WorldWideScience
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Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Saudi Students Majoring in English at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their ...

Al Abiky, Waleed B.

2014-01-01

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Priorities for primary health care research in Qassim, central Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To determine the major research priorities in the field of Primary Health Care (PHC) in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey including academicians, researchers, and PHC program managers in Qassim. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the survey instrument. A scale of 1-5 was given for prioritizing the health issues (5=highest priority; 1=lowest priority). A list of PHC research topics including prevalent health issues addressed by PHC pro...

Saulat Jahan; Al-saigul, Abdullah M.; Nimir, Suad E.; Mustafa, Amani S.

2014-01-01

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Malignant lymphoma in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia, reclassified according to the WHO classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the frequency of various types of malignant lymphoma (ML) in the Al-Qassim region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) according to recently introduced the WHO classification. For this retrospective analysis, material was available in 385 out of 519 cases diagnosed as ML from 1988-2007. Morphological assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry using a panel of antibodies. The study was conducted at Prince Faisal Oncology Centre (PFOC) of King Fahad Specialist Hospital (KFSH), Buraidah, Al-Qassim, KSA. Out of 385 cases reviewed, 251 (65.2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 117 (30.4%) had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Male preponderance (male to female ratio 1.6:1) and a wide age range was observed (6 months to 103 years). B cell neoplasms were the most common NHL seen (81.6%) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most frequent type of NHL encountered (50.1%). Indolent lymphomas like follicular lymphoma (FL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) were rather uncommon (13.2%). T cell lymphoma comprised 18.3% of the NHL. The most common type of HL was nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma (NSCHL) (68.3%). In Al-Qassim region of KSA, NHL is the most common ML seen and DLBCL the most common type. Unlike other parts of KSA and Middle East, NSCHL is the most common type of HL encountered. (author)

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Prevalence of Amblyopia in Primary School Children in Qassim Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and causes of amblyopia in primary school children in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 5176 children, aged 6 to 13 years (mean - 9.53 ± 1.88 years) were evaluated. There were 2573 (49.71%) males and 2603 (50.29%) females. Distance visual acuity (V/A) was tested monocularly using a logMAR chart with and without correction. Cycloplegic refraction was performed in children with reduced vision. To determine the etiology of amblyopia, children were enrolled if there was a difference in V/A of two or more lines between eyes or an absolute reduction in acuity 0.05). The prevalence of amblyopia was statistically significant higher in the older age group (10-13 year) compared to younger age group (6 to 9 years) (P strabismus in 5.44%. Conclusion: The prevalence of amblyopia in Qassim province, KSA, is 3.9% which is similar or higher than other published studies on amblyopia. Anisometropic refractive errors are the most common underlying cause for this population. We recommend implementation of visual screening programs for children with appropriate clinical and social settings for early detection and proper management of amblyopia. PMID:25624680

Aldebasi, Yousef Homood

2015-01-01

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Measurement of Radon Concentrations and Their Annual Effective Dose Exposure in Groundwater from Qassim Area, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Radon is a radioactive noble gas of a natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and in different types of water. It is worthy to carry out the distribution of radon (222Rn) activity concentration and their annual effective dose exposure in groundwater samples from Qassim area, Saudi Arabia. Radon concentrations were measured by using RAD7 an electronic radon detector connected to a RAD-H2O accessory (Durridge Co., USA). The measured radon concentration ranges from 0.76 to 4.69 Bq...

El-taher, A.

2012-01-01

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Trends in Drinking Water Quality for Some Wells in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, 1997-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Well water samples were collected during the period of 1997 to 2009 from seventeen wells to represent Saq aquifer, Qassim Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The water samples were analyzed to determine their quality for domestic use. The water samples were investigated with respect to Electrical Conductivity (EC, total water hardness and the concentrations of hydrogen (pH, calcium (Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, chloride (ClŻ, sulfate SO2-4, nitrate NO?3, fluoride (FŻ and ammonium NH+4. The electrical conductivity increased slowly with time from 1.18 to 1.39 dS m-1, with a mean of 1.31 dS m-1 for all water samples examined. The mean EC complies with the maximum permissible drinking water limits set by the local and international standards. The total hardness for the studied well water is 278.26 ppm as calcium carbonate which was classified as very hard water. Therefore, the water of wells should be softened to react with soap for domestic use. The pH in all water samples ranged from 6.77 to 7.28 with a mean of 7.02. This mean of pH complies well with standard value set for drinking water. The concentrations of the cations and anions follow, more or less, a trend similar to EC with time. The cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the anions concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible drinking water limits. The concentrations of FŻ in the all of colleted samples ranged from 0.29-0.37 ppm with a mean of 0.36 ppm. The mean concentration of FŻ is alarming because it is below the lower permissible limit of 0.6 ppm set by the World Health Organization. So, the water of these wells must be fluorinated before drinking use. The concentration of in all water samples ranged between 0.0 to 0.27 ppm with a mean of 0.22 ppm. In general, the concentration of is alarming because it is higher than the permissible concentration in the drinking water (0.0 ppm.

I.S. Al-Salamah

2009-01-01

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Measurement of Radon Concentrations and Their Annual Effective Dose Exposure in Groundwater from Qassim Area, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radon is a radioactive noble gas of a natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and in different types of water. It is worthy to carry out the distribution of radon (222Rn activity concentration and their annual effective dose exposure in groundwater samples from Qassim area, Saudi Arabia. Radon concentrations were measured by using RAD7 an electronic radon detector connected to a RAD-H2O accessory (Durridge Co., USA. The measured radon concentration ranges from 0.76 to 4.69 Bq L-1 with an average value of 2.8 Bq L-1. The measured values of radon concentration are well in the range within the EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL of 11.1 Bq L-1. The total annual effective dose resulting from radon in groundwater of Qassim area were significantly lower than the (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR and World Health Organization WHO recommended limit for members of the public of 1 mSv year-1. The measured values for underground water from the study area suggest that the area is safe for farmers and there is no significant threat to the population as per as radon concentration is concerned.

A. El-Taher

2012-01-01

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Asthma care: Structural foundations at primary health care at Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proper structural foundations for asthma care at primary health care centers [PHCCs], are of essential importance, regarding its management. OBJECTIVE: To assess the adherence of PHCCs to the recommended structural foundation for asthma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 35 PHCCs were selected in a cluster random fashion. A questionnaire for structural standards was designed, based on the Saudi national protocol for the management of asthma (SNPMA. A physician and a nurse, each from PHCC, were trained for data collection. Structural facilities deficiency was arbitrarily classified into: least deficient (>75%, moderate to severe deficient (25-75% and most deficient (< 25%. RESULTS: The total population registered, was 131190 [urban: 85701 (65.4%, rural: 45489 (34.6%]. Total registered asthmatics was 4093 [urban: 2585 (63.1%, rural: 1508 (36.9%]. The asthma prevalence rate did not differ significantly between urban (3% and rural (3.3% areas . Structural facilities distribution for asthma care, did not significantly vary among urban and rural PHCCs and none of them fulfilled 100% of the desired standards. The least deficient, were the availability of asthma register and salbutamol, in its various forms. The moderately to severely deficient were the SNPMA, peak flow meter (PFM, nebulizer system, Theophylline and systemic corticosteroid. However, they were most deficient in trained doctors and nurses, record charts for Peak flow meter, spacer, educational material and inhalers of corticosteroid or cromoglycate. CONCLUSION: Proper structural foundations for asthma care at PHCCs, at AL-Qassim region, were below the desired national standards. They were most deficient in trained doctors and nurses, record charts for PFM, spacers, educational material and anti-inflammatory inhalers. Future health directorate strategies have to provide such beneficial interventions for proper asthma care.

AL-Haddad Nasser

2006-01-01

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Application of ERT Survey for Addressing the Issues of Urban Rain Storm Water Logging in the Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The Qassim province is one of the most arid regions of Saudi Arabia, however heavy rainfall events have led to water logging problems in the populated centers like Buraidah mainly as a consequence of construction in low lying areas and valleys. Urban rain storm water logging problem were reported at 4 localities in the Buraidah Municipal area after heavy rainfall in November 2008 and March 2009. The logged water from these sites were directed to 4 manmade lakes however the stagnant water in t...

Zaidi, Faisal K.; Kassem, Osama M. K.; Hussein, Mohammad T.; Al-bassam, Abdulaziz M.

2012-01-01

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The pattern of skin diseases in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia: What the primary care physician should know  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies to determine the burden of skin diseases are important for proper health care planning. The purpose of this study was to find the pattern of skin diseases in our patients attending university-affiliated dermatologic clinics in the Qassim region.We conducted a prospective study of all Saudi patients attending the Qassim University Medical College-affiliated dermatology clinics of the Ministry of Health for a period of 12 months from 1 March 2008 to 28 February 2009.The study included 3051 patients comprising 1786 (58.5%) males and 1265 (41.5%) females. Males outnumbered females (P<.05) (male-to-female ratio, 1.4:1). The mean age (standard error of the mean) of the patients was 25.3 (0.27) years. About 71% of the patients were between 5 and 34 years of age. The top five skin diseases were eczema/ dermatitis (19.5%), viral infections (16.6%), pilosebaceous disorders (14.4%), pigmentary lesions (11.2%) and hair disorders (7.6%). The major disorder in males was viral skin infections (20.0%), while eczema/dermatitis (20.7%) constituted the most prevalent skin disease in females. Seasonal variations were recorded in cases of pigmentary lesions, papulosquamous disorders and protozoal infections.Infectious skin diseases, eczema/dermatitis, pilosebaceous disorders, pigmentary lesions and hair disorders ranked as the top five skin diseases. Appropriate training programs for diagnosing and managing common skin diseases should be initiated for primary healtases should be initiated for primary health care physicians and other general practitioners so as to decrease referrals to dermatology clinics (Author).

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Application of ERT Survey for Addressing the Issues of Urban Rain Storm Water Logging in the Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Qassim province is one of the most arid regions of Saudi Arabia, however heavy rainfall events have led to water logging problems in the populated centers like Buraidah mainly as a consequence of construction in low lying areas and valleys. Urban rain storm water logging problem were reported at 4 localities in the Buraidah Municipal area after heavy rainfall in November 2008 and March 2009. The logged water from these sites were directed to 4 manmade lakes however the stagnant water in these lakes posed a serious environmental threat mainly in the form of water borne disease. Keeping this problem in mind, a detailed geophysical investigation in the form of Electrical Resistivity Tomography was carried out using the SYSCAL Pro Unit at these 4 locations with a dipole-dipole configuration. The survey was helpful in delineating the wet zones from the dry ones and based on the interpretations the optimum depth and sites of 4 injections bore-wells were determined at each locality. These injection bore-well would serve the dual propose of getting rid of the stagnant water in these lakes and also recharging the underlying aquifers.

Faisal K. Zaidi

2012-09-01

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Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

1986-12-01

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Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation.

Roberts, J. [Platts Energy Group, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

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Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

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Human papilloma virus early proteins E6 (HPV16/18-E6) and the cell cycle marker P16 (INK4a) are useful prognostic markers in uterine cervical carcinomas in Qassim Region--Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is a common and an important public health problem for adult women in developing countries. In contrast, cervical cancer incidence is low in Saudi Arabia. High-risk types of human papilloma viruses (HPV16 and HPV18) are the most significant risk factors for cervical cancer. HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein is associated with HPV etiology, viral persistence and epithelial transformation. Cell cycle protein p16 INK4a (p16) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cervical carcinomas. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of HPV16/18-E6 and p16 in uterine cervical carcinomas in Qassim Region--Saudi Arabia, and to relate the results to the established clinicopathological prognostic parameters (age of the patient, educational level, birth control methods, number of pregnancy, smoking status, degree of histological differentiation, clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis) The study included 40 specimens of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas diagnosed and confirmed by biopsy. Histopathological classification of cervical tumors cases was performed according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Immunohistochemical analysis for HPV16/18-E6 and p16 were carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of cervical tissues using avidin-biotin peroxidase method. There was a significant statistical correlation between HPV16/18-E6 expression in cervical carcinoma and nationality, smoking status and size of the tumor. HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein expression in normal lymphocytes and endothelial cells in the tumor tissues and the adjacent normal cervical tissues suggest the possibility that HPV infection might spread to other organs through blood circulation. P16 expression has been correlated with high grade, stage of cervical SCC and HPV16/18-E6 expression. The current study supports the critical function of p16 and HPV16/18-E6 as specific markers for cervical carcinoma. However the potential for usage of p16 and HPV16/18-E6 as prognostic markers will require detailed follow data for a larger group of patients. PMID:24925218

Omran, O M; AlSheeha, M

2015-01-01

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Association of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene G894T polymorphism with the risk of diabetic nephropathy in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia—A pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic microangiopathic complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).Vascular endothelial dysfunction resulting from impaired nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the vascular endothelial cells has been suggested as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (E-NOS) gene G894T polymorphism has been reported to be associated with endothelial dysfunction leading to DN. Our objective was to evaluate the association of G894T polymorphism of eNOS gene with the risk of DN among type 2 diabetic Saudi patients. Methods One hundred and twenty subjects were included in this study. They were divided into three groups. Group I, 40 controls. Group II, 40 type 2 diabetic patients without nephropathy. Group III, 40 type2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) G894Tpolymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). Plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels were estimated. Results E-NOS genotype frequency showed non-significant differences among the all studied groups (p > 0.05). Both diabetic groups had significantly higher plasma nitrate levels than in controls with a significant increase in group III than in group II patients (all p < 0.0001). E NOS 894TT genotype was associated with higher plasma nitrate levels in all groups. Conclusion E-NOS gene SNP is not considered as genetic risk factor for DN among type 2 diabetic Saudi patients. The higher plasma levels of nitrates as a marker of oxidative stress in diabetic patients with nephropathy suggest the possible role of oxidative stress but not e-NOS gene SNP in pathogenesis of the DN. PMID:25606424

Mackawy, Amal Mohammed Husein; Khan, Amjad Ali; Badawy, Mohammed El-Sayed

2014-01-01

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Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)

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Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

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Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation ofled investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

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Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potenand Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

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Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

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Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

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Rock Art of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity,...

Majeed Khan

2013-01-01

24

Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Some Localities in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to find out prevalence and types of avian influenza virus (AIV) among broilers, native chickens, ducks and pigeons in Saudi Arabia. Field investigation was carried out in four localities including Al-Qassim, Hail, Al-Jouf and Northern Border regions. Serum sample, tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from broilers (n=1561), layers (n=988), ducks (n=329) and pigeons (n=450) from these localities and tested for three different avian influenza viruses (H9, H5...

Alkhalaf, Abdullah N.

2010-01-01

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Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Argic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

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Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installati...

Pazheri, F. R.

2014-01-01

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Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

F. R. Pazheri

2014-09-01

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Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Amaranthus pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and a potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A. viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samplers were operated continuously for one year at each location. Results: The data revealed A. viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%, Jeddah (87%, Qassim (85%, Taif (84%, Dammam (83% and Jizan (61%. These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. viridis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000/m 3 of air in October and 1827/m 3 of air in September. The data also exhibited a seasonal pattern in their maximum appearance. Conclusion: Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Hasnain Syed

2007-01-01

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The Incidence Rate of Thyroid Cancer Among Women in Saudi Arabia: An Observational Descriptive Epidemiological Analysis of Data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women. PMID:24859807

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-05-25

30

Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

31

The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

1991-01-01

32

Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female decant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

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Nutrition Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in ...

Al-numair, Khalid S.

2004-01-01

34

The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: ? How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? ? How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? ? What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? ? What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

35

Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)

36

Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author)d preventive measures implemented (Author).

37

Impediments of Activating E-Learning in Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the real reasons which constraint the application of the E-learning in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia (Case study: Qassim Universityand some suggested solutions. A questionnaire has been designed for the study include 48 paragraphs, divided into 5 parts, the first include the principle information, the second define how the technology can be used in the E-learning, the third deals with how to support the E-learning idea, the fourth part, asking the difficulties and challenges that face the application of E-learning, the fifth items asking to provide suggestion for solving the problem. The study has 100 samples for faculty members and undergraduate students in Ar-Rass college of Science and Arts, male Departments at Qassim University. The study indicates that the main factors that obstruct the E-learning is the financial support from saving advanced PC's, labs, and establishing strong computer network, adding to the weakness of some faculty members and student to English language. The study focused in the suggested solution for the problem by applying the Electronic subjects, and imposes the whole faculty members to prepare at least one course in Electronic form.

Khalefah A. K. Al-Masaud

2014-05-01

38

Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Some Localities in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out prevalence and types of avian influenza virus (AIV among broilers, native chickens, ducks and pigeons in Saudi Arabia. Field investigation was carried out in four localities including Al-Qassim, Hail, Al-Jouf and Northern Border regions. Serum sample, tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from broilers (n=1561, layers (n=988, ducks (n=329 and pigeons (n=450 from these localities and tested for three different avian influenza viruses (H9, H5 and H3 using Enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA test, hamagglutination inhibition (HI test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All tested samples were negative for H5 and H3 viruses. In contrast, all positive results were found to be for H9 AI virus using PCR, ELISA and HI test. Chicken sera tested by ELISA for AIV revealed the highest positive samples in Northern Border regions (45.71%, followed by Al-Jouf (29.65%, Al-Qassim (23.98% and Hial (20.94% with non-significant difference (?2=5.983; P=0.112. HI test carried out on duck sera revealed 35.90% prevalence of antibodies against AIV. PCR amplification resulted in 34.28 and 21.36% positive samples in ducks and chickens, respectively. The highest (45.71% PCR positive chicken samples were from Northern Border regions, followed by Al-Jouf (24.13%, Al-Qassim (19.30% and Hail (16.69% with significant difference (?2=7.620; P=0.055. All tested pigeons samples were negative for the three virus serotypes included in the study.

Abdullah N. Alkhalaf

2010-07-01

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The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

Al-Kassimi FA

2013-05-01

40

Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Sand Dunes in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition, provenance and tectonic history of the sand dunes. Geochemical analysis indicated that most of sand dunes are quartz arenite type, except in the Red sea, basement related central Saudi Arabia and Najran areas, the sand dunes are sub-arkoses, sub-litharenite and litharenite. The concentration of major,trace and rare elements showed active continental margins as a tectonic setting of Red sea, basement related Najran and central Arabia sand dune. In contrast, passive continental margins for the other locations. The distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements showed similarity in chemical composition between basement related sand dunes in Red sea, Najran and central Arabia.

Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman

2014-05-01

41

Ophthalmic nursing in Saudi Arabia: a western expatriate's perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this first article in a series "Ophthalmic nursing in Saudi Arabia: A western expatriate's perspective" is to acquaint readers with Saudi Arabia and the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh. In subsequent articles, the various challenges which face both the expatriate nursing staff and the local Saudi nurses in this setting will be addressed. The King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital presents an unique and challenging ophthalmic nursing experience for the expatriate with an adventurous spirit! PMID:8301174

Astle, B J

1993-06-01

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The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi nationa...

Alzahrani Khalid; Fida Nadia; Al-Sultan Mohammad; Al-Sheikh Mona; Al-Habib Amro; Al-Omran Mohammad; Al-Zalabani Abdulmohsen; Boker Abdulaziz; Aly Syed; Al-Rukban Mohammad; Abuznadah Wesam; Zaini Rania; Bajammal Sohail; Hamad Bashir; Al Shehri Mohammad

2008-01-01

43

Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).

44

Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. Howevere of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

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A case of unilocular hydatid disease imported from Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

A 39-year-old Korean man with general malaise was found to have two hepatic cysts by computed tomography. He had the history of close contact with domesticated wild dog in Saudi Arabia in 1976. Two cysts, 15cm and 10cm in diameter which contained clear fluid, were excised from both lobes of the liver. He was pathologically diagnosed as unilocular hydatid disease. This case is regarded as an imported case from Saudi Arabia.

Huh, S.; Hong, S. T.; Lee, S. H.; Chi, J. G.; Kim, Y. I.; Choe, K. J.

1988-01-01

46

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

2012-04-01

47

Mobile Computing Trends in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.

Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

2014-12-01

48

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

Alzahrani Khalid

2008-11-01

49

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

2013-09-01

50

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written) which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate. PMID:19032779

Bajammal, Sohail; Zaini, Rania; Abuznadah, Wesam; Al-Rukban, Mohammad; Aly, Syed Moyn; Boker, Abdulaziz; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Al-Omran, Mohammad; Al-Habib, Amro; Al-Sheikh, Mona; Al-Sultan, Mohammad; Fida, Nadia; Alzahrani, Khalid; Hamad, Bashir; Al Shehri, Mohammad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Al-Damegh, Saleh; Al-Nozha, Mansour M; Donnon, Tyrone

2008-01-01

51

Clinical aspects of malaria in the Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hundred and thirty-four cases of confirmed malaria seen in the Asir Central Hospital, Abha, in southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied retrospectively. Two hundred and eighty-two of these (84.4%) were Saudis and the majority (72.2%) were living in the lowlands of Tihama. Transmission was found to occur throughout the year, with peaks following the rainy season and in the summer. In Saudis, falciparum malaria is more common than vivax (97.2% vs. 2.8%), while vivax malaria is more commonly seen in expatriates (46.2%). Poor response of falciparum malaria to chloroquine was more prevalent in expatriates than in Saudis (46.4% vs. 23%). Most of the expatriates gave a history of recent travel to countries known to be endemic with resistant malaria. The possibility of the emergence of chloroquine-resistant malaria in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia was discussed. PMID:17341908

Malik, G M; Seidi, O; El-Taher, A; Mohammed, A S

1998-01-01

52

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

2011-01-01

53

Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.

Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

54

Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25776094

Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Dallol, Ashraf; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Ahmed, Farid; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

2015-12-01

55

Anemia and Iron Intake of Adult Saudis in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52) and non-smokers (n = 80). Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days....

Al-assaf, Abdullah H.

2007-01-01

56

Visual outcome and complications after cataract extraction in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in Saudi Arabia. The author studied 1383 patients who had undergone cataract extraction (total of 1520 procedures) from October 1985 to March 1986 at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients were observed for at least two months. Of 1520 eyes 555 (37%) achieved a visual acuity of 20/40 or better, 309 (20%) a visual acuity of 20/50-20/60 after surgery, and 656 (43%) eyes a visual acuity of 20/70 or less. The number o...

Al Faran, M. F.

1990-01-01

57

THE PUBLIC HEALTH BURDEN OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IN SAUDI ARABIA  

OpenAIRE

Because of the enormous changes in the lifestyle of Saudis in the last three decades, the risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD), including physical inactivity, are increasingly becoming prevalent in the society. This paper provides an overview of the importance of physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention, and discusses the public health burden of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia. Available evidence clearly indicates that physical inactivity is extremely prevalent...

Al-hazzaa, Hazzaa M.

2004-01-01

58

Synovial biopsy : A comparative study from Saudi Arabia and Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

A comparative study of synovitis in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia was made with a view to determining any geographic variation in the incidence and pattern of the arthritides. The diagnostic spectrum in both series included pyogenic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, brucellar and tubercular arthritis, gout, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis and acute rheumatic fever. Date-palm thorn synovitis was observed only in the Saudi Arabian series. While brucellar and tuberculous art...

Sankaran-kutty, M.; Das, P. K.; Kannan Kutty, M.

1998-01-01

59

Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November ...

Mashael Al Saud

2010-01-01

60

Capacity building in radiopharmaceuticals: Saudi Arabia experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Undoubtedly, easy availability of radiopharmaceuticals is a key element in application of radioisotopes in health care. And, creating self-sufficiency within the country and the geographical region in manufacturing these time-limited products further enhances this prospect. For obvious reasons, on demand availability and timely distribution of products bodes well for a regional programme. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, one such programme began in early 1980s with the installation of the CS-30 (26.4 MeV) cyclotron, with an intention not only to make available the cyclotron products for medical imaging, but also to establish a contemporary research programme in radiotracer development as exemplified by simultaneous installation of a Tomogram (PET scanner) at the time when PET scanning was in its infancy. The first beam on target in 1982 produced the first batch of 67Ga citrate radiopharmaceutical, followed by an addition of various other cyclotron based products over the years. Presently, the Cyclotron Facility routinely produces six cyclotron isotopes (201Tl, 67Ga, 81mKr, 123I, 18F and 13N) which are subsequently formulated into nine different radiopharmaceuticals. Weekly, approximately 25 batches of radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured supporting 35 nuclear medicine facilities within the country and the geographical region. A key montry and the geographical region. A key motivating and driving force for our Centre has been the goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. Consequently, we introduced in Year 2000 the 131I based products for diagnosis as well as for therapy, including on-request manufacturing of 131I labeled mIBG. Good Manufacturing Practice is the cornerstone of any radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program. KFSH and RC is a perfect example of how this operational and guiding principle has been applied and evolved over the years, culminating into an effective quality management system for manufacturing radiopharmaceutical products consistently conforming to specifications. The programme building has been 'work in progress' from the onset and continues to be so, particularly in establishment and implementation of strict operational philosophy of GMP and ISO quality management system. We also realized that people are the most important component of any viable program. For efficient functioning, the staff must be well qualified and appropriately trained to achieve the mission of the organization. This has been achieved through staff selection based upon educational background, followed by extensive on-the-job training, as well as didactic education. Consequently, our facility has had a good mix of young and experienced staff. Furthermore, we have availed of the various IAEA's programmes in specific training and fellowships for in depth exposure to other centres. With embarkation upon new programs, continuing education remains a central theme in ultimate success of the entire program. The experience gained over two decades of continuous operation breeds confidence in the staff to achieve the goal of making Saudi Arabia self-sufficient in all its radiopharmaceuticals needs. Continuing with our commitment to make available to the peoples of the country the most contemporary imaging modality, PET scanner was installed at KFSH and RC in 1995. Along with the routine PET work, we have established a team of scientists to perform research work in developing new radiotracers. KFSH and RC's cyclotron facility has continually focused on an overwhelming goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. To this end, the year 2005 is the beginning of establishing just one such facility through expansion of the program that entails: a new building; a state-of-the-art cyclotron (30 MeV; plus a small cyclotron dedicated for PET isotopes production); advanced clean rooms; more importantly, the establishment of the Tc-99m Generators and Cold Kits manufacturing programs. Presentation will entail past, present

61

Health care worker contact with MERS patient, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612

Hall, Aron J; Tokars, Jerome I; Badreddine, Samar A; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Kuhar, David T; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U; Pallansch, Mark A; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A

2014-12-01

62

Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection.

Hall, Aron J.; Tokars, Jerome I.; Badreddine, Samar A.; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Kuhar, David T.; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A.

2014-01-01

63

Nursing: Attitudes, perceptions and strategies for progress in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western countries are experiencing a nursing shortage which will impact on future nurse manpower supply in Saudi Arabia because the Kingdom is dependent on expatriate nurses. The young people of Saudi Arabia are the Kingdom's most valuable resources but are reluctant to enter nursing. Therefore, a random survey was administered to 1,131 secondary and university students to determine attitudes and general knowledge of Saudi nationals toward the health care system, perceived role of the nurse and recommendations for improving Saudization of the nursing profession. The majority of those surveyed preferred hospitalization within the Kingdom with Saudi nationals delivering the nursing care rather than expatriates. The nurse was perceived as being a caring person who was responsible for giving more than custodial care. Moreover, the role of the nurse was perceived as an extension of the physician with little or no role in disease detection and prevention. The low image and status of nursing, traditional and social values were identified as major inhibiting factors that affect the Saudi nationals' reluctance to enter nursing. Increasing financial rewards, utilizing the media and segregation of hospitals into male and female were the most frequently cited recommendations to promote Saudization of nursing. Data from this study provided insight into the current perception of nursing as a potential career for Saudi nationals and could provide direction for future concerns in the development of nursing in the Kingdom. PMID:17590766

Jackson, C L; Gary, R

1991-07-01

64

Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of…

Baki, Roula

2004-01-01

65

Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia

Abolfotouh MA

2014-08-01

66

The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology

Alghamdi IG

2013-10-01

67

Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1, and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. METHODS Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is a retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and in Abbott laboratories (United States of Amer...

Alzahrani, Alhusain J.

2008-01-01

68

An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)has witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been abl...

Iftekhar Ahmad; Anand Mohan Agrawal

2012-01-01

69

Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...

Al-maghrabi, T.; Dennis, C.

2010-01-01

70

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Abdulsalam M Alaithan,1 Javed I Memon,1 Rifat S Rehmani,2 Arif A Qureshi,1 Abdul Salam31Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center – Eastern Region (KAIMRC-ER), Al-Hasa, Saudi ArabiaBackground: There is little data surrounding the survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are admitted to ...

Am, Alaithan; Ji, Memon; Rs, Rehmani; Aa, Qureshi; Salam A

2012-01-01

71

Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ADRL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality  

OpenAIRE

The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA) and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999) for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and t...

Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Amal Mousa Zaidan

2013-01-01

72

Maternal knowledge and use of folic acid among Saudi females  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To explore and find out the level of awareness regarding folic acid’s (FAs) importance, current use, and timing of administration among pregnant Saudi females. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted  randomly among women aged 18-45 years old, attending the Antenatal and Gynecology Clinics at the Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January to November 2012. A total of 1250 subjects were approached, and 1000 women expressed the...

Alakhfash, Ali A.; Abdulla, Abdelmagid M.; Osman, Amani M.; Abdulgafar, Julnar I.; Almesned, Abdulrahman A.

2013-01-01

73

Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA, PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

Rashed Mohamed S

2010-03-01

74

Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

75

Secondary and intermediate female Islamic studies teachers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: understanding their teaching  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to investigate how intermediate and secondary female Islamic studies teachers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, make sense of their teaching. The overarching aim was to produce a descriptive and interpretive account of what is it like to be an IS teacher teaching in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia today. The key questions that frame this study are: 1) How do female Saudi Arabian Islamic studies teachers teach in the classroom? 2) How do female Saudi Arabian Islamic studies teachers m...

Jamjoom, Mounira; Childs, Ann

2012-01-01

76

Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First reported case in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the polychain reaction techniques (PCR). The patient's renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued. (author)

77

Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First Reported Case in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the Poly chain reaction technique (PCR. The patient?s renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued.

Siddiqi N

2006-01-01

78

Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

79

The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and English classes in particular. It is believed that if the teacher of English has undergone a pre-service teacher training it is better for the learners of Saudi Arabia. In the other case, those who have not attended pre-service teacher training, they should go for in-service professional development programs in order to equip them further for innovative teaching and educational output.

Intakhab Alam Khan

2011-06-01

80

Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait  

OpenAIRE

The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

Al-wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-younes, Abla; Al-omran, Ola A.

2006-01-01

81

Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW) to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were ...

Khater, Ashraf E. M.; Asma Al-Jaloud; El-taher, A.

2014-01-01

82

Changing pattern of childhood blindness in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

We studied 187 patients attending special educational institutions in Saudi Arabia who were blind before the age of 14. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation. The visual acuity in 31% of the patients was no light perception and in 58% light perception to counting fingers at 3 feet (1 m). 70% were blind before age 2. Prior to 1962 acquired diseases led to blindness in 75% of the patients. From 1962 onwards genetically determined diseases accounted for 84% of childhood bli...

Tabbara, K. F.; Badr, I. A.

1985-01-01

83

E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their businesstransactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations) or an external set of factors(related to infrastructure and governmental support). We have noticed that most of the studies in this subjectcovered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studiedeCommerce adoption factors in developing economies center on the...

Al-hudhaif, Sulaiman A.; Abdullah Alkubeyyer

2011-01-01

84

School Teachers’ Knowledge about Autism in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to find out what school teachers know about Autism. In addition, this study attemptedto find out if there any significant differences in school teachers’ knowledge about Autism depending on teachers’(gender, position, education level, teaching experience, and contact with students with Autism) variables. A total of391 general and special education teachers from various segregated and inclusive schools within the Jeddah in SaudiArabia completed study instrumen...

Haimour, Abdulhade I.; Obaidat, Yahia F.

2013-01-01

85

The Microbiology of Tonsils in Khamis Civil Hospital, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives. Tonsillitis is a common infection in all age groups, especially under the age of five. Organisms causing this condition vary from place to place. Our aim is to find out the main causative agents of this condition in our hospital. Patients and Methods. Fifty-two consenting patients who needed tonsillectomy in Khamis civil hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between September 2006 and April 2007, were enrolled for the study. Swabs were taken from their inner surfaces and cultured for...

Al Ahmary, Mohammed S.; Al Mastour, Ali S.; Ghnnam, Wagih M.

2012-01-01

86

Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.

Emad Omar Elhendawy

2012-10-01

87

E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their businesstransactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations or an external set of factors(related to infrastructure and governmental support. We have noticed that most of the studies in this subjectcovered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studiedeCommerce adoption factors in developing economies center on the environmental, infrastructural andgovernmental areas only, and overlook the organizational factors, while the focus of the subject studied andresearched on developed economies was organizational (SMEs and large enterprises related adoption factors byconsidering the technology infrastructure and government support as taken for granted, which is not the case indeveloping economies.The objectives of this study are 1 to find out the level of eCommerce adoption in Saudi Arabia, and 2 toidentify the factors that affect the adoption of eCommerce. By this, the output of the study can help the policymaker of ICT (Information and Communication Technology in Saudi Arabia to direct the related activitiestoward the most effective local factors that will enable and leverage eCommerce potential and usage on one hand,and on the other hand the study will identify the promising local opportunities for eCommerce infrastructureproviders (local banks, system integrators, IT solution providers, and major telecom operators by discoveringthe distinctive eCommerce adoption factors.

Sulaiman A. Al-Hudhaif

2011-09-01

88

Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unrelieved pain is a worldwide health care problem that can lead to unnecessary complications and increased health care expenditure. The aim of this study was to examine nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pain in Saudi Arabia. A descriptive design was employed using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey regarding pain. The study took place in a tertiary teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. All nurses employed in the hospital were eligible to participate. A total of 775 questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in acute care, intensive care, and nursing education and administration settings. In all, 593 respondents completed the questionnaires, representing a response rate of 76.5%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Most participants were from overseas (97.5%), speaking 23 different languages; 36.5% of nurses held a bachelors of science degree in nursing or the equivalent. The mean score of correctly answered items in was 16.9 (95% confidence interval, 16.6-17.31) out of a total possible score of 40. Nurses demonstrated some misconceived attitudes such as not giving the required dose of morphine to a smiling patient despite the patient being in pain. It is of concern that the findings identified problems of inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes regarding pain assessment and management in Saudi Arabia. Considering these problems, the development of pain programs and policies affecting national and international nurses is highly imperative. PMID:25179424

Eid, Thurayya; Manias, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Almazrooa, Adnan

2014-12-01

89

Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility. PMID:4035414

Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

1985-01-01

90

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria deri...

Sa, Al-aqeel; Jf, Al-sabhan; Ny, Sultan

2013-01-01

91

Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

1995-01-01

92

Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

Al-maghrabi, T.

2010-01-01

93

Saudi Arabia: World Oil Report 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year

94

Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage withinacterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

95

Organic geochemistry of the Paleozoic petroleum system of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Palaeozoic petroleum system of the central and Northern Provinces of Saudi Arabia contains one of the most prolific oil-prone source rocks of Silurian age worldwide, the Qusaiba shale of the Qalibah Formation. This source rock is responsible for charging the large, gentle structures of the Central Province with billions of barrels of light, sweet, crude oil. Organic geochemical methods such as biomarkers, organic petrography, and characterization of the source rock facies have been used to determine the most likely candidate source rock for the Paleozoic oils of Saudi Arabia. By using detailed extract and oil characterizations, the basal hot shales of the Quasiba Member of the Silurian Qalibah Formation have been correlated to the oils reservoired in the Permian sands of the Central Province of Saudi Arabia. The Qusaiba shales consist of light to dark gray, clastic, marine shales and can be divided into two main zones: a low gamma-ray response and a high gamma-ray response, both having their own organic geochemical signatures. The low gamma ray zone has almost no source potential and comprises most of the Qalibah shale sequence. The hot gamma-ray zone is located at the base of the Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation and consists of abundant amorphous matter, marine algae, acritarchs, and abundant chitinozoans and graptolites. Carbon isotopes and sterane biomarkers resulted in an excellent correlation between the basal Quasaiba shales and the oils. No other potential source rocks correlated as well, nor did these other potential sources contain the source rock quality, or vertical and lateral regional persistence as the Silurian basal Qusaiba shales. 51 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Cole, G.A.; Abu-Ali, M.A.; Aoudeh, S.M.; Carrigan, W.J.; Chen, H.H.; Colling, E.L.; Gwathney, W.J.; Al-Hajii, A.A.; Halpern, H.I.; Jones, P.J.; Al-Sharidi, S.H.; Tobey, M.H. (Saudi Arabian Oil Company, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

96

Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

2012-01-01

97

A Web-Based Cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a distinct lack of online atlases to visualize and explore cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries despite the clear benefit that such tools can deliver. This paper describes the development and implementation of a cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia, which is a web-based client-server application with built-in analysis functions for analyzing patterns of cancer incidence. Built using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server API and ASP.NET, the atlas contains 45,532 incidences of cancer for the period from 1998 to 2004, which were provided by the Saudi Arabian National Cancer Registry. This tool is aimed at health care practitioners and researchers, who can use this tool for exploring cancer distribution and investigating trends, and as a decision support tool for service allocation. The tool allows users to map cancer incidence and undertake analyses at four spatial scales from city to national level.  

Khalid Al-Ahmadi

2013-10-01

98

Family Ownership, Corporate Governance and Performance: Evidence from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the performance of companies listed in the Saudi Stock Exchange. For this purpose, we studied and tested a sample of 792 firm-years among from 11 industrial groups for the years 2006 to 2013 and compared Family and Non-family firms. The research addresses the questions 1 Do family owned firms perform better? 2 How does concentration of ownership affect firm performance, comparing family firms to non-family ones? This research attempts to fill a research gap on the relationship or determinants of capital structure in one of the emerging markets, Saudi Arabia. This study will be implemented through a quantitative approach. Secondary data were obtained from published annual statistical data, from the company financial reports and the DataStream database.

Mohammed Al-Ghamdi

2015-01-01

99

Dermatological manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease. PMID:24888650

Halawani, Mona R

2014-06-01

100

E-Commerce Adoption Factors and Their Implications for E-Commerce Business Strategy in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

This research project provides a comprehensive overview and current perspective of e-commerce usage and adoption factors in Saudi Arabia and seeks to explain why ecommerce use is still in a relatively immature state when compared to other regions. This study examines Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure readiness for online shopping and explores Saudi consumers’ behaviour and attitudes with regard to shopping online. An online survey was conducted to elicit general perceptions of Saudi consumers...

Alsharif, Mohammed

2011-01-01

101

Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

102

Measles in Saudi Arabia : From control to elimination.  

OpenAIRE

This article describes the tremendous efforts made in the field of measles immunization in Saudi Arabia in the past 20 years, from the control phase to the elimination phase. Mandatory measles vaccination with one-dose Schwartz vaccine was introduced in 1982 by a royal decree, a step aimed at increasing vaccine coverage. In 1991, a two-dose schedule was implemented using Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine , with a first dose at 6 months to protect children younger than 9 months and a second dos...

Khalil Mohamed; Al-Mazrou Yagob; AlHowasi Mansour; Al-Jeffri Mohamed

2005-01-01

103

Wagner's Law in Saudi Arabia 1970 - 2012: An Econometric Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Our goal in this paper is to explore the validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012) for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP. Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previous studies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth. We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine ...

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-01-01

104

Factorial's composition of Lake Abha, Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)

105

Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF2Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 ?R h-1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 ?R h-1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

106

Female employment and family commitment in Saudi Arabia : a case study of Riyadh City  

OpenAIRE

This study argues that ideological rather than material constraints are the major obstacles that limit full female participation in the Saudi Arabian labour force and hinder Saudi working women from combining their double roles as mothers and paid workers. As a developing country, Saudi Arabia is facing multiple problems. One of these challenges is the great shortage of human resources. In 1984/85, 59.8 per cent of the labour force in Saudi society was foreign. Female ...

Al-khateeb, S. A. H.

1987-01-01

107

Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

108

Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650

Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

2015-03-01

109

Religious involvement and health in dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials. PMID:25316206

Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G

2015-04-01

110

Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

111

Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigato avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

112

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1 Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2 Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3 Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%. There were 26 (2.2% students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1% and 9 males (1.5%. Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%. The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479, Madinah 1.8% (8/436, and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252. The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

Abdulrahman M Aljebreen

2013-01-01

113

Medical Colleges in Saudi Arabia: Can We Predict Graduate Numbers?  

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Full Text Available The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128 physicians by the year 2014 in order to maintain the same physicians-to-population ratio, i.e., 2.7 per 100,000. To solve the problem, the higher education institutions invested in medical education and increased their number of college graduates. However, there are many questions about whether this strategy will proof successful in covering the shortage or whether this will lead to problems, for example an excess in the number of physicians. These can only be answered if future graduate numbers are estimated and kept under control. In this study, common data mining techniques were reviewed and applied to the output of Saudi medical colleges over the past years. These techniques can be used to predict graduate numbers. The results show the importance of developing a national student information center to fix the data collection problems described in this paper.

Alaa Althubaiti

2014-05-01

114

Perception on the Relationship between Cancer and Usage of Tobacco and Alcohol in Hail, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Aim: Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia.

Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed

2013-01-01

115

Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999 for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license are Granger-causes each other in Saudi Arabia. With these findings, we affirm that there is a strong relationship and effect between road traffic accidents and its population, GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license. The findings suggest that the  coefficients are negative signed and statistically significant in all VECMs, implying that there is bi-directional causality between the variables of interest in the long run.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-06-01

116

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-03-01

117

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

118

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, May 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of May 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

119

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, April 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of April 1985 was presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

120

Infective endocarditis at a hospital in Saudi Arabia: epidemiology, bacterial pathogens and outcome  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objective : Data on infective endocarditis prevalence, epidemiology and etiology from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region are sparse. We undertook this study to describe the pattern and the causative agents of endocarditis at a hospital in Saudi Arabia. Methods : We conducted a retrospective analysis of all reported endocarditis cases at the Dhahran Health Center from January 1995 to December 2008. Results : Of the 83 cases of endocarditis, 54 (65%) were definite endoca...

Al-Tawfiq Jaffar; Sufi Ismail

2009-01-01

121

Risk factors for drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To identify rates of primary and secondary drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their risk factors from a tertiary-care center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Review of microbiological and clinical data of all patients with positive isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between 1995 and 2000 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS Susceptibility to antituberculosis agents was tested in 320 iso...

Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Shahab Abdulwahab; Edna Almodovar; Al-abdely, Hail M.

2002-01-01

122

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender o...

Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

2010-01-01

123

The Use of Software Project Management Tools in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Survey  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports the results of an online survey study, which was conducted to investigate the use of software project management tools in Saudi Arabia. The survey provides insights of project management in the local context of Saudi Arabia from ten different companies which participated in this study. The aim is to explore and specify the project management tools used by software project management teams and their managers, to understand the supported features that might influence their se...

Nouf AlMobarak; Rawan AlAbdulrahman; Shahad AlHarbi; Wea’am AlRashed

2013-01-01

124

Viral and bacterial infections associated with camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf diarrhea in North Province, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Diarrhea and deaths in new-born camel calves were noticed by veterinary investigators and pastoralist in Saudi Arabia to be very high. Hence, it is thought to be necessary to investigate this problem from the virological and bacteriological point of view. The role of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in six different towns of North Province (Al-Assafia, Arar, Domat Aljandal, Hail, Skaka and Khoa) in Saudi Arabia was studied. Survey was conducted in diarrheic camel calves aged 12 months or youn...

Al-ruwaili, Meshref A.; Khalil, Omer M.; Selim, Samy A.

2011-01-01

125

Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Dicronychus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examination of specimens of Dicronychus Brullé in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia revealed the presence of two new species, D. latifae n. sp. and D. bushrae n. sp. In addition, the descriptions of D. talhouki Platia and Schimmel and D. brancuccii Platia and Schimmel are augmented after examination of both type material and recently collected specimens from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:25277891

Al Dhafer, Hathal M; Platia, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

126

Epizootiological aspects of peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epizootiological aspects of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia are examined. The presence of PPR has been suspected on occasions, but virus isolation has been successful only once. Information regarding PPR and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia is scarce. The only survey conducted indicated that neither disease is endemic in the country. PMID:11107629

al-Naeem, A; Abu Elzein, E M; al-Afaleq, A I

2000-12-01

127

Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

Al-Aujan S

2012-10-01

128

Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS. Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred and fifty Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI individual-based questionnaires were distributed after modification to include the age, sex, marital status, nationality, unit working and number of years on the job. The data were entered in the database and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 14.0. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant . Results : One hundred and ninety-eight nurses (77.2% completed the questionnaire. Their average age was 34.46 ± 5.36 years. Forty-five percent (89 had high emotional exhaustion (EE and 28.9% (57 had moderate suffering with EE. Staffs who were on the job for longer duration had a lesser frequency of EE (P ? 0.001. The frequency of depersonalization (DP was 83 (42% and was graded as high and 61 (30.8% were moderately affected. Personal accomplishment (PA was moderate to low in the majority of the nurses (71.5%. Married nurses were prone to EE (28.17 ± 12.1 versus 22.3 ± 9.6 than unmarried nurses (P = 0.003, CI 95% and OR 2.4. The nurses in the patients? wards and clinics were more emotionally exhausted with higher DP compared to nurses in the high stress and high activity areas (P < 0.001, OR ?11.1; and P < 0.001, CI 95% and OR 9.65. Non-Saudi nurses were significantly more prone to EE (27.3 ± 12.1 versus 21.6 ± 2.9 than Saudi nurses (P = 0.004; 95% CI: <9.64. Conclusion : We found that majority of the nursing staff at our hospital were in a state of burnout with high frequency of EE and DP. Only a quarter of the surveyed staff felt that they had some level of PA. Age and working away from their home countries were the important predictors in the development of BS in nurses. We believe that working conditions have to be improved to develop strategies to cope and alleviate stressful situations.

Al-Turki Haifa

2010-12-01

129

Captive power generation in Saudi Arabia—Overview and recommendations on policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is undergoing the restructuring process. Moreover, during the last decade the Kingdom has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the load demand, consequently a huge amount of generation is added to the electric utilities to meet the load. Up to now only the electric utility generation was taken in the planning of the electrical sector. The data regarding the captive power generation was not readily available. A survey is conducted regarding the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia based on its utilization pattern, fuel used and amount of excess energy available to the grid. The existing regulatory framework and institutional structure of the Saudi power industry was also reviewed. Based on the information collected in the survey of captive power, key guidelines that may be considered in developing the policy for the captive power generators are presented. Furthermore, these guidelines and later the policies will help promote the investors to come forward in developing the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia. -- Highlights: •Database of captive power generation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. •Historical perspective of electrical power industry in the Kingdom. •Saudi Arabia?s power requirements. •Regulatory framework and key guidelines regarding captive power generation. •It is first of its kind study in the region

130

A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000) and Sudan (2007) from a One Health perspective. Methods: Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia?...

Osama Ahmed Hassan; Clas Ahlm; Magnus Evander

2014-01-01

131

Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures

132

Quality issues in continuing medical education in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The issue of continuing medical education (CME in Saudi Arabia is no longer quantity but rather quality. Quality Management (QM of the current huge number of CME activities is essential to ensure its merits and outcomes. Sound evaluation is the cornerstone of any QM process to CME. However, issues related to models of evaluation, CME stakeholders, principles of adult learning and assessment should be consid--ered before deciding on the type of evaluation appropriate for QM of CME. Our aim is to draw attention to the importance of developing a QM process for CME that is valid, reliable, feasible and acceptable to dif--ferent CME stakeholders. The huge volume of CME programs needs QM to ensure its utility for healthcare providers and consumers. Understanding relevant evaluation models and the complexity of evaluating CME is a necessary step towards appropriate action.

Al-Shehri Ali

2008-01-01

133

Radiometric analysis of selected phosphorite deposits of northwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Facility at the ERL was used on full time basis over a period of three months to measure quantitatively the natural gamma-ray activity in 50 selected phosphorite deposit samples from the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia. The results of the measurements show a U concentration between 9-127 ppm with an average of 42 ppm, Th concentration of 3-28 ppm with an average value of 10 ppm and K concentration in the 0.18-2.42 wt.% range with an average of 0.8%. The uncertainties were 0.3-4 % for U, 1- 17 % for Th and 0.7-15 % for K. The results will be presented and further geological interpretation of the results will be discussed using the relation between the content of K, U and Th and P2O5 as well as from the relationship among uranium, thorium and potassium

134

The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hos--pitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country?s healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discussed with the many challenges associated with the change.

Walston Stephen

2008-01-01

135

Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.

Suaad S. Alwakeel

2011-01-01

136

Nutritional and health status of medical students at a university in Northwestern Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To assess the nutrition and health status, nutrients intake, and physical activity among Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory assessments was conducted from January to May 2011 on 194 randomly selected Saudi medical students at Taibah University, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The adequacy of nutrient intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) per the National Research Counc...

Allam, Abdulkader R.; Taha, Inass M.; Al-nozha, Omar M.; Sultan, Intessar E.

2012-01-01

137

Petromin: the slow death of statist oil development in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The paper recounts the history of Saudi Arabia's first national oil company, Petromin, which was originally supposed to take the place of foreign-owned Aramco. As a result of Petromin's inefficiency and personal rivalries among the Saudi elite, however, Petromin was progressively relegated to the sidelines in favour of a gradually 'Saudiised' Aramco. As a result, the organisation of the Saudi oil sector today is very different from - and more efficient than - that of most other oil exporters ...

Hertog, Steffen

2008-01-01

138

Renal Abnormalities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Single Center Report from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney fu...

Aleem Aamer

2008-01-01

139

Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

Ashraf E.M. Khater

2014-01-01

140

Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November 2009, when flooded water and sediments (torrents invaded the urban areas and resulted decease of many people and destroyed the infrastructure and civilized zones. The lack of mitigation implements exacerbated the problem. This study implies an assessment of flood hazard risk in Jeddah region. It aims to identify the zones subjected to flood and then inducing the influencing factors at different levels of effect. For this purpose space techniques were utilized, with a focus on IKONOS satellite images, which are characterized by high resolution in identifying terrain features. In addition Geographic Information System (GIS was also used to support space techniques. Thus, damaged areas and the mechanism of flooding process were recognized. This helps avoiding further urban expansion in areas under flood risk and will aid decision maker to put new strategies for hazard management.

Mashael Al Saud

2010-09-01

141

Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planningergy planning

142

Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges  

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Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

BaHammam Ahmed

2011-01-01

143

Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital?s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

Al-Khouzaie Thamer

2011-01-01

144

Saudi Arabia's oil policy after 1. oil crisis explained with the help of a cartel model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)

145

Levels of acceptance of Asthma Control Test questionnaire among Saudi patients attending 5 tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To explore the levels of acceptance of asthma control test (ACT) among Saudi patients. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 5 hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, namely; Security Forces Hospital, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Khalid University Hospital, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, from the first of September to the 30th of November 2006. Patients attending the pulmonary clinic were asked to answer the ACT...

Mohammed Alanezi; Al-jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Zeitoni, Mohamed O.; Al-tasan, Turki H.

2009-01-01

146

Environmental benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy in Saudi Arabia's electric sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to stress the direct financial costs of expanding electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure without characterizing the environment impacts of building and operating the expanded electricity system in monetary terms. Emerging national and global environmental concerns, however, suggest that an expansion of the methods traditionally used for electricity resource planning and selection to include environmental considerations would greatly benefit the Kingdom. The criteria by which resource plans are evaluated can readily be broadened to address environmental and other concerns. As part of an illustrative Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) effort undertaken by a team of Saudi utility planners and international consultants, an expanded IRP framework was used to assess the environmental costs and benefits of various approaches to meeting electricity demand projections in Saudi Arabia. The results show that making use of renewable energy and energy efficiency resources to provide energy services to the electricity consumers of Saudi Arabia can provide significant s of Saudi Arabia can provide significant environmental benefits for the Kingdom

147

Usefulness of molecular techniques to identify ongoing tuberculosis transmission in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study represents the first time that molecular tracing techniques have been used to identify patterns of tuberculosis TB infection in Saudi Arabia. The 2 strains were isolated from a socio-economically advantaged family who share a number of common facilities including a car and a driver. There are several factors that may play vital roles in on-going transmission of TB in Saudi Arabia including a high number of expatriates, the Hajj pilgrimage, and the social habits of Saudi citizens. Our sibling case series is believed to be a frequent pattern of disease transmission in this country. Control measures such as health education, active case finding, and prompt and supervised medical treatment are needed. More studies using molecular techniques are recommended to find the incidence of cross infection in Saudi Arabia. In addition, molecular techniques have to be established in all reference laboratories to help the detection of ongoing active transmission, molecular epidemiology and detect sources of infection. (author)

148

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per center. The distribution of the dialysis centers according to the geographical regions of Saudi Arabia included 18(14% in the northern, 25(19% in the southern, 13(10% in the eastern, 35(27% in the western and 39(30% in the central region. There was a total of 6,694 dialysis patients served on 1,918 hemodialysis machines. There were 1,793(93% HD machines capable of performing bicarbonate dialysis. There was an average ratio of 3.5 patients per one HD machine. In addition to the hemodialysis, there were 28(22% centers engaged in peritoneal dialysis (PD and 56(43% centers in the follow-up of post transplant patients. The total number of the nephrologists, regardless of their expertise was 212 of whom 180(84% spoke Arabic; the average ratio was 32 patients per nephrologist (range of 14-58. There were 1320 hemodialysis nurses of whom only 465(35% spoke Arabic. The average ratio of patients to nurses was five patients per nurse (range of 4-6. There were 72(55% social workers and 70(54%dietitians with average patients ratios to these supporting services of 1:93 patients (range of 1:58-137 and 1:96 patients (range of 1:53-137, respectively. The study HD patients had a mean age of 47.8 ± 17.1 years (range: 2-92 years; of them, 52.5% were males and 12% had non-Saudi nationality. Of the hemodialysis patients, 1,815(27% were diabetics. The calculated net increase of dialysis population was 988 patients per year (14.8%. There were 5,700(85% patients on regular bicarbonate dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50% were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV serology, 448(7% had positive hepatitis B (HBV antigenemia and six(0.1% had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients? care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers.

Souqiyyeh Muhammad

2001-01-01

149

Barriers to integrating information technology in Saudi Arabia science education  

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This study examined current level of information technology integration in science education in the Yanbu school district in Saudi Arabia, and barriers to use. Sub-domains investigated included: infrastructure and resources, policy and support, science teachers' personal beliefs, and staff development. Survey determined demographic data and level of technology implementation, personal computer use, and current instructional practice. Mean frequency of information technology use was 1--2 times during a semester. Science teachers rated barriers limiting use of technology in teaching with a scale ranging from 0 (does not limit) to 3 (greatly limits). Results found all four factors were significant barriers: infrastructure and resources (M = 2.06; p < .001), staff development (M = 2.02; p <.001), policy and support (M = 1.84; p < .041) and science teachers' personal beliefs regarding technology (M = 1.15; p < .001). Regression analysis found that locations, level of training, teaching experience, and gender predicted frequency of use (F(3,168) = 3.63, R2 = .10, p < .014). Teachers who received in-service training programs used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.41, p = 0.017). Teachers who received both pre-service and in-service training used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.61, p = 0.01). Low technology users perceived that there was no support or incentives for using technology, while high technology users did not perceive these barriers (r = -0.18, p = .01). High technology users had positive personal beliefs about how information technology benefits learning, while low technology users held negative beliefs about technology use (r = -0.20, p = .003). The more barriers science teachers experienced, the less likely they were to be information technology users (r = -0.16, p = .02). There is a need for more computers in school, more teacher training, more time for teachers to learn to use technology, and more readily-available, technical support staff. Further studies are needed to represent all science teachers in Saudi Arabia, assess technology capacity of all schools, and assess in-service staff development strategies.

Al-Alwani, Abdulkareem Eid Salamah

150

Patterns of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the patterns in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) in our region, we retrospectively studied 25 nephrotic patients evaluated and followed-up in the hospitals of the Aljouf region in Saudi Arabia. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The incidence of idiopathic NS was two to six cases per 100,000 children/year, while the prevalence was 12 cases per 100,000 children. Five patients presented with hypertension, seven (28%) with respiratory tract infection, three (12%) with tender abdomen, two (8%) with gross hematuria, one (4%) with thrombosis of renal veins with seizure and shock and the remaining seven presented to the hospital without complications. Twenty-three (92%) patients were sensitive to the first steroid course and two (8%) patients were steroid resistant, and both of them proved to have focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on biopsy. Of those who responded, six (24%) patients remained in remission, while 17 (68%) patients became steroid dependant. Of those who were diagnosed as steroid dependent, three patients were biopsied and one of them was diagnosed as FSGS, while the remaining two had minimal change glomerulonephritis. Regarding steroid-dependent patient relapses, seven (41%) patients showed infrequent relapses and ten (59%) patients had frequent relapses. We conclude that the patterns of NS and the response to treatment observed in this study did not differ significantly from studies from other places in the world. PMID:24029283

Alhassan, Abdulaziz; Mohamed, Waleed Z; Alhaymed, Mohamed

2013-09-01

151

E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives  

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Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

Sadiq Sait

2004-11-01

152

Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm-3 whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm-3. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors

153

Characteristics of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis patients in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Methods: In this retrospective study conducted between June 2012 and November 2013 at the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we evaluated pediatric DKA admissions from 1995-2008 (Phase 1). From the case files, we obtained information related to patients’ age, gender, weight, presenting complaints, serum biochemical profile, and management. Results: This study included 373 DKA admissions with a median age of 11 years (interquartile range [IQR]:8-13). The patients in the subgroup of age more than 10 years old had the highest proportion of admissions (n=250, 67%, p<0.000). The median duration of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 3 years (IQR:2-6). New-onset DM was 47%. Predominant precipitating cause was acute illness, mostly viral syndrome in 22% of all cases, and non-compliance to insulin regimen was in 79% of the diagnosed diabetic cases. Blood glucose, pH, anion gap, serum osmolality, serum potassium, and serum phosphate showed the highest change during the initial 6 hours of management, while trends of serum bicarbonate and blood urea nitrogen demonstrated a predominant change in the initial 12 hours. Conclusion: The notable findings in this study, such as, higher mean age of presentation, high rate of non-compliance to insulin as the cause of precipitation, and a high prevalence of abdominal pain at presentation should be followed up with further comparative studies. PMID:25630000

Naeem, Mohammed A.; Al-Alem, Hala A.; Al-Dubayee, Mohammed S.; Al-Juraibah, Fahad N.; Omair, Amir; Al-Ruwaili, AbdulKarim S.; Al-Saleh, Abdullah M.

2015-01-01

154

Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.

Abdullah I. Al-Zarah

2007-01-01

155

Influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia survey was carried out for 786 dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm® Electret ion chamber. Radon levels ranged from 1 to 195 Bq m?3, with a mean value of 24.68 Bq m?3, the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation are 21 and 2 respectively. 98.5% of the results were below the action level recommended by WHO of 100 Bq.m?3. The results were found to vary substantially due to types of houses and rooms, ventilation, seasons and building materials. Radon concentrations were higher in houses with no ventilation systems, and central air conditioners, and were relatively lower in well ventilated houses with red bricks and water air conditioners. - Highlights: • Limited information about indoor radon in Riyadh. • Several factors influence Radon level were investigated in 786 dwellings in Riyadh over one year. • Some results are over the action level and are advised to improve their ventilation systems

156

Knowledge of healthy diets among adolescents in eastern Saudi Arabia.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240 and female (n=1331 adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively, magazines (31% and 39% and daily newspaper (33% and 34%. Primary health care centers (PHCCs staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%. CONCLUSIONS : Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.

Al-Almaie Sameeh

2005-01-01

157

Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

158

Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole-dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A\\. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole.

Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Zabramawi, Yasser A.

2012-12-01

159

Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

2014-09-01

160

Occurrence of radon in groundwater of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples were collected from 1025 wells supplying drinking water to the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia and analyzed for radon concentrations. The weighted radon median value for the entire country was found to be 4.62 Bq L(-1) with a range of 0.01-67.4 Bq L(-1). The percentage of samples with radon concentration equal to or greater than 11.1 Bq L(-1) (US EPA proposed MCL) was found to be 19.22%. The range of radon in shallow wells varied between 0.06 and 67.4 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.1 Bq L(-1)) and between 0.06 and 40.9 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.34 Bq L(-1)) for deep wells. However, 50% of the samples had radon concentrations equal to or greater than 4.0 and 2.87 Bq L(-1) for the shallow and deep wells, respectively. Correlation of well depth with radon levels revealed that wells drilled in Saq aquifer consisting of predominantly sandstone with significant shale layers in the upper parts, gave higher median radon levels than in Manjur aquifer which consists of predominantly limestone and sandstone. PMID:25244698

Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I

2014-12-01

161

A review of some statistics on breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. Saudi Arabia is a country where the legislation is derived from the Quran and Hadiths. The Holy Quran says that the mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two complete years.... The majority of mothers start breastfeeding their infants but soon introduce bottles. The single most common reason cited for the early introduction of bottle feeding is that the breast milk is insufficient. Because of this tendency, many mothers practice mixed feeding. The duration of breastfeeding varies but in general it is done beyond six months, and various factors affect the duration. Researchers have recently started using the WHO recommended key breastfeeding indicators. In a study these key indicators were found to be very low. The authors feel that there is a need to revise the media campaign for promoting breastfeeding utilizing the instructions and guidance from the Holy Quran and Hadiths. PMID:14653507

Al-Jassir, Mohammed; Moizuddin, Syed Khaja; Al-Bashir, Bushra

2003-01-01

162

Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document

163

Wind energy resource assessment for five locations in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of recently collected wind data at five sites in Saudi Arabia namely, Dhulum, Arar, Yanbu, Gassim and Dhahran is presented. The five sites represent different geographical and climatological conditions. The data collected over a period spanned between 1995 and 2002 with different collection periods for each site. Daily, monthly and frequency profiles of the wind speed at the sites showed that Dhulum and Arar sites have higher wind energy potential with annual wind speed average of 5.7 and 5.4 m/s and speeds higher than 5 m/s for 60 and 47% of the time, respectively. The two sites are candidates for remote area wind energy applications. The coastal site's, i.e. Yanbu and Dhahran wind speed data indicated that the two sites have lower annual wind speed averages and wind speeds higher than 5 m/s during afternoon hours. That makes the two sites candidates for grid connected wind systems for electrical load peak shaving. The data of Gassim site showed that the site has the lowest wind energy potential compared to the others. The annual energy produced by a Nordex N43 wind machine is estimated to be 1080, 990, 730, 454 and 833 MWh for Dhulum, Arar, Yanbu, Gassim and Dhahran, respectively. The analysis showed that the estimated annual energy produced by the machine based on 10 min averaged data is 2.5% higher than the estimated energy based on 30 min averaged data. (Author)

Al-Abbadi, Naif M. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, KACST, Energy Research Inst., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2005-08-01

164

Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen againstcommonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

165

Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

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Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

B. H. Alharbi

2014-08-01

166

Environmental impact of some cement manufacturing plants in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is concerned with the environmental impact of the cement industry in the west of Saudi Arabia represented in two cement plants and one cement depository. The concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in samples of cement (raw materials and end product) and soil, collected from the cement plant and its surrounding area, were measured using ?-ray spectrometer employing a HPGe detector. In addition, the levels of 19 major and trace elements were also determined in these samples using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of the 238U series isotopes in soil samples show a clear radiological impact of the cement industry upon the environment. Possible contamination with Ca and some other elements in soil samples that are rich with the fine grain size was observed. Cluster analysis of soil samples using convenient attributes shows an obvious evidence of the cement industry impact upon the environment. The hidden effect of the cement industry upon the environment was observed when the convenient measured attributes were used in cluster analysis of soil samples. (author)

167

Wind energy resources assessment for Yanbo, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal and diurnal variations at Yanbo, which is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The wind speed and wind direction hourly data for a period of 14 years between 1970 and 1983 is used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the seasonal and diurnal pattern of wind speed matches the electricity load pattern of the location. Higher winds of the order of 5.0 m/s and more were observed during the summer months of the year and noon hours (09:00 to 16:00 h) of the day. The wind duration availability is discussed as the percent of hours during which the wind remained in certain wind speed intervals or bins. Wind energy calculations were performed using wind machines of sizes 150, 250, 600, 800, 1000, 1300, 1500, 2300 and 2500 kW rated power. Wind speed is found to remain above 3.5 m/s for 69% of the time during the year at 40, 50, 60, and 80 m above ground level. The energy production analysis showed higher production from wind machines of smaller sizes than the bigger ones for a wind farm of 30 MW installed capacity. Similarly, higher capacity factors were obtained for smaller wind machines compared to larger ones

168

Awareness of interventional radiology among final-year medical students and medical interns at a University in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

 Objectives: To assess the awareness of interventional radiology (IR) among final-year medical students and medical interns at a Saudi University. Analysis of such awareness could help to improve the future of IR in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on anonymous surveys administered over a one month period (1st - 31st  December 2012).  One hundred and nineteen medical students and interns of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia were included. Forty-two (35.3...

Alshumrani, Ghazi A.

2013-01-01

169

Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

A.F. Alsayeqh

2012-09-01

170

Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis  

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Full Text Available Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR, Impulse Response Function (IFR and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

Hassan Alhajhoj

2007-01-01

171

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

172

Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

173

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi secondary school girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R, a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. Results: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%, psychoticism (14.8%, anxiety (14.3%, and somatization (14.2%. The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8% and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%. Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

174

Atherosclerotic disease and risk factor modification in Saudi Arabia: a call to action  

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Full Text Available Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general internists, cardiologists and vascular surgeons in managing these patients in Saudi Arabia is not currently known. This study was conducted to examine the perceptions and knowledge of risk reduction therapy in patients with AD amongst physicians in Saudi Arabia in two clinical presentations; coronary artery disease (CAD and peripheral artery disease (PAD.Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 897 physicians at different hospitals in four provinces in Saudi Arabia.Results: The recommended targets of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, blood glucose, and blood pressure in patients with CAD and PAD were known as 40% and 36%; 70% and 66%; and 32% and 28% of physicians, respectively. The initiation of antiplatelet medications, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, statins, and nicotine replacement therapy for smokers in patients with CAD and PAD were recommended by 98% and 97%; 52% and 34%; 61% and 56%; and 50% and 43% of physicians, respectively. Compared to other specialties, cardiologists had the lowest threshold for initiating risk reduction therapy, whereas vascular surgeons had the highest threshold.Conclusion: The level of physician awareness of atherosclerosis risk reduction therapy across Saudi Arabia has revealed knowledge and action gaps. A call to action to implement effective strategies to encourage health professionals to use risk reduction therapy and increase public awareness is needed.Keywords: coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, risk reduction, atherosclerosis

Al-Omran M

2012-05-01

175

Analysis of Saudi Arabia's behavior within OPEC and the world oil market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze oil export behavior by Saudi Arabia and the Rest of OPEC since 1973. In the literature there has been a wide range of estimates of their correlation: from positive, to zero, to negative. We find that the correlation has varied over time, from moderately high (0.7) in normal periods, to negative during each of five interruptions; the average correlation has been 0.19. Saudi Arabia's oil market behavior depends upon circumstances, but its primary goal is the stability of OPEC and the world oil market. It will coordinate export reductions with the Rest of OPEC when faced with declining demand, but it will increase exports when faced with interruptions elsewhere in OPEC. Allowing for such differences provides evidence of intelligent, context-dependent consistency. But ignoring context – by wrongly assuming the same Saudi response in Normal periods and Interruptions – can lead to a conclusion of Saudi “inconsistency” because the difference in the responses has been obscured

176

Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3), most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 %) suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and...

Alsayeqh, A. F.; shawkat mohamed fathi

2012-01-01

177

An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabiahas witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.

Iftekhar Ahmad

2012-07-01

178

The use of pharmacoeconomic evidence to support formulary decision making in Saudi Arabia: Methodological recommendations  

OpenAIRE

In pharmacoeconomics the costs and consequences of alternative medications are compared. Many countries have begun to use pharmacoeconomic evidence to support decisions on licensing, pricing, reimbursement, or addition to the formulary. In Saudi Arabia, it is not mandatory to submit cost effectiveness evidence to support licensing or addition to the formulary decisions however, data will be considered if submitted. Previous evidence suggests that the use of pharmacoeconomic evidence by Saudi ...

Al Aqeel, Sinaa A.; Al-sultan, Mohammed

2011-01-01

179

Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

180

FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influe...

Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew

2012-01-01

181

Fixed or Flexible Exchange Rate for Saudi Arabia: Optimal Solution of CGE model  

OpenAIRE

When analyzing the impact of changes in oil and petroleum prices on Saudi Arabia’s economy the results indicate that adjustments in foreign savings, supporting an unchanged real exchange rate in the context of changes in oil world prices, quite effectively can insulate the domestic economy from international price fluctuations. If the economy is forced to adjust to the fall in world prices without offsetting changes in foreign savings, the resulting loss of export earnings and associated de...

Al-thumairi, Dr Imtithal A.

2014-01-01

182

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

Kamel RM

2013-06-01

183

HIV-Care Outcome in Saudi Arabia; a Longitudinal Cohort  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Clinical characteristics of HIV-1 infection in people inhabiting Western, Sub-Saharan African, and South-East Asian countries are well recognized. However, very little information is available with regard to HIV-1 infection and treatment outcome in MENA countries including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. Methods Clinical, demographic and epidemiologic characteristics of 602 HIV-1 infected patients followed in the adult Infectious Diseases Clinic of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a tertiary referral center were longitudinally collected from 1989 to 2010. Results Of the 602 HIV-1 infected patients in this observation period, 70% were male. The major mode of HIV-1 transmission was heterosexual contact (55%). At diagnosis, opportunistic infections were found in 49% of patients, most commonly being pneumocysitis. AIDS associated neoplasia was also noted in 6% of patients. A hundred and forty-seven patients (24%) died from the cohort by the end of the observation period. The mortality rate peaked in 1992 at 90 deaths per 1000 person-year, whereas the mortality rate gradually decreased to <1% from 1993-2010. In 2010, 71% of the patients were receiving highly active retroviral therapy. Conclusions These data describe the clinical characteristic of HIV-1-infected patients at a major tertiary referral hospital in KSA over a 20-year period. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy resulted in a significant reduction in both morbidity and mortality. Future studies are needed in the design and implementation of targeted treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-1 infection in KSA. PMID:25750760

Al-Mozaini, Maha A.; Mansour, Michael K.; Al-Hokail, Abdullah A.; Mohmed, Magid A.; Daham, Munirah A. Bin; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Frayha, Husn H.; Al-Rabiah, Fahad A.; Alhajjar, Sami H.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Adra, Chaker N.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.

2015-01-01

184

Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.

Rajaa M. Milyani

2001-12-01

185

Ash Shutbah: A possible impact structure in Saudi Arabia  

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We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be studied in escarpment outcrops in the vicinity of the structure.

Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl

2014-10-01

186

Amputee population in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

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A 14 year retrospective study was conducted of 3210 amputees who attended during the period 1977-1990 at Riyadh Medical Rehabilitation Centre (RMRC), the first and the largest rehabilitation centre in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The mean age was 30.5 years, male slightly older than female. The mean age of the lower limb amputees was 32.6 and of the upper limb amputees 21.8 years. An overall predominance of male to female with a ratio of 6.1:1 was observed. Males outnumbered females by 5 to 1 in the upper limb and 6.3 to 1 in lower limb amputees. The ratio of lower limb to upper limb and multiple limb amputees was 15:3.7:1. Trauma was the leading cause of upper limb amputations (86.9%). In the lower limb, although trauma (52.9%) was the prominent cause, 35.9% was due to disease. Major specific causes of trauma were road traffic accidents, machine accidents, and falls from height. The most common site of unilateral amputations was trans-tibial (45.2%), followed by trans-femoral (21.6%), trans-radial (7.6%), partial hand (4.8%), and trans-humeral (4.7%). Comparison with other studies shows a higher mean age and fewer trans-tibial amputees than in Australia and other Western countries, while studies in Asia show greater similarities to the present investigation as regards trauma and disease incidence which occur in similar patterns. These patterns of amputee population indicate the demand for prosthetic service and provide guidelines for future development. PMID:8134274

al-Turaiki, H S; al-Falahi, L A

1993-12-01

187

Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

Tarawneh, Qassem

2015-02-01

188

Veiled Delusions: Gender, Education, and Employment in Saudi Arabia.  

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Describes the oppression endured by Saudi Arabian women, and discusses the state of education, higher education, and employment for them. States that it will be difficult for Saudi women to achieve their aspirations brought about by higher education due to the growing number of unemployed Saudi males and the heavy rule of the monarchist…

Somers, Patricia; Caram, Chris A.

1998-01-01

189

Hypertension and Its Associated Risk Factors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013: A National Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Current data on hypertension in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are lacking. We conducted a national survey to inform decision-makers on the current magnitude of the epidemic. We measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older and interviewed them through a national multistage survey. We used multivariate logistic regressions to describe sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of hypertensive, borderline hypertensive, and undiagnosed hypertensive Saudis. We found that 15.2% and 40.6% of Saudis were hypertensive or borderline hypertensive, respectively. Risk of hypertension increased among men, with age, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. 57.8% of hypertensive Saudis were undiagnosed. These were more likely to be male, older, and diagnosed with diabetes. Among participants diagnosed with hypertension, 78.9% reported taking medication for their condition. About 45% of participants on medication for hypertension had their blood pressure controlled. The prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension is very high in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, control of hypertension is poor. With the majority of hypertensive Saudis being unaware of their condition, a national plan is needed to increase utilization of freely available screening, preventive, and medical services. PMID:25170423

El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Memish, Ziad A.; Tuffaha, Marwa; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2014-01-01

190

Hair and Nails Levels of Iron of Some Healthy Volunteer Women from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The levels of iron in hair and nails of some healthy volunteer women from Saudi Arabia were determined. The level of iron were found to be lower than that reported from different places in the world. Hair and nails are useful parameters for measurement of the accumulation of metals in the human body.

Hashem, A. R.; Al-othman, M. R.

2001-01-01

191

Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997  

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Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

M. K. Al-Sadoon

2003-01-01

192

Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting s [...] ite, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%), the lowest in February (2.52%). Most patients were male (61.8%); the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%). Nocturnal envenomation (47.74%) was more common than diurnal (43.91%); most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%), mainly in the lower limbs (63%). Most envenomings were mild (74.48%) and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828), Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807), and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807) were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

M. K., Al-Sadoon; B. M., Jarrar.

193

Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)  

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This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

2015-01-01

194

Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia*  

OpenAIRE

A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro.

Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-nakhli, H. M.

1982-01-01

195

ARAMCO Education: Teaching Speech Communication to a Sub-Culture in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on experiences gained by an educator from Indiana University who taught a speech communication course in Saudi Arabia, this paper details the adaptations the educator had to make in order to teach Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) employees and their spouses in the politically difficult period of 1981-82. Following a brief background…

Dick, Robert C.

196

Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.

Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H.; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-rubaish, Abdullah M.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-nafaie, Awatif N.; Al-ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R.; Po?hlmann, Stefan

2013-01-01

197

Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsewhere on the use of different types of surface, drainage waters and groundwater irrespective of the total salinity status and the conditions of use.

Hussain, G.; Alquwaizany, A.; Al-zarah, A.

2010-01-01

198

Socio-demographic Determinants of Compliance among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objectives: Saudi Arabia has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) To study the socio-demographic profile of diabetic patients in Abha. (2) To find the socio-demographic determinants of compliance among diabetic patients in Abha.

Salam, Mohammad Abdul; Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen

2013-01-01

199

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Study, Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of global and normal incident radiation at the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia solar powered desalination plant site are documented. The use of parabolic, two axis tracking, point focusing solar collectors necessitates the measurement and analysis of the normal incident data. The accuracy of the measuring instruments and the results of analysis of one year solar radiation are briefly discussed. (BCS)

1985-01-01

200

Erythraeid mites (Prostigmata, Erythraeidae) from Saudi Arabia, description of three new species and a new record.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three erythraeid genera Balaustium von Heyden, Charletonia Oudemans, and Erythraeus Latreille (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are reported for first time from Saudi Arabia based on three new larval species, Balaustiumyousifi sp. n., Charletoniabahaensis sp. n., and Erythraeus (Erythraeus) uhadisp. n. and one new record Erythraeus (Zaracarus) lancifer Southcott. All the three new species are described and illustrated from larvae. PMID:25349508

Kamran, Muhammad; Alatawi, Fahad J

2014-01-01

201

Erythraeid mites (Prostigmata, Erythraeidae) from Saudi Arabia, description of three new species and a new record  

OpenAIRE

Three erythraeid genera Balaustium von Heyden, Charletonia Oudemans, and Erythraeus Latreille (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are reported for first time from Saudi Arabia based on three new larval species, Balaustium yousifi sp. n., Charletonia bahaensis sp. n., and Erythraeus (Erythraeus) uhadi sp. n. and one new record Erythraeus (Zaracarus) lancifer Southcott. All the three new species are described and illustrated from larvae.

Kamran, Muhammad; Alatawi, Fahad J.

2014-01-01

202

Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

203

Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

Alaklabi, Abdullah

2015-03-01

204

An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includes four sizes of organizations. The finding of the study shows that the practiceof benchmarking in Saudi Arabian organizations’ is not in advance level. The sequence of the application ofbenchmarking is found to be as follows; marketing, operations, quality, finance and human resources,respectively. The study further shows that the practice of performance benchmarking in private firms better thanpublic organizations. However, the study concludes that there is no significant difference between companiesbased on their sizes.

Nasser Akeil Kadasah

2013-05-01

205

Environment and Sustainable Development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Current Status and Future Strategy  

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Full Text Available Air quality deterioration in urban areas; high energy demand and consumption due to regional population growth and economic development; concerns about safe drinking water supplies due to a scarcity of fresh water; air quality deterioration, industrial pollution, waste management, and pollution in coastal areas; and subsequent stress on marine ecosystems are all major environmental challenges being faced by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective protection of the environment, an interdisciplinary approach within a sustainable framework, which integrates human needs with economic development and environmental protection, is required. This paper presents an overview of Saudi Arabia’s major environmental problems and challenges and offers opportunities to use economic growth, social equity, and protection of the environment as interrelated components. The role of active participation by governments, stakeholders, businesses, academic institutions, and individuals in the decision-making process and an inter-disciplinary research approach will be identified for each major environmental issue.

Tahir Husain

2013-11-01

206

Inward Strategy: An Optimal Solution to Build a Software Industry in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Employing the appropriate strategy was critical in building successful software industry in many developing countries. Through innovative strategies, a number of developing nations were able to create unique software industry models that emerged as strong software exporters at the global level. The main similarity among these strategies was the market orientation; almost all of these strategies were export oriented, software products were produced in the developing countries to satisfy external market demands in the developed world. The need for newer innovative strategies remains a critical success factor for new entrants to the software industry. One of the suggested strategies by the literature was the inward strategy or the focus on the domestic market needs. This paper employs a quantitative approach to identify a possible strategy that Arab countries may adopt to build their own software industry when industry success factors exist in these countries. An analysis of data from published reports and from public databases was used to examine the situation in Saudi Arabia. The goals of this study were, first to pin point the possible strategy that Saudi Arabia may adopt to build its own software industry, second to examine the existence of the software industry success factors in Saudi Arabia. The most significant finding from this study suggested that Saudi Arabia can adopt the inward strategy to build a new software industry model to serve the country’s oil and gas industry needs of software. Additionally, this study revealed that Saudi Arabia acquire a number of the software industry success factors like the software demand, the financial resources, and the IT infrastructure while other factors like the quantity of science and technology graduates and the intellectual property and copy right laws are weak and need improvements.

Ayman Talib

2011-03-01

207

Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

208

Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all patients. Secondary polycythemia was seen in 38.9% of patients. D-Dimer level was high in all patients. In 61.1% of patients, exploratory laparotomies were done based on clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound and plain x-ray findings without performing CT angiography due to presentation with marked peritoneal signs. In all patients gangrenous lesions were detected during surgery and resection of these parts was done. Gangrene and in turn resection, was extensive in 14/36 patients (38.9% and they developed short bowel syndrome. There were 22/36 patients (61.1% with superior or/and inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis, 10/36 patients (27.8% with superior mesenteric artery thrombosis, in one of them there is associated focal thrombosis of aorta and renal arteries and 4/36 patients (11.1% with superior mesenteric artery embolism. All patients received postoperative anticoagulant therapy. Patients with short bowel syndrome were prepared to receive total parental nutrition (TPN for life. Intra-operative deaths were 3/36 (8.3%.There were 5/36 deaths (13.9% accruing within one month after surgery and all died secondary to sepsis and its sequalae with total deaths of 8/36 patients (22.2%. Conclusion: Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI especially of venous type will represent a challenging problem in Taif and related districts. The surgeon must pay intensive attention to patients presented by unexplained central abdominal pain and he has to be with high index of suspicion especially if it meets with the classic teaching of "pain out of proportion to physical findings ". Early diagnosis, aggressive approach to early resuscitation of the patients, correction of metabolic and hemodynamic derangements, and performing laparotomy as soon as these derangements were corrected would decrease morbidity and mortality. In some patients it is necessary to perform second look operation for re-evaluation of the viability of the intestine

Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

2012-04-01

209

Multi nodular goiter management in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data and summarize the different modalities of management of multinodular goiters (MNG) in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 135 patients had MNG, which were diagnosed by ultrasonography at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, KSA between January 2003 and June 2004. The data collected includes the age, gender, physical examination of the thyroid gland ( trifluorothymidine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone), ultrasonographic findings and Tc 99 radioiodine nuclear scan of the thyroid gland, fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the gland and antithyroid antibodies. The study group was divided according to the thyroid status: nontoxic euthyroid MNG, hypothyroid MNG and toxic hyperthyroid MNG. The management of MNGs according to patient's clinical presentations and thyroid status was reviewed. The mean age was 39+- 12.66 years with a range of 10-79 years. Forty-two patients (31%), with no history of thyroid cancer, had ultrasound guided FNA; 41(97.6%) of the FNAs were benign. One FNA (2.3%) was positive for papillary carcinoma in a 56-year-old female patient. Thyroid antibodies (anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thymoglobulin antibodies) were measured in 50 patients (37%). thirty-one (62%)were positive, 11(35%) of which were positive in patients with documented hypothyroidism. All patients with hypothyrodism were treated with levothyroxine ; however, only 25.6ed with levothyroxine ; however, only 25.6% with euthyroid MNG were treated with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Twelve patients (44.4%) with toxic MNG were treated with antithyroid medications. Radioiodine therapy was not given to any patient with nontoxic MNG; however, 48% of those with hyperthyroid MNG received radioactive iodine treatment. Surgery was carried out 25.6% of patients with euthyroid nontoxic MNG and in 11 patients with toxic MNG (46.5%)and 14.8% of those with a subclinical hyperthyroid MNG refrained from any therapy. They were followed up by their clinician in the outpatient clinic. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels, ultrasound and fine needle biopsy were the cornerstones of the diagnostic evaluations of patient with MNG. Review of the management of these patients was comparable to that found in the literature. The treatment strategy was similar to the recommendations by the American Thyroid Society; however, radioactive iodine treatment was not used as a treatment for patients with nontoxic goiters. (author)

210

Factors associated with adherence to medication among depressed patients from Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among p...

Al Jumah K; Ma, Hassali; Al Qhatani D; El Tahir K

2014-01-01

211

Hydrochemical and quality of water resources in Saudi Arabia groundwater: A comparative study of Riyadh and Al-Ahsa regions  

OpenAIRE

Due to the arid climate of the Saudi Arabia, groundwater is a most precious natural resource, providing reliable water supplies for population of these areas. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of groundwater resources in the selected study areas of Riyadh and Al-Ahsa regions. This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available groundwater resources in these two areas of Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor and trace elements) i...

Anwar Aly; Abdulrasoul Alomran; Mohamed Alwabel, Et Al

2013-01-01

212

On the Contribution of Student Experience Survey Regarding Quality Management in Higher Education: An Institutional Study in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

We appraise comparatively and analytical data under Student Experience Survey (SES) to discuss the possible generalizability of related College level differentials in Saudi Arabia. For this, data collected from students of two academic programs namely Bachelor of Dental Surgery, College of Dentistry; and B.Sc. Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were considered. These data relate to experience of students halfway of respective academic program. The percent...

Abdullah Al Rubaish

2010-01-01

213

Identifying the Factors Influencing the Development of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia: The Employment of Grounded Theory Techniques  

OpenAIRE

The implementation of eGovernment across countries is rapidly increasing. However, with this increase in the development of eGovernment projects especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia, there are still some difficulties facing the proper development of eGovernment. This paper aims to explore how eGovernment implementation and development can be understood in the context of Saudi Arabia based on the developers’ perspectives. An attempt is made to identify the factors influenc...

Alfarraj, O.; Alhussain, T.; Abugabah, A.

2013-01-01

214

Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)ades of liver disease. (author)

215

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators - A pilot study  

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Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.

Alsuwaida Abdulkareem

2010-01-01

216

State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review  

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Full Text Available Sinaa A Al-AqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles.Methods: A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years.Results: The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions.Conclusion: This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the local economic evidence available to decision-makers is not very useful. Thus, building research capability in health economics is warranted.Keywords: cost-effective analysis, pharmacoeconomics, economic evaluation, quality assessment, Saudi Arabia

Al-Aqeel SA

2012-07-01

217

The Uptake of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Files in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Aim. We surveyed the uptake of nickel-titanium rotary files (NTRFs) among all dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methodology. A questionnaire encompassing endodontic performance and NTRF uptake was e-mailed to all members of the Saudi Dental Society. Data were collected from participants during a three-month period and were analyzed using ?2 tests and correlation coefficients. Level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results. The overall response rate was 30.6% (n = 490), and 82.9% were found to pe...

Emad AlShwaimi

2012-01-01

218

Promoting health education and public awareness about dengue and its mosquito vector in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, dengue fever is considered as main health problems in Mekkah and Jeddah of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with dramatically increase in the number of cases reported every year. This is associated with obvious failure in the recent control and management programs for the mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti). Here, we suggested promoting the health education and public awareness among Saudi people to improve the control of dengue mosquito vector. Several suggestions and recommendations were highlighted here to ensure effectiveness in the future control and management programs of dengue mosquito vector in KSA. PMID:25403705

Aziz, Al; Al-Shami, Salman; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Hatabbi, Mesed; Ahmad, Abu; Md Rawi, Che

2014-11-18

219

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.Keywords: cancer epidemiology, ovarian cancer, Saudi Cancer Registry, incidence rate

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

220

Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; PAdvertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Peffects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

2014-03-01

221

Developing a Test Battery to assess Determinants of Marital Relationship Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.

Nadia Al Tamimi

2009-12-01

222

Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), an endangered medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild plants can contain bioactive compounds with potential activity against disease-causing microorganisms. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are many plant species that may have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activities, among other properties. We extracted bioactive compounds with methanol as well as with water from leaves of Breonadia salicina, which is an endangered plant found in the wild in Saudi Arabia. These extracts were tested against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity against all of the microorganisms, and thus, B. salicina leaf extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the preservation of foods, instead of synthetic chemical compounds. We found that the methanolic leaf extract was more effective than the aqueous crude extract against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. PMID:24065664

Al-Qurainy, F; Z Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A; Thomas, J

2013-01-01

223

Serological Survey on Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Commercial Poultry Farms in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the presence of avian pneumovirus (APV antibodies in commercial poultry farms using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and virus neutralization test (VN. Eighty seven chicken serum samples were collected from several commercial poultry farms in Al-Qassium area, Saudi Arabia during 2007-2008. The serum samples were collected from birds of various ages (from one-day old to 62 weeks of age. Antibodies to APV were detected in 50% (8 out of 16 by both ELISA and virus neutralization (VN test at farms in birds of 11-18 weeks of age only. The total positive samples were 8/87 (9.2% of all examined samples. In conclusion, this study indicated the presence of antibodies to APV among 11-18 weeks old commercial chicken at farms in Saudi Arabia.

A. N. Alkhalaf

2010-04-01

224

CAPD in Dammam Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Five-Year Experience  

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Full Text Available Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indication for CAPD was poor or failed vascular access (51.4%. Peritonitis remained the major complication with an overall incidence of 0.62 episode per patient year. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main causative organism. Therapy with CAPD lasted a mean of 26 ± 7.4 months. Our results, showing good technique survival and low peritonitis rate, suggest that CAPD should be promoted to become a full arm of the integrated care of ESRD in Saudi Arabia.

Youmbissi Joseph

2001-01-01

225

Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following Chernobyl reactor accident, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) was assigned the responsibility of monitoring food imports reaching the western ports of Saudi Arabia. This includes the three western seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan and the airport of Jeddah. Through the seaport of Jeddah, the largest in Saudi Arabia, essentially all kinds of foodstuffs are entering. Chilled meat, fresh vegetables and other items that can not be stored for long time are coming through Jeddah airport, while Jizan and Yanbu handle mainly barley and animal feed. The monitoring program started in the middle of June. This is the time when pilgrimage season starts and about one million persons come from different parts of the world to the city of Mecca. Food imports drastically increases during this time and large number of live sheep and cows are imported for religious sacrifice

226

Thalassemia syndromes in Saudi Arabia. Meta-analysis of local studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geographical distribution of Alpha and Beta-Thalassemias differ markedly. Alpha-Thalassemia being particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia and Beta-Thalassemia in the Mediterranean basin. Thalassemia syndromes are common in Saudi Arabia: the Beta-Thalassemia genes occur with variable frequency in different regions of Saudi Arabia and both B+ and Bo thalassemia have been reported. Alpha-Thalassemia is also highly prevalent here and the interaction with the sickle cell gene is commonly observed. Over the last few years, a great deal of information regarding the clinical, molecular and management of these disorders has accumulated in the literature. In this paper we summarize some of the recent studies on the subject along with our experience and our attempt to highlight a number of questions still awaiting answers. PMID:11533744

Al-Awamy, B H

2000-01-01

227

Risk Assessment of Poly Cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available There is a lack of information on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as environmental pollutants in Saudi Arabia. The current study focuses on the risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs,in the Holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during Hajj season 1431H. Atmospheric particulate matter was collected using High Volume samplers. Samples of 24h were collected at three sampling sites, Al-Shebakah, Al-Aziziah and Mina. PAH compounds were quantified by using GC. The total PAH concentrations (ng/m3 ranged from 103.5 - 195.2 with mean values of 164.67, 137.81 and 132.40 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, respectively. The higher percentages of the total carcinogenic compounds were recorded at Al-Shebakah, with a maximum value of 63.5 % in PM10. The carcinogenic PAHs, dibenzo[a]pyrene was found at low concentrations.

Turki M. Habeebullah

2013-04-01

228

Molecular identification of isolated fungi from stored apples in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Fungi causes most plant disease. When fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. Studies have shown that the Penicillium and Monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. Several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and conduct a molecular ...

Alwakeel, Suaad S.

2013-01-01

229

Assessment of nurses' perceptions of patient safety culture in a Saudi Arabia hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify factors that nurses perceive as contributing to the culture of patient safety in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. A total of 498 registered nurses employed in the hospital completed the survey. The majority of nurses perceived a positive patient safety culture. There were significant differences in nurses' perceptions of patient safety culture based on gender, age, years of experience, Arabic versus non-Arabic speaking, and length of shift. PMID:23461893

Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E; Baker, Omar Ghazi

2013-01-01

230

Land Cover Classification of Hail—Saudi Arabia Using Remote Sensing  

OpenAIRE

A set of five satellite images from the Landsat satellite, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) sensors has been operated to analyze land cover and topography of the Hail region, Saudi Arabia. Image processing techniques included unsupervised classification for clustering four land cover units in the MODIS image, namely: plains, sand dunes, mountains, and cultivated lands. The SRTM image was classified to produce a thematic topo...

Abd Allah, Shehta E.; Al-shammari, Ahmed M.; Hereher, Mohamed E.

2012-01-01

231

Patterns of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Consumption among Adolescents and Adults in Hail, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Caffeinated energy drinks have become more popular in the last decades, especially amongst adolescents and young adults in different parts of the globe. The study aims to investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in an arbitrary group of adults and adolescents living in Hail/Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted and included which randomly selected 1062 participants (867 males and 195 females) from universities, colleges, mi...

Mo’ez Al-Islam Ezzat Faris

2014-01-01

232

Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Public Perception of Genetically Modified Food in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Consumers awareness and attitude towards GM food vary among different nations and thought to be affected by socio-demographic attributes. The present study was conducted to assess the consumer knowledge about GM food and to determine the level of acceptance of GM products in Saudi Arabia. A consumer questionnaire was designed to generate a demographic profile for participating consumers and assess their perception. Data were collected in Al-Hassa, Eastern Province, based on 420 randomly selec...

Al-khayri, Jameel M.; Hassan, Magda I.

2012-01-01

233

Learning style preferences of medical students: a single-institute experience from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, King Fahad Medical College, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study of preclinical students with 74 male and 72 female (n= 146) was performed. The validated VARK questionnaire was used to categorize the learning styles of students. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles:...

Ayesha Nuzhat; Salem, Raneem O.; Quadri, Mohammed S. A.; Nasir Al-Hamdan

2011-01-01

234

Effect of submersion injury on water safety practice after the event in children, Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To bring to light issues surrounding water safety practices and the impact of such incidents on these practices in our community. METHODS We conducted a prospective observational study at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of all children <12 years of age presenting with submersion injury in the period between January 1999 through December 2004 noting the demographics and the pattern of water safety practices prior to and after event. RESUL...

Hijazi, Omar M.; Shahin, Amr A.; Haidar, Nasser A.; Sarwi, Muna F.; Musawa, Eman S.

2007-01-01

235

Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients us...

Al Momani, M.; Al Korashy, H.

2012-01-01

236

THE POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SAUDI ARABIA AJWAH DATES (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA)  

OpenAIRE

-The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is considered one of the most important commercial crops in the Arab world. A trial to obtain a natural potentially active extract with anticancer activity from the Saudi Arabia plant and more safe for human. Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) was used to evaluate MARE on mice after 24 and 48 hours of tumor inoculation at levels of (200mg/ml) as antitumor activity to show the sufficient value which causes EAC cells nonviable. The treatment ...

Mohammad Safar Al-Shahrani; Almehdar, Hussein A.

2014-01-01

237

The politics of sectarianism in the Gulf: Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait, 2003-2011  

OpenAIRE

This thesis explores Shi’a-Sunni relations in Gulf politics during a period of regional upheaval, starting with the 2003 invasion of Iraq through the Arab revolts of early 2011. It seeks to understand the conditions under which sectarian distinctions become a prominent feature of the Gulf political landscape, focusing on the three Gulf countries that have been affected most by sectarian tensions: Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait.The study analyzes the contagion effect of the civil war i...

Wehrey, Frederic; Robins, Philip

2012-01-01

238

A Survey of the Herpetofauna of Bisha District, South of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A survey of the herpetofauna was made in different localities of Bisha district, south of Saudi Arabia. Out of 293 specimens 12 amphibians and 281 reptiles were collected. Lizards were the most collected reptilian species (86.69 %, while Amphisbaenians comprised the little group of the sample. The snakes belonged to three families; most of them were colubrid species. Only one bufonid species (Amphibia and one species of turtle were collected.

Hussein H.K.

2001-01-01

239

A Survey of the Herpetofauna of Bisha District, South of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

A survey of the herpetofauna was made in different localities of Bisha district, south of Saudi Arabia. Out of 293 specimens 12 amphibians and 281 reptiles were collected. Lizards were the most collected reptilian species (86.69 %), while Amphisbaenians comprised the little group of the sample. The snakes belonged to three families; most of them were colubrid species. Only one bufonid species (Amphibia) and one species of turtle were collected.

Hussein H.K.; Darwish, A. D. M.

2001-01-01

240

Performance Analysis of PV Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The potential implementation of photovoltaic (PV energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed in this paper. HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable software was used to perform the technical feasibility of the system. The feasibility of PV energy system was analyzed based on solar irradiances. Stand-alone PV systems with battery storage element will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV and battery storage on electric energy production.

Makbul Anwari

2013-01-01

241

Pediatric heart diseases in Madina, Saudi Arabia. Current status and future expectations.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To demonstrate the magnitude of pediatric heart disease problem in Madina, current situation of heart service, obstacles and future expectations. METHODS We conducted this cross sectional study in Madina Maternity and Children Hospital, Madina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2007 to June 2008. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. A computer based program was established to register the data of all children attended the pediatric cardiology unit. RESULT...

Alnajjar, Abdulhameed A.; Morsy, Mohamedmofeed F.; Almuzainy, Ibrahim S.; Sheikh, Abdulmateen A.

2009-01-01

242

Hepatitis C genotypes/subtypes among chronic hepatitis patients in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The object of this study is to determine the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS Four hundred and ninety-two histological proven chronic HCV patients prospectively recruited from all regions of KSA, between November 1999 and March 2002, were genotyped and subtyped using amplified products of specific primers from the 5-UTR region in a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland)...

Shobokshi, Ossama A.; Serebour, Frank E.; Skakni, Leila I.

2003-01-01

243

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?  

OpenAIRE

Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed ...

Almuneef, Maha; Al-eissa, Majid

2011-01-01

244

Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Hypermarkets of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to determine the perception of retail service quality and its relationship withsatisfaction for customers of hypermarkets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data was collected throughself-administered questionnaires using convenience sampling technique. Out of 220 responses, 185 were finallychosen and analyzed for descriptive statistics as well as significant relationship between hypermarket servicequality and customer satisfaction. The respondents reported h...

Yasser Mahfooz

2014-01-01

245

Wheel of B2C E-commerce Development in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Online retailing (a model of B2C e-commerce) is growing world-wide, with companies in many countries showing increased sales and productivity as a result. It has great potential within the global economy. This paper looks at the current status of online retailing in Saudi Arabia, with particular focus on what inhibits or enables both the customers and retailers. It also analyses the status of Government involvement and proposes a layered model, known as the Wheel of Online R...

Alghamdi, Rayed; Nguyen, Anne; Jones, Vicki

2013-01-01

246

Study of the thermoluminescence properties and kinetics of local natural calcium fluoride in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of local natural calcium fluoride that show light yellowish appearance obtained from a fluoride mine west of Saudi Arabia have been studied. TL glow peaks were observed at 160, 260 and 334 degree C. Thermal treatment and fading effects had been studied. The TL response was observed to increase with increasing dose, as expected, over the dose range used. The kinetic parameters were calculated to satisfy the feasibility of using the present sample as gamma -ray dosimetry

247

Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

2002-02-11

248

Financial Stability of Islamic and Conventional Banks in Saudi Arabia: Evidence using Pooled and Panel Models  

OpenAIRE

The financial crises are considered the major challenges facing the prosperity and stability of the banking system and menace its stability. Several studies on financial and banking sector have demonstrated that Islamic banks have shown more financial robustness and stability compared to conventional banks, over periods of financial crises. This research aims to measure the stability extent of the Saudi Arabia banks including Islamic banks and conventional banks using quarterly data from 2005...

Ghassan, Hassan B.; Taher, Farid B.

2013-01-01

249

PATIENT SATISFACTION IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN HAIL CITY, SAUDI ARABIA  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study were to explore the factors contributing to patient Satisfaction in Primary Healthcare Centers (PHCCs) in Hail city, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted using an instrument with valid and reliable properties. Six dimensions of patient satisfaction were identified by factor analysis, with adequate to high levels of internal consistency reliability (Cronbach?s alpha = 0.645 to 0.857). The questionnaire was completed by 453 patients att...

Fares Alshammari

2014-01-01

250

Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA(1c) >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%. PMID:24485346

Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N; Valerius, M; Juul, E; Nielsen, K E; Vistisen, D; Nielsen, L B; Sheikh, A; Belhadj, M; Nadir, D; Zinai, S; Raposo, J; Lund-Andersen, H; Witte, D R

2014-03-01

251

Body Shape Dissatisfaction, Weight Status and Physical Activity among a Sample University Students in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction, weight and physical activity status among university students and predictors for body shape dissatisfaction. A cross sectional study was carried out in a sample comprising of 368 female and male university students aged 18 years or more at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Body weight, height, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and physical activity level were used as assessment tools. Chi-square and indepe...

Raouf, Tarek A.; Hala Hazam AL-Otaibi; Nassef, Shereen L.

2013-01-01

252

Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information w...

Alasmari, Khaled A.

2014-01-01

253

The Mineralogy of Clay Fractions in the Soils of the Southern Region of Jazan, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Because of very limited information of the clay minerals of Southern Jazan region (Saudi Arabia), the mineralogy of the clay fraction has been studied. A total of nineteen soil samples from five sites representing the main landforms in the region were studied. X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermo gravimetric analyses were carried out on the samples. Smectite, kaolinite and illite were found to be the predominant soil minerals. Other minerals present in small quantities inc...

Al-farraj, A. S.

2008-01-01

254

Developing a generic model for total quality management in higher education in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of higher education has been progressing at a rapid pace in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the past decade, with doubling the number of government and private universities and colleges. Quality and accreditation are of great importance to higher education institutes world-wide. Thus, developing a generic model for quality management in higher education is badly needed in the country. PMID:25803588

Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid; Al-Qumaizi, Khalid I; El-Mardi, Abdelmoniem S

2015-04-01

255

Using the theory of planned behavior to predict infant restraint use in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To determine whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted intent of child restraint system (CRS) use among pregnant women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, KSA during June-July 2013, 196 pregnant women completed surveys assessing their beliefs regarding CRS. Simultaneous observations were conducted among a different sample of 150 women to determine CRS usage at hospital discharge following m...

Anna Nelson; Modeste, Naomi N.; Marshak, Helen H.; Hopp, Joyce W.

2014-01-01

256

A study of hospital and medical libraries in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

The study reported examined the status of hospital libraries, their sponsoring organizations, their staff, the academic qualifications of the head of the library, collection size, available space, buildings, and services. The study was limited to the hospitals with libraries for staff in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The data were collected through questionnaires sent to a sample of fifteen hospitals with medical libraries. Twelve libraries responded. This is the first study of its kin...

Al-ogla, S.

1998-01-01

257

SECONDARY SCHOOL HEAD TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA: THE RESULTS OF A MIXED METHODS APPROACH  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships w...

AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI

2008-01-01

258

Population distribution and household conditions in Saudi Arabia: reflections from the 2010 Census  

OpenAIRE

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the largest nation in the Arabian Peninsula is divided into 13 regions, which are of different development levels in terms of both population and public utility infrastructure. More than the other regions, population is high in Al-Riyadh, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, and the Eastern Region, due to urbanization. The current analysis of census results is aimed at understanding (i) regional variations in population and households and (ii) house ownership, type of housing, a...

Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; Khraif, Rshood; Al-mutairi, Abdullah

2014-01-01

259

Transport of Suspended Solids in Dammam (Saudi Arabia) Coastal Areas: Fish Market Works  

OpenAIRE

Some new projects are considered in the eastern coasts of Dammam city, Saudi Arabia Dredging operations would significantly alter coast hydrological and sediment transport processes. It is important that the project areas must keep flushing the fresh sea water in and out with good water quality parameters, which are currently facing increased pressure from urbanization and navigation requirements in conjunction with industrial developments. A suspended solids or sediments are expected to affe...

Hussam Al-Rabai’ah

2010-01-01

260

Mineralogy and the Texture of the Basalt in Hail Region, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The study is carried out to list mineralogy and texture of the basalt in Hail region. The basalt flows belong to the Arabian Harrat volcanism. Cenozoic volcanism has produced 13, vast, basaltic fields in western Saudi Arabia, covering a total area of about 100,000 sq. km. The volcanism starts in the late Cretaceous time and continues periodically into the Holocene. The basaltic field presently investigated is known as Harrat Al-Hamad (or Harrat As-Shamah) which lies in ...

Sana’a Odat

2014-01-01

261

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, July 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu is located in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia on the Red Sea at a latitude of 24.1 degrees North and a longitude of 37.8 degrees East. It was selected as the location for the Soleras Solar Powered Desalination Plant. This preliminary report describes the direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu Solar Powered Desalination site during the month of July 1985.

1986-01-01

262

Gender and risk of depression in Saudi Arabia, a systematic review and meta-analysis  

OpenAIRE

Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, ...

Elawad, Nagi A. M.; Alibrahim, Osama A.; Nabilla Al-Sadat

2010-01-01

263

Profiling E-buyers in Saudi Arabia: Demographic, Experiential, and Attitudinal Factors  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research study is to develop profiles of adopters and non-adopters of internet shopping in Saudi Arabia based on their demographic variables and internet usage patrons and to investigate consumers’ attitude towards online shopping and perception and formation of attitude by using Fishbein and Ajzin (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). A profile of internet shopping adopter and non-adapters was drawn. Among the investigated demographic variablesand internet usage patte...

Moudi Almousa

2011-01-01

264

Correlates of Depression among Patients Diagnosed with Chronic Illnesses in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Depression contributes to an increased medical morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic medical illnesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate correlates of depression among patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional survey using 412 patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses has been used to collected data in regards to depressive symptoms, psychological distress, coping, and life satisfaction. Results: 25.2% of the pa...

Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E.

2014-01-01

265

Screening of depression among patients in Family Medicine in Southeastern Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence rate of depression and its relationship with patients' socio-demographic characteristics and chronic diseases. METHODS This cross sectional study was performed at the Family Medicine Department, Sharurah Armed Forces Hospital (SAFH), Sharurah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred and eighty adult subjects were randomly selected. Patient Health Outcomes-9 Symptom Checklist was used for screening of depression in each participant. Also, infor...

Abdelwahid, Hassan A.; Al-shahrani, Saeed I.

2011-01-01

266

Vegetation analysis of Wadi Al-Jufair, a hyper-arid region in Najd, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Wadi Al-Jufair, a tributary of Wadi Nisah, is one of the important wadis of Najd region (Saudi Arabia) sheltering a rich diversity of higher plants. The study area is extended into approximately 15 km2 encompassing the commonest geomorphological features encountered in desert wadis. The wadi supports several rare plants, including Maerua crassifolia Forssk., a regionally endangered tree, and Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf., a rare shrub with restricted distribution. The present study aims...

Alatar, Abdulrahman; El-sheikh, Mohamed A.; Thomas, Jacob

2012-01-01

267

Classification and Evaluation of Commercial Bottled Drinking Waters in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

This study reports an evaluation on the quality of 54 brands of bottled drinking waters currently consumed in Saudi Arabia. The relationships among eight selected major chemical ion variables (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate and nitrate) were examined by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Principal component analysis identified three factors, which are responsible for the data structure explaining ~64% of...

Ghrefat, H. A.

2013-01-01

268

Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross...

Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed; Gaffar Abdelrahim; Khalafalla Husam Eldin; Mahfouz Mohamed; Zaid Abdel Naser; Bani Ibrahim

2012-01-01

269

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender on outcome was assessed in a univariate fashion using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test when appropriate. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Results: A total of 68 out of 85 residents (80% responded to the survey. Over one-half of the residents preferred to pursue a fellowship within Saudi Arabia (53%, while others (25% planned to train in North America. The majority of respondents wished to practice in an urban setting (63%. Anterior segment was the most desired subspecialty, while general ophthalmology and glaucoma were not a popular choice. Most residents were interested in refractive surgery (77% and research (75%. The main factor influencing the decision to pursue ophthalmology was the ability to combine medicine and surgery (97%, while a positive elective experience was also an important factor, particularly for female respondents (91% vs. 57%; P < 0.001. Conclusion: Concerted efforts are required to encourage adoption to ophthalmic practice in public institutions rather than in private practice. In addition training in underrepresented subspecilaties should be encouraged to ensure adequate ophthalmic care for all citizens of Saudi Arabia.

Alwadani Fahad

2010-01-01

270

Metadata in Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : An Applied Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.

Zain A.Hady

2005-03-01

271

An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can hel...

Al-kahtani, Nasser S.; Nawab Ali Khan

2014-01-01

272

Patients awareness of their medical conditions in multi-specialty outpatient clinics in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To assess the patients awareness of their medical conditions, identify the factors affecting their awareness, and assess patient's satisfaction with their doctors explanations of medical conditions. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2005 in the outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The statistical package for Social Science was use...

Al-khowaiter, Saad S.; Al-maawi, Abdulaziz M.; Al-obaidy, Mamdoh S.; Al-ali, Abdulaziz S.; Al-rukban, Mohammed O.; Al-sedrani, Yasser A.; Abdo, Ayman A.

2008-01-01

273

Novel Program to Promote Critical Thinking among Higher Education Students: Empirical Study from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) u...

Huda Umar Alwehaibi

2012-01-01

274

The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate ...

Am, Al-bedah; Na, Qureshi

2011-01-01

275

The impact of service quality perception on patient satisfaction in Government Hospitals in Southern Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To examine the impact of service quality perception on patient satisfaction and determine  which dimension from 5 dimensions (tangible, reliability, responsive, assurance, and empathy) has the greatest impact on patient satisfaction. Methods: A total of 183 eligible patients participated in this study. This study was conducted in Al-Baha province, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to August 2013. We utilized the cross-sectional method, using a modified Assessment of Service Quality q...

Alghamdi, Faris S.

2014-01-01

276

TIME SERIES MODELING OF MONTHLY RAINFALL IN ARID AREAS: CASE STUDY FOR SAUDI ARABIA  

OpenAIRE

Stochastic techniques are essential in planning and management of water resources systems especially in arid and semi-arid areas where water is scarce. The forecasting of future events requires identifying proper stochastic models to be used in this process. For this purpose, a Periodic ARMA (PARMA) model and a temporal disaggregation models were used in this study to investigate weather they are appropriate for modeling the monthly rainfall data in Saudi Arabia. Results showed PARMA and temp...

Nidhal Saada

2014-01-01

277

HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION AND PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF PLANTS FROM INDUSTRIAL AREA IN JEDDAH CITY, SAUDI ARABIA  

OpenAIRE

Soil pollution by heavy metals is one of theglobalenvironmental problems.There are various soil remediation methods, including:physical, chemical and biological methods. Among the latter isPhytoremediation using native plants which can be potentially used.In the present study, accumulation of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn by five native plant species growing at industrial area in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia were assessed. These are: Dipterygiumglaucum, Indigoferaspi...

YahyaM. Al-Zahrani; Hajar, Abdulrahaman S.

2014-01-01

278

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

Michael Engel

2011-10-01

279

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

2011-01-01

280

Towards integration of health economics into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice. PMID:25649100

Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M

2015-04-01

281

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative pathogens in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a worldwide problem, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with major concerns regarding Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacteriaceae. Although over half of the isolates of P. aeruginosa remain susceptible to carbapenems, quinolones, and aminoglycosides in most reports from Saudi Arabia, resistance is on increase, with a worrying high prevalence of multidrug resistance. Ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides remain active against A. baumannii isolates in some studies from the Kingdom, but recent data suggest increased resistance. Carbapenems are now the treatment of choice for Acinetobacter infections but their activity too is being eroded. Among Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp. are the most clinically relevant species. Rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production by these species vary among studies but are generally high in Saudi Arabia, with many ESBL-producing isolates multiresistant to other agents, except carbapenems and nitrofurantoin. A similar pattern is seen for Klebsiella, although with more resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, and to nitrofurantoin than in E. coli. Enterobacter is commonly resistant to penicillins, monobactams, and cephalosporins but mostly susceptible to carbapenems. Carbapenemases are beginning to emerge in Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24669827

Yezli, Saber; Shibl, Atef M; Livermore, David M; Memish, Ziad A

2014-10-01

282

The demand for electric energy in Saudi Arabia: an empirical investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia has grown rapidly, and a number of factors account for this growth. The aim of this paper is to estimate the level of this demand and test for its main determinants. Cross-sectional data (i.e. regional) spanning the period 1980-92 and several estimators are used to achieve reliable estimates of the short-run and long-run own-price and income elasticities. The findings seem to be quite reasonable. First, the fixed effects method seems to fit the data better. Secondly, both the sign and the size of virtually all the elasticity estimates lie within the plausible range and most of them are statistically significant at ten per cent. Overall, the empirical evidence suggests that the demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia is both price- and income-inelastic. However, the influence of urbanisation on electricity consumption is clearly larger than that of real income. Thirdly, the estimated speed of adjustment implies very short adjustment lags in the demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia. And finally, among the policy issues that are of relevance is the current pricing policy, which has been making the whole electricity sector suffer a loss

283

Radioactivity concentrations in soil in the western province of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity in soil was measured in the seven Western Province cities of Saudi Arabia in order to establish radiation data baseline of natural as well as man-made radionuclides. These cities were: Makkah, Taif, Baha, Abha, Madeena, Yanbu and Tabuk. Worldwide concern about the Chernobyl accident caused interest in measuring radioactive contamination. Concern was raised on whether radioactive contamination had reached Saudi Arabia, particularly that few models have predicted that small amount of radioactivity may have reached the country. Only long lived radionuclides, such as 137Cs, of 30 years half-life would remain after long time. Its concentration would give a good indication of the degree of contamination. The other long lived radionuclide is 90Sr of 28.5 y half-life, but this radionuclide is less volatile than Cs. It is, therefore, expected to travel much less than Cs. The reported 90Sr/137Cs is Europe was only few percent. The ratio in Saudi Arabia is expected to be less due to the larger distance from the reactor accident location. (author)

284

Viral and bacterial infections associated with camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf diarrhea in North Province, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diarrhea and deaths in new-born camel calves were noticed by veterinary investigators and pastoralist in Saudi Arabia to be very high. Hence, it is thought to be necessary to investigate this problem from the virological and bacteriological point of view. The role of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in six different towns of North Province (Al-Assafia, Arar, Domat Aljandal, Hail, Skaka and Khoa) in Saudi Arabia was studied. Survey was conducted in diarrheic camel calves aged 12 months or younger. In our study calf diarrhea was reported in 184 out of 2308 camels examined clinically during one year, the prevalence of diarrhea was found to be 8.0% in calves ranging from one month to one year. In the present study group A rotavirus and Brucella abortus were detected in 14.7% and 8.98%, respectively, using ELISA technique. Escherichia coli was isolated from diarrheic calf camel (58.2%) 99/170 samples during dry and wet season. Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus spp. were detected in 12% and 8.8% of the specimens, respectively. In this study enterotoxogenic E. coli (ET E. coli) was isolated from 7% of diarrheic camel, which indicates the strong correlation between the camel calf diarrhea and the detection of enterotoxogenic E. coli. This study represented the first report for the detection of group A rotavirus and B. abortus antigen and antibodies in calf camels in Saudi Arabia. It is recommended that the disease should be controlled by vaccination in calf camels. PMID:23961160

Al-Ruwaili, Meshref A; Khalil, Omer M; Selim, Samy A

2012-01-01

285

A dose comparison survey in CT departments of dedicated paediatric hospitals in Australia and Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To measure and compare computed tomography (CT radiation doses delivered to patients in public paediatric hospitals in Australia and Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Doses were measured for routine CT scans of the head, chest and abdomen/pelvis for children aged 3-6 years in all dedicated public paediatric hospitals in Australia and Saudi Arabia using a CT phantom measurement cylinder. RESULTS: CT doses, using the departments’ protocols for 3-6 year old, varied considerably between hospitals. Measured head doses varied from 137.6 to 528.0 mGy·cm, chest doses from 21.9 to 92.5 mGy·cm, and abdomen/pelvis doses from 24.9 to 118.0 mGy·cm. Mean head and abdomen/pelvis doses delivered in Saudi Arabian paediatric CT departments were significantly higher than those in their Australian equivalents. CONCLUSION: CT dose varies substantially across Australian and Saudi Arabian paediatric hospitals. Therefore, diagnostic reference levels should be established for major anatomical regions to standardise dose.

Hussain Al Mohiy

2012-01-01

286

Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilntegral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

287

Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia:effects of sociodemographic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (autcilities caring for medical students. (author)

288

Examining the Broken Sales-Cycle in the Saudi Arabia Automotive Market  

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Full Text Available This study examined the subject of the Saudi Arabian new vehicle market. The topic addressed involved thesales-cycle within the new vehicle purchase process in Saudi Arabia. The specific research problem identified abreak-down in the sales-cycle or, alternatively, a dysfunctional approach to the final step in the sales-cycle whichinvolves the post-purchase stage where the consumer typically makes referrals or recommendations to family,friends and colleagues regarding the product or service in question. In this case, the data collected for this studyin the form of an informal, anonymous survey of people that have purchased a new vehicle in the Saudi marketfound that the satisfaction rates with dealers were an abysmal 50 to 60% depending on the specific aspect ofservice quality addressed. The secondary data found that there are more than 700 thousand new vehicles sold inSaudi Arabia on average annually and this figure is expected to surpass one million in several years. Additionally,with the after sales market in service, parts and warranties continuing to expand to more than $1 billion, thispost-purchase process in the sales-cycle can no longer be ignored by new car dealerships in the market. Therecommendation is that new car dealerships develop and integrate social media into a customer loyalty programin the new car sales-cycle in order to improve customer satisfaction and referral rates.

Fadye Saud Al Fayad

2014-07-01

289

Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors. The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors. Conclusions: Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students.

El-Gilany Abdel-Hady

2008-01-01

290

Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

2008-01-01

291

Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

Jamjoom, Mounira I.

2010-01-01

292

Developing Reading and Literacy Skills in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examines the Saudi national reading curriculum for Grades 1-6; defines the word identification, reading comprehension and teaching approaches; describes the reading lesson design, reading themes, the word identification and reading comprehension skills developed; and reports the strengths and weaknesses of the reading curriculum.…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2007-01-01

293

The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health  

OpenAIRE

Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study...

Ig, Alghamdi; Ii, Hussain; Ss, Almalki; Ms, Alghamdi; Mm, Alghamdi; Ma, El-sheemy

2014-01-01

294

Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intentions: Impact of Employee’s Training in Private Sector of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate impacts of training on organizational commitment and turnoverintentions in private sector of Saudi Arabia. The study seeks to focus the relationship between organizationalcommitment and turnover intentions of the employees. A literature review of organizational commitment andemployee turnover provides the basis for the research model and hypotheses. A self-administered questionnairewas used, involving 251 respondents from leading private organizations of Saudi Arabia to collect data andtesting the existing theory. The results provide strong support for the hypothesis that is the negative relationshipbetween organizational commitment and turnover intention. Employees’ training is significantly correlated withorganizational commitment, turnover intentions and the commitment-turnover relationship.The sample waslimited to private organization in Saudi Arabia. It may not be appropriate to generalize the findings across otherpopulations or settings. However, the sample can be viewed as a representative case typical of many otherorganizations in the same industry. The results provides insight into the impact of organizational commitment onturnover intentions in the specific private sector of Saudi Arabia, which might benefit for managers and policymakers of the concerned organizations and in general for the whole sector. The paper studies the problems thatexist in the private sector of Saudi Arabia.

Khawaja Jehanzeb

2013-03-01

295

Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is takenogramming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this paper, the major challenges facing the Saudi electrical power sector in implementing sustainable development are discussed and analyzed. The paper also looks at a number of developed countries and examines their experiences with energy conservation programs. The paper highlights current Saudi programs and experience for promoting awareness and participation in energy conservation. Strategies and major policy measures for energy conservation in Saudi Arabia are proposed

296

Saudi Arabia- The Saudi Aramco announces falls of almost all price differentials of its crude oils in April  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Europe and Asia except, all the differentials of prices have readjusted in fall in the month of april. For United States, the fall of differentials have been varied between $0.05/b and $0.15/b according to the qualities. For Europe, similar falls have been decided for crude and middle oils and are following the strong increases of february, provoked by the cold spell of the two first months of the year. In an other point of view, the production and the benefits of the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) reach record levels of 22 Mt and $1.67 milliards in 1995. The Saudi Petrochemical Company (Sadaf), joint venture between Sabic and Pecten Saudi Arabia, affiliate of American Shell Oil, will begin next july the production, in experimental phase of its new unit of 700 000 t/year of MTBE/ETBE (methyl or ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). It will be the first worldwide factory of this capacity to produce MTBE/ETBE. The National Plastic Company (Ibn Hayyan) has created a new affiliate Ibn Hayyan Plastic Products Company to build a new factory in its complex of Joubail, which will produce 40 000 t/year of plastic products. Finally, the construction at Joubail of the 50 000 t/year of caustic soda factory, the Arabian Industrial Development Company (Nama) will be achieved in january 1997 and the production start is planned two months later. (N.C.)

297

Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED). Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI) would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific...

Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

2012-01-01

298

First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned  

OpenAIRE

Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowled...

Alexeyenko, A. V.; Bartko, K. M.; Adebiyi, I. A.; Faraj, O. A.; Campo, C.

2013-01-01

299

Nosocomial infections in ambulances and effectiveness of ambulance fumigation techniques in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Methods: Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. Results: The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff. PMID:25399212

Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S.

2014-01-01

300

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001. Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%. The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%, to ‘try them’ (51.9% and ‘to get energy’ (43%, albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001. About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively. The greater majority (67% considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.

Abdulrahman Musaiger

2013-11-01

301

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

Al-Aqeel SA

2013-09-01

302

Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu and the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia based its industrialization program on a world view operating under a free market. The program's goals were to increase the value of petroleum products and manufactured goods as a way to diminish the country's dependence upon oil exports. An internal free market exists, with competition serving as the impetus for economic growth. Responsibility for economic development lies with the private sector, but the government has participated in support of the private sector. An overview of the accomplishments of the Royal Commission, headed by King Fahd since its inception in 1975, include the building of two new industrial cities in the desert and investment in the infrastructure for a petrochemicals and minerals-based industry. Modernization is progressing without disrupting the cultural traditions. Foreign investment has joined with the Saudi private sector to form a truly international approach. Changes in oil trade due to non-OPEC production have accompanied a shift in the comparative advantage to the industrial countries, but OAPEC is proud of its role in encouraging orderly and profitable trade. Saudi Arabia will be joining the worldwide search for and development of renewable energy sources and a shift toward a sustainable energy supply.

Hisham Nazer, H.E.

1987-05-01

303

The effects of birth interval on intellectual development of Saudi school children in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of birth intervals on some aspects of intellectual ability of Saudi primary school boys. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of Saudi school children comparing their intellectual ability (general intelligence) in relation to the length of the birth interval before and after the birth of the index child. The study area comprised 3 townships in the eastern province; Khobar, Thogba and Dhahran. The study was cond...

Hassan Bella; Khalil, Mohamed S.; Al-almaie, Sameeh M.; Kurashi, Nabil Y.; Saeed Wahas

2005-01-01

304

First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned  

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Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010.During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.

ALEXEYENKO A.V

2013-09-01

305

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: omar.alharbi@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: m.phillips@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: allan.williams@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: amingheith@mans.edu.eg [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: rbantan@kau.edu.sa [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: rasul.nm@sgs.org.sa [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2012-04-01

306

Attractiveness Factors Influencing Shoppers’ Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Word of Mouth: An Empirical Investigation of Saudi Arabia Shopping Malls  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the attractiveness factors influencing shoppers’ satisfaction, loyalty, and word of mouth in Saudi shopping mall centers. The independent variables were attractiveness factors represented by these variables namely aesthetic, convenience and accessibility, product variety, entertainment, and service quality. The dependent variables were shopper satisfaction, loyalty and WOM. A structured questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 600 shopping mall customers, representing all of the shopping malls shoppers in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A purposive sampling technique was employed in this research. The multiple regression analysis showed the impact of shopping malls attractiveness factors on the shopper satisfaction. The attractiveness factors aesthetic, convenience and accessibility, product variety, entertainment, and service quality, had a positive effect on Saudi shopping mall shoppers’. The most significant factor was product variety. This research potentially contributes to shopping malls attractiveness factors and their impact on shoppers’ satisfaction in shopping malls of Saudi Arabia.

Ala'Eddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad

2012-10-01

307

The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

308

Studies on coccidia species of genus Eimeria from domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five Eimeria species were reported from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) caught from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. According to their prevalences, they were: Eimeria perfarans (65%), E. magna (45%), E. stiedae (25%), E. exigua (20%) and E. piriformis (10%). 90% of the examined rabbits were positive and mixed infection with two or three Eimeria species was most frequent. E. stiedae, E. piriformis and E. exigua were identified and recorded for the first time from rabbits in Saudi Arabia and are considered as new locality or geographical distribution. PMID:9914693

Toula, F H; Ramadan, H H

1998-12-01

309

The Impact of Service Quality Delivery on Customer Satisfaction in the Banking Sector in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to evaluate what impact service quality that underlies the SERVQUAL model has on customer satisfaction in Saudi Arabia’s banking sector. The study was quantitative in nature and involved distributing a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that was based on a convenience method to 412 customers of various bank in the Saudi capital city of Riyadh, during the fall of 2014. The response rate was 67 percent and the study data was analyzed using SPSS and a reli...

Ghalib Sanjuq

2014-01-01

310

Prevalence of and risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in Saudi Arabia. A pilot cross-sectional study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of and the risk factors for Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a primary health care setting in Saudi Arabia. METHODS We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of Saudi patients aged >or= 45 years, who attended the primary health care center at King Khalid University Hospital between February 2006 and March 2006. A pre-designed questionnaire was used for each patient. Peripheral arterial disease was diagnosed, if the Ankle-Brachial i...

Al-sheikh, Sultan O.; Aljabri, Badr A.; Al-ansary, Lubna A.; Al-khayal, Laila A.; Al-salman, Musaad M.; Al-omran, Mohammed A.

2007-01-01

311

Hysterectomy for benign conditions in a university hospital in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure among women with a lifett time prevalence of 10%. The indications and complications of this procedure have not been previously reported from a teaching institution in Saudi Arabia. We examined the indications for hysterectomy and the surgical morbidity for women undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the records of women who underwent hysterectomies for benign gynecological conditions between January 1990 and December 2002, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, comparing patient characteristics, indications for hysterectomy and the rate of complications in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy (AH versus vaginal hysterectomy (VH. Results: Of 251 women, 199 (79% underwent AH and 52 (21% underwent VH. An estimated blood loss of 2500 mL occurred in 104 patients (52.3% in the AH group and in 20 patients (38.5% in the VH group (differtt ence not statistically significant. The most common indications for hysterectomy were uterine fibroids (n=107, 41.6% and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (n=68, 27.1%. The most common indication for VH was uterine prott lapse (n=45, 86.5%. The overall complication rates were 33.5%, 15.4% and 30.4% in women who underwent AH, VH and both, respectively. Intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred in 24 (9.7% patients in the AH group and in 51 patients in the VH group (20.3%. Postoperative infection occurred in 42/199 (21.6% in the AH group and 5/52 (9.6% in the VH group (difference not statistically significant. Conclusions: We describe a large series of hysterectomies, which provides information for surgeons on the expected rate of complications following hysterectomy for benign conditions. We found that the rate of complitt cations was not significantly higher than other centers internationally.

Sait Khalid

2008-01-01

312

Hysterectomy for benign conditions in a university hospital in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure among women with a lifetime prevalence of 10%. The indications and complications of this procedure have not been previously reported from a teaching institution in Saudi Arabia. We examined the indications for hysterectomy and the surgical morbidity for women undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. We reviewed the records of women who underwent hysterectomies for benign gynecological conditions between January 1990 and December 2002, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, comparing patient characteristics, indications for hysterectomy and the rate of complications in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy (AH) versus vaginal hysterectomy (VH). Of 251 women 199 (79%) underwent AH and 52 (21%) underwent VH. An estimated blood loss of >=500 mL occurred in 104 patients (52.3%) in the AH group and in 20 patients (38.5%) in the VH group (difference not statistically significant). The most common indications for hysterectomy were uterine fibroids (n=107, 41.6%) and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (n=68, 27.1%). The most common indication for VH was uterine prolapsed (n=45, 86.5%). The overall complication rates were 33.5%, 15.4% and 30.4% in women who underwent the AH group and in 51 patients in the VH group (20.3%). Postoperative infection occurred in 42/199 (21.6%) in the AH group and 5/52 (9.6%) in the VH group (difference not statistically significant). We describe a large tically significant). We describe a large series of hysterectomies, which provides information for surgeons on the expected of complications following hysterectomy for benign conditions. We describe a large series of hysterectomies, which provides information for surgeons on the expected rate of complications following hysterectomy for benign conditions. We found that the rate of complications was not significantly higher than other centers internationally. (author)

313

Metal pollution records in core sediments of some Red Sea coastal areas, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last three decades, the industrial and human activities in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia have increased dramatically and resulted in the continuous invasion of different types of pollutants including heavy metals. Seven sediment cores were collected from three major industrialized areas; Jeddah, Rabigh and Yanbu, along the coast of Saudi Arabia to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of metals and to assess the magnitude of pollution and their potential biological effects. Sediments were analyzed for texture, calcium carbonate contents, organic matter and metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Some metals like, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn, were enriched in the upper 15 cm of core samples (recent deposition of sediments). Cadmium concentrations showed high fluctuations with depth and reverse pattern to that for Al, Fe and Mn which indicated land based sources of this element to the studied areas. Elevated concentrations of lead were recorded in the bottom layers of cores in Jeddah that indicated the most dramatic increase in usage of gasoline in early 1970s. The calculated contamination factors (CF's) were found in the following sequences: Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr > Mn for all studied areas. Results of Pollution Load Index (PLI) revealed that Jeddah is the most polluted area, followed by Rabigh while Yanbu is the least contaminated area. Except for Ni, the concentrations of most metals in the majority of sediment samples were believed to be safe for living organisms. As no data were available on the concentration of metals in core sediments in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia, the results of this study would serve as a baseline against which future anthropogenic effects can be assessed. PMID:18696240

Badr, Nadia B E; El-Fiky, Anwar A; Mostafa, Alaa R; Al-Mur, Bandr A

2009-08-01

314

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula and has an area of 872,722 sq miles, or 2,260,350 sq km. The ancient Arabian Shield of igneous and metamorphic rocks comprises most of the western third of the country. The shield contains many extinct volcanoes surrounded by lava beds. Sloping eastwards are the newer sedimentary areas in which rich oil fields are found. In Saudi Arabia oil is paramount and less effort has been put into searching for mineral deposits than in other countries of similar size and geology. Pour aerial radiometric surveys have been undertaken and some of the anomalies discovered in the earlier ones were ground checked by an IAEA expert in 1963-64. Two anomalies warranted more detailed work, these were the Jabal Said anomaly in the Central Shield area and the Al Ghrayyat in Wadi Sawawin about 70 miles from the Jordan border. The Jabal Said anomaly consists of a zone of altered rocks consisting largely of pegmatite and pegmatite granite= Allanite, pyrochlore, cyrtolite, xenotime and monazite are the ore minerals,, The deposit was estimated to have 2.2 million tons of ore grading 0.2 - 0.3 percent Nb2O5 and 0.03 - 0,05% U3O8. The other occurrence at Al Ghrayyat is similar but with much lower grade uranium content. In view of the huge size of Saudi Arabia, the existence of many geologically favourable rock types and the poor coverage by sophisticated uranium exploration techniques, the Speculative Potential is placed between 10,000 and 50,000 Tonnes uranium. (author)

315

HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination  

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Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

GhaziAlsbeih

2014-03-01

316

Trauma patterns in patients attending the Emergency Department of Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Modern civilization and the sharp rise in living standards have led to dramatic changes in trauma pattern in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to describe the different patterns of injuries of patients attending the Emergency Department of Jazan General Hospital (JGH) in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A total number of 1 050 patients were enrolled in the study. A pre-organized data sheet was prepared for each patient attended the Emergency Department of JGH from February 2012 to January 2013. It contains data about socio-demographics, trauma data, clinical evaluation results, investigations as well as treatment strategies. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 25.3±16.8 years. Most (45.1%) of the patients were at age of 18–30 years. Males (64.3%) were affected by trauma more common than females. More than half (60.6%) of the patients were from urban areas. The commonest kind of injury was minor injury (60%), followed by blunt trauma (30.9%) and then penetrating trauma (9.1%). The mean time from the incident to arrival at hospital was 41.3±79.8 minutes. The majority (48.2%) of the patients were discharged after management of trivial trauma, whereas 2.3% were admitted to ICU, 7.7% transferred to inpatient wards, and 17.7% observed and subsequently discharged. The mortality rate of the patients was 2.6%. CONCLUSION: Trauma is a major health problem, especially in the young population in Saudi Arabia. Blunt trauma is more frequent than penetrating trauma, with road traffic accidents accounting for the majority.

Hokkam, Emad; Gonna, Abdelaziz; Zakaria, Ossama; El-shemally, Amany

2015-01-01

317

Saudi-Arabia's way in to mineral oil sovereignty from 1932-1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four main phases of the history of Saudi-Arabian mineral oil politics are described, each of which marks one stage on the way to full oil-related sovereignty of the kingdom: 1. finding concession-holders for mineral oil, 2. Cooperation with ARAMCO in order to build up the country's mineral oil industry, 3. Cooperation with other OPEC-states in nationalising the oil industries, 4. participation in the 2nd Gulf War in order to achieve full sovereignty in matters of energy politics. Special attention is given to the specifically Saudian connection of foreign - and oil politics and the importance of historical ''coincidences'' for the success of Saudi Arabia's type of mineral oil politics. (orig./UA)

318

New records of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites. PMID:21916261

Al-Atawi, Fahad J; Halawa, Alaa M

2011-01-15

319

New Records of Eriophyoid Mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea, fig (Ficus carica, grapes (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, citrus (Citrus spp., pomegranate (Punica granatum and pear (Pyrus communis. Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah, Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad, Rhynchaphytoptus ficifolia (Keifer and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer, belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites.

Fahad J. Al-Atawi

2011-01-01

320

Disparities in Health Care Delivery and Hospital Outcomes between Non-Saudis and Saudi Nationals Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndromes in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Saudi Arabia has a non-Saudi workers population. We investigated the differences and similarities of expatriate non-Saudi patients (NS) and Saudi nationals (SN) presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with respect to therapies and clinical outcomes. Methods The study evaluated 2031 of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) from 2005 to 2007. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analysis were performed to account for major imbalances in age and sex in the two groups. Results The mean patient age was 56.2±9.8, and 83.5% of the study cohort were male. SN were more likely to have risk factors of atherosclerosis. ST-elevation MI (STEMI) was the most common ACS presentation in NS, while non-ST ACS was more common in SN. The median symptom-to-door time was significantly greater in NS patients (Median 175 min (197) vs. 130 min (167), p=0.027). The only difference in pharmacological therapies between the two groups was that NS were more likely to receive fibrinolytic therapy. NS were less likely than SN to undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI; 32.6% vs. 42.8%, p=0.0001) or primary PCI (7.8% vs. 22.8%, p<0.001). Hospital mortality, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure were significantly higher in NS compared to SN. After adjusting for baseline variables and therapies, the odds ratios for hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock in NS were 2.9 (95% CI 1.5–6.2, p=0.004) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.5–4.9, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusion Our findings indicate disparities in hospital care between NS and SN ACS patients. NS patients had worse hospital outcomes, which may reflect unequal health coverage and access-to-care issues. PMID:25881231

AlFaleh, Hussam F.; Al Shamiri, Mostafa Q.; Ullah, Anhar; AlHabib, Khalid F; Hersi, Ahmad Salah; AlSaif, Shukri; AlNemer, Khalid; Taraben, Amir; Malik, Asif; Abuosa, Ahmed M; LA, Mimish; Kashour, Tarek

2015-01-01

321

Socio-demographic Determinants of Compliance among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objectives: Saudi Arabia has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) To study the socio-demographic profile of diabetic patients in Abha. (2) To find the socio-demographic determinants of compliance among diabetic patients in Abha. Material and Methods: A self administered questionnaire which had detailed the socio-demographic features and various aspects of compliance was used on a random sample of registered diabetics at two primary health care centres of Abha. Results: Most of the patients (70.4 percent) were between 40-60 years age. Most of the patients were men (about 60 percent) and Saudis. Majority of patients did not have a university education. Young patients (age<40) were more compliant with all aspects of management, except medication (23.8 percent). Women were significantly more compliant with exercise (49.7 percent), while men were significantly more compliant with follow up (81.1 percent). Saudi patients were significantly compliant with medication (79.2 percent), while non Saudis were compliant with exercise (62.9 percent). All single patients were diet compliant. Smokers were significantly less compliant with exercise. Patients with normal BMI were significantly more compliant with diet and exercise. Conclusion: Patients were found to be generally less compliant towards the regimen. Socio-demographic factors which were significantly associated with non compliance were age, gender, nationality, educational status, marital status, smoking status and BMI. PMID:24551644

Salam, Mohammad Abdul; Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen

2013-01-01

322

A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

2004-01-01

323

Arsenic, Lead and Microorganisms in Hair and Nails of Some Women from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might...

Hashem, A. R.; Abed, K. F.

2002-01-01

324

The Scorpion Fauna of Al-Baha and Hail Regions, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

This is an additional contribution to the comprehensive study of the scorpion sting syndrome in Saudi Arabia, which was collected from two regions (Al-Baha and Hail). It deals with identification of the existing and newly discovered species and their medical importance. The survey covered the major sites of Al-Baha, (Al-Queed, Al-Qura, Al-Mandig, Al-Makhwaa, Galwaa, Al-Baha and Baljurashy) and Hail, (Hail city, Baqaa, Al-Shenan, Al-Ghazala). There were 2421 specimens collected from Al-B...

Al-asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-saief, Abdulaziz A.; Abdo, Nasreddien M.; Al-moutaery, Khalaf R.

2009-01-01

325

Nutrition and Food Consumption Patterns in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present study is to describe and examine nutrition and food consumption patterns in KSA, namely to analyze and assess: the trends of per capita supply of major food groups (g/capita/day) from 1961-2007 and dietary energy supply, distribution by macronutrient and diversity of the food supply. Only secondary data were used. Saudi Arabia annual food balance sheet for the period form 1961-2007 which produced by FAO were used to drive the average per capita micronutrients (Die...

Ahmed Adam; Salih Osama; Khan Ibrar Muhammad

2014-01-01

326

Mental and Social Health Atlas I in Saudi Arabia: 2007-08.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the World Health Organization's Mental Health Atlas, the first Mental and Social Health Atlas in Saudi Arabia describes the historical background of mental health and social services in the country and identifies several deficiencies in the system including infrastructure and logistics and lack of epidemiological data. There is now great progress in strategic planning for developing and improving mental health care services across the nation, with suggestions to develop psychiatric services for identified special populations, to establish community mental health care services, to improve research and training in mental health, and to update mental health annual information systems using advanced information technology. PMID:20799560

Al-Habeeb, A A; Qureshi, N A

2010-05-01

327

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Tagetes Minuta growing in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the essential oil of Tagetes Minuta L. growing in Saudi Arabia by gas-chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique confirmed that tagetone (11.52%), 5-octyn-4-one, 2, 7-dimethyl (11.52%), propanedinitrile, dicyclohexyl (10.45%) and 2-pinen-4-one (8.03%) being the main components. Lesser amounts of 1-acetoxy-p-menth-3-one (0.17%) and9-octacenamide (Z) (0.48%) were also found in this oil. The oil did not show neither antimicrobial nor antifungal activity. (author)

328

Medical and dental health status of orphan children in central Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To evaluate the medical and dental health status of orphan children from 4 to 12-years-old, and compare them with children living with their parents. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study took place in 3 government orphanages and 3 ordinary schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2011 to January 2012. All orphans aged 4-12 year were selected (N=90). Ninety children living with their parents were selected randomly to serve as the controls. Demographic data, medical, a...

Al-jobair, Asma M.; Al-sadhan, Salwa A.; Al-faifi, Areej A.; Andijani, Reem I.; Al-motlag, Sarah K.

2013-01-01

329

Total Fume and Metal Concentrations during Welding in Selected Factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder’s health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers’ welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during...

Mohammad Khalid Goknil; Mansour Ahmed Balkhyour

2010-01-01

330

Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ? 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ? 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.Keywords: quality of life, skin disease, Saudi Arabia

Abolfotouh MA

2012-07-01

331

A Threatened Fish Species (Aphanius dispar in Saudi Arabia, A Case Study  

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Full Text Available The present study showed that the population density of a native fish (A. dispar in the freshwater environments of Saudi Arabia is declining. It is concluded from the present investigations that A. dispar is not threatened by a single isolated factor, but instead faces numerous stressors that jeopardize multiple stages of their life cycle. Reduced availability of food, habitat degradation, chemical contamination, introduction of exotic species and exploitation have contributed to the decline of such native fish`s abundance. Protecting fishes will help to protect aquatic biodiversity and in conservation of biological heritage of the country.

H.F. Al-Kahem-Al-Balawi

2008-01-01

332

Natural Radioactivity and Dose Assessment for Brands of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers Used in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 232Th have been measured in different brands of fertilizer samples in Saudi Arabia using sodium iodide gamma spectrometry. The results of measurements showed that the mean (ranges) of specific activities for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are 64 (35.8 - 120.7), 17 (3.2 - 56.8) and 2453 (744.9 - 4227.1) Bq/kg, respectively. With respect to organic fertilizers u...

Alharbi, W. R.

2013-01-01

333

An exploratory study of factors determining e-government success in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The public policy and e-government implementation issues of any country have a direct impact on the e-readiness of that country. It helps in creating and promoting public and private sectors to invest in the ICT field. The aim of this paper to explore the main key e-government and policies factors that contribute to the success of e-readiness assessment from the experience of some of the public and private organizations in Saudi Arabia. With this aim, a questionnaire has been developed and di...

Al-solbi, Ali Nasser H.; Al-harbi, Sami H.

2008-01-01

334

Phytosociological Survey on the Central Coastal Lowlands of Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vegetation composition of the central coastal low lands of Eastern Saudi Arabia was analyzed. The appearance and distribution of the studied plant groupings were affected by atmospheric, by edaphic conditions as well as topography. Eighty seven species belonging to (33) families of flowering plants were recorded in the following seven plant communities which are dominated and co-dominated by (Zygophyllum qatarense), (Lasiurus scindicus and Lycium shawii), (Alhagi graecorum and Cynodon dactylon), (Phoenix dactelifera and Tamarix aphylla),(Aeluropuslagopoides and Sporobolous ioclados), ( Halocnemum strobilacium and Arthrocenemum macrostachyum) and (Avicennia marina). (author)

335

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abdulsalam M Alaithan,1 Javed I Memon,1 Rifat S Rehmani,2 Arif A Qureshi,1 Abdul Salam31Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center – Eastern Region (KAIMRC-ER, Al-Hasa, Saudi ArabiaBackground: There is little data surrounding the survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are admitted to the critical care unit with exacerbation of symptoms. We conducted a study to measure the in-hospital and intensive care unit (ICU outcomes of patients admitted with COPD exacerbation, and identified the related prognostic factors.Method: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who were admitted to the adult ICU between January 2006 and July 2011 for COPD exacerbation in King Abdulaziz National Guard Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia.Results: During the study period, a total of 119 patients were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure attributed to COPD exacerbation. The mean age was 72 ± 13 years, and 44 (37% were females. The main cause of respiratory failure was infection, which occurred in 102 (86% patients. Thirty-nine (33% of the admitted patients were mechanically ventilated, and the median duration was 2.6 (1–42 days. The median lengths of the ICU and hospital stays were 3 (1–40 and 9 (2–43 days, respectively. The ICU mortality was 6%, and hospital mortality was 11%. Low Glasgow Coma Scale on admission, intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation, current smoking, tracheostomy, cardiopulmonary arrest, and the development of acute renal failure were associated with higher hospital mortality.Conclusion: Early ICU and hospital mortality is low for COPD patients who have been admitted to the ICU with exacerbation. Low Glasgow Coma Scale scores on admission, intubation, prolonged use of mechanical ventilation, and the development of acute renal failure were identified as risk factors associated with increased hospital mortality.Keywords: intensive care unit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mortality rates, acute respiratory failure

Alaithan AM

2012-12-01

336

Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic approach using a documentary and content analysis technique was used to develop test blueprints with additional input from an expert panel as appropriate. Test blueprinting is an important step to ensure the test validity in all residency programs.Keywords: test blueprinting, psychiatry, residency program, summative assessment, documentary and content analysis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 

Gaffas EM

2012-05-01

337

Role of tuberculosis laboratories in Saudi Arabia: A call to implement standardized procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is no doubt that the laboratory is the backbone for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Only through testing in the laboratory can the physician confirm suspicion of TB despite any previous clinical and x-ray findings. Recent visits to several laboratories in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia showed that some need considerable improvement. Unless there are standardized procedures to diagnose TB, and safety measures are implemented in all laboratories, it will be impossible to diagnose accurately and control TB. The laboratories should be redesigned to conform to international TB Diagnostic Centers, with well trained staff and proper safety procedures. (author)

338

Ecology of the Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari in Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of t...

Al-sadoon, Mohammed K.; Al-otaibi, Fahed S.

2014-01-01

339

Population dynamics of Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Hanifah Valley Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

A survey of sand flies was conducted in the Hanifah Valley, Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Four species of sand flies were identified, Phlebotomus papatasi, P. beregeroti, P. sergenti and Sergentomiya antennatus. Among those species, P. papatasi accounted for 97% of the total catch. Sand flies had two peaks, one in the middle of July and the other in the middle of October. More sand flies were caught in the southern part of the Valley compared to the northern one due to the presence of water stre...

Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.; Alahmed, Azzam M.; Kheir, Salah M.; Hussein, Saied M.

2004-01-01

340

The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. PMID:24531125

Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jörg E

2014-04-15

341

The Fate of Disi Aquifer as Stratigic Groundwater Reserve for Shared Countries (Jordan and Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Disi is a fossil groundwater shred between Jordan and Saudi Arabia with a very high quality properties, this water is limited and has been used for irrigation purposes between both countries, this study helps in highlighted the importance of this water as stratigic reserve to be use later on. This study shows that the amounts of groundwater affected by the thickness of the saturated zone in the aquifer, the porosity of the aquifer and the groundwater flow in the basin. Abstraction from the aquifer will affect water quality so this point must be clearly understood all the time.

Alsharifa Hind Jasem

2011-10-01

342

Elevation-angle variation of LEO satellite over the Kingdom of SaudiArabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new and simple method to calculate the time variation of the elevationangle for LEO satellites is presented in this article. The method is usefulto predict the link availability of LEO satellites due to propagationimpairments. The method has been applied as a realistic study of LEOsatellite flying over different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).It is found that the percentage of time during which this satellite isvisible (P%) over KSA decreases with the increase of the elevation angle. Thevariation of P% could be modeled either by an exponential function, or simplyby a decreasing power's law relation. (author)

343

Fanconi anemia associated with moyamoya disease in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 10-year-old Saudi girl who has Fanconi anemia (FA) and was admitted due to acute hemiplegia, of the right side. She had a previous attack of left side hemiplegia that resolved spontaneously. The brain magnetic resonance angiography showed a cerebrovascular pattern of moyamoya disease. She underwent partially matched related donor stem cell transplantation (SCT), but unfortunately died 3 months later with post SCT complications. The association of moyamoya disease with FA is uncommon, and is rarely reported in the literature. Although this condition may be acquired, it is considered a truly congenital defect in FA, and to identify the etiology of this association furthermore genetic mutation analysis is needed. PMID:25719591

Al-Hawsawi, Zakaria M.; Al-Zaid, Mohamed A.; Barnawi, Ashwaq I.; Yassine, Saadeddine M.

2015-01-01

344

Heavy metals in cooler waters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water samples were collected from 400 coolers in Riyadh area. From each cooler, one feed and one cooled water samples were collected. These samples were analyzed for trace metals like Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrophotometer equipped with ultrasonic nebulizer. Out of 400 coolers, water from 382 (95.50%) were found to meet World Health Organization (WHO), Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO), and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards whereas water from 18 coolers (4.50%) were found to have elevated levels of Fe, Pb, and Ni metals. In one cooler, water was allowed to stand for 12 h and a 1 L sample collected every 2 h. All the metals mentioned above with the exception of Pb were found to increase due to standing time. PMID:18696235

Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Khan, Mujahid A

2009-10-01

345

Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.

Naasir Kamaal Khan

2012-10-01

346

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

347

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ř). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; pcoastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. PMID:22353176

Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

2012-04-01

348

Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. PMID:25460975

Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I

2015-02-15

349

Saudi Arabia's Oil Minister: Address to US independent producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issue of Energy Detente is designed to promote better understanding of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) through its self-image and its view of the world. The OPEC News Agency coverage and other OPEC materials are tapped to illustrate some key points in a speech about energy security from Saudi Arabia's Oil Minister. This paper from His Excellency Ibrahim M. Nazer is offered in an effort to share his message from the world's largest oil exporter to the world's largest oil consumer. This issue also provides selected statistics and statements from OPEC, both to put Saudi Arabia's statements in context of its commitment to OPEC and to reveal the striking similarity between the country's and the organization's positions. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the U.S. Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of March 23, 1990; Hemisphere, March 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

1990-04-06

350

SECONDARY SCHOOL HEAD TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA: THE RESULTS OF A MIXED METHODS APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.

AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI

2008-11-01

351

Regeneration potential and growth of two indigenous shrubs in the desert of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ertaa (Calligonum comosum) and Ghada (Haloxylon persicum) are two important multipurpose indigenous shrubs in the desert of Saudi Arabia, supplying firewood and fodder to the local populations. Their environmental benefits in connection with sand dune fixation and microenvironment improvement are commendable. Due to over-exploitation and habitat destruction, populations of these two shrubs have become severely degraded. This study helps in the development of the appropriate techniques for their regeneration and evaluates their relative growth rate under different irrigation schedules. Productivity in the natural population and biological growth under cultivation were also evaluated. Seeds of Ertaa required no special treatment while the seeds of Ghada showed higher percentage of germination when soaked in cold water for 1 hour. The seeds of Ghada are photoblastic, which require adequate light for germination while those of Ertaa are negatively photoblastic. The growth rate of both species under different irrigation schedule proved that the increase of irrigation frequency may not proportionally influence the growth rate. The estimated productivity of natural stands in Saudi Arabia was much less than the productivity of both species from other parts of the world. The estimated biological growth function under cultivation was found to reasonably match with the natural growth for both species are in their initial growth stage. (author)uthor)

352

Sickle cell disease subphenotypes in patients from Southwestern Province of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common in the Eastern and Southwestern (SW) Provinces of Saudi Arabia. We studied 159 patients with SCD to better characterize its phenotype in the SW Province, where patients usually have a HBB haplotype of African origin. All cases had history and examination, chart review, and laboratory testing. Blood tests were obtained during steady state and included: complete blood count, reticulocytes, hemoglobin electrophoresis, lactate dehydrogenase, and G6PD level. HBB haplotype and presence of ?-thalassemia were also determined. Frequency of various SCD complications was as follows: painful episodes of variable severity occurred in majority of patients (98%), osteonecrosis (14%), acute chest syndrome (22%), splenic sequestration (23%), gallstones (34%), stroke (7.5%), priapism (2.6%), serious infections (11.5%), and persistent splenomegaly (11%) beyond 5 years of age. No patient had leg ulcer. History of asthma and high steady state white blood cells count were associated with increased risk of acute chest syndrome. Coinheritance of ?-thalassemia was associated with a lower frequency of gallstones. Higher fetal hemoglobin level was associated with persistent splenomegaly but not with other complications. Splenic sequestration was more common among males and was associated with lower steady state hemoglobin. SCD phenotype in the SW Province is variable and comparable with African Americans except for the rarity of priapism and the absence of leg ulcers. Fetal hemoglobin level was not associated with SCD vaso-occlusive complications. New genetic modifiers and environmental factors might modulate the phenotype of SCD in Saudi Arabia. PMID:22322941

Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Aleem, Aamer; Ghabbour, Hazem; AlGahtani, Farjah H; Al-Shehri, Ali; Osman, Mohamed Elfaki; Kurban, Kadijah; Alsultan, Mohammed S; Bahakim, Hasan; Al-Momen, AbdelKareem M

2012-03-01

353

Phytosociological studies of Citrullus colocyanthis L., Growing in Different Altitudinal Sites in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to survey and record the plant species associated with Citrullus colocynthis in different altitudinal localities in the West of Saudi Arabia. Depending on the presence of Citrullus colocynthis L. species, seven stands on the West of Saudi Arabia; expending from 25 m up to 2220 m a.s.l. height and 330 km long were selected for this study. Soil samples were collected from the studied localities and the soil properties were investigated. Also, plant species associated with C. colocynthis were collected, recorded and prepared as herbarium specimens. The studied localities were represented by different ecological, geographical and edaphic sites. A list of 127 species belonging to 41 families present in all locations was recorded. Calotropis procera was the representative species with C. colocynthis in all localities. The percentage of presence of the associated species were different between species in each location and also from location to other. Three different ecological areas could be distinguished in the study area. The area near the red sea characterized by salty sandy soil and low vegetation represented the first area. The second one was the coastal plain and West slope which characterized by low rainfall and xerophytic plants. The third one was the mountainous area which characterized by high altitude, more rainfall and high density of vegetation.

F.A. Al-Ghamdi

2009-01-01

354

TIME SERIES MODELING OF MONTHLY RAINFALL IN ARID AREAS: CASE STUDY FOR SAUDI ARABIA  

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Full Text Available Stochastic techniques are essential in planning and management of water resources systems especially in arid and semi-arid areas where water is scarce. The forecasting of future events requires identifying proper stochastic models to be used in this process. For this purpose, a Periodic ARMA (PARMA model and a temporal disaggregation models were used in this study to investigate weather they are appropriate for modeling the monthly rainfall data in Saudi Arabia. Results showed PARMA and temporal disaggregation models performed well in modeling the monthly rainfalls in Saudi Arabia. These models were able to preserve the basic seasonal statistics of the observed data well as preserving the seasonal correlation structure observed in the historical data. However, the PARMA model did not perform well at the annual level. In contrast, the disaggregation model performed well in preserving the correlation structure of the historical data at the annual level. Thus, these models can be used in modeling and forecasting of monthly rainfall in Arid and semi-arid areas.

Nidhal Saada

2014-01-01

355

Risk factors in transmission of brucellosis from animals to humans in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case-control study was undertaken to determine for the first time the specific aetiology of animal to human transmission of brucellosis in Saudi Arabia. Cases consisted of all patients with brucellosis attending the primary care clinic of the Riyadh Al-Kharj Hospital programme in central Saudi Arabia. A sample of individually matched controls was selected concurrently from patients attending the same clinic for unrelated problems. Cases and controls responded to a 48 item questionnaire on exposure to established risk factors for brucellosis. Greatest risk was found to be associated with indirect contact with animals (the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products), as opposed to direct contact with animals. When specific animal products were considered, greatest risk was associated with the consumption of milk and laban (buttermilk), as opposed to cheese or uncooked liver. When specific animal species were considered, greatest risk was associated with products derived from sheep and goats as opposed to camels and cattle. When direct contact with animals was considered, the study found a very high risk associated with assisting in animal parturition, but no significant risk associated with other direct (unspecified) animal contact. PMID:1440791

Cooper, C W

1992-01-01

356

The role of nuclear desalination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the role of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is investigated. A water demand forecast between the years 2000 and 2025 was established for the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia as part of the collected input data for the DEEP computer code. The DEEP computer code was run for several options of energy sources such as PWR (600 MWe), SPWR (160 MWth), PHWR (450 MWe), HR (200 MWth) and GT (125 MWe or 175 MWe). These energy sources were investigated for different desalination plants such as RO, MSF, MED and the hybrid MED-RO. The levelised power cost, average daily water production, net saleable power and levelised water cost are presented for all cases. Two scenarios were investigated, the first assumes no interest and discount rates and the second assumes interest and discount rates equal to 8%. The first scenario assumes that the water utility will continue under the control of the government and the second assumes that the water utility will be privatised. (author)

357

Water exploration using Magnetotelluric and gravity data analysis; Wadi Nisah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Ground water aquifers are the major source of water in Saudi Arabia. In the Riyadh region, several Wadies including Wadi Nisah store about 14 × 106 m3 of water, which is extracted for local irrigation purposes. In such areas, the water wells are as shallow as 200-300 m in depth. The importance of Wadi Nisah is because the subsurface water aquifers that are present there could support the region for many years as a water resource. Accordingly, in this study, we performed a Magnetotelluric survey using a portable broadband sounding system (MT24/LF) to evaluate the ground water aquifer at great depths. We collected 10 broadband Magnetotelluric sounding stations (1 station/day) with an interval of about 2-3 km reaching a profile length of about 25-30 km along Wadi Nisah. Additionally, we used available gravity data to image the subsurface structure containing the aquifer. MT results indicated a low resistivity layer, associated with alluvium deposits, which was defined at a depth of about 1-2 km and extended horizontally about 15 km. Gravity data analysis was used to model this resistivity layer indicating a basement surface at 3-4 km depth.

Aboud, Essam; Saud, Ramzi; Asch, Theodore; Aldamegh, Khaled; Mogren, Saad

2014-12-01

358

ESTABLISHMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS FOR CT TRUNK EXAMINATIONS IN THE WESTERN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important optimisation tool, which aid in identifying abnormally high dose levels. These are currently not available in Saudi Arabia, and this research aims to remedy this. CT dose data (DLP and CTDIvol) were collected for a minimum number of 10 adult patients of average size (60-80 kg) presenting for a range of CT examinations from public hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. These include routine chest, high-resolution chest (HRCT), pulmonary angiography (CTPA), abdomen and pelvis (AP) and the combined chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) CT examinations. Mean values for each site were calculated, and the 75th percentile of DLP and CTDIvol was used as a basis for DRLs. Data for 550 patients were collected from 14 hospitals over a 7-month period. The rounded third-quartile CTDIvol and DLP were 18 mGy and 630 mGy cm(-1) for chest CT, 20 mGy and 600mGy cm(-1) for HRCT, 18 mGy and 480 mGy cm(-1) for CTPA, 15 mGy and 800 mGy cm(-1) for AP, and 16 mGy and 1040 mGy cm(-1) for CAP, respectively. Regional DRLs have been proposed from this study. Dose variations across CT departments have identified an urgent need for optimisation to improve distribution of observed doses for CT examinations. PMID:25468993

Qurashi, Abdulaziz A; Rainford, Louise A; Foley, Shane J

2014-12-01

359

Selection of a suitable reactor type for water desalination and power generation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selection of a reactor type suitable for water desalination and power generation is a complex process that involves the evaluation of many criteria and requires the professional judgment of many experts in different fields. A reactor type that is suitable for one country might not be suitable for another. This is especially true in the case of Saudi Arabia because of its strategic location, the nature of its land and people, and its moderate technological situation. A detailed study using a computer code based on Saaty's mathematical pairwise comparison technique and developed in a previous study was carried out to find the most suitable reactor for water desalination and power generation in Saudi Arabia from among five potential types: boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors, CANDU heavy water reactors (HWRs), steam-generating heavy water reactors (SGHWRs), and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. It was concluded that the CANDU HWR is the most suitable type for this purpose followed first by the BWR, then the SGHWR

360

Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors. PMID:25517520

Khalil, Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad; Abdelkader, Hussein Saad

2014-01-01

361

Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

2013-02-01

362

Ecological significance of wood anatomy in two lianas from arid southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hot and arid lowlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia are home to two common lianas, Cocculus pendulus and Leptadenia arborea. This paper attempts to relate the adaptation of these two climbing woody perennials to such a harsh environment to the anatomy and hydraulic characteristics of their wood. The stems of these lianas have wood with wide xylem vessels and high hydraulic conductivity which should enhance water flow to the upper canopy despite their severe twisting. Hydraulic conductivity is further helped by the simple perforation plates of xylem vessels. The circular thickening of xylem walls gives them strength and reduces the risk of their collapse and the ensuing embolism in the advent of high tension created by severe water deficit and high evapo-transpiration demand. Wide vessels, on the other hand, are more susceptible to embolism. This problem may be overcome by reducing the solute potential of xylem sap by hydrolysis of starch grains which were found to be abundant in the vicinity of the vessels. This should help absorb water by the deep roots from the capillary fringes of the typically shallow water table in this particular habitat. Furthermore, the abundance of ray parenchyma cells between xylem groups of both lianas provides great flexibility with minimum damage to water conduits in the stem during climbing and twisted growth. It was concluded that these wood features in both lianas are crucial for survival under the harsh conditions of arid Tihama plains of southwestern Saudi Arabia. PMID:25183944

Masrahi, Yahya S

2014-09-01

363

Intelligent sensors for evaluating reservoir and well profiles in horizontal wells : Saudi Arabia case histories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Horizontal wells are commonly used in Saudi Arabia because they have proven advantages in optimizing production and cost. However, in order to ensure proper production, these wells occasionally require downhole measurements of the flow profile; wellbore parameters such as water entry points; and productivity index for remedial action, such as water shut off or well stimulation. Evaluating the performance of a well also contributes to a better understanding of sweep, water production and cross flow, particularly in long reach wells. The most common flow regime at downhole conditions is a stratified flow regime in which lighter oil flows on top and heavier water flows on bottom. Slugging and bubbling flow regimes are typical of low oil flow rate and are considered unstable flow regimes. This paper described a new generation of production logging tools (PLTs) that have been used on some horizontal wet producers located in Saudi Arabia. The new PLTs consists of arrays of spinners and sensors to log the entire cross section to describe the horizontal flow regime and measure the downhole production and phases. In an effort to find the best logging procedure, the PLT was tested using two methods, notably coiled tubing (CT) and wireline tractor. It was concluded that PLTs are reliable and accurate. Case studies involving planning, deployment, data acquisition, and detailed analysis of PLTs were presented. 35 refs., 1 tab., 20 figs.

Al-Buali, M.H.; Dashash, A.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); El Gammal, T.; Arevalo, F.; Torne, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

364

Thermoregulatory and Physiological Responses of Najdi Sheep Exposed to Environmental Heat Load Prevailing in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermoregulatory and physiological responses of Najdi rams raised under hot summer conditions prevailing in Kingdom Saudi Arabia. The core temperature (Tcore showed circadian rhythm characterized by biphasic achrophases, which were associated with the feeding times during both seasons. Average daily Tcore was significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. However, the amplitudes of the rhythmic oscillation during winter and summer seasons were 0.85 and 0.56?C, respectively. Rectal (Tre and skin temperatures (Tsk were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions and exhibited similar patterns during both seasons concurrent with the pattern of temperature humidity index (THI, reaching the maximum values late in the afternoon and the minimum values early in the morning. Respiratory rate (RR and heart rate (HR showed the same pattern of the thermal parameters and were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. Serum concentrations of total protein, globulin, glucose, sodium and chloride were significantly (P<0.05 increased while those of albumin and calcium were decreased under hot summer conditions. The results obtained from this study indicate that hot summer conditions of Saudi Arabia is thermally stressful to Najdi rams. Therefore, Najdi sheep production under such conditions would require environmental and/or nutritional modification to alleviate the impact of heat stress.

A. A. Al-Haidary, R. S. Aljumaah, M. A. Alshaikh, K. A. Abdoun*, E. M. Samara, A. B. Okab and M. M. Alfuraiji

2012-10-01

365

Association of physicians' knowledge and behavior with prostate cancer counseling and screening in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of iases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).

366

Trends in Residential Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia with Particular Reference to the Eastern Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.

Farajallah Alrashed

2014-12-01

367

Outline of sport injuries in the V World Youth Championship for FIFA Cup in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The V World Youth Championship for FIFA Cup was held for the first time in Saudi Arabia from 16-2-89 till 3-3-89. Sports injuries at this competitions was reported from the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with eight matches taking place at different days. Out of 176 soccer players from group C (Brazil, Germany DR, Mali and USA) who participated in this competition, only six were injured and 7 injuries were noted with an incidence of 3.98% (n = 7/176). Lower limb injuries predominated (ankle sprain: 28.57%; tibia fracture: 14.29%), whereas head, facial, radius and rib injuries had equal rates (14.29%). Also, fractures predominated (42.86%) due to the aggressive attitudes. Concussion (14.29%) and cut wound (14.29%) were less common. High skills, good physical fitness, compliance of rules and regulations, strict surveillance of violence and misbehaviour by the FIFA cup organizing team and allied offices led to the well performance, safer environment and low incidence of sports injuries. PMID:10085609

Juma, A H

1998-10-01

368

Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

369

Gender and risk of depression in Saudi Arabia, a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.

Nagi A.M. Elawad

2010-09-01

370

Annual and weekly patterns of ozone and particulate matter in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution has been an increasing concern within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries. In this work the authors present an analysis of daily ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NO(x)), and particulate matter (North American cites of similar climatology though comparable to other large cities within the Middle East. Implications: Daily concentrations of O3, PM10, and NO(x) in and around the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are analyzed and compared with those of other reference cities. Extremely low O3 levels, along with a significant urban weekend effect (higher weekend O3, despite reduced NO(x) concentrations), is apparent, along with high levels of PM10 within the city. Urban O3 in Jeddah was found to be lower than that of other comparable cities, but the strong weekend effect suggests that care must be taken to reduce downwind O3 levels without increasing them within the city itself. Further research into the emissions and chemistry contributing to the reduced O3 levels within the city is warranted. PMID:25122955

Porter, William C; Khalil, M Aslam K; Butenhoff, Christopher L; Almazroui, Mansour; Al-Khalaf, Abdulrahman K; Al-Sahafi, Mohammed Saleh

2014-07-01

371

An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.

Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

2014-05-01

372

Breast cancer knowledge and related behaviors among women in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,092 women attending urban primary health care centers in Abha City southwestern Saudi Arabia about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and related practices. Only 22.0% heard about mammography, and 41.5% heard about breast self-examination (BSE). More than half of the women in the study identified changes occurring in case of breast cancer and identified risk factors. Only 8.3% were examined by clinical breast examination (CBE), 6.2% were examined by mammography, and 29.7% performed BSE. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of women and the low practice of BSE, CBE, and mammography. Public awareness should be enhanced by all available means including mass media, schools, social gatherings, and waiting areas in primary health care centers. There is an urgent need for continuing medical education programs for health care workers in the region concerning breast cancer. PMID:23797712

Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Hassanein, Mervat H A; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M; Aftab, Razia

2013-09-01

373

Pharmacoeconomic analysis in Saudi Arabia: an overdue agenda item for action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmacoeconomics is a branch of health economics related to the most economical and efficient use of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacoeconomic research identifies, measures and compares the costs and outcomes (clinical, economic and humanistic) of pharmaceutical products and services. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation can play a significant role in the efficient allocation of resources in healthcare systems with constrained budgets. Countries are trying to control the rising costs of health care in their aging population. They are all asking the same question: Is the new drug good value for money; and if so, what is the society willing to pay for it? This article reviews the importance of, and the need for, adaptation of pharmacoeconomic analysis to the conditions in Saudi Arabia. It will shed some light on the important steps for converting the concept into practice, including the need for identifying the willing-to-pay (WTP) or the threshold cutoff, the existence of a real cost for each utility, the nonexistence of an pharmacoeconomic advisory forum, pharmaceutical budget allocation, and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing. It will also provide recommendations for easing any challenges that might jeopardize the conduct of such analysis in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21808106

Al-Jazairi, Abdulrazaq S; Al-Qadheeb, Nada S; Ajlan, Aziza

2011-01-01

374

Pharmacoeconomic Analysis in Saudi Arabia: An Overdue Agenda Item for Action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics is a branch of health economics related to the most economical and efficient use of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacoeconomic research identifies, measures and compares the costs and outcomes (clinical, economic and humanistic of pharmaceutical products and services. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation can play a significant role in the efficient allocation of resources in healthcare systems with constrained budgets. Countries are trying to control the rising costs of health care in their aging population. They are all asking the same question: Is the new drug good value for money; and if so, what is the society willing to pay for it? This article reviews the importance of, and the need for, adaptation of pharmacoeconomic analysis to the conditions in Saudi Arabia. It will shed some light on the important steps for converting the concept into practice, including the need for identifying the willing-to-pay (WTP or the threshold cutoff, the existence of a real cost for each utility, the nonexistence of an pharmacoeconomic advisory forum, pharmaceutical budget allocation, and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing. It will also provide recommendations for easing any challenges that might jeopardize the conduct of such analysis in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Jazairi Abdulrazaq

2011-01-01

375

Hemoglobin H disease in the Al-Qatif region of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Al-Qatif region in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has thehighest prevalence of alpha-thalassemia genes in the Kingdom. Hemoglobin H(Hb H) disease, however, has been rarely reported. We decided therefore toverify the rarity of disease and characterize the presenting features incases identified. All patients seen in Qatif Central Hospital betweenSeptember 1988 and November 1990 with low red cell indices were screened forHb H disease and those found positive had clinical data compiled from theirhospital records and analyzed. Thirty-nine cases of Hb H were diagnosed. Themean age of patients was 18 years. The mean hemoglobin was 13.5 g/dL forneonates and 7.6 g/dL for others. The mean Hb Bart's level was 27.5% inneonates and the mean Hb H level in others was 11.1%. In addition to low redcell indices, all patients had a high red cell distribution width (RDW) meanof 25.6%. The main clinical signs were jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly.Concurrent glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was seen in28.2% of patients. Hemoglobin H disease is not uncommon in the Al-Qatifregion of Saudi Arabia. The red cell indices may mimic iron deficiency, whichshould be excluded by the presence of jaundice and organomegaly. Thecondition often co-exists with G6PD deficiency. (author)

376

Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

377

The ICT Proficiencies of University Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Case Study to Identify Challenges and Encouragements  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…

Ageel, Mohammed

2011-01-01

378

Examination of Turkish Students' Opinions Related to Values in the Example of Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflecting effective and psychomotor skills to teaching environment are as important as cognitive skills in learning process. In this context, values are important to develop skills in affective domain. In this study, the opinions of the students who have been studying in three different countries (Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkey) were aimed to be…

Tasdemir, Adem

2012-01-01

379

Growth of Elementary Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1960 to 1975 (with Projections up to 1985).  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study is to provide those concerned with planning and administration of education in Saudi Arabia with a deeper insight into the elementary education system by analyzing the growth patterns observed in the past, presenting a more vivid picture of the present situation, and projecting the probable quantitative expansion in…

Natto, Ibrahim A.; Khan, M. Sarwar

380

Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Post Secondary Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has a diverse system of post-secondary education, and it is expanding rapidly in response to demographic changes and increasing demands for participation. There is also very rapid economic and industrial development and increasing exposure to international competition in many areas of activity. Post-secondary education must continue to expand and standards of education and training that are equivalent to international best practice must be achieved and widely recognized. The standards must be achieved in all institutions and in all programs. These requirements have led the government to establish the National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment as an independent agency for quality assurance and accreditation. The Commission has responsibility for establishing standards, supporting quality improvement, and accreditation and in all post-secondary institutions other than those in defense. Its focus will be on both quality of institutions as a whole, and the quality of education and training programs. Principles underlying the system the Commission is developing include encouraging continuing improvement rather than being satisfied with minimally acceptable standards, encouraging diversity, ensuring cooperation and mutual support among the different agencies involved and designing approaches tailored to Saudi Arabia’s traditions and requirements rather than adopting a system developed elsewhere. In doing this the Commission is drawing on the best ideas we can find elsewhere in the world, but the system we develop will be our own. Pilot programs have been conducted in two universities involving institutional and program self-studies and independent external reviews to trial and refine the procedures involved. Developmental reviews are being carried out in a number of other universities and colleges to provide experience with the new processes. Most higher education institutions conducted initial self-evaluations based on the Commission’s standards for accreditation and have prepared strategic plans for introduction of quality systems prior to the commencement of the formal accreditation procedures in 2010. This paper gives a description of what has been done and concludes with a brief summary of some significant issues and challenges that must be dealt with in the effective implementation of the new system for quality assurance and accreditation in Saudi Arabia.

Abdullah ALMUSALLAM

2013-12-01

381

External gamma radiation survey for oil wellheads in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is known to be associated with oil and gas extraction. As part of a comprehensive NORM management strategy, Saudi Aramco needed to determine the extent of NORM contamination associated with their oil and gas operations. As part of that strategy, this study focused on external gamma survey of oil producing wellheads at various locations. The study aimed to: 1-) Identify wellheads with elevated gamma radiation dose rate; 2-) Specify the exact locations of the high dose rates on the wellheads; 3-) Identify the radioisotopes responsible for the high dose rates; and 4-) Propose worker protection requirements during maintenance. The majority (?92%) of the surveyed wellheads showed no enhanced gamma dose-rate above background level. From the remaining ?8%, only a few wellheads showed dose rates between 1,000-3,700 n Sv/h. The study revealed that NORM contamination tends to accumulate at turns of the pipes, around pipe diameter changes, the joints, the back of valves, and at the base of the wellhead. Also, for a given location, NORM build up on the interior of pipework varies over time and continues to migrate down stream until it reaches the Gas and Oil Separation Plants (GOSP). There NORM is expected to accumulate and reside in the form of sludge. Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed that 226Ra and its progeny are responsible for the high radiation dose rates detected. It was concluded that NORM will not pose significant radiation hazards to workers as long as the tubing and piping are not opened. (author)

382

Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

Al Saud, M.

2011-12-01

383

Paget disease of the bone: Does it exist in Saudi Arabia?  

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Full Text Available Paget disease of the bone is a chronic disease characterized by accelerated bone turnover with abnormal repair leading to expansion, pain and deformities. The disease is common in the West, but little if any information is available on its existence in the Arab world, including Saudi Arabia. We present four cases of Saudi patients with Paget disease with variable presentations. The first case, a 63-year-old woman with a history of papillary thyroid cancer, presented with bone, shoulder and chest wall pain and foci of uptake in the ribs and skull that were thought to be metastases, indicating the possibility of diagnostic difficulty in a patient with history of malignancy. Bone biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Paget disease. The second case was a 47-year-old asymptomatic woman with an elevated alkaline phosphatase of 427 U/L, a common presentation but at an unusual age. Plain x-rays and bone scan confirmed the diagnosis. The third case was a 43-year-old man who presented with hearing impairment and right knee osteoarthritis, unusual presentations at a young age leading to a delay in diagnosis. The fourth case was a 45-year-old man who presented with sacroiliac pain and normal biochemical values, including a normal alkaline phosphatase. Bone biopsy unexpectedly revealed features of Paget disease, which evolved over time into a classical form. A common feature in all except the first case was the relatively young age. Paget disease does exist in Saudi Arabia, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of similar cases.

Alshaikh Omalkhaire

2011-01-01

384

Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area. PMID:24838257

Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

2014-09-01

385

An exploratory study of factors determining e-government success in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The public policy and e-government implementation issues of any country have a direct impact on the e-readiness of that country. It helps in creating and promoting public and private sectors to invest in the ICT field. The aim of this paper to explore the main key e-government and policies factors that contribute to the success of e-readiness assessment from the experience of some of the public and private organizations in Saudi Arabia. With this aim, a questionnaire has been developed and distributed, and semistructured interviews have been conducted with ICT managers in those organizations. The findings are very important since they indicate that both the Saudi leadership and the organisations bosses are aware of the importance of the ICT Infrastructure to the Saudi society. However, the lack of legalisations to regulate the Internet use is very important issues. The designed ereadiness tool has highlighted these important issues. The legislation to regulate the use of the Internet is the most important issue in any e-readiness assessment tool.

Ali Nasser H. Al-Solbi

2008-12-01

386

Trabasa - Traditional Architecture Recorded by Means of Building Archaeology in Saudi Arabia: Workshop in Jeddah  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA). In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.

Herbig, U.; Jäger-Klein, C.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Styhler-Ayd?n, G.

2013-07-01

387

Evaluation of landfarming disposal method for oily sludge in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco generates approximately 30,000 cubic meters of oily sludge every year. The sludge comes from tank bottoms, separator bottoms, desalination bottoms, and oil spills. This sludge contains water and oil emulsions with naphthalenic and other waxes, in addition to iron oxide scale. In 1982, 10-acre area was set aside in the Ras Tanura Refinery to serve as a pilot plot for landfarming. In 1983, the size of the area was increased to 17 acres, including the original area, and was divided into a number of subplots. Dikes and elevated roadways were constructed around the landfarm for the control of surface run-off and for easier access to the site. In addition, there were seven groundwater-monitoring wells installed inside and outside the area at depths that ranged from 23 to 44 feet. The authors discussed the steps taken and explained the conclusions of the study. Considering the climatic conditions prevalent in Saudi Arabia, including low precipitations and hot temperatures, landfarming proved to be the most cost effective method to treat and dispose of oily sludge. The four centrifugation systems tested by Saudi Aramco met the performance criteria. A discussion of various parameters such as moisture content, pH, microbiological activity and heavy metal content were also evaluated. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Hejazi, R.F. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Husain, T. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science

2000-07-01

388

Attitudes and Practices of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females aged 15–19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatment, with significant differences between genders, except in the use of dietary supplements, black cumin, and acupuncture therapies. Females were more likely to use CAM for treating abdominal pains, cold and flu, and cough than males (P < 0.000. Family members and friends (67.7% were the main source of CAM usage, followed by television (10%, and Internet (8%. Religious and medicinal herb healers were the CAM healers most commonly visited by adolescents. Nearly 21–43% of adolescents had positive attitudes toward CAM, with some significant differences between males and females. It can be concluded that CAM is widely used by Saudi adolescents, but caution should be exercised for the safe usage of some CAM treatments. CAM should not be ignored; however there is an urgent need to establish regulations for CAM usage.

Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

2014-07-01

389

Analyzing privacy requirements: a case study of healthcare in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing legally compliant systems is a challenging software engineering problem, especially in systems that are governed by law, such as healthcare information systems. This challenge comes from the ambiguities and domain-specific definitions that are found in governmental rules. Therefore, there is a significant business need to automatically analyze privacy texts, extract rules and subsequently enforce them throughout the supply chain. The existing works that analyze health regulations use the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act as a case study. In this article, we applied the Breaux and Antón approach to the text of the Saudi Arabian healthcare privacy regulations; in Saudi Arabia, privacy is among the top dilemmas for public and private healthcare practitioners. As a result, we extracted and analyzed 2 rights, 4 obligations, 22 constraints and 6 rules. Our analysis can assist requirements engineers, standards organizations, compliance officers and stakeholders by ensuring that their systems conform to Saudi policy. In addition, this article discusses the threats to the study validity and suggests open problems for future research. PMID:25325796

Ebad, Shouki A; Jaha, Emad S; Al-Qadhi, Mohammed A

2014-10-17

390

The rapid growth of domestic oil consumption in Saudi Arabia and the opportunity cost of oil exports foregone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, a nine-fold increase in 40 years, to nearly 3 million barrels per day, about one-fourth of production. Such rapid growth in consumption – 5.7% annually, which is 37% faster than its income growth of 4.2% – will challenge Saudi Arabia's ability to increase its oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in Saudi oil consumption – from 5.7% annual growth historically to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in Saudi oil exports. Using 1971–2010 data, we estimate that the income responsiveness (elasticity) of oil consumption is at least 1.5—using both Ordinary Least Squares regression and Cointegration methods. We believe that continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the dramatic slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE and BP. This will have major implications for Saudi production and export levels. - Highlights: ? We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, now one-fourth of production. ? Estimated income elasticity of oil demand at least 1.5, using OLS and Co-integration. ? Yet IEA, DOE and BP project unprecedented slowdowns, from 5.7% historically to below 2%, half the rate of income growth. ? Continued high growth Continued high growth rates are more likely, with major implications for Saudi production and export levels.

391

Communication to the Director General of 24 April 1996 received from the resident representative of Saudi Arabia to the International Atomic Energy Agency. Reply by the Director General  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document reproduces the text of the Director General's reply to the communication of 24 April 1996 from the Resident Representative of Saudi Arabia to the IAEA concerning the Israeli Dimona Reactor

392

Physical Therapy Entry-level Education and Post-professional Training in Saudi Arabia: A Comparison of Perceptions of Physical Therapists from Five Regions  

OpenAIRE

[Purpose] The goal of this study was to examine potential differences in physical therapists’ perceptions of content areas for the new entry-level Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) curricula and specialties for post-graduate residency and fellowship programs among five geographical regions in Saudi Arabia. [Subjects and Methods] All physical therapists in Saudi Arabia were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study, which was conducted via a web-based survey. The fir...

Bindawas, Saad M.

2014-01-01

393

First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia.

Abdel-baki, Abdel-azeem S.; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Al-quraishy, Saleh

2014-01-01

394

Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, southern Saudi Arabia. Presentation of isolates from the routine laboratory setting  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 201...

Hamid, Mohamed E.; Assiry, Mohammed M.; Joseph, Martin R.; Haimour, Waleed O.; Abdelrahim, Ihab M.; Fatin Al-Abed; Fadul, Abdalla N.; Al-hakami, Ahmed M.

2014-01-01

395

The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly increased the odds of smoking by students.Conclusion: The common use of tobacco in school populations needs to be addressed by, among other tobacco control measures, a strict ban on cigarette selling to minors and intensive regular tobacco control campaigns involving health and religious messages.Keywords: tobacco use, secondhand tobacco smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, intermediate school boys, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Saudi Arabia 

Al-Bedah AM

2011-11-01

396

The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results: A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%] was higher than in women (162 cases [38%], and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52% than for women (23%. In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths, followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths. The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%, followed by Medinah (36% and Najran (33%. MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20% and high temperature (15°C–35°C. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome, case fatality rate, descriptive epidemiology, temperature, humidity

Alghamdi IG

2014-08-01

397

Ministry of International Trade and Industry supports the investment to Saudi Arabia; Tai Sauji toshi wo shien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ministry of International Trade and Industry summarized the synthetic supporting measures for backing extension negotiation of the crude oil mining benefit of gaff di- oil field which ARABIAN OIL promotes with the Saudi Arabia government on 25th. Increase of the crude oil buying from Saudis and new petrochemistry project of the private initiative are proposed, when the direct investment of Export-Import Bank of Japan and Japanese enterprise using funds of petroleum special account is stimulated. The idea at opposite sides 10 years which wants to increase the investment for Saudis of the Japanese enterprise near 6000 hundred million yen. In observing, the profit does not concentrate it, railway laying plan which Saudis desires is the intension which the negotiation succeeds in showing instead, the large investment promotive plan suspends. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1999-08-01

398

Epidemiology of urolithiasis with emphasis on ultrasound detection: A retrospective analysis of 5371 cases in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of urinary calculi in the indigenous population of Saudi Arabia and compare it with expatriates of different nationalities working in Saudi Arabia with emphasis on the anatomic location of the calculi and the role of ultrasound in the detection and management. The study included 5371 patients (both sexes, mean age 36.6 years) examined by us from September 2004 to February 2008. The patients hailed from 30 countries, which included Bangladesh (42.3%), Pakistan (18.3%), Yemen (17.5%), India (6.5%), Sudan (3.4%), Saudi Arabia (2.8%), Egypt (2.3%) and Eritrea (1.7%). All patients were referred for abdominal/renal ultrasonography. Urinary calculi were detected in 1029 patients. The distribution of calculi was as follows: Renal 73.3%, pelviureteric junction 2.3%, proximal, middle and distal thirds of the ureter 13%, vesicouretic junction 9.8%, vesical 1.1% and urethral 0.5%. The prevalence of urinary calculi according to ethnic origin in descending order of frequency was Egyptians (29.5%), Pakistani (24.9%), Indian (23.3%),Yemeni (20.5%), Sudanese (17.6%), Bangladeshi (16.2%), Eritrean (15.4%) and Saudi Arabian (7.4%). Urinary calculi were found in 19.1% of the studied population. Approximately three-quarters of the calculi were located within the kidney. The nationalities with the highest prevalences were Egyptian, Pakistani and Indian. PMID:25758899

Ahmad, Farid; Nada, Medhat O; Farid, Afsan Bin; Haleem, M A; Razack, S M A

2015-01-01

399

Klebsiella pneumoniae LO10 producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase SHV-12 in Saudi Arabia.  

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Klebsiella pneumoniae LO10 was responsible for an outbreak that occurred in the neonatal unit at Security Forces Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Over a period of eight months nine cases of bacteremia resulted in two deaths. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was transferred from strain LO10 to E. coli by both conjugation and transformation. Sequence determination of the plasmid gene from two transconjugants and one transformant indicated that resistance was carried by a ca.100-kb plasmid encoding beta-lactamase SHV-12. This is the first description of a K. pneumoniae producing a type SHV-12 extended spectrum beta-lactamase in Riyadh. Long term exposure to antibiotics, prolonged stay, and heavy use of third generation cephalosporins contributed to the spread of the resistant strain in the unit. Strict infection control measures led to control of the outbreak. PMID:19129068

Al-Obeid, S; Bremont, S; Jabri, L; Massoudi, N; Haddad, Q

2008-12-01

400

Genotoxicity of 'shamma', a chewing material suspected of causing oral cancer in Saudi Arabia.  

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'Shamma', also known as Yemeni snuff, is frequently used as a chewing material in Yemen and some parts of Saudi Arabia. Preliminary clinical observations indicated that long-term users of 'shamma' may develop oral cancer. A battery of in vitro bioassays were, therefore, used to test genotoxicity of this substance. The test systems included the histidine reversion assay in Ames' Salmonella strains, induction of aberrant colonies and tryptophan gene conversion in the D7 diploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and oncogenic transformation of C3H mouse embryo 10T1/2 cells. Data indicated that direct-acting mutagen(s) were present in a chloroform extract of the powdered 'shamma' resulting in positive effects in all of the test systems used. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), three major fractions were separated from the extract, of which two were found to be mutagenic. PMID:3511366

Hannan, M A; el-Yazigi, A; Paul, M; Gibson, D P; Phillips, R L

1986-01-01

401

Wavelet Multi-Resolution Analysis for Refined Gravimetric Geoid Over Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the inaccuracies and non-homogeneity in the gravity observations, computed gravimetric geoid over Saudi Arabia requires filtering. In this investigation, the Wavelet Multi-Resolution Analysis (WMRA) has been used to refine, decompose, analyze, and reconstruct the gravimetric geoid at different levels. By this approach, spatially correlated errors in the gravity observations can also be eliminated. We applied the WMRA to the computed gravimetric geoid, up to 3 levels of resolution, filtered out by using scaled white noise (SWN) filter. Our findings reveal that noise can be eliminated at level 2. The WMRA 2 with SWN shows that residuals after filtering are normally distributed with small standard deviation. The spatial distribution of the residuals have noise characteristics. The WMRA refined geoid is compared with GPS/Levelling-derived geoid and conclusions have been made about applicability of this technique.

Alothman, Abdulaziz; Grebenitcharsky, Rossen; Elsaka, Basem

2014-05-01

402

A simplified calibrated model for estimating daily global solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

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Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model is used to estimate daily solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.

Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.

2014-01-01

403

A mineral reconnaissance of the Jabal Sahah quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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A mineral reconnaissance of the Jabal Sahah quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, showed the presence of the anomalous elements silver, beryllium, molybdenum, niobium, tin, and tungsten and of anomalous amounts of chromium, nickel, lead, titanium, and vanadium. All anomalies are low except one for tin and one for tungsten in the granitic plug west of Jabal Sahah. Debris from this small plug contains as much as 1,000 ppm (parts per million) tin in wadi sand, and a concentrate from the sand contains as much as 40 ppm molybdenum and 1,000 ppm tungsten. The area of this small plug and the metamorphic rock around the plug should be studied in detail to learn distribution and value of tin, tungsten, niobium, and molybdenum in the rocks. Alkalic granite at Jabal Sahah contains beryllium,-molybdenum, tin, niobium, tungsten, and a low anomaly of lead.

Whitlow, Jesse William

1970-01-01

404

Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

1986-01-01

405

Cambial periodicity and wood production in Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne growing on dry sites of Saudi Arabia.  

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This study aimed at elucidating the process of cambial activity and wood formation in Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne growing in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia, has revealed that the vascular cambium was active for almost the whole year, producing phloem in two flushes (February-March and August-October), and xylem for about 11 months, with varying pace of cell division and differentiation. A close relationship existed between emergence of new leaves and initiation/acceleration of cambial activity and tissue differentiation. Monthly average of the maximum and mean daily temperature showed negative correlation with cambial-zone width. Relative humidity showed positive relationship with xylem differentiation. Leaf water deficit had an adverse effect on the cambial activity (r = -0.94, p fibers, high wood density (0.9273 g cm(-3)), low vulnerability factor (4.20) and the capacity of thriving well at 35 to 47% water-saturation deficit. PMID:24665754

Aref, Ibrahim M; Khan, Pervaiz R; Al-Mefarrej, Hamad; Al-Shahrani, Thobayet; Ismail, A; Iqbal, Muhammad

2014-03-01

406

An Investigation of the Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: Case of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB has been signified as one of the antecedents of organizationaleffectiveness. OCB is widely studied over the years in the US but has received relatively inadequate attention inother Asian contexts. This study explored and examined number of predictors of OCB in the Arabic-speakingcontext (Saudi Arabia in Gulf. The data was drawn from 275 employees of both private and public bankingsectors. Predictors of OCB examined are Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment, Role Perceptions,Fairness Perceptions, Leadership Behavior, Individual Dispositions, Motivation and Feedback. The results foundsupport the hypotheses stating the positive relationship between the predictors of OCB and organizationalcitizenship behaviour except motivation that found no relationship with OCB. Implications for future researchare discussed.

Anwar Rasheed

2013-02-01

407

Thermoluminescence dating of ancient pottery from tombs of industrial site excavation at tammy, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the course of dating ancient pottery, the pottery shreds were collected from tombs of industrial site excavation located at Tayma zone in north west of Saudi Arabia. The extracted quartz exhibited TL dating peak at about 325 ± 5 degree C and 350 ± 5 degree C. The calculation of annual dose rate is considered as the most important term in the estimation of archaeological dating. The annual dose rate of the site that the pottery shreds buried in it was determined by using gamma ray spectrometer. The gamma spectrum of the soil samples was investigated using high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. The absolute dose for each gamma line was calculated and the annual dose rate was found to be 4348.02 ± 64.82 ? Gy/yr. The TL dating was 2988.51 ± 41 years. The obtained age shows that the uncertainties in TL dating using the additive method are much lower than that of archaeologists

408

Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 ?Sv/y, as compared to 305 ?Sv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

409

Measurements of environmental radiation doses due to natural radiation sources at Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and the directional dose equivalent, H'(0.07), for indoor and outdoor natural exposure are measured in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. The indoor H*(10) rate varies from 61 to 135 nSv h-1, while it is in the range of 57-105 nSv h-1 for the outdoor. The indoor and outdoor rates of H'(0.07) are in the range of 67-142 nSv h-1 and 59-110 nSv h-1, respectively. The indoor-to-outdoor ratio of H*(10) is between 0.92 and 1.39, and it is 0.90-1.54 for H'(0.07). The ratio H'(0.07) to H*(10) lies between 1.0 and 1.22 for indoor, while it is 0.97-1.20 for the outdoor. (authors)

410

Digenetic trematode of some aquatic birds from eastern province in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

122 aquatic birds, 35 red shank (Tringa totanus), 24 common snip (Gallinago gallinago), 48 moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), 15 Teal (Anas crecca) trapped near the cost of Al- Qateef area in the eastern province, Saudi Arabia, were examined for helminth parasites. 35 birds (28.68%) were infected with one or more helminth parasites, 31 T. totanus (88.57%), 2 G. gallinago (8.33%), 2 A. crecca (13.33%) and none in C. chloropus. The isolated helminthes belong to six families and eight species. Bilharziellia polonica (22.86), Acanthoparyphum phoeincopteri (11.43), (8.33), (6.66) in different birds respectively, Himasthla rhigedana (14.3), Psilochasmus aglyptorchis (6.66), Knipowitschiatrema nico/ai (2.8), Spelophalls sp. (2.8) Diacetabulurn curviclon (42.9), Cyclocoelurn microstomum (5.7). PMID:14964668

Desoky, Enas A; Al Mathal, Ebtesam M; Al Salem, Afaf A

2003-08-01

411

Characterization of Qarh's Wall Plasters, Al-Ulla, Saudi Arabia. A Case Study  

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Full Text Available During five years (2008 to 2012 of field work in the restoration and conservation of the Qarh's monuments at Al-Ulla northwest Saudi Arabia, many kinds of wall plasters were studied, investigated and analyzed by the following methods: field observations, (visual examination, Optical Microscope (OM, Polarized Microscope (PM, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, equipped with (EDS, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD.Those methods of investigation and analysis helped us determine the Qarh's wall plasters. Four kinds of plasters were identified; white gypsum plaster, white gypsum and lime plaster, gypsum plaster over an insulating layer and lime plaster over an insulating layer. Their main components are gypsum, lime, sand and an additional material for improving plasters properties. Those results helped us to make a correct diagnosis, which is the first step in any conservation strategy.

Mohsen M. SALEH

2013-03-01

412

Role of prazosin on cardiovascular manifestations and pulmonary edema following severe scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia.  

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We report the ameliorating effects of prazosin on the cardiovascular CV manifestations and pulmonary edema PE after treatment with antivenom AV failed to improve the conditions of scorpion stung patients. Three cases of scorpion envenoming, 2 children and one adult, were received at the Accident and Emergency Department of Al-Birk Hospital, Asir Region, Saudi Arabia. They presented to the hospital late with features of severe perspiration, tachypnea, restlessness, drooling of saliva, priapism, sinus tachycardia, PE, and shock like syndrome. When polyvalent scorpion PVS AV and intensive supportive treatment failed to show any improvement, prazosin was administered to the patients, which resulted in dramatic improvement in the conditions of the patients. We conclude that PVS AV may not be beneficial in all cases of scorpion envenomation, and prazosin may be an effective alternative for treating scorpion sting cases with CV manifestations and PE. PMID:18246247

Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Al-Seif, Abdulaziz A; Hassen, Mohsen A; Abdulmaksood, Nabil A

2008-02-01

413

Heterogeneous dissemination of projectile materials in the impact melts from Wabar crater, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial observations of Spencer (1933) that two distinct impact melts coexist at the 90-m-diameter Wabar crater, Saudi Arabia, is confirmed. A dark or 'black' melt contains on the order of 4 percent meteoritic contamination, while the transparent or 'white' melt contains less than 1 percent. The Fe/Ni ratios in both varieties exhibit considerable scatter on electron-microprobe scales, akin to those reported by others for metal spherules in the black melt. If the meteoritic component is subtracted, both melts are chemically very similar. Clasts engulfed by the Wabar melts were investigated also, as they represent the progenitor lithologies from which the melts formed. Bulk compositions for these clasts reveal subtle differences in modal feldspar content within the quartz-rich Wabar target. Both melts require that a minimum of two target lithologies be present in the Wabar melt zone.

Horz, F.; Blanchard, D. P.; See, T. H.; Murali, A. V.

1989-01-01

414

Economic development and diabetes prevalence in MENA countries: Egypt and Saudi Arabia comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions globally, exhibiting the most striking increase in third world countries with emerging economies. This phenomena is particularly evident in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, which has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults. The most concerning indirect cost of diabetes is the missed work by the adult population coupled with the economic burden of loss of productivity. The major drivers of this epidemic are the demographic changes with increased life expectancy and lifestyle changes due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Our focus is to compare MENA region countries, particularly Egypt and Saudi Arabia, in terms of their economic development, labor force diversity and the prevalence of diabetes.

Sherif, Shalaby; Sumpio, Bauer E

2015-01-01

415

Community pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing trend towards consumption of complementary and alternative herbal products in many parts of the world. A cross-sectional sample of 115 community pharmacists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was visited and information on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies was collected using a structured questionnaire. All pharmacists acknowledged dispensing herbal products through their pharmacies. Ginseng was the most widely used product (47%), followed by ginkgo (23%), valerian (17%) and S.t John's wort (3.5%). In general, pharmacists had poor awareness about potential herb-drug interactions. While 56% of participating pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of herbal remedies, 30% considered them to be harmless. Community pharmacists need to be better informed about herbal products. PMID:21218728

Alkharfy, K M

2010-09-01

416

Molecular Phylogeny of Viperidae Family from Different Provinces in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Molecular systematic is important in solving the problematic taxonomy of venomous snakes and development of antivenins. The current study aimed to investigate the molecular phylogeny of 4 venomous species in Saudi Arabia using mitochondrial (mt 16S rRNA gene. DNA extracted from blood and mt16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR. Sequences submitted to gene bank, examined for similarity with other sequences in the data base using BLAST search, aligned using Clustal W method, and phylogenetic tree was constructed. E. coloratus clustered as a separate group along with the isolate from Oman and Yemen with insignificant relation. Cerastes and Bitis arietans groups strongly correlated as sister taxa. The current B. arietans sample did not significantly correlate to the previously published sample from the same province (Taif. Cerastes groups did not significantly correlate with samples from Egypt or Israel. This information might reflect the need for multiple gene markers for better molecular systematic.

Ahmed M. Alshammari

2011-09-01

417

Production and Some Properties of Protease Produced by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Tihamet Aseer, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Culture conditions affecting protease production by Bacillus licheniformis isolated from Tihamet Aseer, Saudi Arabia were investigated. The bacterium strain gave a maximum protease production of 221 U mL-1 when growing in a casein broth medium after 36 h compared with gelatin broth medium. Optimum pH and temperature of protease production were 8 and 50?C, respectively. The highest level of protease production in the presence of soybean meal as a carbon source and the peptone as a nitrogen source was obtained. The protease was optimally active at pH 9 and 55?C . The enzyme was stable at temperature range of 60-65?C during the period tested (1h and retaining more than 85% of its activity at 70?C. These properties make the enzyme suitable for detergent industry.

Al-Shehri

2004-01-01

418

Ecology of the Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari in Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventral body scales and subcaudal scales for the females was 43, 169 and 18 scales which were not significantly different from respectively ones in males 42, 168 and 18 scales. Frequent prey consumed were lizards (50%), rodents (25%) and arthropods (12.5%). PMID:25313272

Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Al-Otaibi, Fahed S

2014-11-01

419

Ultraviolet radiation monitoring in makkah city, Saudi Arabia, using thermoluminescence material CaF2:Tm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of using Ca F2:Tm thermoluminescence material for measuring and monitoring of solar UV R in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Several laboratory experiments, prior to the field measurements, were performed included study of the effects of ultraviolet wavelengths on the response of the phosphor, study of the effect of increasing ultraviolet radiation dose on the intensity of thermoluminescence and study the effect of time factor on the thermoluminescence fading of Ca F2:Tm. The phosphor was then exposed directly for one hour to sunlight radiation on a daily basis for 90 days in an open field inside Umm Al-Qura university campus. The field measurements were performed during the months of June, July and August 2003 at 1:00 p.m. The laboratory and field results of this study showed that Ca F2:Tm can be used as a suitable dosimeter for solar UV R

420

Fungal Profiles Isolated from Open and Used Cosmetic Products Collected from Different Localities in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of seventy five samples of cosmetic products open and used for varying periods of time were collected from different localities in Saudi Arabia. These samples were analyzed for the presence of mesophilic and thermophilic fungi. Six genera and 13 species were isolated at 28 degree C. Eleven genera, 24 species as well as two species varieties were encountered at 45 degree C (thermophilic fungi). Aspergillus was the most common genus while A. terreus was the most common species at 28 degree C and 45 degree C. The highest total count of fungi was obtained from samples of lip cosmetic products, while the lowest total counts were detected in eye cosmetic products. The antifungal activity was studied for seven randomly selected commercial drugs against five species of isolated saprophytic fungi. Results indicated that Dermocart skin cream was largely effective against all tested fungal isolates. (author)

421

Geology and mineral evaluation of the Wadi Bidah district, southern Hijaz quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wadi Bidah district in southwest Saudi Arabia contains several ancient mines and mineral-prospects. The Precambian rocks of the district are steeply dipping and highly folded and faulted. They are divided into three major units: (1) older metavolcanic rocks, (2) metasedimentary rocks, and (3) younger metavolcanic rocks. Massive sulfide-type deposits show stratigraphic control and are found in metasedimentary rocks and in the younger metavolcanic rocks. There appears to be a close genetic relationship between the sulfide deposits and volcanism. Deposits containing copper, zinc, gold, and silver are indicated by geologic mapping and by shallow diamond drill holes in two of the ancient mine localities. The ore estimate for the district is 2.55 million short tons computed to depths that range from 79 to 150 meters. It seems probable that deeper drilling of the indicated deposits and drilling of other outlined target areas would add substantially to the ore reserves.

Earhart, Robert L.; Mawad, Mustafa M.

1970-01-01

422

Solar energy powering up aerial misting systems for cooling surroundings in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Demonstrate solar energy misting system for the first time to our knowledge. ? Return on investment for such a system is recovered within two and half years. ? Solar panel tilt position is 25° due south in Medina Munawarah. ? The misting system is capable of lowering ambient temperature over 10 °C. - Abstract: We demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge a misting system that is powered by solar energy. The system was used to cool down an open area in Medina, Saudi Arabia. The ambient and surrounding temperatures were measured and compared for different timing signals that were applied to the misting system. The used solar panel performance is evaluated for different loads, and tilting settings. The return on investment for the misting system is found to be about two years and half.

423

A New Biocontrol Fungus Trichoderma Kongii in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Isolation and Identification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 164 soil and root samples of different plant groups were collected from Abu-Arish governorate , Jazan province South West Saudi Arabia during the period of 2004-2005. Each sample contained feeder roots and approximately 250 g soil, taken from a depth of 20 cm of the soil surface. Samples were analyzed by two different media. Culture fungi on Malt Extract Agar identified by Biolog Systems and culture fungi on Potato Dextrose Agar medium containing chloramphenicol were identified by microscopic characterization. Results showed that, 11 different types of fungi isolated from tested samples, Fusarium spp (40%), Rhizoctonia solani,(12%) Trichoderma spp (12%), Macrophomina phaseoina. (7 %), Aspergillus spp (18 %) were the predominant fungal species. Helminthosporium spp (3%), Alternaria alternate (2%), Pythium spp (2%), Curviularia spp (2%), Cladsporium spp. (1%) and Mucor spp. (1%) were less frequent. (author)

424

DNA Repair Genes XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, and OGG1 Polymorphisms among the Central Region Population of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA repair is one of the central defense mechanisms against mutagenic exposures. Inherited SNPs of DNA repair genes may contribute to variations in DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to cancer. Due to the presence of these variants, inter-individual and ethnic differences in DNA repair capacity have been established in various populations. Saudi Arabia harbors enormous genetic and cultural diversity. In the present study we aimed to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487), XRCC3 Thr241Met (rs861539), XPD Lys751Gln (rs13181), and OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133) gene polymorphisms in 386 healthy individuals residing in the central region of Saudi Arabia and compare them with HapMap and other populations. The genotype and allele frequencies of the four DNA repair gene loci in central Saudi population showed a distinctive pattern. Furthermore, comparison of polymorphisms in these genes with other populations also showed a unique pattern for the central Saudi population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that deals with these DNA repair gene polymorphisms among the central Saudi population. PMID:23959014

Alanazi, Mohammad; Pathan, Akbar Ali Khan; Ajaj, Sana Abdulla; Khan, Wajahatullah; Shaik, Jilani P; Al Tassan, Nada; Parine, Narasimha Reddy

2013-01-01

425

DNA Repair Genes XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, and OGG1 Polymorphisms among the Central Region Population of Saudi Arabia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available DNA repair is one of the central defense mechanisms against mutagenic exposures. Inherited SNPs of DNA repair genes may contribute to variations in DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to cancer. Due to the presence of these variants, inter-individual and ethnic differences in DNA repair capacity [...] have been established in various populations. Saudi Arabia harbors enormous genetic and cultural diversity. In the present study we aimed to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487), XRCC3 Thr241Met (rs861539), XPD Lys751Gln (rs13181), and OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133) gene polymorphisms in 386 healthy individuals residing in the central region of Saudi Arabia and compare them with HapMap and other populations. The genotype and allele frequencies of the four DNA repair gene loci in central Saudi population showed a distinctive pattern. Furthermore, comparison of polymorphisms in these genes with other populations also showed a unique pattern for the central Saudi population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that deals with these DNA repair gene polymorphisms among the central Saudi population.

Mohammad, Alanazi; Akbar Ali Khan, Pathan; Sana Abdulla, Ajaj; Wajahatullah, Khan; Jilani P, Shaik; Nada, Al Tassan; Narasimha Reddy, Parine.

426

Molecular identification of isolated fungi from stored apples in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi causes most plant disease. When fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. Studies have shown that the Penicillium and Monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. Several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and conduct a molecular identification of the fungal isolates. Thus, we collected 30 samples of red delicious and Granny Smith apples with obvious spoilage from different supermarkets between February and March of 2012 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Each apple was placed in a sterile plastic bag in room temperature (25-30 °C) for six days or until fungal growth was evident all over the sample. Growth of fungal colonies on PDA was counted and sent for molecular confirmation by PCR. Six fruit spoilage fungi were isolated, including Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium steckii, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus oryzae. P. chrysogenum was the most frequent isolate which was seen in 14 of a total of 34 isolates (41.2%), followed by P. adametzii and A. oryzae with seven isolates each (20.6%) and the least was P. steckii with six isolates (17.6%). Penicillium species comprised 27 of the total 34 (79.4%) isolates. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions of the nuclear encoded rDNA showed significant alignments for P. chrysogenum, P. adametzii and A. oryzae. Most of these fungal isolates are useful and are rarely pathogenic; however they can still produce severe illness in immune-compromised individuals, and sometimes otherwise healthy people may also become infected. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the possible production of mycotoxins by these fungi to determine a potential danger and to establish its epidemiology in order to develop adequate methods of control. PMID:24235866

Alwakeel, Suaad S

2013-10-01

427