 2012), to show how various historic tsunamis propagated through the world's oceans. These animations illustrate important concepts about tsunami behavior such as their speed, how they bend around and bounce off of seafloor features, how their wave heights vary from place to place and in time, and how their behavior is strongly influenced by the type of earthquake that generated them. PTWC's YouTube channel also includes an animation that simulates both seismic and tsunami phenomena together as they occurred for the 2011 Japan tsunami including actual sea-level measurements and proper timing for tsunami alert status, thus serving as a video 'time line' for that event and showing the time scales involved in tsunami warning operations. Finally, PTWC's scientists can use their YouTube channel to communicate with their colleagues in the research community by supplementing their peer-reviewed papers with video 'figures' (e.g., Wang et al., 2012).

  17. Tsunami: Hope in the Midst of Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Vidya; Uma, V.; Muthuram, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    The lives of many were changed forever when a tsunami struck on the morning of December 26, 2004, as a result of an earthquake off the coast of Indonesia registering 9.0 on the Richter scale. Aftershocks in the nearby Andaman and Nicobar Islands sent waves of fear among the survivors, further debilitating their spirits. The aim of this article is…

  18. Reflections on post-tsunami psychosocial work

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda Galappatti

    2005-01-01

    In Sri Lanka psychosocial interventions became a priorityfor emergency response largely led by the concerns of the international media and aid agencies. Interventions were quickly launched but coordination was poor and lessons learned from years of pre-tsunami conflict-related psychosocial programmes were not heeded.

  19. Accessing IDPs in post-tsunami Aceh

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Hudspeth

    2005-01-01

    Half a million Acehnese – 12% of the province’s population– became IDPs as a result of the tsunami. For humanitarian actors, gaining access was a major challenge. Important lessons can be drawn in order to improve access to IDPs in future emergencies.

  20. Inversion method for initial tsunami waveform reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Voronin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of r-solution method to recover the initial tsunami waveform in a tsunami source area by remote water-level measurements. Wave propagation is considered within the scope of a linear shallow-water theory. An ill-posed inverse problem is regularized by means of least square inversion using a truncated SVD approach. The properties of obtained solution are determined to a large extent by the properties of an inverse operator, which were numerically investigated. The method presented allows one to control instability of the numerical solution and to obtain an acceptable result in spite of ill-posedness of the problem. It is shown that the accuracy of tsunami source reconstruction strongly depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the azimuthal coverage of recording stations with respect to the source area and bathymetric features along the wave path. The numerical experiments were carried out with synthetic data and various computational domains including a real bathymetry. The method proposed allows us to make a preliminary prediction of the efficiency of the inversion with a given set of the recording stations and to find out the most informative part of the existing observation system. This essential property of the method can prove to be useful in designing a monitoring system for tsunamis.

  1. Storm and tsunami deposited sandsheets: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, A. D.; Lau, A. Y. A.

    2009-04-01

    Palaeoestorm and palaeotsunami research now incorporates not only geologists and geomorphologists but computer and mathematical modellers, geophysicists, chronology experts, palaeontologists, hydrologists and ecologists. Recent studies on modern events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and several large cyclone events (eg Hurricane Katrina) have provided new insights and now present the research community with a good opportunity to reflect on the progress made in the field, evaluate some recent criticisms and highlight knowledge gaps for future study. There are no globally applicable sedimentological criteria for differentiating between tsunami and storms in washover sandsheets. What can be compiled for the many deposits attributed to palaeo-washover is a suite of sedimentary features or commonalities, often called signatures. These signatures must be considered in terms of the local setting as they are very much site dependant. Palaeo-washover deposits can only be attributed to an event type through careful analysis of spatial features such as the elevation, lateral extent and run-up of the deposit along with sedimentary features such as grading, the presence of intraclasts, and particle size distribution of the sediments. These analyses when combined may lead to a suite of evidence that can point to storm or tsunami as the likely depositional agent. Unfortunately when considered alone many of the characteristics are equivocal. In fact most of the signatures presented in the literature for tsunami deposition, including the presence of marine diatoms or increases in particular elemental concentrations only indicate the marine origin of the sediments and inundation by ocean water. Hence storm surges, sea level change or regional subsidence may show similar sedimentological characteristics. Recent work has recognized the equivocal nature of many so called tsunami signatures found in sandsheets. This stated, there remain many cases in the literature where a tsunami or storm origin is stated with little consideration given to alternative interpretations. Although work continues on the differences between tsunami and storm deposits, their preservation and recognition in the geological record remains subject to much uncertainty and conjecture.

  2. Real-time Tsunami Inundation Prediction Using High Performance Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently off-shore tsunami observation stations based on cabled ocean bottom pressure gauges are actively being deployed especially in Japan. These cabled systems are designed to provide real-time tsunami data before tsunamis reach coastlines for disaster mitigation purposes. To receive real benefits of these observations, real-time analysis techniques to make an effective use of these data are necessary. A representative study was made by Tsushima et al. (2009) that proposed a method to provide instant tsunami source prediction based on achieving tsunami waveform data. As time passes, the prediction is improved by using updated waveform data. After a tsunami source is predicted, tsunami waveforms are synthesized from pre-computed tsunami Green functions of linear long wave equations. Tsushima et al. (2014) updated the method by combining the tsunami waveform inversion with an instant inversion of coseismic crustal deformation and improved the prediction accuracy and speed in the early stages. For disaster mitigation purposes, real-time predictions of tsunami inundation are also important. In this study, we discuss the possibility of real-time tsunami inundation predictions, which require faster-than-real-time tsunami inundation simulation in addition to instant tsunami source analysis. Although the computational amount is large to solve non-linear shallow water equations for inundation predictions, it has become executable through the recent developments of high performance computing technologies. We conducted parallel computations of tsunami inundation and achieved 6.0 TFLOPS by using 19,000 CPU cores. We employed a leap-frog finite difference method with nested staggered grids of which resolution range from 405 m to 5 m. The resolution ratio of each nested domain was 1/3. Total number of grid points were 13 million, and the time step was 0.1 seconds. Tsunami sources of 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake were tested. The inundation prediction up to 2 hours after the earthquake occurs took about 2 minutes, which would be sufficient for a practical tsunami inundation predictions. In the presentation, the computational performance of our faster-than-real-time tsunami inundation model will be shown, and preferable tsunami wave source analysis for an accurate inundation prediction will also be discussed.

  3. The role of social workers and social service delivery during crisis intervention for tsunami survivors: a case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busaspathumrong, Pattamaporn

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the economic, social and psychological impacts on survivors in Thailand of the Asian Tsunami on 26 December 2004. The Tsunami disaster brought about great changes in the lives of survivors, the role of social workers and social service delivery. Problems were actively worked out between many parties resulting in greater collaborations between local, national and international organizations. Social workers worked in a collaborative manner with various professions in delivering crisis intervention. In the case of the Tsunami disaster, there is an emergence of the development of the professional role of social workers and other social service workers to respond to the urgent needs of the family and children survivors. PMID:17989015

  4. Tsunami Inundation Mapping for Alaska Communities of Homer, Seldovia, and Seward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimani, E.; Marriott, D.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.

    2003-12-01

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys continue to participate in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential inundation of coastal communities in Alaska. The two Kachemak Bay communities of Homer and Seldovia were selected in coordination with the Alaska Division of Emergency Services. We considered two earthquake scenarios as potential sources of tsunami waves that can affect Homer and Seldovia. For both communities, we calculated the extent of maximum inundation for the two scenarios, depths of inundation on dry land, and the maximum velocity current distribution in the inundation zones. The work is under way for Seward, the next community on the list. One of the most significant sources of errors in tsunami inundation mapping is inaccuracy of topographic and bathymetric data used in the model. Many of the Alaskan communities of interest have topographic data of limited quality, and new data must be developed in order to produce accurate inundation maps. The Alaska Tsunami Modeling Team cooperated with the local USGS glaciology office to perform photogrammetry in the Seward area. Using ten air photos and the APEX software, along with several precisely located GPS points, we developed a new georeferenced and highly accurate DEM with a 5-meter grid spacing. A variety of techniques was used to remove the effects of buildings and trees to yield a bald earth model. Finally, we resampled the new DEM to match the finest resolution grid, and combined it with all other data, using the most recent and accurate data in each region. The new dataset has contours that deviate by more then 100 meters in some places from the contours in the previous dataset, showing significant improvement in accuracy for the purpose of tsunami modeling.

  5. Observed and Modeled Currents from the Tohoku-oki, Japan and other Recent Tsunamis in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Amanda R.; Dengler, Lori A.; Crawford, Gregory B.; Uslu, Burak U.; Borrero, Jose C.; Greer, S. Dougal; Wilson, Rick I.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the currents produced by recent tsunamis in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City, California. The region is susceptible to both near-field and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located approximately 100 kms north of Humboldt Bay, suffered US 28 million in damages from strong currents produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional US 26 million from the 2011 Japan tsunami. In order to better evaluate these currents in northern California, we deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz 2D acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) with a 1-min sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge station. The instrument recorded the tsunamis produced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 and the Mw 9.0 Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. One other tsunami was recorded on the Humboldt Bay tide gauge during the period of ADCP operation, but was not visible on the ADCP, suggesting a threshold water level value of about 0.2 m to produce an observable ADCP record. The 2010 tsunami currents persisted in Humboldt Bay for approximately 30 h with peak amplitudes of about 0.35 m/s. The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 40 h with peak amplitude of 0.84 m/s. The strongest currents corresponded to the maximum change in water level approximately 67 min after the initial wave arrival. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event. In Crescent City, currents for the first three and one-half hours of the 2011 Japan tsunami were estimated using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master, approximately 70 m away from the NOAA-NOS tide gauge station. The largest amplitude tide gauge water-level oscillations and most of the damage occurred within this time window. The currents reached a velocity of approximately 4.5 m/s and six cycles exceeded 3 m/s during this period. Measured current velocities both in Humboldt Bay and in Crescent City were compared to calculated velocities from the Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) numerical model. The frequency and pattern of current amplification and decay at both locations are replicated by the MOST model for the first several hours after the tsunami onset. MOST generally underestimates 2011 peak current velocities by about 10-30 %, with a few peaks by as much as 50 %. At Humboldt Bay, MOST predicted attenuation of the signal after 4 h but the actual signal persisted at a nearly constant level for at least twice as long. The results from this project demonstrate that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami currents for small to moderate events and can be used to calibrate and validate models (i.e., MOST) in order to better understand hazardous tsunami conditions within harbors.

  6. A Tsunami Fragility Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Tsunami events were defined as an external event in 'PRA Procedure Guide (NUREG/CR- 2300)'after 1982, a Tsunami event was not considered in a design and construction of NPP before the Sumatra earthquake in 2004. But the Madras Atomic Power Station, a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), and located near Chennai, India, was affected by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (USNRC 2008). The condenser cooling pumps of Unit 2 of the installation were affected due to flooding of the pump house and subsequent submergence of the seawater pumps by tsunami waves. The turbine was tripped and the reactor shut down. The unit was brought to a cold-shutdown state, and the shutdown-cooling systems were reported as operating safely. After this event, Tsunami hazards were considered as one of the major natural disasters which can affect the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA performed an Extrabudgetary project for Tsunami Hazard Assessment and finally an International Seismic Safety Center (ISSC) established in IAEA for protection from natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami etc. For this reason, a tsunami hazard assessment method determined in this study. At first, a procedure for tsunami hazard assessment method was established, and second target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. Finally, a sample fragility calculation was performed for one of equipment in Nuclear Power Plant

  7. Tsunami Prediction and Earthquake Parameters Estimation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Sawlan, Zaid A

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami concerns have increased in the world after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Consequently, tsunami models have been developed rapidly in the last few years. One of the advanced tsunami models is the GeoClaw tsunami model introduced by LeVeque (2011). This model is adaptive and consistent. Because of different sources of uncertainties in the model, observations are needed to improve model prediction through a data assimilation framework. Model inputs are earthquake parameters and topography. This thesis introduces a real-time tsunami forecasting method that combines tsunami model with observations using a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble Kalman smoother. The filter is used for state prediction while the smoother operates smoothing to estimate the earthquake parameters. This method reduces the error produced by uncertain inputs. In addition, state-parameter EnKF is implemented to estimate earthquake parameters. Although number of observations is small, estimated parameters generates a better tsunami prediction than the model. Methods and results of prediction experiments in the Red Sea are presented and the prospect of developing an operational tsunami prediction system in the Red Sea is discussed.

  8. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate the evolution of initial rectangular shaped humps of water propagating large distances over a constant depth. The objective is to clarify under which circumstances the front of the wave can develop into an undular bore with a leading soliton. In this connection we discuss and test various measures for the threshold distance necessary for nonlinear and dispersive effects to manifest in a transient wave train. In part 2, we simulate the shoaling of long smooth transient and periodic waves on a mild slope and conclude that these waves are effectively non-dispersive. In this connection we discuss the relevance of finite amplitude solitary wave theory in laboratory studies of tsunamis. We conclude that order-of-magnitude errors in effective temporal and spatial duration occur when this theory is used as an approximation for long waves on a sloping bottom. In part 3, we investigate the phenomenon of disintegration of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed e.g. in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficently steep, and as a result the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection with breaking and runup, and conclude that they do not justify a solitary wave model for the bulk tsunami.

  9. Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, Patrick; Weiss, Robert; Renteria, Willington; De La Torre Morales, Giorgio; Son, Sangyoung; Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel

    2013-06-01

    On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Galapagos Local Time), the Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan, spawning a Pacific-wide tsunami. Approximately 12,000 km away, the Galapagos Islands experienced moderate tsunami impacts, including flooding, structural damage, and strong currents. In this paper, we present observations and measurements of the tsunami effects in the Galapagos, focusing on the four largest islands in the archipelago; (from west to east) Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Access to the tsunami affected areas was one of the largest challenges of the field survey. Aside from approximately ten sandy beaches open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are restricted to anyone without a research permit; open cooperation with the Galapagos National Park provided the survey team complete access to the Islands coastlines. Survey locations were guided by numerical simulations of the tsunami performed prior to the field work. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum tsunami heights were generally in the range of 3-4 m with the highest runup of 6 m measured in a small pocket beach on Isla Isabela. Puerto Ayora, on Santa Cruz Island, the largest harbor in the Galapagos experienced significant flooding and damage to structures located at the shoreline. A current meter moored inside the harbor recorded relatively weak tsunami currents of less than 0.3 m/s (0.6 knot) during the event. Comparisons with detailed numerical simulations suggest that these low current speed observations are most likely the result of data averaging at 20-min intervals and that maximum instantaneous current speeds were considerably larger. Currents in the Canal de Itabaca, a natural waterway between Santa Cruz Island and a smaller island offshore, were strong enough to displace multiple 5.5-ton navigation buoys. Numerical simulations indicate that currents in the Canal de Itabaca exceeded 4 m/s (~8 knots), a very large flow speed for a navigational waterway.

  10. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lockridge

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunamis. The additional 53 events either are not described with sufficient detail in the literature to verify their tsunami nature or are judged to be reports of other phenomenasuch as sea quakes or hurricane storm surges which may have been reported as tsunamis. Included in these 91 reports are teletsunamis, tectonic tsunamis, landslide tsunamis, and volcanic tsunamis that have caused major damage and deaths. Nevertheless, in recent history these events have been relatively rare. In the interim since the last major tsunami event in the Caribbean Sea the coastal regions have greatly increased in population. Coastal development has also increased. Today tourism is a major industry that exposes thousands of non-residents to the disastrous effects of a tsunami. These factors make the islands in this region much more vulnerable today than they were when the last major tsunami occurred in this area. This paper gives an overview of the tsunami history in the area. This history illustrates what can be expected in the future from this geologic hazard and provides information that will be useful for mitigation purposes.

  11. Space-Time Distribution of Tsunami Impact in the European-Meditterranean Region as Results from a New Tsunami Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakogianni, Georgia; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Fokaefs, Anna; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Triantafyllou, Ioanna

    2015-04-01

    We have compiled a new tsunami catalogue covering the entire European and Mediterranean (EM) region from pre-historical times up to the present. The catalogue is of increased completeness and homogeneity with respect to previous ones containing more than 370 events with reliability assignment to all the events listed. New historical events were inserted, while revised parameters of historical tsunamigenic earthquakes were extensively adopted particularly for the most active region of the eastern Mediterranean. In association to the catalogue, an inventory of tsunami impact was created with the main attributes being the numbers of people killed and injured, the damage to buildings, vessels, cultivated land and to other property. The inventory includes also a record of the tsunami environmental impact, such as soil erosion, geomorphological changes, boulder replacement and tsunami sediment deposits. Data on the tsunami impact were used to assign tsunami intensity in the 12-point Papadopoulos-Imamura (2001) scale for the majority of the events listed. The tsunami impact was studied as for its space and time distribution. In space, the tsunami impact was mapped in terms of tsunami intensity and impact zones were determined. The time distribution of the tsunami impact was examined for each one of the impact zones. Leaving aside large pre-historical tsunamis, such as the one produced by the LBA or Minoan eruption of Thera (Santorini) volcano, due to the lack of certain impact data, it has been found that the main impact comes from extreme, earthquake tsunamigenic events, such the ones of AD 365 in Crete, 551 in Lebanon, 1303 in Crete, 1755 in Lisbon. However, high impact may also occur from events of lower magnitude, such as the 1908 tsunami in Messina straits and the 1956 tsunami in the South Aegean, which underlines the strong dependence of the impact on the community exposure. Another important finding is that the cumulative impact of relatively moderate or even small, local tsunamis, produced by earthquakes, landslides or volcanic activity, is quite important and that such a distributed tsunami impact should not be neglected in actions undertaken for the tsunami risk mitigation. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  12. Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Source regions of concern to U.S. interests derived from NOAA Tsunami Forecast Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eble, M. C.; uslu, B. U.; Wright, L.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic tsunamis generated from source regions around the Pacific Basin are analyzed in terms of their relative impact on United States coastal locations.. The region of tsunami origin is as important as the expected magnitude and the predicted inundation for understanding tsunami hazard. The NOAA Center for Tsunami Research has developed high-resolution tsunami models capable of predicting tsunami arrival time and amplitude of waves at each location. These models have been used to conduct tsunami hazard assessments to assess maximum impact and tsunami inundation for use by local communities in education and evacuation map development. Hazard assessment studies conducted for Los Angeles, San Francisco, Crescent City, Hilo, and Apra Harbor are combined with results of tsunami forecast model development at each of seventy-five locations. Complete hazard assessment, identifies every possible tsunami variation from a pre-computed propagation database. Study results indicate that the Eastern Aleutian Islands and Alaska are the most likely regions to produce the largest impact on the West Coast of the United States, while the East Philippines and Mariana trench regions impact Apra Harbor, Guam. Hawaii appears to be impacted equally from South America, Alaska and the Kuril Islands.

  13. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami hazard assessments for nuclear power stations (NPS) in Japan had been conducted by a deterministic method, but probabilistic methods are being adopted following the accident of Fukushima Daiichi NPS. The deterministic tsunami hazard assessment (DTHA), proposed by Japan Society of Civil Engineers in 2002 (Yanagisawa et al., 2007, Pageoph) considers various uncertainties by parameter studies. The design tsunami height at Fukushima NPS was set as 6.1 m, based on parameter studies by varying location, depth, and strike, dip and slip angles of the 1938 off-Fukushima earthquake (M 7.4). The maximum tsunami height for a hypothetical "tsunami earthquake" off Fukushima, similar to the 1896 Sanriku earthquake (Mt 8.2), and that for the 869 Jogan earthquake model (Mw 8.4) were estimated as 15.7 m and 8.9 m, respectively, before the 2011 accident (TEPCO report, 2012). The actual tsunami height at the Fukushima NPS on March 11, 2011 was 12 to 16 m. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) has been also proposed by JSCE (An'naka et al., 2007, Pageoph), and recently adopted in "Implementation Standard of Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NPPs" published in 2012 by Atomic Energy Society of Japan. In PTHA, tsunami hazard curves, or probability of exeedance for tsunami heights, are constructed by integrating over aleatory uncertainties. The epistemic uncertainties are treated as branches of logic trees. The logic-tree branches for the earthquake source include the earthquake type, magnitude range, recurrence interval and the parameters of BPT distribution for the recurrent earthquakes. Because no "tsunami earthquake" was recorded off the Fukushima NPS, whether or not a "tsunami earthquake" occurs along the Japan trench off Fukushima, was a one of logic-tree branches, and the weight was determined by experts' opinions. Possibilities for multi-segment earthquakes are now added as logic-tree branches, after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which is considered as a combination of Jogan-type interplate earthquake and a "tsunami earthquake". Uncertainties are also considered for tsunami numerical simulation, by assuming that the computed tsunami height is a median value of log-normal distribution, and probability distribution of exeedance in tsunami height is calculated. While the variance is introduced for taking account for aleatory uncertainty, choice of the variance value and the truncation limit are considered as epistemic uncertainties and included in the logic-tree branches. The PTHA provides probability of excedance for coastal tsunami height only. Other parameters such as wave force or current velocity are needed for the fragility assessments of NPS facilities, and these need to be calculated from scenario earthquakes.

  14. Modelling of Charles Darwin's tsunami reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great 1835 earthquake. He described his impressions and results of the earthquake-induced natural catastrophe in The Voyage of the Beagle. His description of the tsunami could easily be read as a report from Indonesia or Sri Lanka, after the catastrophic tsunami of 26 December 2004. In particular, Darwin emphasised the dependence of earthquake-induced waves on a form of the coast and the coastal depth: ‘… Talcuhano and Callao are situated at the head of great shoaling bays, and they have always suffered from this phenomenon; whereas, the town of Valparaiso, which is seated close on the border of a profound ocean... has never been overwhelmed by one of these terrific deluges…' . He reports also, that ‘… the whole body of the sea retires from the coast, and then returns in great waves of overwhelming force ...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). The coastal evolution of a tsunami was analytically studied in many publications (see, for example, Synolakis, C.E., Bernard, E.N., 2006. Philos. Trans. R. Soc., Ser. A, 364, 2231-2265; Tinti, S., Tonini, R. 205. J.Fluid Mech., 535, 11-21). However, the Darwin's reports and the influence of the coastal depth on the formation and the evolution of the steep front and the profile of tsunami did not practically discuss. Recently, a mathematical theory of these phenomena was presented in researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474. The theory describes the waves which are excited due to nonlinear effects within a shallow coastal zone. The tsunami elevation is described by two components: . Here is the linear (prime) component. It describes the wave coming from the deep ocean. is the nonlinear component. This component may become very important near the coastal line. After that the theory of the shallow waves is used. This theory yields the linear equation for and the weakly-nonlinear equation for . The last equation contains the forcing term which is generated by nonlinearity and depends on . The nonlinear shock-like solution for is constructed which is valid within the narrow coastal zone. Then the tsunami evolution near a coast is studied. It is found that the coastal evolution strongly depends on the profile of the bottom and the distance from the coastline. Far from this the wave surface is smooth and the wave is long enough. The wave profile begins to change quickly, if the coastal water is shallow. The steep (discontinuous) front of the tsunami can be generated. The water level reduces ahead of the front, or the ebb can appear there. Then this front begins to move away from the coast - into the ocean. This direction is opposite to the motion of the whole wave. The amplitude of the front is increased. The water wall is formed. This process explains the catastrophic effect of a tsunami, when a water-wall appears instantly. The wave, having two steep peaks, may be generated in the case of very shallow water. In contrast with this, the tsunami, practically, does not change, if the coastal water is deep. On the whole, the conclusions agree with the Darwin's reports.

  15. Teaching Qualitative Historical Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Miles

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of a qualitative historical geography course focusing on Victorian Britain. Describes how qualitative research methods can be used in both contemporary human geography and historical geography. Includes course modifications that were suggested by students. (CFR)

  16. Learning from Fukushima. A holistic approach to tsunami risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two devastating tsunamis in the 21st century were caused by large megathrust earthquakes on tectonic plate boundaries; the Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 and the Great Tohoku tsunami in 2011. Both of these events have led to a focus on tsunamis caused by megathrusts when assessing risks to coastal nuclear power plants. From a longer time perspective, however, such earthquakes are not the only - or even the most significant - sources of large tsunamis. It is important that the key lesson from the impact of the Great Tohoku earthquake and associated tsunami on the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant - that unexpected combinations of events can cause complete failure of defence in depth - is not lost by looking in too much detail at these particular incidents. Instead a wider assessment of events that can give rise to giant waves and major inundation should be considered. (author)

  17. Interdisciplinary approach for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Algeria (West Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, L. A.; Cisternas, A.; Vigneresse, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous tsunamis occurred in the West Mediterranean with magnitudes ranging from m=-1 to m=2 (Imamura-Iida scale). In Algeria, tsunamis are reported from the 14th century to 2003. Northern Algeria is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian plate. Destructive earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.7 occurred 3 times in the last century. The North Algeria western region is characterized by the Murdjadjo anticline. A destructive earthquake hit Oran city on October 1790 (Intensity: X, West of Algeria). A tsunami was triggered in the Alboran sea. The Spanish and North Africa coasts were flooded. Run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents (Lopez Marinas and Salord, 1990). Here, the 1790 Alboran tsunami is studied from a modelling approach. The tsunami source is determined from the Okada equations and the tsunami propagation is estimated from the SWAN code (Mader, 2004). Results show that active thrust faulting related to the Murdjadjo structure is responsible for the tsunami. In the central part of Algeria, the Algiers city (capital of Algeria) was the location of destructive earthquakes (Intensity: X) that were followed by tsunamis in 1365 and in 1773. Flooding and run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents for the 1365 event. The central part of Algeria is the site of the Sahel anticline. A tsunami modelling is also performed considering the Sahel fault system as a potential tsunami source. Results show that it takes less than 15 minutes for the tsunami waves to reach the Spanish coast. Run-up’s are estimated lower than 2 meters in height. Discrepancies are attributed to the resolution of the bathymetry and the limits of the modelling. In the eastern region, historical reports also reveal run-up’s up to 5 meters in height after a tsunami triggered by a destructive earthquake in 1856 in Jijel city (intensity: VIII). From tsunami catalogs, seismic and tsunami data are plotted using a tsunami vulnerability parameter. The vulnerability index is estimated from the tsunami intensity and the seismic intensity using the Papadopoulos and the EMS scale. Results show that in Algeria, tsunami damages are minor relative to seismic damages. Since the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami, intergovernmental coordinated groups are working on an Indian and a Mediterranean tsunami alert system. To reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, it is very important to implement an efficiency warning system and a communication policy for fast urbanized coastal cities. In that context, lessons from the pacific case study are of major interest. Chile is marked by a very high seismic and tsunami hazard. The Iquique area is a threaten zone for a potential earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 and a local tsunami that could generate run-up’s up to 20 meters in height. In addition to the Pacific Tsunami Warning centre based in Hawaii, the Chile has elaborated a local tsunami warning centre. The Chilean case study is presented in discussion to highlight some lessons that may serve as an example for fast urbanized coastal cities that have to face local tsunamis.

  18. Qualitative research, tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research, tourism Qualitative research refers to research applying a range of qualitative methods in order to inductively explore, interpret, and understand a given field or object under study. Qualitative research in tourism takes its inspiration primarily from the cultural and social sciences, such as anthropology and sociology. Most often, the aim of this research approach is to explore and search for meaning or to develop an understanding through empirical studies, generating “th...

  19. The qualitative research proposal

    OpenAIRE

    H. Klopper

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation c...

  20. HySEA model verification for Tohoku 2011 Tsunami. Application for mitigation tsunami assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Jorge; González-Vida, José Manuel; García, Javier; Castro, Manuel; Ortega, Sergio; de la Asunción, Marc

    2015-04-01

    In many aspects Tohoku-Oki 2011 mega tsunami has changed our perception of tsunami risk. The tsunami-HySEA model is used to numerically simulate this event and observed data will we used to verify the model results. Three nested meshes of enhanced resolution (4 arc-min, 32 arc-sec and 2 arc-sec) will be used by the numerical model. The propagation mesh covers all Pacific Ocean with more of 7 million cells. An intermediate mesh with 5 millions cells contains the Japanese archipelago and, finally, two finer meshes, with nearly 8 and 6 millions cells, cover Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures at Tohoku region, the most devastated areas hit by the tsunami. The presentation will focus on the impact of the tsunami wave in these two areas and comparisons with observed data will be performed. DART buoys time series, inundation area and observed runup is used to assess model performance. The arrival time of the leading flooding wave at the vicinity of the Senday airport, as recorded by video cameras, is also used as verification data for the model. After this tsunami, control forests as well as breakwaters has been discussed as suitable mitigation infrastructures. As particular case, we will analyse the evolution of the tsunami in the area around the Sendai airport (Miyagi Prefecture) and its impact on the airport. A second simulation has been performed, assuming the existence of a coastal barrier protecting the area. The role of this barrier in modifying tsunami wave evolution and mitigating flooding effects on the airport area are discussed. The protection effect of the breakwaters near Kamaishi (Iwate Prefecture) is also assessed. The numerical model shows how these structures, although did not provide a full protection to tsunami waves, they helped to largely mitigate its effects in the area. Acknowledgements. This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069), the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012-38383-C02-01) and Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech. The multi-GPU computations were performed at the Laboratory of Numerical Methods (University of Malaga).

  1. Tsunami disaster victim identification in Sri Lanka: legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Clifford

    2006-10-01

    Natural hazards amounting to disasters have almost become an endemic phenomenon during past decades throughout the globe, particularly affecting less resourced countries. The capabilities of the affected nations are stretched to the maximum in most of the disasters, thereby exposing deficiencies at various levels of the disaster mitigation mechanisms. A key factor identified through the human experience of all previous disaster scenarios is the requisite of effective and integrated local, national and regional disaster management mechanisms. The national and regional legal framework in this context can supplement disaster management enormously by drafting and implementing practical legislation which can be activated in disaster situations to co-ordinate the relief missions and minimize the damage. Thus, the existing legal systems and legislation at national and regional levels should be modified accordingly to yield proper disaster management policies. However, many less resourced countries are still lacking functional disaster management mechanisms in local legislation and are consequently highly vulnerable to heavy casualties in disasters. Sri Lanka is a typical example of a state which had an ineffective disaster management mechanism, not strengthened by legislation, when the Asian tsunami struck the country in December 2004, despite having frequently been affected by natural and man-made hazards during the past three decades. The net effect was total disarray in disaster victim identification, leading to drastic and irreparable consequences. PMID:17191630

  2. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  3. Qualitative Modeling in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bredeweg, Bert; Forbus, Kenneth D.

    2003-01-01

    We argue that qualitative modeling provides a valuable way for students to learn. Two modelbuilding environments, VMODEL and HOMER/- VISIGARP, are presented that support learners by constructing conceptual models of systems and their behavior using qualitative formalisms. Both environments use diagrammatic representations to facilitate knowledge articulation. Preliminary evaluations in educational settings provide support for the hypothesis that qualitative modeling tools can be valuable aids...

  4. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson., Bruce D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE; Benoit, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing...

  5. Detection of the 2010 Chilean tsunami using satellite altimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlington, B.D.; R. R. Leben; Godin, O.A.; Legeais, J.F.; E. Gica; Titov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Tsunamis are difficult to detect and measure in the open ocean because the wave amplitude is much smaller than it is closer to shore. An effective early warning system, however, must be able to observe an impending tsunami threat far away from the shore in order to provide the necessary lead-time for coastal inhabitants to find safety. Given the expansiveness of the ocean, sensors capable of detecting the tsunami must also have very broad areal coverage. The 2004 Sumatra-And...

  6. Response of Coastal Buildings Subjected to Seismic and Tsunami Forces

    OpenAIRE

    P. KODANDA RAMA RAO; S.R.K.REDDY,; K RAMA MOHANA RAO

    2010-01-01

    A devastating tsunami generated by the great Indonesia earthquake on 26th December, 2004, revealed the importance of constructing seismic and tsunami resistant structures in coastal regions. Hence, it is necessary to establish analytical methods for obtaining the response parameters and comparing them when structures are subjected to both earthquake and tsunami forces. In this paper a two storied shelter building is chosen for the analysis considering six different types of structural configu...

  7. Landslide generated tsunamis : numerical modeling and real-time prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Brune, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Submarine landslides can generate local tsunamis posing a hazard to human lives and coastal facilities. Two major related problems are: (i) quantitative estimation of tsunami hazard and (ii) early detection of the most dangerous landslides. This thesis focuses on both those issues by providing numerical modeling of landslide-induced tsunamis and by suggesting and justifying a new method for fast detection of tsunamigenic landslides by means of tiltmeters. Due to the proximity to the Sunda...

  8. Warnings and reactions to the Tohoku tsunami in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, B. F.; Gregg, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami was the first chance within the USA to document and interpret large-scale response and protective action behavior with regard to a large, destructive tsunami since 1964. The 2011 tsunami offered a unique, short-lived opportunity to transform our understanding of individual and collective behavior in the US in response to a well-publicized tsunami warning and, in particular, to look at the complex interplay of official information sources, informal warnings and information-seeking in communities with significant physical impact from the 2011 tsunami. This study is focused in Hawaii, which suffered significant ($30 M), but localized damage, from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and underwent a full-scale tsunami evacuation. The survey contrasts three Hawaiian communities which either experienced significant tsunami damage (Kona) or little physical impact (Hilo, Honolulu). It also contrasts a long-established local community with experience of evacuation, destruction and loss of life in two tsunamis (Hilo) with a metropolitan population with a large visitor presence (Honolulu) that has not experienced a damaging tsunami in decades. Many factors such as personal perceptions of risk, beliefs, past exposure to the hazard, forecast uncertainty, trust in information sources, channels of transmission of information, the need for message confirmation, responsibilities, obligations, mobility, the ability to prepare, the availability of transportation and transport routes, and an acceptable evacuation center affected behavior. We provide new information on how people reacted to warnings and tsunamis, especially with regard to social integration of official warnings and social media. The results of this study will strengthen community resilience to tsunamis, working with emergency managers to integrate strengths and weaknesses of the public responses with official response plans.

  9. Contribution of nonlinearity in tsunami generated by submarine earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid co-seismic bottom displacements during strong submarine earthquake give rise to intensive low-frequency elastic oscillations of water layer. Nonlinear energy transfer from the elastic oscillations to long gravitational waves may provide an additional contribution to tsunami. The nonlinear tsunami generation mechanism is examined analytically. Finiteness of bottom elasticity is taken into account. General parameters responsible for amplitude and energy of the nonlinear contribution to tsunami wave are revealed.

  10. TSUNAMI HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTHERN AEGEAN SEA

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2008-01-01

    Emergency planning for the assessment of tsunami hazard inundation and of secondary effects of erosion and landslides, requires mapping that can help identify coastal areas that are potentially vulnerable. The present study reviews tsunami susceptibility mapping for coastal areas of Turkey and Greece in the Aegean Sea. Potential tsunami vulnerable locations were identified from LANDSAT ETM imageries, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000) data and QuickBird imageries and from a GIS int...

  11. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    OpenAIRE

    Tappin, David R.; Grilli, Stephan T.; Harris, Jeffrey C.; Geller, Robert J.; Masterlark, Timothy; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng; Thingbaijam, K.K.S.; Mai, P. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recor...

  12. BASIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TSUNAMIS CALCULATION AND THEIR PHYSICS–II

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACTBasic tsunami physics of propagation and run-up is discussed for the simple geometry of a channel. Modifications of a numerical technique are suggested for the long-distance propagation and for the nonlinear pro- cesses in tsunami waves. The principal modification is application of the higher order of approximations for the first derivative in space. Presently, tsunami calculations employ the high resolution 2D and 3D models for generation and runup processes, while propagation is res...

  13. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    N. Horspool; Pranantyo, I.; J.; Griffin; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D.H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S.D.; H. K. Thio

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern...

  14. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard in New Zealand Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.; Greer, S. Dougal; Power, William L.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the effects of far-field tsunamis in New Zealand ports. Four sites (Marsden Point, Tauranga, Harbor, Port Taranaki and Lyttelton Harbor) were selected based on a combination of factors such as economic importance and the availability of historical and/or instrumental data. Numerical models were created using the ComMIT tsunami modeling tool and the Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) hydrodynamic model. Comparison of model results to measured data from recent historical events showed that, for particular sites and events, the model correlated well with the timing and amplitude of the observed tsunami, and, in most cases, there was generally good agreement between the and modeled tsunami heights and current speeds. A sensitivity analysis for tsunami heights and current speeds was conducted using a suite of large ( M W 9) tsunamigenic earthquake sources situated at regular 15° intervals in azimuth along the Pacific Rim while another set of scenarios focused on regional tsunami sources in the Southwest Pacific. Model results were analyzed for tsunami heights and current speeds as a function of the source region. In terms of currents, the analysis identified where speeds were greatest and which source was responsible. Results suggested that tsunamis originating from Central America produced the strongest response in New Zealand. The modeling was also used to determine the timing and duration of potentially dangerous current speeds as well as minimum `safe depths' for vessel evacuation offshore. This study was motivated by the desire to reduce damage and operational losses via improved forecasting of far-field tsunamis at New Zealand ports. It is important that forecasts are accurate since tsunami damage to ships and facilities is expensive and can be mitigated given timely warnings and because preventable false alarms are also costly in terms of lost productivity. The modeling presented here will underpin efforts to produce port-specific guidance and information in the event of future Pacific tsunamis.

  15. Integration of Spatial Analysis for Tsunami Inundation and Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakar Sambah; Fusanori Miura

    2014-01-01

    Disaster mitigation and reconstruction plan due to tsunami can be implemented with various actions. An integration of spatial analysis through Geographical Information System (GIS) application and multi-criteria analysis through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the methods for tsunami inundation and impact assessment. In this study, vulnerability, inundation and impact assessment due to tsunami hazard in Ofunato city, Iwate Prefecture, Japan was carried out. Appropri...

  16. Coping with the Asian tsunami: perspectives from Tamil Nadu, India on the determinants of resilience in the face of adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Premkumar, Titus S; Tharyan, Prathap

    2008-09-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 wreaked havoc along the southeastern coast of India and resulted in devastating losses. The high rates of long-term mental health consequences in adult survivors predicted immediately after the disaster have not been borne out by recent surveys. This qualitative study explored the psychological impact of the tsunami on survivors with a view to gaining insights into the ethno-cultural coping mechanisms of affected communities and evaluating resilience in the face of incomprehensible adversity. We conducted focus group discussions 9 months after the tsunami with two groups of fishermen, two groups of housewives, a group of village leaders and a group of young men in four affected villages of Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu, India. In spite of incomplete reconstruction of their lives, participants reconstructed meaning for the causes and the aftermath of the disaster in their cultural idiom. Qualitative changes in their social structure, processes and attitudes towards different aspects of life were revealed. Survivors valued their unique individual, social and spiritual coping strategies more than formal mental health services. Their stories confirm the assertion that the collective response to massive trauma need not necessarily result in social collapse but also includes positive effects. The results of this study suggest that interventions after disaster should be grounded in ethno-cultural beliefs and practices and should be aimed at strengthening prevailing community coping strategies. PMID:18562066

  17. Coping with the Asian tsunami : perspectives from Tamil Nadu, India on the determinants of resilience in the face of adversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajamani, Anto Praveen Rajkumar; Premkumar, Titus S

    2008-01-01

    The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 wreaked havoc along the southeastern coast of India and resulted in devastating losses. The high rates of long-term mental health consequences in adult survivors predicted immediately after the disaster have not been borne out by recent surveys. This qualitative study explored the psychological impact of the tsunami on survivors with a view to gaining insights into the ethno-cultural coping mechanisms of affected communities and evaluating resilience in the face of incomprehensible adversity. We conducted focus group discussions 9 months after the tsunami with two groups of fishermen, two groups of housewives, a group of village leaders and a group of young men in four affected villages of Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu, India. In spite of incomplete reconstruction of their lives, participants reconstructed meaning for the causes and the aftermath of the disaster in their cultural idiom. Qualitative changes in their social structure, processes and attitudes towards different aspects of life were revealed. Survivors valued their unique individual, social and spiritual coping strategies more than formal mental health services. Their stories confirm the assertion that the collective response to massive trauma need not necessarily result in social collapse but also includes positive effects. The results of this study suggest that interventions after disaster should be grounded in ethno-cultural beliefs and practices and should be aimed at strengthening prevailing community coping strategies.

  18. The possibilities for the development of tourism in the Appennino Lucano Val d'Agri Lagonegrese National Park: A participative qualitative-quantitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bencivenga, Angelo; Breil, Margaretha; Cassinelli, Mariaester; Chiarullo, Livio; Percoco, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas can represent a strategic laboratory for the realisation of initiatives capable of promoting sustainable economic development models at a local level. One of the duties of national parks is to provide value and promote, even for tourism purposes, natural, historical and cultural resources subject to restrictions in the territory. This contribution describes the research process activated for the definition of a tourism development strategy in the youngest Italian national park...

  19. Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suppasri, A.; S. Koshimura; F. Imamura

    2011-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous buildings and houses in Thailand. Estimation of tsunami impact to buildings from this event and evaluation of the potential risks are important but still in progress. The tsunami fragility curve is a function used to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazards. This study was undertaken to develop fragility curves using visual inspection of high-resolution satellite images (IKONOS) taken before and after tsunami events...

  20. Validating Velocities in the GeoClaw Tsunami Model using Observations Near Hawaii from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    CERN Document Server

    Arcos, M E M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities existed to compare with model results. During the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami 328 current meters were in place around the Hawaiian Islands, USA, that captured time series of water velocity in 18 locations, in both harbors and deep channels, at a series of depths. We compare several of these velocity records against numerical simulations performed using the GeoClaw numerical tsunami model, based on solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with adaptive mesh refinement, to confirm that this model can accurately predict velo...

  1. TSUNAMIS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA A GUIDE OF HISTORIC EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin R. Jordan

    2008-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula has been affected by tsunamis in the past. The Peninsula is bounded by the Persian Gulf on its northeast side, the Red Sea on its west side, and the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean to its east and south. Each of these areas is very different geographically, tectonically, and bathymetrically.Only two, localized tsunamis have been recorded in the Red Sea and one, doubtful, tsunami in the Persian Gulf. Almost all of the recorded tsunamis along the Arabia...

  2. Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Geist

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a tsunami to impact a site and all quantifiable uncertainty. Although only earthquakes were initially considered for PTHA, recent efforts have also attempted to include landslide tsunami sources. Including these sources into PTHA is considerably more difficult because of a general lack of information on relating landslide area and volume to mean return period. The large variety of failure types and rheologies associated with submarine landslides translates to considerable uncertainty in determining the efficiency of tsunami generation. Resolution of these and several other outstanding problems are described that will further advance PTHA methodologies leading to a more accurate understanding of tsunami hazard.

  3. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  4. 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI ON THE MALDIVES ISLANDS: INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara H. Keating; Charles Helsley; Zaha Waheed; Dale Dominey-Howes

    2005-01-01

    Post-tsunami field surveys of the Maldives Islands where carried out to document the effects of the tsunami inundation. The study area was situated in the islands of South Male Atoll that were some of the most heavily damaged islands of the Maldive Islands. The tsunami damaged the natural environment, vegetation, man-made structures, and residents. The maximum tsunami wave height was 3-4 m. This level of inundation exceeded the height of most residents. The wave height was greatest on the eas...

  5. WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY FUNCTION FOR LARGE TSUNAMI WAVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Loomis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Most coastal locations have few if any records of tsunami wave heights obtained over various time periods. Still one sees reference to the 100- year and 500-year tsunamis. In fact, in the USA, FEMA requires that at all coastal regions, those wave heights due to tsunamis and hurricanes be specified. The same is required for stream flooding at any location where stream flooding is possible. How are the 100 and 500-year tsunami wave and stream flooding heights predicted and how defensible are they? This paper discusses these questions.

  6. Comparison of Tsunami Hazards between Japan and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11th, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukushima NPP sites, including their cores, were damaged. The term 'core damage' can be found in safety reports or textbooks on nuclear engineering. Therefore, in this study, a tsunami hazard assessment was performed for Korean NPP sites and was compared to a Japanese tsunami hazard assessment based on a previous tsunami PSA study

  7. Survival of shrines from the 2011 Great Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, K.; Uda, T.; Nami, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    A massive earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 occurred on March 11, 2011, and a powerful tsunami devastated a large area along Japan???s eastern coastline. We investigated the tsunami damage using satellite images and aerial photographs, and visited damaged sites including 27 shrines near the coast in 2011 and 2012. It was found that all but two of these shrines survived the tsunami, even though the tsunami height differed from place to place. As a memorial to people who lost their lives in pr...

  8. Quantification of Tsunami Bathymetry Effect on Finite Fault Slip Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Sladen, Anthony; Delouis, Bertrand; Mattéo, Lionel

    2015-06-01

    The strong development of tsunami instrumentation in the past decade now provides observations of tsunami wave propagation in most ocean basins. This evolution has led to the wide use of tsunami data to image the complexity of earthquake sources. In particular, the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is the first mega-event for which such a tsunami instrumentation network was available with an almost complete azimuthal coverage. Source inversion studies have taken advantage of these observations which add a lot of constrain on the solutions, especially in the shallow part of the fault models where other standard data sets tend to lack resolution: while on-land data are quite insensitive to slip on the often-distant shallow part of a subduction fault interface, tsunami observations are directly sensitive to the shallowest slip. And it is in this shallow portion that steep bathymetry combined with horizontal motion, the so-called bathymetry effect, can contribute to the tsunami excitation, in addition to the direct vertical sea-bottom deformation. In this study, we carefully investigate the different steps involved in the calculation of this bathymetry effect, from the initial sea-floor deformation to the prediction of the tsunami records, and evaluate its contribution across the main subduction zones of the world. We find that the bathymetry effect locally exceeds 10 % of the tsunami excitation in all subduction zones and 25 % in those known to produce the largest tsunami, either from mega- or tsunami- earthquakes. We then show how the bathymetry effect can modify the tsunami wave predictions, with time shifts of the wavefront and amplitudes sometimes varying by a factor of two. If the bathymetry effect can have a strong impact on the simulated tsunami, it will also affect the solution of the finite-fault slip inversion. We illustrate this later aspect in the case of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We find that not accounting for the bathymetry effect will not necessarily cause strong variations in the spatial extent of the inferred coseismic rupture but can severely distort the solution. We also find that the bathymetry effect improves the consistency of the slip model inverted from tsunami data with seafloor geodesy observations, implying that taking the bathymetry effect into account reduces the epistemic uncertainties on tsunami modeling. Implementing this easily quantifiable effect in the tsunami early warning system could thus lead to improved estimates of the tsunami impact across ocean basins.

  9. A CATALOG OF TSUNAMIS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Rastogi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalog of about ninety tsunamis in the Indian Ocean has been prepared from 326 BC to 2005 AD. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tsunamis have occurred once in three years or so. Sunda Arc is the most active region that has produced about seventy tsunamis. The source zones of the remaining tsunamis are Andaman-Nicobar islands, Burma-Bangladesh region in the eastern side, while Makran accretion zone and Kutch- Saurashtra region are in the west. These zones are subduction zones or zones of compression.

  10. Landslide tsunami hazard in the Indonesian Sunda Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brune

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian archipelago is known for the occurrence of catastrophic earthquake-generated tsunamis along the Sunda Arc. The tsunami hazard associated with submarine landslides however has not been fully addressed. In this paper, we compile the known tsunamigenic events where landslide involvement is certain and summarize the properties of published landslides that were identified with geophysical methods. We depict novel mass movements, found in newly available bathymetry, and determine their key parameters. Using numerical modeling, we compute possible tsunami scenarios. Furthermore, we propose a way of identifying landslide tsunamis using an array of few buoys with bottom pressure units.

  11. The international humanitarian system and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, John; Cosgrave, John

    2007-03-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis were an exceptional event. So too was the scale of the response, particularly the level of international funding. Unprecedented donations meant that for once, an international emergency response was largely free of financial constraints. This removal of the funding constraint facilitated observation of the capacity and quality of international disaster aid. The Tsunami Evaluation Coalition conducted five independent thematic assessments in 2005-an impact study was planned, but never implemented. The five evaluations were supported by 44 sub-studies. Based on this work, this paper compares international disaster response objectives, principles and standards with actual performance. It reaches conclusions on four salient aspects: funding; capacity and quality; recovery; and ownership. It ends by proposing a fundamental reorientation of international disaster response approaches that would root them in concepts of sustainable disaster risk reduction and recovery, based on local and national ownership of these processes. PMID:17367371

  12. TSUNAMI ON 26 DECEMBER 2004: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TSUNAMI HEIGHT AND THE EXTENT OF INUNDATION IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Janaka J. Wijetunge

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the massive tsunami of 26 December 2004 on Sri Lanka bytracing the tsunami height, the extent of inundation and the level of damage along the affectedcoastal belt. The results of an extensive field survey that was carried out in the east, south andwest coasts to record the evidence of water levels left behind by the tsunami clearly indicate non-uniform spatial distribution of inundation along the affected coastline of the country. Thetsunami inundation had be...

  13. A New Method to Analyze the Tsunami Incitement Process and Site-selection for Tsunami Observations in China's Eastern Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanqing Zhu; Shuangqing Liu; Yanlin Wen; Yan Xue

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a CONTROL volume model for tsunami incitement process by combining the Navier-Stokes equation, the jet theory and relative velocity model. We conclude that the initial condition for tsunami propagation simulation is equivalent to the static near-field seismic displacement of earthquake that induces the tsunami. The error analyzed from this method is only about 1 percent for a common seafloor earthquake, and it is consistent with the result of Ansys/Ls-dyna numerical ...

  14. Analysis of multi-layer safety in countries affected by recent tsunamis: Emergence of a global tsunami culture

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, M.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Mikami, T.; Yun, N Y; Suppasri, A.; Shibayama, T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, there is a growing awareness of the risks that tsunamis pose to coastal communities globally. Despite the fact that these events were already an intrinsic part of the culture of some countries such as Chile and Japan, many other places had virtually not heard about such phenomenon before 2004. Nevertheless, the frequent reoccurrence of major tsunamis in recent years has led to the emergence of a ???tsunami culture??? in many areas of the world, which has resulted in increased awar...

  15. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate the evolution of initial rectangular shaped humps of water propagating large distances over a constant depth. The objective is to clarify under which circumstances the front of the wave can develop into an ...

  16. Tsunami inundation modeling for western Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero, José C.; Sieh, Kerry; Chlieh, Mohamed; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2006-01-01

    A long section of the Sunda megathrust south of the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of 2004 and 2005 is well advanced in its seismic cycle and a plausible candidate for rupture in the next few decades. Our computations of tsunami propagation and inundation yield model flow depths and inundations consistent with sparse historical accounts for the last great earthquakes there, in 1797 and 1833. Numerical model results from plausible future ruptures produce flow depths of several meters and inund...

  17. Global Financial Tsunami Impacts Russian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyang Shi

    2010-01-01

    Russian economy depends on energy resources highly. Due to impacts of the financial crisis and the sharp decrease of oil price, Russian economy driven by “Petro-dollar” tends to develop slowly. The overwhelming financial tsunami not only impacts Russian financial system but also influences Russian substantial economy. Russian government adopts relevant financial policies in time, keeping the stability of domestic currency, depressing the inflation, and enhancing the support for SMEs and subst...

  18. Year in Diabetes 2012: The Diabetes Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwin, R.; Jastreboff, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes affects more than 300 million individuals globally, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes continue to escalate with the force of an approaching tsunami, it is imperative that we better define the biological mechanisms causing both obesity and diabetes and identify optimal prevention and treatment strategies that will enable a healthier environment and calmer waters. New guidelines from the American Diabetes Associat...

  19. Recent development for near-field tsunami forecasting based on real time GNSS and offshore tsunami data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y.; Tsushima, H.; Kawamoto, S.; Miyagawa, K.; Yahagi, T.; Sato, Y.; Hino, R.; Demachi, T.; Iinuma, T.; Miura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its associated tsunami clearly showed the need for an accurate tsunami early warning system. In a short time between the occurrence of earthquakes and associating tsunamis and the tsunami arrivals to near-field coastal inhabited regions, we can use many different kinds of observations for real-time tsunami forecasting. Since individual type of the observations has its advantages and disadvantages, it is strongly required to make use of multiple kinds of data for improving estimated size and arrival timing of imminent tsunamis by reinforcing one another. For example, the rapid analysis of short-period seismic wave data, such as earthquake early warning system in Japan will provide the first information on the size and location of an earthquake, helping issuing tsunami information immediately after earthquakes. Real-time GNSS data have an advantage over the short-time seismograms because robust estimations of location and dimension of coseismic faults can be derived from spatial patterns of permanent coseismic displacement measured by real-time GNSS data. It is one of the important lessons learnt from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake that estimation of reliable finite source fault models is indispensable in tsunami forecasting after massive earthquakes. Offshore measurements of coming tsunamis must be data most relevant to the arrival times and sizes of tsunamis along shorelines. However, it takes more time to obtain credible spatial distribution of tsunami wave height from the observations due to much slower propagation of tsunamis than seismic waves and deformations. In the presentation, we will introduce the current status of the real-time crustal deformation monitoring system based on the GNSS data developed by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan and Tohoku University. We also briefly introduce the real-time tsunami forecasting based on the offshore tsunami data, developed by the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency. Finally, we will discuss how the combination use of the real-time GNSS and the offshore tsunami observations improve the capability of tsunami forecasting.

  20. Inverse modeling of onshore tsunami flow speed and depth - examples from the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2006 Java tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiske, Michaela; Weiss, Robert; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Roskosch, Julia; Amijaya, Hendra

    2010-05-01

    Flow depth and speed are important parameters that describe the overland flow of a tsunami. These parameters are in many cases known for recent events, but are not available for historical or paleo-tsunami. Inverse modeling uses the thickness, grain-size distribution and grain density of a tsunami deposit to estimate flow speeds and depths necessary to entrain the given sediment. In our study we used TsuSedMod, an inverse model by Jaffe and Gelfenbaum (2007). The model assumes a steady and uniform flow, and an equilibrium distribution of sediment in the water column. Additionally, the model assumes that only 10% of the sediment is transported as bed load and that a typical tsunami sediment is normally graded. An a priori assumption of TsuSedMod is the fact that no erosion by subsequent wave runup or backwash has altered the tsunami deposit in question. This, however, cannot be verified. We applied TsuSedMod to invert sediments from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in India and Kenya, and of the 2006 Java tsunami in Southern Java. Model results for flow depths and observed field data were compared in order to validate the model. The comparisons show that model outputs appear to reasonably estimate the observed flow parameters along the surveyed tsunami runup sections. The computed flow depths and speeds of all runup sections show a landward decreasing trend. This is due to the general landward fining and thinning trends of tsunami layers; whereas thicker tsunami layers deposited in morphological depressions or coarser grained swash lines diverge from this general trend. Several subsequent waves of the tsunami wave train interfere close to the shoreline and result in an more scattered distribution of the computed runup parameters. The computed results become more diagnostic farther inland, where only single waves with higher inundation distances leave deposits. In one of the Java runup sections, an abrupt decrease of both flow depth and speed within a short distance can be traced. This decrease is probably the result of the tsunami destroying houses and the associated decrease of tsunami energy. Our study shows that TsuSedMod gives the best approximation of flow depths for grain-size data gained by settling tube measurements. This is because settling tube results represent hydraulic equivalents while digitally counted grain-size distributions do not include grain shape and density. Application of TsuSedMod to recent examples shows it to be a valuable tool for calculating flow depths and speeds of ancient tsunami, as long as individual sample parameters are thoroughly evaluated. Jaffe, B. & Gelfenbaum, G., 2007: A simple model for calculating tsunami flow speed from tsunami deposits. Sed. Geol., 200, 347-361.

  1. Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, E.; S. Koshimura; Suppasri, A.; Matsuoka, M; M. Matsuyama; T. Yoshii; Jimenez, C.; Yamazaki, F.; F. Imamura

    2012-01-01

    On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate...

  2. New Edition of the UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Yamamoto, M.; Borrero, J. C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Fritz, H. M.; Imamura, F.; Kong, L. S.; Koshimura, S.; McAdoo, B. G.; Satake, K.; Yalciner, A. C.; Yulianto, E.

    2011-12-01

    A subcommittee of the IUGG International Tsunami Commission was convened in 2010 to revise and update the 1998 UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide. The revised Guide addresses the developments in the tsunami field since 1998, the need to accommodate vastly increased amounts of data, and to incorporate disciplines that were not covered in the original guide. The Guide also advocates a systems-approach to assessing tsunami impacts that examines the full range of physical, environmental, and socio-economic effects and their interrelationship, bringing tsunami research efforts into a closer alignment with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). This Field Guide is intended to provide a flexible framework to facilitate the acquisition of critical data in the immediate aftermath of significant tsunamis and to balance the needs of international researchers with those of communities and agencies involved with response and recovery. It will be of use to a variety of people and organizations who may either participate in, assist in coordination, or host post-tsunami field surveys. It is hoped that this Guide will promote pre-event planning in countries at risk of tsunamis to reduce the stresses of developing organizational logistics in the post-emergency response phase and make the process of conducting an ITST easier and more productive for both participating researchers and host country organizations. A complete draft of the Guide will be presented at the meeting and members of the tsunami community invited to comment.

  3. Tsunami modeling from the seismic CMT solution considering the dispersive effect: a case of the 2013 Santa Cruz Islands tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Takayuki; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Inazu, Daisuke; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2015-12-01

    The development of real-time tsunami forecast and rapid tsunami warning systems is crucial in order to mitigate tsunami disasters. The present study shows that tsunami prediction from a seismic centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution would work satisfactorily for the 2013 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake (Mw 8.0) tsunami even though the earthquake source had been modeled as a complicated source characterized by two patches of slip in a past study. We numerically solved the equations for a linear dispersive wave on a spherical coordinate system from the initial tsunami height distribution derived from the CMT solution and a classical scaling law for earthquake faults. The tsunami simulations well explain the observed tsunami arrival times, polarities of initial wave, and maximum amplitudes obtained by deep-ocean pressure measurements. The comparison of the simulation results from dispersive and non-dispersive modeling indicates that the dispersive modeling reproduced the observed waveforms better than the conventional non-dispersive approach. Also, the area affected by a maximum height greater than 0.4 m is decreased by approximately 34% by using dispersion modeling. Those results indicate that the tsunami prediction based on CMT solutions is useful for early warning, and the modeling of dispersion can significantly improve performance.

  4. Analysis of Tsunami Evacuation Issues Using Agent Based Modeling. A Case Study of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Yuriage, Natori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Takagi, H.; Adriano, B.; Hayashi, S.; Koshimura, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami reminded that nature can exceed structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people to find nearby haven. This event, as many others before, confirmed the importance of early evacuation, tsunami awareness and the need for developing much more resilient communities with effective evacuation plans. To support reconstruction activities and efforts on developing resilient communities in areas at risk, tsunami evacuation simulation can be applied to tsunami mitigation and evacuation planning. In this study, using the compiled information related to the evacuation behavior at Yuriage in Natori during the 2011 tsunami, we simulated the evacuation process and explored the reasons for the large number of fatalities in the area. It was found that residents did evacuate to nearby shelter areas, however after the tsunami warning was increased some evacuees decided to conduct a second step evacuation to a far inland shelter. Simulation results show the consequences of such decision and the outcomes when a second evacuation would not have been performed. The actual reported number of fatalities in the event and the results from simulation are compared to verify the model. The case study shows the contribution of tsunami evacuation models as tools to be applied for the analysis of evacuees' decisions and the related outcomes. In addition, future evacuation plans and activities for reconstruction process and urban planning can be supported by the results provided from this kind of tsunami evacuation models.

  5. Influence of sedimentary layering on tsunami generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys

    2008-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the influence of sediment layers on the process of tsunami generation. The main scope here is to demonstrate and especially quantify the effect of sedimentation on seabed vertical displacements due to an underwater earthquake. The fault is modelled as a Volterra-type dislocation in an elastic half-space. The elastodynamics equations are integrated with a finite element method. A comparison between two cases is performed. The first one corresponds to the classical situation of an elastic homogeneous and isotropic half-space, which is traditionally used for the generation of tsunamis. The second test case takes into account the presence of a sediment layer separating the oceanic column from the hard rock. Some important differences are revealed. The results of the present study may partially explain why the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 produced such a big tsunami. More precisely, we conjecture that the wave amplitude in the generation region may have bee...

  6. MOMENTUM AS A USEFUL TSUNAMI DESCRIPTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Loomis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In looking at the videos of the Indonesian tsunami coming ashore at various locations, I thought, “That’s a lot of water with a lot of momentum, and that’s what does the damage.”Perhaps the momentum of a tsunami might be a physical quantity to focus on. Only external forces on the designated body of water create its momentum. Within the body of water, turbulence, internal friction and laminar flow involve internal forces and are not relevant.This could be particularly useful in the generating area. There could be external forces on a designated body of water from a landslide, a pyroclastic flow, an explosion, from steam generation and from chunks of matter falling into the ocean. The horizontal components of those forces result in horizontal momentums. Ultimately when the wave moves out from the generating area and the internal turbulence and laminar flow get dissipated by friction, in the remaining long wave motion the wave height is simply related to the horizontal momentum. The horizontal momentum contribution to the directionality of the wave would be narrower than that due only to the initial vertical displacement.Focusing on the momentum description of the tsunami introduces many new kinds of physical problems that are interesting in themselves.

  7. SIMULATION OF TSUNAMI FORCE ON ROWS OF BUILDINGS IN ACEH REGION AFTER TSUNAMI DISASTER IN 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radianta Triatmadja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 in Aceh, houses and other buildings were reconstructed by government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO. The new buildings near the coastline are open directly to similar tsunami attack. The layout of such new residential are normally arranged and aligned as rows of buildings. The front rows of the buildings suffer more tsunami force due to their location that are closer to the beach and the effect of the reflection from the adjacent buildings. This research aims to analyze the tsunami force on buildings of different types, and the effect of other buildings nearby. The research was conducted using a physical model at the Hydraulic and Hydrology Laboratory, Research Centre for Engineering Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada Indonesia. The physical model simulations were carried out in a flume of 24 m long, 1.45 m wide, and 1.5 m high, that was facilitated with tsunami generator based on dam break system. The models of the buildings were made of plywood and were placed in a row perpendicular to the flume. The distance between the buildings was varied to observe the effect of the gaps. The results show that the force on the building depends on the gap between the buildings. Although the effect of the gap was more significant on low buildings, the effect of force on high buildings was more sensitive to the change of the gap size. Simple equation for practical use is proposed to calculate the tsunami force on building with the effect of nearby buildings.

  8. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE GLOBAL TSUNAMI: Indonesian Tsunami of 26 December 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Kowalik; William Knight; Tom Logan; Paul Whitmore

    2005-01-01

    A new model for the global tsunami computation is constructed. It includes a high order of approximation for the spatial derivatives. The boundary condition at the shore line is controlled by the total depth and can be set either to runup or to the zero normal velocity. This model, with spatial resolution of one minute, is applied to the tsunami of 26 December 2004 in the World Ocean from 80?S to 69?N. Because the computational domain includes close to 200 million grid points, a parallel vers...

  9. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    KAUST Repository

    Tappin, David R.

    2014-09-28

    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recorded at three nearshore buoys off Sanriku, nor the timing and dispersion properties of the waveforms at offshore DART buoy #21418. (3) The rupture centroids obtained by tsunami inversions are biased about 60 km NNE of that obtained by the Global CMT Project. Based on an analysis of seismic and geodetic data, together with recorded tsunami waveforms, we propose that, while the primary source of the tsunami was the vertical displacement of the seafloor due to the earthquake, an additional tsunami source is also required. We infer the location of the proposed additional source based on an analysis of the travel times of higher-frequency tsunami waves observed at nearshore buoys. We further propose that the most likely additional tsunami source was a submarine mass failure (SMF—i.e., a submarine landslide). A comparison of pre- and post-tsunami bathymetric surveys reveals tens of meters of vertical seafloor movement at the proposed SMF location, and a slope stability analysis confirms that the horizontal acceleration from the earthquake was sufficient to trigger an SMF. Forward modeling of the tsunami generated by a combination of the earthquake and the SMF reproduces the recorded on-, near- and offshore tsunami observations well, particularly the high-frequency component of the tsunami waves off Sanriku, which were not well simulated by previous models. The conclusion that a significant part of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was generated by an SMF source has important implications for estimates of tsunami hazard in the Tohoku region as well as in other tectonically similar regions.

  10. Applying and validating the PTVA-3 Model at the Aeolian Islands, Italy: assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy is included on the UNESCO World Heritage list and is visited by more than 200 000 tourists per year. Due to its geological characteristics, the risk related to volcanic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by eight local tsunamis. The most recent and intense of these events happened on 30 December 2002. It was triggered by two successive landslides along the north-western side of the Stromboli volcano (Sciara del Fuoco, which poured approximately 2–3×107 m3 of rocks and debris into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The waves impacted across the whole archipelago, but most of the damage to buildings and infrastructures occurred on the islands of Stromboli (maximum run-up 11 m and Panarea.

    The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of buildings to damage from tsunamis located within the same area inundated by the 2002 event. The assessment is carried out by using the PTVA-3 Model (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment, version 3. The PTVA-3 Model calculates a Relative Vulnerability Index (RVI for every building, based on a set of selected physical and structural attributes. Run-up values within the area inundated by the 2002 tsunami were measured and mapped by the Istituto Italiano di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV and the University of Bologna during field surveys in January 2003. Results of the assessment show that if the same tsunami were to occur today, 54 buildings would be affected in Stromboli, and 5 in Panarea. The overall vulnerability level obtained in this analysis for Stromboli and Panarea are "average"/"low" and "very low", respectively. Nonetheless, 14 buildings in Stromboli are classified as having a "high" or "average" vulnerability. For some buildings, we were able to validate the RVI scores calculated by the PTVA-3 Model through a qualitative comparison with photographs taken by INGV and the University of Bologna during the post-tsunami survey. With the exception of a single structure, which is partially covered by a coastal dune on the seaward side, we found a good degree of accuracy between the PTVA-3 Model forecast assessments and the actual degree of damage experienced by buildings. This validation of the model increases our confidence in its predictive capability. Given the high tsunami risk for the archipelago, our results provide a framework for prioritising investments in prevention measures and addressing the most relevant vulnerability issues of the built environment, particularly on the island of Stromboli.

  11. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in…

  12. Tsunami hazard assessment in Nice, France, and influence of uncertainties in source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Agathe; Loevenbruck, Anne; Heinrich, Philippe; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    Although the tsunami hazard on the French Mediterranean coast is still poorly known, potential tsunamigenic sources exist in the Western Mediterranean basin. Even though the water heights are moderate, generated waves and currents could reach busy beaches, harbors and other coastal structures. The European project ASTARTE aims at reaching a higher level of tsunami resilience in the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean region (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO). In this context, ASTARTE proposes to improve the knowledge of tsunami generation, develop methods for hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment, better understand local coastal effects and enhance tools for early warning system. 9 test sites, including Nice for the French coasts, have been selected all over the NEAM area. Nice is the largest city of the French Riviera and welcomes a very large number of tourists every year, notably for seaside activities. Moreover its waterfront hosts the second French airport and many other facilities. Our work focuses on the tsunami hazard assessment related to seismic sources. This study, based on a worst-case scenarios approach, is carried out using multigrid numerical simulations. Seismic sources are computed through the Okada elastic dislocation model and constrained with the seismological parameters of the rupture. The coseismic deformation provides the initial condition to solve the shallow water equations on which the tsunami propagation simulation is based. Nested computational grids allow taking into account the shoaling effect for the Nice area as well as the potential inundation. The French Litto3D project, led by SHOM (Service Hydrographique et Oceanographique de la Marine) and IGN (Institut National de l'Information Geographique et Forestiere) provides high resolution bathymetric and topographic data (1 to 5 meters of resolution) along the coastline. Our modeling thus gives detailed estimation of the wave impacts on Nice with a particular focus on three critical areas; the Harbor, the airport and the beach along the "Promenade des Anglais". For each scenario, instantaneous and maximum wave heights, speeds of horizontal currents and flooding are computed. This numerical study also gives the opportunity to pay special attention on results variability according to source parameters, such as rupture location, orientation, dip, dimension or coseismic slip amount. Sources are indeed often poorly constrained due to the lack of geological and tectonic knowledge or to the limited time imposed by the fast estimation requirement in warning context. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  13. Impact of the 11 March, 2011, Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on the chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, E.; Cruz, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011, at 14:46:23 Japan Standard Time (5:46:23 UTC). It generated a tsunami 130 km off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture in northeast Japan, which inundated over 400 km2 of land. The death toll has reached >15,800 according to the Japan National Policy Agency with over 3,700 still missing as of 26 October 2011. Significant damage to or complete collapse of houses also resulted. The earthquake generated strong ground motion; nevertheless most damage was caused by the tsunami, which is a tribute to the effectiveness of Japan's earthquake damage reduction measures in saving lives and property. Nonetheless, the direct losses amount to more than 200 billion US dollars (not counting the costs of the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant). The earthquake and tsunami had a significant impact on all types of industry, and in particular on the petrochemical and chemical industry in the affected areas, resulting in hazardous-materials releases, fires and explosions and forcing businesses to interrupt production. These so-called Natech accidents pose an immediate or even long-term threat to the population and the environment, and can also interrupt the supply chain. Overall, the earthquake and tsunami took over 30% of Japan's oil production offline, and two refineries are still not or only partially in operation to repair the damage caused by the fires and explosions. The fire-fighting efforts could only be started 4 days after the disaster due to the absence of personnel that had been evacuated and because of the continuing tsunami alerts. In one of the affected refineries the fires could only be extinguished 10 days after the disasters. Many petrochemical and chemical companies reported problems either due to damage to facilities or because of power outages. In fact, in facilities that suffered no or only minor damage the resuming of operations was hampered by continuous aftershocks, tsunami alerts, the evacuation of personnel, a lack of utilities (water, electricity), damage to infrastructures (berths, roads etc.) and the shortage of raw materials. The Tohoku disaster showed that even prepared countries are at risk and consequently many lessons can be learned for future Natech prevention and mitigation. An in-depth analysis is required to single out the main reasons for the widespread industrial damage and downtime. This analysis, based on information from companies and authorities, in addition to a field visit to the affected areas, is presented.

  14. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-01-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas. PMID:25765170

  15. A fast global tsunami modeling suite as a trans-oceanic tsunami hazard prediction and mitigation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, F.; Li, S.; Jalali Farahani, R.; Williams, C. R.; Astill, S.; Wilson, P. S.; B, S.; Lee, R.

    2014-12-01

    The past decade has been witness to two mega-tsunami events, 2004 Indian ocean tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami and multiple major tsunami events; 2006 Java, Kuril Islands, 2007 Solomon Islands, 2009 Samoa and 2010 Chile, to name a few. These events generated both local and far field tsunami inundations with runup ranging from a few meters to around 40 m in the coastal impact regions. With a majority of the coastal population at risk, there is need for a sophisticated outlook towards catastrophe risk estimation and a quick mitigation response. At the same time tools and information are needed to aid advanced tsunami hazard prediction. There is an increased need for insurers, reinsurers and Federal hazard management agencies to quantify coastal inundations and vulnerability of coastal habitat to tsunami inundations. A novel tool is developed to model local and far-field tsunami generation, propagation and inundation to estimate tsunami hazards. The tool is a combination of the NOAA MOST propagation database and an efficient and fast GPU (Graphical Processing Unit)-based non-linear shallow water wave model solver. The tsunamigenic seismic sources are mapped on to the NOAA unit source distribution along subduction zones in the ocean basin. Slip models are defined for tsunamigenic seismic sources through a slip distribution on the unit sources while maintaining limits of fault areas. A GPU based finite volume solver is used to simulate non-linear shallow water wave propagation, inundation and runup. Deformation on the unit sources provide initial conditions for modeling local impacts, while the wave history from propagation database provides boundary conditions for far field impacts. The modeling suite provides good agreement with basins for basin wide tsunami propagation to validate local and far field tsunami inundations.

  16. Potential inundation of Lisbon downtown by a 1755-like tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baptista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present 10 m resolution tsunami flooding maps for Lisbon downtown and the Tagus estuary. To compute these maps we use the present bathymetry and topographic maps and a reasonable estimate for the maximum credible tsunami scenario. Tsunami modeling was made with a non-linear shallow water model using four levels of nested grids. The tsunami flood is discussed in terms of flow depth, run-up height and maximum inundation area. The results show that, even today, in spite of the significant morphologic changes in the city river front after the 1755 earthquake, a similar event would cause tsunami flow depths larger than one meter in a large area along the Tagus estuary and Lisbon downtown. Other areas along the estuary with a high population density would also be strongly affected. The impact of the tide on the extent of tsunami inundation is discussed, due to the large amplitude range of the tide in Lisbon, and compared with the historical descriptions of the 1755 event. The results presented here can be used to identify the potential tsunami inundation areas in Lisbon; this identification comprises a key element of the Portuguese tsunami emergency management system.

  17. Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankaew, K.; Atwater, B.F.; Sawai, Y.; Choowong, M.; Charoentitirat, T.; Martin, M.E.; Prendergast, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent centuries provide no precedent for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, either on the coasts it devastated or within its source area. The tsunami claimed nearly all of its victims on shores that had gone 200 years or more without a tsunami disaster. The associated earthquake of magnitude 9.2 defied a Sumatra-Andaman catalogue that contains no nineteenth-century or twentieth-century earthquake larger than magnitude 7.9 (ref. 2). The tsunami and the earthquake together resulted from a fault rupture 1,500 km long that expended centuries' worth of plate convergence. Here, using sedimentary evidence for tsunamis, we identify probable precedents for the 2004 tsunami at a grassy beach-ridge plain 125 km north of Phuket. The 2004 tsunami, running 2 km across this plain, coated the ridges and intervening swales with a sheet of sand commonly 5-20 cm thick. The peaty soils of two marshy swales preserve the remains of several earlier sand sheets less than 2,800 years old. If responsible for the youngest of these pre-2004 sand sheets, the most recent full-size predecessor to the 2004 tsunami occurred about 550-700 years ago. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  19. Risk mapping and tsunami mitigation in Gunungkidul area, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiatno, Djati; Sunarto, WF, Lies Rahayu; Saptadi, Gatot; Ayuningtyas, Efrinda Ari

    2015-04-01

    Coastal area of Gunungkidul Regency is one of the areas prone to tsunami in Indonesia. In contrary, currently, this area is very intensively developed as one of the favourite tourism destination. This paper is aimed at explaining tsunami risk and a mitigation type in Gunungkidul Area, Yogyakarta. Digital elevation model (DEM) and coastal morphology were used to generate tsunami hazard map. Vulnerability was analysed by utilizing land use data. Information from previous studies (e.g. from GTZ) were also considered for analysis. Tsunami risk was classified into three classes, i.e. high risk, medium risk, and low risk and visualized in the form of tsunami risk map. Tsunami risk map is a tool which can be used as disaster reduction instrument, such as for evacuation routes planning. Based on the preliminary results of this research, it is clear that tsunami risk in this area is varied depend on the morphological condition of the location. There are five coastal area selected as the location, i.e. Ngrenehan, Baron, Sepanjang, PulangSawal, and Sadeng. All locations have the high risk zone to tsunami, especially for bay area. Evacuation routes were generated for all locations by considering the local landscape condition. There are several differences of evacuation ways for each location.

  20. TSUNAMI PROPAGATION OVER THE NORTH PACIFIC: DISPERSIVE AND NONDISPERSIVE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Horrillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrostatic (HY and non-hydrostatic (NHY tsunami physics is compared by application to the Kuril Island Tsunami (KIT of November 2006 and the Japan Tsunami (JT of March 2011. Our purpose is to study the significance of dispersive vs. non-dispersive long waves on global tsunami propagation. A tool which is well suited to revealing tsunami wave transformations is the energy flux. Expressions for dispersive and non-dispersive fluxes have been formulated. This provides an understanding of the role of dispersion in tsunami propagation and dissipation. Separating the pressure field into two parts i.e., HY and NHY shows that dispersive waves extract energy from the main wave, directing the dispersive energy flux away from the wave front. The major result of the application of the energy flux to non-dispersive waves is an enhanced understanding of later tsunami wave train arrivals at distant points – with arrivals sometimes occurring several hours after an initial forerunner wave. Computations show that strong differences between non-dispersive and dispersive waves develop along the length of the main energy beam. This has important consequences for accurate tsunami prediction and warnings.

  1. The qualitative research proposal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Klopper.

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a chall [...] enging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  2. Qualitative research in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    GOBO, GIAMPIETRO

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative research in Italy has gone through hard times. On the one hand it has long been hampered by the hegemony of Crocean idealism. On the other hand survey researchers have also undervalued it. Despite, this from the 1980s qualitative research gained an important role in Italian sociology and at the end of the 1990s it conquered a space in Italian methodology, still ruled by the survey approach. At the beginning of the new millennium qualitative methodology has become institutionalized...

  3. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D

    2008-01-01

    The main point in the next two chapters is that the methodological literature is filled with references to the quantitative-qualitative conflict or opposition. Qualitative data is credited with providing the meaning and factual interpretation that quantitative data does not, thus it is more accurate in findings, interpretation and theory as opposed to the conjectures that explain fabricated quantitative findings. Qualitative data is real life collection of data that avoids the quantitative di...

  5. Qualitative Research Methods: Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Maeder

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research methods play an important role in empirical research practices in practically all humanities and social science disciplines. Qualitative methods are used in many fields and make important scientific contributions. The interest of, and demand from, students and researchers in a broad education in qualitative procedures is consequently very large indeed. At most universities, however, these methods are not well established, while dubious assumptions borne of either prejudic...

  6. Dynamic models of an earthquake and tsunami offshore Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kenny J.; Geist, Eric L.; Barall, Michael; Oglesby, David D.

    2015-08-01

    The Ventura basin in Southern California includes coastal dip-slip faults that can likely produce earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater and significant local tsunamis. We construct a 3-D dynamic rupture model of an earthquake on the Pitas Point and Lower Red Mountain faults to model low-frequency ground motion and the resulting tsunami, with a goal of elucidating the seismic and tsunami hazard in this area. Our model results in an average stress drop of 6 MPa, an average fault slip of 7.4 m, and a moment magnitude of 7.7, consistent with regional paleoseismic data. Our corresponding tsunami model uses final seafloor displacement from the rupture model as initial conditions to compute local propagation and inundation, resulting in large peak tsunami amplitudes northward and eastward due to site and path effects. Modeled inundation in the Ventura area is significantly greater than that indicated by state of California's current reference inundation line.

  7. Tsunami Sediment Characteristics at the Thai Andaman Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisutam, Chanchai; Wagner, Jean-Frank

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes and summarizes the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami sediment characteristics at the Thai Andaman coast. Field investigations have been made approximately 3 years after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami event. Seven transects have been examined at five locations. Sediment samples have been collected for grain-size analyses by wet-sieve method. Tsunami sediments are compared to three deposits from coastal sub-environments. The mean grain-size and standard deviation of deposits show that shoreface deposits are fine to very fine sand, poorly to moderately well sorted; swash zone deposits are coarse to fine sand, poorly to well sorted; berm/dune deposits are medium to fine sand, poorly to well sorted; and tsunami deposits are coarse to very fine sand, poorly to moderately well sorted. A plot of deposit mean grain-size versus sorting indicates that tsunami deposits are composed of shoreface deposits, swash zone deposits and berm/dune deposits as well. The tsunami sediment is a gray sand layer deposited with an erosional base on a pre-existing soil (rooted soil). The thickness of the tsunami sediment layer is variable. The best location for observation of the recent tsunami sediment is at about 50-200 m inland from the coastline. In most cases, the sediment layer is normally graded. In some cases, the sediment contains rip-up clasts of muddy soils and/or organic matter. The vertical variation of tsunami sediment texture shows that the mean grain-size is fining upward and landward. Break points of slope in a plot of standard deviation versus depth mark a break in turbulence associated with a transition to a lower or higher Reynolds number runup. This can be used to evaluate tsunami sediment main layer and tsunami sediment sub layers. The skewness of tsunami sediment indicates a grain size distribution with prominent finer-grain or coarse-grain particles. The kurtosis of tsunami sediment indicates grain-size distributions which are flat to peak distribution (or multi-modal to uni-modal distribution) upward. Generally, the major origins of tsunami sediment are swash zone and berm/dune zone sands where coarse to medium sands are the significant material at these locations. The minor origin of tsunami sediment is the shoreface where the significant materials are fine to very fine sands. However, for a coastal area where the shoreface slope is mild, the major origin of tsunami sediment is the shoreface. The interpretation of runup number from tsunami sediment characteristics gets three runups for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at the Thai Andaman coast. It corresponds to field observations from local eyewitnesses. The 1st runup transported and deposited more coarse particles than the following runups. Overall, the pattern of onshore tsunami sediment transportation indicates erosion at swash zone and berm/dune zone, followed by dynamic equilibrium at an area behind the berm/dune zone and after that deposition at inland zone until the limit of sediment inundation. The total deposition is a major pattern in onshore tsunami sediment transportation at the deposition zone which the sediment must find in the direction of transport.

  8. A Model for TSUnami FLow INversion from Deposits (TSUFLIND)

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Modern tsunami deposits are employed to estimate the overland flow characteristics of tsunamis. With the help of the overland-flow characteristics, the characteristics of the causative tsunami wave can be estimated. The understanding of tsunami deposits has tremendously improved over the last decades. There are three prominent inversion models: Moore advection model, Soulsby's model and TsuSedMod model. TSUFLIND incorporates all three models and adds new modules to better simulate tsunami deposit formation and calculate flow condition. TSUFLIND takes grain-size distribution, thickness, water depth and topography information as inputs. TSUFLIND computes sediment concentration, grain-size distribution of sediment source and initial flow condition to match the sediment thickness and grain size distribution from field observation. Furthermore, TSUFLIND estimates the flow speed, Froude number and representative wave amplitude. The model is tested by using field data collected at Ranganathapuram, India after the 20...

  9. Development of guideline for assessing large tsunami countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Tsunami caused a nuclear accident in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants (NPPs), which led to massive social fear of the NPPs. The Japan Society of Maintenology organized a special committee to develop a methodology of assessing the safety of Japanese NPPs that the short-term measures against large tsunami had been taken after March 11. The vigorous study and discussion resulted in the 'Guideline for Assessing Large Tsunami Countermeasures in Japanese Nuclear Power Plants'. By applying it, robustness of NPPs (37 units not including TEPCO plants) against large tsunami had been assessed. This article explained background of preparing the guideline, its contents, and evaluated results by applying it, and further needed activities. Waterproofing and multiplicity of batteries and reinforcement of external power such as small-sized gas turbines installed near NPPs would contribute much to upgrade safety of NPPs against large tsunami. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Mircrotomography of unconsolidated sediments: application to tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvard, Simon; Paris, Raphaël

    2015-04-01

    While a lot of progress in the study of tsunamis and tsunami deposits has been made during the last two decades, identifying and characterizing tsunami deposits remains a challenging task. The available toolbox includes sedimentological, chemical, and biological proxies and covers a range of scales from hundreds of meters to around a centimeter. Yet, while it has been shown that they contain useful data, micromorphology and microstructures of deposits remain understudied to this day. X-Ray microtomography allows us to gain access to the smallest structures of the deposits down to the scale of the particles they are made of. This technique thus makes possible to study tsunami deposits in detail, down to a few micrometers, giving us access to sedimentological, structural and fabric data that complete the dataset available for tsunami scientists.

  11. Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Koshimura, S.; Suppasri, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Matsuyama, M.; Yoshii, T.; Jimenez, C.; Yamazaki, F.; Imamura, F.

    2012-08-01

    On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazard in this area, tsunami fragility curves were developed. Surveyed data of inundation depth and visual inspection of satellite images of Dichato were used to classify the damage to housing. A practical method suitable when there are limitations on available data for numerical simulation or damage evaluation from surveys is presented here. This study is the first application of tsunami fragility curves on the South American Pacific coast and it might be of practical use for communities with similar characteristics along the west Pacific coast. The proposed curve suggests that structures in Dichato will be severely damaged - with a 68% probability - already at 2 m tsunami inundation depth.

  12. Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST, to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazard in this area, tsunami fragility curves were developed. Surveyed data of inundation depth and visual inspection of satellite images of Dichato were used to classify the damage to housing. A practical method suitable when there are limitations on available data for numerical simulation or damage evaluation from surveys is presented here. This study is the first application of tsunami fragility curves on the South American Pacific coast and it might be of practical use for communities with similar characteristics along the west Pacific coast. The proposed curve suggests that structures in Dichato will be severely damaged – with a 68% probability – already at 2 m tsunami inundation depth.

  13. Ironic Effects of the Destructive Tsunami on Public Risk Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Nakayachi, K.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused more than 20,000 casualties, with most of the dead and missing in an enormous tsunami. Survivors had simply evacuated to higher ground within approximately 30 minutes of its arrival. This reflects the importance of public perception of tsunami risks represented by its heights. Our question is how the devastating tsunami affected people in the western Japan where a great earthquake is anticipated in near future. Existing risk analysis researches show that the experience of natural disasters increases risk perception, even with indirect experiences such as seeing photographs of disaster scenes or thinking about a major natural calamity. No doubt, we can assume that the devastating tsunami would have led people to have a greater sense of associated risks. Our result, however, shows that the destructive tsunami of Tohoku earthquake lowered the risk assessment of tsunami heights. One possible explanation to this paradoxical result is the anchoring heuristic. It defines that laypersons are highly inclined to judge based on the numbers first presented to them. Media's repeating report of record-breaking tsunamis of 30 m or more anchored people to elevate the height to evacuate. The results of our survey pose a significant problem for disaster prevention. The survey area is at high risk of giant earthquake, and according to our results, more than 50% of the people surveyed no longer sensed the danger of a 1-m-high tsunami, whereas about 70% had perceived its peril before the Tohoku earthquake. This is also of great importance in Indonesia or Chile where huge earthquakes had occurred recently. We scientists need to face up to the fact that improvement of quick calculation of tsunami heights is not sufficient at all to mitigate the tsunami disasters, but reorient how we should inform laypersons to evacuate at the emergency situation.

  14. Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.

    2013-12-01

    Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded the recommended concentrations for freshwater plants after one year. The new soil formation and vegetation recovery depends mainly on the rate of biological production. In tropical climate the vegetation largely recovered already after the first rainy season and supported the new soil formation. In temperate climate this process was much slower, in particular in flat lying areas and on coastal dunes with poor sandy soils. In polar climate only limited vegetation recovery (mainly of Salix species) has been observed after 12 years and vegetation withered due to salt stress still marked the tsunami inundation limit and the new soil formation was very slow and focused on low lying, wet areas buried with thin tsunami deposits cover. The post-tsunami recovery processes may be grouped into climate-related (vegetation recovery, removal of salts from soils) and non climate-related (e.g. beach recovery) or modified by climatic and local factors (for instance, the rate of tsunami deposits reworking and thus new soil formation). The rate of recovery varies from days / weeks as in case of beach recovery to several decades as in case of new soil formation on tsunami deposits. The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. The review results from studies in collaboration with number of researchers from Australia, Japan, Poland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States to whom I express sincere thanks.

  15. Tsunami Hazard Evaluation for the East Coast of Korea by using Empirical Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a tsunami hazard curve was determined for a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) induced tsunami event in Nuclear Power Plant site. A Tsunami catalogue was developed by using historical tsunami record which happen before 1900 and instrumental tsunami record after 1900. For the evaluation of return period of tsunami run-up height, power-law, uppertruncated power law and exponential function were considered for the assessment of regression curves and compared with each result. Although the total tsunami records were only 9 times at the east coast of Korea during tsunami catalogue, there was no such research like this about tsunami hazard curve evaluation and this research lay a cornerstone for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) in Korea

  16. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System with instant Tsunami Propagation Calculations in the GPU Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Spazier, J.; Reißland, S.

    2014-12-01

    Usually, tsunami early warning and mitigation systems (TWS or TEWS) are based on several software components deployed in a client-server based infrastructure. The vast majority of systems importantly include desktop-based clients with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operators in early warning centers. However, in times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms, introduced by continuously evolving approaches in information and communications technology (ICT), have to be considered even for early warning systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in three research projects - 'German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System' (GITEWS), 'Distant Early Warning System' (DEWS), and 'Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises' (TRIDEC) - new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based prototype to open up new prospects for EWS. This prototype, named 'TRIDEC Cloud', merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services into one platform for automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The prototype in its current version addresses tsunami early warning and mitigation. The integration of GPU accelerated tsunami simulation computations have been an integral part of this prototype to foster early warning with on-demand tsunami predictions based on actual source parameters. However, the platform is meant for researchers around the world to make use of the cloud-based GPU computation to analyze other types of geohazards and natural hazards and react upon the computed situation picture with a web-based GUI in a web browser at remote sites. The current website is an early alpha version for demonstration purposes to give the concept a whirl and to shape science's future. Further functionality, improvements and possible profound changes have to implemented successively based on the users' evolving needs.

  17. A New Method to Analyze the Tsunami Incitement Process and Site-selection for Tsunami Observations in China's Eastern Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a CONTROL volume model for tsunami incitement process by combining the Navier-Stokes equation, the jet theory and relative velocity model. We conclude that the initial condition for tsunami propagation simulation is equivalent to the static near-field seismic displacement of earthquake that induces the tsunami. The error analyzed from this method is only about 1 percent for a common seafloor earthquake, and it is consistent with the result of Ansys/Ls-dyna numerical analysis. EDGRN/EDCMP and COMCOT program provide some new acquirement for the tsunami studies. In the second part of the paper, we develop a site-selection method for anchor-grounded tsunami observation in Chinese eastern sea.

  18. Teaching Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyser, Dydia

    2008-01-01

    Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…

  19. Pedestrian Evacuation Analysis for Tsunami Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent catastrophic tsunamis in the last decade, as well as the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Alaskan event, have heightened awareness of the threats these natural hazards present to large and increasing coastal populations. For communities located close to the earthquake epicenter that generated the tsunami, strong shaking may also cause significant infrastructure damage, impacting the road network and hampering evacuation. There may also be insufficient time between the earthquake and first wave arrival to rely on a coordinated evacuation, leaving at-risk populations to self-evacuate on foot and across the landscape. Emergency managers evaluating these coastal risks need tools to assess the evacuation potential of low-lying areas in order to discuss mitigation options, which may include vertical evacuation structures to provide local safe havens in vulnerable communities. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software tool for use by researchers and emergency managers to assist in the assessment of a community's evacuation potential by modeling travel times across the landscape and producing both maps of travel times and charts of population counts with corresponding times. The tool uses an anisotropic (directionally dependent) least cost distance model to estimate evacuation potential and allows for the variation of travel speed to measure its effect on travel time. The effectiveness of vertical evacuation structures on evacuation time can also be evaluated and compared with metrics such as travel time maps showing each structure in place and graphs displaying the percentage change in population exposure for each structure against the baseline. Using the tool, travel time maps and at-risk population counts have been generated for some coastal communities of the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Alaska. The tool can also be used to provide valuable decision support for tsunami vertical evacuation siting.

  20. A NEW TSUNAMI RISK SCALE FOR WARNING SYSTEMS - APPLICATION TO THE BAY OF ALGIERS IN ALGERIA, WEST MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Algiers and the surrounding coastal areas in northern Algeria are vulnerable to earthquakes which range from moderate to severe. In 2006, using several possible earthquake scenarios for the Western Mediterranean, the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Algerian National Seismic Engineering Research Center predicted that heavy damage could occur in the Algiers region. Algerian Civil Defense authorities are particularly concerned by the threat of near-field earthquakes, associated slides and rock falls, as well as for tsunamis that can be generated. The present study proposes a new tsunami risk scale that provides information about the exposed communities and infrastructure, which can be used for regional tsunami alerts and warnings. Furthermore, it evaluates the vulnerability along the Bay of Algiers from tsunamigenic earthquakes. The JMA seismic intensity scale (Shindo scale and the corresponding seismic peak ground accelerations are used in the evaluation. The results of tsunami modeling studies and of earthquake vulnerability assessment described by the present study, emphasize the significance of public education and preparedness in efforts to mitigate loss of life and damage to property.

  1. Field Survey of Tsunami Effects in Sri Lanka due to the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shusaku; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Gunaratna, Priyantha; Madurapperuma, Manoj; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2007-03-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w ) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affected countries were Indonesia - 167,736, Sri Lanka - 35,322, India - 18,045 and Thailand - 8,212. This paper describes two field visits to assess tsunami effects in Sri Lanka by a combined team of Japanese and Sri Lankan researchers. The first field visit from December 30, 2004 January 04, 2005 covered the western and southern coasts of Sri Lanka including the cities of Moratuwa, Beruwala, Bentota, Pereliya, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Talpe, Matara, Tangalla and Hambantota. The objectives of the first field visit were to investigate the damage caused by the tsunami and to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times. The second field visit from March 10 18, 2005 covered the eastern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka and included Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Arugam Bay, Yala National Park and Kirinda. The objectives of the second visit were mainly to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times and inundation data, and to take relevant measurements using GPS instruments.

  2. STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS IN THE INTRA-AMERICAS SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua I. Henson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of past Caribbean tsunamis generated by earthquakes and/or massive submarine slides/slumps, as well as the tsunamigenic potential and population distribution within the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS is examined to help define the optimal location for coastal sea level gauges intended to serve as elements of a regional tsunami warning system. The goal of this study is to identify the minimum number of sea level gauge locations to aid in tsunami detection and provide the most warning time to the largest number of people. We identified 12 initial, prioritized locations for coastal sea level gauge installation. Our study area approximately encompasses 7oN, 59oW to 36oN, 98oW. The results of this systematic approach to assess priority locations for coastal sea level gauges will assist in developing a tsunami warning system (TWS for the IAS by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA and the Regional Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE-GOOS.

  3. THE MAY 17, 1992 EVENT: TSUNAMI AND COASTAL EFFECTS IN EASTERN MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda M. Besana; Masataka Ando; Ma. Hannah Mirabueno

    2004-01-01

    Tsunami invaded the eastern coastlines of Mindanao islands several minutes after the strong ground shaking of the May 17, 1992 quake. Recent field investigations showed that tsunami intensity generally decreases southwards and northwards relative to Bunga and Zaragoza areas. There was an unusually high tsunami wave height (~6m) at Bunga that was most probably due to local site effect. Tsunami waves were generally preceded by the lowering of sea water level while the tsunami arrival times have...

  4. ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES; A. Cisternas; J. -L. Vigneresse; W. Dudley; B. Mc Adoo

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of tsunami damage relative to earthquake damage may help to identify critical coastal zone structures and exposed populations for near field tsunami risk. In this work, we propose to define the ratio between tsunami intensity and earthquake intensity as a measure of near field tsunami vulnerability for coastal communities. This parameter is estimated for 13 tsunami events reported in North Algeria from the 14th century to present. Although the results show that there...

  5. EL TERREMOTO Y POSTERIOR TSUNAMI DEL 26 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2004 EN INDONESIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BEATRIZ ELENA, ESTRADA ROLDÁN; JOSEF, FARBIARZ FARBIARZ.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A short compilation of the cause, characteristics and effects of the tsunami generated on the 26 of December of 2004 in Indonesia is presented here. The general context of generation of this phenomena is illustrated together with the tectonic environment in which this tsunami in particular was produ [...] ced. Finally, a brief introduction to tsunamis in Colombia including tsunami cases and areas of higher tsunami hazard is considered.

  6. ESTIMATION OF FAR-FIELD TSUNAMI POTENTIAL FOR THE CARIBBEAN COAST BASED ON NUMERICAL SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Narcisse Zaibo; Efim Pelinovsky; Andrey Kurkin; Andrey Kozelkov

    2003-01-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsuna...

  7. A new multi-sensor approach to simulation assisted tsunami early warning

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, J; A. Androsov; Babeyko, A. Y.; S. Harig; Klaschka, F.; Mentrup, L.

    2010-01-01

    A new tsunami forecasting method for near-field tsunami warning is presented. This method is applied in the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, as part of the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Center in Jakarta, Indonesia. The method employs a rigorous approach to minimize uncertainty in the assessment of tsunami hazard in the near-field. Multiple independent sensors are evaluated simultaneously in order to achieve an accurate estimation of coastal arrival times and wave heights within v...

  8. The unperceived risk to Europe's coasts: tsunamis and the vulnerability of Cadiz, Spain