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Trends in Drinking Water Quality for Some Wells in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, 1997-2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Well water samples were collected during the period of 1997 to 2009 from seventeen wells to represent Saq aquifer, Qassim Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The water samples were analyzed to determine their quality for domestic use. The water samples were investigated with respect to Electrical Condu...

I.S. Al-Salamah; I.N. Nassar

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Clinical and histopathologic characteristics of skin malignancies in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to assess the pattern of skin malignancies in Qassim region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Data of histopathological confirmed cases of skin malignancies were collected from all the referral hospitals of Qassim region during a period from January 2000 to July 2009. RESULTS: Out of 94 cases majority (90.4%) were Saudis, and males (74.5%). The most common malignant skin lesion was BCC (58.5%) followed by SCC (18.1%) and MM (11.7%), respectively. Other malignancies seen were DFSP (4.3%), sebaceous carcinoma (2.1%) and skin secondaries from lung, lymphoma and stomach (4.3%). The most common site was face for BCC, trunk for SCC, and limbs for MM. The DFSP did not show any particular pattern. CONCLUSION: All major types of skin malignancies were seen with patterns similar to those reported from various other regions of Saudi Arabia and other countries except for Kaposi's sarcoma which was not encountered in our study.

Alzolibani AA; Al Shobaili HA; Robaee AA; Khan A; Haque IU; Rao NS; Alrejaie A

2013-01-01

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Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease) is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01). Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%). The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5). Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins) against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000): 495-499

Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

2011-01-01

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Seroresponse to the second measles vaccine dose at school entry in Qassim province, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2001, the measles immunization schedule in Saudi Arabia was changed to 2 measles, mumps and rubella vaccine doses at 12 months and at 6 years. In this follow-up study we evaluated the seroresponse to the second measles dose before school entry. We recruited 138 children randomly from primary health care centres in Qassim; 124 children completed the study. Blood samples were collected before and 1 month after giving the second measles dose, before the age of 6 years. There was a statistically significant increase in the geometric mean titre of measles antibody, from 2205 m IU/mL before vaccination to 4723 mlU/mL after (P = 0.0001). The proportion of children with positive ELISA results increased fro++ 94.2% before vaccination to 99.2% after (P = 0.02), while the proportion with protective level (> or = 200 mlU/mL) increased from 97.1% before vaccination to 99.19% after (P = 0.21). The 2-dose measles immunization schedule can produce optimum protection at school entry if high vaccination coverage is guaranteed.

Khalil MK; Nadrah HM; Al Yahia OA; ElGhazali G

2011-03-01

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Application of ERT Survey for Addressing the Issues of Urban Rain Storm Water Logging in the Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Qassim province is one of the most arid regions of Saudi Arabia, however heavy rainfall events have led to water logging problems in the populated centers like Buraidah mainly as a consequence of construction in low lying areas and valleys. Urban rain storm water logging problem were reported at...

Faisal K. Zaidi; Osama M. K. Kassem; Mohammad T. Hussein; Abdulaziz M. Al-Bassam

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The use of and out-of-pocket spending on complementary and alternative medicine in Qassim province, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current picture of the Saudis' use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not yet been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the international questionnaire to measure use of complementary and alternative medicine (I-CAM-Q) in Saudi Arabia to evaluate the use of and out-of-pocket spending on CAM. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 2011, in primary health care centers in Qassim. METHODS: In a multistage sampling technique, 12 primary health care centers were selected randomly in the Al-Qassim province in Saudi Arabia. From each center, 100 attendants were interviewed for a total of 1160 completed questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 74% of subjects had visited CAM providers in 12 months before the survey. This percentage decreased to 47.6% when spiritual healers were excluded. The specific CAM providers who were visited were spiritual healers (26.7%), herbalists (23.2%), providers of honeybee products (14.9%), and hijama (wet cupping; 13%). Chronic illnesses were the main reason for the visits. A total of 50% of subjects were satisfied with their visit. Physicians were the providers of CAM for 11.3% of the participants. More than 75% of the subjects used herbs in the previous 12 months for medical and health reasons, while only 25% used vitamins or minerals. Self-help was used in 26% of the participants. Relaxation (10.3%) was the most common self-CAM practice followed by meditation (6.7%). The subjects spent 350000 (US$) on CAM visits and 300000 (US$) purchasing CAM products. CONCLUSIONS: I-CAM-Q can be used in different populations and cultures in the East including Saudi Arabia after customization to overcome its limitations, as the questionnaire was developed in Western societies.

AlBedah AM; Khalil MK; Elolemy AT; Al Mudaiheem AA; Al Eidi S; Al-Yahia OA; Al-Gabbany SA; Henary BY

2013-05-01

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Application of ERT Survey for Addressing the Issues of Urban Rain Storm Water Logging in the Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Qassim province is one of the most arid regions of Saudi Arabia, however heavy rainfall events have led to water logging problems in the populated centers like Buraidah mainly as a consequence of construction in low lying areas and valleys. Urban rain storm water logging problem were reported at 4 localities in the Buraidah Municipal area after heavy rainfall in November 2008 and March 2009. The logged water from these sites were directed to 4 manmade lakes however the stagnant water in these lakes posed a serious environmental threat mainly in the form of water borne disease. Keeping this problem in mind, a detailed geophysical investigation in the form of Electrical Resistivity Tomography was carried out using the SYSCAL Pro Unit at these 4 locations with a dipole-dipole configuration. The survey was helpful in delineating the wet zones from the dry ones and based on the interpretations the optimum depth and sites of 4 injections bore-wells were determined at each locality. These injection bore-well would serve the dual propose of getting rid of the stagnant water in these lakes and also recharging the underlying aquifers.

Faisal K. Zaidi; Osama M. K. Kassem; Mohammad T. Hussein; Abdulaziz M. Al-Bassam

2012-01-01

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Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this briefing, some specific problems facing the petroleum industry in Saudi Arabia over the next few years are considered. They include: marketing difficulties caused by a glut in the Asian market to which Saudi Arabia is increasingly directing sales; the current high cost of maintaining a surplus production capacity that is unlikely to be used in the short term; a need to revise the budget to take into account the unexpected collapse in oil revenues in recent months; a need to prevent gross overproduction by both OPEC and non-OPEC rivals in order to prevent either loss of market share or persistent low prices. (UK)

Roberts, J.

1998-04-01

9

Prevalence of group a rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, norovirus and astrovirus infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in al-qassim, saudi arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To investigate the prevalence of Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Norovirus, and Astrovirus among Saudi children with gastroenteritis. This study was conducted at the Department of Medical Laboratories, Qassim University during the winter seasons of the years 2004 and 2005. A total of 284 diarrhoeal fecal specimens collected from children were tested for the gastroenteritis causing viruses using enzyme immunoassay. Of the 284 specimens, 142 (50%) were found to be positive for viruses causing gastroenteritis. Rotavirus (66.2%) was the most frequently detected, followed by adenovirus (15.5%), norovirus and astrovirus each with 9.2%. All of rotavirus detected belonged to group A. Eight specimens were found positive by two viruses. The introduction of simple and rapid tests for diagnosis of viruses causing gastroenteritis in our pediatric hospitals will improve patient care by reducing unnecessary treatments and hospital stay for patients. (author)

2007-01-01

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Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation.

2004-01-01

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Measurement of radon concentrations in soil and the extent of their impact on the environment from Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil gas radon 222Rn concentration was measured at 12 location in the Al-Qassim area, using radon gas analyzer-type Alpha GUARD 2000 PRQ from Genitron Instruments (Germany). In each location four different depths were taken for soil gas measurements, staring from the ground sur- face. The results suggested that the largest con- centration was 340 ± 22 Bq/m3 for 60cm depth at in Al-Tarfia point sample P3, and the smallest concentration was 26 ± 5 Bq/m3 for surface 0 cm depth at El-Bakria, point sample P5. The results obtained from this study indicate that the region has background radioactivity levels within the natural limits.

Wedad Reif Alharbi; Adel G. E. Abbady

2013-01-01

12

Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The September 11, 2001 attacks fueled criticisms within the United States of alleged Saudi involvement in terrorism or of Saudi laxity in acting against terrorist groups. Of particular concern have been reports that funds may be flowing from Saudi Arabia ...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2004-01-01

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Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature. 

Maher S. Al-Jadid

2013-01-01

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Hypertension in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of...

El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand

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Hypertension in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of the kingdom. There is a need to unify the diagnostic procedures and to determine the factors behind such significant differences.

El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand

1999-01-01

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Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

1999-01-01

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Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

2000-01-01

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Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

Shammas, Pierre [Arab Press Services (APS) Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)

2000-07-01

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Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs.

Al-Qudsi, S. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2006-07-01

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Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Energy analysis of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides an energy outlook for Saudi Arabia's energy resources, their production and consumption, as well as their future projections. Crude oil, natural gas and refined products, and electricity are the main energy resources of the country. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that has the largest crude oil reserves and this is one of the main energy producers. The high growth rates of Saudi Arabia's population and the sectorial energy utilisation are the two main factors affecting its energy consumption dramatically. Moreover, Saudi Arabia is not only one of the main energy producers in the world but is also one of the world's largest energy consumers per capita. (Author)

Dincer, Ibrahim; Al-Rashed, Bandar [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2002-07-01

22

Saudi Arabia: Problems and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market

1993-01-01

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Country Analysis Briefs: Saudi Arabia, January 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia was the worlds largest producer and exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2010, and the worlds second largest crude oil producer behind Russia. Saudi Arabias economy remains heavily dependent on crude oil. Oil export revenues have accounted ...

2011-01-01

24

Human sensitization to Prosopis juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Allergenicity to Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported from only a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. In some parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by the millions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasons during which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role of Prosopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or triggering agent of allergic asthma and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has never been evaluated. Patients and Methods: A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from bronchial asthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf and Gizan), and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university and Ministry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis juliflora allergens. Airborne pollen grains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetric sampling techniques. Results: A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29% in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiple sensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. The level of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m -3 of air. Conclusion: In view of the documented evidence of Prosopis-involved allergenicity, the role of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizing factor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However, the cause of elicitation of symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the question of cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitro confirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopis as one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. PMID:17277534

Al-Frayh, A; Hasnain, S M; Gad-El-Rab, M O; Al-Turki, T; Al-Mobeireek, K; Al-Sedairy, S T

25

Human sensitization to Prosopis juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Allergenicity to Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported from only a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. In some parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by the millions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasons during which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role of Prosopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or triggering agent of allergic asthma and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has never been evaluated. Patients and Methods: A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from bronchial asthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf and Gizan), and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university and Ministry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis juliflora allergens. Airborne pollen grains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetric sampling techniques. Results: A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29% in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiple sensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. The level of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m -3 of air. Conclusion: In view of the documented evidence of Prosopis-involved allergenicity, the role of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizing factor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However, the cause of elicitation of symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the question of cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitro confirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopis as one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia.

Al-Frayh A; Hasnain SM; Gad-El-Rab MO; Al-Turki T; Al-Mobeireek K; Al-Sedairy ST

1999-07-01

26

75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011. Led by a...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...

2010-09-07

27

Family Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was pointed the need of more ecological studies to know the reasons of the change in the flora and to study how much the ecological stress may affect the speciation.

Wafaa K.Taia; Wafaa M. El-Ghanem

2004-01-01

28

Climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degree-day concept has been in use for more than 60 years as a means for utilities and fuel suppliers to predict the energy demand of the average population of buildings in any given location. It has also been used to assist the building design profession in estimating monthly and annual cooling and heating requirements of specific buildings in different locations. This paper presents the climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia, including the monthly average ambient temperature, the values of cooling and heating degree-days for different base temperatures, and the winter and summer outdoor design conditions for 20 cities in Saudi Arabia. These cities are located in five different climatic zones. The data presented in this paper will be useful to the building design profession and to designers and manufacturers of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigerating (HVAC and R) equipment. It will also cover part of the present lack of information in ASHRAE Handbooks concerning degree-days and outdoor design conditions in Saudi Arabia.

Said, S.A.M.; Kadry, H.M.; Ismail, B.I. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-11-01

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78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand,...

2013-08-22

30

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

31

Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease...

Akbar Hisham

32

Saudi Arabia launches new development plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia's Third Five-Year Economic Development Plan (1980 to 1985) will continue to expand imports of American technology and products. Now the seventh largest world market for American exports, Saudi Arabia's purchases grew 20 percent to $5 billion in 1979. A preliminary analysis of priorities under the Third Plan and the opportunities presented for American exporters leads off a special section on Saudi Arabia in this issue of Business America and is followed by an analysis of trends in the Saudi economy, a highly successful Water Resources Equipment and Systems exhibition, and the foundation of Islamic legal tradition as embodied in Shari's.

Sams, T.A.

1980-06-30

33

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

Kheyami Ali; Cunliffe Nigel; Hart C

2006-01-01

34

Saudi Arabia plans future strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK).

1996-01-01

35

Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol  

CERN Multimedia

On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

2008-01-01

36

Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P

2009-01-01

37

Saudi Arabia's oil policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes: how Saudi Arabia has used its oil power in the recent past; the mixture of motives that seem to go into Saudi oil policy; the prospects for Saudi Arabia remaining dominant force in the world oil market in light of changing supply and demand conditions; and internal instability that could change the willingness or ability of Saudi leaders to act as price leaders. Also discussed is how the US can develop policies to ensure the stability of the Middle East region. (DMC)

Quandt, W.B.

1982-01-01

38

Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

1981-01-01

39

Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

40

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. The United States and Saudi Arabia have longstanding econo...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A...

Najla M. Alghanmi; Layla S. Abdullah

42

Fluoride levels in drinking water in the Central Province of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: This study was designed to assess the fluoride levels in drinking water in the Central Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 817 water samples were collected from 260 locations in Central Saudi Arabia. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer [HACH instrument, model DR 3000] was used in the analyses of water samples for fluoride levels. Results: The results showed that fluoride levels vary between 0.00 and 6.20 ppm. About 75% and 6% of the population in Riyadh and Qassim regions, respectively, were exposed to very low fluoride levels (0.00-0.03 ppm), while less than 3% of the population in both regions were exposed to fluoride levels ranging from 0.61 to 0.80 ppm. A higher percentage of the population in Qassim than Riyadh region were exposed to high fluoride levels (>0.81 ppm); 28.63% than in Riyadh with 9.24%. Conclusion: The findings of this study can serve as a baseline data for water fluoridation and other dental preventive programs in the area. PMID:17146216

Aldosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer; Wyne, Amjad H; Al-Meheithif, Abdullah

43

Fluoride levels in drinking water in the Central Province of Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to assess the fluoride levels in drinking water in the Central Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 817 water samples were collected from 260 locations in Central Saudi Arabia. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer [HACH instrument, model DR 3000] was used in the analyses of water samples for fluoride levels. Results: The results showed that fluoride levels vary between 0.00 and 6.20 ppm. About 75% and 6% of the population in Riyadh and Qassim regions, respectively, were exposed to very low fluoride levels (0.00-0.03 ppm), while less than 3% of the population in both regions were exposed to fluoride levels ranging from 0.61 to 0.80 ppm. A higher percentage of the population in Qassim than Riyadh region were exposed to high fluoride levels (>0.81 ppm); 28.63% than in Riyadh with 9.24%. Conclusion: The findings of this study can serve as a baseline data for water fluoridation and other dental preventive programs in the area.

Aldosari Abdullah; Akpata Enosakhare; Khan N; Wyne Amjad; Al-Meheithif A

2003-01-01

44

Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Amaranthus pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and a potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A. viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samplers were operated continuously for one year at each location. Results: The data revealed A. viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. viridis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000/m 3 of air in October and 1827/m 3 of air in September. The data also exhibited a seasonal pattern in their maximum appearance. Conclusion: Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Hasnain Syed; Fatima Khatija; Al-Frayh Abdulrahman

2007-01-01

45

Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

2007-01-01

46

Public health nursing education in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Public health nurses are key personnel in promoting and protecting the health of populations using knowledge from the nursing, social, and public health sciences. In Saudi Arabia, the nursing profession requires the integration of public health education and associated competencies in the nursing curriculum. In this paper, we aim to highlight the importance of public health nursing in overcoming the challenges associated with epidemiological transitions and responding to the health needs of rising populations, describe the development of the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia, and recommend public health teaching and training objectives for nursing education. The future Saudi public health nurse should be competent in addressing the determinants of health and illness that are salient to a culturally distinct group. This newly outlined role for public health nurses will maximize the use of the educated Saudi nursing workforce and will fill the gap in population public health needs in an efficient and effective way.

Jradi H; Zaidan A; Shehri AM

2013-04-01

47

Saudi Arabia; L`arabie Saoudite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.) 9 refs.

Sambart, A

1998-05-01

48

Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of

2010-01-01

49

Saudi Arabia: energy, developmental planning, and industrialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrodollars, having catapulted Saudi Arabia to the forefront of the global economy, now fuel the Kingdon's industrial-development process. The rapid influx of oil-generated funds into this developing country carries its own set of chracteristics and demands. Government officials and Saudi and non-Saudi academicians and industry representatives offer varied views and responses to the economic and international complexities of development. Moving from a general overview to specific economic and political topics, the book emphasizes the importance of carefully developed government growth programs to the creation of a well-balanced and industrially diverse society. Contributors examine the roles of the petroleum sector and technology transfer, trace the interdependence of Saudi Arabia and the industrialized countries, and analyze the roots of indigenous and imported inflation. They also consider Saudi Arabia's new role in international finance and development assistance. A discussion of the special historical and cultural factors that affect the Saudi transition from tribal society to industrialized nation provides a background for understanding the particular human-resource needs and goals of the nation. The book concludes with an analysis of the Third Development Plan as a blueprint of the development objectives and government-spending priorities in manpower, industrialization, and the agricultural and petroleum sectors. 10 figures, 20 tables.

El Mallakh, R.; El Mallakh, D.H. (eds.)

1982-01-01

50

Arab oil industry: Petroline - Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Director General for Financial Affairs for Petroline described the oil pipeline linking the east and west coasts of Saudi Arabia in an interview. Owned by Petromin (General Petroleum and Mineral Organization), Petroline has a design capacity of 1.85 million barrels per day, with the rate varying according to oil demand on the international market and the rate of use of Saudi refineries supplied by the pipeline. Mr. Taher describes the economic advantages of the pipeline, the significance of the Iraqi pipeline through Saudi territory, the distribution of petroleum products to remote areas, and the development of other mineral resources.

1985-02-01

51

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this st...

Al-Otaibi Fawzia; El Hazmi Malak

52

Application of photovoltaic systems in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the issue of the economic competitiveness of PV-powered irrigation when compared with conventional diesel powered pumps in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The cost comparison gives a breakdown cost of a solar photovoltaic module of US$ 2.5 per peak watt. (author).

Said, S.A.M. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-12-01

53

Radioactivity of dates in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of dates from three regions of Saudi Arabia were measured for the radioactivity of both natural and artificial origins. The results were compared with gross ..beta.. and /sup 187/Cs activity of coffee beans produced in different countries. No significant activity in date samples was detected.

Nasser Al-Mohawes; Pao-Shan Weng

1984-06-01

54

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

55

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

56

Establishing a petrochemical industry. [Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of Saudi Arabia's biggest and most extensive development projects will soon be completed. The country's new petrochemical industry combines different elements: Natural resources, technology transfer, and the government's plans for diversified long-term economic development.

1985-06-01

57

Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2013-01-01

58

Examination of absorptive capacity in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the oil price and production increases, in the last decade, a huge transfer of wealth and income began moving from the consuming to the oil-producing countries. Moreover, the industrialized developed countries entered a new era of slower economic growth as compared to the pre-OPEC era. The oil-producing countries rates of economic growth, on the other hand, have skyrocketed, and all their economic indicators are steeply upward and positive. During the past decade, therefore, Saudi Arabia has undergone rapid economic growth and development. This newly acquired and still increasing revenue has permitted the government to embark upon a series of ambitious and expensive five-year development plans to industrialize the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by the year 2000. Because of the limited duration of this development effort and the absence of studies of the process itself as it unfolded in Saudi Arabia, it is not at all clear why this success had been achieved. Therefore, the question to be asked is: How was it possible for Saudi Arabia to have made such rapid progress in the achievement of its development goals. It was determined through this study that the rapid increase in domestic absorptive capacity was due, first of all, to the large increases in oil revenues, which permitted importation and augmentation of cooperant factors. Second, this absorptive capacity also expanded as a result of skillful and insightful planning that was undertaken to eliminate bottlenecks, establish priorities, and maintain a degree of balance.

Bassam, A.A.

1981-01-01

59

Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-10-28

60

Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease in HCV prevalence, probably due to increase awareness and improved socioeconomic status. Genotype 4 is the commonest genotype in Saudi patients infected with HCV which unfortunately is least likely to respond to the standard interferon therapy though recent studies using pegylated interferon demonstrated promising results. Liver transplantation for patients with end stage liver disease was started in 1994 but the cases currently done are still less than that required

Akbar Hisham

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Paleocene Vertebrates from Jabal Umm Himar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: The Umm Himar Formation (Paleocene) of Saudi Arabia and Associated Strata: Stratigraphy, Vertebrate Fauna, and Paleoenvironment; A Paleocene Percoid Fish, Tentatively Referred to the Family Serranidae, from Jabal Umm Himar, Kingdom of Saudi Arab...

F. C. Whitmore C. T. Madden

1995-01-01

62

The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: > How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? > How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? > What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? > What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

Alyousef, Yousef, E-mail: alyousef@kacst.edu.sa [King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Stevens, Paul, E-mail: p.j.stevens@dundee.ac.uk [Chatham House, 10 St James' s Square, London Sw1Y4LE (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15

63

The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: ? How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? ? How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? ? What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? ? What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

2011-01-01

64

Saudi Arabia. Energy situation 1994; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country`s national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country`s external trade and balance of payments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel bzw. zur Zahlungsbilanz angegeben. (orig.)

NONE

1995-11-01

65

Waters and desalination programs of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is an arid desert country without rivers or sweet-water lakes. It does, however, have large amounts of ground water and seawater. These waters must be desalted by some means in order to make them potable. The most frequently used methods for that purpose are: multistage flash (MSF) evaporation, reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). Because of rapid industrialization of the country, the demand for fresh water has been growing steadily. This, in turn, has resulted in a spectacular growth of the water-desalination industry. This paper discusses the availability and properties of the waters. It gives a detailed description of the major accomplishments and of the ongoing and future programs in the field of water desalination in Saudi Arabia. 14 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

Wojcik, C.K.; Maadhah, A.G.

1981-07-01

66

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 248 (57.5%) extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA) (86.3%) and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA) 59 (13.7%). The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years). The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9%) compared to SA patients (55.1%). Females had higher proportion (59.5%) of EPTB than males (55.6%). The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%). In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB) control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

Al-Otaibi Fawzia; El Hazmi Malak

2010-01-01

67

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

68

The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

1998-04-01

69

The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

Elani, U.A.; Bagazi, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1998-05-01

70

TEACHING ENGLISH IN SAUDI ARABIA: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will reflect three major issues related to the teaching of English in Saudi Arabia. Firstly, it will discuss the present status of education and ELT in Saudi Arabia, secondly, it will state various challenges of teaching English, and finally, it will attempt some remedies that can be recommended to tackle those challenges.

Mohd. Mahib ur Rahman; Eid Alhaisoni

2013-01-01

71

Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Some Localities in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out prevalence and types of avian influenza virus (AIV) among broilers, native chickens, ducks and pigeons in Saudi Arabia. Field investigation was carried out in four localities including Al-Qassim, Hail, Al-Jouf and Northern Border regions. Serum sample, tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from broilers (n=1561), layers (n=988), ducks (n=329) and pigeons (n=450) from these localities and tested for three different avian influenza viruses (H9, H5 and H3) using Enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) test, hamagglutination inhibition (HI test) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All tested samples were negative for H5 and H3 viruses. In contrast, all positive results were found to be for H9 AI virus using PCR, ELISA and HI test. Chicken sera tested by ELISA for AIV revealed the highest positive samples in Northern Border regions (45.71%), followed by Al-Jouf (29.65%), Al-Qassim (23.98%) and Hial (20.94%) with non-significant difference (?2=5.983; P=0.112). HI test carried out on duck sera revealed 35.90% prevalence of antibodies against AIV. PCR amplification resulted in 34.28 and 21.36% positive samples in ducks and chickens, respectively. The highest (45.71%) PCR positive chicken samples were from Northern Border regions, followed by Al-Jouf (24.13%), Al-Qassim (19.30%) and Hail (16.69%) with significant difference (?2=7.620; P=0.055). All tested pigeons samples were negative for the three virus serotypes included in the study.

Abdullah N. Alkhalaf

2010-01-01

72

Oil conservation and economic development in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation is to discuss and recommend an appropriate oil-conservation policy for Saudi Arabia in the light of past, present, and future economic development plans. The basic concept is the fact that oil is a depletable resource representing over 95% of Saudi national income. Two exogenous constraints face the government in its efforts to develop an efficient conservation policy. The first is the membership of Saudi Arabia in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The second is the world energy market. These two constraints hinder the ability of Saudi Arabia to use an appropriate social rate of discount to allocate oil revenues efficiently. Using social rate of discount implies that Saudi oil reserves would be allocated over time according to a rate that reflects the Saudi society's time preference. A high discount rate means that oil production would be pushed from the future to the present, whereas a low discount rate means that Saudi Arabia prefers producing oil in the future rather than in the present. A strategy based on social rates of return on domestic and foreign investment seems to be appropriate for Saudi Arabia. But the existence of the exogenous constraints and also events of 1983 and 1984 in the domestic economy and world energy market impose restrictions on using discount rate. It is appropriate for Saudi Arabia in the meantime to deal with the deteriorating situation in the world energy market.

Shams, M.M.

1984-01-01

73

Evaluation of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between 2010 and 2011. METHODS: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia) as a keyword. The search was limited to studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December 2011. The year 2012 was not included to give at least one year for citation. The total number of studies during the stated period was compared with those published from other countries in the same period, and adjusted per population size. Impact factor and number of citations were used to assess the quality of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 1905 published articles/studies were from KSA in the said period. Australia had the maximum number of studies (100%) published per million population (1258.571+). The KSA had 72.71 articles per million population, and was ranked 16th among the other countries. Most of the articles (65.3%) were published from Riyadh followed by Jeddah (13.3%), and most of them were from the fields of Community Medicine (15.5%), Pathology (13.7%), Medicine (13.2%), and Surgery (13.1%). King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh had the highest impact factor with a mean of 2.74 +/- 3.45. CONCLUSION: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is lagging behind in biomedical research. While King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre appears to be doing better than other institutions in biomedical research, there is an urgent need for greater investment in biomedical research in the kingdom.

Al-Bishri J

2013-09-01

74

Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.).

1996-01-01

75

Fresh Water Fungi of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted to screen the fresh water fungi from different areas of Saudi Arabia viz. Al-Ahsa, Al-Direyah, Al-Haer, Al-Kharj, Al-Qasim and Wadi Laban. Twenty six species were recorded from as an aquatic fungi and thirty two species as an aero-aquatic fungi from fresh water, while twenty-six species were isolated as an aero-aquatic fungi from under water soil of these regions. Percent relative frequency of each fungus was also calculated.

Ibrahim A. Arif

1999-01-01

76

Statistical characteristics of wind in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The statistical characteristics of wind at 10 locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are studied. The autocorrelation coefficients are computed and correlograms are found compatible with the real diurnal variation of mean wind speed for almost all the locations. The stochastic time series analysis is found to be suitable for the description of autoregressive models involving time lags of 1 and 24 h. The forecast wind values obtained from these autoregressive models are compared with the observed wind data for almost all the locations and are found to be in very good agreement. (author)

Rehman, Shafiqur; Halawani, T.O. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Development and Manufacturing Centre)

1994-01-01

77

Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

1985-06-01

78

Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)[de] X/Die Argumente fuer und gegen die friedliche Nutzung der Kernenergie in Saudi-Arabien werden unter Beruecksichtigung der industriellen Entwicklung des Landes und seines Energiebedarfs fuer die Stromerzeugung und die Meerwasserentsalzung diskutiert. Die Schlussfolgerung lautet, dass Saudi-Arabien aufgrund seiner grossen Oelvorkommen zulassen koennte, dass das Land bis zum Jahre 2000 in wohlueberlegter Weise den Weg in Richtung Kernenergie einschlaegt. Nach diesem Zeitpunkt sollte die Kernenergie eingesetzt werden, um das Land zu der gewuenschten industriellen Reife zu bringen. Der Einfuehrung der Kernenergie stehen jedoch drei Einschraenkungen gegenueber, naemlich Verfuegbarkeit von Arbeitskraeften, Bedarf an Kuehlwasser und Umfang des Stromnetzes. Aus diesem Grund ist der Zeitraum von 1980-2000 fuer wichtige vorbereitende Schritte sehr geeignet. Dazu gehoeren der Erlass von Durchfuehrungsbestimmungen, die Errichtung von kerntechnischen Forschungsanlagen und deren notwendige apparative Ausruestung, die Ausbildung der Mitarbeiter zur Ausarbeitung von Sicherheitsvorschriften, sowie fuer organisatorische und technische Aufgaben. Der Beitrag gibt ein Schema fuer die einleitenden Schritte und Bemuehungen, die erforderlich sind, um die genannten Anforderungen zu erfuellen. (orig.)

1980-01-01

79

Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).

2010-01-01

80

Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

2007-01-01

82

EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

Al-Hazmi, Sultan

2003-01-01

83

Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphologic...

Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

84

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for solar-hydrogen energy system for Saudi Arabia has been developed by obtaining relationships for and between main energy and energy-related parameters. The parameters' magnitude and trends with and without hydrogen introduction have been investigated over a period of time. The results indicate that the oil resources of Saudi Arabia would not be enough to meet the domestic and export markets starting in three to four decades. The results also show that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would extend the availability of oil resources, reduce pollution, and establish a permanent energy system for Saudi Arabia. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia could become an exporter of hydrogen forever. (Author)

Almogren, Sulaiman; Veziroglu, T.N.T. Nejat [Miami Univ., Coll. of Engineering, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

2004-09-01

85

Introducing SMART Table Technology in Saudi Arabia Education System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education remains one of the most important economic development indicators in Saudi Arabia. This is evident in the continuous priority of the development and enhancement of education. The application of technology is crucial to the growth and improvement of the educational system in Saudi Arabia. Introducing SMART Table technology in the Saudi Arabian education system is argued in this paper as being able to assist teachers and students in the process of accommodating both technological changes and new knowledge. SMART Tables also can enhance the level of flexibility in the educational system, thus improving the quality of education within a modern Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to integrate technology effectively and efficiently within the educational system to improve the quality of student outcomes. This study will consider the potential benefits and recommendations associated with the adoption of SMART Tables in Saudi Arabian education system.

Gafar Almalki; Professor Glenn Finger; Dr Jason Zagami

2013-01-01

86

Saudi Arabia, OPEC, and the price of crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In his recent The Myth of the OPEC Cartel (Wiley, New York) Ali D. Johany argues forcefully that OPEC is not a cartel, and that higher oil prices derive from changes in property rights. This paper examines the incentives facing Saudi Arabia, as compared to those facing OPEC as a whole, to restrict production. The author concludes that, acting in its own self-interest, Saudi Arabia would adopt a posture of pricing moderation. 2 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Mixon, J.W. Jr.

1982-06-01

87

Solar hydrogen in Saudi Arabia: A long-term outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen in Saudi Arabia as an alternative to fossil fuels. The hydrogen would be produced as a method of storage and transmission of solar energy. The topics examined include the case for Saudi Arabia, technical and economical considerations, a long-term outlook. Hydrogen production is considered due to low NO{sub x} emissions and the ease of adapting existing energy utilization technologies to use hydrogen.

Al-Garni, M. (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1991-08-01

88

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species.

Williams JB; Shobrak M; Wilms TM; Arif IA; Khan HA

2012-04-01

89

Solar energy in Saudi Arabia: the Soleras Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to conserve its oil resources is one of the main reasons behind the development of solar energy in Saudi Arabia, which is a country well suited for the use of solar energy. Particular projects for developing solar energy in Saudia Arabia are discussed.

Fendley, J.J.

1982-07-01

90

Producers and oil markets; The example of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

Greaves, W.

1993-08-01

91

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, wit...

Abdulrahman M Aljebreen; Majid A Almadi; Alwaleed Alhammad; Faleh Z Al Faleh

92

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 193...

A. B. Prados

2003-01-01

93

Toxoplasmosis in Goats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1) along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2) were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the control goats (herd 2). About >80% of the former goats had ELISA percent optical densities (O.D.%) ?100 while >86% of the control goats were weakly positive with ELISA O.D.’s (%) T. gondii as the cause of abortion in herd 1.

S.I. Al-Mufarrej; M.F. Hussein; R.S. Aljumaah; A.R. Gar ElNabi

2011-01-01

94

Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 5.97, and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common cause was scalding (81.7%). Approximately 92.8% of patients had burn injuries involving 25% of the total body surface area, or less. The mean hospital stay was 9.51 days. Approximately 92% of patients were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Toddlers are at high risk of having scald burns. We also noted the number of admissions is increasing every year. Therefore, an effective scientific-based prevention program is required. 

Abdulatif A. Gari; Yahya A. Al-Ghamdi; Hamed S. Qutbuddeen; Munzir M. Alandonisi; Faisal A. Mandili; Alaa Sultan

2012-01-01

95

Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although crypto-sporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal diseases in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 pub--lished studies of Cryptosporidium and the etiology of diarrhea between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in humans ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was different for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age, and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the stud--ies, but it was generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C. hominis was detected in only one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in humans and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries.

Areeshi Mohammed; Beeching Nicholas; Hart C

2007-01-01

96

Mortality among tuberculosis patients in Saudi Arabia (2001-2010).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) still contributes to deaths in Saudi Arabia, among both Saudis and non-Saudis. Exploring the trend of deaths caused by TB and determinants associated with high fatality rate among TB patients is considered as a part of monitoring and evaluation of the performance of National Tuberculosis Control Program to help planners improve policies and procedures used to achieve the targets of TB control. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: The current study is a retrospective one, which used the official notifications of NTP in Saudi Arabia over a period of 10 years (2001-2010). METHODS: A 10-year retrospective study included all TB cases registered in Saudi Arabia with known outcome of survival or death while under anti-TB therapy covering the period January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. RESULTS: Mortality among TB patients show a declining trend among Saudis starting from the year 2003 (7.2%6.1%) and a stagnant trend among non-Saudis. Saudi nationality was associated with higher fatality rate compared to non-Saudis (6.4% and 5.4%, respectively). Mortality was positively correlated with advancing age, male sex among Saudis (7.3% compared to 5.3% among females), and female sex among non-Saudis (6% compared to 5% among males), prior history of anti-TB therapy, smear positivity, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend WHO to modify the definition of death among TB patients. We recommend NTP in Saudi Arabia to adopt and implement International Classification of Diseases (ICD10) for TB patients' registration, improve health care services provided for elderly, monitor and strengthen NTP performance to decrease defaulter and early detect and treat patients, initiate a collaborative TB/HIV activities, and screen all suspected TB patients for HIV. In addition to these, more extended research has to be initiated concerning delayed diagnosis and comorbidities with TB.

Abouzeid MS; Al RF; Memish ZA

2013-05-01

97

78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...2013. The mission will focus on the cyber security, critical infrastructure...

2013-01-31

98

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Science.gov (United States)

...From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping...from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country...

2013-07-10

99

78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-09-13

100

78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of this...

2013-04-19

 
 
 
 
101

76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts Ahmed Khayyat, Phone:...

2011-02-09

102

75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts: Mr. Habeeb Saeed, U.S. Commercial...

2010-09-16

103

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

104

Congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients from western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To characterize congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and compare with studies from other regions of Saudi Arabia and with international figures. Methods: We conducted a prospecti...

Jumana Y. Al-Aama; Nabeel S. Bondagji; Ashraf A. El-Harouni

105

Mucolipidosis II: first report from Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mucolipidosis II (MLII) is characterized by severe global developmental delay, coarse facial features, skeletal deformities, and other systemic involvement. It is caused by a deficiency in N-acetylglucosamine-1 phosphotransferase. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a case series study conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2008-2012. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We described three unrelated Saudi children who presented with neonatal hyperparathyroidism, microcephaly, craniosynostosis, coarse facial features, cardiac involvement, and skeletal deformities. RESULTS: The MLII diagnosis was confirmed by assaying enzyme activities in fibroblasts, which showed a severe reduction in hydrolyzed substrates compared to controls, and by identifying a pathogenic homozygous GNPTAB gene mutation. One of the children died at 2 months of age due to severe pulmonary hypertension, and the other two children were still alive at 12 months and 18 months of age, respectively. Both surviving children had severe global developmental delay at 2 months of age. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should investigate any child presenting with neonatal hyperparathyroidism, craniosynostosis, skeletal deformities, and coarse facial features for MLII.

Alfadhel M; Alshehhi W; Alshaalan H; Balwi MA; Eyaida W

2013-07-01

106

Photovoltaic concentrator power station for a village in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Saudi Arabian National Center for Science and Technology has initiated a project under the Saudi Arabia-United States Program for Cooperation in the Field of Solar Energy (SOLERAS) to build and test an experimental photovoltaic power station capable of delivering 350-KW peak dc power in an agricultural village in Saudi Arabia. The proposed system is based on Martin Marietta Fresnel lens concentrator silicon cell arrays, coupled with 1100-KW-h lead acid cells storage and the necessary power conditioning and controls. 2 refs.

Nazer, M.O.

1981-01-01

107

Black (samsum) ant induced anaphylaxis in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ant allergy is a rare clinical problem that ranges from local to systemic reaction and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Different types of ants including the imported fire ants, the black (samsum) ants, and others, are considered health hazard in many parts of the world. We report a 32-year-old Saudi female from Hafr-Al-Batin in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia, with history of recurrent anaphylaxis following black (samsum) ant stings and we review the related literature. This is the first report of black (samsum) ant allergy in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Shahwan M; Al-Khenaizan S; Al-Khalifa M

2006-11-01

108

Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%), trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%), gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%), syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%), human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%), genital warts (1382, 3.5%), genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%), and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%). The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

Madani Tariq A

2006-01-01

109

Solar energy in Saudi Arabia: The soleras project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the next 20 years, Saudi Arabia plans to make significant progress towards industrialisation. If solar energy is to make a major contribution, the suitability of current solar technology to the environmental, technical and social conditions in Saudi Arabia must be assessed. Soleras has therefore concentrated initially on engineering R and D. Standards of efficiency, reliability and cost will be established enabling the Government to make realistic planning decisions. In the longer term, it is planned that the second generation solar technology will evolve out of a national solar science programme. Soleras will create solar research groups at the highest levels in the universities using ''leading edge'' scientific technology. This will encourage the best Saudi scientists to remain in Saudi Arabia, thereby establishing continuity, and discouraging the reverse brain-drain that has handicapped development in many third-world countries. The experience gained from the Soleras project leaves Saudi Arabia ideally suited to co-ordinate and stimulate a pan-Arabian solar energy programme. The common language and culture, and similar climatic conditions, justify close collaboration between the Arab countries. A recent report by the Economist Intelligence Unit estimates that the current S15 million annual solar budget of Saudi Arabia constitutes over 60% of the total expenditure of all the Arab countries.

Fendley, J.J.; Bakr, R.

1982-10-01

110

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud; Muhammad Rahatullah Khan

2013-01-01

111

OPEN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PRESENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the scope, development, and future of Institutional Repositories (IR) in Saudi Arabia. This paper is based on the authors’ working experience at King Saud University Dspace repository project. To ensure the number of repository projects in Saudi Arabia the directory of open access repositories, (Open DOAR), Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), and the websites of the existing universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been browsed. There is a general lack of awareness with regard to Open Institutional Repositories in Saudi Universities and higher education institutions. Only four Universities i.e. King Saud University (KSU), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Umm Al-Qura University, and University of Dammam have taken some initiatives in this regard. Though these universities have made commendable efforts there still lots of improvements and developments required with regard to Institutional Repositories. It is expected that this paper will encourage Saudi Academic organizations to take the initiatives in the development of open institutional repositories. No such study (Research type, Essay, View point) has been conducted so far in the context of Saudi Arabia.

Parvez Ahmad; Mohammad Aqil; Mohammad Asad Siddique

2012-01-01

112

Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified random sampling. ...

Saeed, A. A.; Khoja, T. A.; Khan, S. B.

113

Analysis of sectoral energy and exergy use of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the analysis of sectoral energy and exergy utilization of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for the subsectors and the devices used in each sector. Energy and exergy flow diagrams for Saudi Arabia are also presented, respectively, to illustrate the situation on how energy and exergy efficiencies vary in each sector. The residential sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector, and the industrial sector to be the most exergy efficient. It is believed that the current methodology is useful for analysing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, which will help Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in various sectors and processes for a sustainable energy planning. (author)

Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2004-07-01

114

Wind energy applications in remote areas of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of wind power generation near the remote areas of Saudi Arabia is investigated. Meteorological data from twenty weather stations for a period of ten years are analyzed to obtain wind pattern characteristics. The annual average wind velocity distribution, and frequency of occurrence are significant in assessing the wind power potential of a site, especially as the power in the wind is related to the cube of the wind velocity. The analysis of the data revealed that the potential of wind power is promising. The possible sites for capturing the wind energy are the northern and coastal sites of Saudi Arabia. Small desalination units, irrigation pumps and electrical power generators could therefore be powered by wind energy in remote areas of Saudi Arabia. (author)

Radhwan, A.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering)

1994-07-01

115

Solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with abundant solar energy which is renewable, clean and available freely. It is harnessed through known processes and technologies, but progress towards its commercialization is very slow for several reasons, such as higher cost and low efficiency. This paper reviews our R+D efforts, and concludes that future utilization of solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is dependent on current R+D activities in the field, combined with a proper educational campaign for its effective commercialization. (author) 5 figs., 6 tabs., 37 refs.

Al-Athel, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1997-06-01

116

Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described.

1987-01-01

117

Administration, economy and society of Saudi Arabia. Sauji arabia no seiji keizai shakai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze petroleum policies of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to understand its administration, economy and society by and large. Therefore, general analysis of Saudi Arabia was conducted. Saudi Arabia is carrying out various policies to materialize the most preferential target, the stability of the nation and the society; that is, the stable structure of the Saud Family rule. Its petroleum policy is aimed at securing income to materialize other policies, and at strengthening foreign influences. Importance of other policies, however, are ever floating and sometimes they are even contradictory. Effects of the policies are not always clear, either. Moreover, as Saudi Arabia is not a sole supplier of crude oil, its policies are influenced by the world supply-demand relation of petroleum and the balance of powers in OPEC. It is, therefore, impossible to judge and predict the petroleum policy of Saudi Arabia by a simple policy making model. It is necessary to follow at all times the ever-changing internal and external conditions. 9 figs., 42 tabs.

1989-03-20

118

Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend along the studied period. Results: Data analysis showed an escalating trend for the total number of claims over the study period being started with 440 cases on 1420H and ended with 1356 cases by the year 1429H. The annual percentage of the final verdicts of accusation to the total number of claims presented to all committees ranges between 45.5%?60.2% with a mean value of 49.9%. Distribution of final verdicts among different clinical specialities showed that obstetrics takes the lead with a mean percentage of 25.5% along the studied period (1420H-1429H), followed by the practice of general surgery with a mean percentage of 13.8%. The sector of health care service showed a significant variation in relation to the mean number of final verdicts with accusation along the studied period, being the highest in the Ministry of Health sector with a mean number of 216.8 claims, followed by the private sector with a mean number of 197.3 claims. Conclusion: Adherence to the standards of medical practice is by far to the best approach to avoid and reduce the incidence of litigation.

Al-Saeed Abdulhamid

2010-01-01

119

Developing sustainable residential buildings in Saudi Arabia: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper assesses the energy and water consumption practices of existing housing in Saudi Arabia, with the ultimate aim of establishing guidelines for delivering sustainable residential buildings in the near future. In order to achieve this aim the current status of a typical Saudi residence (i.e. an apartment complex) is investigated in terms of energy and water consumption using simulation software packages. The paper then examines the prospects for applying various measures to the typical Saudi residence to manage energy and water use more sustainably. This research identifies several design-related faults common to Saudi Arabian house design. These faults contribute to an inefficient use of energy and domestic water resources. Finally, the paper puts forward a set of recommendations and guidelines, design-related and otherwise, to enhance the sustainability of future Saudi residential buildings. (author)

Taleb, Hanan M.; Sharples, Steve [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

120

Groundwater Quality Assessment in Wadi Tharad Area Southern Saudi Arabia ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrochemical study is carried out on Wadi Tharad area in south of Saudi Arabia, where 42 wells were chosen for collection of water samples. The electrical conductivity and pH of the collected samples are measured in the field. The water samples are chemically analyzed and the major cations and anio...

MASOUD AL-AHMADI; NASR ALJAHDALI

 
 
 
 
121

Applications of thermal energy storage in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Saudi Arabia, the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system typically accounts for 65% of the total electrical energy consumption in buildings. This is due to a very high ambient temperature which persists for a long period of time in a summer season. Moreover, gas turbines efficiency decrease also with the high ambient temperatures. In the HVAC industry cool storage, or commonly known as Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is the most preferred demand side management (DSM) technology for shifting cooling electrical demand from peak daytime periods to off-peak night-time. The most popular and well-suited TES concept for Saudi Arabia is either chilled water or ice storage system, depending upon the applications and the required storage capacity. This paper shows how TES offers a means of reducing the electrical demand in large commercial buildings. Additionally, it is seen that efficiencies of the air cooled chillers are increased if they run overnight. Similarly efficiencies of gas turbine is also increased when a TES based pre-cooled air is used as an inlet to the turbine. This paper also discusses favouring conditions and other aspects of cool storage applications in Saudi Arabia. TES economics are considered and cost analysis is presented to illustrate the potential savings that can be achieved by the use of TES in Saudi Arabia. (Author)

Hasnain, Syed Mahmood; Alawaji, Saleh Hussain; Al-Ibrahim, Abdulrahman; Smiai, Mohmmed Saleh [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Energy Research Inst. (ERI), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1999-07-01

122

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

123

Electricity development in Saudi Arabia (1970-1994)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the electric power generation system of Saudi Arabia has been quite impressive over the last twenty years. This report emphasizes the major accomplishments of this development while stressing the current situation of electricity generation and consumption in the country. The organization for electricity planning at the national level is also described in the paper. (author). 1 ref., 4 tabs.

1996-01-01

124

Central Medical Library In Saudi Arabia : Establishment and Prospective Develpment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case study about the steps taken for the establishment of the Central Medical Library at the Ministry of Health in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it include historical background, location of the library, staff, collections, automation system, and gives some recommendations about the project.

Mohammed A. Marghalani

2005-01-01

125

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2011-10-11

126

Edaphic properties and soil cyanobacteria of South Western Saudi Arabia. ???? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three sites at each of five localities, in the South Western Region of Saudi Arabia were surveyed during 1992, for their soil physico-chemical properties, and cyanobacterial communities. The soils were moderately calcareous, and characterized as sandy loam textured and alkaline. Electrical conductiv...

Arif, I. A. [??????? ??? ?????? ????

127

Neural tube defects in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) among admissions at a regional referral hospital in Saudi Arabia, compare trends over several years and note any influence of prenatal folic acid treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For every NTD admission into...

Asindi A; Al-Shehri A

128

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients ...

Souqiyyeh Muhammad; Al-Attar Muhammad Besher; Zakaria Haroun; Shaheen Faissal

129

Wagner's Law in Saudi Arabia 1970 - 2012: An Econometric Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our goal in this paper is to explorethe validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012) for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP.Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previousstudies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth.We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine how far Wagner’s Law validity can be applied in Saudi economy. The results obtained from the analyses find that the Wagnerian proposition can explain the growth of government in Saudi Arabia, which holds for both the oil and non-oil income cases. The findings also note that the existence of strong causality for all of Wagner’s law versions in the long run.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-01-01

130

Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. METHOD: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009-2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. RESULTS: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. CONCLUSION: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience.

Qureshi NA; Al-Habeeb AA; Koenig HG

2013-01-01

131

Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience.

Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G

2013-01-01

132

HIV/AIDS epidemic features and trends in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND : More than 60 million persons have been infected since AIDS was described in 1981. By the end of 2003, an estimated 40 million individuals were living with HIV globally. The surveillance of HIV/AIDS still faces challenges in Saudi Arabia. This study describes the pattern and characteristics of HIV/AIDS cases in Saudi Arabia. METHODS : This descriptive analytic study describes the reported HIV/AIDS data for all notifiable cases during the period 1984 to 2003 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Case definitions based on ELISA and Western Blot tests were used. Age, sex and regional distribution were studied in addition to survival rates. RESULTS : As of 2003, 1743 Saudi nationals and 6064 non-Saudi HIV cases were reported. Among Saudis, 872 were AIDS cases. Males accounted for 1329 HIV infections, comprising 77%, with a male-to-female ratio of about 3:1. Adults 15-49 years constituted 78% of cases, including 46% of cases infected through sexual activity, while 33% of reported HIV seropositive cases had already died. Most cases (67%) were registered in Jeddah, Riyadh and Dammam. Infection through blood transfusion declined with no reported cases since 2001. CONCLUSION : The number of reported HIV infections in KSA has increased in the last few years. Using the coverage rate estimating method, the number of Saudi HIV infections since the emergence of the epidemic was estimated to be 2640 cases as of the beginning of the year 2004. The estimated number of HIV infections is almost one and one-half times the reported number, indicating that a problem of underreporting of HIV/AIDS cases still exists.

Al-Mazrou Yagob; Al-Jeffri Mohamed; Fidail Abdulla; Al-Huzaim Nasir; El-Gizouli Sirrag

2005-01-01

133

Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)

2005-01-01

134

Social responsibility of the multinational corporations operating in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation explores the social responsibility of MNCs operating in Saudi Arabia (SA) and their social impact on Saudi society through survey research using both primary and secondary data. To furnish the reader with a better understanding of this subject, to develop the hypothesis to be tested, and to define NMCs and social responsibility, this author reviewed literature related to MNCs and social responsibility with specific reference to developing countries, particularly SA; described briefly the Saudi environment in which MNCs operate; and determined the number and type of MNCs and their activities in SA as reported in Saudi government records. The author examined the social responsibility of MNCs toward Saudi society by comparing the perception of MNCs' non-Saudi managers with Saudis (managers, government officials, and elite) regarding some specific issues (e.g., MNCs' concerns for profit versus public good); regarding some suggested programs (e.g., training); and through looking at the actual programs undertaken by MNCs (e.g., medical care). The study helped to understand better the nature of MNCs. It indicated that MNCs seem to be attracted to SA, that their number is greater than government records indicate, and that a large number of MNCs have Saudi nationality.

Kurashi, M.F.Y.

1984-01-01

135

Saudi-Arabia. Energy situation 2003; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A short survey of the energy situation in Saudi Arabia is given with the aid of some interesting figures. Following remarks on the national and international energy policy, the developments regarding individual energy sources and electricity production are described. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein ausfuehrlicher Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation in Saudi-Arabien gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben.

NONE

2004-07-01

136

Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P

2001-01-01

137

The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR), and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2%) of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2) had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology

Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA

2013-01-01

138

Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. FINDINGS: We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported) found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. CONCLUSIONS: Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

Imtiaz F; Al-Sayed M; Trabzuni D; Al-Mubarak BR; Alsmadi O; Rashed MS; Meyer BF

2010-01-01

139

Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported) found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

Imtiaz Faiqa; Al-Sayed Moeen; Trabzuni Danyah; Al-Mubarak Bashair R; Alsmadi Osama; Rashed Mohamed S; Meyer Brian F

2010-01-01

140

Impact of unleaded gasoline in reducing emissions in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country concerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diesel as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasoline. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are many, and lead exposure can cause kidney failure, brain dysfunction, behavioral problems, and neurological impairment. Saudi Arabia is moving towards using unleaded gasoline, and efforts are being put forward by research organizations to produce lead-free gasoline in the Kingdom. A high severity fluid catalytic cracking process is being developed for converting vacuum gas oil into high-octane gasoline components. This process requires high temperature and pressure and low contact time as compared to the conventional FCC process. (author)

Hamid, S.H.

2001-01-15

 
 
 
 
141

Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences position, flower opening, shape of the upper 2 teeth of calyx, shape of sepals apex, shape of wings, length of hairs on ovary, direction of staminal tube tip, leaflets shape and surface and stem habit form and life spin. A key for the identification of the investigated species based on these morphological features is provided.

Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

2013-01-01

142

Saudi Arabia is committed to free trade in petrochemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia sees protectionism in the petrochemical industry as self-defeating and against the interests of the world economy. Taking a world view based on the forces of a free market, the Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources argues that a free market, at best, is burdened with second-best solutions unless it is a universal free market. The burden is greatest on developing countries. Saudi Arabia's industrialization program is aimed at developing independence from oil exports by enhancing the value-added of hydrocarbon and mineral resources through manufacturing activities. An internal free market based on competition and privatization is forming a stronger economic base than government nurturing of infant industries.

Nazer, H.M.

1987-05-01

143

Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

1990-01-01

144

The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and English classes in particular. It is believed that if the teacher of English has undergone a pre-service teacher training it is better for the learners of Saudi Arabia. In the other case, those who have not attended pre-service teacher training, they should go for in-service professional development programs in order to equip them further for innovative teaching and educational output.

Intakhab Alam Khan

2011-01-01

145

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1996-09-01

146

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author).

1996-01-01

147

Saudi Arabia may be about to revive stalled gas programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia may be about to try again to revive its neglected natural gas industry. For some years, the kingdom has been trying to develop its enormous reserves of natural gas, but has been unable to decide what sort of role-if any-foreign companies should have, or whether upstream gas developments should be linked to downstream projects such as power generation. (author)

Anon

2006-06-15

148

An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

2013-01-01

149

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strateges are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia); Husseiny, A.A.; Kenarangui, R.

1981-01-01

150

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia - A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strategies are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A.I. (King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia); Husseiny, A.A. (Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, IA)

1981-01-01

151

Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis.

Salem G; Holm SA; Fattah R; Basset S; Nasser C

1987-06-01

152

Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.

Roula Baki

2004-01-01

153

The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN) accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6%) were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (21.3%) and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) (20.7%) were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0%) and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

Huraib S; Al Khader A; Shaheen F.A.M; Abu Aisha H; Souqiyyeh M; Al Mohana F; Soliman M; Al Wakeel J; Mitwalli A; Al Mohaya S; Said R; Abdulhaleem; Al Menawy L; Sohaibani M; Chan N

2000-01-01

154

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

2010-07-07

155

Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility.

Gallagher EB; Searle CM

1985-01-01

156

Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility. PMID:4035414

Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

1985-01-01

157

Salmonella infections in Asir region, southern Saudi Arabia: Expatriated implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One hundred forty-two cases of salmonella infection seen in Asir region, Southern Saudi Arabia, during the period of 1989-1991 inclusive, were analyzed. Ninety-four cases were found to have enteric fever and 48 cases were found to have, Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis. Enteric fever is more common in non-Saudis (64%) than in the indigenous Saudi population (34%). Salmonella enteriditis gastroenteritis is more common among the Saudi population (75%) than non-Saudis (25%). The clinical presentation of both types of salmonella infection is outlined. Enteric fever is more common among expatriates who recently came from India (40.5%), Egypt (10.6%), Pakistan (6.4%), and Syria (4.3%). Salmonella typhi resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol are more common among Indian patients (75% of resistant cases) and Syrian patients (12.5-28% of resistant cases). Resistance to cotrimoxazole is commonly encountered in Indians (50% of resistant cases) and Egyptians (33.3%). Salmonella enteriditis resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol is more common among Saudis (66.7% of resistant cases) and Filipinos (16.7-33.3% of resistant cases). Recommendations regarding screening of expatriates for enteric fever and proper drug therapy of possible resistant cases are outlined.

Malik GM; Al-Wabel AA; El Bagir Khalafalla Ahmed MM; Bilal NE; Shenoy A; Abdalla M; Mekki TE

1993-05-01

158

Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued) in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.

Emad Omar Elhendawy

2012-01-01

159

Radon Awareness among Saudi People in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people in Riyadh. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among 2297 persons of various educational background. It was found that about 82% of the Saudi public in Riyadh were ignorant of radon and its associated health risks. It was also found that only ~18% of educated public knew about radon. It was concluded that Saudi public needs to be educated in this respect properly.

Abdulaziz S. Alaamer

2012-01-01

160

Prospects of cool thermal storage utilization in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) industry, Cool Thermal Storage (CTS), commonly known as Thermal Energy Storage (TES), is the most preferred demand side management (DSM) technology for shifting cooling electrical demand from peak daytime periods to off peak night time periods. This paper shows how CTS offers a means of reducing the peak electrical demand in large Saudi office buildings. The effect of CTS based pre-cooled air as inlet to the turbine on enhancement of its efficiency is also discussed. CTS economics is considered, and a cost analysis is presented to illustrate the savings that can be achieved by the use of CTS in Saudi Arabia, especially for peak electric load levelling purposes during the summer period. It has been found that incorporation of a partial ice storage system in Saudi office buildings will reduce the peak time electrical power demand and the peak time cooling load in the range of 10-20% and 30-40%, respectively. Similarly, it is also estimated that in Saudi Arabia, the use of ice storage systems with gas turbines for inlet air cooling will increase the turbine's output by 30% and reduce its heat rate by 10% at a mere fraction of the cost of installing additional capacity for power generation in order to meet the summer peak demand. (Author)

Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H.; Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Smiai, M.S. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Energy Research Inst., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2000-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Caries risk assessment in preschool children in saudi arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose: Caries is a prevalent condition in Saudi Arabia. At present, knowledge regarding caries risk factors in Saudi Arabia is limited. The present study aimed to identify characteristic features of Saudi preschoolers at high risk for caries, using the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry caries risk assessment tool (CAT ) and to report the most significant caries risk predictors. Materials and Methods: A sample of 407 children aged 4 and 5 years was selected randomly from private and public nursery schools. Their parents answered a questionnaire prepared using the CAT . Each child was examined for the presence of caries and his/her oral hygiene status. Results: According to the CAT , almost all children (89%) were considered to be at high risk. Caries was significantly more prevalent among children attending public than private schools. All CAT variables were significantly related to the presence of caries except general health condition and water fluoridation. Logistic regression analysis showed previous caries experience, enamel demineralisation, and socio-economic status to be the most significant caries risk factors. Conclusion: Most of the Saudi children are considered to be at high risk for caries. Previous caries experience, enamel demineralisation and socioeconomic status are the most significant caries risk predictors. These groups should be targeted for inclusion in caries prevention programmes.

Farsi N; Merdad L; Mirdad S

2013-01-01

162

Metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Saudi Arabia, trace metal enrichment of marine environment may result from a number of anthropogenic activities, especially from petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes. The objective of this study was to determine metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. This study may serve as baseline information for future evaluation of metal pollution in this region.

Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

1985-04-01

163

A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailing
environment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of online
retailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slo...

Rayed AlGhamdi; Steve Drew; Thamer Alhussain

164

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The sur...

Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

165

Recent Fulminant Incursions of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Severe fulminant incursions of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) swept Saudi Arabia during 2004-2006. The disease was reported in most of the rabbitries in the country. The clinical signs were recorded and the virus was identified using sandwich ELISA and the Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test. Epidemiology of the disease in Saudi Arabia was discussed in relation to the present outbreak.

S.I. Al-Mufarrej; E.M.E. Abu-Elzein; M.F. Hussein A. Gar-El Nabi; H. Bushara

2006-01-01

166

Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

Al-maghrabi, T.; Dennis, C.

2010-01-01

167

Saudi-Arabia. Energy situation 1999/2000; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 1999/2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel angegeben.

NONE

2001-07-01

168

Saudi-Arabia. Energy situation 1998/99; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 1998/99  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (orig.) [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel bzw. zur Zahlungsbilanz angegeben. (orig.)

NONE

1999-11-01

169

Saudi-Arabia. Energy situation 1995; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country`s national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country`s external trade and balance of payments. (HS) [Deutsch] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel bzw. zur Zahlungsbilanz angegeben. (HS)

NONE

1996-11-01

170

Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

2003-01-01

171

Epidemiology of domestic chemical burns in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors reviewed the domestic chemical injury experience in two major government hospitals in Saudi Arabia to determine the most common causative agents and the circumstances of the injury in order to give recommendations for their prevention and reduction of their morbidity. A total of 59 cases were included. The mean age was 25 years and the male to female ratio was 3:1. Alkali drain cleaners were the major cause of chemical burns in the series and this was seen in 75% of the total study population. The remaining 25% of cases resulted from concentrated sulfuric acid, car battery acid and topical application of medical herbs by non-professionals. Unfortunately, immediate water lavage was not done in the majority of alkali and acid burns and hence skin grafting was required in most patients. It was concluded that efforts for prevention of chemical burns in Saudi Arabia should be directed towards education of the population regarding the proper use of alkali cleaners for clogged drains. These cleaners and battery acid containers should also be kept in a safe place away from the reach of children. Furthermore, a warning to the public regarding the non-professional use of medical herbs should be given. Finally, increased awareness among the Saudi population as to the need for prompt water irrigation of chemical burns should help reduce the morbidity from these injuries. PMID:11348747

Pitkanen, J; Al-Qattan, M M

2001-06-01

172

Epidemiology of domestic chemical burns in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors reviewed the domestic chemical injury experience in two major government hospitals in Saudi Arabia to determine the most common causative agents and the circumstances of the injury in order to give recommendations for their prevention and reduction of their morbidity. A total of 59 cases were included. The mean age was 25 years and the male to female ratio was 3:1. Alkali drain cleaners were the major cause of chemical burns in the series and this was seen in 75% of the total study population. The remaining 25% of cases resulted from concentrated sulfuric acid, car battery acid and topical application of medical herbs by non-professionals. Unfortunately, immediate water lavage was not done in the majority of alkali and acid burns and hence skin grafting was required in most patients. It was concluded that efforts for prevention of chemical burns in Saudi Arabia should be directed towards education of the population regarding the proper use of alkali cleaners for clogged drains. These cleaners and battery acid containers should also be kept in a safe place away from the reach of children. Furthermore, a warning to the public regarding the non-professional use of medical herbs should be given. Finally, increased awareness among the Saudi population as to the need for prompt water irrigation of chemical burns should help reduce the morbidity from these injuries.

Pitkanen J; Al-Qattan MM

2001-06-01

173

Geographical distribution of congenital heart defects in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Congenital heart defects (CHD), which are caused by abnormalities early in fetal life, encompass over 50 diagnoses. Since the detailed etiology is unknown, the geographical distribution of defects might suggest likely risk factors. METHODS : The geographical distribution of 5 865 Saudi Arabian nationals with CHD was studied by cross-matching their residential provinces and towns with a geographical information system provided by the General Directorate for Military Survey. Population data were obtained from the 1413H census. RESULTS : CHD cases were mostly distributed across the provinces in proportion to their total population but due to their size and inhomogeneity, province-based thematic maps were found to be misleading. City-based maps were preferable and showed similar geographic distributions for cases registered in successive years. Thematic maps of the distribution of the CHD burden highlighted the southwestern provinces, near the border with Yemen, and the northeast section of the Eastern Province. CONCLUSIONS : Patterns of disease in Saudi Arabia are best studied at the level of individual towns and villages. The CHD registry has already attained good national coverage and can therefore support nationwide epidemiological studies. Southwestern Saudi Arabia and the northern part of the Eastern Province appear to exhibit a higher burden of CHD.

Greer W; Sandridge A; Al-Menieir M; Al Rowais A

2005-01-01

174

Saudi Arabia in the oil era: Regime and elites; Conflict and collaboration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book explores the recent history of the Saudi oil state, in an analysis of the struggle for social and political power in modern Saudi Arabia, including a discussion of the impact on the Saudi Economy of the present crisis in the oil market.

Abir, M.

1987-01-01

175

Saudi Arabia: Post-War Issues and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saudi dynasty, enjoys special importance in the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 1932, it h...

A. B. Prados

2001-01-01

176

Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group) with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. RESULTS: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380) than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. CONCLUSION: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our understanding of economic costs of diabetes and its related complications.

Alhowaish AK

2013-01-01

177

The perceived health promotion practice of nurses in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.

Aldossary A; Barriball L; While A

2013-09-01

178

Peeling skin syndrome : 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance. In Saudi Arabia, consan-guinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of famil-ial disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. Methods: To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photo-graphs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleav-age. Results: Eleven patients with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.7%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did not play a role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%) and consanguinity of marriage was evident in 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of skin biopsies showed either intra-corneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granular layer in all biopsied patients. Conclusion: Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intracorneal cleavage within the superfi-cial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vesicobullous disease.

Al-Ghamdi Faiza; Al-Raddadi Ali; Satti Mohamed

2006-01-01

179

Nutrition Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in a pilot study. Non-respondents received a second questionnaire and a phone call. Of the 105 primary care physicians, 59 replies were received (56.2%). The mean mark for correctly answered questions was 51.7%. Approximately 75 % of the physicians described their knowledge of nutrition as `Poor`. The results indicate that physicians are generally aware of information which has been publicized in the medical press: nutrient which helps prevent thrombosis (omega-3 fat); the preventive action of fruit and vegetables against cancer; which nutrients are antioxidants; the nutrient associated with the prevention of neural tube defects (folate). By contrast they have a poor knowledge of other important topics in nutrition: the major type of fat in olive oil; hydrogenated fats; source of vitamin B12; Substance raises the blood HDL-cholesterol level (Alcohol); the association between excess protein intake and calcium loss; the type of dietary fiber helpful in lowering the blood cholesterol level (soluble fiber) and Nutrient is protective against hypertension. These results support other data that physicians need more education in nutrition. Nutrition should be an essential part in continuing medical education.

Khalid S. Al-Numair

2004-01-01

180

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2010. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic category were divided into melanocytic and non-melanocytic subcategories. Non-neoplastic category was divided into the following subcategories: dermatitis, infection, vascular, vesiculobullous, connective tissue disease, drugs, panniculitis, non-infectious granuloma, degenerative, metabolic, and pigmentary. Results: Three hundred and sixty skin biopsies were reviewed. Out of these, 207 (57.5%) were non-neoplastic skin diseases, while 153 (42.5%) were neoplastic. Both non-neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.3:1) and neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.2: 1) categories were more common in females than in males. Among the non-neoplastic category, the most common diagnosed subcategory was vesiculobullous disease (n=46, 22.2%), followed by dermatitis (n=30, 14.5%). The neoplastic category was divided into melanocytic (n=31, 20.3%) and non-melanocytic neoplasms (n=122, 79.7%). Both neoplastic and non-neoplastic categories were most common in the age group of 46 years and older. Conclusion: Vesiculobullous diseases, dermatitis, and infections are the 3 most common non-neoplastic skin diseases and the most common neoplastic are benign non-melanocytic neoplasms. The prevalence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin diseases in general increases with age. 

Najla M. Alghanmi; Layla S. Abdullah

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. METHODS: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2010. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic category were divided into melanocytic and non-melanocytic subcategories. Non-neoplastic category was divided into the following subcategories: dermatitis, infection, vascular, vesiculobullous, connective tissue disease, drugs, panniculitis, non-infectious granuloma, degenerative, metabolic, and pigmentary. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty skin biopsies were reviewed. Out of these, 207 (57.5%) were non-neoplastic skin diseases, while 153 (42.5%) were neoplastic. Both non-neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.3:1) and neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.2: 1) categories were more common in females than in males. Among the non-neoplastic category, the most common diagnosed subcategory was vesiculobullous disease (n=46, 22.2%), followed by dermatitis (n=30, 14.5%). The neoplastic category was divided into melanocytic (n=31, 20.3%) and non-melanocytic neoplasms (n=122, 79.7%). Both neoplastic and non-neoplastic categories were most common in the age group of 46 years and older. CONCLUSION: Vesiculobullous diseases, dermatitis, and infections are the 3 most common non-neoplastic skin diseases and the most common neoplastic are benign non-melanocytic neoplasms. The prevalence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin diseases in general increases with age.

Alghanmi NM; Abdullah LS

2013-01-01

182

Pattern of management of urologic cancer in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the questionnaire. Seventy six percent see more than 10 bladder cancer cases/year and 83% used rigid cystoscope for diagnosis under general anesthesia. Eighty two percent perform over 10 bladder tumor resections/year; however, 90% of them perform less than five cystectomies/year, if any. Seventy nine percent had intravesical therapy available at their hospitals and majority of them use it after resection in selected patients. Fifty percent preferred re-resection within 2-4 weeks for T1 and/or G3 tumors and majority of them (86%) perform cystectomy for muscle invasive disease and ninety six percent perform ileal conduit. Thirty four percent see over 10 renal cancers/year. Forty nine percent perform radical nephrectomy for less than 4 cm renal masses and for more than 4 cm, only 9% do laparoscopic nephrectomy while the majority preferred open technique although 77% of the hospitals participated in this survey have a urologist capable of doing laparoscopy. Conclusion: A significant number of urologists in Saudi Arabia do not apply some of the well-accepted standard practices in urologic cancer. To improve this, we need to work on our referral system and establish education and training programs to make the urologist familiar with the new modalities of treatment.

Al-Othman Khalid; Al-Hathal Naif

2010-01-01

183

Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

2006-01-01

184

Energy conservation measures on residential buildings in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of energy conservation measures for a typical two-storey residential building in Saudi Arabia are studied. The analysis shows that insulating the walls and the roof (15 mm-thick insulation) results in a significant reduction in the peak cooling load (> 23%) and the annual energy consumption (> 27%). Hence, a significant saving in customer and government equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) will be observed. The effects of additional measures, such as reducing the glazing area and the infiltration rate, are also reported. (author)

Said, S.A.M.; Al-Hammad, A. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1993-06-01

185

Behaviour of global solar radiation over Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of available global solar radiation and the hours of bright sunshine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The discussion covers the behavior of monthly average daily values of global solar radiation, the bright hours of sunshine, and the Angstrom coefficients for all the 41 solar radiation stations spread all over the Kingdom. The study finds a slight dependence of global solar radiation on latitude, longitude and altitude of the location and suggests developing empirical correlation for the estimation of global solar radiation on horizontal surface taking into consideration the effects of these parameters along with the sunshine duration.

Shafiqur, Rehman [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Center for Engineering Research, The Research Institute (Saudi Arabia)

2000-07-01

186

Solar radiation availability in the northeastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar energy potential of the northeastern part of Saudi Arabia is investigated based on measurements of a complete year of data at a coastal location near Dhahran. High-resolution, real-time solar radiation data were collected and processed. Hourly, daily, and monthly statistics of solar radiation were made from the recorded 1-min averaged values. Clearness index is discussed on the basis of hourly, daily,and monthly averages. Variation of the diffuse fraction of total radiation is also determined, and results are discussed. (Author)

Sahin, A.Z.; Aksakal, A.; Kahraman, R.

2000-12-01

187

Database for building energy prediction in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents information about outdoor design conditions, degree-days, bin data and weather data sets that have been generated from weather histories, recorded over a period of many years, for 20 cities located in five different climatic zones in Saudi Arabia. The information and data presented in this paper should be useful to many engineers and researchers in the field of energy conservation in buildings. Also, the need for weather data-sets in a format useful for dynamic energy calculations is emphasized. (Author)

Said, S.A.M.; Habib, M.A.; Iqbal, M.O. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2003-01-01

188

Rainfall quality at selected sites in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical composition of rainfall in Saudi Arabia was studied. Data indicate the pH of rainfall is near neutral or basic, indicating a lack of effect from imported nitric or sulfuric acids. Sodium and chloride from the Red Sea or the Arabian Gulf do not appear to be present in appreciable amounts. Particles of calcium, bicarbonate, or sulfate from local disturbances appear to be more important to the chemical quality of rainfall than ions from greater distances. Dry fallout is similar in concentration to the rainfall samples collected concurrently. 12 refs., 2 figs. (ACR)

Handy, A.H.; Tucker, R.A.

1984-01-01

189

Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

N. H. Malik; M. Usman

2011-01-01

190

Focus on OPEC oil companies. Saudi Arabia: PETROMIN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia nationalized the General Petroleum and Mineral Organization (PETROMIN) in 1962 as a way to maximize the economic benefits of resource development. The organization is empowered to manage petroleum and mineral development, to import needed minerals, to cooperate with private companies, and to establish its own domestic and foreign enterprises. The article traces the growth and development of PETROMIN, describes its functions and operations in production and refining, and summarized current work on pipelines, gas collection, sulfur recovery. It concludes with an overview of PETROMIN's management policies. 3 figures, 8 tables.

1984-06-01

191

Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ?? 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Prescott, J. R.; Robertson, G. B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Wynn, J.

2004-01-01

192

Isolation of pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A virus was isolated from the brains of pigeons suffering from nervous disorders in different localities of the Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The new isolate caused a high morbidity, ranging from 33% to 50%, and a mortality rate which reached 40%. The virus produced pinpoint greyish pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated hens' eggs and induced syncytial formation followed by rounding and lysis of the cells in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. Virus infectivity was significantly reduced following treatment by 20% ether or chloroform. The isolated virus was identified as pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus by serum-neutralization, agar gel diffusion and fluorescent antibody staining techniques.

Shalaby MA; el-Sisi MA; Ismail OE; Afaleque AI

1985-07-01

193

Pulmonary hypertension in Saudi Arabia: A single center experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Several international studies have described the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, information about the incidence and prevalence of PH in Saudi Arabia is unknown. AIMS: To report cases of PH and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of PH due to various causes in a Saudi population. METHODS: Newly diagnosed cases of PH [defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg at right heart cauterization (RHC)] were prospectively collected at a single tertiary care hospital from January 2009 and June 2012. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected at the time of diagnosis, along with hemodynamic parameters. RESULTS: Of the total 264 patients who underwent RHC, 112 were identified as having PH. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.8 ± 15.8 years, and there was a female preponderance of 72.3%. About 88 (78.6%) of the PH patients were native Saudis and 24 (21.4%) had other origins. Twelve PH patients (10.7%) were classified in group 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 7 (6.2%) in group 2 (PH due to left heart disease), 73 (65.2%) in group 3 (PH due to lung disease), 4 (3.6%) in group 4 (chronic thromboembolic PH), and 16 (14.3%) in group 5 (PH due to multifactorial mechanisms). PH associated with diastolic dysfunction was noted in 28.6% of group 2 patients, 31.5% of group 3 patients, and 25% of group 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer the first report of incident cases of PH across five groups in Saudi Arabia.

Alhamad EH; Cal JG; Alfaleh HF; Alshamiri MQ; Alboukai AA; Alhomida SA

2013-04-01

194

Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF2Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 ?R h-1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 ?R h-1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

1993-01-01

195

A Comparative Study on United Nations E-Government Indicators between Saudi Arabia and USA  

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Full Text Available E-government has a significant impact on the performance of public sector as a result continuous growth has been seen in the e-governments development around the world since last two decades. This paper investigates the e-government develop ment scenario in Saudi Arabia and to compare it with the USA. The study is based on the e-government survey reports conducted by the United Nations between 2003 and 2010. From the experience of USA e-government, this report gave us some critical remarks related to Saudi Arabia e-government. This study also gave us suggestions and countermeasures to improve egovernment in Saudi Arabia

Saleh Alshomrani

2012-01-01

196

First Record of Five Soil Ciliates (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The morphology and infraciliature of five soil hypotrichous collected from the farm-land at Zulfi city, Saudi Arabia were investigated using living observation and silver impregnation methods. Gastrostyla steinii was found to have 4-8 macronuclei and thus its congener, G. muscorum which was characterized by eight macronuclei is likely a synonym with G. steinii. Redescriptions on Hemiamphisiella granulifera, Urostyla grandis Ehrenberg, 1830 and Nudiamphisiella interrupta, revealed that Saudi Arabia populations were morphologically identical with previous studies. A Nudiamphisiella species which is quite similar with N. illuvialis was also discussed. The abovementioned species show first show in Saudi Arabia and extend the known distribution areas of these species.

Saleh A. Al-Farraj

2011-01-01

197

Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: With the evolution of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia, there has been an increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico- Legal malpractice claims over the period 1420H-1424H (1999-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Results: Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-2002). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims; the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Conclusion: Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation.

Samarkandi Abdulhamid

2006-01-01

198

Sand Dune and Sabkha Vegetations of Eastern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Eastern Saudi Arabia to provide the needed information about the vegetation of sand dunes and sabkhas in the region and to provide insight into the factors controlling community distribution. Eastern Saudi Arabia with arid climatic conditions has sparsely distributed sand dune and sabkha vegetation cover. The vegetation comprises of perennial herbs, dwarf shrubs and few tree species. Seven major plant communities were recognized according to their dominant and co-dominant species: Panicum turgidum-Stipa capensis, Panicum turgidum-Pennisetum divisum, Panicum turgidum-Zygophyllum coccineum, Lasiurus scindicus-Stipagrostis plumose, Aeluropus lagopoides-Halopeplis perfoliata, Tamafix arabica-Aeluropus lagopoides and Zygophyllum coccineum-Cyperus conglomeratus. The seven communities represented different combinations of species. Soil organic carbon, soil salinity and soil water holding capacity appear to have a substantial influence on determining vegetation composition and abundance. In general, there are 45 species in the study area differing in their relative abundance, frequency and richness.

Mohammed A. Al-Fredan

2008-01-01

199

Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

2009-01-01

200

Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

2005-11-15

 
 
 
 
201

Prevalence of human papillomavirus in women from saudi arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main causes of cervical cancer in women worldwide. The goal of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in women from Saudi Arabia. Recently, several HPV detection methods have been developed, each with different sensitivities and specificities. Methods: In this study, total forty cervical samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction and hybridization to BioFilmChip microarray assessment. Results: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were found in 43% of the specimens. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16 (30%) HPV 18 (8.0%) followed by type HPV 45, occurring at 5.0%. Conclusion: Our finding showed the HPV infection and prevalence is increasing at alarming rate in women of Saudi Arabia. There was no low risk infection detected in the tested samples. The BioFilmChip microarray detection system is highly accurate and suitable for detection of single and multiple infections, allowing rapid detection with less time-consumption and easier performance as compared with other methods.

Turki R; Sait K; Anfinan N; Sohrab SS; Abuzenadah AM

2013-01-01

202

Determination of Prevalence of Strangles in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Strangles is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect the respiratory system of the horse. The disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharges and enlargement of the associated lymph nodes. Strptococcus equi the causative agent of strangles, is a Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of strangles among horses residing on horse farms in main regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, field visits were made to horse farms in Al-Ahsa, Dammam, Jubail, Riyadh, Jeddah and Tayf. A total of 75 farms that contain 926 horses were visited. Farm owners and managers were questioned regarding the presence of signs similar to strangles. In the meantime, horses were clinically evaluated. This survey indicated no horses were strangles confirmed. Finally, 35 horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at King Faisal University were examined. These horses were admitted for signs of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination as well as bacterial culture indicated they were strangles free. Strangles seems not to be a threat to horses in Saudi Arabia.

Ghanem M. Al-Ghamdi

2008-01-01

203

Natural radioactivity of potable waters in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arid and desert country, Saudi Arabia has very few natural water resources. In the past potable water was obtained from wells. Today, well water and ''raw'' water (processed well water, sometimes slightly softened through the addition of desalinated water) are used mostly for cooking and washing, whereas drinking water is obtained through the desalination of sea water. The ''sweet'' water so produced has still too high a mineral content for the taste of many people who prefer to use bottled mineral water for drinking. This paper presents the results of a first quantitative study of raw and sweet waters from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, as well as of one domestic and five imported brand-name mineral waters available in stores in the same region. The study was extended to rainwater collected locally so as to include all types of potable water available in the area. The natural radioactivity of these waters was measured using a standard ..gamma..-ray spectrometry technique.

Martin, P.

1984-04-01

204

A Phytogeographical Analysis of the Floristic Elements in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out on the chorological units of Saudi Arabia. Three chorological units have been identified within the country, based on the richness of endemism. They are: Saharo-Sindian regional zone, Somalia-Masai regional centre of endemism and the Afro-montane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism. The Saharo-Sindian regional zone is divided into three subzones; of which, Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism and the Arabian regional subzone are present in the Kingdom. The boundary line of the Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism within Saudi Arabia has been extended towards the eastern region to cover most of the regions in the western Najd. The Somalia-Masai region contains the highest percentage (25.66%) of species. The highest number of uni-regional endemics per unit area is found in the Afromontane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism while the lowest of that is in the Arabian regional subzone.

Ahmed H. Alfarhan

1999-01-01

205

Saudi Arabia joins world market in commodity petrochemicals: utilizes joint-venture approach to promote rapid industrial growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi industry is emphasizing a program of efficiency and cost reduction. Assured of a supply of feedstock, the growth of private sector secondary industries along with the planned development of human resources can be expected to highlight the continuing industrialization of Saudi Arabia. This article focuses on the development and expansion of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

Hodel, A.E.

1985-03-01

206

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10(th) to 12(th) grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

Aljebreen AM; Almadi MA; Alhammad A; Al Faleh FZ

2013-04-01

207

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

Abdulrahman M Aljebreen; Majid A Almadi; Alwaleed Alhammad; Faleh Z Al Faleh

2013-01-01

208

EER Improvement for Room Air-Conditioners in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) for Room Air Conditioners (RACs) that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC). This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number of condenser and evaporator rows, fins density, frontal area, compressor types, and refrigerant types. The experimental data obtained is through testing the units in Calorimeter according to standard ASHRAE-16. Also, the uncertainty in measurements and its propagation are included in this study. This paper reports the results of a set of measurements carried out on a modified RAC and compares them with the tested baseline RAC unit at similar load conditions. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of increasing the number of condenser rows in comparison with other design options considered for achieving higher EER for RACs.

Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan

2012-01-01

209

ADELOYE-ODEKU DISEASE IN ASSER REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adeloye-Odeku disease, also known as congenital inclusion dermoid cyst (CIDC) of the anterior fontanelle was first described by Adeloye A and Odeku EL, as a solitary congenital subgaleal inclusion dermoid cyst of the anterior fontanelle. This rare lesion was initially thought to be confined to Africans . The universal distribution of this cyst has subsequently been shown in accumulated literature of other ethnic distribution ,Caucasian, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Turkish and others. This is the first published report that we know of Adeloye-Odeku disease in Arab-Saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Four patients with Adeloye-Odeku disease, two boys and two girls, Saudi patients with ages ranging from 3months to 9 years are presented. Successful surgical excision of the cyst was achieved in each of the three patients who consented for surgery with no recurrence. The oldest patient did not go for surgery due to parental refusal but the lesion proved to be stable on follow up.

Mubarak Ali AlGahtany

2013-01-01

210

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, May 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of May 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

211

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-03-01

212

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, April 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of April 1985 was presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

213

78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Clarification...20 participants is selected, all interested U.S. IT and cyber-security firms and trade organizations which have not...

2013-07-02

214

Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Amaranthus pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and a potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. M...

Hasnain Syed; Fatima Khatija; Al-Frayh Abdulrahman

215

Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula  

CERN Document Server

The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

2012-01-01

216

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

217

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

218

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (ERA ...

1985-01-01

219

Human infection with Bertiella studeri (Cestode: Anoplocephalidae) in an Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perhaps this is the first case of bertiellosis studeri record in Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia. The patient was resistant to Niclosamide but successfully treated with Commiphora molmol extract.

Al-Mathal EM; Saleh NM; Morsy TA

2010-04-01

220

Human infection with Bertiella studeri (Cestode: Anoplocephalidae) in an Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perhaps this is the first case of bertiellosis studeri record in Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia. The patient was resistant to Niclosamide but successfully treated with Commiphora molmol extract. PMID:20503589

Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Saleh, Nagla Mostafa K; Morsy, Tosson A

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Atawi FJ

2011-07-01

222

Prevalence of obesity among military personnel in Saudi Arabia and associated risk factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To measure the prevalence of obesity among military personnel in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to identify its risk factors. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study covered...

Ghalib Bin Horaib; Hesham I. Al-Khashan; Adel M. Mishriky; Mohei A. Selim; Noura AlNowaiser; Abdulaziz A. BinSaeed

223

Assessment of hepatitis B vaccination and compliance with infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and the use of infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during the Third International Conference at the King Abdulaziz University...

Ayman A. Al-Dharrab; Khalid H. Al-Samadani

224

Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsew...

G. Hussain; A. Alquwaizany; A. Al-Zarah

225

Analysis of the Impact of Reforms on Insurance Industry of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to find out the impact of reforms on insurance industry of Saudi Arabia. The study finds out the impact of reforms vis-ŕ-vis premium growth, regulation of insurance industry and entry of new companies in the industry. The study is based on secondary data collected mainly from the annual reports of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) from 2005 through 2009. The study made a comparative study of the performance of insurance industry in pre and post reforms era. Further it analyzes the impact of reforms on standardization of insurance industry through regulatory framework and participation of new companies from Saudi Arabia and other foreign multinational companies in the industry. Since reform in 2004 Saudi Insurance is growing fast registering remarkably high growth rate in premium. Besides premium large numbers of indigenous companies have entered the insurance market. The government has established sound regulatorysystem to develop the insurance industry of Saudi Arabia to international standard.

Dr. Zaid Ahmad Ansari

2011-01-01

226

Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits; Arabie Seoudite: deficits persistants mais soutenables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs.

Anon.

1996-04-16

227

Enclosed and open spaces in the arid region-Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study of the enclosed (sheltered) and open (unsheltered) spaces in two tradiational and three-contemporary settlements in Saudi Arabia - comparative analysis of micro climatic conditions - solar exposure - analysis of the differences in the design approaches of the old and new ''modern'' developments - recommendations for the appropriate approach to the design of enclosed and open spaces in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia.

Talib, K.; Al-Zamil, A.A.

1986-01-01

228

Physicians perception of health insurance in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians views on health insurance and its implication on the health care system. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from January to December 2002 through self-administered questionnaires that were distributed to a total sample of 400 physicians. The instrument consisted of 28 items that focused on assessing physicians' perception towards health insurance and its effect on health services. We performed a descriptive statistics and analysis of variance using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS: Overall, 151 physicians (38%) completed the survey. This study clearly shows that access to health care services is a major concern; more than 94% of the respondents agree that everyone in the Kingdom should have access to healthcare services. Respondents also agree that health insurance will improve access to healthcare services for all citizens. Physicians also believed that health insurance would lead to more regulations and utilization review of services, create more competition between healthcare providers, and create new jobs in the healthcare sector. Saudi physicians reported a higher mean score for 11 items with significant p-values as compared with non-Saudi physicians. CONCLUSION: Physicians in this survey believed that accessibility is a major policy concern, and that health insurance will have a positive effect on access to the health care system. Yet, accessibility is an illusive term with many aspects that go beyond the identification of need for health care to the actual delivery of health care services and the organizational structures to match the needs of society. Cooperation as a national health system should be built on collaborative efforts rather than market competition in itself. It has been suggested that markets are stronger in the role of delivery than in the financing of health care, that markets tend to promote more expenditure on technological innovation rather than producing the most desired set of social outcomes. Cooperative health insurance can be an answer to the current problems facing the health care system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as long as it remains cooperative rather than competitive.

Alnaif MS

2006-05-01

229

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

230

Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

Bangura, Abdul Karim

2004-01-01

231

The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hospitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country's healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discusses with the many challenges associated with the change. PMID:18596400

Walston, Stephen; Al-Harbi, Yousef; Al-Omar, Badran

232

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

233

Quality issues in continuing medical education in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of continuing medical education (CME) in Saudi Arabia is no longer quantity but rather quality. Quality Management (QM) of the current huge number of CME activities is essential to ensure its merits and outcomes. Sound evaluation is the cornerstone of any QM process to CME. However, issues related to models of evaluation, CME stakeholders, principles of adult learning and assessment should be consid--ered before deciding on the type of evaluation appropriate for QM of CME. Our aim is to draw attention to the importance of developing a QM process for CME that is valid, reliable, feasible and acceptable to dif--ferent CME stakeholders. The huge volume of CME programs needs QM to ensure its utility for healthcare providers and consumers. Understanding relevant evaluation models and the complexity of evaluating CME is a necessary step towards appropriate action.

Al-Shehri Ali; Alhaqwi Ali; Al-Sultan Mohammed

2008-01-01

234

Solar radiation over Saudi Arabia and comparisons with empirical models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a comparison between models developed by the present authors and 16 other models for different geographical and varied meteorological conditions. The comparisons are made using the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean percentage error (MPE), and mean absolute bias error (MABE). These errors are calculated using monthly-mean, measured daily and estimated values of total solar radiation for 41 locations in Saudi Arabia. We find that our latitude, longitude, altitude, and sunshine-duration-dependent model given in Eq. (1) produced the best estimates for global solar radiation. The second- and third-best estimates were obtained from our linear model and other models given in Eq. (2) and Eq. (11), respectively. (author)

Rehman, S. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research Institute

1998-12-01

235

Aspartoacylase deficiency and Canavan disease in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We found defective aspartoacylase activity in fibroblasts cultured from 12 patients with leukodystrophy clinically diagnosed as spongy degeneration of the brain (Canavan disease), three confirmed by brain biopsy. The activity of aspartoacylase ranged between 1 and 13% of two groups of control individuals, normals, and those with other leukodystrophies. The present report confirms the study of Matalon et al. [1988] in a totally different ethnic group and provides independent verification that aspartoacylase activity is the first documented specific biochemical marker in Canavan disease and plays an important role in pathogenesis. Considering that only some 75 cases had been reported up to 1982, our group of 12, accumulated within 3 years, is inordinately large and suggests that Saudi Arabia provides a promising venue in which to study the biochemical and molecular genetics of Canavan disease.

Ozand PT; Gascon GG; Dhalla M

1990-02-01

236

Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7%) at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

Tarek Tawfik Amin; Feroze Kaliyadan; Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib

2011-01-01

237

Marjan Field system features coating innovations in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovations and advanced techniques in pipecoating and field joints for offshore pipelines are features of the 147-mile offshore oil and gas pipeline system installed for Aramco in the Marjan Field offshore Saudi Arabia. The project involved a network of oil and gas lines including 77 miles of 30-in. pipe, 62 miles of 36-in. pipe, and 8 miles of 16-in. pipe. Project is scheduled for completion by the end of 1984. Corrosion coating for all of the pipe, applied by Bredero Price Saudi Arabia Ltd., is 5/32-in. coal tar enamel over a synthetic primer, plus a reinforcing glass fiber wrap and an asbestos felt overwrap. Hevicote /SUP r/ concrete-weight coating was applied at a density of 190 lb per cu ft; thickness varies from 1- to 6.375-in. Pipecoating improvements pioneered in Europe for demanding North Sea projects were further developed by Bredero Price at its Jubail pipecoating facility for use on the Persian Gulf project. These included: Waterslotting. This is considered the most efficient method to control concrete cracking and subsequent spalling and to reduce stress on the concrete coating. Welded wire mesh. The 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm welded wire cross-sectional area is 36% greater than standard wire netting, increasing the amount of reinforcing steel in the concrete coating. New joint fill method. The Marjan project is the first offshore pipeline to use Joint Systems Corp's new IMAD automatic joint fill machine to coat the field joints on the pipe after welding and inspection.

1984-10-01

238

Incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations in Western Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The incidence and spectrum of ARMs, associated regional anomalies, and those with a positive family history of ARMs were identified. The 95% confidence interval and Chi square trend test were used to quantify the significance of variation in annual incidence. Results: One hundred eighty-eight cases of ARMs were detected from 189,145 live births with an incidence of approximately 1/1000 live births with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1. The incidence showed yearly stability (p=0.3509). The most common ARMs was perineal fistula (32.9%). There was a statistically significant gender difference (p=0.000). The most common in boys was rectourethral fistula (47.2%) and in girls was vestibular fistula (46.2%). Isolated non-familial ARMs was found in 106 (56.3%), isolated familial 9 (4.7%), and associated ARMs in 73 (38.8%) cases. In terms of associated anomalies, genitourinary (34%), and cardiovascular (19.2%) systems reported a high incidence. Conclusion: The incidence of ARMs in Madinah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is higher than the reported data. Isolated ARMs was more common than the associated category, and the familial one was rarely reported. 

Hamdi H. Almaramhy

2012-01-01

239

Smoking pattern among female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Smoking is the most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. The estimated annual death rate of 4.9 million people in 1999 is expected to rise to 10 million by the 2020s and 2030s, 7 million of which will occur in developing countries. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and assess its pattern among non-medical female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1020 female students selected from the literature and science colleges by multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation. Data were collected using a self-administered modified WHO Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Results: Results revealed that occurrence of smoking among female college students was 8.6%. It was significantly higher among literature college students (12.1%) than among Science College students (3.4%). The mean age at which smoking started was 16 ± 2.4 years, with a minimum of 11 years. More than half of the students who smoked were cigarette smokers, while 43.2% were shisha smokers. There was a strong relationship between parents who smoked and daughters who smoked. The main motive for smoking was curiosity (44.3%), followed by relief of tension (26.1%). Conclusions: It may be concluded that smoking is increasing among female college students in Saudi Arabia. Accordingly, it is recommended that a preventive comprehensive health education program on smoking be initiated for females in middle schools, that stricter tobacco control measures be adopted by the government, and that anti-smoking clinics be established in colleges.

Koura, Manal R.; Al-Dossary, Ahlam F.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

2011-01-01

240

Insomnia in chronic renal patients on dialysis in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that insomnia is a common sleep disorder among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study carried out over a period of five months in two hemodialysis centers in Saudi Arabia. To assess the prevalence of insomnia, we used the ICSD-2 definition. We also examined the association between insomnia and other sleep disorders, the underlying causes of renal failure, dialysis duration, dialysis shift, and other demographic data. Results Out of 227 enrolled patients, insomnia was reported by 60.8%. The mean patient age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years; 53.7% were male and 46.3% were female. Insomnia was significantly associated with female gender, afternoon hemodialysis, Restless Legs Syndrome, high risk for obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness (P-values: 0.05, 0.01, Conclusion Insomnia is common in dialysis patients and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders. Greater attention needs to be given to the care of dialysis patients with regard to the diagnosis and management of insomnia and associated sleep disorders.

Al-Jahdali Hamdan H; Khogeer Haithm A; Al-Qadhi Waleed A; Baharoon Salim; Tamim Hani; Al-Hejaili Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi Saeed M; Al-Sayyari Abdullah A

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Malaria screening of blood donors in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusion-associated malaria is a potentially serious complication that continues to pose risks in blood bank settings. There is a need for effective malaria screening of blood donations to improve on the current exclusion policies of potentially infected carriers on the basis of clinical and travel history. We evaluated the potential usefulness of ELISA screening for malaria antibody and P. falciparum antigen among Saudi blood donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1756 donors were studied, 1100 from the malaria endemic Southern Region and 656 donors from the known malaria-free Riyadh area. RESULTS: The overall antibody prevalence for the antibody was 7.6%, in comparison to only 0.17% for the antigen. In the endemic region, the antibody positivity rate of 9.1% was almost double the rate in the non-endemic area (4.8%). There was no difference in the antigen prevalence rates; 0.18% in endemic and 0.15% in nonendemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: In malaria endemic countries like Saudi Arabia, excluding antibody-positive donations would result in too much wastage of blood units. However, antigen malaria testing appears to offer a potential utility, as only few donations would be rejected.

Saeed Awad; Al Rasheed Abdul; Al Nasser I; Al Onaizi M; Al Kahtani S; Dubois L

2002-01-01

242

Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning.

2004-01-01

243

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-06-01

244

Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite.

Al-Omran AM; El-Maghraby SE; Aly AA; Al-Wabel MI; Al-Asmari ZA; Nadeem ME

2013-08-01

245

Evolution of gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The beginning of the natural gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia is traced back to 1959 when Aramco embarked on a program to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) for export from low pressure gases such as stabilizer overhead, spheroid, tank farm, and refinery off-gases. The processing scheme involves compression and refrigeration to extract C3+ raw NGL, a raw NGL gathering system, and a fractionation plant to separate propane, butane, and natural gasoline. NGL extracted in Abqaiq and Ras Tanura is moved to Ras Tanura for fractionation, storage, and export. The system, built in several increments, has total design capacity of 500 MMscfd of feed gases to produce 320,000 bpd of NGL composed of 40% propane, 30% butane, and 30% natural gasoline. Phase II of the Saudi gas program envisages collection and processing of associated gas produced with Arabian medium and heavy crude oils largely in the northern onshore and offshore fields. Further domestic development may focus on more diversification in gas product utilization and on upgrading to higher value products.

Showail, A.

1983-01-01

246

Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital?s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008). Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17). The most common presentations were cough (48%), dyspnea (21%), joint pain (18%), splenomegaly (12%), hepatomegaly (9%), and lymphadenopathy (5%). The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in 14 (46.7%). The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29) except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%), and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

Al-Khouzaie Thamer; Al-Tawfiq Jaffar; Al Subhi Faisal

2011-01-01

247

Anemia and Iron Intake of Adult Saudis in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52) and non-smokers (n = 80). Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days. The results showed that iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in males compared to females. Mean iron intake of males (13.6±3.1 mg/day) was adequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean concentrations of hemoglobin (15.89±0.95 g/dL) and hematocrit (47.7±3.6%) for males were normal. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but both were normal, which suggested that iron deficiency anemia is not found among adult Saudi males. Mean iron intake of females (10.2±2.8 mg/day) was inadequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean hemoglobin level (13.68±0.83 g/gL) and mean hematocrit level (38.9±3.2%) of females were lower than cutoff values for determining iron deficiency anemia. Based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values, 21.6% and 20.6% of female participants, respectively were anemic. Based on iron intake, 95.1% of female participants had intake lower than the recommendation. Results of this study illustrated that iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among adult Saudi women in Riyadh City and suggests actions to eradicate iron deficiency anemia. These actions include increasing nutritional awareness and education for the purpose of changing inappropriate consumption patterns as well as fortification of certain foods in combination with additional intakes of iron from supplements.

Abdullah H. Al-Assaf

2007-01-01

248

Prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudi adolescents in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudi adolescents, using the 2 most widely used international references. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted towards the end of 2001 on a random sample of third grade intermediate and all 3 grades of secondary school Saudi students of both genders in Al-Khobar area, Eastern Saudi Arabia. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) growth charts, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO), were used. Student with a BMI of <85th and >95th percentile for age and genders, were defined as overweight and <95th percentile defined as obese. The International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) age-sex-specific BMI cut-offs reference for defining overweight and obesity was used for comparison. RESULTS: The sample was 1766 students, comprising 675 males and 1091 females. The mean age was 16.4 +/- 1.7 years. The prevalence of obesity was higher in male than female students (19.3% versus 11.8%) while a higher proportion of female students than males were overweight (17.2% versus 10.2%). No significant difference was found between the 2 references used to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded in this study call for prevention programs based on dietary and physical education in schools.

Al-Almaie SM

2005-04-01

249

Energy conservation and its implication for architectural design and town planning in the hot-arid areas of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States keep their oil output high to satisfy an energy-hungry world. Correspondingly their income is high and national development intensive. A more modest development programme, better architectural designs, better town planning and more intensive use of solar energy would dramatically reduce the need for this high income and so would lead to production cuts and oil conservation.

Abd-El-Hamid; Khair-El-Din

1985-01-01

250

Saudi Arabia in the 1980s: foreign policy, security, and oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This assessment of Saudi Arabia's foreign policy acknowledges the strengths and the weaknesses of the Saudi system that have been influential in the past and that are likely to remain influential in the future. It portrays a rich but weak country whose oil has involved it in an intricate web of international issues for which its previous experience has provided few useful precedents. the US-Saudi relationship is an issue of importance to Middle East stability and energy security. The author explores three topics: the external threats faced by the Saudis and Saudi foreign policy; the political, economic, and military capabilities of the Saudis to pursue their national interests; and how Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, arms sales, and oil-production policies have strained its long-standing and friendly ties with the US. Saudi oil production and pricing decisions are also discussed. He concludes that a cooperative relationship based on interdependence can surmount these difficulties. 106 references.

Quandt, W.B.

1982-01-01

251

An Investigation of the Scope, Purpose, and Effects of United States Foreign Military Sales to Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Security Assistance Program has grown rapidly in the 1970s and Saudi Arabia has been an integral part of the growth. By 1976 Saudi Arabia became the largest purchaser of U.S. arms and equipment worldwide. The research analyzes the purpos...

B. L. Dycus J. A. Fiorillo

1977-01-01

252

The effects of birth interval on intellectual development of Saudi school children in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of birth intervals on some aspects of intellectual ability of Saudi primary school boys. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of Saudi school children comparing their intellectual ability (general intelligence) in relation to the length of the birth interval before and after the birth of the index child. The study area comprised 3 townships in the eastern province; Khobar, Thogba and Dhahran. The study was conducted in 2000/2001 and the study population comprised Saudi primary school boys aged 9-10 years from a middle class background. A 2 stage random sampling technique was adopted. Data were collected using student data sheet, a family questionnaire and the Standard Progressive Raven Matrices Test of intellectual ability, standardized for use in Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: More than 90% of children born after a birth interval greater than 35 months were classified as average and above according to the Raven Matrices Test, compared to 79% of children born after a birth interval of less than 19 months (p<0.03). Analysis of variance showed that test scores increased consistently as the succeeding birth interval increased. Multivariate analysis showed the most import predicting variables in the Raven Matrices Test to be family income and height. CONCLUSION: Longer birth intervals were shown to be associated with higher general intelligence levels in the 9-10 year olds. These results confirm those obtained in a previous study in Singapore conducted more than 2 decades ago. Our results have also shown that the succeeding birth interval is more significant than the preceding interval in relation to perceptive ability of children. The findings enable us to advise parents that by observing a birth interval between 2-3 years would make their children grow and do better at school.

Bella H; Khalil MS; Al-Almaie SM; Kurashi NY; Wahas S

2005-05-01

253

Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of companies have websites only to present products.Accordingly, new research has been conducted to explore the attraction of customers in Saudi Arabia to buyfrom businesses online. This will assist the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) sector, which represents 90%of companies in Saudi Arabia, to increase communication channels with its customers electronically. Aquantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 381 consumer participants from Saudi Arabia whowere interested to buy online to see what factors would attract them to online shopping. Several factors emergedas attracting factors which were divided into organizational, technical, and cultural factors.

Adel Aboud Bahaddad; Luke Houghton; Steve Drew

2013-01-01

254

An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)has witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.

Iftekhar Ahmad; Anand Mohan Agrawal

2012-01-01

255

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per center). The distribution of the dialysis centers according to the geographical regions of Saudi Arabia included 18(14%) in the northern, 25(19%) in the southern, 13(10%) in the eastern, 35(27%) in the western and 39(30%) in the central region. There was a total of 6,694 dialysis patients served on 1,918 hemodialysis machines. There were 1,793(93%) HD machines capable of performing bicarbonate dialysis. There was an average ratio of 3.5 patients per one HD machine. In addition to the hemodialysis, there were 28(22%) centers engaged in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 56(43%) centers in the follow-up of post transplant patients. The total number of the nephrologists, regardless of their expertise was 212 of whom 180(84%) spoke Arabic; the average ratio was 32 patients per nephrologist (range of 14-58). There were 1320 hemodialysis nurses of whom only 465(35%) spoke Arabic. The average ratio of patients to nurses was five patients per nurse (range of 4-6). There were 72(55%) social workers and 70(54%)dietitians with average patients ratios to these supporting services of 1:93 patients (range of 1:58-137) and 1:96 patients (range of 1:53-137), respectively. The study HD patients had a mean age of 47.8 ± 17.1 years (range: 2-92 years); of them, 52.5% were males and 12% had non-Saudi nationality. Of the hemodialysis patients, 1,815(27%) were diabetics. The calculated net increase of dialysis population was 988 patients per year (14.8%). There were 5,700(85%) patients on regular bicarbonate dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50%) were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV) serology, 448(7%) had positive hepatitis B (HBV) antigenemia and six(0.1%) had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients? care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers.

Souqiyyeh Muhammad; Al-Attar Muhammad Besher; Zakaria Haroun; Shaheen Faissal

2001-01-01

256

Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS). Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred and fifty Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) individual-based questionnaires were distributed after modification to include the age, sex, marital status, nationality, unit working and number of years on the job. The data were entered in the database and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 14.0. A P value of Results : One hundred and ninety-eight nurses (77.2%) completed the questionnaire. Their average age was 34.46 ± 5.36 years. Forty-five percent (89) had high emotional exhaustion (EE) and 28.9% (57) had moderate suffering with EE. Staffs who were on the job for longer duration had a lesser frequency of EE (P ? 0.001). The frequency of depersonalization (DP) was 83 (42%) and was graded as high and 61 (30.8%) were moderately affected. Personal accomplishment (PA) was moderate to low in the majority of the nurses (71.5%). Married nurses were prone to EE (28.17 ± 12.1 versus 22.3 ± 9.6) than unmarried nurses (P = 0.003, CI 95% and OR 2.4). The nurses in the patients? wards and clinics were more emotionally exhausted with higher DP compared to nurses in the high stress and high activity areas (P P P = 0.004; 95% CI: Conclusion : We found that majority of the nursing staff at our hospital were in a state of burnout with high frequency of EE and DP. Only a quarter of the surveyed staff felt that they had some level of PA. Age and working away from their home countries were the important predictors in the development of BS in nurses. We believe that working conditions have to be improved to develop strategies to cope and alleviate stressful situations.

Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Turki Rasha; Al-Dardas Hiba; Al-Gazal Manal; Al-Maghrabi Ghada; Al-Enizi Nawal; Ghareeb Basema

2010-01-01

257

The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inadequate information in this area, only the past investment period was considered to determine the effect of past decision on new decision of investment. The government policies, which directed to low grade varieties probably, led to inefficiency as the domestic consumption of dates is very high and growing high quality will lead to higher revenue to farmers with almost the same cost of production. To deal with investment in date palm production locally, Saudi Arabia needs to estimate a very high discount rate to observe any value related or based on the discount rate. The Durbin Watson parameter is significant for both the varieties (Khalas and Ruzaiz) at 95% confidence interval (LSD0.05). The past investment appeared very significant for its effect on planting new date trees due to the fact that farmers who planted new trees in the past is continuously carrying with date industry and investing in future. Overall, the investment in tree plantation like date palm is not an easy decision by the farmers, because it needs couple of years spending without revenue. The farmers in the date growing areas were hesitant in providing information about the date variety, number of trees per hectare, tree age, fertilizers, pesticides, land ownership, intercropping, cost of production, total yield, quantity sold and price received. The study suggested further investigations on growing high quality date palms, date production and marketing aspects to harvest maximum profit by the farmers as well as support by the government for facilitating proper market and subsidies to date growers.

Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

2011-01-01

258

Neural tube defects in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) among admissions at a regional referral hospital in Saudi Arabia, compare trends over several years and note any influence of prenatal folic acid treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For every NTD admission into the newborn unit of Asir Central Hospital, during the period January 1995 through December 1998, data were collected on the infant and mother and input into a programmed form. RESULTS: During the period, 64 infants were admitted with NTDs, giving an incidence of 0.78/1000 births in the region. The yearly admission frequency (4.5%-8%) was closely the same (average 6.6%) over the 4-year period (P>0.05). The sex incidence was equal and the major lesions were myelomeningocele (70%) and encephalocele (23%). Thoracolumbar (44.4%) and lumbosacral (40%) regions were the most common sites of spina bifida; encephalocele were largely occipital (93%). A majority (87%) of infants with myelomeningocele were hydrocephalic at birth. Fifty percent of the infants were offspring of consanguineous marriage (first and second cousins). Eighty-three percent of the mothers attended antenatal care, but 70% of these reported late (from the 12th week of pregnancy). Only 25% of the 64 mothers were on folate supplementation during the affected pregnancy and no mother received preconceptional folic acid supplementation. CONCLUSION: The incidence of NTD in the region appears to be non-declining over the years, a situation which is at variance with experience in Western countries. There is a need to consider an intensive approach to periconceptional folic acid supplementation for Saudi women. Genetic counseling may also be important.

Asindi A; Al-Shehri A

2001-01-01

259

Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

Worl, Ronald G.

1978-01-01

260

Saudi Arabia: perspective on oil, foreign policy, and the Arab-Israeli conflict, 1970-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines, through a descriptive and analytical approach, the Saudi perspective on its oil power and policies in world affairs and how the Arab-Israeli conflict affects these policies. A special emphasis on the United States-Saudi Arabian relationship is made, since Saudi Arabia looks at the United States as the key factor in the Arab-Israeli conflict. To serve this end, the dissertation is divided into three parts. Part one examines the economic and political reality of oil power, its implication and limitation. Also, this part examines the behavior and the policies of the oil companies, the oil-consuming countries, and the oil-producing countries after the structural change of the oil industry and the shift in control of production and prices from the hands of the oil companies to those of the oil-producing countries. Part two examines the Saudi Arabian economy, the role of oil in developing this economy, and the effect of Saudi development plans on Saudi oil policies. Part three examines Saudi foreign policy, especially its role in the Arab-Israeli conflict, with emphasis on the Saudi oil role in this regard. Also, this part examines the United States-Saudi Arabia relationship and interest, the United States interest in Israel, and, finally, how Riyadh sees these interests affecting United States policies in the Middle East.

Kurdi, M.A.M.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

Bents, E.R.

1995-05-01

262

Vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic and a common health problem worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to study its relation to various variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric clinic in Jeddah Clinic Hospital-Kandarah, Jeddah, KSA, from October through December 2010, in which 510 healthy children aged 4-15 years were enrolled. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured. Dietary vitamin D intake and duration of daily sunlight exposure were determined. 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL and <7 ng/mL were defined as relative and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. RESULTS: The mean concentration of 25(OH)D was 13.07 ± 7.81 ng/mL. Seventy subjects (13.72%) had normal 25(OH)D level ranging 20-70 ng/mL. Three hundred (58.82%) had relative 25(OH)D deficiency and 140 (27.45%) had severe deficiency (P=0.000). 220 (43.14%) subjects were males and 290 (56.86%) were females having a statistically significant higher incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency (P=0.019). 54.9% were Saudis, 27.45% were Yemenis and 11.76% were Egyptians. Saudis and Yemenis were more subjected to 25(OH)D deficiency in comparison to Egyptians and other nationalities (P=0.01). There were significant inverse correlations between 25(OH)D levels and bony aches (P=0.000). 56.25% of asymptomatic children had vitamin D deficiency (P=0.000). Duration of sunlight exposure and daily intake of vitamin D had significant effects on serum level of vitamin D (P=0.000). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah was observed in this study. Vitamin D supplementation of food products can prevent vitamin D deficiency in these children.

Mansour MM; Alhadidi KM

2012-03-01

263

A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four stages. The outcomes of the studypoint to distrust in the online retailing environment in Saudi Arabia as a key inhibitory factor for growth. As such,a five-part model is proposed to promote trust in the online shopping environment in the KSA.

Rayed AlGhamdi; Steve Drew; Thamer Alhussain

2012-01-01

264

A statistical analysis of wind energy potential at the eastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy potential of wind for the eastern region of Saudi Arabia is investigated based on measurements of a complete year data at a coastal location in eastern Saudi Arabia. A suitable Weibull distribution is generated and a comparison of its model is made with the Rayleigh distribution of wind power densities. Two horizontal-axis type of wind energy conversion systems which operate at fixed rpm are considered for the determination of the extractable wind power, and a model of quadratic power output function is used between the cut-in speed and rated speed. It is shown that small-scale wind energy systems are suitable in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia for power generation and irrigation purposes. (Author)

Sahin, Ahmet Z. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Aksakal, Ahmet [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Research Inst., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1999-07-01

265

Conceptual model for managing the portfolio of Saudi Arabia's reserve funds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to develop a model for managing the foreign exchange reserve portfolio of low absorbing, oil exporting countries, such as Saudi Arabia, through the use of portfolio theory. The nature of these countries relative to high-absorbing countries and the role of reserve funds in their economies are examined. The rationale for these countries to hold a greater portion of excess reserves than is considered normal for other countries is assessed. The interaction of the political, economic, development planning, and oil policy issues as they affect reserve management in capital surplus countries is clarified. The model provides guidelines for the multiple objective management of reserve portfolios. Application of the model has been demonstrated by computing ex post optimal portfolios for Saudi Arabia during the period 1974-1982 as well as during various subperiods and by comparing the results with a proxy of the actual composition of Saudi Arabia's reserves.

Soufi, A.A.

1984-01-01

266

Wind energy resource assessment in Saudi Arabia. Pt.1: Network design and description  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind has been proven at a cost effective and reliable energy source. Technological advancements over the last five years have placed wind energy in a firm position to compete with conventional power generation technologies. Saudi Arabia has a vast uninhabited land area as well as a long coastline, free from the man made obstacles, presenting a possible wind resource. A research program is under way in the Energy Research Institute of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (ERI-KACST) with the aim of studying the potential of wind energy in Saudi Arabia. This paper presents a full description of the equipment, instruments, site specifications and other technical needs for the wind assessment project in Saudi Arabia. (author)

Alawaji, S.H. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Inst.

1996-09-01

267

Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3), most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 %) suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011) in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

A.F. Alsayeqh; shawkat mohamed fathi

2012-01-01

268

Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis  

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Full Text Available Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

Hassan Alhajhoj

2007-01-01

269

Vegetation-Environment Relations in Taif, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study assesses the plant communities and environmental factors that govern species, abundance and distribution in Taif area, western Saudi Arabia, using TWINSPAN analysis. Twenty three vegetation groups were identified visual, seven groups dominated by Aerva lanata, Pergularia tomentosa, Arnebia hispidissima, Salsola spinescens, Capparis decidua, Aizoon canariense and Blepharis ciliaris in the sand plains, Calotropis procera, Dipterygium gluacum, Bassia muricata, Haloxylon scoparium, Aerva gavanica, Anthemis melompodina and Coccinea grandis in the valleys, Halothammus bottae, Anvillea gracinii, Euryops arabicus, Dianthis strictus and Ecobolium gymnostachyum in the slopes and Capparis sinaica, Maerua oblongifolia, Salsola kali and Centaurea schimperi in the plateaus. The application of TWINSPAN classified the community types into 10 clusters at level 15. The existence of vegetation discontinuities along the catena`s depended largely on water table depth and salinity. These parameters decline with increasing altitude, whereas, CaCO3 and organic carbon does not vary along well defined large scale gradients. The relationships of the habitat-floristic groups are not simple and hydromorphism interacts in complex way with halomorphism.

Ragab I. Abdel-Fattah; Akram A. Ali

2005-01-01

270

Human fascioliasis among immigrant workers in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal fascioliasis has been reported in Saudi Arabia among imported and local sheep. The paper demonstrated the parasitological and clinical features of human fascioliasis in nine out of ten male immigrant manual workers with manifestations suggesting fascioliasis. The sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques proved effect in diagnosing Fasciola species eggs in human stool. The common clinical features were abdominal distension, flatulence, tender right-upper quadrant and easy fatigability and the least was the tinge of jaundice. Others as right upper quadrant pains, colicky abdominal pains & vomiting, epi-gastric pain and mild fever, and tympanitic abdomen were encountered. Anaemia and eosinophlia were also encountered in the ten patients. Fascioliasis patients (nine) were successfully treated with Mirazid as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days. Follow-up clinically and parasitologically was available in only seven fascioliasis patients who were completely cured. Follow-up for the other two fascioliasis patients was out in hand. Other parasites recovered in the stained (eosin, iodine and Zeihl-Nelson stains) smear stool samples was Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Besides, three were free from intestinal protozoan. The results were discussed on the light of the other work carried out regionally.

El-Mathal EM; Fouad MA

2005-12-01

271

Patterns of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the patterns in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) in our region, we retrospectively studied 25 nephrotic patients evaluated and followed-up in the hospitals of the Aljouf region in Saudi Arabia. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The incidence of idiopathic NS was two to six cases per 100,000 children/year, while the prevalence was 12 cases per 100,000 children. Five patients presented with hypertension, seven (28%) with respiratory tract infection, three (12%) with tender abdomen, two (8%) with gross hematuria, one (4%) with thrombosis of renal veins with seizure and shock and the remaining seven presented to the hospital without complications. Twenty-three (92%) patients were sensitive to the first steroid course and two (8%) patients were steroid resistant, and both of them proved to have focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on biopsy. Of those who responded, six (24%) patients remained in remission, while 17 (68%) patients became steroid dependant. Of those who were diagnosed as steroid dependent, three patients were biopsied and one of them was diagnosed as FSGS, while the remaining two had minimal change glomerulonephritis. Regarding steroid-dependent patient relapses, seven (41%) patients showed infrequent relapses and ten (59%) patients had frequent relapses. We conclude that the patterns of NS and the response to treatment observed in this study did not differ significantly from studies from other places in the world. PMID:24029283

Alhassan, Abdulaziz; Mohamed, Waleed Z; Alhaymed, Mohamed

2013-09-01

272

Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN), between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common histological lesion (34.6%) and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%), nephrotic syndrome (68.18%), hematuria (63.6%) and renal functional impairment (27.3%). Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1%) followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%), IgA nephropathy (10.2%), and minimal change disease (8.5%). Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%). In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

Mitwalli A; Al Wakeel J; Abu-Aisha H; Alam A; Al Sohaibani M; Tarif N; Hammad D; Askar A; Sulimani F; Abid J; Memon N

2000-01-01

273

Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series.

al-Jarallah M

2001-01-01

274

Knowledge of healthy diets among adolescents in eastern Saudi Arabia.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240) and female (n=1331) adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively), magazines (31% and 39%) and daily newspaper (33% and 34%). Primary health care centers (PHCCs) staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%). CONCLUSIONS : Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.

Al-Almaie Sameeh

2005-01-01

275

Knowledge of healthy diets among adolescents in eastern Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240) and female (n=1331) adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS: Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively), magazines (31% and 39%) and daily newspaper (33% and 34%). Primary health care centers (PHCCs) staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.

Al-Almaie S

2005-07-01

276

Trends in ectopic pregnancies in eastern saudi arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), version 14.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results. There were 274 EPs during the study period; the yearly incidence in terms of 24,098 deliveries was 1.19%. The average age was 28.99?Ĺ 5.62 years. During a three-year period (2000-2002), the incidence was 0.92%; from 2003 to 2005, the incidence was 1.01%; from 2006 to 2008, the incidence was 1.51%; and from 2009 to 2011, the incidence was 1.35%. Age-adjusted ectopic pregnancy incidence rates steadily increased from 92.23 per 10,000 women years during the period 2000-2002 to 149.408 during the 2006-2008 period; since then, it has declined to 110.313 per 10,000 women years. Conclusions. Our study reveals that the incidence of EP has decreased from what it had been during the mid-2000s but has remained significantly elevated when compared to the early 2000s.

Abdulaziz Al-Turki H

2013-01-01

277

Stratigraphic palynology of Devonian boreholes from northern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This extended abstract describes well-preserved palynomorph assemblages recovered from Devonian strata in five shallow boreholes in the northern part of Saudi Arabia. These fully cored holes overlap stratigraphically to form a 1,640 ft composite section spanning the upper Tawil, Jauf and lower Jubah formations. Only the Jauf and lower Jubah, represented by 188 samples taken over a 1,300 ft stratigraphic interval, are addressed here as the sandy Tawil lithologies are unsuitable for palynological analysis. The 900 feet of alternating of siliciclastic and carbonate units, that together comprise the five members of the Jauf Formation, were sampled comprehensively. However, the Jubah Formation, like the Tawil Formation, is mostly sandstone and is productive palynologically at only two levels separated by a 300 ft barren interval. The age of the sampled succession is assessed using index species from the established Euramerican Devonian palynozonations of Richardson & McGregor (1986) and Streel et alii (1987), and is shown to span the late Early and Middle Devonian.

Breuer Pierre; Al-Ghazi Abdullah; Filatoff John; Higgs Ken T.; Steemans Philippe; Wellman Charles H.

2005-01-01

278

Patterns of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the patterns in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) in our region, we retrospectively studied 25 nephrotic patients evaluated and followed-up in the hospitals of the Aljouf region in Saudi Arabia. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The incidence of idiopathic NS was two to six cases per 100,000 children/year, while the prevalence was 12 cases per 100,000 children. Five patients presented with hypertension, seven (28%) with respiratory tract infection, three (12%) with tender abdomen, two (8%) with gross hematuria, one (4%) with thrombosis of renal veins with seizure and shock and the remaining seven presented to the hospital without complications. Twenty-three (92%) patients were sensitive to the first steroid course and two (8%) patients were steroid resistant, and both of them proved to have focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on biopsy. Of those who responded, six (24%) patients remained in remission, while 17 (68%) patients became steroid dependant. Of those who were diagnosed as steroid dependent, three patients were biopsied and one of them was diagnosed as FSGS, while the remaining two had minimal change glomerulonephritis. Regarding steroid-dependent patient relapses, seven (41%) patients showed infrequent relapses and ten (59%) patients had frequent relapses. We conclude that the patterns of NS and the response to treatment observed in this study did not differ significantly from studies from other places in the world.

Alhassan A; Mohamed WZ; Alhaymed M

2013-09-01

279

Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole-dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A\\. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole.

Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Zabramawi, Yasser A.

2012-12-01

280

Patterns of Skin Cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and it is the most common malignant neoplasm in Al-Baha area. This study was performed to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen at King Fahad Hospital, Al-Baha, KSA. Histologically diagnosed skin cancers, seen between 1990 and 2003, were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, race and site of distribution. Of a total of 193 patients, there were 79 (41%) cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 56 (29%) cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 34 (18%) cases of Kaposis sarcoma. Malignant melanomas represent 4.1% of the cases. The male to female ratio for all cancer was 1.6:1. The peak age distribution was in the 70-80-year group. The most common site involved in BCC was the head and neck (90%) and in Kaposis sarcoma were the lower limbs (59%). Acral distribution of malignant melanoma was seen in 62% cases. The most common skin cancers seen are BCC and SCC followed by Kaposis sarcoma. The site of distribution of BCC and SCC in our study is similar to studies in Caucasians. The site of distribution of BCC in sun exposed area supports the role of the ultraviolet light in the pathogenesis of such tumor. In contrast to the western countries, melanoma is a rare skin neoplasm in KSA. (author)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (pG. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

2010-01-01

282

Patterns of thyroid cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the pattern of thyroid cancer, assess the magnitude of the problem, and evolve a management plan for such malignancies. This is a retrospective cohort study of all thyroid cases operated at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1998 and December 2007. Clinical presentations, management regimens, and recurrence were reviewed. Five hundred and sixteen patients were operated for different thyroid lesions. Ninety-two (17.8%) were malignant (20 males and 72 females). Mean age for males was 41.35 +/- 15.52 years compared to 36.59 +/- 13.28 years for females. Papillary carcinoma constituted 50%, while follicular carcinoma formed only 4.3% of malignant cases. Lymphoma ranked third with only 1.1% of all malignant thyroid lesions. No cases of medullary carcinoma were found. Of 92 patients, 75 reported for follow-up. The recurrence rate for follow-up patients was 29 (31.5%). High resolution neck ultrasonography and image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology should be considered as routine investigative tools in patients with suspicious thyroid swelling. Total thyroidectomy and removal of all lymph nodes in the central compartment of the neck seem to be the ideal management plan, until such trials emerge. Residual thyroid tissues, following surgery, should be ablated using radioiodine I131 isotope (Author).

2010-01-01

283

Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

2012-01-01

284

Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs) in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users). In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females (aOR = 3.081, 95% CI: 2.004–4.739). Similarly, parental history of tobacco use was found to be a significant risk factor (aOR = 1.540, 95% CI: 1.040–2.278). Among current users, 89.9% were interested in quitting and 66.1% tried before to quit. The prevalence of smoking among HCWs in the present study, besides being a public health problem, represents a potential barrier in involving this group as a first line for tobacco control. There is a need for a national intervention programme in the country in a tailored manner for HCWs to control tobacco use parallel to the running national program for public. These interventions should begin early in basic medical education and to be applied continually during one's medical career.

Mahfouz, Ahmed A.; Shatoor, Abdullah S.; Al-Ghamdi, Badr R.; Hassanein, Mervat A.; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I.; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M.

2013-01-01

285

Simulation and modeling of solar radiation in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model is used to generate the hourly data for the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface. The generated data are based on the hourly recorded visibility data for 20 years (1970-1989). The model year technique was then applied to model the 20 years of hourly data of solar radiation into one statistically representative year. A model year of hourly data was then generated for the beam and diffuse components of solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Similarly, a model year of hourly data was also generated for the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces with different orientations with its beam, diffuse and reflected components. A simple methodology is proposed for calculating the solar radiation on vertical surfaces, based on a solar impact factor (SIF). Monthly means and daily totals of hourly sums for each month of the year are discussed. The hourly data of solar radiation for a typical day for each month of the year are presented. The data were generated for the four climatic zones of Saudi Arabia, the hot-dry (Riyadh), the warm-humid (Jeddah), the maritime inland desert climate (Dhahran) and the upland climate zone (Taif). The accuracy of the results is discussed and found to be above 90% representative. (author)

Zuhairy, A.A.; Sayigh, A.A.M. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering

1995-04-01

286

Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

Aljaloud SO; Ibrahim SA

2013-01-01

287

Prospects of wind farm development in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the energy output of wind farms in terms of unadjusted energy, gross energy, renewable energy delivered, specific yield and wind farm capacity factor. The analysis also includes the comparison of energy output from two methods: (i) the RETScreen model and (ii) the actual frequency and wind turbine power curve. The energy output analysis is done using three wind energy conversion systems of rated capacity 600, 1000, and 1500 kW. The study is performed for 30 MW installed capacity wind farms at five coastal locations in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the RETScreen software is also used to perform the economical feasibility study of the wind farms at these locations. The study concludes that of the five wind parks, Yanbo and Dhahran are the only two sites where wind park development is economically feasible. Finally, wind park development at Yanbo will result in a reduction in greenhouse gases of 31369, 23601, and 26087 tons each year, corresponding to 1500, 1000, and 600 kW machine wind parks, respectively. On the other hand, at Dhahran, installation of wind machines of 1500, 1000, and 600 kW sizes will reduce the GHGs by 26183, 19247, and 21533 tons per year. (author)

Shafiqur Rehman [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Center for Engineering Research

2005-03-01

288

Wind energy resources assessment for Yanbo, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal and diurnal variations at Yanbo, which is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The wind speed and wind direction hourly data for a period of 14 years between 1970 and 1983 is used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the seasonal and diurnal pattern of wind speed matches the electricity load pattern of the location. Higher winds of the order of 5.0 m/s and more were observed during the summer months of the year and noon hours (09:00 to 16:00 h) of the day. The wind duration availability is discussed as the percent of hours during which the wind remained in certain wind speed intervals or bins. Wind energy calculations were performed using wind machines of sizes 150, 250, 600, 800, 1000, 1300, 1500, 2300 and 2500 kW rated power. Wind speed is found to remain above 3.5 m/s for 69% of the time during the year at 40, 50, 60, and 80 m above ground level. The energy production analysis showed higher production from wind machines of smaller sizes than the bigger ones for a wind farm of 30 MW installed capacity. Similarly, higher capacity factors were obtained for smaller wind machines compared to larger ones. (Author)

Rehman, S. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Center for Engineering Research

2004-08-01

289

Extreme Temperature Trends on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The extreme temperature trends are analyzed for a meteorological data collection station in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia over approximately last four decades stretching between years 1970 and 2006. The long-term change in temperature has been assessed by Mann-Kendell rank statistics and linear trend analysis. The study also includes the estimation of hot and cold days and nights frequencies and finally the temperature anomalies on yearly basis. The ratio between the seasonal mean temperatures (Tmmean) of the daily mean of hottest (July) and coldest (January) months was 1.032. Similarly the ratios between the seasonal mean temperature of daily maximum (Tmmax) of hottest and coldest months was 1.033 while for seasonal mean temperature of daily minimum (Tmmin) was 1.030. Significant increase was observed in hot days per year and relatively smaller decrease in hot nights. Significant increase in summer time temperatures was confirmed by both linear regression analysis and M-K rank statistics. The monthly and annual mean maximum temperatures have increased more than the mean and mean minimum temperatures.

Shafiqur Rehman; Luai M. Al-Hadhrami

2012-01-01

290

Feasibility study of wind energy utilization in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wind map of Saudi Arabia indicates that the Kingdom is characterized by the existence of two vast windy regions along the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea coastal areas. The mean annual wind speed in these two windy regions exceeds 9 knots (16.7 kmph) and ranges from about 14 to 22 kmph and 16 to 19 kmph over the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea coastal areas, respectively. The main characteristic features of the wind field of these regions are presented. Four sample sites are selected for possible installation of both small and large wind energy conversion systems. These sites are: Yenbo and Al-Wajh on the Red Sea coast, Dhahran on the Arabian Gulf coast and Quaisumah in the north east of the Kingdom. The manufacturers pre-mass production unit capital costs are used to estimate the cost of electricity produced, in cents/kWh. The estimated costs of electricity produced by WEC systems of various rated powers when installed at the four sites are presented. A further reduction in the manufacturers unit capital cost is still required to enable wind energy to compete with other conventional energy sources. For oil-producing countries, it may be a few decades before wind energy can become cost-competitive with other energy sources. (A.V.)

Amin, M.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)); El-Samanoudy, M.A.

1985-04-01

291

Pediatric renal diseases in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pediatric nephrology is a growing subspecialty in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Pediatric nephrologists are challenged with a different spectrum of renal diseases. Moreover, there is a lack of epidemiological studies for most of these diseases. In this article, we discuss the spectrum of renal diseases in KSA and highlight the differences that exist between reports from KSA and those from other countries. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched for articles on pediatric renal diseases. RESULTS: Genetically mediated renal diseases are considerably high in KSA. Congenital and infantile nephrotic syndrome is higher in KSA than in other countries. Post-infectious glomerular pathology is rather common but is declining, while tropical infections such as schistosomiasis have been controlled. Neurogenic bladder caused by spinal lesion is an important cause of chronic kidney disease among pediatric patients. Renal stones are also more frequent in KSA than in other countries. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of pediatric renal diseases in KSA is rather different from that reported from Western countries. More epidemiological studies are required to understand the actual incidence and nature of these diseases.

Kari JA

2012-08-01

292

Atherosclerotic disease and risk factor modification in Saudi Arabia: a call to action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general internists, cardiologists and vascular surgeons) in managing these patients in Saudi Arabia is not currently known. This study was conducted to examine the perceptions and knowledge of risk reduction therapy in patients with AD amongst physicians in Saudi Arabia in two clinical presentations; coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD).Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 897 physicians at different hospitals in four provinces in Saudi Arabia.Results: The recommended targets of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), blood glucose, and blood pressure in patients with CAD and PAD were known as 40% and 36%; 70% and 66%; and 32% and 28% of physicians, respectively. The initiation of antiplatelet medications, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, statins, and nicotine replacement therapy for smokers in patients with CAD and PAD were recommended by 98% and 97%; 52% and 34%; 61% and 56%; and 50% and 43% of physicians, respectively. Compared to other specialties, cardiologists had the lowest threshold for initiating risk reduction therapy, whereas vascular surgeons had the highest threshold.Conclusion: The level of physician awareness of atherosclerosis risk reduction therapy across Saudi Arabia has revealed knowledge and action gaps. A call to action to implement effective strategies to encourage health professionals to use risk reduction therapy and increase public awareness is needed.Keywords: coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, risk reduction, atherosclerosis

Al-Omran M

2012-01-01

293

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi secondary school girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. Results: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

294

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

2009-01-01

295

Acute myocardial infarction at high altitude: the experience in Asir Region, southern Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the first report from southern Saudi Arabia, we studied retrospectively 124 patients admitted to Asir Central Hospital, Abha, with proved acute myocardial infarction. There were 116 men (94%) and 98 patients were Saudi (79%). The majority of non-Saudi patients were Egyptians and Pakistanis. The mean age was 57 (SD = 13) years. Diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and hypercholestrolemia were the most common risk factors. Most of the patients had anterior acute myocardial infarction and, remarkably, both the incidence of complications and the mortality rate were lower than those reported from the rest of Saudi Arabia and the western world. A possible explanation for this trend, among others, could be prolonged residence at high altitude, which may have acted as a protective factor to the myocardium.

Ashouri K; Ahmed ME; Kardash MO; Sharif AY; Abdalsattar M; al Ghozeim A

1994-01-01

296

Retrospective analysis of keratoconus at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mussaed AlabdelmoneamFaculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Shaqra University, Saudi ArabiaBackground: This work was a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary eye care hospital to evaluate the putative prevalence and referral patterns for keratoconus by gender, age, and region of Saudi Arabia.Methods: Files from 1638 keratoconus patients from different regions of Saudi Arabia referred to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1999 and December 2010 were analyzed in a retrospective manner.Results: The patient’s files were reviewed for the demographic factors of age, gender, and area of origin within Saudi Arabia. Mean age at evaluation was 21.7 (range 14–49) years. In total, 465 patients (28.39%) were aged 21–25 years, with 389 patients (23.75%) being aged 16–20 years. A minority of patients were aged 10–15 years and 46–50 years (34 [2.08%] and 51 [3.11%], respectively). Keratoconus patients aged 26–30 years and 31–35 years numbered 230 (14.04%) and 273 (16.67%), respectively. The distribution of patients referred with keratoconus aged 36–45 years was narrower, comprising 113 (6.89%) and 83 (5.07%) patients, respectively. With respect to gender, 870 (53.11%) of cases were male and 768 (46.89%) were female. With regard to region, 37.30% were referred from the central region of Saudi Arabia, 37.11% were from the southern region, 10.50% were from the northern region, and 9.34% were from the western region. The smallest number of patients came from the eastern region (5.73%).Conclusion: In total, 1638 patients were referred to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital for treatment of keratoconus from one of the five regions of Saudi Arabia at an average annual rate of referral of 136.5 patients per year. The overall distribution of keratoconus patients was almost equal between men and women, with a higher incidence in younger patients aged 16–26 years.Keywords: keratoconus, age, gender, tertiary eye-care hospital, Saudi Arabia

Alabdelmoneam M

2012-01-01

297

Wind power energy potential at the northeastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study the energy potential of wind for the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia is investigated. A suitable Weibull distribution is generated based on the data obtained for a duration of one complete year at a coastal location in northeastern Saudi Arabia. Comparison of this model is made with the Rayleigh distribution of wind power densities. Two horizontal-axis type of wind energy conversion systems which operate at fixed rpm are considered and a model of quadratic power output function is used. It is found that the error in using the Rayleigh approximation will be less than 10% of the full rated power density level. (author)

Sahin, A.Z. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Aksakal, A. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research Institute

1998-05-01

298

Arab oil industry: status and future of petrochemicals in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia's third five-year plan for self-sufficiency will build on the infrastructure already developed in the areas of maintenance and expansion of the productive sector of the hydrocarbon industries. The Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) is participating in joint ventures with established chemical and oil companies to produce methanol and fertilizer and is developing five other projects to use gaseous feedstocks. The natural gas is now flared; this has the advantage of low price and sophistication for the first generation of plants. (DCK)

1980-05-01

299

Consequential Effects of Defence Expenditure on Economic Growth of Saudi Arabia: 1970-2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the causality relationship between defence expenditures and Non Oil economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period 1970-2012. Using Unit root tests, Johansen’s co-integration test and Granger Causality test. In this paper we found the existence of bi-directional causality relationship running from Non Oil-GDP to defence expenditure. The results show that, in Saudi Arabia, the model of defence expenditure is found to hold for Non Oil-GDP.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Shatha M Zaidan

2013-01-01

300

Arsenic, Lead and Microorganisms in Hair and Nails of Some Women from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might be important in dealing with metal pollution in Saudi Arabia.

A. R. Hashem; K. F. Abed

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Review of e-Government Policy and Outcomes in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public sector organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were directed to place their communications and services online in 2005, in part to promote internet-based technologies throughout the country. Due to political and technical issues, the internet was late to the region; however, the advent of useful and affordable mobile devices accelerated private and commercial take up of data-sharing technologies, and Saudi Arabia currently has one of the highest national growth rates in this regard. Late adoption means that the Kingdom bypassed many early issues of large-scale technological change as managers could select from a range of proven technologies, nevertheless the traditionalist Saudi society remained until recently largely unconvinced of the benefits of the internet. Using the two aspects of rapidly improving technological infrastructure and a reticent family-based national consumer profile, this paper relates the progress of internet-based adoption in an emerging market through the prism of e-government status in Saudi Arabia. The issues raised in the context of Saudi Arabia have application in the Arab world and other emerging markets, especially Islamic.

Mohammed Ateeq Alanezi; Ahmad Kamil Mahmood; Shuib Basri

2011-01-01

302

Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

2002-01-01

303

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

Kamel RM

2013-01-01

304

Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

2002-04-01

305

Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. Results: The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 ± 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Conclusion: Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine.

Al-Binali Ali; Al-Shehri Mohammed; Abdelmoneim Ismail; Shomrani Ali; Al-Fifi Suliman

2009-01-01

306

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

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Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution.

Al-Naami Mohammed; Arafah Maria; Al-Ibrahim Fatimah

2010-01-01

307

Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadi Sayyah, Western Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > NO3 -. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO4 2-, Cl-) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3 -, CO{3/-}). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.

Al-Ahmadi, Masoud Eid

2013-07-01

308

Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

2009-01-01

309

Stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Unayzah reservoir, central Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Significant reserves of Arabian super light oil, condensate, and associated gas occur in the various genetically different sandstone bodies of the upper Permian Unayzah and Khuff Formations in Central Saudi Arabia. The Unayzah Formation which rests unconformably on the older formations is composed of red colored, poorly sorted conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, caliche and nodular anhydrite. Facies changes occur due to the presence of various subenvironments and possible faulting and structural growth in the basin during deposition. However, the entire Unayzah Formation shows an overall fining and thinning-upward sequence. It was deposited as coalescing alluvial fans dominated by braided streams which graded into meandering stream and playa lakes under and to semi-arid conditions. Eolian processes were also inferred. A marked unconformity which is indicated by the occurrence of thick caliche and soil horizons separate the Unayzah and the overlying Khuff Formation. The Khuff Formation consists primarily of marine shale, marl, and fine- to very coarse-grained sandstones in the lower parts; shale, limestone, dolomite, and amhydrite in the upper parts. The sandstones were deposited as incised channel fills and their associated low stand deltaic sediments as a result of fluctuating sea level during the deposition of the Khuff Formation. The base of the incised channels represent a sequence boundary. Red colored and rooted paleosols were formed on the underlying marine sediments. During relative sea level rise, good quality reservoir sands were deposited by aggradation within the incised channels. Sand deposition within the channels terminated at the same time, and the area was covered by shallow marine limestones, shales and marls during maximum sea level highstand. Although the Unayzah reservoir occurs in both the Unayzah and the Khuff Formations because of their different geometry, continuity, and reservoir quality, they have been studied separately.

Senalp, M.; Abdulaziz, A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1995-08-01

310

Saudi Arabia: Measures of Transition from a Rentier State  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

This chapter assesses the extent to which Saudi Arabia's long-term economic development strategy is meeting its objectives. Early on after the 1973-74 oil boom, the government decided that a high proportion of the country's oil revenues should be spent in a manner that would encourage private sector investment and production. Part of a larger political/military strategy, the economic component was to diversify the economy away from oil to the extent that self-sustaining growth could occur in the major non-oil sectors of the economy. Clearly, the goal is the creation of an economy capable of functioning independently of developments in the oil sector. This strategy was intended to provide more stability to the country's pattern of economic growth and development, and while several oil-producing countries express this desire, the Kingdom's planners put together a coherent investment strategy focused on achieving this result. At least publicly, the strategy has remained in place since the early 1970s. While the goals of this strategy seem straightforward, arriving at an objective assessment of progress made to date is extremely difficult. If one could show that, over time, a linkage from private expenditures to private output was growing stronger than that of public expenditures to private output, then one might argue that the economy had evolved a bit, but that private expenditures themselves could not be sustained without a steady infusion of government funds. The methods by which one defines and measures oil independence are at the crux of assessing the success of the country's development accomplishments. The first sections of the chapter provide a brief overview of the macro-economy. Trends in output and expenditure are examined, and relevant patterns are identified. The second section develops an operational test for measuring the extent to which the private sector is replacing government spending as the prime mover of the non-oil sector.

2001-01-01

311

Assessment of nutritional rickets in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To explore the role of radiological examination and certain biochemichal values in diagnosing and assessing severity of nutritional rickets. There were cases of nutritional rickets (age range between 3-36 months) seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period 1997-1999 were studied. Determinatin of calcium (Ca), phosphate(PO4),alkaline phosphate(ALP),hand and wrist x-rays,were performed for all cases. 60 cases of nutritional rickets were dignosed within 2 years,38.3% of the patients presented with swollen wristand 28.3% with bowleg.The bone profile at the time of diagnosis: Ca=2.33+-0.23,PO4=1.47+-0.40 and ALP=925+-418. Approximately 81.7% of the patients had a normal of Ca level, 18.3% had low serum PO4 level, 98.3%high value of ALP. X-ray studies indicated that,58.3% of patients have active rickets, 35% had minimal changes, and 6.7% showed healed rickets. Among those having active rickets 20% had low PO4 level ,83% had normal Ca vlaue , and 100% had high ALP.The mean value +- Sd of biochemical values in this group : Ca=2.34+-0.24, PO4= 1.45+-0.42,ALP=1067+-452. The later was significantly higher compared to other groups (P=0.004). Radiological examination and ALP remains essential to confirm clinical diagnosis of rickets and assessment of severity. (author)

2003-01-01

312

EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its components compared to the neighbouring Gulf country of Bahrain, which was ranked 8th for the same index. While this is still modest in relation to the Saudi government’s expectation concerning its vision for eGovernment implementation for 2010, and the results achieved by the neighbouring Gulf countries such as Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the eGovernment index, the Saudi government has endeavoured to meet the public needs concerning eGovernment and carry out the implementation of eGovernment properly. Governments may heed the importance of actively launching official government websites – the focus of this study – as the main portals for delivering their online services to all the different categories of eGovernment (including G2C, G2B, and G2G). However, certain Saudi ministries have not given due attention to this vital issue. This is evidenced by the fact that some of their websites are not fully developed or do not yet exist, which clearly impedes that particular ministry from appropriately delivering eServices.

Osama Alfarraj; Steve Drew; Rayed Abdullah AlGhamdi

2011-01-01

313

A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take care of Saudi patients who are from the dominant culture. In this scenario, a lack of knowledge of Saudi culture among nurses can lead to cultural conflicts and misunderstanding of some of the behaviours and practices of the indigenous Saudi people. Culture is a complex notion; however, being aware of cultural differences and having cultural knowledge can help people to interact safely. Educating expatriate nurses about the cultural heritage of the Saudi people, which is mainly influenced by Islamic teachings, is important to increase cultural harmony.

Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

2012-01-01

314

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Study, Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of global and normal incident radiation at the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia solar powered desalination plant site are documented. The use of parabolic, two axis tracking, point focusing solar collectors necessitates the measurement and analysis of the normal incident data. The accuracy of the measuring instruments and the results of analysis of one year solar radiation are briefly discussed. (BCS)

1985-01-01

315

Molecular Phylogeny of Viperidae Family from Different Provinces in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Molecular systematic is important in solving the problematic taxonomy of venomous snakes and development of antivenins. The current study aimed to investigate the molecular phylogeny of 4 venomous species in Saudi Arabia using mitochondrial (mt) 16S rRNA gene.

DNA extract...

Ahmed M. Alshammari

316

The emergence of Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We analyzed the available data on a total of 1505 strains isolated during 2002-2005. RESULTS: Spoligotyping results revealed that Beijing family isolates repres...

Al Hajoj, Sahal; Rastogi, Nalin

317

Scanning electron microscopy of Subulura brumpti from domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus from Taif, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematode Subulura brumpti is described from the caecae of the domestic fowl collected from Taif, Saudi Arabia. The surface topography of the worms is described using scanning electron microscopy. This included the description of mouth opening, sensory papillae, cuticular surface, copulatory spicules and copulatory papillae. PMID:23697032

Ashour, Ameen A; Al-Gody, Mansour H

2013-04-01

318

Learning style preferences of medical students: a single-institute experience from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, King Fahad Medical College, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study of preclinical students with 74 male and 72 female (...

Ayesha Nuzhat; Raneem O. Salem; Mohammed S.A. Quadri; Nasir Al-Hamdan

319

Profiling E-buyers in Saudi Arabia: Demographic, Experiential, and Attitudinal Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research study is to develop profiles of adopters and non-adopters of internet shopping in Saudi Arabia based on their demographic variables and internet usage patrons and to investigate consumers’ attitude towards online shopping and perception and formation of attitude by using...

Moudi Almousa

320

Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia will face water shortages in 2040-2050.Water shortages in Iran are most sensitive to climate change due to agriculture.In most cases, supply enhancement is too expensive and demand has to be reduced.

Hellegers, Petra; Immerzeel, Walter; Droogers, Peter

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Mineral analysis of soil, euphorbia hirta l. And mycoflora from the industrial Yanbu City, Saudi Arabia ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil and Euphorbia hirta L. samples were collected from five localities from the industrial Yanbu city Saudi Arabia, and analysed for their metal and fungal flora. Soil type is sandy, alkaline and contained low percentage of total organic matter, moisture content and total soluble salts. Soil and pl...

Hashem, Abdulwahab R. [??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ????

322

Production and Some Properties of Protease Produced by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Tihamet Aseer, Saudi Arabia  

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Culture conditions affecting protease production by Bacillus licheniformis isolated from Tihamet Aseer, Saudi Arabia were investigated. The bacterium strain gave a maximum protease production of 221 U mL-1 when growing in a casein broth medium after 36 h compared with gelatin broth...

Al-Shehri; M. Abdulrahman; Mostafa S. Yasser

323

Epidemiological characterization of P. aeruginosa isolates of intensive care units in Egypt and Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to characterize Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in 2 intensive care units in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. P. aeruginosa isolates from patients' and staff hands and environmental samples were typed using antibiotyping and ERIC-PCR. In Egypt, isolates from suction apparatus tubing and drainage containers (A7) and AV tubing (A8) were linked to those from patients who had these antibiotypes. In Saudi Arabia, isolates from suction apparatus tubing (A6) and AV tubing (A7) were linked to patients with the same antibiotypes. In Egypt, patients' isolates had ERIC VII, VIll and IX patterns linked to suction apparatus tubing, AV machine tubes and drainage containers. In Saudi Arabia, patients' isolates had ERIC VIII and XI patterns linked to suction apparatus tubing and AV machines. In Egypt and Saudi Arabia, ERIC typing gave higher discriminatory indices (0.801 and 0.785 respectively) than the antibiotyping (0.7123 and 0.728 respectively). ERIC was superior to antibiotyping and should be used in tracing sources of infection.

Mansour SA; Eldaly O; Jiman-Fatani A; Mohamed ML; Ibrahim EM

2013-01-01

324

Scanning electron microscopy of Subulura brumpti from domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus from Taif, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nematode Subulura brumpti is described from the caecae of the domestic fowl collected from Taif, Saudi Arabia. The surface topography of the worms is described using scanning electron microscopy. This included the description of mouth opening, sensory papillae, cuticular surface, copulatory spicules and copulatory papillae.

Ashour AA; Al-Gody MH

2013-04-01

325

Survey of Some Mushrooms in Al-Taif Governorate of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fourteen species of mushrooms belonging to nine genera were collected and identified from seven localities in Al-Taif Governorate of Saudi Arabia. Al-Rouddof region was found to be the richest locality followed by sised and Al-Shafa. Only one species was recorded in Sad Akrama, Al-Mathnah, Wadi Mihrim and Al-Hada localities.

A.M. Abou-Zeid; A.E. Altalhi

2006-01-01

326

The Mineralogy of Clay Fractions in the Soils of the Southern Region of Jazan, Saudi Arabia  

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Because of very limited information of the clay minerals of Southern Jazan region (Saudi Arabia), the mineralogy of the clay fraction has been studied. A total of nineteen soil samples from five sites representing the main landforms in the region were studied. X-ray diffraction, differential the...

A.S. Al-Farraj

327

Biodiversity of the Plant Species in Bisha, Asir Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The study focused on plant diversity and species richness in each landform in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. One hundred and forty five species were recorded, belonging to 39 families. The most dominant families were Compositae (20 %), Graminae (14.5 %), Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae (7 %). The contribution of the study area for ferns (25 %), gymnospermae (10 %), dicot (12 %) and monocot (11.9) of the total species in Saudi Arabia. The maximum number of plant species was attained in wadis followed by sandy plain habitats (111 and 109 respectively). The highest species richness/ habitat (111 sp./habitat) was recorded in wadis, while the lowest (56 sp./habitat) was recorded in rocky ridges . Beta diversity was estimated as the ratio between the total number of species and species richness (alpha diversity) where, there was little variation among four habitats (e.g. maximum ratio was 15.1 in sandy flat plateaus and minimum was 10.0 in both sandy rocky ridges and rocky ridges). About 10, 12, 12, and 25 % of the ferns, gymnospermae, dicotyledoneae, and monocotyledoneae were respectively the flora of Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, about 24 %, of the flowering plant occur in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia.

S. Z. Heneidy; L. M. Bidak

2001-01-01

328

Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article aims to review the historical development of continuing professional development programmes (CPDPs) for teachers, as well as the policies and objectives of such programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the inception of these programmes until now. Styles of CPDPs that the Education Training Centres (ETCs) offer are…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2011-01-01

329

Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

2010-01-01

330

Fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. ) germination and establishment under arid environmental conditions of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this study were to conduct an autecological investigation of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) in the Al-Gassim region of Saudi Arabia, upon which range rehabilitation could be based. Germination, seedling, transplanting, and water relation characteristics of the species under controlled and field conditions were determined. Most of the field work was conducted at plain and sand dune areas of the Al-Gassim, Saudi Arabia, and supplemented with growth chamber experiments. Seeds of tetrapolid and diploid forms, native to the United States, were introduced to Saudi Arabia, and their performance was determined. The Al-Gassim soil and climatic features were analyzed. Laboratory and field tests proved that fourwing saltbush was able to become established under and tolerate wide ranges of soil and harsh climatic conditions as found in the Al-Gassim. The best temperature range for germination was 15 to 35 C. High salinity in the soil of the plains area was found to be the only soil character that slightly decreased seedling growth, but germination and survival behaviors were not affected. The adaptation to extreme environmental conditions coupled with its known high nutritional forage values makes fourwing saltbush a valuable range plant in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia. As demand on rangeland increases, improved forage plants must have drough and salinity resistance mechanisms, and improved range management techniques should be used to achieve optimum returns.

Al-Hedaithy, S.S.M.

1983-01-01

331

Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

Krieger, Zvika

2007-01-01

332

Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%), the lowest in February (2.52%). Most patients were male (61.8%); the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%). Nocturnal envenomation (47.74%) was more common than diurnal (43.91%); most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%), mainly in the lower limbs (63%). Most envenomings were mild (74.48%) and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828), Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807), and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807) were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

M. K. Al-Sadoon; B. M. Jarrar

2003-01-01

333

Hydrogeology of the Saq Aquifer Northwest of Tabuk, Northern Saudi Arabia ????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????, ???? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Groundwater resources are precious commodity in general and for arid regions in particular. Their exploration, exploitation, protection and management play significant role in societal activities. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, extensive aquifers are available in the Arabian Shelf. The Saq aquifer ...

Masoud Al-Ahmadi

334

Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%), the lowest in February (2.52%). Mos (more) t patients were male (61.8%); the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%). Nocturnal envenomation (47.74%) was more common than diurnal (43.91%); most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%), mainly in the lower limbs (63%). Most envenomings were mild (74.48%) and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828), Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807), and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807) were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

Al-Sadoon, M. K.; Jarrar, B. M.

2003-01-01

335

Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2012-01-01

336

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

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Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of C...

Kamel RM

337

Sulfide Assemblages and Metamorphic Episodes at Mahd Adh Dhahab Gold Mine, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mahd Adh Dhahab gold mine is located in the west central part of the Arabian Shield and has been the most productive gold mine in Saudi Arabia in both ancient and recent times. Textural and mineralogical features observed in the ore deposits at Mahd Adh Dhahab indicate that the deposits have bee...

HASHEMD. HAKIM; OMAR EL-MAHDY

338

A Fluid Inclusion Study on Mahd Adh Dhahab Gold Deposit, Saudi Arabia ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mahd adh Ohahab. the oldest gold mine in Saudi Arabia, is situated at the central part of the Arabian shield. It consists of an upper Proterozoic rock sequence of andesite, agglomerate, lower rhyolitic tuff, lithic crystal tuff, upper rhyolitic tuff and a late small porphyritic rhyolite intrusion. F...

H. HAKIM; M. CHINKUL

339

The relationship between heavy metal concentration and soil mycoflora in theGizan region, Saudi Arabia ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? - ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil samples were collected from different places from the Gizan region, Saudi Arabia, and analyzed mechanically and chemically for mineral content. The soils were highly alkaline and sandy in texture in all cases. The concentration of Zn, Pb and Cu were within the ranges reported earlier for some S...

Falih, A. M. [??? ???? ????? ??? ??????

340

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

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Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia w...

Abdulaziz Alqarni; Mohammed Hannan; Victor Gonzalez; Michael Engel

 
 
 
 
341

Swedish Companies in Saudi Arabia : The Struggle to Maintain Corporate Culture  

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Saudi Arabia is increasingly becoming one of the most attractive areas in the world for foreign investors. At the same time the country has a major influence on the economy in the Middle-East. However there exist reasons for why companies previously have been reluctant to enter this market, these re...

Hartvigson, Johannes; Hourani, Rayan

342

Utilization of Cement Kiln Dust and Fly Ash in Cement Blends in Saudi Arabia ????????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cement kiln dust produced in a local cement production plant in Saudi Arabia, along with fly ash resulting from combustion of heavy fuel oil in a local power generation plant were utilized as waste materials blended with ordinary Portland cement at various ratios. These blends were tested for their ...

M. DAOUS

343

Performance Analysis of PV Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia  

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The potential implementation of photovoltaic (PV) energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed in this paper. HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable) software was used to perform the technical feasibility of the system. The feasibility of PV energy system...

344

Rayn formation, a new name for the permian khuff formation (s. S.) In saudi arabia ????? ????? ? ??? ???? ?????? ???? (?????? ) ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rank of the Khuff Formation (late Carboniferous-late Permian) in Saudi Arabia is raised to group status and it is divided into Unayzah (late Carboniferous-early Permian) and Rayn (middle-late Permian) Formations. The name Rayn Formation is suggested as a new term to replace the Khuff Formation s...

El Nakhal, Hamed A. [???? ???? ??????

345

Petrography and Diagenetic Controls on Reservoir Characteristics in Unayzah Formation, Central Saudi Arabia ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Unayzah Formation forms the basal part of the Permo- Carboniferous sedimentary succession in central Saudi Arabia and represents a transgressive and regressive unit, comprised of sandstone and shale/claystone sequences situated above the thick Qusaiba Shale (Silurian) and below the Khuff Carbona...

OMAR AL-HARBI

346

Pediatrician knowledge, perception, and experience on child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and professional experience of pediatricians in Saudi Arabia regarding child abuse and neglect. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study during a one day pediatric conference held on King King Abdulaziz University Hospital , a tertiary care teaching hospital in western Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study targeted 198 attendees who were invited from different healthcare sectors in the country. RESULTS: The overall knowledge of participants about some important aspects of child abuse and negligence was adequate, ranging between 82% and 91%. However, their knowledge about reporting cases of child abuse and neglect was quite deficient, ranging between 66% and 79%. As for professional experience about child abuse and negligence it showed considerable variation between participants ranging between 43% and 82%, in which pediatricians who received their medical education in Saudi Arabia scored statistically significantly higher, while pediatricians who received their medical education in Western countries scored higher in all other aspects of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, the knowledge and clinical experience on the subject of child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia is enough to adopt a comprehensive strategy for the prevention and interventions of child maltreatment at all levels. Pediatricians are expected to play a key role by leading and facilitating this process.

Habib HS

2012-05-01

347

Application of Seismic Risk Analysis and Earthquake Simulation Methods to the Western Region in Saudi Arabia ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a series of applications of existing methods of seismic risk analysis and earthquake simulation to four major cities in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. Seismic risk maps available in literature, in the form of isointensity and isoacceleration graphs for the region. are first ...

S. ASHOUR; H. ABDELRAHMAN

348

Educational Characteristics of the Population of Saudi Arabia: A Study in Population Geography ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? : ????? ?????? ??????? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to understand the educational status of the population of Saudi Arabia in general, and present the spatial variation of illiteracy rates in particular. It aslo examines the age-sex differentials and attempts to explain the spatial variation in terms of demographic, social, and econom...

Khraif, Rshood M. [???? ?? ???? ??????

349

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Antibodies Among Hemodialysis Patients in Al-Hasa Region of Saudi Arabia  

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The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among hemodialysis (HD) patients was studied at King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia. The records of 189 patients undergoing HD were reviewed. The overall prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 43.9%. Anti-HCV antibody prevalence was more common among ...

Saxena Anil; Panhotra B; Naguib Mohamed; Aboras Mohammed; Sundaram D; Venkateshappa C; Khan Wahid

350

Childhood primary glomerular diseases in the western region of Saudi Arabia  

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We report our institute experience on primary glomerular disease in children in the western region of Saudi Arabia over the last 18 years (1988 to 2006). A total of 169 cases were identified as primary glomerular diseases in children and adolescent with age range from first year of life till 18 year...

Jalalah Sawsan; Jamal Awatif

351

Clinico-pathological patterns of colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia: Younger with an advanced stage presentation  

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Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and pathological features of CRC in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed ...

Aljebreen Abdulrahman

352

Past, present and future of colorectal cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Background/Aims: The crude frequency of colorectal cancer (CRC) is second to breast cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To assess the future burden of CRC in the country, we designed a model that takes into consideration the recent lifestyle pattern and the growth and aging of the p...

Ibrahim Ezzeldin; Zeeneldin Ahmed; El-Khodary Tawfik; Al-Gahmi Aboelkhair; Bin Sadiq Bakr

353

Drugs for the treatment of malaria in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Current malaria treatments are based on the use of artemisinin based combinations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the combination of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine/artesunate is the first line of treatment of uncomplicated malaria, while lumefantrine/artemether (Coartem®) is used as a seco...

Alexis Nzila; Ibrahim Al-Zahrani

354

CAPD in Dammam Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Five-Year Experience  

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Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indicat...

Youmbissi Joseph; Malik Taher; Al Khursany Issam; Ghacha Reda; Ajitkumar Sinha; Al Ahmed Farida; Rafi Ali; Rahman Mohamed

355

Pattern of colorectal cancer at two hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia  

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Patients and Methods: Data of all patients with CRC treated at two hospitals in the Western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), between 1993 and 2002, were collected and analyzed. Results: Out of the 121 patients evaluated, ten were excluded because of incomplete data. Out ...

Al-Ahwal Mahmoud; Al-Ghamdi Aisha

356

Patterns of primary glomerular diseases among adults in the western region of Saudi Arabia  

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The frequency of primary glomerular diseases is variable from one part of the world to the other. Data published from Saudi Arabia has shown wide range of variation in the different regions of the country. This study reports the frequency of primary glomerulonephritis (GN) in adults in the Western r...

Jalalah Sawsan

357

Hair and Nails Levels of Iron of Some Healthy Volunteer Women from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The levels of iron in hair and nails of some healthy volunteer women from Saudi Arabia were determined. The level of iron were found to be lower than that reported from different places in the world. Hair and nails are useful parameters for measurement of the accumulation of metals in the human body.

A.R. Hashem; M.R. Al-Othman

2001-01-01

358

Increased seroprevalence of human herpes virus-8 in renal transplant recipients in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) is a herpes virus that is always associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. Previous studies suggested a high rate of Kaposi's sarcoma in renal transplant patients in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HHV-8 in Saudi renal transplant recipients and healthy controls. METHODS: An immunofluorescence technique was used to detect antibodies to the latent nuclear antigen (LANA) of HHV-8 in renal transplant patients, members of a family affected with Kaposi sarcoma, as well as healthy controls. RESULTS: A significantly higher HHV-8 seroprevalence was detected in renal transplant recipients from Saudi Arabia (27 out of 150; 18%) and in members of a family affected with Kaposi sarcoma (seven out of 10; 70%) relative to the seroprevalence in healthy controls (10 out of 577; 1.7%). Seropositivity for HHV-8 in these transplant patients was not significantly influenced by: the existence of relatives with kidney failure, the donors' country of origin, the recipients' home region within Saudi Arabia, the haemodialysis centre, the time that elapsed since the renal transplantation operation and the immunosuppressive regimen used. CONCLUSION: The present results provide some explanation for the previously noted high incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Saudi transplant patients.

Alzahrani AJ; El-Harith el-HA; Milzer J; Obeid OE; Stuhrmann M; Al-Dayel A; Mohamed EA; Al-Egail S; Daoud M; Chowdhury A; Guella A; Aloraifi I; Schulz TF

2005-11-01

359

FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether or not to adopt online channels. As part of a larger research project using mixed methods, this paper focuses on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of retailers in Saudi Arabia. The design of the questionnaire instrument was based on the findings of a qualitative analysis reported in a previous paper. The main findings of the current study include a list of key factors that affect retailers’ e-commerce adoption, such as lack of online payment options and lack of clear legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships.

Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew

2012-01-01

360

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia: epidemiological trends from 2000 to 2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiological trends related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Al Hassa, an endemic area in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This retrospective study included the spatial/temporal analysis of the reported cases of CL using the available surveillance database for the disease at the regional Vector Control Unit, from 2000 to 2010. RESULTS: The incidence of CL was declining at a stable rate especially during the last 3 years of the study (2008-2010). An interesting finding was the percentage of expatriates affected was increasing over the last 10 years compared to that of the Saudis. CONCLUSIONS: A definite declining trend in the incidence of CL was observed in Al Hassa. Further studies are warranted to assess whether special public health measures are needed for better control of CL in expatriate populations in Saudi Arabia.

Amin TT; Al-Mohammed HI; Kaliyadan F; Mohammed BS

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

A discussion of professional issues of hospital social workers in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health care has evolved rapidly in Saudi Arabia, based on a Western model of service that incorporates multidisciplinary professional teams. Social work practice forms part of patient care. Within the cultural context of Saudi Arabia, social work education is developing and so too is the role of the practitioner in the hospital system. However, little is known about how social workers are integrated into the hospital setting. This study explores how Saudi social workers perceive their role and how they describe their practice. A quantitative methodology was employed using a self-administered questionnaire design. Analyses showed a number of perceived limitations that precluded effective performance in practicing social workers; these included difficulties related to updating job skills, followed by a perceived deficiency in current supervisory support.

Albrithen A; Yalli N

2013-01-01

362

An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service) as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includes four sizes of organizations. The finding of the study shows that the practiceof benchmarking in Saudi Arabian organizations’ is not in advance level. The sequence of the application ofbenchmarking is found to be as follows; marketing, operations, quality, finance and human resources,respectively. The study further shows that the practice of performance benchmarking in private firms better thanpublic organizations. However, the study concludes that there is no significant difference between companiesbased on their sizes.

Nasser Akeil Kadasah; Turki Mohammad Al Ahmari

2013-01-01

363

Inward Strategy: An Optimal Solution to Build a Software Industry in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Employing the appropriate strategy was critical in building successful software industry in many developing countries. Through innovative strategies, a number of developing nations were able to create unique software industry models that emerged as strong software exporters at the global level. The main similarity among these strategies was the market orientation; almost all of these strategies were export oriented, software products were produced in the developing countries to satisfy external market demands in the developed world. The need for newer innovative strategies remains a critical success factor for new entrants to the software industry. One of the suggested strategies by the literature was the inward strategy or the focus on the domestic market needs. This paper employs a quantitative approach to identify a possible strategy that Arab countries may adopt to build their own software industry when industry success factors exist in these countries. An analysis of data from published reports and from public databases was used to examine the situation in Saudi Arabia. The goals of this study were, first to pin point the possible strategy that Saudi Arabia may adopt to build its own software industry, second to examine the existence of the software industry success factors in Saudi Arabia. The most significant finding from this study suggested that Saudi Arabia can adopt the inward strategy to build a new software industry model to serve the country’s oil and gas industry needs of software. Additionally, this study revealed that Saudi Arabia acquire a number of the software industry success factors like the software demand, the financial resources, and the IT infrastructure while other factors like the quantity of science and technology graduates and the intellectual property and copy right laws are weak and need improvements.

Ayman Talib; Mohammad Malkawi

2011-01-01

364

Groundwater modeling of Saq Aquifer Buraydah Al Qassim for better water management strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saudi Arabia is an arid country. It has limited water supplies. About 80-90% of water supplies come from groundwater, which is depleting day by day. It needs appropriate management. This paper has investigated groundwater modeling of Saq Aquifer in Buraydah Al Qassim to estimate the impact of its excessive use on depletion of Saq Aquifer. MODFLOW model has been used in this study. Data regarding the aquifer parameters was measured by pumping tests. Groundwater levels and discharge of wells in the area for the year 2008 and previous record of year 1999 have been collected from Municipal Authority of Buraydah. Location of wells was determined by Garmin. The model has been run for different sets of pumping rates to recommend an optimal use of groundwater resources and get prolonged life of aquifer. Simulations have been made for a long future period of 27 years (2008-2035). Model results concluded that pumping from the Saq Aquifer in Buraydah area will result into significant cones of depression if the existing excessive pumping rates prevail. A drawdown up to 28 m was encountered for model run for 27 years for existing rates of pumping. Aquifer withdrawals and drawdowns will be optimal with the conservation alternative. The management scheme has been recommended to be adopted for the future protection of groundwater resources in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Al-Salamah IS; Ghazaw YM; Ghumman AR

2011-02-01

365

Level of evidence of clinical orthopedic surgery research in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE) of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. METHODS: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93) affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012). The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded). The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. RESULTS: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%). The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades. North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia.

Makhdom AM; Alqahtani SM; Alsheikh KA; Samargandi OA; Saran N

2013-04-01

366

Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intentions: Impact of Employee’s Training in Private Sector of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate impacts of training on organizational commitment and turnoverintentions in private sector of Saudi Arabia. The study seeks to focus the relationship between organizationalcommitment and turnover intentions of the employees. A literature revi...

Khawaja Jehanzeb; Anwar Rasheed; Mazen F. Rasheed

367

Endocrinopathies in beta-thalassemia major. Prevalence, risk factors, and age at diagnosis in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To define the prevalence, risk factors, and age at diagnosis of endocrinopathies in beta-thalassemia  major (BTM) in Northwest Saudi Arabia. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included patients with BTM atte...

Abdelhadi M. Habeb; Zakaria M. Al-Hawsawi; Mohamed M. Morsy; Abdallah M. Al-Harbi; Adnan S. Osilan; Mohamed S. Al-Magamsi

368

A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Dental caries critically impacts the health and development of children. Understanding caries experience is an important task for Saudi Arabian policymakers to identify intervention targets and improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to analyze current data to assess the nationwide prevalence and severity of caries in children, to identify gaps in baseline information, and to determine areas for future research. METHODS: A search of published and unpublished studies in PubMed, Google, and local Saudi medical and dental journals was conducted for the three keywords "dental," "caries," and "Saudi Arabia." The inclusion criteria required that the articles were population-based studies that assessed the prevalence of dental caries in healthy children attending regular schools using a cross-sectional study design of a random sample. RESULTS/DISCUSSION: The review was comprised of one unpublished thesis and 27 published surveys of childhood caries in Saudi Arabia. The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010. There is a lack of representative data on the prevalence of dental caries among the whole Saudi Arabian population. The national prevalence of dental caries and its severity in children in Saudi Arabia was estimated to be approximately 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0 and approximately 70% for children's permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5. The current estimates indicate that the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 goals are still unmet for Saudi Arabian children. CONCLUSION: Childhood dental caries is a serious dental public health problem that warrants the immediate attention of the government and the dental profession officials in Saudi Arabia. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate oral health goals. Without the ability to describe the current situation, it is not possible to identify whether progress is being made toward these goals. A roadmap with a clear starting point, destination, and pathway is a desperately needed tool to improve the oral health of Saudi Arabian children.

Al Agili DE

2013-01-01

369

Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)

2000-01-01

370

Normative data for IQ, height and head circumference for children in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Normative data are reported for intelligence, height and head circumference for a sample of 1553 6- to 15-year-olds in Saudi Arabia, and for the correlations between these variables. Intelligence was tested with the Standard Progressive Matrices, on which the Saudi sample obtained a British IQ of 76.2. There were no significant differences in means between boys and girls and differences in variability were inconsistent. The heights of the Saudi sample were generally lower than those of the American norms. The differences in head circumferences between the Saudi children and the American norms were inconsistent. Correlations between IQ and height were weaker than those found in other studies but correlations between IQ and head circumference were positive.

Batterjee AA; Khaleefa O; Ashaer K; Lynn R

2013-07-01

371

The economic costs of tobacco consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Pending a comprehensive study of tobacco economics in Saudi Arabia, our aim was to estimate the economic costs of tobacco consumption in Saudi Arabia over a period of 10 years (2001-2010). METHODS: Pertinent data on imported tobacco were obtained from the Saudi Customs Authority through the Central Department of Statistics and Information. Mortality was calculated using the following parameters: 1 ton of tobacco consumed causes an average of 0.65 premature deaths, and the net loss was calculated as US$47.6 million (2011 US$ prices) for every 1000 tons of tobacco consumed. This represented the net cost of premature deaths and the direct and indirect costs of morbidity. RESULTS: Using 2011 prices, the economic loss due to tobacco was US$20.5 billion over the last 10 years, without accounting for smuggled (illegally imported) tobacco. If the smuggling rate was 10% or 25%, the economic loss would be 22.6 or 25.6 billion US$, respectively. There were 280 000 premature deaths during the same period without accounting for smuggled tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: In Saudi Arabia, short-term and long-term economic gains will result from reductions in tobacco use.

Albedah AM; Khalil MK

2013-05-01

372

Assessment of hepatitis B vaccination and compliance with infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and the use of infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during the Third International Conference at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, held on March 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi or expatriate dentists working in Saudi Arabia were included in the study. The questionnaires were designed to meet the objective of the study. Results: A total of 402 dentists of whom 176 (44%) were male and 226 (56%) female took part in this study. Their mean age was 37.4 years. In all, 246 (61%) were general dentists and 156 (39%) specialists. Four-fifths (80.5%) of them had been vaccinated. Almost half (48.5%) had experience of needle stick injury, but none reported having been infected with HBV. Among the vaccinated dentists, 186 (57.5%) had not been screened for HBV antibodies. Younger dentists were more particular about vaccination and more careful in using protective wear. There was an association between protective barriers and HBV vaccination, but there was no association between history of needle stick injury and vaccination. Conclusion: Dental healthcare workers have a high risk of infection with HBV due to the nature of their work; so there should be a mandatory program to vaccinate dentists against HBV and to ensure application of protective measures during their practice.

Ayman A. Al-Dharrab; Khalid H. Al-Samadani

2012-01-01

373

Assessment of hepatitis B vaccination and compliance with infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and the use of infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out during the Third International Conference at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, held on March 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi or expatriate dentists working in Saudi Arabia were included in the study. The questionnaires were designed to meet the objective of the study. RESULTS: A total of 402 dentists of whom 176 (44%) were male and 226 (56%) female took part in this study. Their mean age was 37.4 years. In all, 246 (61%) were general dentists and 156 (39%) specialists. Four-fifths (80.5%) of them had been vaccinated. Almost half (48.5%) had experience of needle stick injury, but none reported having been infected with HBV. Among the vaccinated dentists, 186 (57.5%) had not been screened for HBV antibodies. Younger dentists were more particular about vaccination and more careful in using protective wear. There was an association between protective barriers and HBV vaccination, but there was no association between history of needle stick injury and vaccination. CONCLUSION: Dental healthcare workers have a high risk of infection with HBV due to the nature of their work; so there should be a mandatory program to vaccinate dentists against HBV and to ensure application of protective measures during their practice.

Al-Dharrab AA; Al-Samadani KH

2012-11-01

374

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

375

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.

Alsuwaida Abdulkareem; Farag Youssef; Al Sayyari Abdulla; Mousa Dujanah; Alhejaili Fayez; Al-Harbi Ali; Housawi Abdulrahman; Mittal Bharati; Singh Ajay

2010-01-01

376

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

2010-01-01

377

THE DYNAMICS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION AMONG WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUSINESSWOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA AND BAHRAIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the underlying dynamics of motivation for women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, using t-test and ANOVA analyses. Various distinct motivational factors were found in both countries. Self-achievement was the most prominent factor motivating Saudi women to start their own businesses. However, for Bahraini women, the profit motive was the most prominent motivational factor.

Muhammad A. Sadi; Basheer M. Al-Ghazali

2012-01-01

378

Incidence and patterns of inborn errors of metabolism in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, 1983-2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives :Individual inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare disorders, but may not be that uncommon in our patient population. We report the incidence of IEM in a defined cohort of births at the Saudi Aramco medical facilities in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia over ...

Moammar Hissa; Cheriyan George; Mathew Revi; Al-Sannaa Nouriya

379

Portfolio approach to the oil surplus problem: Saudi Arabia as a study case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation investigated the different strategies that Saudi Arabia could have followed in the deployment of surplus oil funds, namely low risk, high risk strategy. The static mean variance portfolio selection model is used to derive the set of efficient portfolios. The optimum portfolios for Saudi Arabia as well as the efficient frontiers, under different constraints, were explored. To find the optimum portfolios, it is necessary to determine the real rate of return of the assets; we must adjust the nominal yield by the following factors; taxes imposed on nonresidents, exchange rate fluctuations, and the inflation rate. The results tend to support the conclusion that low risk strategy is successful through all periods studied while high-risk strategy was not always successful. In addition, the Saudi's strategy of avoiding the United States stock market was not costly, but the US stock market did not perform well during the period of the study. This suggests that if the Saudis want to continue their low risk strategy in the future, they must consider including US private stocks and bonds in their portfolio selection. The success of the high risk strategy seems to require the ability to predict exchange rates. It is observed that if the Saudis follow high risk strategy and fail to predict the exchange rates they might lose. The loss in terms of real rate of return could be greater than the real return if a low risk strategy were followed.

Gazali, M.N.

1985-01-01

380

Incidence of treated end-stage renal disease in asir region, southern saudi arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Incidence of treated end-stage renal disease (t-ESRD) in Saudi Arabia is not well documented and only few reports are available. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of t-ESRD in Asir region. The study period included January 1995 to December 1995. All new cases admitted for chronic dialysis treatment in all MOH-hospitals with a diagnosis of ESRD were included. There were 114 Saudi and 10 non-Saudi Patients. Among the 114 Saudi patients, there were 64 (56.1%) males and 50 (43.9%) females. Mean age 47.86 +/- 19.86 years (range 9-90 years). The overall incidence of t-ESRD was 214.9 pmp. Age adjusted incidence for males and females were 243 pmp and 186 pmp, respectively. There were no differences between males and females (X 2 =2.019, p = < 0.05). The majority of the patients (41.2%) did not have definitive diagnosis. Among the known causes, glomerulonephritis was diagnosed or suspected in 56.7%, diabetes was the cause of ESRD in 16.4% of the cases. This is the highest incidence of ESRD ever reported in Saudi Arabia. Geographical, environmental, genetical factors may have been contributing factors.

Al-Homrany M; Abolfotoh M

1998-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. RESULTS: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.

Kamel RM

2013-01-01

382

Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in male blood donors in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To our knowledge, only a few epidemiological reports on the prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies in Saudi blood donors have been published. Men of several nationalities, donating blood at King Khalid National Guard Hospital (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) were selected (n = 593) for this study examining the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the local male donor population and testing the relationship of the antibody to HEV (anti-HEV) to donor characteristics using Odds Ratio (OR) and Chi-square statistic. The prevalence of anti-HEV in the group examined was 16.9 per cent (100/593). The seroprevalence for Saudi donors was 14.8 per cent compared with 33.3 per cent for non-Saudis of Middle Eastern origin. Donors who were 40 yr and over had significantly higher seroprevalence than those donors who were 30 yr or younger (OR = 2.5, p = 0.006). There was a significant association between anti-HEV and anti-HCV with donors who were positive to anti-HCV having about 5 times the risk of HEV than those who were anti-HCV negative (p = 0.02). These findings demonstrate the high seroprevalence rate of anti-HEV among male blood donors in Saudi Arabia. PMID:9638024

Abdelaal, M; Zawawi, T H; al Sobhi, E; Jeje, O; Gilpin, C; Kinsara, A; Osoba, A; Oni, G A

383

Saudi Arabia as an actor in world affairs: a study in the political role of oil and wealth in Saudi Arabian foreign relations behavior, 1965-1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of this study is to analyze the way in which Saudi Arabian foreign-policy interacts with its oil policy. It examines the role and significant oil and financial power use as influence by Saudi Arabia - its only source of major international leverage - to achieve foreign policy objectives. It focuses on the political economy of Saudi Arabian foreign policy and the implications of this interaction in terms of world policy, and also the effectiveness of the Saudi Arabian use of political oil in international relationships. This study analyzes the relationship between political economy of oil and international politics through an examination of so-called oil power and examines the role of power that oil and wealth play in shaping international relationships between Saudi Arabia and other countries.

Mehros, S.s.

1985-01-01

384

Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

2013-09-01

385

The Development of Genetic Counseling Services and Training Program in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2005 the first Saudi genetic counseling training program was established by the Department of Medical Genetics at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The program has graduated five genetic counselors with high diploma-level degree. This brief report describes the development of the genetic counseling training program and the factors that led to its establishment. Special emphasis is made to unique cultural practices including consanguinity, religious influence, and termination of pregnancy. This report also describes the current status of the genetic counseling services offered by KFSH&RC and availability of genetic testing.

Qari AA; Balobaid AS; Rawashdeh RR; Al-Sayed MD

2013-09-01

386

An empirical investigation into the adoption of Software Engineering Practice in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the state of software engineering practice for software industry in Saudi Arabian organizations. The main goal was mainly to gain insight into the ways these organizations are using to adopt software engineering techniques and also the sources of obstacles and difficulties faced by these organizations. To achieve that, we have designed and conducted a survey that measures the adoption of various software engineering practices. Results clearly reveal that there are several weaknesses in applying software engineering practices in Saudi Arabia especially for small organizations.

Khalid Alnafjan

2012-01-01

387

Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia based on verbal judgement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Site selection of nuclear desalination plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a complex task since it depends on many interrelated factors. Two candidate sites are considered, one near Jeddah - a major port on the Red Sea and the second on the Arabian Gulf near Dhahran. Using verbal judgment, the fuzzy set theory and the MAFDA computer code are employed to examine the most suitable site. Thirteen main criteria were considered for the selection, namely safety of nuclear fuel shipment; living conditions for foreign manpower; acceptability for expansion; land availability; topography and oceanography; geology, hydrology, and seismology; meteorology; transportation; population density; availability of cooling water; suitability for construction and availability of support services and domestic water. The final results show that the site near Dhahran is preferred to Jeddah for the first nuclear desalination plant in Saudi Arabia.

Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

1982-01-01

388

Association between food intake frequency and obesity among adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The main objective of this study was to discover the association between the intake of certain foods and the occurrence of obesity among adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional multistage sampling method was conducted among girls aged 12-19 years in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The total sample was 512. Obesity was calculated based on the International Obesity Task Force standards. Findings revealed that obese girls were less likely to eat fruit, vegetables, meat, chicken and dairy products than non-obese girls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, the risk of being obese was greater for those who consumed chocolates and sweets (odds ratio=1.57) and fast foods (odds ratio=1.35) more than three times a week. Thus, programs to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren should include appropriate intervention on changing dietary habits.

Musaiger AO; Al-Mannai M; Zagzoog N

2013-04-01

389

Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following Chernobyl reactor accident, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) was assigned the responsibility of monitoring food imports reaching the western ports of Saudi Arabia. This includes the three western seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan and the airport of Jeddah. Through the seaport of Jeddah, the largest in Saudi Arabia, essentially all kinds of foodstuffs are entering. Chilled meat, fresh vegetables and other items that can not be stored for long time are coming through Jeddah airport, while Jizan and Yanbu handle mainly barley and animal feed. The monitoring program started in the middle of June. This is the time when pilgrimage season starts and about one million persons come from different parts of the world to the city of Mecca. Food imports drastically increases during this time and large number of live sheep and cows are imported for religious sacrifice.

1988-01-01

390

Drugs for the treatment of malaria in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current malaria treatments are based on the use of artemisinin based combinations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the combination of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine/artesunate is the first line of treatment of uncomplicated malaria, while lumefantrine/artemether (Coartem) is used as a second option. The treatment of severe malaria rests on the use of quinine or artesunate. In Saudi Arabia, most cases of malaria are imported, mainly from emigrant workers from the Indian subcontinent and the Eastern part of Africa. As a result, most parasites might have been exposed to antimalarials prior to coming to the country. Thus, knowledge of the pattern of resistance to these drugs outside the country could contribute to better management of the disease. In this review, we have summarized our current knowledge on the efficacy and resistance patterns of currently used antimalarials. Alternative treatments that could be used against malaria in the Kingdom are also discussed.

Nzila A; Al-Zahrani I

2013-06-01

391

Serological Survey on Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Commercial Poultry Farms in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the presence of avian pneumovirus (APV) antibodies in commercial poultry farms using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VN). Eighty seven chicken serum samples were collected from several commercial poultry farms in Al-Qassium area, Saudi Arabia during 2007-2008. The serum samples were collected from birds of various ages (from one-day old to 62 weeks of age). Antibodies to APV were detected in 50% (8 out of 16) by both ELISA and virus neutralization (VN) test at farms in birds of 11-18 weeks of age only. The total positive samples were 8/87 (9.2%) of all examined samples. In conclusion, this study indicated the presence of antibodies to APV among 11-18 weeks old commercial chicken at farms in Saudi Arabia.

A. N. Alkhalaf

2010-01-01

392

CAPD in Dammam Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Five-Year Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indication for CAPD was poor or failed vascular access (51.4%). Peritonitis remained the major complication with an overall incidence of 0.62 episode per patient year. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main causative organism. Therapy with CAPD lasted a mean of 26 ± 7.4 months. Our results, showing good technique survival and low peritonitis rate, suggest that CAPD should be promoted to become a full arm of the integrated care of ESRD in Saudi Arabia.

Youmbissi Joseph; Malik Taher; Al Khursany Issam; Ghacha Reda; Ajitkumar Sinha; Al Ahmed Farida; Rafi Ali; Rahman Mohamed; Karkar Ayman

2001-01-01

393

Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

Al-Kheliewi, A. S.

2012-06-01

394

Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), an endangered medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild plants can contain bioactive compounds with potential activity against disease-causing microorganisms. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are many plant species that may have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activities, among other properties. We extracted bioactive compounds with methanol as well as with water from leaves of Breonadia salicina, which is an endangered plant found in the wild in Saudi Arabia. These extracts were tested against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity against all of the microorganisms, and thus, B. salicina leaf extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the preservation of foods, instead of synthetic chemical compounds. We found that the methanolic leaf extract was more effective than the aqueous crude extract against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus.

Al-Qurainy F; Z Gaafar AR; Khan S; Nadeem M; Tarroum M; Alaklabi A; Thomas J

2013-01-01

395

Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

2012-06-06

396

Privacy Policy in E Government Websites: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information privacy has been one of the areas of extended discussion over a past decade. There has been a lot of discussion about the information privacy online. Presence of a privacy page in a website is one way of ensuring privacy in a website. This paper is concerned with the presence of privacy policy in e government websites of Saudi Arabia. During the course of this study we looked for the presence of privacy policy in E government websites of Saudi Arabia. This paper presents the result of the study, and the aim is to draw attention of the governing bodies and Administrators towards the privacy policy implementation in their websites.

Sami M. Alhomod; Mohd Mudasir Shafi

2012-01-01

397

Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), an endangered medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild plants can contain bioactive compounds with potential activity against disease-causing microorganisms. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are many plant species that may have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activities, among other properties. We extracted bioactive compounds with methanol as well as with water from leaves of Breonadia salicina, which is an endangered plant found in the wild in Saudi Arabia. These extracts were tested against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity against all of the microorganisms, and thus, B. salicina leaf extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the preservation of foods, instead of synthetic chemical compounds. We found that the methanolic leaf extract was more effective than the aqueous crude extract against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. PMID:24065664

Al-Qurainy, F; Z Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A; Thomas, J

2013-08-29

398

One-year Field Performance of Some Acacia and Prosopis Species in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study is devoted to the assessment of field growth of eleven Acacia and three Prosopis species in central Saudi Arabia. Stem diameters, tree heights and crown diameters were measured. According to the measurable data obtained, growth pattern was significantly different, in spite of the same circumstances. A. ampliceps has shown the best performance as far as all studied parameters. While A. nilotica, A. seyal and A. salicina share the second best result. Other studied species of Acacia and Prosopis are of moderate or sluggish growth, reflected in the small values of measured parameters. Accordingly, the first three species are recommended for plantations in Saudi Arabia for environmental purposes and other benefits. It seems that other species are not promising under these conditions.

Hamad A. Al-Mefarrej; Kamal F. Elkhalifa

2006-01-01

399

Prevalence of different types of lysosomal storage diseases in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The frequency of different types of lysosomal storage diseases in 125 referred cases, collected over three years, was compared to the occurrence elsewhere. The data suggest that mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IVA (Morquio disease), multiple sulphatase deficiency, Niemann-Pick disease type B, GM2 gangliosidosis type '0' (Sandhoff disease), and ceroid lipofuscinosis (Jansky-Bielschowsky and Batten-Spielmeyer-Vogt syndromes) are encountered frequently in Saudi Arabia, as compared to other storage diseases. In contrast, some other diseases such as the adult variant of Gaucher's disease were not observed. Half of the GM2 gangliosidosis type '0' cases originated from one large tribe in the country. Other conditions did not show tribal predilection. The ceroid lipofuscinosis cases in Saudi Arabia originated from four large families. Consanguineous marriages taking place within tribal boundaries probably account for the pattern observed.

Ozand PT; Gascon G; al Aqeel A; Roberts G; Dhalla M; Subramanyam SB

1990-01-01

400

Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) In Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro conditions were investigated. The grass has performed excellent growth through out the year producing seed heads, elongating and producing lateral shoots with slow growth during winter and hot summer, yellowing leafs under shaded greenhouse and short stems in small pots. Plants were affected by salinity levels of in vitro treatments as there was high significant difference in their response to different salinity concentrations, this response was increasing with the time.

Nasser S. Al-Khalifah

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia: A seismic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the selection criteria generally and seismic criteria specifically to select a suitable site in Saudi Arabia for a nuclear desalination plant. These criteria include geological, meteorological, cooling water supply discharge, transport infrastructure, population, electric grid, water network capacity, environmental impact and airport movement. The seismicity of the Arabian peninsula for the locations of seismic activity along the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastlines from 1973 to 2000 was studied carefully. This study included towns and locations along the east and west coastlines and their distances from the seismic event site. The results showed that Rabigh City along the west coast of Saudi Arabia is a good site to build a nuclear desalination plant. This is because of the following reasons: good seismic stability; good weather statistics; no flooding; mild wave conditions; good supply and discharge; good transportation infrastructure; low population area; very close to the huge electric grid. (author)

2005-01-01

402

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

Michael Engel; Abdulaziz Alqarni; Mohammed Hannan; Ayman Owayss

2011-01-01

403

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, July 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu is located in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia on the Red Sea at a latitude of 24.1 degrees North and a longitude of 37.8 degrees East. It was selected as the location for the Soleras Solar Powered Desalination Plant. This preliminary report describes the direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu Solar Powered Desalination site during the month of July 1985.

1986-01-01

404

Study of the thermoluminescence properties and kinetics of local natural calcium fluoride in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of local natural calcium fluoride that show light yellowish appearance obtained from a fluoride mine west of Saudi Arabia have been studied. TL glow peaks were observed at 160, 260 and 334 degree C. Thermal treatment and fading effects had been studied. The TL response was observed to increase with increasing dose, as expected, over the dose range used. The kinetic parameters were calculated to satisfy the feasibility of using the present sample as gamma -ray dosimetry.

2006-01-01

405

Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsewhere on the use of different types of surface, drainage waters and groundwater irrespective of the total salinity status and the conditions of use.

G. Hussain; A. Alquwaizany; A. Al-Zarah

2010-01-01

406

A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially unnecessary desalination infrastructure that is likely to become more energy and cost efficient in future.

Kajenthira A; Siddiqi A; Anadon LD

2012-07-01

407

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender on outcome was assessed in a univariate fashion using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test when appropriate. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Results: A total of 68 out of 85 residents (80%) responded to the survey. Over one-half of the residents preferred to pursue a fellowship within Saudi Arabia (53%), while others (25%) planned to train in North America. The majority of respondents wished to practice in an urban setting (63%). Anterior segment was the most desired subspecialty, while general ophthalmology and glaucoma were not a popular choice. Most residents were interested in refractive surgery (77%) and research (75%). The main factor influencing the decision to pursue ophthalmology was the ability to combine medicine and surgery (97%), while a positive elective experience was also an important factor, particularly for female respondents (91% vs. 57%; P Conclusion: Concerted efforts are required to encourage adoption to ophthalmic practice in public institutions rather than in private practice. In addition training in underrepresented subspecilaties should be encouraged to ensure adequate ophthalmic care for all citizens of Saudi Arabia.

Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

2010-01-01

408

BBC - partner for Saudi-Arabia's large industry in Yanbu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the city of Yanbu in Saudi Arabia, BBC supplied and installed an SF/sub 6/-insulated switchgear installation rated at 115 kV for a large power station, five turn-key switching stations for 115/34.5/13.8 kV, and a complex distribution cable system within a very short period of time. By careful planning and comprehensive organizational measures optimal results were achieved.

Maraun, R.

1983-01-01

409

Potentiality of daylighting in a maritime desert climate: the Eastern coast of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy savings from the utilisation of daylight will be influenced by the amount of external daylight incident on the external surface of the window plane. Therefore, savings from daylight will vary from a place to another, based on the prevailing sky conditions in the climate concerned. This paper aims to investigate the potentiality of natural light if used as source of internal illuminance in buildings in the Eastern coast of Saudi Arabia. This includes providing information about daylight performance in the area. (Author)

Alshaibani, Khalid [King Faisal Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Dammam (Saudi Arabia)

2001-06-01

410

Modelling of weather characteristics and wind power in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the weather conditions and wind power in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia over a period of 36 years (1961-1996) are studied and modelled. The study involves temperature, relative humidity, fog, wind speed, wind power and dust storms. A regression analysis is carried out by using the linear regression technique to model the weather parameters. The models developed can be used in any study related to weather and its effect on the environment and energy. (author)

Al-Garni, A.Z.; Sahin, A.Z.; Al-Farayedhi, A. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhaharan (Saudi Arabia). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

411

A Survey of the Herpetofauna of Bisha District, South of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of the herpetofauna was made in different localities of Bisha district, south of Saudi Arabia. Out of 293 specimens 12 amphibians and 281 reptiles were collected. Lizards were the most collected reptilian species (86.69 %), while Amphisbaenians comprised the little group of the sample. The snakes belonged to three families; most of them were colubrid species. Only one bufonid species (Amphibia) and one species of turtle were collected.

Hussein H.K.; A.D.M. Darwish

2001-01-01

412

Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

2002-02-11

413

Written in Stone: Inscriptions from the National Museum of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Hosted by the National Museum of Natural History, this exhibit highlights some ancient stone inscriptions from the collection of the National Museum of Saudi Arabia. The site features 54 museum objects that bear examples of ancient epigraphy, a small sample from the museum's 9,000 cataloged epigraphic objects. These are organized in two chronological sections: pre-Islamic and Islamic. The objects are presented as thumbnails which link to larger images as well as transcriptions and translations.

414

Performance Analysis of PV Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential implementation of photovoltaic (PV) energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed in this paper. HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable) software was used to perform the technical feasibility of the system. The feasibility of PV energy system was analyzed based on solar irradiances. Stand-alone PV systems with battery storage element will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV and battery storage on electric energy production.

Makbul Anwari; Ayong Hiendro

2013-01-01

415

Assessment of nurses' perceptions of patient safety culture in a Saudi Arabia hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to identify factors that nurses perceive as contributing to the culture of patient safety in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. A total of 498 registered nurses employed in the hospital completed the survey. The majority of nurses perceived a positive patient safety culture. There were significant differences in nurses' perceptions of patient safety culture based on gender, age, years of experience, Arabic versus non-Arabic speaking, and length of shift.

Aboshaiqah AE; Baker OG

2013-07-01

416

Ecological studies at Hofuf, Eastern Saudi Arabia, in relation to dermal leishmaniasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field and laboratory investigations were carried out in connection with an epidemic of dermal leishmaniasis in Hofuf, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, during 1977. In this present note emphasis is laid on description of the population dynamics and species spectrum of the sandflies, the occurrence of the vector and the course of the epidemic of Leishmania tropica in correlation with the sandfly population and the natural reservoir and the rodent population.

Büttiker W; Lewis DJ

1979-06-01

417

Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS) and Organizational Learning (OL), might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1) the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2) the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS) in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS) in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.

Wageeh A. Nafei; Nile M. Khanfar; Belal A. Kaifi

2012-01-01

418

Capital-absorptive capacity of non-oil sectors in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to examine the capital absorptive capacity of non-oil sectors in Saudi Arabia and to identify the various constraints on that capacity. As defined in this study, capital absorptive capacity was measured by the increments in capital that can be made productively by the private and public sectors during a particular time interval. An extensive review of the literature was conducted. Furthermore, an attempt was made to test the relevance of the existing methods of measuring absorptive capacity to Saudi Arabia. It is concluded that the present methods of measurement are not applicable to Saudi Arabia in its present stage of development. As a consequence, an alternative approach is proposed. This approach utilizes the relationship between capital absorptive capacity and the law of diminishing returns to factors. A theoretical analysis of this relation is conducted and, based on that relation and on the evolution of real gross national saving and real gross domestic investment, several conclusions are drawn: capital absorptive capacity of the Saudi economy had been limited during the 1965-1981 period; (2) non-oil private sector had been decreasing during the 1971-1980 period; (3) non-oil public sector had been increasing during the 1971-1975 period and decreasing during the 1976-1980 period; (4) total non-oil economy had been increasing during the 1971-1973 period and decreasing during the 1974-1980 period; and (5) Saudi non-oil sectors are constrained by several factors. Of special importance are the shortage of labor and the inadequate supply of infrastructural facilities.

Hamed, A.K.

1984-01-01

419

Biodegradable waste to biogas: Renewable energy option for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy recovery from waste is not a new field of study, but its implementation continues to be a challenge in some Arab countries. Although there is abundance of useful waste in the urban markets, practices aiming at waste to energy conversion are still negligible. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, so-called green markets are abundant with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is missing. Therefore the objective of this paper is the evaluation of waste generation in KSA for the energy recovery purpose, and to show that the conversion of green waste into biofuel is not only environmentally friendly but also financially rewarding. Since the result illustrate that the major portion of the waste generated is organic waste, anaerobic digestion is proposed waste to energy technology because of its feasibility for biodegradation of moist organic wastes into biogas. Diversion of waste into biogas and bio-fertilizer will ensure that it is treated in such a way that it becomes a useful product instead of harmful one. Furthermore as the policy makers and planners in renewable energy sector have intended for kingdom of Saudi Arabia to be andquot;kingdom of sustainable energyandquot; as well, hence they are needed to give special attention toward the largest Saudi Arabia's green market and should invest more to implement this plan.

Muhammad Sadiq Munfath Khan; Zakariya Kaneesamkandi

2013-01-01

420

Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding periodontal disease and its effects on pregnancy among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to 300 pregnant women who were chosen randomly from attendees of maternity health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. The questions were developed from literature reviews of articles. The questionnaire addressed personal and sociodemographic variables, periodontal health awareness, and knowledge of pregnant women. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and was pretested during the pilot study on a random sample of 50 pregnant women. Data