WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Trends in Drinking Water Quality for Some Wells in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, 1997-2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Well water samples were collected during the period of 1997 to 2009 from seventeen wells to represent Saq aquifer, Qassim Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The water samples were analyzed to determine their quality for domestic use. The water samples were investigated with respect to Electrical Conductivity (EC), total water hardness and the concentrations of hydrogen (pH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl¯), sulfate SO2-4, nitrate NO<...

2009-01-01

2

Evaluation of Vitamin B6 Status of Adult Saudis in Al-Qassim Region-Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin B6 status of adult Saudis in Al-Qassim region-Saudi Arabia. A sample of 239 (127 males and 112 females) healthy Saudi adults was recruited. Vitamin B6 status was evaluated by dietary intake and biochemical measurements. Results of dietary intake measurements showed that means of vitamin B6 intake and intake of vitamin B6 to protein ratio for males and females were 1.97±0.58 mg/day, 0.021±0.003 and 1.89...

Al-numair, Khalid S.

2009-01-01

3

Malignant lymphoma in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia, reclassified according to the WHO classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the frequency of various types of malignant lymphoma (ML) in the Al-Qassim region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) according to recently introduced the WHO classification. For this retrospective analysis, material was available in 385 out of 519 cases diagnosed as ML from 1988-2007. Morphological assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry using a panel of antibodies. The study was conducted at Prince Faisal Oncology Centre (PFOC) of King Fahad Specialist Hospital (KFSH), Buraidah, Al-Qassim, KSA. Out of 385 cases reviewed, 251 (65.2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 117 (30.4%) had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Male preponderance (male to female ratio 1.6:1) and a wide age range was observed (6 months to 103 years). B cell neoplasms were the most common NHL seen (81.6%) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most frequent type of NHL encountered (50.1%). Indolent lymphomas like follicular lymphoma (FL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) were rather uncommon (13.2%). T cell lymphoma comprised 18.3% of the NHL. The most common type of HL was nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma (NSCHL) (68.3%). In Al-Qassim region of KSA, NHL is the most common ML seen and DLBCL the most common type. Unlike other parts of KSA and Middle East, NSCHL is the most common type of HL encountered. (author)

2009-01-01

4

Measurement of Radon Concentrations and Their Annual Effective Dose Exposure in Groundwater from Qassim Area, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Radon is a radioactive noble gas of a natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and in different types of water. It is worthy to carry out the distribution of radon (222Rn) activity concentration and their annual effective dose exposure in groundwater samples from Qassim area, Saudi Arabia. Radon concentrations were measured by using RAD7 an electronic radon detector connected to a RAD-H2O accessory (Durridge Co., USA). The measured radon concentration range...

2012-01-01

5

Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

6

Prevalence of correctable visual impairment in primary school children in Qassim Province, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose The worldwide prevalence of refractive errors (RE), which is a common cause of treatable visual impairment among children, varies widely. We assessed the prevalence of correctable visual impairment (uncorrected RE) in primary school children in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 21 primary schools. A total of 5176 children (mean age 9.5 ± 1.8 years), 2573 boys (49.7%) and 2603 girls (50.3%), underwent a comprehensive eye examination. The examinations consisted of visual acuity, autorefraction, cover test, ocular motility, pupillary evaluation, anterior segment examination, cycloplegic auto-refraction and dilated fundus examination with direct ophthalmoscopy. The children were divided into groups based on their age and gender. Results The overall prevalence of RE in the better eye was 18.6% (n = 963), and the prevalence of uncorrected RE 16.3% (n = 846), with only 2.3% (n = 127) of children wearing spectacles during examination. The prevalence of uncorrected myopia (5.8%) and myopic astigmatism (5.4%) was higher compared to that of hyperopic astigmatism (2.7%), mixed astigmatism (1.7%) and hyperopia (0.7%). The anisometropia prevalence was 3.6%. Risks for astigmatism, myopia and anisometropia were positively associated with age. In addition, myopia and anisometropia risks were also associated with female gender, while risk of astigmatism was correlated with male gender. Few children with vision reducing RE wore spectacles; an additional 16.3% of children could benefit from spectacle prescription. Conclusion The prevalence of uncorrected RE in children is relatively high and represents an important public health problem in school-aged children in Qassim province. Performance of routine periodical vision screening throughout childhood may reverse this situation.

Aldebasi, Yousef H.

2014-01-01

7

Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetables marketed in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 23 pesticides from different chemical groups in 160 different domestic vegetables collected from four major big supermarkets located in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia, were identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Residues were found in 89 of the 160 samples and 53 samples were above the maximum residue levels (MRLs). The most frequently found pesticides were carbaryl followed by biphenyl and then carbofuran. Cabbage was the most positive and violated MLRs (16 and 11 samples), followed by carrot and green pepper (12 and 7 samples), cucumber (12 and 6 samples), egg-plant (12 and 5 samples), squash (11 and 7 samples), lettuce (11 and 6 samples) and tomato (11 and 4 samples). The highest concentrations were found in lettuce (ethiofencarb, 7.648), followed by tomato (tolclofos-methyl, 7.312 mg/kg), cabbage (chlropyrifos, 6.207 mg/kg), carrot (heptanophos, 3.267 mg/kg), green pepper (carbaryl, 2.228 mg/kg) and egg-plant (carbaryl, 1.917 mg/kg). These findings pointed to the following recommendation: the need for a monitoring program for pesticide residues in vegetables cultivated under greenhouse conditions at the national level to protect consumers' health. PMID:20627311

Osman, K A; Al-Humaid, A M; Al-Rehiayani, S M; Al-Redhaiman, K N

2010-09-01

8

Trends in Drinking Water Quality for Some Wells in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, 1997-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Well water samples were collected during the period of 1997 to 2009 from seventeen wells to represent Saq aquifer, Qassim Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The water samples were analyzed to determine their quality for domestic use. The water samples were investigated with respect to Electrical Conductivity (EC, total water hardness and the concentrations of hydrogen (pH, calcium (Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, chloride (Cl¯, sulfate SO2-4, nitrate NO?3, fluoride (F¯ and ammonium NH+4. The electrical conductivity increased slowly with time from 1.18 to 1.39 dS m-1, with a mean of 1.31 dS m-1 for all water samples examined. The mean EC complies with the maximum permissible drinking water limits set by the local and international standards. The total hardness for the studied well water is 278.26 ppm as calcium carbonate which was classified as very hard water. Therefore, the water of wells should be softened to react with soap for domestic use. The pH in all water samples ranged from 6.77 to 7.28 with a mean of 7.02. This mean of pH complies well with standard value set for drinking water. The concentrations of the cations and anions follow, more or less, a trend similar to EC with time. The cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the anions concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible drinking water limits. The concentrations of F¯ in the all of colleted samples ranged from 0.29-0.37 ppm with a mean of 0.36 ppm. The mean concentration of F¯ is alarming because it is below the lower permissible limit of 0.6 ppm set by the World Health Organization. So, the water of these wells must be fluorinated before drinking use. The concentration of in all water samples ranged between 0.0 to 0.27 ppm with a mean of 0.22 ppm. In general, the concentration of is alarming because it is higher than the permissible concentration in the drinking water (0.0 ppm.

I.S. Al-Salamah

2009-01-01

9

Measurement of Radon Concentrations and Their Annual Effective Dose Exposure in Groundwater from Qassim Area, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radon is a radioactive noble gas of a natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and in different types of water. It is worthy to carry out the distribution of radon (222Rn activity concentration and their annual effective dose exposure in groundwater samples from Qassim area, Saudi Arabia. Radon concentrations were measured by using RAD7 an electronic radon detector connected to a RAD-H2O accessory (Durridge Co., USA. The measured radon concentration ranges from 0.76 to 4.69 Bq L-1 with an average value of 2.8 Bq L-1. The measured values of radon concentration are well in the range within the EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL of 11.1 Bq L-1. The total annual effective dose resulting from radon in groundwater of Qassim area were significantly lower than the (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR and World Health Organization WHO recommended limit for members of the public of 1 mSv year-1. The measured values for underground water from the study area suggest that the area is safe for farmers and there is no significant threat to the population as per as radon concentration is concerned.

A. El-Taher

2012-01-01

10

Impact of Municipal and Industrial Waste on the Distribution and Accumulation of Some Heavy Metals in Sandy Soils of Al-Qassim Region at Central of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted to study the distribution and accumulation of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe throughout sandy soils treated with industrial wastes. Surface and subsurface soil samples were collected from three sites namely; Aldahy, Almota and Alsenayh, which representing the major agricultural soils of Qassim, central region of Saudi Arabia. These sites have been used for dumping domestic and industrial wastes for more than 20 years to evaporate and infiltrate solid and liquid i...

Al-oud, Saud S.

2008-01-01

11

Evaluation of Infestation Levels of the Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa destructor Infesting Honeybee Apis mellifera and its Control Using Essential Oil in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Varroa destructor Anderson and Treuman infesting bee colonies was conducted to evaluate its infestation level for the first time in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. The infestation levels were variable according to the season and locality. Mite population parasitizing worker bees gradually increased from April and May and may reach its peak in June and July. Apiaries in Melida-1 presented the highest infestation level and declined significant...

Fouly, Ahmed H.; Al-dehhairi, Mohammad A.

2009-01-01

12

The pattern of skin diseases in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia: What the primary care physician should know  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies to determine the burden of skin diseases are important for proper health care planning. The purpose of this study was to find the pattern of skin diseases in our patients attending university-affiliated dermatologic clinics in the Qassim region.We conducted a prospective study of all Saudi patients attending the Qassim University Medical College-affiliated dermatology clinics of the Ministry of Health for a period of 12 months from 1 March 2008 to 28 February 2009.The study included 3051 patients comprising 1786 (58.5%) males and 1265 (41.5%) females. Males outnumbered females (P<.05) (male-to-female ratio, 1.4:1). The mean age (standard error of the mean) of the patients was 25.3 (0.27) years. About 71% of the patients were between 5 and 34 years of age. The top five skin diseases were eczema/ dermatitis (19.5%), viral infections (16.6%), pilosebaceous disorders (14.4%), pigmentary lesions (11.2%) and hair disorders (7.6%). The major disorder in males was viral skin infections (20.0%), while eczema/dermatitis (20.7%) constituted the most prevalent skin disease in females. Seasonal variations were recorded in cases of pigmentary lesions, papulosquamous disorders and protozoal infections.Infectious skin diseases, eczema/dermatitis, pilosebaceous disorders, pigmentary lesions and hair disorders ranked as the top five skin diseases. Appropriate training programs for diagnosing and managing common skin diseases should be initiated for primary health care physicians and other general practitioners so as to decrease referrals to dermatology clinics (Author).

2008-03-01

13

The pattern of skin diseases in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia: What the primary care physician should know  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Epidemiological studies to determine the burden of skin diseases are important for proper health care planning. The purpose of this study was to find the pattern of skin diseases in our patients attending university-affiliated dermatologic clinics in the Qassim region. Methods : We conducted a prospective study of all Saudi patients attending the Qassim University Medical College-affiliated dermatology clinics of the Ministry of Health for a period of 12 months from 1 March 2008 to 28 February 2009. Results : The study included 3051 patients comprising 1786 (58.5% males and 1265 (41.5% females. Males outnumbered females (P<.05 (male-to-female ratio, 1.4:1. The mean age (standard error of the mean of the patients was 25.3 (0.27 years. About 71% of the patients were between 5 and 34 years of age. The top five skin diseases were eczema/ dermatitis (19.5%, viral infections (16.6%, pilosebaceous disorders (14.4%, pigmentary lesions (11.2% and hair disorders (7.6%. The major disorder in males was viral skin infections (20.0%, while eczema/dermatitis (20.7% constituted the most prevalent skin disease in females. Seasonal variations were recorded in cases of pigmentary lesions, papulosquamous disorders and protozoal infections. Conclusion : Infectious skin diseases, eczema/dermatitis, pilosebaceous disorders, pigmentary lesions and hair disorders ranked as the top five skin diseases. Appropriate training programs for diagnosing and managing common skin diseases should be initiated for primary health care physicians and other general practitioners so as to decrease referrals to dermatology clinics.

Al Shobaili Hani

2010-01-01

14

Application of ERT Survey for Addressing the Issues of Urban Rain Storm Water Logging in the Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Qassim province is one of the most arid regions of Saudi Arabia, however heavy rainfall events have led to water logging problems in the populated centers like Buraidah mainly as a consequence of construction in low lying areas and valleys. Urban rain storm water logging problem were reported at 4 localities in the Buraidah Municipal area after heavy rainfall in November 2008 and March 2009. The logged water from these sites were directed to 4 manmade lakes however the stagnant water in these lakes posed a serious environmental threat mainly in the form of water borne disease. Keeping this problem in mind, a detailed geophysical investigation in the form of Electrical Resistivity Tomography was carried out using the SYSCAL Pro Unit at these 4 locations with a dipole-dipole configuration. The survey was helpful in delineating the wet zones from the dry ones and based on the interpretations the optimum depth and sites of 4 injections bore-wells were determined at each locality. These injection bore-well would serve the dual propose of getting rid of the stagnant water in these lakes and also recharging the underlying aquifers.

Faisal K. Zaidi

2012-09-01

15

Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates recovered from a tertiary care hospital in Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The emergences of antimicrobial-resistances have become an important issue in global healthcares. Limitations in surveying hinder the actual estimates of resistance in many countries. The aim the present study was designed to retrospectically survey antimicrobial susceptibility for resistance profiling of dominant pathogens in a tertiary-care center in Buraidah, Saudi Arabia from January-2011 to December-2011. Materials and Methods the design was cross-sectional and spanned records of a 1000 bacterial non-related isolates. Antibiograms were based on the 2012 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results showed that Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, were the most resistant. All isolates of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, were resistant to penicillin (100%), and oxacillin with 52%, 75%, and 82%, respectively. Interestingly, an increasing trend of resistance-pattern was seen for the three species against gentamicin 26%, 50%, 68% ciprofloxacin 22%, 50%, 68%, tetracycline 30%, 44%, 27%, erythromycin 26%, 64%, 73%, and clindamycin 20%, 47%, 50% suggesting potential between-species transfer of resistances. Acinetobacter baumannii was resistances to all antibiotics tested including ciprofloxacin (90%), ceftazidime (89%), cefepime (67%), Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%), amikacin (63%), gentamicin (51%), tetracycline (43%), piperacillin-tazobactam (42%), and imipenem (9%). A similar pattern was seen by P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, a typical pattern of resistance in K. pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing organisms was observed. Conclusion we have shown staphylococci, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enteric bacteria were the most resistant species in this region.

Said, Kamaleldin B; Al-Jarbou, Ahmed N; Alrouji, Mohammed; Al-harbi, Hajed O

2014-01-01

16

Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this briefing, some specific problems facing the petroleum industry in Saudi Arabia over the next few years are considered. They include: marketing difficulties caused by a glut in the Asian market to which Saudi Arabia is increasingly directing sales; the current high cost of maintaining a surplus production capacity that is unlikely to be used in the short term; a need to revise the budget to take into account the unexpected collapse in oil revenues in recent months; a need to prevent gross overproduction by both OPEC and non-OPEC rivals in order to prevent either loss of market share or persistent low prices. (UK)

Roberts, J.

1998-04-01

17

Impact of Municipal and Industrial Waste on the Distribution and Accumulation of Some Heavy Metals in Sandy Soils of Al-Qassim Region at Central of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the distribution and accumulation of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe throughout sandy soils treated with industrial wastes. Surface and subsurface soil samples were collected from three sites namely; Aldahy, Almota and Alsenayh, which representing the major agricultural soils of Qassim, central region of Saudi Arabia. These sites have been used for dumping domestic and industrial wastes for more than 20 years to evaporate and infiltrate solid and liquid industrial waste. The obtained results indicated that, the application of industrial wastes resulted in a marked increase in the total amount of studied metals. Maximum concentrations of metals were found in the surface 30 cm of the soil where Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co in most cases. Most movement and amount of metals recovered from soil were predominantly limited to the upper 30 cm depth. The DTPA fraction of metals was relatively small comparing either to the total soil content and/or the 0.5 N HNO3 extractable fractions. For example, the average DTPA extractable Pb was highest (3.37 μg g-1 in Almota soils, 2.41 μg g-1 Aldahy soil and 1.08 μg g-1 in Alsenayh soil. The respective Pb values extracted by 0.5 N HNO3 for the three sites were 6.75, 5.37 and 4.49 μg g-1. Total Pb values were 23.23, 21.77 and 17.63 μg g-1, respectively. All the three forms were highest in Almota area and lowest in Alsenayh area. The average Ni content of the three soils was more or less in the same range as Pb. However, total Ni values were 2 to 3 times higher in Alsenayh soils. Though, these values were still low as compared to the contaminated reported levels but it indicated that these have been contaminated with the dumping of industrial waste. The values of Co for DTPA, HNO3 and total extracts were relatively low when compared to Pb and Ni. Average DTPA content was 0.65 μg g-1 for Alsenayh while it was 0.64 μg g-1 for Aldahy and 2.02 μg g-1 for Almota soils. The data shows a high accumulation of these metals in contaminated area. Accumulation rate was highest for Ni, Cu, Co, Pb followed by Fe, Zn and Mn.

Saud S. AL-Oud

2008-01-01

18

Prevalence of group a rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, norovirus and astrovirus infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in al-qassim, saudi arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the prevalence of Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Norovirus, and Astrovirus among Saudi children with gastroenteritis. This study was conducted at the Department of Medical Laboratories, Qassim University during the winter seasons of the years 2004 and 2005. A total of 284 diarrhoeal fecal specimens collected from children were tested for the gastroenteritis causing viruses using enzyme immunoassay. Of the 284 specimens, 142 (50%) were found to be positive for viruses causing gastroenteritis. Rotavirus (66.2%) was the most frequently detected, followed by adenovirus (15.5%), norovirus and astrovirus each with 9.2%. All of rotavirus detected belonged to group A. Eight specimens were found positive by two viruses. The introduction of simple and rapid tests for diagnosis of viruses causing gastroenteritis in our pediatric hospitals will improve patient care by reducing unnecessary treatments and hospital stay for patients. (author)

2007-01-01

19

Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature. 

Maher S. Al-Jadid

2013-05-01

20

Tabanidae (Diptera) of saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region. PMID:23961046

Al Dhafer, H M; Dawah, H A; Abdullah, M A

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and inciden...

Al-jadid, Maher S.

2013-01-01

22

Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

Shammas, Pierre [Arab Press Services (APS) Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)

2000-07-01

23

Saudi Arabia:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia - OECD  

...Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia Aid for Trade,aid-for-trade,Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009,aid-for-tarde,Saudi aid,Saudi Arabia ...development aid,Saudian aid Saudi Arabia:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts ...Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Saudi Arabia › Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia Aid ...for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia Send Print Tweet   The Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009: Maintaining Momentum report presents ...

24

Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

2006-06-04

25

Energy analysis of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides an energy outlook for Saudi Arabia's energy resources, their production and consumption, as well as their future projections. Crude oil, natural gas and refined products, and electricity are the main energy resources of the country. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that has the largest crude oil reserves and this is one of the main energy producers. The high growth rates of Saudi Arabia's population and the sectorial energy utilisation are the two main factors affecting its energy consumption dramatically. Moreover, Saudi Arabia is not only one of the main energy producers in the world but is also one of the world's largest energy consumers per capita. (Author)

Dincer, Ibrahim; Al-Rashed, Bandar [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2002-07-01

26

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia throug...

Kheyami Ali; Cunliffe Nigel; Hart C

2006-01-01

27

Saudi Arabia walks a tightrope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saudi diplomacy seems more active than ever. This has to do with three recent major regional developments: the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah in the occupied Palestinian territories, and the Iraqi quagmire. In each of these, the role of Iran is difficult to overlook and this is troubling Riyadh. Yet Saudi Arabia has difficulty in responding to Iran's assertiveness: it wants to contain Tehran's ambitions, but at the same time it cannot...

2007-01-01

28

75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011. Led by a...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...

2010-09-07

29

75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, December 6-8, 2010. Led by...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...

2010-04-26

30

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

31

Demographics: The Downfall of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Threats to Saudi Arabia have historically been categorized as external, reference immediate neighbors, and internal via conservative Islamic opposition groups The United States, because of its security arrangement, has guaranteed the sovereignty of Saudi ...

A. N. Goetz

2003-01-01

32

Rock Art of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity, economy, environment, human activities, and variety of animal types, according to particular climatic and environmental conditions. The rock art of Saudi Arabia is the mirror of its rich cultural heritage of so-called Bedouin or desert dwellers that surprises the world with its 4000 archaeological and more than 1500 rock art sites.

Majeed Khan

2013-12-01

33

Family Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was pointed the need of more ecological studies to know the reasons of the change in the flora and to study how much the ecological stress may affect the speciation.

Wafaa K.Taia

2004-01-01

34

76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia April 14-18, 2012 AGENCY: International...Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia from April 14-18, 2012. Saudi Arabia...

2011-12-15

35

Climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degree-day concept has been in use for more than 60 years as a means for utilities and fuel suppliers to predict the energy demand of the average population of buildings in any given location. It has also been used to assist the building design profession in estimating monthly and annual cooling and heating requirements of specific buildings in different locations. This paper presents the climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia, including the monthly average ambient temperature, the values of cooling and heating degree-days for different base temperatures, and the winter and summer outdoor design conditions for 20 cities in Saudi Arabia. These cities are located in five different climatic zones. The data presented in this paper will be useful to the building design profession and to designers and manufacturers of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigerating (HVAC and R) equipment. It will also cover part of the present lack of information in ASHRAE Handbooks concerning degree-days and outdoor design conditions in Saudi Arabia.

Said, S.A.M.; Kadry, H.M.; Ismail, B.I. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-11-01

36

Nuptiality pattern in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The data of this work are based on the 'Saudi Maternal and Child Health Survey' conducted in 1991. This was a nationwide house to house field survey. The study included 6294 ever-married Saudi female in the childbearing age who represent the target population. They were randomly selected from both urban and rural settings of the five geographical areas of Saudi Arabia. The mean current age of the sample of ever-married women was 31 years and the mean age at first marriage was 17 and 16 years for urban and rural females, respectively. Education was associated with upward shift of the age at first marriage. About 20 per cent of the sampled ever-married Saudi females got married before their 15th birthday and 83 per cent before reaching 20 years of age. These percentages are even higher in rural than urban settings. The overall percentage of women who were currently married at the time of the survey was 96 per cent. The divorced and widowed women of childbearing age were 2 and 3 per cent, respectively, of the total. Husband's educational level had positive impact on the frequency of divorce. The latter was highest among women married to illiterate husbands with a dose response pattern. Comparison has been made with the situation 4 years ago. An increase in literacy rates among Saudi ever-married women and their husbands was observed, however, a significant (P < 0.05) difference still exists between female and male literacy rates (38 and 71 per cent, respectively). The events of early marriage, before the age of 15 years, became less frequent. There is an overall decline in teenage marriages which explains a large part of the recent changes observed in nuptiality and pattern of birth in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8568953

Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Baldo, M H; Aziz, K M; al-Shehri, S N

1995-01-01

37

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

38

Saudi Arabia launches new development plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia's Third Five-Year Economic Development Plan (1980 to 1985) will continue to expand imports of American technology and products. Now the seventh largest world market for American exports, Saudi Arabia's purchases grew 20 percent to $5 billion in 1979. A preliminary analysis of priorities under the Third Plan and the opportunities presented for American exporters leads off a special section on Saudi Arabia in this issue of Business America and is followed by an analysis of trends in the Saudi economy, a highly successful Water Resources Equipment and Systems exhibition, and the foundation of Islamic legal tradition as embodied in Shari's.

Sams, T.A.

1980-06-30

39

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

Kheyami Ali

2006-01-01

40

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol  

CERN Multimedia

On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

2008-01-01

42

Saudi Arabia's oil policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes: how Saudi Arabia has used its oil power in the recent past; the mixture of motives that seem to go into Saudi oil policy; the prospects for Saudi Arabia remaining dominant force in the world oil market in light of changing supply and demand conditions; and internal instability that could change the willingness or ability of Saudi leaders to act as price leaders. Also discussed is how the US can develop policies to ensure the stability of the Middle East region. (DMC)

Quandt, W.B.

1982-01-01

43

Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

1981-01-01

44

Traffic Accident Characteristics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Road traffic accidents are a major health problem in developing countries. Saudi Arabia is no exception to this worldwide dilemma. The increase in per capita income in the last two decades has made automobile available for alJ households. This increase along with other reasons has put the traffic accidents, injuries, and fatalities at an alarming figures. This paper presents the various traffic accident characteristics in Jeddah, the second largest city in Saudi Arabia, and recommends counter...

1994-01-01

45

Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

46

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. The United States and Saudi Arabia have longstanding econo...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2007-01-01

47

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and Decembe...

Alghanmi, Najla M.; Abdullah, Layla S.

2013-01-01

48

Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

49

Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

2007-01-01

50

Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Amaranthus pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and a potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A. viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samplers were operated continuously for one year at each location. Results: The data revealed A. viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%, Jeddah (87%, Qassim (85%, Taif (84%, Dammam (83% and Jizan (61%. These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. viridis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000/m 3 of air in October and 1827/m 3 of air in September. The data also exhibited a seasonal pattern in their maximum appearance. Conclusion: Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Hasnain Syed

2007-01-01

51

Saudi Arabia; L`arabie Saoudite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.) 9 refs.

Sambart, A

1998-05-01

52

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to d...

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil; Osman Abdel Moniem; Al Gahtani Furgah; Farghali Mohamed; Ramadan Ali; Al-Momen Abdel Kareem

2011-01-01

53

Saudi Arabia: energy, developmental planning, and industrialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrodollars, having catapulted Saudi Arabia to the forefront of the global economy, now fuel the Kingdon's industrial-development process. The rapid influx of oil-generated funds into this developing country carries its own set of chracteristics and demands. Government officials and Saudi and non-Saudi academicians and industry representatives offer varied views and responses to the economic and international complexities of development. Moving from a general overview to specific economic and political topics, the book emphasizes the importance of carefully developed government growth programs to the creation of a well-balanced and industrially diverse society. Contributors examine the roles of the petroleum sector and technology transfer, trace the interdependence of Saudi Arabia and the industrialized countries, and analyze the roots of indigenous and imported inflation. They also consider Saudi Arabia's new role in international finance and development assistance. A discussion of the special historical and cultural factors that affect the Saudi transition from tribal society to industrialized nation provides a background for understanding the particular human-resource needs and goals of the nation. The book concludes with an analysis of the Third Development Plan as a blueprint of the development objectives and government-spending priorities in manpower, industrialization, and the agricultural and petroleum sectors. 10 figures, 20 tables.

El Mallakh, R.; El Mallakh, D.H. (eds.)

1982-01-01

54

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...tubular goods from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan,...

2013-08-22

55

Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2013-01-01

56

Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-10-28

57

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

58

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

59

Establishing a petrochemical industry. [Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of Saudi Arabia's biggest and most extensive development projects will soon be completed. The country's new petrochemical industry combines different elements: Natural resources, technology transfer, and the government's plans for diversified long-term economic development.

1985-06-01

60

Application of photovoltaic systems in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the issue of the economic competitiveness of PV-powered irrigation when compared with conventional diesel powered pumps in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The cost comparison gives a breakdown cost of a solar photovoltaic module of US$ 2.5 per peak watt. (author).

Said, S.A.M. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a struct...

2012-01-01

62

Information Policies in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of national information policy focuses on Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Documents from the two countries that were reviewed to examine policy provisions related to library and information services are listed, and Malaysia's national policy on library and information services is presented as a model for other developing countries. (Contains…

Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

1993-01-01

63

Thunderstorm distribution and frequency in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

A new average annual thunder day map for Saudi Arabia is presented. Based on this map, the distribution of thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia is analysed in terms of the factors related to the lightning performance of transmission lines such as thunderstorm days per year (Td/yr). Lightning activity continues for the present to be represented by thunderstorm frequency, which is routinely recorded at meteorological observation sites. Thunderstorm occurrence at a particular location is usually expressed as the number of days in a calendar year when thunder was heard, averaged over several years. This paper examines thunderstorm days in different areas of Saudi Arabia and specifically those areas where lightning strikes are more frequent; for this purpose, the software ArcGIS is used to produce contour maps which demonstrate areas of concern in Saudi Arabia in the period 1985-2003. Establishing the annual and seasonal Td/yr for Saudi Arabia enables transmission and distribution line engineers to calculate and better design a lightning protection system. Maps of thunder days/year (Td/yr) were constructed on the basis of the database records available on lightning incidence in Saudi Arabia at the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (http://www.pme.gov.sa/). Annual thunderstorms are most frequent over the southwestern parts of the country, and generally decrease towards the west and east. Due to its low latitude and less temporal change, the west coast of the Red Sea recorded the lowest Td/yr. A secondary maximum Td/yr is apparent in the southeast to central part of the country. Thunderstorm frequency does not, in general, appear to vary in any consistent way with rainfall. There appears to be no evidence of any widespread temporal trend in thunderstorm frequency. The southern region in general, and especially the cities of Abha, Taif and Al-Baha, has shown greater numbers of thunderstorm days all year round. Similarly, this variation did show higher frequency throughout the year. The development of lightning incidence and the counting of Td/yr, as well as the establishment of annual and seasonal lightning maps of Saudi Arabia, are initiating a new era of producing and archiving thunderstorm maps and data records which serve the PME, the utilities, industry and the public.

Shwehdi, M. H.

2005-09-01

64

Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

2009-01-01

65

Implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the Saudi desalination plants are of the multistage flash (MSF) type. These plants are often constructed as a dual purpose installation, producing power and water. MSF plants are considered to be energy intensive, where the energy cost is a major controlling parameter in the overall cost of desalination. Oil price fluctuations affect the cost of desalted water significantly. On the other hand, nuclear power offers price stability in the long term. Nuclear powered desalination provides long term availability of indigenous fuel, as well as long term fuel price stability. It has a minimum environmental impact if compared with other conventional desalination processes. The operational expenses of nuclear desalination are far lower than those of conventional plants. implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is essential where large water requirements exist. The CANDU PHWR is the appropriate type of nuclear reactor for Saudi Arabia. A hybrid reverse osmosis/MSF CANDU PHWR is the candidate system for applying dual purpose nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. (author)

1997-12-01

66

The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: > How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? > How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? > What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? > What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

Alyousef, Yousef, E-mail: alyousef@kacst.edu.sa [King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Stevens, Paul, E-mail: p.j.stevens@dundee.ac.uk [Chatham House, 10 St James' s Square, London Sw1Y4LE (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15

67

Waters and desalination programs of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is an arid desert country without rivers or sweet-water lakes. It does, however, have large amounts of ground water and seawater. These waters must be desalted by some means in order to make them potable. The most frequently used methods for that purpose are: multistage flash (MSF) evaporation, reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). Because of rapid industrialization of the country, the demand for fresh water has been growing steadily. This, in turn, has resulted in a spectacular growth of the water-desalination industry. This paper discusses the availability and properties of the waters. It gives a detailed description of the major accomplishments and of the ongoing and future programs in the field of water desalination in Saudi Arabia. 14 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

Wojcik, C.K.; Maadhah, A.G.

1981-07-01

68

Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together wi...

Al-Saeed Abdulhamid

2010-01-01

69

Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethriti...

Madani Tariq A

2006-01-01

70

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431 with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5% pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and 248 (57.5% extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA (86.3% and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA 59 (13.7%. The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years. The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9% compared to SA patients (55.1%. Females had higher proportion (59.5% of EPTB than males (55.6%. The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%. In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

Al-Otaibi Fawzia

2010-04-01

71

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2011-01-01

72

The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

Elani, U.A.; Bagazi, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1998-05-01

73

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

74

Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Sand Dunes in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition, provenance and tectonic history of the sand dunes. Geochemical analysis indicated that most of sand dunes are quartz arenite type, except in the Red sea, basement related central Saudi Arabia and Najran areas, the sand dunes are sub-arkoses, sub-litharenite and litharenite. The concentration of major,trace and rare elements showed active continental margins as a tectonic setting of Red sea, basement related Najran and central Arabia sand dune. In contrast, passive continental margins for the other locations. The distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements showed similarity in chemical composition between basement related sand dunes in Red sea, Najran and central Arabia.

Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman

2014-05-01

75

HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development i...

Sebai, Zohair A.; Milaat, Waleed A.; Al-zulaibani, Abdulmohsen A.

2001-01-01

76

Oil conservation and economic development in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation is to discuss and recommend an appropriate oil-conservation policy for Saudi Arabia in the light of past, present, and future economic development plans. The basic concept is the fact that oil is a depletable resource representing over 95% of Saudi national income. Two exogenous constraints face the government in its efforts to develop an efficient conservation policy. The first is the membership of Saudi Arabia in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The second is the world energy market. These two constraints hinder the ability of Saudi Arabia to use an appropriate social rate of discount to allocate oil revenues efficiently. Using social rate of discount implies that Saudi oil reserves would be allocated over time according to a rate that reflects the Saudi society's time preference. A high discount rate means that oil production would be pushed from the future to the present, whereas a low discount rate means that Saudi Arabia prefers producing oil in the future rather than in the present. A strategy based on social rates of return on domestic and foreign investment seems to be appropriate for Saudi Arabia. But the existence of the exogenous constraints and also events of 1983 and 1984 in the domestic economy and world energy market impose restrictions on using discount rate. It is appropriate for Saudi Arabia in the meantime to deal with the deteriorating situation in the world energy market.

Shams, M.M.

1984-01-01

77

The rifted margin of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of rifted continental margins has always been of great scientific interest, and now, with dwindling economic oil deposits, these complex geological features assume practical importance as well. The ocean-continent transition is, by definition, laterally heterogeneous and likely to be extremely complicated. The southernmost shotpoints (4, 5, and 6) in the U.S. Geological Survey seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lie within a transition region and thus provide a testing ground for methods that treat wave propagation in laterally heterogeneous media. This portion of the profile runs from the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea across the coast line and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment into the Hijaz-Asir tectonic province. Because the southernmost shotpoint is within the margin of the Saudi sub-continent, the full transition region is not sampled. Furthermore, such an experiment is precluded by the narrowness of the purely oceanic portion of the Red Sea.

McClain, J. S.; Orcutt, J. A.

78

Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

1996-06-01

79

Fresh Water Fungi of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted to screen the fresh water fungi from different areas of Saudi Arabia viz. Al-Ahsa, Al-Direyah, Al-Haer, Al-Kharj, Al-Qasim and Wadi Laban. Twenty six species were recorded from as an aquatic fungi and thirty two species as an aero-aquatic fungi from fresh water, while twenty-six species were isolated as an aero-aquatic fungi from under water soil of these regions. Percent relative frequency of each fungus was also calculated.

Ibrahim A. Arif

1999-01-01

80

Statistical characteristics of wind in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The statistical characteristics of wind at 10 locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are studied. The autocorrelation coefficients are computed and correlograms are found compatible with the real diurnal variation of mean wind speed for almost all the locations. The stochastic time series analysis is found to be suitable for the description of autoregressive models involving time lags of 1 and 24 h. The forecast wind values obtained from these autoregressive models are compared with the observed wind data for almost all the locations and are found to be in very good agreement. (author)

Rehman, Shafiqur; Halawani, T.O. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Development and Manufacturing Centre)

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Risk Estimation of Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Habits among Adult Saudi Non-diabetics in Central Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: International Diabetes Federation ranked Saudi Arabia on third among the top 10 countries for prevalence of diabetes in 2010. Identifying people those are at increased risk for diabetes, followed by blood glucose testing to establish the diagnosis, and are considered to be an appropriate way of dealing with this problem. Objectives and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted for the first time in Saudi Arabia to estimate the 10-years risk of developing type 2 diabetes using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and to investigate the dietary habits in such individuals among the Saudi non-diabetic population from July 2009 to March 2010. A total of 2007 Saudi citizens from all 11 provinces of Al-Qassim region were assessed using combined pre-piloted questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done utilizing SPSS version 13.0. Results: The gender ratio of the study participants was 1.6 male: 1.0 female. The mean (SD age was 26.6 (10.2 years.  The mean (SD weight and height for males were 75.7 (19.6 kg and 169.4 (30.1 cm and for females were 64.4 (17.8 kg and 157.2 (10.4 respectively. Males had significantly higher body weight (kg, height (cm, and waist circumstance (cm as compared to females (p <0.05. Our findings estimated that more than one-fourth of Saudi non-diabetics were found to be at moderate (one in six, high (one in three, and very high (one in two risk to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. Majority of them were overweight and obese (36.8% and 60% respectively. More than ninety percent were found to have very limited physical activity with poor dietary habits. Conclusion: This study provides insight into progression and onset of type 2 diabetes in Saudi non-diabetic population within next 10 years using FINDRISC. The population at risk characterized by the sedentary activities, unhealthy dietary habits, obesity, and central obesity. Our findings suggest the need for urgent efforts to increase the level of physical activity, minimize sedentary lifestyle, and to improve the pattern of dietary habits especially among the population at risk in Saudi general population.

Abdelmarouf Hassan Mohieldein

2011-09-01

82

Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).

2010-01-01

83

Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

2007-01-01

84

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for solar-hydrogen energy system for Saudi Arabia has been developed by obtaining relationships for and between main energy and energy-related parameters. The parameters' magnitude and trends with and without hydrogen introduction have been investigated over a period of time. The results indicate that the oil resources of Saudi Arabia would not be enough to meet the domestic and export markets starting in three to four decades. The results also show that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would extend the availability of oil resources, reduce pollution, and establish a permanent energy system for Saudi Arabia. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia could become an exporter of hydrogen forever. (Author)

Almogren, Sulaiman; Veziroglu, T.N.T. Nejat [Miami Univ., Coll. of Engineering, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

2004-09-01

85

The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

2014-01-01

86

Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS). Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred a...

Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Turki Rasha; Al-Dardas Hiba; Al-Gazal Manal; Al-Maghrabi Ghada; Al-Enizi Nawal; Ghareeb Basema

2010-01-01

87

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Sau...

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud; Muhammad Rahatullah Khan

2013-01-01

88

Pattern of management of urologic cancer in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the ...

Al-Othman Khalid; Al-Hathal Naif

2010-01-01

89

A case of unilocular hydatid disease imported from Saudi Arabia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 39-year-old Korean man with general malaise was found to have two hepatic cysts by computed tomography. He had the history of close contact with domesticated wild dog in Saudi Arabia in 1976. Two cysts, 15cm and 10cm in diameter which contained clear fluid, were excised from both lobes of the liver. He was pathologically diagnosed as unilocular hydatid disease. This case is regarded as an imported case from Saudi Arabia.

Huh, S.; Hong, S. T.; Lee, S. H.; Chi, J. G.; Kim, Y. I.; Choe, K. J.

1988-01-01

90

Saudi Arabia, OPEC, and the price of crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In his recent The Myth of the OPEC Cartel (Wiley, New York) Ali D. Johany argues forcefully that OPEC is not a cartel, and that higher oil prices derive from changes in property rights. This paper examines the incentives facing Saudi Arabia, as compared to those facing OPEC as a whole, to restrict production. The author concludes that, acting in its own self-interest, Saudi Arabia would adopt a posture of pricing moderation. 2 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Mixon, J.W. Jr.

1982-06-01

91

Solar hydrogen in Saudi Arabia: A long-term outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen in Saudi Arabia as an alternative to fossil fuels. The hydrogen would be produced as a method of storage and transmission of solar energy. The topics examined include the case for Saudi Arabia, technical and economical considerations, a long-term outlook. Hydrogen production is considered due to low NO{sub x} emissions and the ease of adapting existing energy utilization technologies to use hydrogen.

Al-Garni, M. (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1991-08-01

92

Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the E...

Jastaniah, Wasil

2011-01-01

93

Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar....

Alwakeel, Suaad S.; Nasser, Laila A.

2011-01-01

94

Solar energy in Saudi Arabia: the Soleras Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to conserve its oil resources is one of the main reasons behind the development of solar energy in Saudi Arabia, which is a country well suited for the use of solar energy. Particular projects for developing solar energy in Saudia Arabia are discussed.

Fendley, J.J.

1982-07-01

95

The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076

Alkhenizan, Abdullah

2014-08-01

96

Rainfall Climatology over Asir Region, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Arid and semi-arid lands occupy about one-third of the land surface of the earth and support about one-fifth of the world population. The Asir area in Saudi Arabia is an example of these areas faced with the problem of maintaining sustainable water resources. This problem is exacerbated by the high levels of population growth, land use changes, increasing water demand, and climate variability. In this study, the characteristics of decade-scale variations in precipitation are examined in more detail for Asir region. The spatio-temporal distributions of rainfall over the region are analyzed. The objectives are to identify the sensitivity, magnitude, and range of changes in annual and seasonal evapotranspiration resulting from observed decade-scale precipitation variations. An additional objective is to characterize orographic controls on the space-time variability of rainfall. The rainfall data is obtained from more than 30 rain gauges spread over the region.

Sharif, H.; Furl, C.; Al-Zahrani, M.

2012-04-01

97

Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 5.97, and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common cause was scalding (81.7%. Approximately 92.8% of patients had burn injuries involving 25% of the total body surface area, or less. The mean hospital stay was 9.51 days. Approximately 92% of patients were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Toddlers are at high risk of having scald burns. We also noted the number of admissions is increasing every year. Therefore, an effective scientific-based prevention program is required. 

Alaa Sultan

2012-11-01

98

Producers and oil markets; The example of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

Greaves, W.

1993-08-01

99

Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

Mitwalli Ahmed

2000-01-01

100

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and...materially retarded, by reason of imports from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine,...

2013-07-10

 
 
 
 
101

78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-09-13

102

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

103

Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

Madani Tariq A

2006-01-01

104

The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

2014-05-01

105

Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the ...

Alghamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-ghaith, Waleed

2012-01-01

106

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

Alzahrani Khalid

2008-11-01

107

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

2013-09-01

108

Apterogyninae (Hymenoptera: Bradynobaenidae) from Saudi Arabia, with description of a new species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven species in three genera from Saudi Arabia are listed. Macroocula riyadha Gadallah & Pagliano, spec. nov. is described and figured. Apterogyna mateui Giner Marí, 1945, Macroocula nitida nitida (Bischoff, 1920) are newly recorded from Arabian Peninsula and Saudi Arabia, Macroocula magna (Invrea, 1965) is newly recorded from Saudi Arabia. PMID:24869704

Gadallah, Neveen S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al; Aldryhim, Yousif N; Fadl, Hassan; Elgharbawy, Ali A; Pagliano, Guido

2014-01-01

109

Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.

Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

110

OPEN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PRESENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the scope, development, and future of Institutional Repositories (IR in Saudi Arabia. This paper is based on the authors’ working experience at King Saud University Dspace repository project. To ensure the number of repository projects in Saudi Arabia the directory of open access repositories, (Open DOAR, Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR, and the websites of the existing universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been browsed. There is a general lack of awareness with regard to Open Institutional Repositories in Saudi Universities and higher education institutions. Only four Universities i.e. King Saud University (KSU, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Umm Al-Qura University, and University of Dammam have taken some initiatives in this regard. Though these universities have made commendable efforts there still lots of improvements and developments required with regard to Institutional Repositories. It is expected that this paper will encourage Saudi Academic organizations to take the initiatives in the development of open institutional repositories. No such study (Research type, Essay, View point has been conducted so far in the context of Saudi Arabia.

Parvez Ahmad

2012-01-01

111

Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 kin2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic. The initial phase of rifting of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate began as a wide zone of continental-crust extension manifested by basin and range topography. Freshwater lakes, northwest-trending marine gulfs, and alkali olivine basalt flows occupied these basins. Extensive dike swarms intruded parallel to the proto-Red Sea and marked the first phase of new mafic crust formed by volcanic processes. After a hiatus in volcanic activity, counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate during middle Miocene time changed the stress pattern in the plate and a second phase of extrusion of alkali olivine basalt commenced along north-trending fractures. This stress pattern continues to influence Holocene volcanism. The earliest (pre-uplift) basalts to erupt on the Arabian Plate were predominantly under saturated picrite and ankaramite, whereas those to erupt near the axis of the proto-Red Sea rift zone were tholeiite. The within-plate volcanic rocks evolved from picrite-ankaramite to alkali olivine basalt with minor volumes of fractionated, under-saturated felsic rocks. Continued crustal thinning and dike intrusion along the proto-Red Sea were accompanied by melting of the continental crust to produce silicic magma as part of a bimodal volcanic suite (tholeiite-rhyolite). These magmas were emplaced as dikes, sills, layered bodies, and flows that mark the early construction of the Red Sea crust. Second-phase lavas are predominantly fractionated hawaiites and alkali olivine basalts. Because under saturated and oversaturated silicic magmas represent the second phase of activity, both fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma and melting of the crust are believed to have occurred. The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater ; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

Coleman, R. G.; Gregory, R. T.; Brown, G. F.

1983-01-01

112

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

2011-01-01

113

Wind energy applications in remote areas of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of wind power generation near the remote areas of Saudi Arabia is investigated. Meteorological data from twenty weather stations for a period of ten years are analyzed to obtain wind pattern characteristics. The annual average wind velocity distribution, and frequency of occurrence are significant in assessing the wind power potential of a site, especially as the power in the wind is related to the cube of the wind velocity. The analysis of the data revealed that the potential of wind power is promising. The possible sites for capturing the wind energy are the northern and coastal sites of Saudi Arabia. Small desalination units, irrigation pumps and electrical power generators could therefore be powered by wind energy in remote areas of Saudi Arabia. (author)

Radhwan, A.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering)

1994-07-01

114

Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE) is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence...

2011-01-01

115

Solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with abundant solar energy which is renewable, clean and available freely. It is harnessed through known processes and technologies, but progress towards its commercialization is very slow for several reasons, such as higher cost and low efficiency. This paper reviews our R+D efforts, and concludes that future utilization of solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is dependent on current R+D activities in the field, combined with a proper educational campaign for its effective commercialization. (author) 5 figs., 6 tabs., 37 refs.

Al-Athel, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1997-06-01

116

Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First Reported Case in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagn...

Siddiqi N; Hamid M; El-Tayeb A; Bokhari E

2006-01-01

117

Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

Qureshi NA

2013-08-01

118

Enteric Fever in Asir Region, Southern of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ninety four cases of Enteric fever seen in Asir region, in southern Saudi. Arabia were analyzed. 68 cases were males and 26 were females. The average age was 2.5 years. The majority of cases were foreigners (66%), while the Saudis were only 34%. Among foreigners, enteric fever was commonly seen in patients from the Indian subcontinent (47% of all cases). No significant difference was found in the clinical presentation of patients of different nationalities. The disease was generally mild and ...

Malik, G. M.

1994-01-01

119

Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand f...

Bahammam, Ahmed S.

2011-01-01

120

Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November ...

Mashael Al Saud

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Synovial biopsy : A comparative study from Saudi Arabia and Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparative study of synovitis in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia was made with a view to determining any geographic variation in the incidence and pattern of the arthritides. The diagnostic spectrum in both series included pyogenic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, brucellar and tubercular arthritis, gout, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis and acute rheumatic fever. Date-palm thorn synovitis was observed only in the Saudi Arabian series. While brucellar and tuberculous art...

Sankaran-kutty, M.; Das, P. K.; Kannan Kutty, M.

1998-01-01

122

Administration, economy and society of Saudi Arabia. Sauji arabia no seiji keizai shakai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze petroleum policies of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to understand its administration, economy and society by and large. Therefore, general analysis of Saudi Arabia was conducted. Saudi Arabia is carrying out various policies to materialize the most preferential target, the stability of the nation and the society; that is, the stable structure of the Saud Family rule. Its petroleum policy is aimed at securing income to materialize other policies, and at strengthening foreign influences. Importance of other policies, however, are ever floating and sometimes they are even contradictory. Effects of the policies are not always clear, either. Moreover, as Saudi Arabia is not a sole supplier of crude oil, its policies are influenced by the world supply-demand relation of petroleum and the balance of powers in OPEC. It is, therefore, impossible to judge and predict the petroleum policy of Saudi Arabia by a simple policy making model. It is necessary to follow at all times the ever-changing internal and external conditions. 9 figs., 42 tabs.

1989-03-20

123

Developing sustainable residential buildings in Saudi Arabia: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper assesses the energy and water consumption practices of existing housing in Saudi Arabia, with the ultimate aim of establishing guidelines for delivering sustainable residential buildings in the near future. In order to achieve this aim the current status of a typical Saudi residence (i.e. an apartment complex) is investigated in terms of energy and water consumption using simulation software packages. The paper then examines the prospects for applying various measures to the typical Saudi residence to manage energy and water use more sustainably. This research identifies several design-related faults common to Saudi Arabian house design. These faults contribute to an inefficient use of energy and domestic water resources. Finally, the paper puts forward a set of recommendations and guidelines, design-related and otherwise, to enhance the sustainability of future Saudi residential buildings. (author)

Taleb, Hanan M.; Sharples, Steve [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

124

Predicting deterioration for the Saudi Arabia Urban Road Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pavements represent an important infrastructure to all countries. In Saudi Arabia, huge investments have been made in constructing a large network. This network requires great care through conducting periodic evaluation and timely maintenance to keep the network operating under acceptable level of service.

2010-01-01

125

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

126

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2014-04-13

127

Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

1994-12-16

128

Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

2009-01-01

129

University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

2012-01-01

130

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection.

Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2013-01-01

131

Wagner's Law in Saudi Arabia 1970 - 2012: An Econometric Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our goal in this paper is to explorethe validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012 for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP.Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previousstudies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth.We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine how far Wagner’s Law validity can be applied in Saudi economy. The results obtained from the analyses find that the Wagnerian proposition can explain the growth of government in Saudi Arabia, which holds for both the oil and non-oil income cases. The findings also note that the existence of strong causality for all of Wagner’s law versions in the long run.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-05-01

132

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER RESOURCES IN SAUDI ARABIA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the impact of climate change in Saudi Arabia at the end of the 21st century has been investigated using a regional climate model called PRECIS ('Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies'), which was developed by the Hadley Center of British Met Office. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) A2 emission scenario was evaluated. Four types of boundary data were used: (i) 31-year (1960-1990) integration of HadAM3P, a 150 km resolution Hadley Center's global atmospheric model data, (ii) 31-year (2070-2100) integration of HadAM3P consistent with the SRES A2 emissions scenario, (iii) 31-year (1960-1990) of ERA40 (1957-2001) reanalysis data derived from ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting), (iv) Historical meteorological data for weather stations covering Saudi Arabia, provided by Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME). Meteorological parameters considered in this study were surface temperature at 1.5 m, precipitation; evaporation, wind speeds at 10 m, and surface runoff in order to determine the impacts of climate change particularly on water resources of Saudi Arabia. The differences of surface evaporation from precipitation were calculated to identify the sensitive locations affected by the climatic change with respect to water resources. Six regions and thirty seven locations in Saudi Arabia were analyzed. The model results showed there is an increase of more than 4 degrees Celsius of the daily mean temperature over Saudi Arabia. The results also indicated that precipitation, winds, and evaporation varied. Substantial percentages increases in runoff are detected from 100 to 350 percents. This study also aimed to utilize GIS technology to compare the present and future climatic conditions by using the local meteorological data and advanced climate model output data.

Faisal Macci Al Zawad [Presidency of Meteorology and Environment, Dammam (Saudia Arabia); Ahmet Aksakal [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudia Arabia)

2008-09-30

133

Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives of the current work were to 1 determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of male college students in KSA and 2 determine the relationship between the students' body weight status and composition and their eating habits. Methods A total of 357 male students aged 18-24 years were randomly chosen from College of Health Sciences at Rass, Qassim University, KSA for the present study. A Self-reported questionnaire about the students' eating habits was conducted, and their body mass index (BMI, body fat percent (BF%, and visceral fat level (VFL were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, and the Chi-square test was conducted for variables. Results The current data indicated that 21.8% of the students were overweight and 15.7% were obese. The total body fat exceeded its normal limits in 55.2% of the participants and VFL was high in 21.8% of them. The most common eating habits encountered were eating with family, having two meals per day including breakfast, together with frequent snacks and fried food consumption. Vegetables and fruits, except dates, were not frequently consumed by most students. Statistically, significant direct correlations were found among BMI, BF% and VFL (P Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for strategies and coordinated efforts at all levels to reduce the tendency of overweight, obesity and elevated body fat, and to promote healthy eating habits in our youth.

Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M

2010-09-01

134

Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued) in 1980,198 1and 1...

Emad Omar Elhendawy

2012-01-01

135

Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)

2005-01-01

136

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi secondary school girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year ...

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

137

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year ...

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

138

Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified random sampling. Subjects resident in each PHCC catchment area were selected by systematic sampling from their records in the PHCCs; 1534 adults aged 15 years and older were interviewed during January to April 19...

Saeed, A. A.; Khoja, T. A.; Khan, S. B.

1996-01-01

139

Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA) and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999) for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, an...

Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Amal Mousa Zaidan

2013-01-01

140

CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF EPISODES OF DIABETIC DETOACIDOSIS IN MADINAH AL-MUNWARAH, SAUDI ARABIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Although the precipitating factors ad mortality has been studies, there is noreported of clinical and biochemical profile of patients with Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Saudi ArabiaOBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and laboratory profile of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis inMadinah-Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. DESIGN king abdul Azaz and Fahad Hospital Madinah-Al-Munawarah Saudi Arabia. PERIODS: May 1991 to April 1992. SUBJECT: 85 consecutiveadmissions among adults =>age 12 years. MET...

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Hydrogeology of the Saq Aquifer Northwest of Tabuk, Northern Saudi Arabia ????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????, ???? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Groundwater resources are precious commodity in general and for arid regions in particular. Their exploration, exploitation, protection and management play significant role in societal activities. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, extensive aquifers are available in the Arabian Shelf. The Saq aquifer is one of the most important aquifers in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia. It is made up of a Cambro-Ordovician sandstone formation, which extends over 1200 km in Saudi Arabia and northwards i...

Masoud Al-Ahmadi

2009-01-01

142

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their esti...

Alsuwaida Abdulkareem; Farag Youssef; Al Sayyari Abdulla; Mousa Dujanah; Alhejaili Fayez; Al-Harbi Ali; Housawi Abdulrahman; Mittal Bharati; Singh Ajay

2010-01-01

143

Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

2001-01-01

144

Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

1990-01-01

145

Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences position, flower opening, shape of the upper 2 teeth of calyx, shape of sepals apex, shape of wings, length of hairs on ovary, direction of staminal tube tip, leaflets shape and surface and stem habit form and life spin. A key for the identification of the investigated species based on these morphological features is provided.

Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

2013-03-01

146

Saudi Arabia is committed to free trade in petrochemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia sees protectionism in the petrochemical industry as self-defeating and against the interests of the world economy. Taking a world view based on the forces of a free market, the Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources argues that a free market, at best, is burdened with second-best solutions unless it is a universal free market. The burden is greatest on developing countries. Saudi Arabia's industrialization program is aimed at developing independence from oil exports by enhancing the value-added of hydrocarbon and mineral resources through manufacturing activities. An internal free market based on competition and privatization is forming a stronger economic base than government nurturing of infant industries.

Nazer, H.M.

1987-05-01

147

Impact of unleaded gasoline in reducing emissions in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country concerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diesel as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasoline. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are many, and lead exposure can cause kidney failure, brain dysfunction, behavioral problems, and neurological impairment. Saudi Arabia is moving towards using unleaded gasoline, and efforts are being put forward by research organizations to produce lead-free gasoline in the Kingdom. A high severity fluid catalytic cracking process is being developed for converting vacuum gas oil into high-octane gasoline components. This process requires high temperature and pressure and low contact time as compared to the conventional FCC process. (author)

Hamid, S.H.

2001-01-15

148

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

1996-06-15

149

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1996-09-01

150

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per cente...

2001-01-01

151

Trichodiniasis in Farmed Freshwater Tilapia in Eastern Saudi Arabia ??? ??????????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study is aimed at screening for the presence of Trichodina sp. among Tilapia spp. (Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis aureus) collected from various fish farms in the eastern Province of Saudi Arabia during January, 1995-May, 1997. Out of 675 fishes collected only 335, (49.6%) were infested with Trichodina. The highest prevalence was observed in the spring and winter followed by autumn and summer. In general, the intensity of infection was low except in cases where outbreaks of...

MOHAMED HASSAN

1999-01-01

152

Stratigraphic palynology of Devonian boreholes from northern Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This extended abstract describes well-preserved palynomorph assemblages recovered from Devonian strata in five shallow boreholes in the northern part of Saudi Arabia (Fig. 1). These fully cored holes overlap stratigraphically to form a 1,640 ft composite section spanning the upper Tawil, Jauf and lower Jubah formations (Fig. 2). Only the Jauf and lower Jubah, represented by 188 samples taken over a 1,300 ft stratigraphic interval, are addressed here as the sandy Tawil lithologies are unsuitab...

Breuer, Pierre; Al-ghazi, Abdullah; Filatoff, John; Higgs, Ken T.; Steemans, Philippe; Wellman, Charles H.

2005-01-01

153

The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in gene...

Intakhab Alam Khan

2011-01-01

154

Incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations in Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The inci...

Almaramhy, Hamdi H.

2012-01-01

155

Neural tube defects in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) among admissions at a regional referral hospital in Saudi Arabia, compare trends over several years and note any influence of prenatal folic acid treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For every NTD admission into the newborn unit of Asir Central Hospital, during the period January 1995 through December 1998, data were collected on the infant and mother and input into a programmed form. RESULTS: During the ...

Asindi A; Al-Shehri A

2001-01-01

156

Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na) is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration w...

2007-01-01

157

Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: ...

Tarek Tawfik Amin; Feroze Kaliyadan; Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib

2011-01-01

158

Saudi Arabia may be about to revive stalled gas programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia may be about to try again to revive its neglected natural gas industry. For some years, the kingdom has been trying to develop its enormous reserves of natural gas, but has been unable to decide what sort of role-if any-foreign companies should have, or whether upstream gas developments should be linked to downstream projects such as power generation. (author)

Anon

2006-06-15

159

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strateges are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia); Husseiny, A.A.; Kenarangui, R.

1981-01-01

160

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia - A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strategies are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A.I. (King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia); Husseiny, A.A. (Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, IA)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Extreme Temperature Trends on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The extreme temperature trends are analyzed for a meteorological data collection station in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia over approximately last four decades stretching between years 1970 and 2006. The long-term change in temperature has been assessed by Mann-Kendell rank statistics and linear trend analysis. The study also includes the estimation of hot and cold days and nights frequencies and finally the temperature anomalies on yearly basis. The ratio between the seasonal mean temperatures (Tmmean...

2012-01-01

162

Musculo-Skeletal Injuries in Jeddah Industrial State, Saudi Arabia ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A retrospective analysis of 350 industrial injuries in a population of 12,828 workers was carried out in the Industrial State of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with the objectives of evaluating Injuries in relation to the characteristics of workers, materials ’tools, work environment, and tasks. Data were collected by field surveillance, examining patients, notifying different factors, computing them and then analyzing using statistical analysis. Significant relationships were found in risk factors s...

ABDULLAH JUMA

1999-01-01

163

The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

Huraib S

2000-01-01

164

Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

Hussain Issa

2011-01-01

165

Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the Eastern province, followed by the southwestern provinces. The reported prevalence for sickle-cell trait ranges from 2% to 27%, and up to 2.6% will have SCD in some areas. Clinical and hematological variability exists in SCD in Saudi Arabia with two major phenotypes: a mild phenotype and a severe phenotype. Further studies on the prevalence, molecular and clinical epidemiology of SCD may help predict disease severity and risk stratification of patients to determine whether to receive early intensive care or continued symptomatic care.

Jastaniah Wasil

2011-01-01

166

E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their businesstransactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations or an external set of factors(related to infrastructure and governmental support. We have noticed that most of the studies in this subjectcovered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studiedeCommerce adoption factors in developing economies center on the environmental, infrastructural andgovernmental areas only, and overlook the organizational factors, while the focus of the subject studied andresearched on developed economies was organizational (SMEs and large enterprises related adoption factors byconsidering the technology infrastructure and government support as taken for granted, which is not the case indeveloping economies.The objectives of this study are 1 to find out the level of eCommerce adoption in Saudi Arabia, and 2 toidentify the factors that affect the adoption of eCommerce. By this, the output of the study can help the policymaker of ICT (Information and Communication Technology in Saudi Arabia to direct the related activitiestoward the most effective local factors that will enable and leverage eCommerce potential and usage on one hand,and on the other hand the study will identify the promising local opportunities for eCommerce infrastructureproviders (local banks, system integrators, IT solution providers, and major telecom operators by discoveringthe distinctive eCommerce adoption factors.

Sulaiman A. Al-Hudhaif

2011-09-01

167

Radon Awareness among Saudi People in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people in Riyadh. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among 2297 persons of various educational background. It was found that about 82% of the Saudi public in Riyadh were ignorant of radon and its associated health risks. It was also found that only ~18% of educated public knew about radon. It was concluded that Saudi public needs to be educated in this respect properly.

Abdulaziz S. Alaamer

2012-10-01

168

Recent Fulminant Incursions of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Severe fulminant incursions of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD swept Saudi Arabia during 2004-2006. The disease was reported in most of the rabbitries in the country. The clinical signs were recorded and the virus was identified using sandwich ELISA and the Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Epidemiology of the disease in Saudi Arabia was discussed in relation to the present outbreak.

E.M.E. Abu-Elzein

2006-01-01

169

Metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Saudi Arabia, trace metal enrichment of marine environment may result from a number of anthropogenic activities, especially from petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes. The objective of this study was to determine metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. This study may serve as baseline information for future evaluation of metal pollution in this region.

Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

1985-04-01

170

Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

Al-maghrabi, T.

2010-01-01

171

Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

Khalid Al-Ahmadi

2013-12-01

172

The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlat...

2010-01-01

173

Geographical distribution of congenital heart defects in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Congenital heart defects (CHD, which are caused by abnormalities early in fetal life, encompass over 50 diagnoses. Since the detailed etiology is unknown, the geographical distribution of defects might suggest likely risk factors. METHODS : The geographical distribution of 5 865 Saudi Arabian nationals with CHD was studied by cross-matching their residential provinces and towns with a geographical information system provided by the General Directorate for Military Survey. Population data were obtained from the 1413H census. RESULTS : CHD cases were mostly distributed across the provinces in proportion to their total population but due to their size and inhomogeneity, province-based thematic maps were found to be misleading. City-based maps were preferable and showed similar geographic distributions for cases registered in successive years. Thematic maps of the distribution of the CHD burden highlighted the southwestern provinces, near the border with Yemen, and the northeast section of the Eastern Province. CONCLUSIONS : Patterns of disease in Saudi Arabia are best studied at the level of individual towns and villages. The CHD registry has already attained good national coverage and can therefore support nationwide epidemiological studies. Southwestern Saudi Arabia and the northern part of the Eastern Province appear to exhibit a higher burden of CHD.

Greer W

2005-01-01

174

Saudi Arabia in the oil era: Regime and elites; Conflict and collaboration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book explores the recent history of the Saudi oil state, in an analysis of the struggle for social and political power in modern Saudi Arabia, including a discussion of the impact on the Saudi Economy of the present crisis in the oil market.

Abir, M.

1987-01-01

175

The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary dia...

2000-01-01

176

Cephalometric norms for the Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia: a research report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to establish cephalometric norms for children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 62 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Saudis (33 females and 29 males; aged 9–12 years having good facial proportions and Class I dental occlusion, were traced and analyzed. Using the t-test, the mean value, standard deviation and the range of 20 angular and linear variables were calculated and compared to norms of adult Saudis living in the Western region of Saudi Arabia using the t-test. Male and female groups were also compared using the t- test. Results Saudi children tend to have a significantly shorter and lower face height, a larger angle of convexity, and more proclined and protruded incisors when compared with adult Saudis (P Conclusion Saudi children have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in the orthodontic treatment of young Saudi patients.

Hassan Ali H

2005-08-01

177

E-Commerce Adoption Factors and Their Implications for E-Commerce Business Strategy in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research project provides a comprehensive overview and current perspective of e-commerce usage and adoption factors in Saudi Arabia and seeks to explain why ecommerce use is still in a relatively immature state when compared to other regions. This study examines Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure readiness for online shopping and explores Saudi consumers’ behaviour and attitudes with regard to shopping online. An online survey was conducted to elicit general perceptions of Saudi consumers...

Alsharif, Mohammed

2011-01-01

178

Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

2012-01-01

179

Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

2006-01-01

180

Patent infection with Setaria digitata in goats in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out on Saudi sheep and goats during 1995, at the Veterinary Diagnostic laboratory, Jeddah, to study Setaria infection in small ruminants in Saudi Arabia. Setaria digitata worms were detected in the abdominal cavity of 5 out of 48 goats (10.4%). Sheep were not found to be infected. All infected goats were adults of 2-4 years of age and originating from the Jeddah, Mecca and Al-Leith areas. Four cases were recorded during January-March and one during August. No lesions due to S. digitata were found in the visceral organs and brains of the infected goats. This is the first record of patent infection with S. digitata in goats. PMID:10321587

El-Azazy, O M; Ahmed, Y F

1999-03-31

 
 
 
 
181

A Web-Based Cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a distinct lack of online atlases to visualize and explore cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries despite the clear benefit that such tools can deliver. This paper describes the development and implementation of a cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia, which is a web-based client-server application with built-in analysis functions for analyzing patterns of cancer incidence. Built using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server API and ASP.NET, the atlas contains 45,532 incidences of cancer for the period from 1998 to 2004, which were provided by the Saudi Arabian National Cancer Registry. This tool is aimed at health care practitioners and researchers, who can use this tool for exploring cancer distribution and investigating trends, and as a decision support tool for service allocation. The tool allows users to map cancer incidence and undertake analyses at four spatial scales from city to national level.  

Khalid Al-Ahmadi

2013-10-01

182

Dermatological manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease. PMID:24888650

Halawani, Mona R

2014-06-01

183

Rainfall quality at selected sites in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical composition of rainfall in Saudi Arabia was studied. Data indicate the pH of rainfall is near neutral or basic, indicating a lack of effect from imported nitric or sulfuric acids. Sodium and chloride from the Red Sea or the Arabian Gulf do not appear to be present in appreciable amounts. Particles of calcium, bicarbonate, or sulfate from local disturbances appear to be more important to the chemical quality of rainfall than ions from greater distances. Dry fallout is similar in concentration to the rainfall samples collected concurrently. 12 refs., 2 figs. (ACR)

Handy, A.H.; Tucker, R.A.

1984-01-01

184

A passive solar test facility for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A passive solar test facility has been designed for Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It will be located on the campus of King Faisal University, adjacent to the Persian Gulf. This maritime desert climate is terribly sevre, and one for which it is a formidable challenge to design a year around thermally efficient building. This facility incorporates seven different passive strategies: proper orientation, operable shading for windows, flow-through ventilation, externally insulated thermal mass, wind tower with direct evaporative cooling, indirect evaporative cooling through a double shell, and solar water heating. Construction should begin in June of 1983. Upon completion, the building will be monitored for at least two years.

Woods, P.K.

1983-06-01

185

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers w...

Al-Naami Mohammed; Arafah Maria; Al-Ibrahim Fatimah

2010-01-01

186

E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their business
transactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations) or an external set of factors
(related to infrastructure and governmental support). We have noticed that most of the studies in this subject
covered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studied
eCommer...

Al-hudhaif, Sulaiman A.; Abdullah Alkubeyyer

2011-01-01

187

Solar radiation availability in the northeastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar energy potential of the northeastern part of Saudi Arabia is investigated based on measurements of a complete year of data at a coastal location near Dhahran. High-resolution, real-time solar radiation data were collected and processed. Hourly, daily, and monthly statistics of solar radiation were made from the recorded 1-min averaged values. Clearness index is discussed on the basis of hourly, daily,and monthly averages. Variation of the diffuse fraction of total radiation is also determined, and results are discussed. (Author)

Sahin, A.Z.; Aksakal, A.; Kahraman, R.

2000-12-01

188

Behaviour of global solar radiation over Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of available global solar radiation and the hours of bright sunshine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The discussion covers the behavior of monthly average daily values of global solar radiation, the bright hours of sunshine, and the Angstrom coefficients for all the 41 solar radiation stations spread all over the Kingdom. The study finds a slight dependence of global solar radiation on latitude, longitude and altitude of the location and suggests developing empirical correlation for the estimation of global solar radiation on horizontal surface taking into consideration the effects of these parameters along with the sunshine duration.

Shafiqur, Rehman [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Center for Engineering Research, The Research Institute (Saudi Arabia)

2000-07-01

189

Effective tools toward electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. Such technologies are investigated in this paper and categorised in three main groups: electrical equipment, energy conservation in buildings, i.e. about 50% reduction in the annual energy consumption can be achieved by adding thermal insulation to the building envelope, and energy conservation supporting tools, i.e. public awareness and information. It has been found that a considerable saving in the investments of constructing new power stations could be attained. (author)

Alajlan, S.A.; Smiai, M.S.; Elani, U.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1998-12-31

190

Energy conservation measures on residential buildings in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of energy conservation measures for a typical two-storey residential building in Saudi Arabia are studied. The analysis shows that insulating the walls and the roof (15 mm-thick insulation) results in a significant reduction in the peak cooling load (> 23%) and the annual energy consumption (> 27%). Hence, a significant saving in customer and government equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) will be observed. The effects of additional measures, such as reducing the glazing area and the infiltration rate, are also reported. (author)

Said, S.A.M.; Al-Hammad, A. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1993-06-01

191

Database for building energy prediction in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents information about outdoor design conditions, degree-days, bin data and weather data sets that have been generated from weather histories, recorded over a period of many years, for 20 cities located in five different climatic zones in Saudi Arabia. The information and data presented in this paper should be useful to many engineers and researchers in the field of energy conservation in buildings. Also, the need for weather data-sets in a format useful for dynamic energy calculations is emphasized. (Author)

Said, S.A.M.; Habib, M.A.; Iqbal, M.O. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2003-01-01

192

Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

2004-02-01

193

The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR), and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2%) of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2) had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan, and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

2013-01-01

194

Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF_2Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a "1"3"7Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 ?R h"-"1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 ?R h"-"1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

1993-10-18

195

First Record of Five Soil Ciliates (Ciliophora, Hypotricha from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The morphology and infraciliature of five soil hypotrichous collected from the farm-land at Zulfi city, Saudi Arabia were investigated using living observation and silver impregnation methods. Gastrostyla steinii was found to have 4-8 macronuclei and thus its congener, G. muscorum which was characterized by eight macronuclei is likely a synonym with G. steinii. Redescriptions on Hemiamphisiella granulifera, Urostyla grandis Ehrenberg, 1830 and Nudiamphisiella interrupta, revealed that Saudi Arabia populations were morphologically identical with previous studies. A Nudiamphisiella species which is quite similar with N. illuvialis was also discussed. The abovementioned species show first show in Saudi Arabia and extend the known distribution areas of these species.

Saleh A. Al-Farraj

2011-01-01

196

Saudi Arabia:- Austria, Luxembourg and Singapore among countries signing-on to end tax secrecy - OECD  

...Austria, Luxembourg and Singapore among countries signing-on to end tax secrecy Saudi Arabia:- Austria, Luxembourg and Singapore among countries signing-on to end ...About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Saudi Arabia › Austria, Luxembourg and Singapore among countries signing-on to end tax secrecy Austria, Luxembourg and ... Singapore among countries signing-on to end tax secrecy Send Print Tweet   29/05/2013 - As a further sign of international efforts to ... Austria, Belize, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and the Slovak Republic signed the Convention. Burkina Faso, Chile and ...

197

Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

2005-11-01

198

Determination of Prevalence of Strangles in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strangles is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect the respiratory system of the horse. The disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharges and enlargement of the associated lymph nodes. Strptococcus equi the causative agent of strangles, is a Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of strangles among horses residing on horse farms in main regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, field visits were made to horse farms in Al-Ahsa, Dammam, Jubail, Riyadh, Jeddah and Tayf. A total of 75 farms that contain 926 horses were visited. Farm owners and managers were questioned regarding the presence of signs similar to strangles. In the meantime, horses were clinically evaluated. This survey indicated no horses were strangles confirmed. Finally, 35 horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at King Faisal University were examined. These horses were admitted for signs of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination as well as bacterial culture indicated they were strangles free. Strangles seems not to be a threat to horses in Saudi Arabia.

2008-01-01

199

Sand Dune and Sabkha Vegetations of Eastern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Eastern Saudi Arabia to provide the needed information about the vegetation of sand dunes and sabkhas in the region and to provide insight into the factors controlling community distribution. Eastern Saudi Arabia with arid climatic conditions has sparsely distributed sand dune and sabkha vegetation cover. The vegetation comprises of perennial herbs, dwarf shrubs and few tree species. Seven major plant communities were recognized according to their dominant and co-dominant species: Panicum turgidum-Stipa capensis, Panicum turgidum-Pennisetum divisum, Panicum turgidum-Zygophyllum coccineum, Lasiurus scindicus-Stipagrostis plumose, Aeluropus lagopoides-Halopeplis perfoliata, Tamafix arabica-Aeluropus lagopoides and Zygophyllum coccineum-Cyperus conglomeratus. The seven communities represented different combinations of species. Soil organic carbon, soil salinity and soil water holding capacity appear to have a substantial influence on determining vegetation composition and abundance. In general, there are 45 species in the study area differing in their relative abundance, frequency and richness.

Mohammed A. Al-Fredan

2008-01-01

200

Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct and total radiation measurements carried out over several years in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in support of the Research Institute's solar energy programs have indicated a relatively large diffuse radiation component. This is primarily due to airborne particulates carried aloft by the prevailing winds in a desert environment and occurs particularly during the Shamal (north wind) sandstorm season. As a first step in quantifying the nature of this atmospheric turbidity, spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26/sup 0/ 23', Long. 50/sup 0/ 00'), using broad-band filter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and RG8) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angstroem Coefficient of Turbidity, ..beta.., were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ..cap alpha.. = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. values for each month. The 12-month average values of ..beta.. and ..cap alpha.. were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Abdelrahman, M.A.; Nimmo, B.G.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Allergic fungal sinusitis in children in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)

2000-01-00

202

Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

2009-01-01

203

Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: With the evolution of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia, there has been an increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico- Legal malpractice claims over the period 1420H-1424H (1999-2003 was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Results: Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-2002. The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims; the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001, while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003, the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Conclusion: Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation.

Samarkandi Abdulhamid

2006-01-01

204

Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

205

Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

2005-11-15

206

Saudi Arabia joins world market in commodity petrochemicals: utilizes joint-venture approach to promote rapid industrial growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi industry is emphasizing a program of efficiency and cost reduction. Assured of a supply of feedstock, the growth of private sector secondary industries along with the planned development of human resources can be expected to highlight the continuing industrialization of Saudi Arabia. This article focuses on the development and expansion of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

Hodel, A.E.

1985-03-01

207

EER Improvement for Room Air-Conditioners in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER for Room Air Conditioners (RACs that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC. This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number of condenser and evaporator rows, fins density, frontal area, compressor types, and refrigerant types. The experimental data obtained is through testing the units in Calorimeter according to standard ASHRAE-16. Also, the uncertainty in measurements and its propagation are included in this study. This paper reports the results of a set of measurements carried out on a modified RAC and compares them with the tested baseline RAC unit at similar load conditions. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of increasing the number of condenser rows in comparison with other design options considered for achieving higher EER for RACs.

Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan

2012-11-01

208

Medical Colleges in Saudi Arabia: Can We Predict Graduate Numbers?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128 physicians by the year 2014 in order to maintain the same physicians-to-population ratio, i.e., 2.7 per 100,000. To solve the problem, the higher education institutions invested in medical education and increased their number of college graduates. However, there are many questions about whether this strategy will proof successful in covering the shortage or whether this will lead to problems, for example an excess in the number of physicians. These can only be answered if future graduate numbers are estimated and kept under control. In this study, common data mining techniques were reviewed and applied to the output of Saudi medical colleges over the past years. These techniques can be used to predict graduate numbers. The results show the importance of developing a national student information center to fix the data collection problems described in this paper.

Alaa Althubaiti

2014-05-01

209

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

210

Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999 for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license are Granger-causes each other in Saudi Arabia. With these findings, we affirm that there is a strong relationship and effect between road traffic accidents and its population, GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license. The findings suggest that the  coefficients are negative signed and statistically significant in all VECMs, implying that there is bi-directional causality between the variables of interest in the long run.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-06-01

211

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

212

Analysis of the Impact of Reforms on Insurance Industry of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to find out the impact of reforms on insurance industry of Saudi Arabia. The study finds out the impact of reforms vis-à-vis premium growth, regulation of insurance industry and entry of new companies in the industry. The study is based on secondary data collected mainly from the annual reports of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA from 2005 through 2009. The study made a comparative study of the performance of insurance industry in pre and post reforms era. Further it analyzes the impact of reforms on standardization of insurance industry through regulatory framework and participation of new companies from Saudi Arabia and other foreign multinational companies in the industry. Since reform in 2004 Saudi Insurance is growing fast registering remarkably high growth rate in premium. Besides premium large numbers of indigenous companies have entered the insurance market. The government has established sound regulatorysystem to develop the insurance industry of Saudi Arabia to international standard.

Dr. Zaid Ahmad Ansari

2011-10-01

213

The Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...

Afify, Ahmed R.; Zawawi, Khalid H.

2012-01-01

214

Pattern Of Tinea Capitis In A Hospital-based Clinic In Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp the purpose of this study was to define the demographic features, clinical patterns and associated symptoms and signs of tinea capitis in Saudi Arabia. All patients who attended the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU) at Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia and who were diagnosed as tinea capitis between January 1991 and December 2001 were reviewed. The collected data were analyzed using statistical package for social sc...

2004-01-01

215

Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number o...

Al-ghamdi, Faraj A.

2013-01-01

216

Drugs for the treatment of malaria in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current malaria treatments are based on the use of artemisinin based combinations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the combination of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine/artesunate is the first line of treatment of uncomplicated malaria, while lumefantrine/artemether (Coartem®) is used as a second option. The treatment of severe malaria rests on the use of quinine or artesunate. In Saudi Arabia, most cases of malaria are imported, mainly from emigrant workers from the Indian subcontinent...

Alexis Nzila; Ibrahim Al-Zahrani

2013-01-01

217

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influen...

Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

2010-01-01

218

Clinico-pathological patterns of colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia: Younger with an advanced stage presentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and pathological features of CRC in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed to have CRC at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 10 year period (1995-2005). The data collected from medical files, endoscopy and imaging reports included age, gender, ...

Aljebreen Abdulrahman

2007-01-01

219

Attitudes of Managers towards the Potential Effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia: Factor Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to investigate the attitudes of managers in Saudi Arabia towards the effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia. The study includes 143 firms in three sectors of activities; private manufacturing, private service and public firms. The study reveals that the five most significant benefits are; safer environment, improvement of image of the certified firms with the international environmental organizations, ensure the safety of workers inside the organizations, improvement of firms im...

Nasser Akeil Kadasah

2013-01-01

220

Biodiversity of the Plant Species in Bisha, Asir Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study focused on plant diversity and species richness in each landform in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. One hundred and forty five species were recorded, belonging to 39 families. The most dominant families were Compositae (20 %), Graminae (14.5 %), Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae (7 %). The contribution of the study area for ferns (25 %), gymnospermae (10 %), dicot (12 %) and monocot (11.9) of the total species in Saudi Arabia. The maximum number of plant species was atta...

Heneidy, S. Z.; Bidak, L. M.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits; Arabie Seoudite: deficits persistants mais soutenables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs.

Anon.

1996-04-16

222

Enclosed and open spaces in the arid region-Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study of the enclosed (sheltered) and open (unsheltered) spaces in two tradiational and three-contemporary settlements in Saudi Arabia - comparative analysis of micro climatic conditions - solar exposure - analysis of the differences in the design approaches of the old and new ''modern'' developments - recommendations for the appropriate approach to the design of enclosed and open spaces in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia.

Talib, K.; Al-Zamil, A.A.

1986-01-01

223

A Forecast of Ophthalmology Practice Trends in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Junior Residents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influen...

Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

2010-01-01

224

Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) In Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro...

Al-khalifah, Nasser S.

2000-01-01

225

An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service) as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includ...

Nasser Akeil Kadasah; Turki Mohammad Al Ahmari

2013-01-01

226

Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

Al-Aujan S

2012-10-01

227

Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...

Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Me, Magzoub; Zamakhshary M

2012-01-01

228

Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS. Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred and fifty Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI individual-based questionnaires were distributed after modification to include the age, sex, marital status, nationality, unit working and number of years on the job. The data were entered in the database and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 14.0. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant . Results : One hundred and ninety-eight nurses (77.2% completed the questionnaire. Their average age was 34.46 ± 5.36 years. Forty-five percent (89 had high emotional exhaustion (EE and 28.9% (57 had moderate suffering with EE. Staffs who were on the job for longer duration had a lesser frequency of EE (P ? 0.001. The frequency of depersonalization (DP was 83 (42% and was graded as high and 61 (30.8% were moderately affected. Personal accomplishment (PA was moderate to low in the majority of the nurses (71.5%. Married nurses were prone to EE (28.17 ± 12.1 versus 22.3 ± 9.6 than unmarried nurses (P = 0.003, CI 95% and OR 2.4. The nurses in the patients? wards and clinics were more emotionally exhausted with higher DP compared to nurses in the high stress and high activity areas (P < 0.001, OR ?11.1; and P < 0.001, CI 95% and OR 9.65. Non-Saudi nurses were significantly more prone to EE (27.3 ± 12.1 versus 21.6 ± 2.9 than Saudi nurses (P = 0.004; 95% CI: <9.64. Conclusion : We found that majority of the nursing staff at our hospital were in a state of burnout with high frequency of EE and DP. Only a quarter of the surveyed staff felt that they had some level of PA. Age and working away from their home countries were the important predictors in the development of BS in nurses. We believe that working conditions have to be improved to develop strategies to cope and alleviate stressful situations.

Al-Turki Haifa

2010-12-01

229

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1) <16 years, group 2 (G2) ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3) ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery. Results The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81), and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51). Conclusion The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed.

Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Madkhali, Azza; Al-Kadi, Mohammed T; Bakhsh, Hanadi; Alruwaili, Nourah N; Tamim, Hani M

2014-01-01

230

Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26° 23', Long. 50° 00'), using broad-band niter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and R08) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrhcliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angström Coefficient of Turbidity, ?, were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ? = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ? and ? values for each month. The 12-month average values of ? and ? were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively.

Abdelrahman, M. A.; Nimmo, B. G.

231

Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures

2005-07-01

232

The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hos--pitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country?s healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discussed with the many challenges associated with the change.

Walston Stephen

2008-01-01

233

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

234

Emergency response plan for accidents in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a brief description of the general emergency plan for accidents involving radioactive materials in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Uses of radioactive materials and radiation sources and their associated potential accident are specified. Most general accident scenarios of various levels have been determined. Protective measures have been specified to reduce individual and collective doses arising during accident situations. Intervention levels for temporary exposure situations, as established in the IAEA's basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, are adopted as national intervention levels. General procedures for implementation of the response plan, including notification and radiological monitoring instrumentation and equipment, are described and radiation monitoring teams are nominated. Training programs for the different parties which may be called upon to respond are studied and will be started. (author)

2000-05-01

235

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

236

A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI) has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestatio...

2004-01-01

237

Renal Abnormalities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Single Center Report from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney fu...

Aleem Aamer

2008-01-01

238

Parental responses to consanguinity and genetic disease in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In-depth interviews of 36 Saudi families whose children suffered from neuro-metabolic disorders were conducted at a specialist hospital in Riyadh in order to examine parental understanding of disease and attitudes towards future births and consanguineous marriages. Parents had difficulty accepting a genetic explanation for diseases that did not affect all children at the time of birth; they also expressed religious or folk beliefs to account for illness. Coping behaviours included denial and resignation to the situation, divorce and remarriage. Some families adopted a cautious approach to cousin marriages and future births; this was significantly related to their education level, but not to previous infant deaths. Awareness of medical facts brought little emotional comfort to parents but allowed for preventive measures through screening adult carriers and identifying affected infants. This study presents new material from Saudi Arabia to strengthen current awareness that the range of religious beliefs, social attitudes and reproductive behaviours adopted by families in a society undergoing rapid change is of direct relevance to health care. PMID:1776043

Panter-Brick, C

1991-01-01

239

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

240

Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

2004-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Pattern of lymph node pathology in Western saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: This study aimed to characterize the histopathological pattern of lymph node pathology among Saudi patients and to highlight the age and gender variations of these lesions as base line data. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from lymph node biopsy specimens received at the Department of Pathology, King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia from January 2006 to December 2013. Results: Of the 289 lymph node biopsy specimens received, 154 (53.3%) were from males and 135 (46.7%) from females giving a male: female ratio of 1.14:1. Age of the patients ranged from 2.5 to 96 years with a mean age 33.9 years. The commonest lymph node group affected was the cervical (30.4%) followed by axillary (9.7%) and inguinal (8.7%). Malignant lymphoma [71 Hodgkin's disease (HD), 57 non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)] 128 (44.3%), reactive hyperplasia 68 (23.5%), and tuberculosis 41 (14.2%) were the common causes of lymph node enlargement. While HD, reactive hyperplasia and tuberculosis were commonest in young adult patients (10-29 years old) and rare above the age of 50 years; NHL was the predominant cause of lymph node enlargement above 50 years. Conclusions: Lymph node biopsy plays an important role in establishing the cause of lymphadenopathy. Among the biopsied nodes, lymphomas were the most common (44.3%) followed by non-specific reactive hyperplasia (23.5%) and tuberculous lymphadenitis (14.2%). PMID:24969903

Albasri, Abdulkader Mohammed; El-Siddig, Abeer Abdalla; Hussainy, Akbar Shah; Alhujaily, Ahmed Safar

2014-01-01

242

Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

Ashraf E.M. Khater

2014-01-01

243

Anemia and Iron Intake of Adult Saudis in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52 and non-smokers (n = 80. Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days. The results showed that iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in males compared to females. Mean iron intake of males (13.6±3.1 mg/day was adequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean concentrations of hemoglobin (15.89±0.95 g/dL and hematocrit (47.7±3.6% for males were normal. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but both were normal, which suggested that iron deficiency anemia is not found among adult Saudi males. Mean iron intake of females (10.2±2.8 mg/day was inadequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean hemoglobin level (13.68±0.83 g/gL and mean hematocrit level (38.9±3.2% of females were lower than cutoff values for determining iron deficiency anemia. Based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values, 21.6% and 20.6% of female participants, respectively were anemic. Based on iron intake, 95.1% of female participants had intake lower than the recommendation. Results of this study illustrated that iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among adult Saudi women in Riyadh City and suggests actions to eradicate iron deficiency anemia. These actions include increasing nutritional awareness and education for the purpose of changing inappropriate consumption patterns as well as fortification of certain foods in combination with additional intakes of iron from supplements.

Abdullah H. Al-Assaf

2007-01-01

244

Cephalometric norms for the Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia: a research report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to establish cephalometric norms for children living in the western...

Hassan Ali H

2005-01-01

245

The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi town. The study found out that age affects EFL learning because early exposure to language instructions constantly results in better performance. Th...

2012-01-01

246

The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi town. The study found out that age affects EFL learning because early exposure to language instructions constantly results in better performan...

2011-01-01

247

Energy conservation and its implication for architectural design and town planning in the hot-arid areas of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States keep their oil output high to satisfy an energy-hungry world. Correspondingly their income is high and national development intensive. A more modest development programme, better architectural designs, better town planning and more intensive use of solar energy would dramatically reduce the need for this high income and so would lead to production cuts and oil conservation.

Abd-El-Hamid; Khair-El-Din

1985-01-01

248

Saudi Arabia in the 1980s: foreign policy, security, and oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This assessment of Saudi Arabia's foreign policy acknowledges the strengths and the weaknesses of the Saudi system that have been influential in the past and that are likely to remain influential in the future. It portrays a rich but weak country whose oil has involved it in an intricate web of international issues for which its previous experience has provided few useful precedents. the US-Saudi relationship is an issue of importance to Middle East stability and energy security. The author explores three topics: the external threats faced by the Saudis and Saudi foreign policy; the political, economic, and military capabilities of the Saudis to pursue their national interests; and how Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, arms sales, and oil-production policies have strained its long-standing and friendly ties with the US. Saudi oil production and pricing decisions are also discussed. He concludes that a cooperative relationship based on interdependence can surmount these difficulties. 106 references.

Quandt, W.B.

1982-01-01

249

Awareness and attitude of cancer patients about participation in clinical research (CR) in Saudi Arabia. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

250

An Investigation into the Problems Involved in the Implementation of the Suggested Strategic Planning Model for Schools in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Strategic planning at school level is a new concept in the field of education in Saudi Arabia, where the educational system is centralised and directly controlled by the Ministry of Education. The aim of this research was to investigate the consequences of implementing a specially devised strategic planning model in individual schools in Saudi Arabia.

2012-01-01

251

Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of companies have websites only to present products.Accordingly, new research has been conducted to explore the attraction of customers in Saudi Arabia to buyfrom businesses online. This will assist the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME sector, which represents 90%of companies in Saudi Arabia, to increase communication channels with its customers electronically. Aquantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 381 consumer participants from Saudi Arabia whowere interested to buy online to see what factors would attract them to online shopping. Several factors emergedas attracting factors which were divided into organizational, technical, and cultural factors.

Adel Aboud Bahaddad

2013-03-01

252

Dialysis centers in the kingdom of saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per center). The distribution of the dialysis centers according to the geographical regions of Saudi Arabia included 18(14%) in the northern, 25(19%) in the southern, 13(10%) in the eastern, 35(27%) in the western and 39(30%) in the central region. There was a total of 6,694 dialysis patients served on 1,918 hemodialysis machines. There were 1,793(93%) HD machines capable of performing bicarbonate dialysis. There was an average ratio of 3.5 patients per one HD machine. In addition to the hemodialysis, there were 28(22%) centers engaged in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 56(43%) centers in the follow-up of post transplant patients. The total number of the nephrologists, regardless of their expertise was 212 of whom 180(84%) spoke Arabic; the average ratio was 32 patients per nephrologist (range of 14-58). There were 1320 hemodialysis nurses of whom only 465(35%) spoke Arabic. The average ratio of patients to nurses was five patients per nurse (range of 4-6). There were 72(55%) social workers and 70(54%)dietitians with average patients ratios to these supporting services of 1:93 patients (range of 1:58-137) and 1:96 patients (range of 1:53-137), respectively. The study HD patients had a mean age of 47.8 +/- 17.1 years (range: 2-92 years); of them, 52.5% were males and 12% had non-Saudi nationality. Of the hemodialysis patients, 1,815(27%) were diabetics. The calculated net increase of dialysis population was 988 patients per year (14.8%). There were 5,700(85%) patients on regular bicarbonate dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50%) were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV) serology, 448(7%) had positive hepatitis B (HBV) antigenemia and six(0.1%) had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients' care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers. PMID:18209376

Souqiyyeh, M Z; Al-Attar, M B; Zakaria, H; Shaheen, F A

2001-01-01

253

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per center. The distribution of the dialysis centers according to the geographical regions of Saudi Arabia included 18(14% in the northern, 25(19% in the southern, 13(10% in the eastern, 35(27% in the western and 39(30% in the central region. There was a total of 6,694 dialysis patients served on 1,918 hemodialysis machines. There were 1,793(93% HD machines capable of performing bicarbonate dialysis. There was an average ratio of 3.5 patients per one HD machine. In addition to the hemodialysis, there were 28(22% centers engaged in peritoneal dialysis (PD and 56(43% centers in the follow-up of post transplant patients. The total number of the nephrologists, regardless of their expertise was 212 of whom 180(84% spoke Arabic; the average ratio was 32 patients per nephrologist (range of 14-58. There were 1320 hemodialysis nurses of whom only 465(35% spoke Arabic. The average ratio of patients to nurses was five patients per nurse (range of 4-6. There were 72(55% social workers and 70(54%dietitians with average patients ratios to these supporting services of 1:93 patients (range of 1:58-137 and 1:96 patients (range of 1:53-137, respectively. The study HD patients had a mean age of 47.8 ± 17.1 years (range: 2-92 years; of them, 52.5% were males and 12% had non-Saudi nationality. Of the hemodialysis patients, 1,815(27% were diabetics. The calculated net increase of dialysis population was 988 patients per year (14.8%. There were 5,700(85% patients on regular bicarbonate dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50% were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV serology, 448(7% had positive hepatitis B (HBV antigenemia and six(0.1% had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients? care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers.

Souqiyyeh Muhammad

2001-01-01

254

Saudi Arabia: perspective on oil, foreign policy, and the Arab-Israeli conflict, 1970-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines, through a descriptive and analytical approach, the Saudi perspective on its oil power and policies in world affairs and how the Arab-Israeli conflict affects these policies. A special emphasis on the United States-Saudi Arabian relationship is made, since Saudi Arabia looks at the United States as the key factor in the Arab-Israeli conflict. To serve this end, the dissertation is divided into three parts. Part one examines the economic and political reality of oil power, its implication and limitation. Also, this part examines the behavior and the policies of the oil companies, the oil-consuming countries, and the oil-producing countries after the structural change of the oil industry and the shift in control of production and prices from the hands of the oil companies to those of the oil-producing countries. Part two examines the Saudi Arabian economy, the role of oil in developing this economy, and the effect of Saudi development plans on Saudi oil policies. Part three examines Saudi foreign policy, especially its role in the Arab-Israeli conflict, with emphasis on the Saudi oil role in this regard. Also, this part examines the United States-Saudi Arabia relationship and interest, the United States interest in Israel, and, finally, how Riyadh sees these interests affecting United States policies in the Middle East.

Kurdi, M.A.M.

1982-01-01

255

Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and fo...

Al Taweel Waleed; Alkhayal Abdullah

2011-01-01

256

Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

2011-07-01

257

Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR, Impulse Response Function (IFR and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

Hassan Alhajhoj

2007-01-01

258

A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four stages. The outcomes of the studypoint to distrust in the online retailing environment in Saudi Arabia as a key inhibitory factor for growth. As such,a five-part model is proposed to promote trust in the online shopping environment in the KSA.

Rayed AlGhamdi

2012-02-01

259

A statistical analysis of wind energy potential at the eastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy potential of wind for the eastern region of Saudi Arabia is investigated based on measurements of a complete year data at a coastal location in eastern Saudi Arabia. A suitable Weibull distribution is generated and a comparison of its model is made with the Rayleigh distribution of wind power densities. Two horizontal-axis type of wind energy conversion systems which operate at fixed rpm are considered for the determination of the extractable wind power, and a model of quadratic power output function is used between the cut-in speed and rated speed. It is shown that small-scale wind energy systems are suitable in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia for power generation and irrigation purposes. (Author)

Sahin, Ahmet Z. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Aksakal, Ahmet [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Research Inst., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1999-07-01

260

Conceptual model for managing the portfolio of Saudi Arabia's reserve funds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to develop a model for managing the foreign exchange reserve portfolio of low absorbing, oil exporting countries, such as Saudi Arabia, through the use of portfolio theory. The nature of these countries relative to high-absorbing countries and the role of reserve funds in their economies are examined. The rationale for these countries to hold a greater portion of excess reserves than is considered normal for other countries is assessed. The interaction of the political, economic, development planning, and oil policy issues as they affect reserve management in capital surplus countries is clarified. The model provides guidelines for the multiple objective management of reserve portfolios. Application of the model has been demonstrated by computing ex post optimal portfolios for Saudi Arabia during the period 1974-1982 as well as during various subperiods and by comparing the results with a proxy of the actual composition of Saudi Arabia's reserves.

Soufi, A.A.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Wind energy resource assessment in Saudi Arabia. Pt.1: Network design and description  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind has been proven at a cost effective and reliable energy source. Technological advancements over the last five years have placed wind energy in a firm position to compete with conventional power generation technologies. Saudi Arabia has a vast uninhabited land area as well as a long coastline, free from the man made obstacles, presenting a possible wind resource. A research program is under way in the Energy Research Institute of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (ERI-KACST) with the aim of studying the potential of wind energy in Saudi Arabia. This paper presents a full description of the equipment, instruments, site specifications and other technical needs for the wind assessment project in Saudi Arabia. (author)

Alawaji, S.H. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Inst.

1996-09-01

262

Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm-3 whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm-3. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors

2005-11-01

263

Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm{sup -3} whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm{sup -3}. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors.

Al-Qahtani, Mona [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

2005-11-15

264

Feasibility study of wind energy utilization in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wind map of Saudi Arabia indicates that the Kingdom is characterized by the existence of two vast windy regions along the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea coastal areas. The mean annual wind speed in these two windy regions exceeds 9 knots (16.7 kmph) and ranges from about 14 to 22 kmph and 16 to 19 kmph over the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea coastal areas, respectively. The main characteristic features of the wind field of these regions are presented. Four sample sites are selected for possible installation of both small and large wind energy conversion systems. These sites are: Yenbo and Al-Wajh on the Red Sea coast, Dhahran on the Arabian Gulf coast and Quaisumah in the north east of the Kingdom. The manufacturers pre-mass production unit capital costs are used to estimate the cost of electricity produced, in cents/kWh. The estimated costs of electricity produced by WEC systems of various rated powers when installed at the four sites are presented. A further reduction in the manufacturers unit capital cost is still required to enable wind energy to compete with other conventional energy sources. For oil-producing countries, it may be a few decades before wind energy can become cost-competitive with other energy sources. (A.V.)

Amin, M.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)); El-Samanoudy, M.A.

1985-04-01

265

Metamorphic evolution of the Qazaz metamorphic complex, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Precambrian accretionary orogens largely contributed to continental growth, owing to their high production rates of juvenile crust compared to Phanerozoic accretionary orogens. The Pan-African orogeny is responsible for the evolution and growth of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Qazaz metamorphic complex in Saudi Arabia is one of the metamorphic complexes that were exhumed due to the activity of the largest Proterozoic shear zone system on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Qazaz complex is an example of an unusual new type of core-complex associated with crustal scale strike-slip faulting. Petrography and thermodynamic modelling were used to study the metamorphic evolution of the complex. The core of the complex records peak metamorphic conditions of 560 - 640 oC and 7-8 kbar. The bounding strike-slip shear zones operated at a temperature range of 400-600 oC while the pressure range varied from 5 to 0.5 kbar over a very short distance within the shear zone. The complex shows exhumation of about 25 km due to the activity of the Najd Fault System.

Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2014-05-01

266

Patterns of thyroid cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the pattern of thyroid cancer, assess the magnitude of the problem, and evolve a management plan for such malignancies. This is a retrospective cohort study of all thyroid cases operated at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1998 and December 2007. Clinical presentations, management regimens, and recurrence were reviewed. Five hundred and sixteen patients were operated for different thyroid lesions. Ninety-two (17.8%) were malignant (20 males and 72 females). Mean age for males was 41.35 +/- 15.52 years compared to 36.59 +/- 13.28 years for females. Papillary carcinoma constituted 50%, while follicular carcinoma formed only 4.3% of malignant cases. Lymphoma ranked third with only 1.1% of all malignant thyroid lesions. No cases of medullary carcinoma were found. Of 92 patients, 75 reported for follow-up. The recurrence rate for follow-up patients was 29 (31.5%). High resolution neck ultrasonography and image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology should be considered as routine investigative tools in patients with suspicious thyroid swelling. Total thyroidectomy and removal of all lymph nodes in the central compartment of the neck seem to be the ideal management plan, until such trials emerge. Residual thyroid tissues, following surgery, should be ablated using radioiodine I131 isotope (Author).

2010-01-01

267

Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

2010-01-01

268

Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

Mitwalli A

2000-01-01

269

Extreme Temperature Trends on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extreme temperature trends are analyzed for a meteorological data collection station in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia over approximately last four decades stretching between years 1970 and 2006. The long-term change in temperature has been assessed by Mann-Kendell rank statistics and linear trend analysis. The study also includes the estimation of hot and cold days and nights frequencies and finally the temperature anomalies on yearly basis. The ratio between the seasonal mean temperatures (Tmmean of the daily mean of hottest (July and coldest (January months was 1.032. Similarly the ratios between the seasonal mean temperature of daily maximum (Tmmax of hottest and coldest months was 1.033 while for seasonal mean temperature of daily minimum (Tmmin was 1.030. Significant increase was observed in hot days per year and relatively smaller decrease in hot nights. Significant increase in summer time temperatures was confirmed by both linear regression analysis and M-K rank statistics. The monthly and annual mean maximum temperatures have increased more than the mean and mean minimum temperatures.

Luai M. Al-Hadhrami

2012-07-01

270

Stratigraphic palynology of Devonian boreholes from northern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This extended abstract describes well-preserved palynomorph assemblages recovered from Devonian strata in five shallow boreholes in the northern part of Saudi Arabia. These fully cored holes overlap stratigraphically to form a 1,640 ft composite section spanning the upper Tawil, Jauf and lower Jubah formations. Only the Jauf and lower Jubah, represented by 188 samples taken over a 1,300 ft stratigraphic interval, are addressed here as the sandy Tawil lithologies are unsuitable for palynological analysis. The 900 feet of alternating of siliciclastic and carbonate units, that together comprise the five members of the Jauf Formation, were sampled comprehensively. However, the Jubah Formation, like the Tawil Formation, is mostly sandstone and is productive palynologically at only two levels separated by a 300 ft barren interval. The age of the sampled succession is assessed using index species from the established Euramerican Devonian palynozonations of Richardson & McGregor (1986 and Streel et alii (1987, and is shown to span the late Early and Middle Devonian.

Breuer Pierre

2005-12-01

271

Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition. PMID:12656385

Abdou, Adel A

2003-03-01

272

Vegetation-Environment Relations in Taif, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assesses the plant communities and environmental factors that govern species, abundance and distribution in Taif area, western Saudi Arabia, using TWINSPAN analysis. Twenty three vegetation groups were identified visual, seven groups dominated by Aerva lanata, Pergularia tomentosa, Arnebia hispidissima, Salsola spinescens, Capparis decidua, Aizoon canariense and Blepharis ciliaris in the sand plains, Calotropis procera, Dipterygium gluacum, Bassia muricata, Haloxylon scoparium, Aerva gavanica, Anthemis melompodina and Coccinea grandis in the valleys, Halothammus bottae, Anvillea gracinii, Euryops arabicus, Dianthis strictus and Ecobolium gymnostachyum in the slopes and Capparis sinaica, Maerua oblongifolia, Salsola kali and Centaurea schimperi in the plateaus. The application of TWINSPAN classified the community types into 10 clusters at level 15. The existence of vegetation discontinuities along the catena`s depended largely on water table depth and salinity. These parameters decline with increasing altitude, whereas, CaCO3 and organic carbon does not vary along well defined large scale gradients. The relationships of the habitat-floristic groups are not simple and hydromorphism interacts in complex way with halomorphism.

Ragab I. Abdel-Fattah

2005-01-01

273

Simulation and modeling of solar radiation in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model is used to generate the hourly data for the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface. The generated data are based on the hourly recorded visibility data for 20 years (1970-1989). The model year technique was then applied to model the 20 years of hourly data of solar radiation into one statistically representative year. A model year of hourly data was then generated for the beam and diffuse components of solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Similarly, a model year of hourly data was also generated for the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces with different orientations with its beam, diffuse and reflected components. A simple methodology is proposed for calculating the solar radiation on vertical surfaces, based on a solar impact factor (SIF). Monthly means and daily totals of hourly sums for each month of the year are discussed. The hourly data of solar radiation for a typical day for each month of the year are presented. The data were generated for the four climatic zones of Saudi Arabia, the hot-dry (Riyadh), the warm-humid (Jeddah), the maritime inland desert climate (Dhahran) and the upland climate zone (Taif). The accuracy of the results is discussed and found to be above 90% representative. (author)

Zuhairy, A.A.; Sayigh, A.A.M. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering

1995-04-01

274

Precipitation Patterns Observed over the Southwest Region of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2008 and 2009, an intensive field program has been conducted in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia, which is adjacent to the Red Sea and is bounded by the Yemen border to the south and the region around Jeddah to the north. The period of study focused on analysis of observations for the months of June-August. This period coincides with a climatological peak in precipitation over the region. This region is mountainous with terrain ranging from sea level to a maximum height of about 2800 m. During the field program, convection was observed almost daily during mid-afternoon was focused along the mountain peaks. This peak in convection coincided with the sea breeze reaching the top of the tallest terrain features. The intensity of convection was modulated by the strength of the sea breeze (predominate wind direction, amount of moisture in the boundary layer, etc.) and strength of a persistent mid-level inversion. The main objective of this study focuses on characterizing the spatial and temporal features of convection and related it to the atmospheric conditions that were observed during the months of June-August. The study examines precipitation and atmospheric conditions using a network of C-Band radars (Abha, Baha, Jeddah, Jizan, and Taif) and surface and upper data collected from the site located in Abha. The presentation will provide an overview of the field program and give a summary of the precipitation and atmospheric characteristics for the two years used in the study.

Kucera, Paul; Chapman, Michael

2010-05-01

275

E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

Sadiq Sait

2004-11-01

276

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

2009-01-01

277

Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

1996-01-01

278

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi secondary school girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R, a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. Results: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%, psychoticism (14.8%, anxiety (14.3%, and somatization (14.2%. The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8% and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%. Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

279

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, C. riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L. (Acanthaceae. The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided.

Abdulaziz Alqarni

2012-06-01

280

Arsenic, Lead and Microorganisms in Hair and Nails of Some Women from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As, lead (Pb and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might be important in dealing with metal pollution in Saudi Arabia.

A. R. Hashem

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Arab oil industry: status and future of petrochemicals in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia's third five-year plan for self-sufficiency will build on the infrastructure already developed in the areas of maintenance and expansion of the productive sector of the hydrocarbon industries. The Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) is participating in joint ventures with established chemical and oil companies to produce methanol and fertilizer and is developing five other projects to use gaseous feedstocks. The natural gas is now flared; this has the advantage of low price and sophistication for the first generation of plants. (DCK)

1980-05-01

282

The Housing Cycle Theory with Regard to Housing Development in Saudi Arabia ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper can be seen as a part of the on-going attempts to relate various well-established spatio-economic theories to the contemporary development in Saudi Arabia. After discussing the housing cycle theory and the various building programs that have been put into operation since 1970, it is concluded that the theory, despite its relevance in certain stages, is not fully valid in explaining housing development in Saudi Arabia up to the present day (i.e., early 1990s). Indeed, state policies...

ABDULLAH ALGHAMDI

1995-01-01

283

An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabiahas witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.

Iftekhar Ahmad

2012-07-01

284

Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

2002-09-01

285

Unconventional therapy use among asthma patients in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: Unconventional therapy (UT) is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Inform...

Al Moamary Mohamed

2008-01-01

286

Factors influencing E-commerce Adoption by Retailers in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents some findings from a study researching the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing ICT marketplace in the Arab region, e-commerce activities have not progressed at a similar speed. In general, Saudi retailers have not responded actively to the global growth of online retailing. Accordingly new research has been conducted to identify and explore key issues that positively and nega...

Alghamdi, Rayed; Nguyen, Ann; Nguyen, Jeremy; Drew, Steve

2012-01-01

287

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

Kamel RM

2013-06-01

288

Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

2002-04-01

289

The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi town. The study found out that age affects EFL learning because early exposure to language instructions constantly results in better performance. The results show that start learning English at an earlier age is an important factor in enhancing the skills of English language learners.

Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa Gawi

2012-01-01

290

Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadi Sayyah, Western Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > NO3 -. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO4 2-, Cl-) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3 -, CO{3/-}). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.

Al-Ahmadi, Masoud Eid

2013-12-01

291

Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

2009-01-01

292

Histopathologic characterization of prostate diseases in madinah, saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: To delineate the histopathological pattern of prostate diseases and to highlight age variations in prostate specific antigen (PSA) values and histopathological features. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was made of all prostate biopsy reports seen between January 2006 and December 2013 at the King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Prostate lesions were tabulated and classified into benign and malignant groups. Histological scoring of adenocarcinomas was accomplished using the Gleason system. PSA values were correlated with Gleason scores. Results: Of 417 prostate lesions reviewed, 343 (82.3%) were benign and 74 (17.7%) were malignant, giving a benign to malignant ratio of 4.6:1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (both with and without inflammation) was the commonest prostatic lesion and accounted for 80.3% of all cases and 97.6% of all benign cases. The age range was 20 to 97 years with a mean of 69.2 years and a peak age group at 70-79 years. Seventy one cases of adenocarcinoma accounted for 95.9% of the total of 74 malignant tumors. It showed an age range of 44 to 95 years, a mean age of 70.9 years and peak prevalence in the 80-89 year age group. Gleason score seven was the most frequent (39.4%) in occurrence. Most adenocarcinomas, 41 cases (57.7%), were moderately differentiated (Gleason score of 5-7). PSA values ranged widely between 16-1,865ng/ml with a mean of 363.4ng/ml. Elevated PSA (>100ng/ml) levels were found in 53 (81.6%) patients. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PSA level and Gleason score (p=0.0304). Conclusions: Prostatic lesions constitute a significant source of morbidity among adult males in Madinah. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was the commonest benign prostatic lesion and adenocarcinoma was the commonest histological subtype of prostatic cancer. PMID:24935366

Albasri, Abdulkader; El-Siddig, Abeer; Hussainy, Akbar; Mahrous, Mervat; Alhosaini, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Alhujaily, Ahmed

2014-01-01

293

Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.

Rajaa M. Milyani

2001-12-01

294

Assessment of nutritional rickets in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To explore the role of radiological examination and certain biochemichal values in diagnosing and assessing severity of nutritional rickets. There were cases of nutritional rickets (age range between 3-36 months) seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period 1997-1999 were studied. Determinatin of calcium (Ca), phosphate(PO4),alkaline phosphate(ALP),hand and wrist x-rays,were performed for all cases. 60 cases of nutritional rickets were dignosed within 2 years,38.3% of the patients presented with swollen wristand 28.3% with bowleg.The bone profile at the time of diagnosis: Ca=2.33+-0.23,PO4=1.47+-0.40 and ALP=925+-418. Approximately 81.7% of the patients had a normal of Ca level, 18.3% had low serum PO4 level, 98.3%high value of ALP. X-ray studies indicated that,58.3% of patients have active rickets, 35% had minimal changes, and 6.7% showed healed rickets. Among those having active rickets 20% had low PO4 level ,83% had normal Ca vlaue , and 100% had high ALP.The mean value +- Sd of biochemical values in this group : Ca=2.34+-0.24, PO4= 1.45+-0.42,ALP=1067+-452. The later was significantly higher compared to other groups (P=0.004). Radiological examination and ALP remains essential to confirm clinical diagnosis of rickets and assessment of severity. (author)

2003-01-01

295

Remote sensing of aerosols over the Solar Village, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol optical properties over Solar Village, Saudi Arabia have been studied using ground-based remote sensing observations through the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Our analysis covered 8 recorded years of aerosol measurements, starting from February 1999 through January 2007. The seasonal mean values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), the Ångström wavelength exponent ? and the surface wind speed ( V), exhibit a one year cyclical pattern. Seasonal variations are clearly found in the shape and magnitude of the volume size distribution (VSD) of the coarse size mode due to dust emission. The Spring is characterized by dusty aerosols as the modal value of the exponent ? was low ~ 0.25 while that of AOT was high ~ 0.3. The modal value of wind speed was the highest ~ 3.6 m/s in spring. The increase in wind speed is responsible for increasing the concentration of dust particles during Spring. Spring of 2003 has the highest mean values of AOT, V and VSD and the lowest mean value for the exponent ?. The seasonal mean values of the exponent ? are anticorrelated with those of the wind speed ( r = - 0.63). The annual mean values of the exponent ? are well correlated ( r = 0.77) with those of the difference between the maximum and minimum values of temperature ? T. They are anticorrelated ( r = - 0.74) with the annual mean values of the relative humidity. Large aerosol particles and high relative humidity increase the radiative forcing. This results in reduction of the values of the temperature difference ? T.

Sabbah, I.; Hasan, Fatma M.

2008-11-01

296

Hair and Nails Levels of Iron of Some Healthy Volunteer Women from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The levels of iron in hair and nails of some healthy volunteer women from Saudi Arabia were determined. The level of iron were found to be lower than that reported from different places in the world. Hair and nails are useful parameters for measurement of the accumulation of metals in the human body.

Hashem, A. R.; Al-othman, M. R.

2001-01-01

297

Hair and Nails Levels of Iron of Some Healthy Volunteer Women from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The levels of iron in hair and nails of some healthy volunteer women from Saudi Arabia were determined. The level of iron were found to be lower than that reported from different places in the world. Hair and nails are useful parameters for measurement of the accumulation of metals in the human body.

A.R. Hashem

2001-01-01

298

Evaluation of Preparation Program for Teachers Specializing in Learning Disabilities in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to provide an evaluation of the undergraduate special education teacher preparation program at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A final sample of 160 LD teachers provided the data used for analysis. Data for the study were collected by a survey consisting of five subscales: coursework, internship quality,…

Hussain, Omer A.

2009-01-01

299

Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment in the subject mentioned above.

Ali Alshayea

2013-09-01

300

Lack of MERS coronavirus neutralizing antibodies in humans, eastern province, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664

Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M; Yousef, Abdullah A; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N; Al-Ali, Amein K; Obeid, Obeid E; Alkharsah, Khaled R; Pöhlmann, Stefan

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

2010-01-01

302

Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

2010-01-01

303

Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

2011-01-01

304

Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

2011-01-01

305

Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

2010-01-01

306

The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

2012-01-01

307

Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2012-01-01

308

Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting s [...] ite, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%), the lowest in February (2.52%). Most patients were male (61.8%); the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%). Nocturnal envenomation (47.74%) was more common than diurnal (43.91%); most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%), mainly in the lower limbs (63%). Most envenomings were mild (74.48%) and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828), Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807), and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807) were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

M. K., Al-Sadoon; B. M., Jarrar.

309

Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

Krieger, Zvika

2007-01-01

310

Causes of uveitis in a tertiary center in Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To analyze the causes of uveitis and compare our results with national and international published studies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of medical records of patients who attend the uveitic clinic of Magrabi Eye & Ear Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from  January 1999 to December 2011.

Hm, Shaik Nizamuddin; Bawazeer, Ahmed M.

2013-01-01

311

The costs of energy : impact on gaseous industry in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is an answer, in political terms, to the question : what are, for a petroleum and natural gas exporter country (Saudi Arabia), the data and priorities to take into consideration for the use of natural gas in electric power and industrial development ? (O.L.)

1995-05-01

312

The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

Mazawi, Andre Elias

2005-01-01

313

Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to review the historical development of continuing professional development programmes (CPDPs) for teachers, as well as the policies and objectives of such programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the inception of these programmes until now. Styles of CPDPs that the Education Training Centres (ETCs) offer are…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2011-01-01

314

Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a q...

Bin Abdulhak Aref A; Altannir Mohamad A; Almansor Mohammed A; Almohaya Mohammed S; Onazi Atallah S; Marei Mohammed A; Aldossary Oweida F; Obeidat Sadek A; Obeidat Mustafa A; Riaz Muhammad S; Tleyjeh Imad M

2011-01-01

315

Fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. ) germination and establishment under arid environmental conditions of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this study were to conduct an autecological investigation of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) in the Al-Gassim region of Saudi Arabia, upon which range rehabilitation could be based. Germination, seedling, transplanting, and water relation characteristics of the species under controlled and field conditions were determined. Most of the field work was conducted at plain and sand dune areas of the Al-Gassim, Saudi Arabia, and supplemented with growth chamber experiments. Seeds of tetrapolid and diploid forms, native to the United States, were introduced to Saudi Arabia, and their performance was determined. The Al-Gassim soil and climatic features were analyzed. Laboratory and field tests proved that fourwing saltbush was able to become established under and tolerate wide ranges of soil and harsh climatic conditions as found in the Al-Gassim. The best temperature range for germination was 15 to 35 C. High salinity in the soil of the plains area was found to be the only soil character that slightly decreased seedling growth, but germination and survival behaviors were not affected. The adaptation to extreme environmental conditions coupled with its known high nutritional forage values makes fourwing saltbush a valuable range plant in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia. As demand on rangeland increases, improved forage plants must have drough and salinity resistance mechanisms, and improved range management techniques should be used to achieve optimum returns.

Al-Hedaithy, S.S.M.

1983-01-01

316

Biodiversity of the Plant Species in Bisha, Asir Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on plant diversity and species richness in each landform in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. One hundred and forty five species were recorded, belonging to 39 families. The most dominant families were Compositae (20 %, Graminae (14.5 %, Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae (7 %. The contribution of the study area for ferns (25 %, gymnospermae (10 %, dicot (12 % and monocot (11.9 of the total species in Saudi Arabia. The maximum number of plant species was attained in wadis followed by sandy plain habitats (111 and 109 respectively. The highest species richness/ habitat (111 sp./habitat was recorded in wadis, while the lowest (56 sp./habitat was recorded in rocky ridges . Beta diversity was estimated as the ratio between the total number of species and species richness (alpha diversity where, there was little variation among four habitats (e.g. maximum ratio was 15.1 in sandy flat plateaus and minimum was 10.0 in both sandy rocky ridges and rocky ridges. About 10, 12, 12, and 25 % of the ferns, gymnospermae, dicotyledoneae, and monocotyledoneae were respectively the flora of Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, about 24 %, of the flowering plant occur in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia.

S. Z. Heneidy

2001-01-01

317

Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb

2014-01-01

318

Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

2011-01-01

319

Curriculum Change in the Developing Country: The Case of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on current thought in multicultural education, this paper discusses the need for Americans to help Saudi Arabia integrate western technology into education without subjecting the country to cultural imperialism. The paper is purported to rest on the "reconceptualist" theories of curriculum development. The author cites four particular cases…

Shaker, Paul

320

Survey of Some Mushrooms in Al-Taif Governorate of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fourteen species of mushrooms belonging to nine genera were collected and identified from seven localities in Al-Taif Governorate of Saudi Arabia. Al-Rouddof region was found to be the richest locality followed by sised and Al-Shafa. Only one species was recorded in Sad Akrama, Al-Mathnah, Wadi Mihrim and Al-Hada localities.

A.M. Abou-Zeid

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%.

Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup

2014-01-01

322

Environment and Sustainable Development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Current Status and Future Strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air quality deterioration in urban areas; high energy demand and consumption due to regional population growth and economic development; concerns about safe drinking water supplies due to a scarcity of fresh water; air quality deterioration, industrial pollution, waste management, and pollution in coastal areas; and subsequent stress on marine ecosystems are all major environmental challenges being faced by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective protection of the environment, an interdisciplinary approach within a sustainable framework, which integrates human needs with economic development and environmental protection, is required. This paper presents an overview of Saudi Arabia’s major environmental problems and challenges and offers opportunities to use economic growth, social equity, and protection of the environment as interrelated components. The role of active participation by governments, stakeholders, businesses, academic institutions, and individuals in the decision-making process and an inter-disciplinary research approach will be identified for each major environmental issue.

Tahir Husain

2013-11-01

323

An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includes four sizes of organizations. The finding of the study shows that the practiceof benchmarking in Saudi Arabian organizations’ is not in advance level. The sequence of the application ofbenchmarking is found to be as follows; marketing, operations, quality, finance and human resources,respectively. The study further shows that the practice of performance benchmarking in private firms better thanpublic organizations. However, the study concludes that there is no significant difference between companiesbased on their sizes.

Nasser Akeil Kadasah

2013-05-01

324

Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47. PMID:24155577

Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

2013-02-01

325

Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia – A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

2013-01-01

326

Level of evidence of clinical orthopedic surgery research in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. Methods: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93 affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012. The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded. The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. Results: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%. The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades.  North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p   Conclusion: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia

Neil Saran

2013-04-01

327

Oil and diplomacy: the evolution of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia, 1933-1945  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the transformation of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia between the years 1933 and 1945. At the beginning of this period American-Saudi relations were negligible. However, by the end of World War II in 1945, American policy-makers had concluded that the Saudi Kingdom was a nation vital to America's long-term economic and strategic interests. This remarkable official about face was the result of several factors including the potential of Saudi Arabian oilfields, the shifting priorities of Washington policy-makers and the lobbying efforts of a Saudi-based American commercial concern, the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO). ARAMCO entered Saudi Arabia in 1933. As the only all-American oil concession in the Middle East they feared European, especially British, interference in their operations. To forestall this possibility, real or imagined, the oilmen turned to Washington for help. Although official assistance was not immediately forthcoming, ARAMCO did find support in the Near Eastern Affairs Division (NEA) of the Department of State.

Casillas, R.J.

1983-01-01

328

Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all patients. Secondary polycythemia was seen in 38.9% of patients. D-Dimer level was high in all patients. In 61.1% of patients, exploratory laparotomies were done based on clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound and plain x-ray findings without performing CT angiography due to presentation with marked peritoneal signs. In all patients gangrenous lesions were detected during surgery and resection of these parts was done. Gangrene and in turn resection, was extensive in 14/36 patients (38.9% and they developed short bowel syndrome. There were 22/36 patients (61.1% with superior or/and inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis, 10/36 patients (27.8% with superior mesenteric artery thrombosis, in one of them there is associated focal thrombosis of aorta and renal arteries and 4/36 patients (11.1% with superior mesenteric artery embolism. All patients received postoperative anticoagulant therapy. Patients with short bowel syndrome were prepared to receive total parental nutrition (TPN for life. Intra-operative deaths were 3/36 (8.3%.There were 5/36 deaths (13.9% accruing within one month after surgery and all died secondary to sepsis and its sequalae with total deaths of 8/36 patients (22.2%. Conclusion: Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI especially of venous type will represent a challenging problem in Taif and related districts. The surgeon must pay intensive attention to patients presented by unexplained central abdominal pain and he has to be with high index of suspicion especially if it meets with the classic teaching of "pain out of proportion to physical findings ". Early diagnosis, aggressive approach to early resuscitation of the patients, correction of metabolic and hemodynamic derangements, and performing laparotomy as soon as these derangements were corrected would decrease morbidity and mortality. In some patients it is necessary to perform second look operation for re-evaluation of the viability of the intestine

Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

2012-04-01

329

Multi nodular goiter management in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data and summarize the different modalities of management of multinodular goiters (MNG) in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 135 patients had MNG, which were diagnosed by ultrasonography at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, KSA between January 2003 and June 2004. The data collected includes the age, gender, physical examination of the thyroid gland ( trifluorothymidine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone), ultrasonographic findings and Tc 99 radioiodine nuclear scan of the thyroid gland, fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the gland and antithyroid antibodies. The study group was divided according to the thyroid status: nontoxic euthyroid MNG, hypothyroid MNG and toxic hyperthyroid MNG. The management of MNGs according to patient's clinical presentations and thyroid status was reviewed. The mean age was 39+- 12.66 years with a range of 10-79 years. Forty-two patients (31%), with no history of thyroid cancer, had ultrasound guided FNA; 41(97.6%) of the FNAs were benign. One FNA (2.3%) was positive for papillary carcinoma in a 56-year-old female patient. Thyroid antibodies (anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thymoglobulin antibodies) were measured in 50 patients (37%). thirty-one (62%)were positive, 11(35%) of which were positive in patients with documented hypothyroidism. All patients with hypothyrodism were treated with levothyroxine ; however, only 25.6% with euthyroid MNG were treated with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Twelve patients (44.4%) with toxic MNG were treated with antithyroid medications. Radioiodine therapy was not given to any patient with nontoxic MNG; however, 48% of those with hyperthyroid MNG received radioactive iodine treatment. Surgery was carried out 25.6% of patients with euthyroid nontoxic MNG and in 11 patients with toxic MNG (46.5%)and 14.8% of those with a subclinical hyperthyroid MNG refrained from any therapy. They were followed up by their clinician in the outpatient clinic. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels, ultrasound and fine needle biopsy were the cornerstones of the diagnostic evaluations of patient with MNG. Review of the management of these patients was comparable to that found in the literature. The treatment strategy was similar to the recommendations by the American Thyroid Society; however, radioactive iodine treatment was not used as a treatment for patients with nontoxic goiters. (author)

2005-01-01

330

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula,...

2011-01-01

331

Assessment and heavy metal behaviors of industrial waste water: A case study of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals) is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. T...

2013-01-01

332

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it i...

2011-01-01

333

Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus Diarrhea among Children in Saudi Arabia: First Detection of G9 and G12 Strains?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In anticipation of rotavirus vaccine introduction in Saudi Arabia, this study was undertaken to determine the distribution of the G and P genotypes of rotaviruses in order to examine whether there was any emerging serotype or unusual strain circulating in children in Saudi Arabia. Of 984 stool specimens collected between 17 April 2004 and 16 April 2005, rotavirus was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 187 (19%) diarrheal children less than 5 years of age. Of these, 160 (86%) ...

Kheyami, Ali M.; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Dove, Winifred; Hart, C. Anthony; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

2008-01-01

334

Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)

2000-01-01

335

Relationship Between Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), Infestation, Environmental Factors and Control Measures in Gazan and Makkah Regions, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), is one of the most important insect pests in Saudi Arabia. Cultivated crops and the range lands are heavily affected by desert locust in some regions of Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of damage by the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) to the range lands being used for grazing range animals in Gazan and Makkah regions of Saudi Arabia. However, it is very difficult to estimate acc...

Al-ajlan, Abdulaziz M.

2007-01-01

336

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

337

A clinico-epidemiological study of sickle cell anaemia in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-nine Saudi Arabian children aged between 3 months and 15 years attending the sickle cell anaemia (SCA) clinic were studied using a review of case notes and an interview at clinic visits. All the patients come from the southwest and west area of Saudi Arabia. Despite the lack of infant screening for SCA, 73 per cent were diagnosed before the age of 3 years, reflecting severe early symptoms of the disease. The serious complications of SCA were two times higher, the number of admissions were three times higher and the attack rate for pneumococcal meningitis was nine times higher in our study population than previously reported from the Eastern Province of the country. Hand-foot syndrome was the commonest complication affecting 58 per cent of the children. It has been stated previously that there is no need to give penicillin prophylaxis to SCA children in Saudi Arabia, based on the observations in the Eastern Province only. Our study shows that SCA in western and southwestern population of Saudi Arabia is as severe as is described in American blacks. Therefore, we recommend penicillin prophylaxis to be given to the SCA children in the southwest and west regions of the country. PMID:1861279

Mulik, R; Butikofer, A; Aramouni, G; Munshi, N; Iliff, P

1991-06-01

338

Determinants of Competitive Advantages of Dates Exporting: An Applied Study on Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focus on testing the determinants of competitive advantage of dates marketing from Saudi Arabia through multi- regression model based on Porter’s diamond, which is determined the factor that affecting on competitiveness of nations in international marketing, such as factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and company strategy; structure; and rivalry. Our study selected the most competitive countries for Saudi Arabia in marketing dates in its markets (like Egypt, Iraq, and Tunisia. The results of study showed that the four determinants are significant and R square is high more than 95% in all equations this is agree with our assumptions, but the signs parameters of these determinants are different from our expectations specially with the quantity of production in Saudi Arabia which appear negative with the value of export of dates from KSA, that is because the consumption of dates in domestic market is high and it absorbs the high quality kind of dates, which is needed for external market. We tested also the same determinants for the competitive countries (Egypt, Iraq, and Tunisia; we found the same results, except Egypt, which have huge domestic demand that is effect on demand conditions in this country. Our study suggested more studies are needed for related and supporting industries of dates with this crop, to save data base in this field, and give more attention for quality of dates, packaging and prices for Saudi exporting of dates. 

Gaber Mohamed M. Abdel Gawad

2014-03-01

339

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators - A pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.

Alsuwaida Abdulkareem

2010-01-01

340

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

2011-01-01

342

Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

2008-01-01

343

Alternative Delivery Systems of Services for the Visually Handicapped in Saudi Arabia and Basic Arabic Braille Chart.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes a visit of a Saudi Arabian educator to four programs for visually handicapped students in the United States in order to determine the feasibility of introducing these programs or some aspects of them in Saudi Arabia. Advantages and disadvantages of four types of programs are considered: (1) a residential school, (2) an…

Muhanna, Saleh I.

344

Portfolio approach to the oil surplus problem: Saudi Arabia as a study case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation investigated the different strategies that Saudi Arabia could have followed in the deployment of surplus oil funds, namely low risk, high risk strategy. The static mean variance portfolio selection model is used to derive the set of efficient portfolios. The optimum portfolios for Saudi Arabia as well as the efficient frontiers, under different constraints, were explored. To find the optimum portfolios, it is necessary to determine the real rate of return of the assets; we must adjust the nominal yield by the following factors; taxes imposed on nonresidents, exchange rate fluctuations, and the inflation rate. The results tend to support the conclusion that low risk strategy is successful through all periods studied while high-risk strategy was not always successful. In addition, the Saudi's strategy of avoiding the United States stock market was not costly, but the US stock market did not perform well during the period of the study. This suggests that if the Saudis want to continue their low risk strategy in the future, they must consider including US private stocks and bonds in their portfolio selection. The success of the high risk strategy seems to require the ability to predict exchange rates. It is observed that if the Saudis follow high risk strategy and fail to predict the exchange rates they might lose. The loss in terms of real rate of return could be greater than the real return if a low risk strategy were followed.

Gazali, M.N.

1985-01-01

345

Groundwater modeling of Saq Aquifer Buraydah Al Qassim for better water management strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is an arid country. It has limited water supplies. About 80-90% of water supplies come from groundwater, which is depleting day by day. It needs appropriate management. This paper has investigated groundwater modeling of Saq Aquifer in Buraydah Al Qassim to estimate the impact of its excessive use on depletion of Saq Aquifer. MODFLOW model has been used in this study. Data regarding the aquifer parameters was measured by pumping tests. Groundwater levels and discharge of wells in the area for the year 2008 and previous record of year 1999 have been collected from Municipal Authority of Buraydah. Location of wells was determined by Garmin. The model has been run for different sets of pumping rates to recommend an optimal use of groundwater resources and get prolonged life of aquifer. Simulations have been made for a long future period of 27 years (2008-2035). Model results concluded that pumping from the Saq Aquifer in Buraydah area will result into significant cones of depression if the existing excessive pumping rates prevail. A drawdown up to 28 m was encountered for model run for 27 years for existing rates of pumping. Aquifer withdrawals and drawdowns will be optimal with the conservation alternative. The management scheme has been recommended to be adopted for the future protection of groundwater resources in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:20364311

Al-Salamah, Ibrahim S; Ghazaw, Yousry M; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

2011-02-01

346

An empirical investigation into the adoption of Software Engineering Practice in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the state of software engineering practice for software industry in Saudi Arabian organizations. The main goal was mainly to gain insight into the ways these organizations are using to adopt software engineering techniques and also the sources of obstacles and difficulties faced by these organizations. To achieve that, we have designed and conducted a survey that measures the adoption of various software engineering practices. Results clearly reveal that there are several weaknesses in applying software engineering practices in Saudi Arabia especially for small organizations.

Khalid Alnafjan

2012-05-01

347

Pattern of colorectal cancer at two hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients and Methods: Data of all patients with CRC treated at two hospitals in the Western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), between 1993 and 2002, were collected and analyzed. Results: Out of the 121 patients evaluated, ten were excluded because of incomplete data. Out of 111 patients, 59 (53.2%) were males, with a male to female ratio of 1.13: 1 and 49 (44.1 %) were Saudis. Thirty-three patients (29.7%) were 40 years or less and 78 (70.3�...

Al-Ahwal Mahmoud; Al-Ghamdi Aisha

2005-01-01

348

Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

2013-09-01

349

Vitamin D levels in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Studies in 1980s and 1990s indicated that vitamin D levels in the ethnic Saudi Arabian population were low but no studies since that time have evaluated vitamin D levels among healthy young or middle-aged Saudi men. Thus, we assessed the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) among healthy Saudi Arabian men living in the Eastern Province. Subjects and Methods : One hundred males aged 25-35 years (the age range of peak bone mass) and 100 males aged 50 years or o...

Sadat-Ali Mir; AlElq Abdulmohsen; Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Mulhim Fatma; Al-Ali Amein

2009-01-01

350

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.Keywords: cancer epidemiology, ovarian cancer, Saudi Cancer Registry, incidence rate

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

351

The Relationships between Saudi Arabia and the Idrisids Princes through Protectorate (Mecca Agreement, 1926AD: An Analytical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made for identifying the type of the relationship between Saudi Arabia and Idridsi princes in Asir Province through the 1926 Mecca Agreement. The historical roots of that relationship are sought to be shown. As shown in the paper, the essence of disputes on Asir is the conflict of international and regional strategic goals in the south of Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea. The Mecca Agreement was the result of a regional conflict of power and interests. Such conflict was won by the Saudis who were quite good at managing their state and building their domestic and international alliances.

Abed Al-Razzak Al-Maani

2013-09-01

352

Risk Assessment of Poly Cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a lack of information on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as environmental pollutants in Saudi Arabia. The current study focuses on the risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs,in the Holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during Hajj season 1431H. Atmospheric particulate matter was collected using High Volume samplers. Samples of 24h were collected at three sampling sites, Al-Shebakah, Al-Aziziah and Mina. PAH compounds were quantified by using GC. The total PAH concentrations (ng/m3 ranged from 103.5 - 195.2 with mean values of 164.67, 137.81 and 132.40 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, respectively. The higher percentages of the total carcinogenic compounds were recorded at Al-Shebakah, with a maximum value of 63.5 % in PM10. The carcinogenic PAHs, dibenzo[a]pyrene was found at low concentrations.

Turki M. Habeebullah

2013-04-01

353

Drugs for the treatment of malaria in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current malaria treatments are based on the use of artemisinin based combinations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the combination of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine/artesunate is the first line of treatment of uncomplicated malaria, while lumefantrine/artemether (Coartem® is used as a second option. The treatment of severe malaria rests on the use of quinine or artesunate. In Saudi Arabia, most cases of malaria are imported, mainly from emigrant workers from the Indian subcontinent and the Eastern part of Africa. As a result, most parasites might have been exposed to antimalarials prior to coming to the country. Thus, knowledge of the pattern of resistance to these drugs outside the country could contribute to better management of the disease. In this review, we have summarized our current knowledge on the efficacy and resistance patterns of currently used antimalarials. Alternative treatments that could be used against malaria in the Kingdom are also discussed. 

Alexis Nzila

2013-06-01

354

Developing a Test Battery to assess Determinants of Marital Relationship Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.

Nadia Al Tamimi

2009-12-01

355

STS-65 Earth observation of center-pivot irrigation in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of center-pivot irrigation in North Central Saudi Arabia. This 250mm color photograph shows a small section of desert land where center-pivot irrigation is used for crop production. This particular area is representative of a much larger area within Saudi Arabia where this agricultural practice is being applied. The water is being extracted from subsurface reserves that infiltrated deep aquifers over the Central Arabian Arch during previous geological periods, when the climate was much wetter than present. This view is an example of the use of abundant fossil water to achieve self sufficiency in food production. Note OV-102's vertical stabilizer and tail cap are visible in the view.

1994-01-01

356

Ministerial presentation: Saudi Arabia [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turki bin Saud bin Mohammed Al-Saud, Vice President, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia, welcomed this opportunity to study the role of nuclear energy with ministers and noted that political decisions and public concerns relate to fear of the risk of the operation and disposal of waste from nuclear plants. He indicated that his government continues to investigate the pros and cons of nuclear energy. He stressed the importance of the verification of nuclear material security. As the world's largest oil producer, he stated that Saudi Arabia looks to balance short and long term benefits for both producers and consumers, looking for a policy of price stability and noting the expectations of an increased demand. He recognized the close relationship between energy and the environment and identified efforts to encourage cleaner oil use. He reminded the conference of the need to ensure continuing support for the IAEA's role in ensuring nuclear security and safety

2005-08-01

357

New Records of some Filth Flies Species (Diptera: Milichiidae) in Southwest Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Malaise trap was used during different time periods between 2002 and 2006, in the Asir province of Saudi Arabia at different localities. Nine known species of Milichiidae (some of them of medical importance) have been identified. These are: Desmometopa m-nigrum (Zetterstedt, 1848); D. varipalpis Malloch 1927; D. singaporensis Kertesz 1899; Leptometopa rufifrons Becker 1903; L. latipes (Meigen 1830); L. nilssoni Sabrosky, 1987; Milichia pubescens Becker 1907; Milichiella lacteipennis (Loew 1866); Enigmilichia dimorphica Deeming, 1981, from South-Western Saudi Arabia, the last seven species of the above are recorded for the first time. Biological information and distribution of these species are included. The fauna of Milichiidae found in this study is much more of Afrotropical than Palaearctic origin. (author)

2007-01-01

358

The attitude towards disclosure of bad news to cancer patients in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disclosing the diagnosis or prognosis to cancer patients in Saudi Arabia can be a serious challenge to the physician in his daily clinic practice. The public attitude towards full disclosure is still conservative, and in order to appropriately deal with such an attitude, physicians need to deeply understand its sociocultural background. This article attempts to look into what governs the public attitude towards disclosure in Saudi Arabia as an example of what may affect attitudes in developing countries. It also brings some data from local surveys among physicians and patients as well as from public surveys to describe the changing trend in attitude over the years with a comparative analysis of the Western literature.

Aljubran Ali

2010-01-01

359

Saudi Arabia:- G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial, Mexico 17-18 May 2012 - OECD  

...Ministerial meeting in Guadalajara on 17-18 May, 2012. Saudi Arabia:- G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial, Mexico 17-18 May 2012 - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Saudi Arabia › G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial, Mexico 17-18 May 2012 G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial, Mexico 17-18 May 2012 Send Print Tweet   &187 ... The OECD, in collaboration with the ILO, has prepared a series of reports to support the Ministersrsquo; discussions at the G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial meeting& nbspin Guadalajara on 17-18 May, 2012. These reports review recent employment and labour market trends and options to tackle the jobs crisis and the jobs potential of a transition to green growth. The OECD also prepared a policy note on challenges ...

360

Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L. In Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro conditions were investigated. The grass has performed excellent growth through out the year producing seed heads, elongating and producing lateral shoots with slow growth during winter and hot summer, yellowing leafs under shaded greenhouse and short stems in small pots. Plants were affected by salinity levels of in vitro treatments as there was high significant difference in their response to different salinity concentrations, this response was increasing with the time.

Nasser S. Al-Khalifah

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia based on verbal judgement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Site selection of nuclear desalination plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a complex task since it depends on many interrelated factors. Two candidate sites are considered, one near Jeddah - a major port on the Red Sea and the second on the Arabian Gulf near Dhahran. Using verbal judgment, the fuzzy set theory and the MAFDA computer code are employed to examine the most suitable site. Thirteen main criteria were considered for the selction, namely safety of nuclear fuel shipment; living conditions for foreign manpower; acceptability for expansion; land availability; topography and oceanography; geology, hydrology, and seismology; meteorology; transportation; population density; availability of cooling water; suitability for construction and availability of support services and domestic water. The final results show that the site near Dhahran is preferred to Jeddah for the first nuclear desalination plant in Saudi Arabia. (orig.)

1982-01-01

362

Serological Survey on Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Commercial Poultry Farms in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the presence of avian pneumovirus (APV antibodies in commercial poultry farms using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and virus neutralization test (VN. Eighty seven chicken serum samples were collected from several commercial poultry farms in Al-Qassium area, Saudi Arabia during 2007-2008. The serum samples were collected from birds of various ages (from one-day old to 62 weeks of age. Antibodies to APV were detected in 50% (8 out of 16 by both ELISA and virus neutralization (VN test at farms in birds of 11-18 weeks of age only. The total positive samples were 8/87 (9.2% of all examined samples. In conclusion, this study indicated the presence of antibodies to APV among 11-18 weeks old commercial chicken at farms in Saudi Arabia.

A. N. Alkhalaf

2010-04-01

363

CAPD in Dammam Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Five-Year Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indication for CAPD was poor or failed vascular access (51.4%. Peritonitis remained the major complication with an overall incidence of 0.62 episode per patient year. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main causative organism. Therapy with CAPD lasted a mean of 26 ± 7.4 months. Our results, showing good technique survival and low peritonitis rate, suggest that CAPD should be promoted to become a full arm of the integrated care of ESRD in Saudi Arabia.

Youmbissi Joseph

2001-01-01

364

Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, incidence rate, age standardized incidence rate, Saudi Cancer Registry

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

365

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

2011-01-01

366

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

Michael Engel

2011-10-01

367

Transport of Suspended Solids in Dammam (Saudi Arabia) Coastal Areas: Fish Market Works  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some new projects are considered in the eastern coasts of Dammam city, Saudi Arabia Dredging operations would significantly alter coast hydrological and sediment transport processes. It is important that the project areas must keep flushing the fresh sea water in and out with good water quality parameters, which are currently facing increased pressure from urbanization and navigation requirements in conjunction with industrial developments. A suspended solids or sediments are expected to affe...

Hussam Al-Rabai’ah

2010-01-01

368

Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Meth...

Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed; Gaffar Abdelrahim; Khalafalla Husam Eldin; Mahfouz Mohamed; Zaid Abdel Naser; Bani Ibrahim

2012-01-01

369

Epidemiology of needlestick injuries among health care workers in a secondary care hospital in Saudi Arabia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Accidental needlestick injuries sustained by health care workers are a common occupational hazard in health care settings. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiology of needlestick injuries in Buraidah Central Hospital, a 212-bed secondary care hospital in Buraidah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective survey of all self-reported documents related to needlestick injuries, for the period January 2002 through December 2003. The data was analyze...

2005-01-01

370

The acoustical performance of mosques? main prayer hall geometry in the eastern province, Saudi arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study we discuss how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations. In this study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques without domes in Saudi Arabia had been investigated. Simulation and extensive field measurements had been taken in varies representative m...

Hossam Eldien, Hany; Al Qahtani, Hani

2012-01-01

371

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, Chalicodoma riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L.) (Acanthaceae). The occurrence of...

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-01-01

372

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, C. riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L.) (Acanthaceae). The occurrence of modified fa...

Engel, Michael; Gonzalez, Victor; Alqarni, Abdulaziz; Hannan, Mohammed

2012-01-01

373

Safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in details. Hazards and potential threat, material control and responsible parties, in addition to management and the technical requirements, are the main topics that are discussed. Some interest is given to the responsibilities of the regulatory authority, with special emphasis on the role of King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology as a national competent authority. (author)

1998-09-01

374

Predictors of smoking among male junior secondary school students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among intermediate (junior secondary) schoolboys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 1382 students (ages 12-19 years) in 45 classes randomly selected from 15 schools, using a two- stage stratified cluster sampling scheme. DESIGN: Students in the selected classes were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire, under the supervision of trained interviewers. Univariate and multivariate statis...

1996-01-01

375

Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (January 1996-December 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The predominant species was Phlebotomus bergeroti (41.7%), followed by lesser numbers of Phlebotomus sergenti (11%), Phlebotomus arabicus (10.6%), Sergentomyia tiberiadis (10.5%), Phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), Sergentomyia antennata (9.6%), Phlebotomus alexandri (3%), Phle...

Said Abdallah Doha; Samy, Abdallah M.

2010-01-01

376

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water). These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled,...

2009-01-01

377

A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially unnecessary desalination infrastructure that is likely to become more energy and cost efficient in future. PMID:22504624

Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

2012-07-15

378

Learning style preferences of medical students: a single-institute experience from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, King Fahad Medical College, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study of preclinical students with 74 male and 72 female (n= 146) was performed. The validated VARK questionnaire was used to categorize the learning styles of students. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles:...

2011-01-01

379

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Antibodies Among Hemodialysis Patients in Al-Hasa Region of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among hemodialysis (HD) patients was studied at King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia. The records of 189 patients undergoing HD were reviewed. The overall prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 43.9%. Anti-HCV antibody prevalence was more common among female patients. There was no correlation between repeated blood transfusions and anti-HCV positivity as 4.8% of the patients who did not receive any blood transfusion during HD were positiv...

2001-01-01

380

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Risk Factors and Experience in Southwest Region of Saudi Arabia ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? : ????? ??????? ? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a common surgical emergency in neonatal referral centres. Various pre- and post- operative radiologic, ventilatory, and clinical data parameters were studied as factors to predict the outcome of this condition. A total of 27 cases were admitted to King Fahad Hospital in Al Baha (Southwest region of Saudi Arabia) between October, 1981, and October, 1992 inclusive the gross mortality rate was 22% but when applied on patients presented within the first 6 hours ...

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Surgical Management of Graves` Hyperthyroidism in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Hospital Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to determine surgical indication and complication of subtotal thyroidectomy in patients being treated for Graves` disease at King Khalid University Hospital Riyadh Saudi Arabia in the period between January 1996 and December 2005. Twenty-five out of 194 adult patients with Graves` disease had thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism during the 10-year period representing 13% comprising 11 males and 14 females. Mean age at presentation for all the patients was 28?12 years. ...

Malabu, Usman H.; Assim Alfadda; Sulimani, Riad A.; Al-rubeaan, Khalid A.; Al-ruhaily, Atallah D.; Fouda, Mona A.; Al-maatouq, Mohamed A.; El-bakry, Abdulkarim A.

2007-01-01

382

Profiling E-buyers in Saudi Arabia: Demographic, Experiential, and Attitudinal Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research study is to develop profiles of adopters and non-adopters of internet shopping in Saudi Arabia based on their demographic variables and internet usage patrons and to investigate consumers’ attitude towards online shopping and perception and formation of attitude by using Fishbein and Ajzin (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). A profile of internet shopping adopter and non-adapters was drawn. Among the investigated demographic variablesand internet usage patte...

Moudi Almousa

2011-01-01

383

Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk facto...

Al-Haqwi Ali; Tamim Hani; Asery Ali

2010-01-01

384

Rhinosporidiosis of the nose in the southern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic fungal infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi . It selectively strikes two target zones: nasal and conjunctival mucosae. Patients with nasal rhinosporidiosis usually present with nasal obstruction, discharge, epistaxis and mass lesions. This investigation presents the first indigenous case of tumoral rhinosporidiosis in the southern region (Assir province) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A 78-year-old male patient from a rural background of Assir regi...

Al-Shehry Ali; Hussein Mahmoud

2007-01-01

385

Preliminary Comparative Physiological and Biochemical Study of Five Different Goat Breeds Inhabiting Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three arbitrary chosen enzymes were examined by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to investigate physiological and genetic variations among five different goat breeds inhabiting Saudi Arabia. The goat breeds were Pakistani, Tihami, Syrian, Masri and Aardi while the investigated enzymes were alkaline pho...

Mohammed Salem AL-Harbi; Sayed Amin Mohamed Amer

2012-01-01

386

Stability of Rock Slopes along Raidah Escarpment Road, Asir Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Raidah Escarpment road is located north west of Abha city, Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This escarpment road represents an important corridor in the area which connects different villages and tourist resorts with each other. The total length of this road section is about 9 km which passes through a highly mountainous area. The road also passes through areas of different geological hazards (rock, debris flow, soil, and weathered zones). The different environmental factors...

Youssef, Ahmed M.; Maerz, Norbert H.; Al-otaibi, Abdulla A.

2012-01-01

387

Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1), bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological...

Mohamed Rabie Yousef; Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud; Samir Mohamed Ali; Mohamed Hamad Al-Blowi

2013-01-01

388

Heavy Metal Levels in Several Species of Marine Algae from the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

T. hirteen species of marine algae of Chlorophycophyta, Phaeophycophyta and Rhodophycophyta of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia have been analysed for the heavy metals: Ag, AI, As, Cd, Co, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb,Ti,andV. The heavy metal content of the thirteen species studied exhibited remarkable differences according to the species, but a certain range of concentration appeared likely to be restricted to each division. The green species were characterized in having the highest proportions of Hg, Ni...

El-naggar, M.; Al-amoudi, O.

1989-01-01

389

Celiac disease in children and adolescents at a singe center in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives : Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy, induced by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical pattern of CD in children from the western region of Saudi Arabia. Design and Setting : Retrospective, hospital-based. Patients and Methods : This study included children with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of CD made between September 2002 and July 2007. Children were admitted to...

Saadah Omar

2011-01-01

390

 Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Complementary and AlternativeMedicine in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected u...

2012-01-01

391

Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Public Perception of Genetically Modified Food in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumers awareness and attitude towards GM food vary among different nations and thought to be affected by socio-demographic attributes. The present study was conducted to assess the consumer knowledge about GM food and to determine the level of acceptance of GM products in Saudi Arabia. A consumer questionnaire was designed to generate a demographic profile for participating consumers and assess their perception. Data were collected in Al-Hassa, Eastern Province, based on 420 randomly selec...

Al-khayri, Jameel M.; Hassan, Magda I.

2012-01-01

392

Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%. PMID:24485346

Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N; Valerius, M; Juul, E; Nielsen, K E; Vistisen, D; Nielsen, L B; Sheikh, A; Belhadj, M; Nadir, D; Zinai, S; Raposo, J; Lund-Andersen, H; Witte, D R

2014-03-01

393

Molecular Bases of ?-Thalassemia in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?-thalassemia is a group of heterogeneous recessive disorders common in many parts of the world. Al-Qatif and Al-Hassa oases in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia are regions known for high frequency of these disorders. Using two molecular methods, based on multiplexing-amplification refractory system and reverse hybridization principles, the spectrum of ?-thalassemia in the region was studied. Sixty-nine subjects with known ?-thalassemia disease and volunteers with hig...

Al-ali, Amein K.; Al-ateeq, Suad; Imamwerdi, Burhan W.; Al-sowayan, Saleh; Al-madan, Mohammed; Al-muhanna, Fahad; Bashaweri, Laila; Qaw, Foad

2005-01-01

394

Water Quality and Planktonic Communities in Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al- Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. The aim of this research was to study the water characteristics and the planktonic organisms inhibiting Al-Khadoud spring and its irrigational channels for a period of 1 year. Approach: A regular visit was...

Fathi, Adel A.; Al-kahtani, Mohammed A.

2009-01-01

395

Ecological Studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmite...

Al-kahtani, Mohammed A.; Youssef, Ashraf M.; Fathi, Adel A.

2007-01-01

396

Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

2002-02-11

397

BBC - partner for Saudi-Arabia's large industry in Yanbu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the city of Yanbu in Saudi Arabia, BBC supplied and installed an SF/sub 6/-insulated switchgear installation rated at 115 kV for a large power station, five turn-key switching stations for 115/34.5/13.8 kV, and a complex distribution cable system within a very short period of time. By careful planning and comprehensive organizational measures optimal results were achieved.

Maraun, R.

1983-01-01

398

First Record of Five Soil Ciliates (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The morphology and infraciliature of five soil hypotrichous collected from the farm-land at Zulfi city, Saudi Arabia were investigated using living observation and silver impregnation methods. Gastrostyla steinii was found to have 4-8 macronuclei and thus its congener, G. muscorum which was characterized by eight macronuclei is likely a synonym with G. steinii. Redescriptions on Hemiamphisiella granulifera, Urostyla grandis Ehrenberg, 1830 and Nudiamphi...

Al-farraj, Saleh A.

2011-01-01

399

Modelling of weather characteristics and wind power in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the weather conditions and wind power in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia over a period of 36 years (1961-1996) are studied and modelled. The study involves temperature, relative humidity, fog, wind speed, wind power and dust storms. A regression analysis is carried out by using the linear regression technique to model the weather parameters. The models developed can be used in any study related to weather and its effect on the environment and energy. (author)

Al-Garni, A.Z.; Sahin, A.Z.; Al-Farayedhi, A. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhaharan (Saudi Arabia). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

400

Potentiality of daylighting in a maritime desert climate: the Eastern coast of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy savings from the utilisation of daylight will be influenced by the amount of external daylight incident on the external surface of the window plane. Therefore, savings from daylight will vary from a place to another, based on the prevailing sky conditions in the climate concerned. This paper aims to investigate the potentiality of natural light if used as source of internal illuminance in buildings in the Eastern coast of Saudi Arabia. This includes providing information about daylight performance in the area. (Author)

Alshaibani, Khalid [King Faisal Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Dammam (Saudi Arabia)

2001-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender on outcome was assessed in a univariate fashion using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test when appropriate. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Results: A total of 68 out of 85 residents (80% responded to the survey. Over one-half of the residents preferred to pursue a fellowship within Saudi Arabia (53%, while others (25% planned to train in North America. The majority of respondents wished to practice in an urban setting (63%. Anterior segment was the most desired subspecialty, while general ophthalmology and glaucoma were not a popular choice. Most residents were interested in refractive surgery (77% and research (75%. The main factor influencing the decision to pursue ophthalmology was the ability to combine medicine and surgery (97%, while a positive elective experience was also an important factor, particularly for female respondents (91% vs. 57%; P < 0.001. Conclusion: Concerted efforts are required to encourage adoption to ophthalmic practice in public institutions rather than in private practice. In addition training in underrepresented subspecilaties should be encouraged to ensure adequate ophthalmic care for all citizens of Saudi Arabia.

Alwadani Fahad

2010-01-01

402

A Threatened Fish Species (Aphanius dispar) in Saudi Arabia, A Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study showed that the population density of a native fish (A. dispar) in the freshwater environments of Saudi Arabia is declining. It is concluded from the present investigations that A. dispar is not threatened by a single isolated factor, but instead faces numerous stressors that jeopardize multiple stages of their life cycle. Reduced availability of food, habitat degradation, chemical contamination, introduction of exotic species and exploitation have contri...

Al-kahem-al-balawi, H. F.; Al-ghanim, K. A.; Ahmad, Z.; Temraz, T. A.; Al-akel, A. S.; Al-misned, F.; Annazri, H.

2008-01-01

403

Medication prescribing errors in a pediatric inpatient tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Medication errors (MEs) are among the most common types of medical errors and one of the most common and preventable causes of iatrogenic injuries. The aims of the present study were; (i) to determine the incidence and types of medication prescribing errors (MPEs), and (ii) to identify some potential risk factors in a pediatric inpatient tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia. Findings A five-week retrospective cohort study identified medicati...

Al-Jeraisy Majed I; Alanazi Menyfah Q; Abolfotouh Mostafa A

2011-01-01

404

Characterisation of MRSA strains isolated from patients in a hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spreading worldwide and poses a serious public health problem, being present in hospital settings and communities. However, from the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula few molecular typing data on MRSA strains are currently available. In order to obtain data on the population structure of MRSA in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 107 clinical and environmental MRSA isolates were genotyped using a microa...

2012-01-01

405

Phytoplankton Composition at Jeddah Coast–Red Sea, Saudi Arabia in Relation to some Ecological Factors ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? – ??????? ??????? ???????? – ???????? ???? ??????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytoplankton succession in relation to some physico-chemical characters of some water bodies at Jeddah Coast (Saudi Arabia) was studied for one year (2004). The sampling program included four different areas, North Obhour, Technology area, Down Town area and South Jeddah Area. Water samples were analyzed for some physico-chemical parameters (Temperature, pH, S‰, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Calcium (Ca+2) & Magnesium (Mg+2), Nitrite (NO2), Nitrate (NO3), Ammonia (NH3), Reactive Orthophosphate (P...

2010-01-01

406

Teachers Dietary Practices during School Day in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The schools teachers dietary practices during the school day should reflect a healthy dietary pattern both in quality and quantity of foods consumed particularly in countries that witness an epidemic of obesity related Type-2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to identify the local dietary practices of the schools teachers in Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia. A Cross-section observational study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of dietary practices d...

Balkees Abed Bakhotmah

2012-01-01

407

Generic drug prescribing in central Saudi Arabia : Perceptions and attitudes of physicians.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Physicians play a key role in generic drug prescribing, but their behavior is affected by many determinants. We examined physician practices and attitudes and other factors influencing the prescription of generic drugs. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from a random sample of physi-cians from different settings in central Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed to describe all variables and test any significant dif...

Alghasham Abdullah

2009-01-01

408

Prevalence of Khat chewing in college and secondary (high) school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Khat is widely consumed among the youth of Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. However, its prevalence is not well documented. Objective This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of khat chewing among college and secondary school students in Jazan region. Methods The study was conducted in May 2006 in the colleges and secondary schools in Jazan region. A sample of 10,000 students aged between 15 and...

2009-01-01

409

The emergence of Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We analyzed the available data on a total of 1505 strains isolated during 2002-2005. RESULTS: Spoligotyping results revealed that Beijing family isolates represented 4.5% of all the isolates. Existence of Beijing clade is alarming as this family is known to be multi-drug resistant and transmissible. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the occurrence of Be...

Al Hajoj, Sahal; Rastogi, Nalin

2010-01-01

410

Biodegradable waste to biogas: Renewable energy option for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Energy recovery from waste is not a new field of study, but its implementation continues to be a challenge in some Arab countries. Although there is abundance of useful waste in the urban markets, practices aiming at waste to energy conversion are still negligible. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, so-called green markets are abundant with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is missing. Therefore the objective of this paper is the evaluation of waste g...

Muhammad Sadiq Munfath Khan; Zakariya Kaneesamkandi

2013-01-01

411

GIS-Based Spatial Mapping of Flash Flood Hazard in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flash floods occur periodically in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia, due to several factors including its rugged to-pography and geological structures. Hence, precise assessment of floods becomes a more vital demand in development planning. A GIS-based methodology has been developed for quantifying and spatially mapping the flood characteristics. The core of this new approach is integrating several topographic, metrological, geological, and land use datasets in a GIS environment that utilizes the Cu...

Dawod, Gomaa M.; Mirza, Meraj N.; Al-ghamdi, Khalid A.

2011-01-01

412

Design Charts for Rock-cut Slopes Along Motorways in Southern Saudi Arabia ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a new set of design charts which have been compiled to assist in the preliminary analysis of excavated slopes in Saudi Arabia. Data for thechart&were collected from Al-Dilaa and Al-Juwah descents. Both stable and unstable slopes Were assessed utilizing rock mass classification systems, basic mapping, and index tests, so that the basic geotechnical features of the stabfe and unstable rock masses could be defined. Furthermore, date were supplemented by a study of the stabil...

1989-01-01

413

Swedish Companies in Saudi Arabia : The Struggle to Maintain Corporate Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saudi Arabia is increasingly becoming one of the most attractive areas in the world for foreign investors. At the same time the country has a major influence on the economy in the Middle-East. However there exist reasons for why companies previously have been reluctant to enter this market, these reasons have mainly been related to political turbulence, foreign traditions and culture. In recent years some research has been dedicated to this area however there is still more to investigate. The...

Hartvigson, Johannes; Hourani, Rayan

2009-01-01

414

Wheel of B2C E-commerce Development in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Online retailing (a model of B2C e-commerce) is growing world-wide, with companies in many countries showing increased sales and productivity as a result. It has great potential within the global economy. This paper looks at the current status of online retailing in Saudi Arabia, with particular focus on what inhibits or enables both the customers and retailers. It also analyses the status of Government involvement and proposes a layered model, known as the Wheel of Online R...

Alghamdi, Rayed; Nguyen, Anne; Jones, Vicki

2013-01-01

415

Developing GIS-Based Unit Hydrographs for Flood Management in Makkah Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unit hydrographs (UH) are either determined from gauged data or derived using empirically-based synthetic unit hydrograph procedures. In Saudi Arabia, the discharge records may not be available either for several locations or for long time scales, and therefore synthetic unit hydrographs are crucial in flood and water resources management. Available metrological, geological, and land use datasets have been utilized in order to apply the US National Resources Conservative Services (NRCS) metho...

Dawod, Gomaa M.; Koshak, Nabeel A.

2011-01-01

416

Performance Analysis of PV Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential implementation of photovoltaic (PV energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed in this paper. HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable software was used to perform the technical feasibility of the system. The feasibility of PV energy system was analyzed based on solar irradiances. Stand-alone PV systems with battery storage element will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV and battery storage on electric energy production.

Makbul Anwari

2013-01-01

417

Hypertension care at primary health care centers: A report from Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well known that effective management of hypertension reduces the incidence of myo-cardial infarction, stroke and vascular complications. The Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, introduced the Quality Assurance Guidelines with the hope to improve the management of hypertension in its centers. We conducted an audit of two Primary Health Care Centers namely, Al-Manhal (MPHCC) and Al-Numais (NPHCC), to evaluate how well hypertension was managened at these centers. A check list was ...

Al-Homrany Mohammed; Khan Mohd; Al-Khaldi Yahia; Al-Gelban Khalid; Al-Amri Hasan

2008-01-01

418

Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS and Organizational Learning (OL, might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1 the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2 the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.

Wageeh A. Nafei

2012-02-01

419

A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000 and Sudan (2007 from a One Health perspective. Methods: Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘Sudan’, and ‘RVF’, articles were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and web pages of international organizations as well as local sources in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Results: The outbreak in Saudi Arabia caused 883 human cases, with a case fatality rate of 14% and more than 40,000 dead sheep and goats. In Sudan, 698 human cases of RVF were recognized (case fatality, 31.5%, but no records of affected animals were available. The ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar with irrigation canals and excessive rains providing an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The outbreaks resulted in livestock trade bans leading to a vast economic impact on the animal market in the two countries. The surveillance system in Sudan showed a lack of data management and communication between the regional and federal health authorities, while in Saudi Arabia which is the stronger economy, better capacity and contingency plans resulted in efficient countermeasures. Studies of the epidemiology and vectors were also performed in Saudi Arabia, while in Sudan these issues were only partly studied. Conclusion: We conclude that a One Health approach is the best option to mitigate outbreaks of RVF. Collaboration between veterinary, health, and environmental authorities both on national and regional levels is needed.

Osama Ahmed Hassan

2014-02-01

420

A need for One Health approach - lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000) and Sudan (2007) from a One Health perspective. Methods Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘Sudan’, and ‘RVF’, articles were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and web pages of international organizations as well as local sources in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Results The outbreak in Saudi Arabia caused 883 human cases, with a case fatality rate of 14% and more than 40,000 dead sheep and goats. In Sudan, 698 human cases of RVF were recognized (case fatality, 31.5%), but no records of affected animals were available. The ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar with irrigation canals and excessive rains providing an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The outbreaks resulted in livestock trade bans leading to a vast economic impact on the animal market in the two countries. The surveillance system in Sudan showed a lack of data management and communication between the regional and federal health authorities, while in Saudi Arabia which is the stronger economy, better capacity and contingency plans resulted in efficient countermeasures. Studies of the epidemiology and vectors were also performed in Saudi Arabia, while in Sudan these issues were only partly studied. Conclusion We conclude that a One Health approach is the best option to mitigate outbreaks of RVF. Collaboration between veterinary, health, and environmental authorities both on national and regional levels is needed.

Hassan, Osama Ahmed; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Viral and bacterial infections associated with camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf diarrhea in North Province, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diarrhea and deaths in new-born camel calves were noticed by veterinary investigators and pastoralist in Saudi Arabia to be very high. Hence, it is thought to be necessary to investigate this problem from the virological and bacteriological point of view. The role of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in six different towns of North Province (Al-Assafia, Arar, Domat Aljandal, Hail, Skaka and Khoa) in Saudi Arabia was studied. Survey was conducted in diarrheic camel calves aged 12 months or younger. In our study calf diarrhea was reported in 184 out of 2308 camels examined clinically during one year, the prevalence of diarrhea was found to be 8.0% in calves ranging from one month to one year. In the present study group A rotavirus and Brucella abortus were detected in 14.7% and 8.98%, respectively, using ELISA technique. Escherichia coli was isolated from diarrheic calf camel (58.2%) 99/170 samples during dry and wet season. Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus spp. were detected in 12% and 8.8% of the specimens, respectively. In this study enterotoxogenic E. coli (ET E. coli) was isolated from 7% of diarrheic camel, which indicates the strong correlation between the camel calf diarrhea and the detection of enterotoxogenic E. coli. This study represented the first report for the detection of group A rotavirus and B. abortus antigen and antibodies in calf camels in Saudi Arabia. It is recommended that the disease should be controlled by vaccination in calf camels. PMID:23961160

Al-Ruwaili, Meshref A; Khalil, Omer M; Selim, Samy A

2012-01-01

422

Congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients from western Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome (DS in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and compare with studies from other regions of Saudi Arabia and with international figures. Methods: We conducted a prospective study including all patients attending the DS clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between October 2007 and October 2011. All patients underwent full history and physical evaluations, dysmorphologic assessment, chromosomal studies, and echocardiography. Results: A total of 130 individuals (59% males and 41% females with ages ranging between 0-33 years (mean=5±4.9 were included. Most individuals (90.9% had trisomy 21 due to non-disjunction, 5.05% due to Robertsonian translocation, and 4% had mosaicism. Congenital heart defects were found in 86.8% of patients. The majority 71/92 (77% showed combined cardiac defects, while 21/92 (23% of DS patients had isolated congenital heart defects (CHD. The most frequent CHDs detected in this study were: patent ductus arteriosis in 44/92 (47.8%, atrial septal defect in 38/92 (41.3%, trivial tricuspid regurge in 31/92 (33.7%, ventricular septal defect in 27/92 (29.3%, and patent foramen oval in 26/92 (28.3%. Conclusion: We found a higher incidence of CHDs among DS individuals from the Western Region, compared to national and international figures. We detected more combined CHD and a different pattern of distribution.

Nabeel S. Bondagji

2012-11-01

423

Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia was carried out using passive radon dosemeters. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data of Al-Jauf region. The study is a continuation of radon survey in main cities of Saudi Arabia which constitutes a baseline for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. A