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Sample records for qassim saudi arabia

  1. Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Saudi Students Majoring in English at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed B. Al Abiky

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their ...

  2. Malignant lymphoma in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia, reclassified according to the WHO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of various types of malignant lymphoma (ML) in the Al-Qassim region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) according to recently introduced the WHO classification. For this retrospective analysis, material was available in 385 out of 519 cases diagnosed as ML from 1988-2007. Morphological assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry using a panel of antibodies. The study was conducted at Prince Faisal Oncology Centre (PFOC) of King Fahad Specialist Hospital (KFSH), Buraidah, Al-Qassim, KSA. Out of 385 cases reviewed, 251 (65.2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 117 (30.4%) had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Male preponderance (male to female ratio 1.6:1) and a wide age range was observed (6 months to 103 years). B cell neoplasms were the most common NHL seen (81.6%) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most frequent type of NHL encountered (50.1%). Indolent lymphomas like follicular lymphoma (FL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) were rather uncommon (13.2%). T cell lymphoma comprised 18.3% of the NHL. The most common type of HL was nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma (NSCHL) (68.3%). In Al-Qassim region of KSA, NHL is the most common ML seen and DLBCL the most common type. Unlike other parts of KSA and Middle East, NSCHL is the most common type of HL encountered. (author)

  3. Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

    Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

  4. Measurement of Radon Concentrations and Their Annual Effective Dose Exposure in Groundwater from Qassim Area, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    El-taher, A.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas of a natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and in different types of water. It is worthy to carry out the distribution of radon (222Rn) activity concentration and their annual effective dose exposure in groundwater samples from Qassim area, Saudi Arabia. Radon concentrations were measured by using RAD7 an electronic radon detector connected to a RAD-H2O accessory (Durridge Co., USA). The measured radon concentration ranges from 0.76 to 4.69 Bq...

  5. Trends in Drinking Water Quality for Some Wells in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, 1997-2009

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    I.S. Al-Salamah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Well water samples were collected during the period of 1997 to 2009 from seventeen wells to represent Saq aquifer, Qassim Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The water samples were analyzed to determine their quality for domestic use. The water samples were investigated with respect to Electrical Conductivity (EC, total water hardness and the concentrations of hydrogen (pH, calcium (Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, chloride (Cl¯, sulfate SO2-4, nitrate NO?3, fluoride (F¯ and ammonium NH+4. The electrical conductivity increased slowly with time from 1.18 to 1.39 dS m-1, with a mean of 1.31 dS m-1 for all water samples examined. The mean EC complies with the maximum permissible drinking water limits set by the local and international standards. The total hardness for the studied well water is 278.26 ppm as calcium carbonate which was classified as very hard water. Therefore, the water of wells should be softened to react with soap for domestic use. The pH in all water samples ranged from 6.77 to 7.28 with a mean of 7.02. This mean of pH complies well with standard value set for drinking water. The concentrations of the cations and anions follow, more or less, a trend similar to EC with time. The cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the anions concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible drinking water limits. The concentrations of F¯ in the all of colleted samples ranged from 0.29-0.37 ppm with a mean of 0.36 ppm. The mean concentration of F¯ is alarming because it is below the lower permissible limit of 0.6 ppm set by the World Health Organization. So, the water of these wells must be fluorinated before drinking use. The concentration of in all water samples ranged between 0.0 to 0.27 ppm with a mean of 0.22 ppm. In general, the concentration of is alarming because it is higher than the permissible concentration in the drinking water (0.0 ppm.

  6. Measurement of Radon Concentrations and Their Annual Effective Dose Exposure in Groundwater from Qassim Area, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El-Taher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is a radioactive noble gas of a natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and in different types of water. It is worthy to carry out the distribution of radon (222Rn activity concentration and their annual effective dose exposure in groundwater samples from Qassim area, Saudi Arabia. Radon concentrations were measured by using RAD7 an electronic radon detector connected to a RAD-H2O accessory (Durridge Co., USA. The measured radon concentration ranges from 0.76 to 4.69 Bq L-1 with an average value of 2.8 Bq L-1. The measured values of radon concentration are well in the range within the EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL of 11.1 Bq L-1. The total annual effective dose resulting from radon in groundwater of Qassim area were significantly lower than the (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR and World Health Organization WHO recommended limit for members of the public of 1 mSv year-1. The measured values for underground water from the study area suggest that the area is safe for farmers and there is no significant threat to the population as per as radon concentration is concerned.

  7. Asthma care: Structural foundations at primary health care at Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia

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    AL-Haddad Nasser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proper structural foundations for asthma care at primary health care centers [PHCCs], are of essential importance, regarding its management. OBJECTIVE: To assess the adherence of PHCCs to the recommended structural foundation for asthma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 35 PHCCs were selected in a cluster random fashion. A questionnaire for structural standards was designed, based on the Saudi national protocol for the management of asthma (SNPMA. A physician and a nurse, each from PHCC, were trained for data collection. Structural facilities deficiency was arbitrarily classified into: least deficient (>75%, moderate to severe deficient (25-75% and most deficient (< 25%. RESULTS: The total population registered, was 131190 [urban: 85701 (65.4%, rural: 45489 (34.6%]. Total registered asthmatics was 4093 [urban: 2585 (63.1%, rural: 1508 (36.9%]. The asthma prevalence rate did not differ significantly between urban (3% and rural (3.3% areas . Structural facilities distribution for asthma care, did not significantly vary among urban and rural PHCCs and none of them fulfilled 100% of the desired standards. The least deficient, were the availability of asthma register and salbutamol, in its various forms. The moderately to severely deficient were the SNPMA, peak flow meter (PFM, nebulizer system, Theophylline and systemic corticosteroid. However, they were most deficient in trained doctors and nurses, record charts for Peak flow meter, spacer, educational material and inhalers of corticosteroid or cromoglycate. CONCLUSION: Proper structural foundations for asthma care at PHCCs, at AL-Qassim region, were below the desired national standards. They were most deficient in trained doctors and nurses, record charts for PFM, spacers, educational material and anti-inflammatory inhalers. Future health directorate strategies have to provide such beneficial interventions for proper asthma care.

  8. Application of ERT Survey for Addressing the Issues of Urban Rain Storm Water Logging in the Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Kassem, Osama M. K.; Hussein, Mohammad T.; Al-bassam, Abdulaziz M.

    2012-01-01

    The Qassim province is one of the most arid regions of Saudi Arabia, however heavy rainfall events have led to water logging problems in the populated centers like Buraidah mainly as a consequence of construction in low lying areas and valleys. Urban rain storm water logging problem were reported at 4 localities in the Buraidah Municipal area after heavy rainfall in November 2008 and March 2009. The logged water from these sites were directed to 4 manmade lakes however the stagnant water in t...

  9. The pattern of skin diseases in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia: What the primary care physician should know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies to determine the burden of skin diseases are important for proper health care planning. The purpose of this study was to find the pattern of skin diseases in our patients attending university-affiliated dermatologic clinics in the Qassim region.We conducted a prospective study of all Saudi patients attending the Qassim University Medical College-affiliated dermatology clinics of the Ministry of Health for a period of 12 months from 1 March 2008 to 28 February 2009.The study included 3051 patients comprising 1786 (58.5%) males and 1265 (41.5%) females. Males outnumbered females (P<.05) (male-to-female ratio, 1.4:1). The mean age (standard error of the mean) of the patients was 25.3 (0.27) years. About 71% of the patients were between 5 and 34 years of age. The top five skin diseases were eczema/ dermatitis (19.5%), viral infections (16.6%), pilosebaceous disorders (14.4%), pigmentary lesions (11.2%) and hair disorders (7.6%). The major disorder in males was viral skin infections (20.0%), while eczema/dermatitis (20.7%) constituted the most prevalent skin disease in females. Seasonal variations were recorded in cases of pigmentary lesions, papulosquamous disorders and protozoal infections.Infectious skin diseases, eczema/dermatitis, pilosebaceous disorders, pigmentary lesions and hair disorders ranked as the top five skin diseases. Appropriate training programs for diagnosing and managing common skin diseases should be initiated for primary healtases should be initiated for primary health care physicians and other general practitioners so as to decrease referrals to dermatology clinics (Author).

  10. Application of ERT Survey for Addressing the Issues of Urban Rain Storm Water Logging in the Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal K. Zaidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Qassim province is one of the most arid regions of Saudi Arabia, however heavy rainfall events have led to water logging problems in the populated centers like Buraidah mainly as a consequence of construction in low lying areas and valleys. Urban rain storm water logging problem were reported at 4 localities in the Buraidah Municipal area after heavy rainfall in November 2008 and March 2009. The logged water from these sites were directed to 4 manmade lakes however the stagnant water in these lakes posed a serious environmental threat mainly in the form of water borne disease. Keeping this problem in mind, a detailed geophysical investigation in the form of Electrical Resistivity Tomography was carried out using the SYSCAL Pro Unit at these 4 locations with a dipole-dipole configuration. The survey was helpful in delineating the wet zones from the dry ones and based on the interpretations the optimum depth and sites of 4 injections bore-wells were determined at each locality. These injection bore-well would serve the dual propose of getting rid of the stagnant water in these lakes and also recharging the underlying aquifers.

  11. Prevalence of group a rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, norovirus and astrovirus infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in al-qassim, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the prevalence of Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Norovirus, and Astrovirus among Saudi children with gastroenteritis. This study was conducted at the Department of Medical Laboratories, Qassim University during the winter seasons of the years 2004 and 2005. A total of 284 diarrhoeal fecal specimens collected from children were tested for the gastroenteritis causing viruses using enzyme immunoassay. Of the 284 specimens, 142 (50%) were found to be positive for viruses causing gastroenteritis. Rotavirus (66.2%) was the most frequently detected, followed by adenovirus (15.5%), norovirus and astrovirus each with 9.2%. All of rotavirus detected belonged to group A. Eight specimens were found positive by two viruses. The introduction of simple and rapid tests for diagnosis of viruses causing gastroenteritis in our pediatric hospitals will improve patient care by reducing unnecessary treatments and hospital stay for patients. (author)

  12. Impact of health education on lifestyles in central Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Farid M. Midhet; Sharaf, Fawzy K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of health education on diet, smoking, and physical activity among patients visiting the primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Al-Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS We conducted an uncontrolled experimental study from January to October 2009 to evaluate the impact of health education on smoking, diet, and physical activity among attendees of PHCCs in Al-Qassim province, KSA. We trained the PHCC staff in health education skills and ...

  13. Human papilloma virus early proteins E6 (HPV16/18-E6) and the cell cycle marker P16 (INK4a) are useful prognostic markers in uterine cervical carcinomas in Qassim Region--Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, O M; AlSheeha, M

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common and an important public health problem for adult women in developing countries. In contrast, cervical cancer incidence is low in Saudi Arabia. High-risk types of human papilloma viruses (HPV16 and HPV18) are the most significant risk factors for cervical cancer. HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein is associated with HPV etiology, viral persistence and epithelial transformation. Cell cycle protein p16 INK4a (p16) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cervical carcinomas. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of HPV16/18-E6 and p16 in uterine cervical carcinomas in Qassim Region--Saudi Arabia, and to relate the results to the established clinicopathological prognostic parameters (age of the patient, educational level, birth control methods, number of pregnancy, smoking status, degree of histological differentiation, clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis) The study included 40 specimens of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas diagnosed and confirmed by biopsy. Histopathological classification of cervical tumors cases was performed according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Immunohistochemical analysis for HPV16/18-E6 and p16 were carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of cervical tissues using avidin-biotin peroxidase method. There was a significant statistical correlation between HPV16/18-E6 expression in cervical carcinoma and nationality, smoking status and size of the tumor. HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein expression in normal lymphocytes and endothelial cells in the tumor tissues and the adjacent normal cervical tissues suggest the possibility that HPV infection might spread to other organs through blood circulation. P16 expression has been correlated with high grade, stage of cervical SCC and HPV16/18-E6 expression. The current study supports the critical function of p16 and HPV16/18-E6 as specific markers for cervical carcinoma. However the potential for usage of p16 and HPV16/18-E6 as prognostic markers will require detailed follow data for a larger group of patients. PMID:24925218

  14. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  15. Phytogeography of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the phyto geography of Saudi Arabia and examines its phytogeographic location within the complex plant geographical regions of the Middle East. It reviews and discuses works have that been published so far by plant geographers and biogeographers on the phytogeographical regions of Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, and determines the location of Saudi Arabia within it. The delimitation of the frontiers between plant-regions in Saudi Arabia, especially the south western part, which has always created some difficulties for biogeographers as well as phytogeographers who have studied the region. (author)

  16. Hyperlipidemia in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Moheeb Abdullah; Akram Al-Khadra; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohammed S. Nouh

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. METHODS Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination, and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol > or =5.2 mmol/l), and hypertriglyceridemia (HT...

  17. Obesity in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Moheeb A. Abdullah; Akram H. Al-Khadra; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohmmed S. Nouh

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Obesity and overweight are well known risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and are expected to be increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) particularly among females. Therefore, we designed this study with the objective to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudis of both gender, between the ages of 30-70 years in rural as well as in urban communities. This work is part of a major national project called Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis S...

  18. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dhafer, H.M.; Dawah, H. A.; Abdullah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew).

  19. Smoking in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mohammed T.; Bassiony, Medhat M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, consumption, trade, control, prevention, and treatment of tobacco smoking in Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of current smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% (median = 17.5%). Among school students, the prevalence of current smoking ranges from 12-29.8% (median = 16.5%), among university students from 2.4-37% (median = 13.5%), and among adults from 11.6-52.3% (median = 22.6%). In elderly people, the prevalence of curre...

  20. Hypertension in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Moheeb Abdullah; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Akram Al-Khadra; Mohammed S. Nouh; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of hypertension among Saudis of both gender, between the ages of 30-70 years in rural as well as urban communities. This work is part of a major national study on Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis Study (CADISS). METHODS This is a community-based study conducted by examining subjects in the age group of 30-70 years of selected households during a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history using a validat...

  1. Hypertension in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand

    1999-01-01

    Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of the kingdom. There is a need to unify the diagnostic procedures and to determine the factors behind such significant differences.

  2. Disability in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Maher S. Al-Jadid

    2013-01-01

    Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disabili...

  3. Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation ofled investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  4. Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potenand Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

  5. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kheyami Ali; Cunliffe Nigel; Hart C

    2006-01-01

    Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of ...

  7. Articular chondrocalcinosis in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman S. Al-Arfaj; Ahmed A. Al-Boukai

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in subjects aged 50 years and above in a radiographic survey through 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Over a period of 7 months extending from September 1998 to March 1999, 153 patients attending 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were interviewed, examined and then requested to have radiographs of knees (anteroposterior and lateral), wrists ...

  8. Colorectal cancers in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Mansoor; Ibrahim H. Zahrani; Syed Abdul Aziz

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this retrospective study is to delineate the histopathological profile of colorectal cancers seen at King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to compare our findings with 12 other studies published in the literature from other areas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Our study group consisted of 39 colorectal cancer patients, who were examined in the department of Histopathology at King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, K...

  9. Metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Al-Nozha; Akram Al-Khadra; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Moheeb Abdullah; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohmmed S. Nouh

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). We designed this study to obtain the prevalence of MS and each of its components in Saudi Arabia. This study is part of Coronary Artery Disease in Saudi Study (CADISS). METHODS We conducted this community-based national epidemiological health survey by examining Saudi subjects in the age group of 30-70 years of selected households over a 5-year period between 199...

  10. Family Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Wafaa K.Taia; Wafaa M. El-Ghanem

    2004-01-01

    Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was point...

  11. Saudi Arabia walks a tightrope

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, P.

    2007-01-01

    Saudi diplomacy seems more active than ever. This has to do with three recent major regional developments: the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah in the occupied Palestinian territories, and the Iraqi quagmire. In each of these, the role of Iran is difficult to overlook and this is troubling Riyadh. Yet Saudi Arabia has difficulty in responding to Iran's assertiveness: it wants to contain Tehran's ambitions, but at the same time it cannot...

  12. Saudi Arabia and Jordan: friends in adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Saudi–Jordanian relations are a mismatch between broadly identical interests and differing means and capacities to realize them. Saudi Arabia has the potential to advance its interests, but is hamstrung by leadership structure, habit and political culture. Jordan has some advantages in terms of leadership structure, habit and political culture, but has only limited ability to affect its interests. Saudi Arabia’s historic sensitivities concerning its one-time Hashemite rival in Arabia a...

  13. Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiradonna, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

  14. Adolescent endocrinology in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, M.A.; H. S. Al-Salhi; M. A. Anani; L. Q. Melendrez

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The importance of providing special health care services for adolescents has been recently stressed. In Saudi Arabia, adolescents have no special services. In this study, we describe our first 5 years experience of an adolescent endocrinology clinic in Security Forces Hospital. We believe it is the first clinic with this objective in the Kingdom. METHODS An adolescent endocrinology clinic was run by a team composed of pediatric endocrinologist, diabetic nurse educator, cli...

  15. First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A.; Matari, Adel H.; Al-Massari, Abdu M.; Nasser, Abdulaziz H.; Attia, Yousry; Halawani, Mohammed A.

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (similar to 75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titan...

  16. Rock Art of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed Khan

    2013-01-01

    It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity,...

  17. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheyami Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

  18. Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim S. Alkhalife; Rafiaa R. Hassan; Ahmed A. Abdel-Hameed; Laila A. Al-Khayal

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphylloboth...

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Hisham

    2004-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease in HCV prevalence, probably due to increase awareness and improved socioeconomic status. Genotype 4 is the commonest genotype in Saudi patients infected with HCV which unfortunately is least likel...

  20. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author) into future vaccines. (author)

  1. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  2. Sports injuries in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M.

    1985-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site...

  3. Campylobacter enteritis in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, R.

    1992-01-01

    A 12-month survey on the incidence of campylobacter infection in 1217 patients with diarrhoea was carried out in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Campylobacters were isolated from 55 (4.5%) patients, second in prevalence to salmonellas (6.2%). Shigellas were isolated from 4.2% of patients. Campylobacter isolation rates were high in children of all ages, as well as in young adults (36.5% of all isolates were from adults aged 20-39 years). Isolation rates peaked in September and November. Analysis of the ...

  4. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  5. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Pazheri, F. R.

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installati...

  6. Factors affecting child mortality in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Nasser A. Alhamdan; Abduelelah I. Alkotobi; Osman M. Nour; Mohamed A. Farag

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate levels and trends, gender differentials, effect of modes of living, regional differentials, and the effect of parental educational on infant and child mortality. METHODS A nationwide stratified random sample was used to estimate levels, trends and differentials of infant and child mortality in Saudi Arabia. The study was executed during the period February 2006 to June 2006 and covered all the 20 health regions of Saudi Arabia. The randomly selected sample was ...

  7. Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid M. Al-Harbi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kaw...

  8. Evaluation of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Al-Bishri

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between 2010 and 2011. Methods: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia) as a keyword. The search was limited to the studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December ...

  9. Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Syed E. Ahmed; Salman A. Al-Abbas; Abdallah S. Al-Omran; Mir Sadat-Ali; Badar A. Al-Shafei; Rasha A. Al-Turki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2...

  10. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Argic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  11. Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William

    2006-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

  12. Obesity among Saudi male adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its correlates among Saudi male adolescents in Riyadh. As well as evaluating their knowledge, attitude and practice towards obesity. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted in intermediate and secondary schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out during a 5-month period, September 2001-January 2002. A sample of 894 Saudi male adolescents (age 12-20 years) was selected through the m...

  13. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  14. Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Amani

    2005-01-01

    The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

  15. The incidence rate of thyroid cancer among women in saudi arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from saudi cancer registry 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2015-06-01

    This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women. PMID:24859807

  16. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  17. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil; Osman Abdel Moniem; Al Gahtani Furgah; Farghali Mohamed; Ramadan Ali; Al-Momen Abdel Kareem

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517...

  18. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  19. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hisham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease in HCV prevalence, probably due to increase awareness and improved socioeconomic status. Genotype 4 is the commonest genotype in Saudi patients infected with HCV which unfortunately is least likely to respond to the standard interferon therapy though recent studies using pegylated interferon demonstrated promising results. Liver transplantation for patients with end stage liver disease was started in 1994 but the cases currently done are still less than that required

  1. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female decant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  2. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Glomerulonephritis (GN) is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS) is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD) encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in ...

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Ali M. Al-Barrak

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To present the available susceptibility data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) published in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS In a meta-analysis, studies published between 1966 and 2001 were included. Publication sites include Medline-indexed and non-indexed. Numbers of grown and resistant isolates were tabulated for first-line anti-tuberculosis agents. RESULTS Twelve studies met the pre-set criteria. Data o...

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bokhary, Rana Y; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the pattern of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the population of 2 large tertiary centers in the western province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS This retrospective study used cases diagnosed as GIST at the histopathology laboratories of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital between January 2000 and October 2009, and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, KSA, between January 2002 and December 2008. Additionally, cas...

  5. Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saeed Abdulhamid

    2010-01-01

    Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend a...

  6. Human brucellosis in Northern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Samira M. Fallatah; Adekunle J. Oduloju; Saad N. Al-Dusari; Yisa M. Fakunle

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Analysis of the clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment given and complications seen in brucellosis patients at the Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital, Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS We retrieved and reviewed the record charts of all patients from January 1995 to December 2001 with a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis whose brucella agglutination titre was 1:160 or greater from the Medical Records Department of Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital...

  7. Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Madani Tariq A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%), trichomoniasis (...

  8. Temperature Trend on Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif Esawy A. Abdou

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate temperature trend and distribution over 29 years period (1985 to 2013) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for all Muslims. Monthly mean, maximum, and minimum temperature levels and their trends are investigated using Regression analysis and Theil-Sen nonparametric test. Also, trends in deviations from the reference period (1985-2013) are analyzed. The results showed that the number of hot days and nights increase...

  9. Regional Security Issues in Contemporary Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Jonas Nogel; Kababo, Anas Yoseph; Madsen, Signe Røskva; Petersen, Asger Bagge

    2014-01-01

    In this project we seek to analyse what security issues the country of Saudi Arabia is facing in the Middle East and the Gulf. These issues are analysed from the theoretical framework of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, and their theory on Regional Security Complex. The analysis framework of securitization is divided into five sectors, our analysis being conducted only in the political, military, economic and societal sectors. This has allowed us to deconstruct and get an understand...

  10. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Otaibi Fawzia; El Hazmi Malak

    2010-01-01

    Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a cult...

  11. Aedes Mosquito Species in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhan, Masroor; Ghamdi, Khalid Al; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes.

  12. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, Saudi Cancer Registry, corpus uteri cancer, age standardized incidence rate

  13. The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kassimi FA

    2013-01-01

    Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

  14. HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Sebai, Zohair A.; Milaat, Waleed A.; Al-zulaibani, Abdulmohsen A.

    2001-01-01

    Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development i...

  15. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Some Localities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah N. Alkhalaf

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out prevalence and types of avian influenza virus (AIV among broilers, native chickens, ducks and pigeons in Saudi Arabia. Field investigation was carried out in four localities including Al-Qassim, Hail, Al-Jouf and Northern Border regions. Serum sample, tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from broilers (n=1561, layers (n=988, ducks (n=329 and pigeons (n=450 from these localities and tested for three different avian influenza viruses (H9, H5 and H3 using Enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA test, hamagglutination inhibition (HI test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All tested samples were negative for H5 and H3 viruses. In contrast, all positive results were found to be for H9 AI virus using PCR, ELISA and HI test. Chicken sera tested by ELISA for AIV revealed the highest positive samples in Northern Border regions (45.71%, followed by Al-Jouf (29.65%, Al-Qassim (23.98% and Hial (20.94% with non-significant difference (?2=5.983; P=0.112. HI test carried out on duck sera revealed 35.90% prevalence of antibodies against AIV. PCR amplification resulted in 34.28 and 21.36% positive samples in ducks and chickens, respectively. The highest (45.71% PCR positive chicken samples were from Northern Border regions, followed by Al-Jouf (24.13%, Al-Qassim (19.30% and Hail (16.69% with significant difference (?2=7.620; P=0.055. All tested pigeons samples were negative for the three virus serotypes included in the study.

  16. Diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Akram Al-Khadra; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Mohammed S. Nouh; Moheeb Abdullah; Omer Attas; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem worldwide, and it is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). New recommendations for the diagnosis of diabetes have changed the epidemiology of DM. Therefore, we designed this study with the objective to determine the prevalence of DM among Saudis of both sexes, between the ages of 30-70-years in rural as well as urban communities. This work is part of a major national project: Coronary Artery Disease in Saud...

  17. Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulatif A. Gari; Yahya A. Al-Ghamdi; Hamed S. Qutbuddeen; Munzir M. Alandonisi; Faisal A. Mandili; Alaa Sultan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 5.97, and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common cause was scalding (81.7%). Approximately 92.8% o...

  18. Toxoplasmosis in Goats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Aljumaah; Hussein, M. F.; Al-mufarrej, S.I.; A.R. Gar ElNabi

    2011-01-01

    During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1) along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2) were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the contr...

  19. 76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ...energy use and loss. Saudi Arabia also relies on desalination plants to produce 70% of its potable water, using as...Arabia hopes to start up its first solar-powered desalination plant in 2013. Renewable Energy: The Saudi Arabian...

  20. Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. Howevere of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

  1. Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and lem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

  2. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

  3. Man-threatening viruses isolated from ticks in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed S. Al-Khalifa; Fathy M. Diab; Khalil, Galila M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine tick viruses transmissible to man in Saudi Arabia. METHODS We collected tick samples for identification from different region of Saudi Arabia during March 1992 - December 1992. Ticks collected from domestic animals were washed with buffer containing antibiotics, macerated, triturated in minimal essential media (MEM), centrifuged and the supernatant inoculated intracerebrally in suckling mice. Brains of mice showing disease signs were similarly treated and the ...

  4. Organizational E-Government Readiness: An Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim A.; Robert Goodwin; Giselle Rampersad

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant investment in e-government programs internationally and the pertinent need fore-government readiness to allow such programs to germinate, the purpose of this study is to assessOrganizational E-Government Readiness (OEGR) in Saudi Arabia. Based on interviews held with leadinge-Government officials in Saudi Arabia, the study contributes a conceptual framework to evaluate OEGR factorsin order to advance public sector transformation to E-Government. The study reveals that ke...

  5. Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jastaniah Wasil

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the E...

  6. Pattern of management of urologic cancer in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Othman Khalid; Al-Hathal Naif

    2010-01-01

    Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the questionnaire. Sevent...

  7. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi; Ali Al-Zahrani

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the cit...

  8. Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Turki Rasha; Al-Dardas Hiba; Al-Gazal Manal; Al-Maghrabi Ghada; Al-Enizi Nawal; Ghareeb Basema

    2010-01-01

    Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS). Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred and fifty Masla...

  9. Ultraviolet solar radiation at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of ultraviolet solar radiation for the period January 1985 to December 1987 at Dhahran (26°32?N, 50°13?E), Saudi Arabia, are analyzed. Dependence of ultraviolet radiation on the atmospheric clearness index is investigated. For a clearness index above 0.65, the ratio of ultraviolet radiation to total horizontal radiation is a constant value of 3.45%. For a clearness index below 0.65, the ratio was found to vary significantly with clearness index but it was also a strong function of the meteorological events (i.e., rainfall, clouds and suspended dust) bringing about the clearness index change. A ratio of ultraviolet to total horizontal radiation as high as 4.6% was reached on a rainy day, while a ratio as low as 2.1% was obtained for a dusty day

  10. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A.; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Conclusion: Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers’ awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications. PMID:25737176

  11. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

  12. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the ...

  13. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  14. Clinical aspects of malaria in the Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, G M; Seidi, O; El-Taher, A; Mohammed, A S

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty-four cases of confirmed malaria seen in the Asir Central Hospital, Abha, in southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied retrospectively. Two hundred and eighty-two of these (84.4%) were Saudis and the majority (72.2%) were living in the lowlands of Tihama. Transmission was found to occur throughout the year, with peaks following the rainy season and in the summer. In Saudis, falciparum malaria is more common than vivax (97.2% vs. 2.8%), while vivax malaria is more commonly seen in expatriates (46.2%). Poor response of falciparum malaria to chloroquine was more prevalent in expatriates than in Saudis (46.4% vs. 23%). Most of the expatriates gave a history of recent travel to countries known to be endemic with resistant malaria. The possibility of the emergence of chloroquine-resistant malaria in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia was discussed. PMID:17341908

  15. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.

  16. Isotopic composition of Riyadh rainfall, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knöller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of ?18O and ?D are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed ?18O and ?D values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of ?-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 ‰ V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model, access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, College Park, MD.

  17. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

  18. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  19. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Gautret, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007-2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country. PMID:25820096

  20. Monetary Policy in Saudi Arabia: A Taylor-Rule Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hussein Almounsor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the stance of actual monetary policy in Saudi Arabia relative to a benchmark Taylor-rule calibration of short-term interest rates. In addition, the reaction function of monetary policy in Saudi Arabia is estimated empirically to understand the behavior of interest rates using an augmented Taylor-rule equation. The results indicates that the Saudi monetary authorities do not follow the Taylor-rule in any strict way. The actual stance of monetary policy is found to be tight in the early period of analysis, but found to be loose since 2007, relative to the calibration outcomes. Empirically, it appears that the Federal Funds Rate is the most significant factor affecting the behavior of Saudi interest rate, given the fixed exchange rate with the USD. However, there seems to be a modest accommodation of monetary policy to productivity growth, diversification efforts, and the need for increased financial intermediation over time.

  1. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Abolfotouh; Mh, Al-assiri; Al-Omani M; Al Johar A; Al Hakbani A; As, Alaskar

    2014-01-01

    Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Sa...

  2. Evaluation of medication package inserts in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Aqeel SA

    2012-01-01

    Sinaa A Al-aqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to examine if package inserts (PIs) supplied with prescribed and over-the-counter medications in Saudi Arabia contain information relevant for the safe and appropriate use of these medications.Methods: Sixty PIs for prescription-only medications (n = 37) and over-the-counter medications (n = 23) were evaluated against a set of safety criteria compiled from the ...

  3. Sickle beta 0 thalassemia in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pembrey, M. E.; Perrine, R. P.; Wood, W. G.; Weatherall, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The sickle cell (beta s) gene occurs at a high frequency in the oasis populations of Eastern Saudi Arabia. However, as compared with the disorder in Africans, sickle cell anemia runs an unusually benign clinical course in this populations; this has been attributed in part to the relatively high levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) which characterize Saudi Arabians with this condition [1, 2]. As yet, there is no satisfactory explanation for this remarkable phenomenon. To learn more about the expr...

  4. Sickle cell anemia morbidity in Northern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    George I. Izuora; Saad N. Al-Dusari; Yisa M. Fakunle

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Documentation of the morbidity in sickle cell patients presenting at the Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital, Hafr Al Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the burden of delivering care to these patients. METHODS The record charts of all Saudi patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) admitted between June 1994 through to July 2001 were retrospectively analyzed. Focus was on age of patients, frequency of admissions, duration of hospital stay and requirements for blood transfusio...

  5. Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described

  6. Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed Mohamed S; Alsmadi Osama; Al-Mubarak Bashair R; Trabzuni Danyah; Al-Sayed Moeen; Imtiaz Faiqa; Meyer Brian F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases ...

  7. Capacity building in radiopharmaceuticals: Saudi Arabia experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Undoubtedly, easy availability of radiopharmaceuticals is a key element in application of radioisotopes in health care. And, creating self-sufficiency within the country and the geographical region in manufacturing these time-limited products further enhances this prospect. For obvious reasons, on demand availability and timely distribution of products bodes well for a regional programme. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, one such programme began in early 1980s with the installation of the CS-30 (26.4 MeV) cyclotron, with an intention not only to make available the cyclotron products for medical imaging, but also to establish a contemporary research programme in radiotracer development as exemplified by simultaneous installation of a Tomogram (PET scanner) at the time when PET scanning was in its infancy. The first beam on target in 1982 produced the first batch of 67Ga citrate radiopharmaceutical, followed by an addition of various other cyclotron based products over the years. Presently, the Cyclotron Facility routinely produces six cyclotron isotopes (201Tl, 67Ga, 81mKr, 123I, 18F and 13N) which are subsequently formulated into nine different radiopharmaceuticals. Weekly, approximately 25 batches of radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured supporting 35 nuclear medicine facilities within the country and the geographical region. A key montry and the geographical region. A key motivating and driving force for our Centre has been the goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. Consequently, we introduced in Year 2000 the 131I based products for diagnosis as well as for therapy, including on-request manufacturing of 131I labeled mIBG. Good Manufacturing Practice is the cornerstone of any radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program. KFSH and RC is a perfect example of how this operational and guiding principle has been applied and evolved over the years, culminating into an effective quality management system for manufacturing radiopharmaceutical products consistently conforming to specifications. The programme building has been 'work in progress' from the onset and continues to be so, particularly in establishment and implementation of strict operational philosophy of GMP and ISO quality management system. We also realized that people are the most important component of any viable program. For efficient functioning, the staff must be well qualified and appropriately trained to achieve the mission of the organization. This has been achieved through staff selection based upon educational background, followed by extensive on-the-job training, as well as didactic education. Consequently, our facility has had a good mix of young and experienced staff. Furthermore, we have availed of the various IAEA's programmes in specific training and fellowships for in depth exposure to other centres. With embarkation upon new programs, continuing education remains a central theme in ultimate success of the entire program. The experience gained over two decades of continuous operation breeds confidence in the staff to achieve the goal of making Saudi Arabia self-sufficient in all its radiopharmaceuticals needs. Continuing with our commitment to make available to the peoples of the country the most contemporary imaging modality, PET scanner was installed at KFSH and RC in 1995. Along with the routine PET work, we have established a team of scientists to perform research work in developing new radiotracers. KFSH and RC's cyclotron facility has continually focused on an overwhelming goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. To this end, the year 2005 is the beginning of establishing just one such facility through expansion of the program that entails: a new building; a state-of-the-art cyclotron (30 MeV; plus a small cyclotron dedicated for PET isotopes production); advanced clean rooms; more importantly, the establishment of the Tc-99m Generators and Cold Kits manufacturing programs. Presentation will entail past, present

  8. Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Saeed Abdulhamid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008 were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend along the studied period. Results: Data analysis showed an escalating trend for the total number of claims over the study period being started with 440 cases on 1420H and ended with 1356 cases by the year 1429H. The annual percentage of the final verdicts of accusation to the total number of claims presented to all committees ranges between 45.5%?60.2% with a mean value of 49.9%. Distribution of final verdicts among different clinical specialities showed that obstetrics takes the lead with a mean percentage of 25.5% along the studied period (1420H-1429H, followed by the practice of general surgery with a mean percentage of 13.8%. The sector of health care service showed a significant variation in relation to the mean number of final verdicts with accusation along the studied period, being the highest in the Ministry of Health sector with a mean number of 216.8 claims, followed by the private sector with a mean number of 197.3 claims. Conclusion: Adherence to the standards of medical practice is by far to the best approach to avoid and reduce the incidence of litigation.

  9. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...by a combination of a large and growing economy and strong demographic fundamentals. Among Saudi Arabia's super-projects are...Billions more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's strongly-competitive...

  10. Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Aron J.; Tokars, Jerome I.; Badreddine, Samar A.; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Kuhar, David T.; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection.

  11. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  12. Health care worker contact with MERS patient, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Aron J; Tokars, Jerome I; Badreddine, Samar A; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Kuhar, David T; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U; Pallansch, Mark A; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-12-01

    To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612

  13. Vegetation-Environment Relations in Taif, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab I. Abdel-Fattah; Akram A. Ali

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the plant communities and environmental factors that govern species, abundance and distribution in Taif area, western Saudi Arabia, using TWINSPAN analysis. Twenty three vegetation groups were identified visual, seven groups dominated by Aerva lanata, Pergularia tomentosa, Arnebia hispidissima, Salsola spinescens, Capparis decidua, Aizoon canariense and Blepharis ciliaris in the sand plains, Calotropis procera, Dipterygium gluacum, Bassia muricata, Haloxylon scoparium, Aer...

  14. Wagner's Law in Saudi Arabia 1970 - 2012: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Moosa Ageli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal in this paper is to explorethe validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012 for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP.Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previousstudies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth.We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine how far Wagner’s Law validity can be applied in Saudi economy. The results obtained from the analyses find that the Wagnerian proposition can explain the growth of government in Saudi Arabia, which holds for both the oil and non-oil income cases. The findings also note that the existence of strong causality for all of Wagner’s law versions in the long run.

  15. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives of the current work were to 1 determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of male college students in KSA and 2 determine the relationship between the students' body weight status and composition and their eating habits. Methods A total of 357 male students aged 18-24 years were randomly chosen from College of Health Sciences at Rass, Qassim University, KSA for the present study. A Self-reported questionnaire about the students' eating habits was conducted, and their body mass index (BMI, body fat percent (BF%, and visceral fat level (VFL were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, and the Chi-square test was conducted for variables. Results The current data indicated that 21.8% of the students were overweight and 15.7% were obese. The total body fat exceeded its normal limits in 55.2% of the participants and VFL was high in 21.8% of them. The most common eating habits encountered were eating with family, having two meals per day including breakfast, together with frequent snacks and fried food consumption. Vegetables and fruits, except dates, were not frequently consumed by most students. Statistically, significant direct correlations were found among BMI, BF% and VFL (P Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for strategies and coordinated efforts at all levels to reduce the tendency of overweight, obesity and elevated body fat, and to promote healthy eating habits in our youth.

  16. Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Omar Elhendawy

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued) in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25...

  17. Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyrks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)

  18. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia

  19. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study perio...

  20. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Gelban Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical...

  1. Breastfeeding knowledge and attitude among Saudi women in Central Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yazeed A. Alwelaie; Eyas A. Alsuhaibani; Abrar M. Al-Harthy; Reem H. Radwan; Rawan G. Al-Mohammady; Ahmed M. Almutairi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge and attitude of Saudi women towards breastfeeding. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted in 3 major hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period 7 July--22 July 2009. Eight hundred and forty-eight women in the post-natal and post-cesarean section wards were included in the study along with women attending antenatal clinics. An Arabic questionnaire was generated and completed by women. RESULTS Of the 848 participating women, 61.5% fel...

  2. Factors That Affect Consumption Patterns and Market Demands for Honey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhy Ismaiel; Safar Al Kahtani; Nuru Adgaba; Al-ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Abdu Zulail

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant annual consumption of honey in Saudi Arabia, information gaps remain with regard to the marketing and market structure of honey along the value chain. This study analyzed the major factors that influenced the consumption, expenditure patterns, and demand of honey in Saudi Arabia. This study forecasted the near-future expected market demands for honey in Saudi Arabia by collecting and analyzing the primary data using questionnaires. A total of 331 respondents from repre...

  3. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T.; Dennis, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...

  4. Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Amal Mousa Zaidan

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA) and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999) for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and t...

  5. An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Iftekhar Ahmad; Anand Mohan Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)has witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been abl...

  6. Use of Social Media by Online Newspapers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of social media by online newspapers in Saudi Arabia.The websites of online newspapers in Saudi Arabia were surveyed and the social media tools available on their websites were studied. Total 42 online newspapers’ websites were analysed, out of which 36 Arabic online newspapers have implemented web 2.0 applications. In Arabic 3 newspapers also have English version, in addition 2 more newspapers were in English only. Further, 4 websites were not working. The findings of this study can be utilised to assess the status of assorted web 2.0 tools used in online newspapers. It may enable future research to investigate other aspects, such as use of web 2.0 by online newspapers of a particular country and its states. The paper begins with an introduction to Saudi Arabia’s education and media technology, and further attempts to define and explain to web 2.0 applications which are useful to the online newspapers.

  7. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology

  8. Distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor in Southwest Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed A. Sarhan; Kamel A. Saleh; Saad M. Bin-Dajem

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To document the distribution of the ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups in a random sample of Saudi students from the King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to compare our results from that of other studies in the Kingdom and elsewhere. METHODS The subjects included in this study were 944 males from the southwest region of Saudi Arabia including Aseer, Jizan, and Najran regions. The ABO blood groups and Rh factor from 944 Saudi males were determined. The f...

  9. Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri HM; Madkhali A; Al-Kadi MT; Bakhsh H; Alruwaili NN; Tamim HM

    2014-01-01

    Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...

  10. Tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia: the journey across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright

    2015-03-01

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest Arab country with a moderate annual burden of tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis (TB) is among several infectious diseases that have not been brought under control, despite the government's considerable efforts. This is clearly evidenced by the ongoing transmission of several imported and indigenous clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, the country faces the threat from rising proportions of extrapulmonary TB, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections, and drug resistance. Furthermore, the country falls behind the global targets set by World Health Organization for the success rate of TB treatment. The country needs more population-based research studies, centralized and easily accessible clinical data registries, and centralized research and diagnostic facilities. This review focused on the trends of mycobacterial infections and on future proposals to improve TB control measures in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25771458

  11. Emotional abuse among children: a study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarousy, W; Al-Jadaani, M

    2013-10-01

    Emotional abuse is the most hidden and underestimated form of child maltreatment. We report an exploratory study in Saudi Arabia of the rate and types of emotional abuse among children and its association with selected variables. A convenience sample of 60 children aged 12-18 years was recruited from 3 malls in Jeddah. A specially designed, self-administered questionnaire was completed in confidence by the children with the consent of parents. Overall 90% of participants reported at least 1 form of rejecting emotional abuse and 61.7% at least 1 form of ignoring or terrorizing types of abuse. Chronic illness among parents was significantly positively correlated with terrorizing emotional abuse. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mothers' relationship with the child and ignoring and terrorizing types of emotional abuse. Further research is needed about the community prevalence, correlates and consequences of child emotional abuse in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24313151

  12. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  13. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intakhab Alam Khan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and English classes in particular. It is believed that if the teacher of English has undergone a pre-service teacher training it is better for the learners of Saudi Arabia. In the other case, those who have not attended pre-service teacher training, they should go for in-service professional development programs in order to equip them further for innovative teaching and educational output.

  14. Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences position, flower opening, shape of the upper 2 teeth of calyx, shape of sepals apex, shape of wings, length of hairs on ovary, direction of staminal tube tip, leaflets shape and surface and stem habit form and life spin. A key for the identification of the investigated species based on these morphological features is provided.

  15. Healthcare risk waste in Saudi Arabia. Rate of generation.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Al-Zahrani; Z. I. Fakhri; M. A. Al-Shanshouri; M. H. Al-Ayed

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the amount of healthcare risk waste generated by health establishments in Saudi Arabia METHODS A healthcare waste management questionnaire was applied in 27 hospitals, and 16 primary health centres and clinics. The total quantity of healthcare risk waste collected in 24 hours in each of these establishments was weighed. Calculations were carried out to get hospitals rate of healthcare risk waste generation and primary healthcare centres risk waste generation. The...

  16. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  17. Pediatric living-related liver transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Afef F. Bassas; May S. Chehab; Mona S. Al-Shahed; Hans G. Djurberg; Haider A. Al-Shurafa; Muaffak T. Jawdat; Hussa F. Al-Hussaini; Mehrun A. Zuleika; Hamoud A. Al-Hebby; Sami H. Wali

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this paper is to report our experience of the first 29 consecutive living-related liver transplants in pediatric recipients and to demonstrate the feasibility of living-related liver transplantation in the Arab World. The first living-related liver transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was performed in November 1998 by Bassas et al following an appropriate period of multi-disciplinary preparation. METHODS This study was carried out at the Armed Forc...

  18. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-younes, Abla; Al-omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  19. Communication with the seriously ill: physicians' attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mobeireek, A F; al-Kassimi, F A; al-Majid, S A; al-Shimemry, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study some ethical problems created by accession of a previously nomadic and traditional society to modern invasive medicine, by assessment of physicians' attitudes towards sharing information and decision-making with patients in the setting of a serious illness. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered in 1993. SETTING: Riyadh, Jeddah, and Buraidah, three of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia. SURVEY SAMPLE: Senior and junior physicians from departments of internal m...

  20. Gender differences in smoking behavior among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelshakour M. Abdalla; Al-Kaabba, Abdulaziz F.; Saeed, Abdalla A.; Badreldin M. Abdulrahman; Hein Raat

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe and assess gender differences in current cigarette smokers' according to certain variables including prevalence, access to tobacco, knowledge and attitude, environmental tobacco smoke, cessation of smoking, tobacco related advertisements, and education on tobacco in school among adolescents in grades 7-12 in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. METHODS A random sample of schools in Tabuk city was obtained using a 2-stage cluster, in April 2005. A total of 16 governmental ...

  1. Diffusion of the Adoption of Online Retailing in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Rayed

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia is a leading producer of oil and natural gas, a member of G-20, has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, and is very wealthy, online retailing activities are not progressing at the same speed as its growing ICT marketplace. For this reason, the attitudes of retailers in companies at different stages of e-commerce maturity were investigated to determine what factors are causing this problem. The data collect...

  2. Quality issues in continuing medical education in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shehri Ali; Alhaqwi Ali; Al-Sultan Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The issue of continuing medical education (CME) in Saudi Arabia is no longer quantity but rather quality. Quality Management (QM) of the current huge number of CME activities is essential to ensure its merits and outcomes. Sound evaluation is the cornerstone of any QM process to CME. However, issues related to models of evaluation, CME stakeholders, principles of adult learning and assessment should be consid--ered before deciding on the type of evaluation appropriate for QM of CME. Our aim i...

  3. Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf E.M. Khater; Asma Al-Jaloud; A. El-Taher

    2014-01-01

    The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW) to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were ...

  4. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Intakhab Alam Khan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and E...

  5. E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-hudhaif, Sulaiman A.; Abdullah Alkubeyyer

    2011-01-01

    Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their businesstransactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations) or an external set of factors(related to infrastructure and governmental support). We have noticed that most of the studies in this subjectcovered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studiedeCommerce adoption factors in developing economies center on the...

  6. Smoking habits among medical students in Western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood D. Al-Mendalawi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking, and understand the attitude, practice, and knowledge among medical students. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2009 to May 2010. An anonymous, self-administered, Global Adult Tobacco Survey based questionnaire was completed by the students attending the main Medical College of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS Of the 643 students in the study, 90 students (14%)...

  7. Perceived Barriers to Research Publishing in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani

    2011-01-01

    Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the ac...

  8. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Binali Ali; Al-Shehri Mohammed; Abdelmoneim Ismail; Shomrani Ali; Al-Fifi Suliman

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive inge...

  9. The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

    2011-01-01

    Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inade...

  10. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi NA; Al-Habeeb AA; Koenig HG

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...

  11. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi; Ali Al-Zahrani

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71), weaker at the governorate ...

  12. Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfouz, Ahmed A.; Shatoor, Abdullah S.; Al-ghamdi, Badr R.; Hassanein, Mervat A.; Shamsun Nahar; Aesha Farheen; Gaballah, Inasse I.; Amani Mohamed; Rabie, Faten M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs) in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users). In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females...

  13. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking die...

  14. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam within the last 3 years; and among those who have been diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: We have showed that KSA is in dire need of improving the diet of its population. Our findings call for urgent research to understand the reasons for low fruit and vegetable consumption, focusing on price or preference in order to develop and implement culturally and country-relevant solutions to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Keywords: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fruits, vegetables, dietary risks, diet

  15. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  16. Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Omar Elhendawy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.

  17. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia...Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...partnerships with local, safety and security firms, and government agencies...Individual transfer to the hotel. Sunday, September 29,...

  18. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Aqeel SA; Al-Sabhan JF; Sultan NY

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria deri...

  19. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects. These forecasts become possible when the movement and the development of the mid-latitude disturbances are known very well. To further increase our understanding of the inter-annual variability of thunderstorms in semi-arid areas such as Saudi Arabia, it is necessary to consider the relationship between this variability and the large-scale atmospheric parameters in addition to the geographical features. Moreover, better insight into the monthly variations of the synoptic situations in Saudi Arabia is considered to be important for understanding the broad mechanisms responsible for thunderstorm occurrences in this geographical area. This information is highly important for aviation and other sectors in Saudi Arabia - both public and private. This paper aims to investigate the favourable synoptic environments for heavy thunderstorm initiation and development in Saudi Arabia. The importance of the monthly synoptic analysis of all days (1998-2003), heavy thunderstorm days, and dry days was intended to be demonstrated. Therefore, the monthly mean charts and deviations from the mean (anomalies) of specific meteorological parameters for heavy thunderstorm days and dry days for the months of January-December for the period 1998-2003, was illustrated to examine the synoptic conditions leading to heavy thunderstorm events in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Assessment of the Nature, Distribution and Causes of Land Subsidence in Central and Northern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Sultan, M.; Al Harbi, H.; Youssef, A.; Ahmed, M.; Emil, M.; Zabramwi, Y.; Alzahrani, S.; Bahamil, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous land subsidence events have been recently reported from central and northern parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Hail, Al Qassim, Al Jowf, and Buraydah Provinces. In some cases, these incidences resulted in losses in life and property. In this study, an integrated (field, geologic, remote sensing) approach is applied to accomplish the following: (1) identify the spatial distribution and extent of areas affected by subsidence (TASK I), (2) identify the factor(s) causing such subsidence (TASK II), and (3) identify areas threatened by such phenomena across northern and central parts of the Kingdom using criteria extracted from TASK II (TASK III). A three-fold approach was applied: (1) visits were conducted to collect field observations from reported subsidence locations, (2) spatial correlations were implemented in a web-based GIS environment for the reported subsidence locations in relation to relevant co-registered static datasets (e.g., rock and soil types, geologic structures) and temporal datasets (e.g., groundwater extraction, landuse/landcover, distribution and magnitude of earthquakes), (3) subsidence rates were extracted applying the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) radar interferometric technique and using European Remote Sensing satellite-1 (ERS-1), ERS-2, and the Environmental Satellite (Envisat) data sets. Our findings (from radar interferometric studies) indicate that the distribution of areas undergoing subsidence are consistent/correlate with: (1) reported subsidence locations, but reveal many additional unreported subsidence locations, (2) irrigated lands, especially those witnessing a progressive increase in agricultural activities with time; (3) outcrops of the Saq sandstone aquifer system, the main source for fresh groundwater in the Kingdom, (4) outcrops the Minjur limestone formation that are subject to karstification; and (5) urban centers lacking appropriate sewage and drainage systems.

  1. The Role and Responsibility of the National Regulator of Radiation Sources and Materials in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are neither nuclear power reactors nor are there research reactors in Saudi Arabia. However, the country imports a lot of radioactive sources that are used in different fields such as medicine, hydrology, industry and research. Usage of radioactive material is governed by national and the IAEA regulations for the safe usage and transport of radioactive materials. KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) is an independent scientific organization established in 1977. It is the national competent authority that sets the rules of transporting, using and disposing of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia.. This paper discusses the role of KACST and other authorities in the country regarding the 1) licensing and evaluation of the importing and exporting applications of radioactive sources and/or devices in Saudi Arabia, 2) The regulatory framework of radiation protection in Saudi Arabia, 3) the management of radioactive wastes in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  3. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  4. Radon Awareness among Saudi People in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz S. Alaamer

    2012-01-01

    People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people ...

  5. Saudi Arabia: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year

  6. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi Af, Mccarthy A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take c...

  7. Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

  8. E-Commerce Adoption Factors and Their Implications for E-Commerce Business Strategy in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharif, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    This research project provides a comprehensive overview and current perspective of e-commerce usage and adoption factors in Saudi Arabia and seeks to explain why ecommerce use is still in a relatively immature state when compared to other regions. This study examines Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure readiness for online shopping and explores Saudi consumers’ behaviour and attitudes with regard to shopping online. An online survey was conducted to elicit general perceptions of Saudi consumers...

  9. Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage withinacterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

  10. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  11. WATER IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KKhodran H. Al-Zahrani and M. B. Baig

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources affecting the Saudi development plans. The acute shortage of fresh water resources poses a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. Demand for fresh water is on the rise as sufficient water is no longer available to meet daily needs. Some 95% of water comes from aquifers. Desalination plants and waste water reclamation projects provide about 4% and 1% water respectively. About 30% of the water for household consumption comes from desalinating plants. The users of desalinated water of the Kingdom represent about 26% of world total. In the light of the present scenario of declining water resources and increasing demand, the Kingdom must consider the most viable option i.e. Water Demand Management (WDM. However, other necessary water conservation measures should not be overlooked. The article also suggests that in order to use water resources efficiently, factors such as economics, social aspects and environmental conditions must receive due consideration

  12. Family Ownership, Corporate Governance and Performance: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Ghamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the performance of companies listed in the Saudi Stock Exchange. For this purpose, we studied and tested a sample of 792 firm-years among from 11 industrial groups for the years 2006 to 2013 and compared Family and Non-family firms. The research addresses the questions 1 Do family owned firms perform better? 2 How does concentration of ownership affect firm performance, comparing family firms to non-family ones? This research attempts to fill a research gap on the relationship or determinants of capital structure in one of the emerging markets, Saudi Arabia. This study will be implemented through a quantitative approach. Secondary data were obtained from published annual statistical data, from the company financial reports and the DataStream database.

  13. A Web-Based Cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a distinct lack of online atlases to visualize and explore cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries despite the clear benefit that such tools can deliver. This paper describes the development and implementation of a cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia, which is a web-based client-server application with built-in analysis functions for analyzing patterns of cancer incidence. Built using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server API and ASP.NET, the atlas contains 45,532 incidences of cancer for the period from 1998 to 2004, which were provided by the Saudi Arabian National Cancer Registry. This tool is aimed at health care practitioners and researchers, who can use this tool for exploring cancer distribution and investigating trends, and as a decision support tool for service allocation. The tool allows users to map cancer incidence and undertake analyses at four spatial scales from city to national level.  

  14. Scorpion sting syndrome in a general hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Abdulaziz A. Al-Saif

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence of scorpion stings and to draw the attention of clinicians, concerning the dilemma of scorpion sting syndrome and its management in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS In a retrospective survey, 251 cases were presented with scorpion stings to the Emergency Department of the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA during a period of 15 years (April 1986 to April 2000). Their ages ranged from 2 months to 101 years (male to female ratio was 2.6:1)...

  15. Technological evaluation of nuclear research reactors for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a multi-attribute decision approach is used to select the best nuclear research reactor alternative for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This approach is based on the fuzzy sets theory. The four alternatives which are analyzed are similar to University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor (GTRR), and University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR). The results show that the UWNR reactor is the best alternative, and the FNR is the second best

  16. Floristic Composition of Lake Al-Asfar, Alahsa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf M. Youssef; Mohamed A Al-Fredan; Fathi, Adel A.

    2009-01-01

    The vegetation communities of the shores of Lake Al-Asfar; a large salt lake in Al-Hofouf, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia; were studied. The aim of the research was to study the relationship between the distribution of vegetation along salt lake shores in relation to soil and climatic conditions. Four distinct lake shore habitats were examined. A total of 72 stands along the study area of the lake were investigated. It was concluded that soil texture, pH, soil moisture content, mineralization as well...

  17. Perceived Barriers to Research Publishing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the academic publication processes in Saudi Arabia, the barriers that affect researchers’ ability to carry out and publish research and the potential advantages and disadvantages offered by the Internet in the area of academic publishing. The data collection and analysis presented in this study addresses the extent to which such benefit could be realised in practice. This research reviews the limitations of research publishing in Saudi Arabia by focusing on the nature of academic journals, in terms of their numbers and purpose, the barriers that academic staff faced when they wished to publish their research work in local or international academic journals, and the attitudes of academics towards electronic publishing and publishing in general. This research uses questionnaire tool. The data are tabulated and analysed in a systematic method to show findings in accordance with required objectives. The most prominent findings from this study are the lack of academic staff encouragement to conduct and publish research, lack of financial support to the research publishing sector, lack of a research publishing infrastructure and a lack of private sector support for funding research and publishing. An interesting finding is that unlike many other countries, there is no culture of volunteering for work that does not provide direct financial benefit. This could be an important factor affecting the adoption of an online open publishing approach in which reviewers and editors are not paid directly for the work. This research ultimately aims at proposing and implementing suitable processes and policies to solve these problems and to identifying means of overcoming the research publishing barriers in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Factorial's composition of Lake Abha, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)

  19. Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

  20. Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

  1. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Background This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR), and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2%) of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2) had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan, and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. PMID:24648763

  2. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)

  3. Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigato avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

  4. Religious involvement and health in dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G

    2015-04-01

    Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials. PMID:25316206

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  6. Hyperlipidemia in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Suzan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia in patients from Saudi Arabia with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate its relationship with C-reactive protein level and disease activity. Methods: A cross-sectional 3-year study was conducted on RA patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and December 2013. Lipid profiles were determined following 12-hour overnight fasting, and the association of lipid profiles with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and disease activity was determined. Results: This study involved a total of 180 RA patients (mean age: 40.49±12.19 years). These subjects displayed a high prevalence of elevated total cholesterol (55.1%), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (51.2%). Notably, we detected a significant association between increased total cholesterol and high CRP levels (p=0.002). Moreover, we observed a positive correlation between total cholesterol and disease activity, as measured using the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score index (r=0.23, p=0.036). Conclusions: Hyperlipidemia is common among RA patients and is significantly associated with CRP levels and disease activity. Our findings emphasize the need to raise awareness among healthcare professionals regarding the development of hyperlipidemia when RA is active. PMID:25987110

  7. Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M Aljebreen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1 Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2 Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3 Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%. There were 26 (2.2% students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1% and 9 males (1.5%. Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%. The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479, Madinah 1.8% (8/436, and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252. The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

  8. Medical Colleges in Saudi Arabia: Can We Predict Graduate Numbers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Althubaiti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128 physicians by the year 2014 in order to maintain the same physicians-to-population ratio, i.e., 2.7 per 100,000. To solve the problem, the higher education institutions invested in medical education and increased their number of college graduates. However, there are many questions about whether this strategy will proof successful in covering the shortage or whether this will lead to problems, for example an excess in the number of physicians. These can only be answered if future graduate numbers are estimated and kept under control. In this study, common data mining techniques were reviewed and applied to the output of Saudi medical colleges over the past years. These techniques can be used to predict graduate numbers. The results show the importance of developing a national student information center to fix the data collection problems described in this paper.

  9. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  10. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rm, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sau...

  11. Job satisfaction of nurses in Ministry of Health Hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan A. Al-Ahmadi

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the magnitude and determinants of job satisfaction in nurses working in Ministry of Health hospitals Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS A modified version of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire is used to survey 500 nurses in 9 Ministry of Health hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and sixty six nurses from different nationalities responded to the questionnaire (response rate 73%). Data analysis consisted of descriptive sta...

  12. E-Commerce Adoption in Saudi Arabia: an Assessment of International, Regional and Domestic Web Presence

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Mutlaq B.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) has a growing potential in Saudi Arabia, due to widespread use of the internet and the maturity of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of E-Commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, using a proposed evaluation instrument. To achieve this aim, six E-Commerce websites were selected for evaluation and then categorized into three categories: domestic, regional and international. Each category consisted of two...

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Dicronychus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhafer, Hathal M; Platia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Examination of specimens of Dicronychus Brullé in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia revealed the presence of two new species, D. latifae n. sp. and D. bushrae n. sp. In addition, the descriptions of D. talhouki Platia and Schimmel and D. brancuccii Platia and Schimmel are augmented after examination of both type material and recently collected specimens from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:25277891

  14. Attitudes of Managers towards the Potential Effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia: Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Akeil Kadasah

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the attitudes of managers in Saudi Arabia towards the effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia. The study includes 143 firms in three sectors of activities; private manufacturing, private service and public firms. The study reveals that the five most significant benefits are; safer environment, improvement of image of the certified firms with the international environmental organizations, ensure the safety of workers inside the organizations, improvement of firms im...

  15. Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M Jomoah, Sreerama Kumar R, Abdulaziz Uthman M. Al-Abdulaziz, Nabil Yassien Abdel-Shafi, Ramzy R Obaid

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implem...

  16. A Forecast of Ophthalmology Practice Trends in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Junior Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender o...

  17. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gilany Abdel-Hady; Amr Mostafa; Hammad Sabry

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The s...

  18. Imported malaria infections diagnosed at the Malaria Referral Laboratory in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim S. Alkhalife

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria infections in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, based on retrospective analysis of laboratory records within the Central Laboratory. METHODS Records of the Malaria Referral Laboratory in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were reviewed for the past 6 years: 1416-1421 Hejri inclusive (1996-2001 Gregorian). The dates of blood films were converted to Gregorian calendar in addition to the Hejri dates already us...

  19. Determinants of Competitive Advantages of Dates Exporting: An Applied Study on Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaber Mohamed M. Abdel Gawad; Tarek Tawfik Alkhteeb; Mohammad Tariq Intezar

    2014-01-01

    The study focus on testing the determinants of competitive advantage of dates marketing from Saudi Arabia through multi- regression model based on Porter’s diamond, which is determined the factor that affecting on competitiveness of nations in international marketing, such as factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and company strategy; structure; and rivalry. Our study selected the most competitive countries for Saudi Arabia in marketing dates in its markets ...

  20. The Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Afify, Ahmed R; Khalid H. Zawawi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of celiac disease in type I diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-ashwal, Abdullah A.; Shabib, Souheil M.; Sakati, Nadia A.; Attia, Najya A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence of celiac disease in young patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with type I diabetes mellitus. METHODS Serum gliadin immunoglobulin (Ig) A and reticulin IgA antibody determination was performed in 123 patients with type I diabetes mellitus attending the pediatric diabetic clinic at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 1995 and 1996. RESULTS Elevated serum gliadin and reticulin IgA an...

  2. Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Aboud Bahaddad; Luke Houghton; Steve Drew

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of compa...

  3. Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

    2013-01-01

    Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences pos...

  4. Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aujan S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

  5. A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Ahmed Hassan; Clas Ahlm; Magnus Evander

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000) and Sudan (2007) from a One Health perspective. Methods: Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘...

  6. Quality issues in continuing medical education in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shehri Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of continuing medical education (CME in Saudi Arabia is no longer quantity but rather quality. Quality Management (QM of the current huge number of CME activities is essential to ensure its merits and outcomes. Sound evaluation is the cornerstone of any QM process to CME. However, issues related to models of evaluation, CME stakeholders, principles of adult learning and assessment should be consid--ered before deciding on the type of evaluation appropriate for QM of CME. Our aim is to draw attention to the importance of developing a QM process for CME that is valid, reliable, feasible and acceptable to dif--ferent CME stakeholders. The huge volume of CME programs needs QM to ensure its utility for healthcare providers and consumers. Understanding relevant evaluation models and the complexity of evaluating CME is a necessary step towards appropriate action.

  7. Emergency response plan for accidents in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief description of the general emergency plan for accidents involving radioactive materials in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Uses of radioactive materials and radiation sources and their associated potential accident are specified. Most general accident scenarios of various levels have been determined. Protective measures have been specified to reduce individual and collective doses arising during accident situations. Intervention levels for temporary exposure situations, as established in the IAEA's basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, are adopted as national intervention levels. General procedures for implementation of the response plan, including notification and radiological monitoring instrumentation and equipment, are described and radiation monitoring teams are nominated. Training programs for the different parties which may be called upon to respond are studied and will be started. (author)

  8. Towards an electronic national injury surveillance system in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, F; Hussain, S A; Mandil, A; Alamro, N

    2015-02-01

    Given the need for a uniform, comprehensive, electronic nationwide surveillance system for injuries in Saudi Arabia, a system was designed with the objectives of establishing an epidemiologic profile of injuries in the country; evaluating injury indicators on an ongoing basis; identifying high-risk groups requiring specific interventions; monitoring and evaluating interventions for effectiveness; and producing reports to assist in planning and resource allocation. A special form for this purpose was designed, modified from validated forms used elsewhere for injury surveillance. This initiative of the Ministry of Health is also expected to help validate data collected by other sectors, such as the Ministry of Interior. This paper reviews the milestones of building the system and aims to prompt a debate within the scientific community, especially within the Eastern Mediterranean Region, about the best way to design injury surveillance systems for the Region in order to fine-tune the proposed system before its full-scale implementation. PMID:25876826

  9. Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures

  10. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 ?g/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 ?g/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 ?g/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 ?g/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  11. Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Suaad S. Alwakeel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.

  12. Petromin: the slow death of statist oil development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hertog, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    The paper recounts the history of Saudi Arabia's first national oil company, Petromin, which was originally supposed to take the place of foreign-owned Aramco. As a result of Petromin's inefficiency and personal rivalries among the Saudi elite, however, Petromin was progressively relegated to the sidelines in favour of a gradually 'Saudiised' Aramco. As a result, the organisation of the Saudi oil sector today is very different from - and more efficient than - that of most other oil exporters ...

  13. Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia

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    Ashraf E.M. Khater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

  14. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

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    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  15. Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planningergy planning

  16. Current practice in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-elq, Abdulmohsen H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To gather data on current practices in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Saudi Arabia and to evaluate the degree of compliance with international guidelines. METHODS This paper represents the results of the Saudi Arabia T2DM data collected at the cross-sectional part of Wave 2006 of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS). Data were collected on a case report form from 28 health centers all over the Kingdom of Saudi Ar...

  17. Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Khouzaie Thamer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital?s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

  18. Usefulness of molecular techniques to identify ongoing tuberculosis transmission in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study represents the first time that molecular tracing techniques have been used to identify patterns of tuberculosis TB infection in Saudi Arabia. The 2 strains were isolated from a socio-economically advantaged family who share a number of common facilities including a car and a driver. There are several factors that may play vital roles in on-going transmission of TB in Saudi Arabia including a high number of expatriates, the Hajj pilgrimage, and the social habits of Saudi citizens. Our sibling case series is believed to be a frequent pattern of disease transmission in this country. Control measures such as health education, active case finding, and prompt and supervised medical treatment are needed. More studies using molecular techniques are recommended to find the incidence of cross infection in Saudi Arabia. In addition, molecular techniques have to be established in all reference laboratories to help the detection of ongoing active transmission, molecular epidemiology and detect sources of infection. (author)

  19. Awareness and attitude of cancer patients about participation in clinical research (CR) in Saudi Arabia. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

  20. Too costly to matter: Economics of nuclear power for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia has ambitious plans for nuclear power. Given this context, this paper examines the economics of nuclear power and compares it to two other sources of electricity, natural gas and solar energy. It calculates the costs of electricity generation, water desalination and the opportunity cost associated with forgone oil and gas revenues. A sensitivity analysis is included to account for variations in important parameters within the comparative cost analysis. Our results suggest that for a large range of parameters, the economics of nuclear power are not favorable in comparison with natural gas, even if the currently low domestic natural gas prices in Saudi Arabia were to rise substantially. Further, electricity from solar plants has the potential to be cheaper than nuclear power within the next decade if the rapid decline in solar energy costs in the last decade continue, i.e., before the first planned nuclear power plant would be completed. However, unless the price of oil drops substantially below current values, it would be more economically optimal to export the oil than using it for generating electricity. - Highlights: • Future projections show nuclear power is not cost effective for Saudi Arabia. • A combination of solar and natural gas could largely meet future electricity demand. • There are multiple, non-economic, motivations for Saudi Arabia's nuclear program. • Saudi Arabia would economically benefit by not using oil for electricity generation

  1. Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online

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    Adel Aboud Bahaddad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of companies have websites only to present products.Accordingly, new research has been conducted to explore the attraction of customers in Saudi Arabia to buyfrom businesses online. This will assist the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME sector, which represents 90%of companies in Saudi Arabia, to increase communication channels with its customers electronically. Aquantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 381 consumer participants from Saudi Arabia whowere interested to buy online to see what factors would attract them to online shopping. Several factors emergedas attracting factors which were divided into organizational, technical, and cultural factors.

  2. The proportion of expenditure on children to family’s income in Saudi Arabia

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    Nisreen Al-Banawi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has witnessed enormous socio-economic changes for the last two decades. Due to this, the standard living of most Saudi people has been improved noticeably. Accordingly, that affects on the consumption expenditure of the Saudi family particularly on the children which has been increased substantially. However, no studies with respect to cost of children have yet been undertaken in Saudi Arabia. This study is to estimate the proportion of expenditure on children, to family’s income in Saudi Arabia by estimating the cost of children in Saudi Arabia; using Jeddah as a case study. In the study, the cost of children is taken to be money expenditure that is the amount that parents actually spent on their children. The study involves a sample of (1500 respondents from the city of Jeddah. Also, explores attitudes and opinions towards certain topics related to cost of children and the family. The study highlights that cost of children rise proportionately to family income, children age, and their numbers.

  3. The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inadequate information in this area, only the past investment period was considered to determine the effect of past decision on new decision of investment. The government policies, which directed to low grade varieties probably, led to inefficiency as the domestic consumption of dates is very high and growing high quality will lead to higher revenue to farmers with almost the same cost of production. To deal with investment in date palm production locally, Saudi Arabia needs to estimate a very high discount rate to observe any value related or based on the discount rate. The Durbin Watson parameter is significant for both the varieties (Khalas and Ruzaiz at 95% confidence interval (LSD0.05. The past investment appeared very significant for its effect on planting new date trees due to the fact that farmers who planted new trees in the past is continuously carrying with date industry and investing in future. Overall, the investment in tree plantation like date palm is not an easy decision by the farmers, because it needs couple of years spending without revenue. The farmers in the date growing areas were hesitant in providing information about the date variety, number of trees per hectare, tree age, fertilizers, pesticides, land ownership, intercropping, cost of production, total yield, quantity sold and price received. The study suggested further investigations on growing high quality date palms, date production and marketing aspects to harvest maximum profit by the farmers as well as support by the government for facilitating proper market and subsidies to date growers.

  4. Awareness of interventional radiology among final-year medical students and medical interns at a University in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alshumrani, Ghazi A.

    2013-01-01

     Objectives: To assess the awareness of interventional radiology (IR) among final-year medical students and medical interns at a Saudi University. Analysis of such awareness could help to improve the future of IR in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on anonymous surveys administered over a one month period (1st - 31st  December 2012).  One hundred and nineteen medical students and interns of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia were included. Forty-two (35.3...

  5. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV in Saudi Arabia

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    A.F. Alsayeqh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

  6. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  7. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

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    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  8. Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  9. Knowledge of healthy diets among adolescents in eastern Saudi Arabia.

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    Al-Almaie Sameeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240 and female (n=1331 adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively, magazines (31% and 39% and daily newspaper (33% and 34%. Primary health care centers (PHCCs staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%. CONCLUSIONS : Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.

  10. Measles in Saudi Arabia : From control to elimination.

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    Khalil Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the tremendous efforts made in the field of measles immunization in Saudi Arabia in the past 20 years, from the control phase to the elimination phase. Mandatory measles vaccination with one-dose Schwartz vaccine was introduced in 1982 by a royal decree, a step aimed at increasing vaccine coverage. In 1991, a two-dose schedule was implemented using Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine , with a first dose at 6 months to protect children younger than 9 months and a second dose of MMR at 12 months of age to protect those who did not respond to the first dose. A marked reduction in the epidemic peak and a shift of infection to older age were noticed. But the same data showed that 50% of measles cases in the 1- to 4-year age group occurred in vaccinated children. In 1998, with the start of elimination phase, an MMR campaign was launched in two phases, targeting school children in 1998 (secondary schools and in 2000 (primary and intermediate schools. Evaluation of the MMR campaign and surveillance data was reflected in the measles immunization policy by shifting the age of measles immunization to 12 months and to preschool using the two-dose MMR schedule.

  11. Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qahtani, Mona [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm{sup -3} whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm{sup -3}. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors.

  12. Environmental impact of some cement manufacturing plants in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is concerned with the environmental impact of the cement industry in the west of Saudi Arabia represented in two cement plants and one cement depository. The concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in samples of cement (raw materials and end product) and soil, collected from the cement plant and its surrounding area, were measured using ?-ray spectrometer employing a HPGe detector. In addition, the levels of 19 major and trace elements were also determined in these samples using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of the 238U series isotopes in soil samples show a clear radiological impact of the cement industry upon the environment. Possible contamination with Ca and some other elements in soil samples that are rich with the fine grain size was observed. Cluster analysis of soil samples using convenient attributes shows an obvious evidence of the cement industry impact upon the environment. The hidden effect of the cement industry upon the environment was observed when the convenient measured attributes were used in cluster analysis of soil samples. (author)

  13. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  14. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document

  15. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  16. Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole–dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole. (paper)

  17. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  18. Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

  19. Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen againstcommonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

  20. Occurrence of radon in groundwater of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I

    2014-12-01

    Samples were collected from 1025 wells supplying drinking water to the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia and analyzed for radon concentrations. The weighted radon median value for the entire country was found to be 4.62 Bq L(-1) with a range of 0.01-67.4 Bq L(-1). The percentage of samples with radon concentration equal to or greater than 11.1 Bq L(-1) (US EPA proposed MCL) was found to be 19.22%. The range of radon in shallow wells varied between 0.06 and 67.4 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.1 Bq L(-1)) and between 0.06 and 40.9 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.34 Bq L(-1)) for deep wells. However, 50% of the samples had radon concentrations equal to or greater than 4.0 and 2.87 Bq L(-1) for the shallow and deep wells, respectively. Correlation of well depth with radon levels revealed that wells drilled in Saq aquifer consisting of predominantly sandstone with significant shale layers in the upper parts, gave higher median radon levels than in Manjur aquifer which consists of predominantly limestone and sandstone. PMID:25244698

  1. Causes of Contractors’ Failure in Industrial Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at identifying and assessing the main causes of contractors’ failure in industrial projects in Saudi Arabia. 24 causes were identified from the literature for assessment by owners, contractors and subcontractors. These causes were classified under five categories, namely managerial causes, financial causes, growth causes, environmental causes and uncontrollable causes. A survey of 36 participants was conducted. Data was collected from 15 owners, 11 contractors and 10 subcontractors. The results indicated that lack of experience in the business field, war, poor project management, poor cost estimation, unavailability of stationed project leader at site, neglect and type of the contract are the most severe causes behind contractor’s failure in construction projects. The rank correlation coefficient indicated that there is a high level of agreement among owners, contractors and subcontractors on the severity of the different failure causes. The research provides a severity of the ranking of the different causes of failure so that mitigation measures could be developed to avoid them or lessen their effects.

  2. Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Zarah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.

  3. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  4. Analysis of Saudi Arabia's behavior within OPEC and the world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze oil export behavior by Saudi Arabia and the Rest of OPEC since 1973. In the literature there has been a wide range of estimates of their correlation: from positive, to zero, to negative. We find that the correlation has varied over time, from moderately high (0.7) in normal periods, to negative during each of five interruptions; the average correlation has been 0.19. Saudi Arabia's oil market behavior depends upon circumstances, but its primary goal is the stability of OPEC and the world oil market. It will coordinate export reductions with the Rest of OPEC when faced with declining demand, but it will increase exports when faced with interruptions elsewhere in OPEC. Allowing for such differences provides evidence of intelligent, context-dependent consistency. But ignoring context – by wrongly assuming the same Saudi response in Normal periods and Interruptions – can lead to a conclusion of Saudi “inconsistency” because the difference in the responses has been obscured

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman Musaiger; Nisreen Zagzoog

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of inf...

  6. A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, C. riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L. (Acanthaceae. The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided.

  7. Determination of Essential Fatty Acids in Popular Olive Cultivars Grown in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M. Alruqaie; F.A. Al Ghamidi; Hend A. AbuHaimed

    2013-01-01

    Presently, the use of olive oil is increasing in many conventional food items owing to its health benefits due to the presence of essential fatty acid. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of some of these fatty acids such as Omega-3 and Omega-6 in locally produced olive oil in Saudi Arabia. Olive oil samples used for analysis were collected from NADEC and Al-Jouf farms located in Al-Jouf Region (Northern of Saudi Arabia) and ...

  8. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

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    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

  9. Perceptions of Saudi medical students on the qualities of effective teachers. A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A.; Khan, Nauman Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the attributes of an effective medical teacher that students value the most. Methods: A quantitative survey was performed in the  College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between April and May 2012, using a pretested self-administered questionnaire distributed to all students. It captured their opinions on the qualities and attributes of good teachers. Each item was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. Data were entered and analyzed us...

  10. Corporate Governance Disclosure in Annual Financial Reports and Company Performance - Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Elbarrad, Sherif S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find the relationship between disclosure in annual reports as outlined in the corporate governance regulations imposed by the Saudi Capital Market Authority and companies’ performance in Saudi Arabia. To achieve that, the corporate governance disclosure regulations are classified into four categories; Ownership structure and shareholders’ rights; board of directors’ information; financial information; operational information. Each category included several...

  11. Effect of octreotide on the prevention of hyperamylasemia after ERCP in Saudi Arabia: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Awad Naif

    2000-01-01

    Background and objectives: Acute pancreatitis is a serious complication of ERCP. Octreotide as prophylaxis against ERCP-induced hyperamylasemia has produced conflicting results. A review article has called for additional controlled studies. This work was undertaken to see the effect of octreotide in ERCP-induced enzyme changes in a predominantly Saudi population. Subjects &methods: The setting was a university teaching hospital, Eastern Saudi Arabia. The study was prospective, randomiz...

  12. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extra...

  13. Causes of uveitis in a tertiary center in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bawazeer, Ahmed M.; Shaik HM. Nizamuddin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the causes of uveitis and compare our results with national and international published studies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of medical records of patients who attend the uveitic clinic of Magrabi Eye & Ear Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from  January 1999 to December 2011. Results: We encountered 823 eyes of 587 uveitis patients (male: 319 [54%] and female: 268 [46%]). Native Saudi patients constituted 52% of our total population, expa...

  14. Safety of intradermal Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine for neonates in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed H. Al-Salem; Mukul R. Kothari; Hatem M. AlHani; Mohammad M. Oquaish; Suzie S. Khogeer; Mohammed S. Desouky

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in Saudi infants and outline our management for BCG related lymphadenitis. METHODS The records of infants who developed BCG related complications were retrospectively reviewed from March 2008 to March 2011 at the Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia for age, gender, birth weight, presentation, and outcome. All our patients were immunized with the BCG vaccine within 48 hours after birth, and the total...

  15. Factors influencing E-commerce Adoption by Retailers in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Rayed; Nguyen, Ann; Nguyen, Jeremy; Drew, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some findings from a study researching the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing ICT marketplace in the Arab region, e-commerce activities have not progressed at a similar speed. In general, Saudi retailers have not responded actively to the global growth of online retailing. Accordingly new research has been conducted to identify and explore key issues that positively and nega...

  16. Examining the Broken Sales-Cycle in the Saudi Arabia Automotive Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fadye Saud Al Fayad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the subject of the Saudi Arabian new vehicle market. The topic addressed involved thesales-cycle within the new vehicle purchase process in Saudi Arabia. The specific research problem identified abreak-down in the sales-cycle or, alternatively, a dysfunctional approach to the final step in the sales-cycle whichinvolves the post-purchase stage where the consumer typically makes referrals or recommendations to family,friends and colleagues regarding the product or service in...

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influe...

  18. Birth anthropometric parameters in high and low altitude areas of Southwest Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Al-Shehri; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Mohamed A. Dalak; Luke D. Nwoye

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To study the anthropometric parameters of Southwestern Saudi newborns in Abha (a high altitude area) and Baish (a sea level area of Southwestern Saudi Arabia); to compare these parameters with those of the United States Center for Disease Control 2000 growth charts and to estimate the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) among the study population. METHODS The study sample included all births from Abha Central Hospital (N=4300), and all births from Baish General Hospital (N...

  19. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M; Fahmy Alaa-Eldin A; Al-Rethaiaa Abdallah S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives ...

  20. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel RM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

  1. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major urgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  2. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

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    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.

  3. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Binali Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. Results: The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 ± 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%, kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%, caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%, hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB in eight patients (11.1%, and other material in seven patients (9.7%. Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%, 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Conclusion: Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine.

  4. Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. Results: All 50 patients were young or middle-aged males. All admitted to drinking unbranded alcohol within 2-3 days before profound or relatively profound, painless, bilateral visual loss. Mean visual acuity in this group was hand motions (logMAR 2.82; range 0.1 - 5.0) with some eye to eye variability within individuals. Worse visual acuity was correlated with advancing age (Pearson correlation: oculus dextrus [right eye] - 0.37, p=0.008; oculus sinister [left eye] - 0.36, p=0.011). All patients had optic atrophy bilaterally, and all tested patients had visual field defects. Tremors with or without rigidity were present in 12 patients, and 11 of 30 patients who had neuroimaging performed had evidence of putaminal necrosis. Conclusion: Methanol intoxication causes visual loss within 12-48 hours due to relatively severe, painless, bilateral optic nerve damage that may be somewhat variable between eyes, and is generally worse with advancing age. The coincidence of bilateral optic nerve damage and bilateral putaminal necrosis in a young or middle-aged male is very suspicious for methanol-induced damage. PMID:25935177

  5. Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Naami Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution.

  6. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take care of Saudi patients who are from the dominant culture. In this scenario, a lack of knowledge of Saudi culture among nurses can lead to cultural conflicts and misunderstanding of some of the behaviours and practices of the indigenous Saudi people. Culture is a complex notion; however, being aware of cultural differences and having cultural knowledge can help people to interact safely. Educating expatriate nurses about the cultural heritage of the Saudi people, which is mainly influenced by Islamic teachings, is important to increase cultural harmony.

  7. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Waleed H. Albuali; Bertram, Stephanie; Abdullah M. Al-Rubaish; Yousef, Abdullah A; Awatif N. Al-Nafaie; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.

  8. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  9. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  10. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  11. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alshayea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment in the subject mentioned above.

  12. Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, G; A. Alquwaizany; A. Al-Zarah

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsewhere on the use of different types of surface, drainage waters and groundwater irrespective of the total salinity status and the conditions of use.

  13. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%.

  14. Human orf (ecthyma contagious) a report of two cases from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Boulos, A M; Akhtar, M; Bendl, B

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of orf occuring in one family are reported. The patients developed characteristic skin lesions one week after sustaining cuts while slaughtering a sheep. The diagnosis of orf was confirmed by electron microscopy which revealed numerous large oval virus particle characteristics of parapox virus. This we believe is the first report of orf in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21164240

  15. Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

  16. Risk Matrix for Delay Causes in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Time performance of a project is usually a particularly important consideration for the construction parties. Often, the most troublesome construction disputes involve delay and failure to complete the work in the specified time frame. Many variables have an impact upon construction delay in Saudi Arabia. This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. Thirty five delay causes were identified through literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period between design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity and rework.

  17. Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  18. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H.; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R.

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664

  19. Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

  20. Business Process Re-engineering in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Understanding and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Chiu; Johnson Agbinya; Zenon Chaczko; Essam Rahali

    2009-01-01

    This survey was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to investigate the level of awareness of BPR. Respondents (customers, employees, and Managers) had different educational backgrounds and were from private and public sectors. Findings of the study indicate a general awareness of BPR in KSA.

  1. Respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Fahad A Al-Kheraiji, Mohammad; Fahad AlFaraj, Ziyad; abdulaziz Alwehaibi, Nasser; Adnan Aldereihim, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sandstorms are metrological events and frequently occur in many regions throughout the world. Sandstorms are a main source of long-distance transport of dust, air pollution and cause various health problems. This study aimed to investigate the acute respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayed AlGhamdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether or not to adopt online channels. As part of a larger research project using mixed methods, this paper focuses on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of retailers in Saudi Arabia. The design of the questionnaire instrument was based on the findings of a qualitative analysis reported in a previous paper. The main findings of the current study include a list of key factors that affect retailers’ e-commerce adoption, such as lack of online payment options and lack of clear legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships.

  3. Environment and Sustainable Development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Current Status and Future Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Husain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air quality deterioration in urban areas; high energy demand and consumption due to regional population growth and economic development; concerns about safe drinking water supplies due to a scarcity of fresh water; air quality deterioration, industrial pollution, waste management, and pollution in coastal areas; and subsequent stress on marine ecosystems are all major environmental challenges being faced by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective protection of the environment, an interdisciplinary approach within a sustainable framework, which integrates human needs with economic development and environmental protection, is required. This paper presents an overview of Saudi Arabia’s major environmental problems and challenges and offers opportunities to use economic growth, social equity, and protection of the environment as interrelated components. The role of active participation by governments, stakeholders, businesses, academic institutions, and individuals in the decision-making process and an inter-disciplinary research approach will be identified for each major environmental issue.

  4. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

  5. An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Akeil Kadasah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includes four sizes of organizations. The finding of the study shows that the practiceof benchmarking in Saudi Arabian organizations’ is not in advance level. The sequence of the application ofbenchmarking is found to be as follows; marketing, operations, quality, finance and human resources,respectively. The study further shows that the practice of performance benchmarking in private firms better thanpublic organizations. However, the study concludes that there is no significant difference between companiesbased on their sizes.

  6. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  7. On the relationship between climatic variables and pressure systems over Saudi Arabia in the winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.

  8. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all patients. Secondary polycythemia was seen in 38.9% of patients. D-Dimer level was high in all patients. In 61.1% of patients, exploratory laparotomies were done based on clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound and plain x-ray findings without performing CT angiography due to presentation with marked peritoneal signs. In all patients gangrenous lesions were detected during surgery and resection of these parts was done. Gangrene and in turn resection, was extensive in 14/36 patients (38.9% and they developed short bowel syndrome. There were 22/36 patients (61.1% with superior or/and inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis, 10/36 patients (27.8% with superior mesenteric artery thrombosis, in one of them there is associated focal thrombosis of aorta and renal arteries and 4/36 patients (11.1% with superior mesenteric artery embolism. All patients received postoperative anticoagulant therapy. Patients with short bowel syndrome were prepared to receive total parental nutrition (TPN for life. Intra-operative deaths were 3/36 (8.3%.There were 5/36 deaths (13.9% accruing within one month after surgery and all died secondary to sepsis and its sequalae with total deaths of 8/36 patients (22.2%. Conclusion: Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI especially of venous type will represent a challenging problem in Taif and related districts. The surgeon must pay intensive attention to patients presented by unexplained central abdominal pain and he has to be with high index of suspicion especially if it meets with the classic teaching of "pain out of proportion to physical findings ". Early diagnosis, aggressive approach to early resuscitation of the patients, correction of metabolic and hemodynamic derangements, and performing laparotomy as soon as these derangements were corrected would decrease morbidity and mortality. In some patients it is necessary to perform second look operation for re-evaluation of the viability of the intestine

  9. Multi nodular goiter management in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data and summarize the different modalities of management of multinodular goiters (MNG) in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 135 patients had MNG, which were diagnosed by ultrasonography at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, KSA between January 2003 and June 2004. The data collected includes the age, gender, physical examination of the thyroid gland ( trifluorothymidine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone), ultrasonographic findings and Tc 99 radioiodine nuclear scan of the thyroid gland, fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the gland and antithyroid antibodies. The study group was divided according to the thyroid status: nontoxic euthyroid MNG, hypothyroid MNG and toxic hyperthyroid MNG. The management of MNGs according to patient's clinical presentations and thyroid status was reviewed. The mean age was 39+- 12.66 years with a range of 10-79 years. Forty-two patients (31%), with no history of thyroid cancer, had ultrasound guided FNA; 41(97.6%) of the FNAs were benign. One FNA (2.3%) was positive for papillary carcinoma in a 56-year-old female patient. Thyroid antibodies (anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thymoglobulin antibodies) were measured in 50 patients (37%). thirty-one (62%)were positive, 11(35%) of which were positive in patients with documented hypothyroidism. All patients with hypothyrodism were treated with levothyroxine ; however, only 25.6ed with levothyroxine ; however, only 25.6% with euthyroid MNG were treated with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Twelve patients (44.4%) with toxic MNG were treated with antithyroid medications. Radioiodine therapy was not given to any patient with nontoxic MNG; however, 48% of those with hyperthyroid MNG received radioactive iodine treatment. Surgery was carried out 25.6% of patients with euthyroid nontoxic MNG and in 11 patients with toxic MNG (46.5%)and 14.8% of those with a subclinical hyperthyroid MNG refrained from any therapy. They were followed up by their clinician in the outpatient clinic. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels, ultrasound and fine needle biopsy were the cornerstones of the diagnostic evaluations of patient with MNG. Review of the management of these patients was comparable to that found in the literature. The treatment strategy was similar to the recommendations by the American Thyroid Society; however, radioactive iodine treatment was not used as a treatment for patients with nontoxic goiters. (author)

  10. On the Contribution of Student Experience Survey Regarding Quality Management in Higher Education: An Institutional Study in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al Rubaish

    2010-01-01

    We appraise comparatively and analytical data under Student Experience Survey (SES) to discuss the possible generalizability of related College level differentials in Saudi Arabia. For this, data collected from students of two academic programs namely Bachelor of Dental Surgery, College of Dentistry; and B.Sc. Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were considered. These data relate to experience of students halfway of respective academic program. The percent...

  11. Factors associated with adherence to medication among depressed patients from Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Jumah K; Hassali MA; Al Qhatani D; El Tahir K

    2014-01-01

    Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among p...

  12. Frequency and clinical characteristics of ketoacidosis at onset of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus in Northwest Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Hamed S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency, and to describe the clinical characteristics of ketoacidosis at initial diagnosis of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Al-Madina region of the Northwest province of Saudi Arabia. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 311 (152 males and 159 females) children diagnosed with childhood T1DM in Al-Madina region, Saudi Arabia between January 1992 and December 2004. RESULTS At diagnosis 172 (55.3%) children presen...

  13. Assessment and heavy metal behaviors of industrial waste water: A case study of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-farraj, Abdullah S.; Mohammad Al-Sewailem; Anwar Aly

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals) is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. T...

  14. Relationship Between Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), Infestation, Environmental Factors and Control Measures in Gazan and Makkah Regions, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-ajlan, Abdulaziz M.

    2007-01-01

    Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), is one of the most important insect pests in Saudi Arabia. Cultivated crops and the range lands are heavily affected by desert locust in some regions of Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of damage by the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) to the range lands being used for grazing range animals in Gazan and Makkah regions of Saudi Arabia. However, it is very difficult to estimate accurately the to...

  15. Advancing adolescent health and health services in Saudi Arabia: exploring health-care providers' training, interest, and perceptions of the health-care needs of young people

    OpenAIRE

    Fs, Albuhairan; Tm, Olsson

    2014-01-01

    Fadia S AlBuhairan,1–3 Tina M Olsson3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements wit...

  16. Determinants of Competitive Advantages of Dates Exporting: An Applied Study on Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber Mohamed M. Abdel Gawad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study focus on testing the determinants of competitive advantage of dates marketing from Saudi Arabia through multi- regression model based on Porter’s diamond, which is determined the factor that affecting on competitiveness of nations in international marketing, such as factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and company strategy; structure; and rivalry. Our study selected the most competitive countries for Saudi Arabia in marketing dates in its markets (like Egypt, Iraq, and Tunisia. The results of study showed that the four determinants are significant and R square is high more than 95% in all equations this is agree with our assumptions, but the signs parameters of these determinants are different from our expectations specially with the quantity of production in Saudi Arabia which appear negative with the value of export of dates from KSA, that is because the consumption of dates in domestic market is high and it absorbs the high quality kind of dates, which is needed for external market. We tested also the same determinants for the competitive countries (Egypt, Iraq, and Tunisia; we found the same results, except Egypt, which have huge domestic demand that is effect on demand conditions in this country. Our study suggested more studies are needed for related and supporting industries of dates with this crop, to save data base in this field, and give more attention for quality of dates, packaging and prices for Saudi exporting of dates. 

  17. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of highy of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

  18. Prevalence of osteoporosis and factors associated with osteoporosis in women above 40 years in the Northern Part of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Oommen

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia is higher than osteoporosis in the Saudi women above 40 years in the Northern part of Saudi Arabia. The major cause of low BMD is lack of exercise even though there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 274-278

  19. Factors That Affect Consumption Patterns and Market Demands for Honey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy Ismaiel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant annual consumption of honey in Saudi Arabia, information gaps remain with regard to the marketing and market structure of honey along the value chain. This study analyzed the major factors that influenced the consumption, expenditure patterns, and demand of honey in Saudi Arabia. This study forecasted the near-future expected market demands for honey in Saudi Arabia by collecting and analyzing the primary data using questionnaires. A total of 331 respondents from representative regions and large cities were randomly selected and interviewed. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods as well as appropriate econometric models. Respondents characterized honey quality using organoleptic words, and these characterizations varied based on the relative significance of perception parameters. Taste, aroma, physical state, and color had aggregated average scores of 4.58, 4.44, 3.54, and 3.28, respectively. In addition to the above parameters, honey source, brand name, and confidence in the producers influenced its perceived quality. The major outlets for honey in Saudi Arabia included producers, specialized honey stores, and auction markets in major cities during the harvesting seasons. Medication, food, and sweetening were the major motivations for buying honey in the Saudi market, with aggregate scores of 4.52, 3.71, and 1.52, respectively. Significant honey price variations were observed within and among different honeys and packaging volumes; this finding might be due to factors such as botanical and geographical origins, package volume size economics (i.e., bulk purchases, honey variety blending, brand names, and producer policies. The average price of locally produced honey was approximately $73 per kg, which is 10 times more than the average price of honey in the US and the EU. The estimated consumption/income elasticity was 0.27. These results suggest that honey is a basic commodity in Saudi Arabia. Based on econometric model forecasts, the Saudi market demand for honey is expected to reach approximately 29,784 tons in 2025.

  20. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in male blood donors in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, M; Zawawi, T H; al Sobhi, E; Jeje, O; Gilpin, C; Kinsara, A; Osoba, A; Oni, G A

    1998-01-01

    To our knowledge, only a few epidemiological reports on the prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies in Saudi blood donors have been published. Men of several nationalities, donating blood at King Khalid National Guard Hospital (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) were selected (n = 593) for this study examining the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the local male donor population and testing the relationship of the antibody to HEV (anti-HEV) to donor characteristics using Odds Ratio (OR) and Chi-square statistic. The prevalence of anti-HEV in the group examined was 16.9 per cent (100/593). The seroprevalence for Saudi donors was 14.8 per cent compared with 33.3 per cent for non-Saudis of Middle Eastern origin. Donors who were 40 yr and over had significantly higher seroprevalence than those donors who were 30 yr or younger (OR = 2.5, p = 0.006). There was a significant association between anti-HEV and anti-HCV with donors who were positive to anti-HCV having about 5 times the risk of HEV than those who were anti-HCV negative (p = 0.02). These findings demonstrate the high seroprevalence rate of anti-HEV among male blood donors in Saudi Arabia. PMID:9638024

  1. Fixed or Flexible Exchange Rate for Saudi Arabia: Optimal Solution of CGE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Imtithal A. AL-Thumairi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When analyzing the impact of changes in oil and petroleum prices on Saudi Arabia’s economy the results indicate that adjustments in foreign savings, supporting an unchanged real exchange rate in the context of changes in oil world prices, quite effectively can insulate the domestic economy from international price fluctuations. If the economy is forced to adjust to the fall in world prices without offsetting changes in foreign savings, the resulting loss of export earnings and associated depreciation have major impacts on aggregate absorption, and the structure of production.

  2. Pattern of colorectal cancer at two hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ahwal Mahmoud; Al-Ghamdi Aisha

    2005-01-01

    Patients and Methods: Data of all patients with CRC treated at two hospitals in the Western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), between 1993 and 2002, were collected and analyzed. Results: Out of the 121 patients evaluated, ten were excluded because of incomplete data. Out of 111 patients, 59 (53.2%) were males, with a male to female ratio of 1.13: 1 and 49 (44.1 %) were Saudis. Thirty-three patients (29.7%) were 40 years or less and 78 (70.3%) were mor...

  3. Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

  4. Prototyping Data Warehouse System for Ministry of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Rehiel A Alenazi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues confronting the ministry of higher education in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the procedures for taking managerial decision making on their institutions of higher learning. Thus, there has not been empirical study on the integration of institutions of higher learning’s repository to the ministry of higher education as the stakeholder. Since data warehouse is described as a system that capable of storing and exploring large amount of information from various data sources, this paper design a prototyping data warehouse for the ministry of higher institution of learning so as to facilitate searching and decision making on concerned institution. The XAMPP web server was used to design the data warehouse due to its embedded PHP and MySQL functions. Hence, the result presents a prototype that integrates the repositories of some higher learning institutions with the ministry of higher institution of learning in Saudi Arabia Kingdom.

  5. Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia: A seismic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the selection criteria generally and seismic criteria specifically to select a suitable site in Saudi Arabia for a nuclear desalination plant. These criteria include geological, meteorological, cooling water supply discharge, transport infrastructure, population, electric grid, water network capacity, environmental impact and airport movement. The seismicity of the Arabian peninsula for the locations of seismic activity along the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastlines from 1973 to 2000 was studied carefully. This study included towns and locations along the east and west coastlines and their distances from the seismic event site. The results showed that Rabigh City along the west coast of Saudi Arabia is a good site to build a nuclear desalination plant. This is because of the following reasons: good seismic stability; good weather statistics; no flooding; mild wave conditions; good supply and discharge; good transportation infrastructure; low population area; very close to the huge electric grid. (author)

  6. Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia based on verbal judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site selection of nuclear desalination plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a complex task since it depends on many interrelated factors. Two candidate sites are considered, one near Jeddah - a major port on the Red Sea and the second on the Arabian Gulf near Dhahran. Using verbal judgment, the fuzzy set theory and the MAFDA computer code are employed to examine the most suitable site. Thirteen main criteria were considered for the selction, namely safety of nuclear fuel shipment; living conditions for foreign manpower; acceptability for expansion; land availability; topography and oceanography; geology, hydrology, and seismology; meteorology; transportation; population density; availability of cooling water; suitability for construction and availability of support services and domestic water. The final results show that the site near Dhahran is preferred to Jeddah for the first nuclear desalination plant in Saudi Arabia. (orig.)

  7. Risk Assessment of Poly Cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki M. Habeebullah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as environmental pollutants in Saudi Arabia. The current study focuses on the risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs,in the Holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during Hajj season 1431H. Atmospheric particulate matter was collected using High Volume samplers. Samples of 24h were collected at three sampling sites, Al-Shebakah, Al-Aziziah and Mina. PAH compounds were quantified by using GC. The total PAH concentrations (ng/m3 ranged from 103.5 - 195.2 with mean values of 164.67, 137.81 and 132.40 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, respectively. The higher percentages of the total carcinogenic compounds were recorded at Al-Shebakah, with a maximum value of 63.5 % in PM10. The carcinogenic PAHs, dibenzo[a]pyrene was found at low concentrations.

  8. Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), an endangered medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Z Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A; Thomas, J

    2013-01-01

    Wild plants can contain bioactive compounds with potential activity against disease-causing microorganisms. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are many plant species that may have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activities, among other properties. We extracted bioactive compounds with methanol as well as with water from leaves of Breonadia salicina, which is an endangered plant found in the wild in Saudi Arabia. These extracts were tested against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity against all of the microorganisms, and thus, B. salicina leaf extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the preservation of foods, instead of synthetic chemical compounds. We found that the methanolic leaf extract was more effective than the aqueous crude extract against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. PMID:24065664

  9. Serological Survey on Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Commercial Poultry Farms in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Alkhalaf

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the presence of avian pneumovirus (APV antibodies in commercial poultry farms using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and virus neutralization test (VN. Eighty seven chicken serum samples were collected from several commercial poultry farms in Al-Qassium area, Saudi Arabia during 2007-2008. The serum samples were collected from birds of various ages (from one-day old to 62 weeks of age. Antibodies to APV were detected in 50% (8 out of 16 by both ELISA and virus neutralization (VN test at farms in birds of 11-18 weeks of age only. The total positive samples were 8/87 (9.2% of all examined samples. In conclusion, this study indicated the presence of antibodies to APV among 11-18 weeks old commercial chicken at farms in Saudi Arabia.

  10. The Use of Software Project Management Tools in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf AlMobarak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an online survey study, which was conducted to investigate the use of software project management tools in Saudi Arabia. The survey provides insights of project management in the local context of Saudi Arabia from ten different companies which participated in this study. The aim is to explore and specify the project management tools used by software project management teams and their managers, to understand the supported features that might influence their selection. Moreover, the existence of the Arabic interface, the Hijri calendar and the Arabic documentation has been specially considered, due to the nature of the local context in dealing with the Hijri calendar and the prolific use of Arabic as the formal language in communication with clients in the public sector.

  11. Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following Chernobyl reactor accident, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) was assigned the responsibility of monitoring food imports reaching the western ports of Saudi Arabia. This includes the three western seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan and the airport of Jeddah. Through the seaport of Jeddah, the largest in Saudi Arabia, essentially all kinds of foodstuffs are entering. Chilled meat, fresh vegetables and other items that can not be stored for long time are coming through Jeddah airport, while Jizan and Yanbu handle mainly barley and animal feed. The monitoring program started in the middle of June. This is the time when pilgrimage season starts and about one million persons come from different parts of the world to the city of Mecca. Food imports drastically increases during this time and large number of live sheep and cows are imported for religious sacrifice

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; PAdvertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Peffects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

  13. Tuberculosis Trends in Saudis and Non-Saudis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – A 10 Year Retrospective Study (2000–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Mohammad S.; Zumla, Alimuddin I.; Felemban, Shaza; Alotaibi, Badriah; O’Grady, Justin; Memish, Ziad A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which has a very large labour force from high TB endemic countries. Understanding the epidemiological and clinical features of the TB problem, and the TB burden in the immigrant workforce, is necessary for improved planning and implementation of TB services and prevention measures. Methods A 10 year retrospective study of all TB cases reported in KSA covering the period 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009. Data was obtained from TB reporting forms returned to the Ministry of Health. Data were then organised, tabulated and analysed for annual incidence rates by province, nationality, country of origin and gender. Results There was an annual increase in the number of TB cases registered from 3,284 in 2000 to 3,964 in 2009. Non-Saudis had nearly twice the TB incidence rate compared to Saudis (P?=?Tabuk) showed decreasing TB incidence rates. The highest rates were seen in the 65+ age group. In the 15–24 year age group the incidence rate increased from 15.7/100,000 in 2000 to 20.9/100,00 in 2009 (P?=?<0.05). The incidence of TB in Saudi males was higher than Saudi females. Conversely, for non-Saudis the TB incidence rates were significantly higher in females compared to males. Conclusions Despite significant investments in TB control over 15 years, TB remains an important public health problem in the KSA affecting all age groups, and Saudis and non-Saudis alike. Identification of the major risk factors associated with the persistently high TB rates in workers migrating to KSA is required. Further studies are warranted to delineate whether such patients re-activate latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection or acquire new M.tb infection after arrival in KSA. Appropriate interventions are required to reduce TB incidence rates as have been implemented by other countries. PMID:22745765

  14. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Engel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  15. Medical students' knowledge and attitude toward cancer pain management in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaki, Abdullah M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the final year medical students' knowledge, beliefs, and attitude toward cancer pain, and the need for a formal pain curriculum in medical schools. METHODS An epidemiological study was conducted from May 2008 to October 2009 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the students' knowledge and attitude toward cancer pain management. A survey in the form of self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among them. ...

  16. Quality of life in males with spinal cord injury in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Maher S. Al-Jadid; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Khalaf R. Al-Moutaery

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the interests and post-hospitalization of quality of life (QOL) and career of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS This study took a period that extended for 20 years (1982-2003). Fifty-seven male patients in the Riyadh, Armed Forces Hospital and Al-Kharj Hospital Program (RKH), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with SCI responded to a questionnaire, which was distributed manually to 120 contributors. The questionnaire items include health status, occupati...

  17. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water). These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well...

  18. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially unnecessary desalination infrastructure that is likely to become more energy and cost efficient in future. PMID:22504624

  19. Composition and diversity of weed communities in Al-Jouf province, northern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gomaa, Nasr H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in Al-Jouf province in northern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. Some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. A total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. The classification of vegetation using ...

  20. Islamic Dissent in an Islamic State : the Case of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Ste?phane

    2010-01-01

    The subject-matter is intriguing as Saudi Arabia is perceived as the incarnation of Islam. In fact, it has no constitution since the Quran is regarded as its constitution. Moreover, Islam was instrumental in its state building. But Dr. Lacroix is, after his field work, well-placed to discuss the issue. His talk is based on his Ph.D from Paris, his French book and its English edition that is to be published soon by Harvard University Press.

  1. Financial Stability of Islamic and Conventional Banks in Saudi Arabia: Evidence using Pooled and Panel Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan, Hassan B.; Taher, Farid B.

    2013-01-01

    The financial crises are considered the major challenges facing the prosperity and stability of the banking system and menace its stability. Several studies on financial and banking sector have demonstrated that Islamic banks have shown more financial robustness and stability compared to conventional banks, over periods of financial crises. This research aims to measure the stability extent of the Saudi Arabia banks including Islamic banks and conventional banks using quarterly data from 2005...

  2. Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Momani, M.; Al Korashy, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients us...

  3. Hypertension care at primary health care centers: A report from Abha, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Homrany Mohammed; Khan Mohd; Al-Khaldi Yahia; Al-Gelban Khalid; Al-Amri Hasan

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that effective management of hypertension reduces the incidence of myo-cardial infarction, stroke and vascular complications. The Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, introduced the Quality Assurance Guidelines with the hope to improve the management of hypertension in its centers. We conducted an audit of two Primary Health Care Centers namely, Al-Manhal (MPHCC) and Al-Numais (NPHCC), to evaluate how well hypertension was managened at these centers. A check list was ...

  4. The Managerial Role of Pharmacist at Community Pharmacy Setting in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Arifi, Mohamed N.

    2013-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia community pharmacies by law, be owned and managed by pharmacists. Although these two functions seemed to be the same but in reality, they are not. Some studies showed that in community pharmacy managerial functions account for more than 50% of total routine and critical activity for all managerial position surveyed while other study showed that only 13.6% of the pharmacist’s time spent in administrative activities. This article addressed the role of the pharmacist as manager...

  5. Medical social sciences. Their potential contributions to medical education reforms in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-borie, Hussein M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article emphasizes a holistic definition of health. It then introduces the concept of Medical social sciences, and drawing from the literature, argues for the inevitability of social sciences in medical education, especially in the health systems of developing countries including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is followed by a brief history of medical education in KSA, and an examination of some important social science issues. Finally, this article suggests how a ho...

  6. An Investigation of the Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: Case of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Rasheed; Khawaja Jehanzeb; Rasheed, Mazen F.

    2013-01-01

    Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) has been signified as one of the antecedents of organizationaleffectiveness. OCB is widely studied over the years in the US but has received relatively inadequate attention inother Asian contexts. This study explored and examined number of predictors of OCB in the Arabic-speakingcontext (Saudi Arabia in Gulf). The data was drawn from 275 employees of both private and public bankingsectors. Predictors of OCB examined are Job Satisfaction and Organizat...

  7. Information-seeking behaviors and attitudes of physicians toward drug information centers in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham S. Abou-Auda

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the drug information-seeking behavior of physicians in Saudi Arabia and the information resources they were using to obtain information about new drugs. The physicians' awareness of the existence of drug information centers (DICs) and their attitudes toward these centers were also investigated. Physicians were also surveyed concerning their future information needs. METHODS The study was conducted between September 2002 and June 2003. A questionnaire was sen...

  8. Mineralogy and the Texture of the Basalt in Hail Region, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sana’a Odat

    2014-01-01

    The study is carried out to list mineralogy and texture of the basalt in Hail region. The basalt flows belong to the Arabian Harrat volcanism. Cenozoic volcanism has produced 13, vast, basaltic fields in western Saudi Arabia, covering a total area of about 100,000 sq. km. The volcanism starts in the late Cretaceous time and continues periodically into the Holocene. The basaltic field presently investigated is known as Harrat Al-Hamad (or Harrat As-Shamah) which lies in ...

  9. Is there a need to involve doctors in management of health care in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shehri, Ali M.

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, the role of doctors and managers in health care management has become a hot topic in the newspapers and public magazine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this paper is to contribute constructively and scientifically to this topical issue by emphasizing that commonality and interaction between medicine and management dictate more involvement of doctors in management. Although one may argue that doctors are usually not well trained in resources management, scienti...

  10. Patterns of breastfeeding practice during the first 6 months of life in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fouzia A. Al-Hreashy; Hani M. Tamim; Nadia Al-Baz; Nora H. Al-Kharji; Abeer Al-Amer; Haifa Al-Ajmi; Alaa A. Eldemerdash

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the breastfeeding practices in the first 6 months of infants at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out at KAMC in 2005. Infants who attended the primary care centers and well-baby clinic of the hospital for the 6-month's vaccine were included. Mothers were interviewed to collect information on the mothers, infants, and their breastfeeding practice. World Health Organization definit...

  11. Pattern of infant feeding at a University Hospital in Western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia M. Fida; Jumama Y. Al-Aama

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To analyze the pattern of breastfeeding in mothers, identify causes of failure to breastfeed, initiate, and sustain breastfeeding practices at a University Hospital in Western Saudi Arabia. METHODS Prospective interviews with mothers of infants seen consecutively during routine well baby clinic visits were conducted in the year October 2001 through to September 2002 using structured 18 item questionnaires. This study was carried out at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, ...

  12. Perceived barriers to the implementation of a baby friendly initiative in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafat Mosalli; Ayman A. Abd El-Azim; Mervat A. Qutub; Enas Zagoot; Mohammed Janish; Paes, Bosco A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To collect data about perceptions and attitudes regarding breastfeeding in the local community and is intended as the first phase prior to the implementation of the baby friendly initiative (BFI). METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted at the International Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between April 2011 and June 2011, using a structured and closed-ended questionnaire. RESULTS One hundred and twenty women responded (100% response rate) in the...

  13. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed; Gaffar Abdelrahim; Khalafalla Husam Eldin; Mahfouz Mohamed; Zaid Abdel Naser; Bani Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross...

  14. Language Maintenance and Language Shift among Second Generation Tigrinya-speaking Eritrean Immigrants in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Ali Habtoor

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the language maintenance and language shift among the young Tigrinya-speaking Eritrean immigrants in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixty-four Tigrinya-speaking teenager immigrants in Riyadh participated in this study. Forty of them are females and twenty-four are males. These respondents are students enrolled in the Eritrean International School in Riyadh. The results reveal that respondents have a limited ability to understand, speak, read, write, and translate orally...

  15. Biodegradable waste to biogas: Renewable energy option for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sadiq Munfath Khan; Zakariya Kaneesamkandi

    2013-01-01

    Energy recovery from waste is not a new field of study, but its implementation continues to be a challenge in some Arab countries. Although there is abundance of useful waste in the urban markets, practices aiming at waste to energy conversion are still negligible. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, so-called green markets are abundant with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is missing. Therefore the objective of this paper is the evaluation of waste g...

  16. Molecular identification of isolated fungi from stored apples in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alwakeel, Suaad S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi causes most plant disease. When fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. Studies have shown that the Penicillium and Monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. Several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and conduct a molecular ...

  17. Determining the Self-Service Technology Adoption in Saudi Arabia: A Multi-Industry Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahim Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the adoption of self-service technologies (SST) among consumers in Saudi Arabia using the multi-industry approach. Unlike the majority of previous studies which either focuses on a specific industry or a specific SST, this study looks at SST adoption across multiple industries and across various SST platforms. In addition, it proposes a new construct—“consumers seek values” comprising of time convenience, ease of use, usefulness, secure/privacy, autonomy, service...

  18. Swedish Companies in Saudi Arabia : The Struggle to Maintain Corporate Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hartvigson, Johannes; Hourani, Rayan

    2009-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is increasingly becoming one of the most attractive areas in the world for foreign investors. At the same time the country has a major influence on the economy in the Middle-East. However there exist reasons for why companies previously have been reluctant to enter this market, these reasons have mainly been related to political turbulence, foreign traditions and culture. In recent years some research has been dedicated to this area however there is still more to investigate. The...

  19. Correlates of sexual violence among adolescent females in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Joharah M. Al-Quaiz; Hafsa M. Raheel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire wa...

  20. Novel Program to Promote Critical Thinking among Higher Education Students: Empirical Study from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Huda Umar Alwehaibi

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) u...

  1. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse drug reactions reporting, use of technology proven to decrease medication errors, and promotion and implementation of national patient safety initiatives. Conclusions Healthcare professionals have identified major challenges and opportunities for medication safety in Saudi Arabia. Policy makers and practitioners should consider these factors when designing future programs aimed at improving the safe use of medications. PMID:25161376

  2. Clostridium difficile in retail baskets, trolleys, conveyor belts, and plastic bags in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alqumber, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) prevalence on retail surfaces and shoppers plastic bags. Methods: From 20 June to 10 August 2011, in a cross-sectional epidemiological study, 17 supermarkets from 2 cities, Albaha and Altaif, Saudi Arabia were sampled. A total of 800 samples, which comprised 200 samples per surveyed surface, were studied. These included baskets, trolleys, conveyer belts, and outgoing shoppers’ plastic bags. Clostridium difficile strains were isol...

  3. Does Education Expenditure Promote Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia? An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ageli, Dr Mohammed Moosa

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the Keynesian Relations and Education Expenditure in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012) for real Oil GDP and Non Oil GDP. Keynesian Relations investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the education growth. In the previous tudies have been tested the three versions of Keynesian Relations to support the existence of long-run relationship between education expenditure and economic growth. We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques...

  4. Antimicrobial properties of 3 medicinal plants from Saudi Arabia against some clinical isolates of bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Saad A. Alamri; Mahmoud F. Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract of fresh fruits of Solanum incanum L., fresh leaves of Ricinus communis L. and Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum L., and to determine and quantify the phenol compounds of the investigated plant parts. METHODS This study was carried out at the Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from July 2011 to September 2011. Nine clinical strains of bacteria and 3 ethanol extracts o...

  5. Histopathological pattern of ovarian neoplasms and their age distribution in the western region of Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Layla S.; Bondagji, Nabeel S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify the different histopathological types of ovarian neoplasms and their age distribution. METHODS This is a retrospective study were ovarian neoplasms received by the Pathology Department of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1995 and December 2010 were reviewed and their frequencies in different age groups were calculated. RESULTS Out of 618 ovarian specimens studied, 382 (61.8%) were ovarian neoplasms while 38.2% were non-neopl...

  6. An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-kahtani, Nasser S.; Nawab Ali Khan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can hel...

  7. Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food Handlers during Hajj Season in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Anas Serag Dablool; Saeed Saeed Al-Ghamdi

    2011-01-01

    Food poisoning during Hajj season is one of the main hazardous issues where most of the health services in Saudi Arabia are targeting to minimize every year during Hajj seasons. Ordinarily, food handlers are subjected to medical examination before assignment to work. However, they are mostly lacking proper training in food handling operations, mass feeding, and sanitary practices. This situation may encourage causing food poisoning especially with staphylococcus enterotoxins. 1516 clinical sp...

  8. A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwadani Fahad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender on outcome was assessed in a univariate fashion using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test when appropriate. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Results: A total of 68 out of 85 residents (80% responded to the survey. Over one-half of the residents preferred to pursue a fellowship within Saudi Arabia (53%, while others (25% planned to train in North America. The majority of respondents wished to practice in an urban setting (63%. Anterior segment was the most desired subspecialty, while general ophthalmology and glaucoma were not a popular choice. Most residents were interested in refractive surgery (77% and research (75%. The main factor influencing the decision to pursue ophthalmology was the ability to combine medicine and surgery (97%, while a positive elective experience was also an important factor, particularly for female respondents (91% vs. 57%; P < 0.001. Conclusion: Concerted efforts are required to encourage adoption to ophthalmic practice in public institutions rather than in private practice. In addition training in underrepresented subspecilaties should be encouraged to ensure adequate ophthalmic care for all citizens of Saudi Arabia.

  9. Screening of hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus in infertile couples in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor, Aisha A.; Salih, Abdalla I.; Al-jaroudi, Dania H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a group of infertile couples attending a tertiary care facility in Saudi Arabia. METHODS A retrospective cross-sectional observational study was performed by reviewing medical records of 500 couples referred to the Reproductive Endocrine and Infertility Medicine Department of the Women's Specialized Hospital at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kin...

  10. Generic drug prescribing in central Saudi Arabia : Perceptions and attitudes of physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Alghasham Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Physicians play a key role in generic drug prescribing, but their behavior is affected by many determinants. We examined physician practices and attitudes and other factors influencing the prescription of generic drugs. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from a random sample of physi-cians from different settings in central Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed to describe all variables and test any significant difference betwee...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Coxiella burnetii Strain Cb196, an Agent of Endocarditis in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Felicetta; Robert, Catherine; Azhar, E I; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii Cb196, with a 2,006,415-bp genome, is a strain isolated from a 45-year-old man in Saudi Arabia with endocarditis. It belongs to the genotype MST51, which was detected for the first time only in this country. Cb196 shows more similarity to C. burnetii CbuK_Q154, belonging to genotype 8, which was phylogenetically close to MST51. PMID:25428964

  12. Characterization of Qarh's Wall Plasters, Al-Ulla, Saudi Arabia. A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohsen M.

    2013-01-01

    During five years (2008 to 2012) of field work in the restoration and conservation of the Qarh's monuments at Al-Ulla northwest Saudi Arabia, many kinds of wall plasters were studied, investigated and analyzed by the following methods: field observations, (visual examination), Optical Microscope (OM), Polarized Microscope (PM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), equipped with (EDS), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).Those methods of investigation and analysis helped us determine the Qarh's wall pl...

  13. Performance Analysis of PV Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbul Anwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential implementation of photovoltaic (PV energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed in this paper. HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable software was used to perform the technical feasibility of the system. The feasibility of PV energy system was analyzed based on solar irradiances. Stand-alone PV systems with battery storage element will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV and battery storage on electric energy production.

  14. Performance Analysis of PV Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Makbul Anwari; Ayong Hiendro

    2013-01-01

    The potential implementation of photovoltaic (PV) energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed in this paper. HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable) software was used to perform the technical feasibility of the system. The feasibility of PV energy system was analyzed based on solar irradiances. Stand-alone PV systems with battery storage element will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV and battery storage on electric...

  15. Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Hypermarkets of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Mahfooz

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the perception of retail service quality and its relationship withsatisfaction for customers of hypermarkets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data was collected throughself-administered questionnaires using convenience sampling technique. Out of 220 responses, 185 were finallychosen and analyzed for descriptive statistics as well as significant relationship between hypermarket servicequality and customer satisfaction. The respondents reported h...

  16. Rhesus alloimmunization in pregnancy. A tertiary care center experience in the Western region of Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bondagji, Nabeel S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the distribution of ABO blood group and rhesus (RH) factor among pregnant women, to estimate the prevalence of Rh alloimmunization, and report the perinatal outcome of all cases of Rh alloimmunization at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAUH). METHODS This is a retrospective study of pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 2004 and December 2009. Records of patient diagnosed as Rh negative blood group we...

  17. A Check List of Weeds in Al-kharj Area of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-yemeny, Mohammed N.

    1999-01-01

    A Check list of 51 weeds, belonging to 27 families in Al-Kharj area of Saudi Arabia, was listed. All these weeds species were found in agricultural fields or in neglected farms. Most of these weeds cause moderate to severe infestations to various agricultural crops and fodder plants. Correct identification and the methods of eradication of these weeds from the agricultural fields are one of the primary objectives to improve the crop yields, further, a concise regional weed flora would serve m...

  18. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA(1c) >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%.

  19. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Public Perception of Genetically Modified Food in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jameel M. Al-Khayri; Magda I. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Consumers awareness and attitude towards GM food vary among different nations and thought to be affected by socio-demographic attributes. The present study was conducted to assess the consumer knowledge about GM food and to determine the level of acceptance of GM products in Saudi Arabia. A consumer questionnaire was designed to generate a demographic profile for participating consumers and assess their perception. Data were collected in Al-Hassa, Eastern Province, based on 420 randomly selec...

  20. The emergence of Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hajoj, Sahal; Rastogi, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We analyzed the available data on a total of 1505 strains isolated during 2002-2005. RESULTS: Spoligotyping results revealed that Beijing family isolates represented 4.5% of all the isolates. Existence of Beijing clade is alarming as this family is known to be multi-drug resistant and transmissible. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the occurrence of Be...

  1. The changing pattern of malignant neoplasms among females in Asir region of Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Archibong, E. I.; Sobande, A. A.; Sadek, A. A.; Ajao, O. G.; Khan, A. R.; Fawehinmi, O.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The study was undertaken to compare the frequencies of the various types of malignant neoplasms affecting females in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia during the years 1996-1998, to the experience of a previous report (1987 to 1989) in the same population with rapid advancing health care services. METHODS A retrospective descriptive approach was adopted. Histopathological records of Asir Central Hospital were reviewed to extract data on female malignant neoplasms seen in the...

  2. A Survey of the Herpetofauna of Bisha District, South of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein H.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the herpetofauna was made in different localities of Bisha district, south of Saudi Arabia. Out of 293 specimens 12 amphibians and 281 reptiles were collected. Lizards were the most collected reptilian species (86.69 %, while Amphisbaenians comprised the little group of the sample. The snakes belonged to three families; most of them were colubrid species. Only one bufonid species (Amphibia and one species of turtle were collected.

  3. Safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in details. Hazards and potential threat, material control and responsible parties, in addition to management and the technical requirements, are the main topics that are discussed. Some interest is given to the responsibilities of the regulatory authority, with special emphasis on the role of King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology as a national competent authority. (author)

  4. Wheel of B2C E-commerce Development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Rayed; Nguyen, Anne; Jones, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Online retailing (a model of B2C e-commerce) is growing world-wide, with companies in many countries showing increased sales and productivity as a result. It has great potential within the global economy. This paper looks at the current status of online retailing in Saudi Arabia, with particular focus on what inhibits or enables both the customers and retailers. It also analyses the status of Government involvement and proposes a layered model, known as the Wheel of Online R...

  5. THE POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SAUDI ARABIA AJWAH DATES (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Safar Al-Shahrani; Hussein A. Almehdar

    2014-01-01

    -The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is considered one of the most important commercial crops in the Arab world. A trial to obtain a natural potentially active extract with anticancer activity from the Saudi Arabia plant and more safe for human. Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) was used to evaluate MARE on mice after 24 and 48 hours of tumor inoculation at levels of (200mg/ml) as antitumor activity to show the sufficient value which causes EAC cells nonviable. The treatment ...

  6. Correlates of Depression among Patients Diagnosed with Chronic Illnesses in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Depression contributes to an increased medical morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic medical illnesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate correlates of depression among patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional survey using 412 patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses has been used to collected data in regards to depressive symptoms, psychological distress, coping, and life satisfaction. Results: 25.2% of the pa...

  7. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Koshak Emad A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization) to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitizati...

  8. Prevalence of obesity among military personnel in Saudi Arabia and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalib Bin Horaib; Al-Khashan, Hesham I.; Adel M. Mishriky; Mohei A. Selim; Noura AlNowaiser; Abdulaziz A. BinSaeed; Ahmed D. Alawad; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Khalid AlQumaizi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the prevalence of obesity among military personnel in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to identify its risk factors. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study covered all 5 military regions of KSA. It included a multistage stratified random sample of 10,500 active military personnel. The World Health Organization STEP wise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS) was used in the design of the data collection tool. The project lasted from J...

  9. Profiling E-buyers in Saudi Arabia: Demographic, Experiential, and Attitudinal Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Moudi Almousa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to develop profiles of adopters and non-adopters of internet shopping in Saudi Arabia based on their demographic variables and internet usage patrons and to investigate consumers’ attitude towards online shopping and perception and formation of attitude by using Fishbein and Ajzin (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). A profile of internet shopping adopter and non-adapters was drawn. Among the investigated demographic variablesand internet usage patte...

  10. Vegetation analysis of Wadi Al-Jufair, a hyper-arid region in Najd, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alatar, Abdulrahman; El-sheikh, Mohamed A.; Thomas, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Wadi Al-Jufair, a tributary of Wadi Nisah, is one of the important wadis of Najd region (Saudi Arabia) sheltering a rich diversity of higher plants. The study area is extended into approximately 15 km2 encompassing the commonest geomorphological features encountered in desert wadis. The wadi supports several rare plants, including Maerua crassifolia Forssk., a regionally endangered tree, and Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf., a rare shrub with restricted distribution. The present study aims...

  11. Surgical Management of Graves` Hyperthyroidism in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Hospital Study

    OpenAIRE

    Malabu, Usman H.; Assim Alfadda; Riad A. Sulimani; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A; Atallah D. Al-Ruhaily; Fouda, Mona A; Mohamed A. Al-Maatouq; Abdulkarim A. El-Bakry

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine surgical indication and complication of subtotal thyroidectomy in patients being treated for Graves` disease at King Khalid University Hospital Riyadh Saudi Arabia in the period between January 1996 and December 2005. Twenty-five out of 194 adult patients with Graves` disease had thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism during the 10-year period representing 13% comprising 11 males and 14 females. Mean age at presentation for all the patients was 28?12 years. ...

  12. Dental health status and caries pattern of preschool children in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Tahir R.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to assess dental caries and its relation to plaque, tooth brushing habit and past dental attendance, and to determine the caries pattern in primary dentition of preschool children. METHODS One hundred and three, 5-year-old children, from preschool nurseries in Al-Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were studied in 1994. The World Health Organization criteria was used to determine caries. RESULTS Only 16.5% were caries free. The mean decayed...

  13. Nutrition, weight status and physical activity in Saudi Arabia : with special focus on women

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaf, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been escalating to levels that are threatening the public health of the entire KSA population, especially the female population. However, both physical activity (PA) education and research have only focused to a limited extent on women’s health status. Objectives: The overall aim of this thesis was to increase our knowledge on the current health situation of both a hospital-based and...

  14. A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Alqarni; Mohammed Hannan; Victor Gonzalez; Michael Engel

    2012-01-01

    Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, Chalicodoma riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L.) (Acanthaceae). The occurrence of...

  15. Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageeh A. Nafei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS and Organizational Learning (OL, might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1 the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2 the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.

  16. A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ahmed Hassan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000 and Sudan (2007 from a One Health perspective. Methods: Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘Sudan’, and ‘RVF’, articles were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and web pages of international organizations as well as local sources in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Results: The outbreak in Saudi Arabia caused 883 human cases, with a case fatality rate of 14% and more than 40,000 dead sheep and goats. In Sudan, 698 human cases of RVF were recognized (case fatality, 31.5%, but no records of affected animals were available. The ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar with irrigation canals and excessive rains providing an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The outbreaks resulted in livestock trade bans leading to a vast economic impact on the animal market in the two countries. The surveillance system in Sudan showed a lack of data management and communication between the regional and federal health authorities, while in Saudi Arabia which is the stronger economy, better capacity and contingency plans resulted in efficient countermeasures. Studies of the epidemiology and vectors were also performed in Saudi Arabia, while in Sudan these issues were only partly studied. Conclusion: We conclude that a One Health approach is the best option to mitigate outbreaks of RVF. Collaboration between veterinary, health, and environmental authorities both on national and regional levels is needed.

  17. Towards integration of health economics into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M

    2015-04-01

    In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice. PMID:25649100

  18. Molecular characterization of carbapenemase production among gram-negative bacteria in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah; Almasri, Malak; Roshdy, Hala; Hathout, Hanan; Kaase, Martin; Gatermann, Sören G; Yezli, Saber

    2015-06-01

    We characterized the molecular basis of carbapenemase production in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients from Saudi Arabia in the year 2012. Isolates were collected from across the Kingdom and phenotypically tested for carbapenemase production. Polymerase chain reaction detection of carbapenemase genes was also performed. Our results indicate that in Saudi Arabia, OXA-48 and NDM-1 are the dominant carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae with low prevalence of VIM. The latter is the most prevalent metallo-beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas oxacillinases, OXA-23 in particular, are the dominant carbapenemases in Acinetobacter baumannii. No KPC or IMP genes were detected. Our study is the first report of OXA-48, NDM-1, and VIM-4 enzymes in Enterobacter from the Kingdom. Also it is the first report of OXA-72 and NDM-1 in A. baumannii in Saudi Arabia, and the coexistence of blaOXA-23 and blaNDM-1 genes in this species in the country. Awareness of the role of international travel in the spread of carbapenem-resistant determinants in the Kingdom, as well as effective infection control interventions in hospitals and strict antimicrobial stewardship in healthcare facilities and the community are keys to combat the rise of carbapenemase producers in the Kingdom. PMID:25569024

  19. Radioactivity concentrations in soil in the western province of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity in soil was measured in the seven Western Province cities of Saudi Arabia in order to establish radiation data baseline of natural as well as man-made radionuclides. These cities were: Makkah, Taif, Baha, Abha, Madeena, Yanbu and Tabuk. Worldwide concern about the Chernobyl accident caused interest in measuring radioactive contamination. Concern was raised on whether radioactive contamination had reached Saudi Arabia, particularly that few models have predicted that small amount of radioactivity may have reached the country. Only long lived radionuclides, such as 137Cs, of 30 years half-life would remain after long time. Its concentration would give a good indication of the degree of contamination. The other long lived radionuclide is 90Sr of 28.5 y half-life, but this radionuclide is less volatile than Cs. It is, therefore, expected to travel much less than Cs. The reported 90Sr/137Cs is Europe was only few percent. The ratio in Saudi Arabia is expected to be less due to the larger distance from the reactor accident location. (author)

  20. Biodegradable waste to biogas: Renewable energy option for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sadiq Munfath Khan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from waste is not a new field of study, but its implementation continues to be a challenge in some Arab countries. Although there is abundance of useful waste in the urban markets, practices aiming at waste to energy conversion are still negligible. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, so-called green markets are abundant with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is missing. Therefore the objective of this paper is the evaluation of waste generation in KSA for the energy recovery purpose, and to show that the conversion of green waste into biofuel is not only environmentally friendly but also financially rewarding. Since the result illustrate that the major portion of the waste generated is organic waste, anaerobic digestion is proposed waste to energy technology because of its feasibility for biodegradation of moist organic wastes into biogas. Diversion of waste into biogas and bio-fertilizer will ensure that it is treated in such a way that it becomes a useful product instead of harmful one. Furthermore as the policy makers and planners in renewable energy sector have intended for kingdom of Saudi Arabia to be andquot;kingdom of sustainable energyandquot; as well, hence they are needed to give special attention toward the largest Saudi Arabia's green market and should invest more to implement this plan.

  1. Endogenous Structural Breaks and the Stability of the Money Demand Function in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Abdulrahman Banafea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an endogenous investigation of the long run relationship between the demand for money, narrow definition of money (M1, and its determinants in Saudi Arabia was conducted. A structural break date was estimated by applying the Andrews (1993 and Andrews and Ploberger (1994 methods. These tests illustrated that there is evidence of a structural break for all of the variables, namely money demand, real income and nominal short-term interest rates when they are considered together. The results of the Hansen stability test support the idea that the instability of money demand could be related to the structural breaks. Since there is evidence of a structural break, the Gregory and Hansen procedure was used to test for the cointegrating equation of money demand. This test allows for a one time structural break in the relationship among the money demand variable, real income and nominal short-term interest rates. The results of this test affirm stable money demand in Saudi Arabia. The monetary aggregate in Saudi Arabia seems to be an appropriate indicator in the formulation of monetary policy.

  2. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  3. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gilany Abdel-Hady

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors. The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors. Conclusions: Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students.

  4. Examining the Broken Sales-Cycle in the Saudi Arabia Automotive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadye Saud Al Fayad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the subject of the Saudi Arabian new vehicle market. The topic addressed involved thesales-cycle within the new vehicle purchase process in Saudi Arabia. The specific research problem identified abreak-down in the sales-cycle or, alternatively, a dysfunctional approach to the final step in the sales-cycle whichinvolves the post-purchase stage where the consumer typically makes referrals or recommendations to family,friends and colleagues regarding the product or service in question. In this case, the data collected for this studyin the form of an informal, anonymous survey of people that have purchased a new vehicle in the Saudi marketfound that the satisfaction rates with dealers were an abysmal 50 to 60% depending on the specific aspect ofservice quality addressed. The secondary data found that there are more than 700 thousand new vehicles sold inSaudi Arabia on average annually and this figure is expected to surpass one million in several years. Additionally,with the after sales market in service, parts and warranties continuing to expand to more than $1 billion, thispost-purchase process in the sales-cycle can no longer be ignored by new car dealerships in the market. Therecommendation is that new car dealerships develop and integrate social media into a customer loyalty programin the new car sales-cycle in order to improve customer satisfaction and referral rates.

  5. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia:effects of sociodemographic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (autcilities caring for medical students. (author)

  6. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilntegral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

  7. Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Mounira I.

    2010-01-01

    This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

  8. Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is takenogramming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this paper, the major challenges facing the Saudi electrical power sector in implementing sustainable development are discussed and analyzed. The paper also looks at a number of developed countries and examines their experiences with energy conservation programs. The paper highlights current Saudi programs and experience for promoting awareness and participation in energy conservation. Strategies and major policy measures for energy conservation in Saudi Arabia are proposed

  9. Prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa , Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Atuar Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Some 12.8 million in the age group 5-15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.  A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were selected using multistage sampling method form 30 primary schools located in the three different areas of Al Hassa. School children were interviewed to collect demographics and vision data using a special data collection form followed by screening for refractive errors by trained optometrists within the school premises using a standardized protocol. Assessment of visual acuity and ocular motility evaluation were carried out and cover-uncover test was performed. Children detected with defective vision were referred for further examination employing subjective refraction with auto refractometer and objective refraction using streak retinoscopy after 1% cyclopentolate. Of the screened school children (N=2002), the overall prevalence of refractive errors was 13.7% (n=274), higher among females (Odds ratio, OR=1.39, P=0.012) and significantly more among students of rural residence (OR=2.40, P=0.001). The prevalence of refractive errors was disproportionately more among those aged 12-14 years (OR=9.02, P=0.001). Only 9.4% of students with poor vision were wore spectacles for correction. Myopia was the most commonly encountered refractive error among both genders (65.7% of the total errors encountered). Uncorrected refractive errors affected a sizable portion of primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Primary schoolchildren especially females, rural and older children represents high risk group for refractive errors for which the included children were unaware. PMID:23283044

  10. Saudi Arabia- The Saudi Aramco announces falls of almost all price differentials of its crude oils in April

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe and Asia except, all the differentials of prices have readjusted in fall in the month of april. For United States, the fall of differentials have been varied between $0.05/b and $0.15/b according to the qualities. For Europe, similar falls have been decided for crude and middle oils and are following the strong increases of february, provoked by the cold spell of the two first months of the year. In an other point of view, the production and the benefits of the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) reach record levels of 22 Mt and $1.67 milliards in 1995. The Saudi Petrochemical Company (Sadaf), joint venture between Sabic and Pecten Saudi Arabia, affiliate of American Shell Oil, will begin next july the production, in experimental phase of its new unit of 700 000 t/year of MTBE/ETBE (methyl or ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). It will be the first worldwide factory of this capacity to produce MTBE/ETBE. The National Plastic Company (Ibn Hayyan) has created a new affiliate Ibn Hayyan Plastic Products Company to build a new factory in its complex of Joubail, which will produce 40 000 t/year of plastic products. Finally, the construction at Joubail of the 50 000 t/year of caustic soda factory, the Arabian Industrial Development Company (Nama) will be achieved in january 1997 and the production start is planned two months later. (N.C.)

  11. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-01-01

    Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED). Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI) would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific...

  12. Characterization of Novel Whale Shark Aggregations at Shib Habil, Saudi Arabia and Mafia Island, Tanzania

    KAUST Repository

    Cochran, Jesse

    2014-12-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring has been successfully used on many elasmobranch species, but no such study has yet been published for the whale shark (Rhincodon typus). In some ways this is surprising as the known whale shark aggregation sites would seem to be ideal targets for this method. For this dissertation, two acoustic studies were carried out in Saudi Arabia and Tanzania. Each was performed in parallel with visual surveys and the Saudi population was also studied using satellite telemetry. Sighting and acoustic data were compared at both sites, and the results were mixed. The acoustic monitoring largely confirmed the results of visual surveys for the Saudi Arabian sharks, including seasonality, residency and a degree of parity and integration between the sexes that is unique to this site. Satellite tracks of tagged Saudi sharks were used to confirm that some animals migrated away from the aggregation site before returning in subsequent seasons, confirming philopatric behavior in this species. In contrast, the acoustic results in Tanzania demonstrated year-round residency of whale sharks in the area, despite seasonal declines in visually estimated abundance. Seasonal changes in habitat selection render the sharks at this site temporarily cryptic to visual sampling. The differing results are compelling because both the philopatric behavior demonstrated in Saudi Arabia and the cryptic residency of the Tanzanian sharks could explain the seasonal patterns in whale shark abundances reported at other aggregation sites. Despite their differences, both sites in this study can be classified as secondary whale shark nurseries and each may be a vital feeding ground for its respective population.

  13. Identifying the Factors Influencing the Development of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia: The Employment of Grounded Theory Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Alfarraj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of eGovernment across countries is rapidly increasing. However, with this increase in the development of eGovernment projects especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia, there are still some difficulties facing the proper development of eGovernment. This paper aims to explore how eGovernment implementation and development can be understood in the context of Saudi Arabia based on the developers’ perspectives. An attempt is made to identify the factors influencing the development of eGovernment and contribute to cause the delay of its initiatives at government organisations in Saudi Arabia. To achieve the aim, an unstructured interview within a qualitative approach was adopted in this study. Grounded theory techniques based on Strauss and Corbin approach (1990 were employed in this study in order to analyze the collected data.

  14. Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu and the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisham Nazer, H.E.

    1987-05-01

    Saudi Arabia based its industrialization program on a world view operating under a free market. The program's goals were to increase the value of petroleum products and manufactured goods as a way to diminish the country's dependence upon oil exports. An internal free market exists, with competition serving as the impetus for economic growth. Responsibility for economic development lies with the private sector, but the government has participated in support of the private sector. An overview of the accomplishments of the Royal Commission, headed by King Fahd since its inception in 1975, include the building of two new industrial cities in the desert and investment in the infrastructure for a petrochemicals and minerals-based industry. Modernization is progressing without disrupting the cultural traditions. Foreign investment has joined with the Saudi private sector to form a truly international approach. Changes in oil trade due to non-OPEC production have accompanied a shift in the comparative advantage to the industrial countries, but OAPEC is proud of its role in encouraging orderly and profitable trade. Saudi Arabia will be joining the worldwide search for and development of renewable energy sources and a shift toward a sustainable energy supply.

  15. Medication safety practices in hospitals: A national survey in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Alhusan, Abdulaziz; Alburikan, Khalid; Adam, Mansour; Murray, Michael D.; Bates, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication errors in hospitals are a worldwide concern. The World Health Organization has recommended the implementation of basic applications in healthcare systems to improve medication safety, but it is largely unknown whether these recommendations are adhered to by hospitals. We assessed the presence of core medication safety practices in Saudi Arabian hospitals. Methods We developed and validated a survey to assess medication safety practices in hospitals. Major headings included Look-Alike Sound-Alike (LASA) medications, control of concentrated electrolyte solutions, transitions in care, information technology, drug information and other medication safety practices. Trained pharmacists visited samples of hospitals from all regions of Saudi Arabia. Results Seventy-eight hospitals were surveyed. Only 30% of the hospitals had a medication safety committee and 9% of hospitals had a medication safety officer. Only 33% of hospitals had a list of LASA medications and 50% had a list of error-prone abbreviations. Concentrated electrolytes were available in floor stock in 60% of the hospitals. No hospital involved pharmacists in obtaining medication histories and only 37% of the hospitals provided a medication list to the patients at discharge. While 61% of hospitals used a computer system in their pharmacy to enter prescriptions, only 29% of these hospitals required entry of patient’s allergies before entering a drug order. Conclusions Core practices to improve medication safety were not implemented in many hospitals in Saudi Arabia. In developing countries, an effort must be made at the national level to increase the adoption of such practices. PMID:23960830

  16. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aqeel SA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

  17. Optimization of Broadband Seismic Network in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alshuhail, Abdulrahman

    2011-05-01

    Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001. Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%. The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%, to ‘try them’ (51.9% and ‘to get energy’ (43%, albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001. About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively. The greater majority (67% considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.

  19. Attractiveness Factors Influencing Shoppers’ Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Word of Mouth: An Empirical Investigation of Saudi Arabia Shopping Malls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'Eddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the attractiveness factors influencing shoppers’ satisfaction, loyalty, and word of mouth in Saudi shopping mall centers. The independent variables were attractiveness factors represented by these variables namely aesthetic, convenience and accessibility, product variety, entertainment, and service quality. The dependent variables were shopper satisfaction, loyalty and WOM. A structured questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 600 shopping mall customers, representing all of the shopping malls shoppers in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A purposive sampling technique was employed in this research. The multiple regression analysis showed the impact of shopping malls attractiveness factors on the shopper satisfaction. The attractiveness factors aesthetic, convenience and accessibility, product variety, entertainment, and service quality, had a positive effect on Saudi shopping mall shoppers’. The most significant factor was product variety. This research potentially contributes to shopping malls attractiveness factors and their impact on shoppers’ satisfaction in shopping malls of Saudi Arabia.

  20. The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

  1. The Impact of Service Quality Delivery on Customer Satisfaction in the Banking Sector in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalib Sanjuq

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate what impact service quality that underlies the SERVQUAL model has on customer satisfaction in Saudi Arabia’s banking sector. The study was quantitative in nature and involved distributing a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that was based on a convenience method to 412 customers of various bank in the Saudi capital city of Riyadh, during the fall of 2014. The response rate was 67 percent and the study data was analyzed using SPSS and a reli...

  2. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: omar.alharbi@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: m.phillips@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: allan.williams@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: amingheith@mans.edu.eg [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: rbantan@kau.edu.sa [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: rasul.nm@sgs.org.sa [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  3. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = ? 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be und plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ? New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ? Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ? Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ? Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  4. First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXEYENKO A.V

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010.During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.

  5. Practices and perceptions of physicians to prescribing elastic compression stockings in a single center in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Farjah H. Algahtani; Abdulrahman I. Al-Diab; Isnani, Arthur C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess Saudi physicians' attitudes, practices, and perceptions towards use of elastic compression stockings (ECS) and knowledge of effective treatment in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). METHODS In January 2009, we surveyed 38 physicians from King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia who are involved in the management and treatment of patients with DVT. RESULTS Thirty (78.9%) of 38 respondents have prescribed ECS in their practices wherei...

  6. Efficacy and acceptability of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate injection. As a method of contraception in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Sobande; H. M. Al-Bar; E. I. Archibong; A. A. Sadek

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy and acceptability of Depo-Medroxyprogesterone acetate (depo-provera) among the women using that method of contraception at King Faisal Military Hospital in the south-west region of Saudi Arabia. METHODS A preliminary retrospective and questionnaire analysis of 165 Saudi women who had depo-provera as a method of contraception at the contraception clinic of King Faisal Military Hospital over a period of 2 months. RESULTS The mean age of the wo...

  7. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Hannan; Abdulaziz Alqarni; Ayman Owayss; Michael Engel

    2012-01-01

    The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille) occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans (Linnaeus) and Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological no...

  8. Automated external defibrillator. Trends of automated external defibrillator training in Saudi Arabia, and global perspectives on use and deployment.

    OpenAIRE

    Alamin Berhanu; Manal Al Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of automated external defibrillator (AED) training have become widespread in Saudi Arabia and the need permeated in all sectors of healthcare profession. Healthcare providers are required to renew their certification every 2 years for an optimal practice, and it has become a requisite for healthcare providers in Saudi Commission for Health Specialties and medical and nursing students prior to internship. The disparity between the goal of AED tra...

  9. A retrospective study on traumatic spinal cord injury in an inpatient rehabilitation unit in central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Maher Al Jadid

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the causes, age and gender differences, hospital length of stay (HLoS), and prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in a Saudi referral trauma center. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed hospital records of all patients who completed the TSCI rehabilitation program in the Rehabilitation Medicine Division, Department of Neurosciences at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from August 1982 and November 2010. The age and gende...

  10. Current practices for labeling medications in hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhani, Salma; Ahmed, Yusuf; Bin-Sabbar, Nora; Almogirah, Hailah; Alturki, Alanoud; Albanyan, Haifa; Adam, Mansour; Saleem, Fahad; Aljadhey, Hisham; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Vaida, Allen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Good medication labeling practices are imperative to ensure safe medication use. Non-adherence to labeling protocols is reported as one major source of medication errors. Objective This study was intended to evaluate and compare adherence to labeling guidelines for dispensed medications among the hospitals of the five different health sectors in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 14 public hospitals in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Labeling guidelines issued by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices were used as a standard assessment tool. A total of 218 medication labels were collected and evaluated for labeling adequacy. Descriptive statistics were used to elaborate the study findings. All analyses were performed with Microsoft Access. Results The study showed a substantial rate of adherence to the labeling guidelines. In terms of the established criteria, community and mail orders were reported to adhere strongly (90.5%), whereas injectables adhered least to the labeling guidelines. The labeling format, contents of the label, instructions on the labels, abbreviations used on the labels and drug names were also consistent with the guidelines (80.0%, 84.0%, 88.0%, 97.7% and 85.5%, respectively). Organizations belonging to the public sector reported a higher level of adherence (?80.0%) than the level found for private hospitals (70.0%). Conclusion In Riyadh hospitals, medication labeling following the guidelines issued by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, is well accepted and rationally practiced. However, a nationwide study is recommended to evaluate if the guidelines are followed throughout Saudi Arabia. PMID:24227953

  11. Accuracy of the medication history at admission to hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuYassin, Bishr H.; Aljadhey, Hisham; Al-Sultan, Mohammed; Al-Rashed, Sulaiman; Adam, Mansour; Bates, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Inaccurate medication history at admission to hospitals leads to preventable adverse drug events, which in turn increase mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of pharmacists in identifying discrepancies in medication histories at admission to a tertiary referral hospital in Saudi Arabia. Methods We performed a prospective observational study in a 1200 bed tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients were included if they were aged 16 years or older, were taking 5 or more medications, and were able to communicate or were accompanied by a caregiver who could communicate. Over 2 months in 2009, a pharmacist interviewed patients to ascertain all medications used prior to hospitalization, then all discrepancies were discussed with the admitting physician and unintended discrepancies were reported as errors. Results A pharmacist interviewed 60 patients who were taking 564 medications total. Of these patients, 65% were male, and their mean age was 62. Patients were taking an average of 9.4 medications. Twenty-two (37%) patients had at least one discrepancy, with the most common being omissions of medications (35%) and dosage errors (35%). The mean age for patients with discrepancies was 64.6 years, and without discrepancies, 60.8 years (P = 0.37). Conclusion Inaccurate medication history at admission to a hospital was common in Saudi Arabia. This has the potential to cause harm to patients if it remains undetected. Pharmacists could potentially play a major role in obtaining this medication history at the time of hospital admission. PMID:23960767

  12. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhaziAlsbeih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula and has an area of 872,722 sq miles, or 2,260,350 sq km. The ancient Arabian Shield of igneous and metamorphic rocks comprises most of the western third of the country. The shield contains many extinct volcanoes surrounded by lava beds. Sloping eastwards are the newer sedimentary areas in which rich oil fields are found. In Saudi Arabia oil is paramount and less effort has been put into searching for mineral deposits than in other countries of similar size and geology. Pour aerial radiometric surveys have been undertaken and some of the anomalies discovered in the earlier ones were ground checked by an IAEA expert in 1963-64. Two anomalies warranted more detailed work, these were the Jabal Said anomaly in the Central Shield area and the Al Ghrayyat in Wadi Sawawin about 70 miles from the Jordan border. The Jabal Said anomaly consists of a zone of altered rocks consisting largely of pegmatite and pegmatite granite= Allanite, pyrochlore, cyrtolite, xenotime and monazite are the ore minerals,, The deposit was estimated to have 2.2 million tons of ore grading 0.2 - 0.3 percent Nb2O5 and 0.03 - 0,05% U3O8. The other occurrence at Al Ghrayyat is similar but with much lower grade uranium content. In view of the huge size of Saudi Arabia, the existence of many geologically favourable rock types and the poor coverage by sophisticated uranium exploration techniques, the Speculative Potential is placed between 10,000 and 50,000 Tonnes uranium. (author)

  14. Suitability for sustainable of secondary effluent: a case in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diminishing groundwater resources and a growing need of water in arid countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia necessitate increased reuse of treated wastewater. Therefore a characterization study was carried out to determine the seasonal variations in the quality of secondary effluent for agricultural purposes produce from the AI-Khobar wastewater treatment plant. All the basic parameters such as chlorides, TSS, TDS, BOD, pH, turbidity total coliform including metals, nutrients, and oil and grease were studied. A comparison between the treated wastewater quality from the AI-Khobar and other Gulf region WWTPs was also made. Moreover the secondary effluent quality was also compared with the Saudi Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) discharge standards and the Ministry of Agriculture (MA) irrigation standards. Results showed seasonal variations in the effluent quality. Based on the methodology used in the present study suggestions have been given to improve the wastewater quality and application areas in the field of agriculture. (author)

  15. Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Hypermarkets of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Mahfooz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the perception of retail service quality and its relationship withsatisfaction for customers of hypermarkets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Data was collected throughself-administered questionnaires using convenience sampling technique. Out of 220 responses, 185 were finallychosen and analyzed for descriptive statistics as well as significant relationship between hypermarket servicequality and customer satisfaction. The respondents reported high levels of perceived quality and significantrelationship was found between retail service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction. Out of all thedimensions of service quality, physical aspects had the maximum effect on customer satisfaction, which wasattributed to the cultural traits and lifestyle of Saudi society. Retail service providers need to recognize theimportance of service quality dimensions in order of their significance, and implement appropriate strategy forcompetitive advantage over domestic and international players vying for share of an expanding consumer base.

  16. Characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis relative to HLA-DR in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia in relation to human leukocyte antigen type. A group of 91 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 72 females and 19 males were studied for the various clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters along with human leukocyte antigen-DR phenotypes. Since human leukocyte antigen-DR10 was most commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis in our population, we compared those patients with human leukocyte antigen-DR10 to those without. The comparison yielded differences in the presence of rheumatoid nodules, erosions, corticosteroid treatment, and joint involvement at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and white cell count. Only the last 3 parameters showed a statistical significance. Human leukocyte antigen type of Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis influenced the course of the disease but only to a limited extent. (author)

  17. The emergence of Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Hajoj Sahal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the prevalence of Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods : We analyzed the available data on a total of 1505 strains isolated during 2002-2005. Results : Spoligotyping results revealed that Beijing family isolates represented 4.5% of all the isolates. Existence of Beijing clade is alarming as this family is known to be multi-drug resistant and transmissible. Conclusions : This study showed that the occurrence of Beijing genotype is associated with young age and drug resistance. The Beijing strains affected both Saudi nationals as well as migrants originating in Asia. The Beijing clade could be responsible for the ongoing transmission of tuberculosis within the community.

  18. Saudi-Arabia's way in to mineral oil sovereignty from 1932-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four main phases of the history of Saudi-Arabian mineral oil politics are described, each of which marks one stage on the way to full oil-related sovereignty of the kingdom: 1. finding concession-holders for mineral oil, 2. Cooperation with ARAMCO in order to build up the country's mineral oil industry, 3. Cooperation with other OPEC-states in nationalising the oil industries, 4. participation in the 2nd Gulf War in order to achieve full sovereignty in matters of energy politics. Special attention is given to the specifically Saudian connection of foreign - and oil politics and the importance of historical ''coincidences'' for the success of Saudi Arabia's type of mineral oil politics. (orig./UA)

  19. Effect of Total Quality Management Practices Factors on the Competitiveness: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihan Mosaad Saud Al-Otaibi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Total Quality Management Practices (TQMP have been known to promote the performance of firms in terms of services, processes and products to meet customers’ expectations. This paper examined the effect of TQMP factors on competitiveness of the construction firms in Saudi Arabia. The data for the study were gathered from managers of five major Saudi construction firms through interview schedules and questionnaires. Correlation and regression analysis were used to study the relationship between TQMP factors and competitiveness. The results of analysis indicated a significant positive relationship between the entire TQMP factors and competitiveness; specifically, between TQM practices and quality culture. The study indicated that construction firms in the country should address all major issues related to TQMP to remain competitive in the face of dynamic globalization, internal competition and threat of new entrants.

  20. Engineering and safety analysis of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plants: a case study (Saudi Arabia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of nuclear dual-purpose plants for water and power production in nonnuclear countries is considered and Saudi Arabia is selected for a case study. Feasibility of nuclear energy use is examined on the basis of available data. Manpower and management requirements are indicated. The safety features of the specific type of reactor compatible with Saudi Arabian environment are studied. Patterns of water and power demand and consumption are analyzed to extrapolate the extent of actual future dual-purpose desalination activities. The results indicate that the present extensive five-year plan fails short of meeting the growing demand. Adequate supply of water by desalination requires development of units having larger capacity than those presently available

  1. Nutrition and Food Consumption Patterns in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Adam; Salih Osama; Khan Ibrar Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to describe and examine nutrition and food consumption patterns in KSA, namely to analyze and assess: the trends of per capita supply of major food groups (g/capita/day) from 1961-2007 and dietary energy supply, distribution by macronutrient and diversity of the food supply. Only secondary data were used. Saudi Arabia annual food balance sheet for the period form 1961-2007 which produced by FAO were used to drive the average per capita micronutrients (Die...

  2. Glutamate and Caffeine intake of Some Snacks and Drinks in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Najat A. Al-Abbad; Magda I. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the intake level of glutamate and caffeine from some snacks and drinks. The survey was carried out during 2008 to 2009 in 3 selected governorates (Al-Hassa, Al- Katif and AD-Dammam) localized in the eastern area of Saudi Arabia. The age of study participants (298) was ranged between less than 4 – over 30 years. The snacks and drinks consumption data were gathered and calculated using the frequency methods. Forty nine samples of snacks and beverages were...

  3. Elevation-angle variation of LEO satellite over the Kingdom of SaudiArabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new and simple method to calculate the time variation of the elevationangle for LEO satellites is presented in this article. The method is usefulto predict the link availability of LEO satellites due to propagationimpairments. The method has been applied as a realistic study of LEOsatellite flying over different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).It is found that the percentage of time during which this satellite isvisible (P%) over KSA decreases with the increase of the elevation angle. Thevariation of P% could be modeled either by an exponential function, or simplyby a decreasing power's law relation. (author)

  4. Correlates of ever-smoking habit among adolescents in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, A M; Saeed, A A; Abdulrahman, B M; Al-Kaabba, A F; Raat, H

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire study of the correlates of ever-smoking among adolescents was made in Tabuk government schools in Saudi Arabia. Of 1505 students aged 12-19 years, 657 (43.7%) were ever-smokers (i.e. ever tried cigarette smoking, even 1 or 2 puffs); 65.0% of males and 23.1% of females. In logistic regression analysis significant predictors for ever-smoking were: male sex, belief that smoking helps people feel comfortable in social situations, owning something with a cigarette logo, having pocket money > or = 20 riyals/day, poor school performance and having friends or parents who smoked. PMID:20187551

  5. A Threatened Fish Species (Aphanius dispar in Saudi Arabia, A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F. Al-Kahem-Al-Balawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study showed that the population density of a native fish (A. dispar in the freshwater environments of Saudi Arabia is declining. It is concluded from the present investigations that A. dispar is not threatened by a single isolated factor, but instead faces numerous stressors that jeopardize multiple stages of their life cycle. Reduced availability of food, habitat degradation, chemical contamination, introduction of exotic species and exploitation have contributed to the decline of such native fish`s abundance. Protecting fishes will help to protect aquatic biodiversity and in conservation of biological heritage of the country.

  6. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ? 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ? 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.Keywords: quality of life, skin disease, Saudi Arabia

  7. Petrochemical study of Al-Mizil plutonic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A petrochemical study of some rock samples was carried out using different experimental techniques. The rock samples were collected from the Al-Mizil area, Saudi Arabia. This area consists of Precambrian metasediments which belong to the Halaban Formation. The plutonic rocks intruded later into the Halaban Formation. Major oxides and the trace elements in these rocks are presented. The study indicates that the rocks are mainly of granitic composition. The petrochemical data suggest a magmatic origin for Al-Mizil granitic rocks. (author)

  8. Age discrimination among basalt flows using digitally enhanced LANDSAT imagery. [Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    Digitally enhanced LANDSAT MSS data were used to discriminate among basalt flows of historical to Tertiary age, at a test site in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Spectral signatures compared favorably with a field-defined classification that permits discrimination among five groups of basalt flows on the basis of geomorphic criteria. Characteristics that contributed to age definition include: surface texture, weathering, color, drainage evolution, and khabrah development. The inherent gradation in the evolution of geomorphic parameters, however, makes visual extrapolation between areas subjective. Therefore, incorporation of spectrally-derived volcanic units into the mapping process should produce more quantitatively consistent age groupings.

  9. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Tagetes Minuta growing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the essential oil of Tagetes Minuta L. growing in Saudi Arabia by gas-chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique confirmed that tagetone (11.52%), 5-octyn-4-one, 2, 7-dimethyl (11.52%), propanedinitrile, dicyclohexyl (10.45%) and 2-pinen-4-one (8.03%) being the main components. Lesser amounts of 1-acetoxy-p-menth-3-one (0.17%) and9-octacenamide (Z) (0.48%) were also found in this oil. The oil did not show neither antimicrobial nor antifungal activity. (author)

  10. The decline of hepatitis B viral infection in South-Western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoola, Ayobanji E.; Tobaigy, Mohsen S.; Gadour, Mohammed O.; Ahmad, Basher S.; Hamza, Margani K.; Ageel, Abdurahim M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The Jizan region in the South-Western area of the country was noted for a high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) carrier rate. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HBsAg and other markers of HBV among residents of Jizan and evaluate the impact of the measures adopted in the last decade, to control HBV. METHODS The study was carried out between 1995 and 199...

  11. Techno-economic evaluation of waste lube oil re-refining in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M.F.; Hamdan, A.J.; Rahman, F. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-12-31

    About 80 million gallons of automotive lubricating oils are sold in Saudi Arabia. Much of this oil, after use, is actually contributing to the increased pollution of land because of indiscriminate dumping. Any scheme of secondary use of the waste lube oils would be of interest both for conservation of energy resources and for protection of environment. This paper discusses the secondary use for the used automotive lubricating oils. Process technology of Meinken, Mohawk and KTI were selected for the techno-economic feasibility study for refining used oil. Profitability analysis of each process is worked out and the results are compared.

  12. Serological Survey on Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Commercial Poultry Farms in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. ALKHALAF

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of avian pneumovirus (APV) antibodies in commercial poultry farms using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VN). Eighty seven chicken serum samples were collected from several commercial poultry farms in Al-Qassium area, Saudi Arabia during 2007-2008. The serum samples were collected from birds of various ages (from one-day old to 62 weeks of age). Antibodies to APV were detected in 50% (8 out of 16) by both ...

  13. Ecology of the Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari in Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K.; Al-Otaibi, Fahed S.

    2014-01-01

    The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of t...

  14. An Evaluation of the Conservation State of Qasr El-Emara, Al-Wajh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen M. SALEH

    2013-01-01

    Qasr El-Emara, located in the center of the old city on Al-Wajh on the Red Sea coast, is an important historical coral building in the north of Saudi Arabia. This research aims to diagnose the current conservation state of Qasr El-Emara and to identify the building materials (stone, mortar, plaster and timber), the construction method and the deterioration and degradation effects on the Qasr El-Emara building. To achieve these objectives, we used a number of investigation and analysis methods...

  15. Phytosociological Survey on the Central Coastal Lowlands of Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vegetation composition of the central coastal low lands of Eastern Saudi Arabia was analyzed. The appearance and distribution of the studied plant groupings were affected by atmospheric, by edaphic conditions as well as topography. Eighty seven species belonging to (33) families of flowering plants were recorded in the following seven plant communities which are dominated and co-dominated by (Zygophyllum qatarense), (Lasiurus scindicus and Lycium shawii), (Alhagi graecorum and Cynodon dactylon), (Phoenix dactelifera and Tamarix aphylla),(Aeluropuslagopoides and Sporobolous ioclados), ( Halocnemum strobilacium and Arthrocenemum macrostachyum) and (Avicennia marina). (author)

  16. Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia 1970 - 2012: An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Moosa Ageli

    2013-01-01

    Our goal in this paper is to explore the validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012) for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP. Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previous studies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth. We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine ...

  17. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Rats (Rattus rattus) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Elamin, Maha H.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma 3 main clonal lineages are designated as type I, II, and III; however, atypical and mixed genotypes were also reported. This study was conducted for detection of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in rats (Rattus rattus) in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. PCR test on T. gondii B1 gene was conducted on ELISA IgM positive samples for confirmation of the infection. However, genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine T. gondii genotypes using PCR-RFLP technique. PCR test on T....

  18. The Fate of Disi Aquifer as Stratigic Groundwater Reserve for Shared Countries (Jordan and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharifa Hind Jasem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Disi is a fossil groundwater shred between Jordan and Saudi Arabia with a very high quality properties, this water is limited and has been used for irrigation purposes between both countries, this study helps in highlighted the importance of this water as stratigic reserve to be use later on. This study shows that the amounts of groundwater affected by the thickness of the saturated zone in the aquifer, the porosity of the aquifer and the groundwater flow in the basin. Abstraction from the aquifer will affect water quality so this point must be clearly understood all the time.

  19. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  20. Prevalence of ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome and associated complications in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Sulaiman A.; Al-Dabbagh, Najwa M.; Al-Shamrani, Saad M.; Khan, Nusrat M.; Arfin, Misbahul; Tariq, Mohammad; Al-Faleh, Hafez M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), and associated ophthalmic complications among Saudi patients. Methods: The prevalence of PEX and associated ocular co-morbidities were determined among the Saudi patients visiting the Primary Care Clinic of Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 2009 and January 2010. A total of 1967 patients were examined biomicoscopically by ophthalmologists to determine the presence of PEX and associated ocular complications. Results: Sixty-nine of the 1967 examined patients (3.5%) showed the presence of PEX with no significant gender difference. There was an age dependent increase in the prevalence of PEX after the age of 50 years. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome was associated with higher intraocular pressure, cataract, and poor vision. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of PEX in male and female Saudi patients. Conclusion: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related disorder, and its prevalence increases with age. Further larger population based studies are warranted to assess the prevalence of PEX and associated risk factors. PMID:25630014

  1. Disparities in Health Care Delivery and Hospital Outcomes between Non-Saudis and Saudi Nationals Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndromes in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFaleh, Hussam F.; Al Shamiri, Mostafa Q.; Ullah, Anhar; AlHabib, Khalid F; Hersi, Ahmad Salah; AlSaif, Shukri; AlNemer, Khalid; Taraben, Amir; Malik, Asif; Abuosa, Ahmed M; LA, Mimish; Kashour, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has a non-Saudi workers population. We investigated the differences and similarities of expatriate non-Saudi patients (NS) and Saudi nationals (SN) presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with respect to therapies and clinical outcomes. Methods The study evaluated 2031 of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) from 2005 to 2007. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analysis were performed to account for major imbalances in age and sex in the two groups. Results The mean patient age was 56.2±9.8, and 83.5% of the study cohort were male. SN were more likely to have risk factors of atherosclerosis. ST-elevation MI (STEMI) was the most common ACS presentation in NS, while non-ST ACS was more common in SN. The median symptom-to-door time was significantly greater in NS patients (Median 175 min (197) vs. 130 min (167), p=0.027). The only difference in pharmacological therapies between the two groups was that NS were more likely to receive fibrinolytic therapy. NS were less likely than SN to undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI; 32.6% vs. 42.8%, p=0.0001) or primary PCI (7.8% vs. 22.8%, p<0.001). Hospital mortality, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure were significantly higher in NS compared to SN. After adjusting for baseline variables and therapies, the odds ratios for hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock in NS were 2.9 (95% CI 1.5–6.2, p=0.004) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.5–4.9, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusion Our findings indicate disparities in hospital care between NS and SN ACS patients. NS patients had worse hospital outcomes, which may reflect unequal health coverage and access-to-care issues. PMID:25881231

  2. Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naasir Kamaal Khan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.

  3. An Economic Study of the Demand for Red Meat in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using Almost Ideal Demand System

    OpenAIRE

    Al-shuaibi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal protein is one of the most important food products essential for normal growth of human body. The main objective of this study were to assess the demand of Saudi red meat, to estimate the system of Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) on various types of red meat and study the variances of price elasticity, cross elasticity and income elasticity according to the types and sources of meat in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Mean spending (billion Saudi Riyals) on different types of meat ranged...

  4. 75 FR 43919 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia: Third City Stop Added to the Trade Mission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...large and growing economy and strong demographic fundamentals. Among Saudi Arabia's...toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's strongly-competitive...focus of a vast market for pilgrimage and tourism that stretches across the entire...

  5. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Saudi Arabia with remarks on ecology and zoogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Until recently, 25 Tabanidae species were described from Saudi Arabia. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA-CMAVE and Israeli scientists regularly collected horse flies, which resulted in 4 additional records for the local fauna. The new...

  6. English Language Instructors' Perceptions about Technology-Based Language Learning at Northern Border University in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqlain, Nadeem; Mahmood, Zahir

    2013-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to explore English language teachers' perceptions about the use of technology for language learning at Northern Border University (NBU) in Saudi Arabia. Data collection relied on interviews. Stream of behaviour chronicles was also used as a strategy of non interactive data collection.14 non native…

  7. The ICT Proficiencies of University Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Case Study to Identify Challenges and Encouragements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageel, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…

  8. Communication from the Resident Representative of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a letter dated 10 June 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the light of the request expressed at the end of the letter, the text of the letter is attached hereto for the information of Member States

  9. Aptitude Tests and Successful College Students: The Predictive Validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Aptitude tests should predict student success at the university level. This study examined the predictive validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia. Data for 27420 students enrolled at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University were analyzed. Of these students, 17565 were male students, and 9855 were female students. Multiple…

  10. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  11. New records of Tabanidae (Diptera) from Saudi Arabia, first record of Atylotus venturii Leclercq and Tabanus separatus Efflatoun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudi, M A; Leclercq, M

    1996-04-01

    Atylotus venturii Leclercq and Tabanus separatu Efflatoun (Diptera: Tabanidae) are 2 additional species in Saudi Arabia; they lift up to 26 taxa known from the country. Some comments on new record of other species, zoogeographical distribution of Tabanus sufis, taxonomic significance of eye pattern of Tabanidae, exemplification with T. albifacies and T. unifasciatus, rehydration of dry specimens, are presented. PMID:8721223

  12. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad

    2015-06-04

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56?N, 43°15?E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  13. The Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence in Individual Performance: A Descriptive Study in Albaha University, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Faris S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigates the relationship between emotional intelligence and individual performance, namely academic performance. It also aims at determining whether emotional intelligence differs between male and female students. The data were obtained through the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) questionnaire, which was distributed to undergraduate students in Albaha province, Saudi Arabia. A sample of 191 undergraduate students filled in (SSREI)...

  14. Saudi Learner Perceptions and Attitudes towards the Use of Blogs in Teaching English Writing Course for EFL Majors at Qassim University

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad Hamad Aljumah

    2012-01-01

    Blog is one of the recent innovations that help students in finding opportunities to practice English writing outside the classroom. More educators have applied this easy-to-use technology to classroom instruction and language learning (Campbell, 2003; Johnson, 2004). The objectives of the study are (1) to investigate students’ attitudes toward the use of blog in learning writing, and (2) to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using blog in language learning. A total of 35 Saudi...

  15. Water exploration using Magnetotelluric and gravity data analysis; Wadi Nisah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; Saud, Ramzi; Asch, Theodore; Aldamegh, Khaled; Mogren, Saad

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Ground water aquifers are the major source of water in Saudi Arabia. In the Riyadh region, several Wadies including Wadi Nisah store about 14 × 106 m3 of water, which is extracted for local irrigation purposes. In such areas, the water wells are as shallow as 200-300 m in depth. The importance of Wadi Nisah is because the subsurface water aquifers that are present there could support the region for many years as a water resource. Accordingly, in this study, we performed a Magnetotelluric survey using a portable broadband sounding system (MT24/LF) to evaluate the ground water aquifer at great depths. We collected 10 broadband Magnetotelluric sounding stations (1 station/day) with an interval of about 2-3 km reaching a profile length of about 25-30 km along Wadi Nisah. Additionally, we used available gravity data to image the subsurface structure containing the aquifer. MT results indicated a low resistivity layer, associated with alluvium deposits, which was defined at a depth of about 1-2 km and extended horizontally about 15 km. Gravity data analysis was used to model this resistivity layer indicating a basement surface at 3-4 km depth.

  16. Potentiality of Secondary Aquifers in Saudi Arabia: Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Jubaila Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Tahir Hussein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater scarcity in arid regions may hinder development plans and cause many inconveniences for the population and authorities. Saudi Arabia has limited groundwater resources stored in the sedimentary sequence of the Arabian Shelf. Some of these resources were classified as major aquifers, secondary and minor aquifers, and some were considered as aquicludes. The Jubaila Limestone is one of the secondary aquifers of Saudi Arabia. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the groundwater resources of the Jubaila Limestone in Riyadh area, with emphasis on groundwater quality. Groundwater was found to occur in fractures and within solution openings of the Jubaila Limestone at depths which range between 19 and 210 m. The transmissivity value was 1.7 × 10–3 to 7.2 × 10–3 m2/s; the storage coefficient was of 1.3 × 10–4. The electrical conductivity for collected water samples ranged between 831 and 7670 µS/cm. The major ionic relationships were Na > Ca > Mg and SO4Cl > HCO3. The groundwater evolves from NaCl dominated at the southern end of the study area, into Ca, MgSO4 water in the north. The main chemical process responsible of this variation was found to be dissolution of anhydrite and gypsum. The groundwater was not found suitable for drinking purposes but can be used by livestock and for some agricultural purposes.

  17. The Role of Learning Styles in the Success of TBLT in EFL Classrooms in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badia Hakim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognition of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT in English language learning classes in different contexts, its successful implementation in EFL contexts has attracted insufficient attention. As an offshoot of communicative language teaching, TBLT can provide EFL language learners with ample opportunities to embark on using language for more communicative purposes through interaction and engaging in collaborative tasks. The present study adopts an action research approach to implementing TBLT in a traditional language learning context at a major international university in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it intends to determine the students’ (N = 25 learning styles using Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM and to use varying tasks to tackle the common learning problems such as lack of participation in learning activities and low motivation. The analysis of data from different data collection instruments revealed that applying TBLT approach in this context helped students enhance their interaction with their classmates and teacher and used English for more authentic purposes while performing a series of learning tasks. In addition, the implementation of TBLT in this context motivated students to engage in different learning activities. At the end, implications of the findings for further research are discussed.Keywords: TBLT; FSLSM; action research; EFL; Saudi Arabia

  18. Geophysical Imaging of Fault Structures Over the Qadimah Fault, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    AlTawash, Feras

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use geophysical imaging methods to identify the conjectured location of the ‘Qadimah fault’ near the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’, Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 2-D resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted at two different locations, site 1 and site 2, along the proposed trace of the ‘Qadimah fault’. Three processing techniques were used to validate the fault (i) 2-D travel time tomography, (ii) resistivity imaging, and (iii) reflection trim stacking. The refraction traveltime tomograms at site 1 and site 2 both show low-velocity zones (LVZ’s) next to the conjectured fault trace. These LVZ’s are interpreted as colluvial wedges that are often observed on the downthrown side of normal faults. The resistivity tomograms are consistent with this interpretation in that there is a significant change in resistivity values along the conjectured fault trace. Processing the reflection data did not clearly reveal the existence of a fault, and is partly due to the sub-optimal design of the reflection experiment. Overall, the results of this study strongly, but not definitively, suggest the existence of the Qadimah fault in the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’ region of Saudi Arabia.

  19. The role of nuclear desalination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the role of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is investigated. A water demand forecast between the years 2000 and 2025 was established for the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia as part of the collected input data for the DEEP computer code. The DEEP computer code was run for several options of energy sources such as PWR (600 MWe), SPWR (160 MWth), PHWR (450 MWe), HR (200 MWth) and GT (125 MWe or 175 MWe). These energy sources were investigated for different desalination plants such as RO, MSF, MED and the hybrid MED-RO. The levelised power cost, average daily water production, net saleable power and levelised water cost are presented for all cases. Two scenarios were investigated, the first assumes no interest and discount rates and the second assumes interest and discount rates equal to 8%. The first scenario assumes that the water utility will continue under the control of the government and the second assumes that the water utility will be privatised. (author)

  20. Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food Handlers during Hajj Season in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Serag Dablool

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning during Hajj season is one of the main hazardous issues where most of the health services in Saudi Arabia are targeting to minimize every year during Hajj seasons. Ordinarily, food handlers are subjected to medical examination before assignment to work. However, they are mostly lacking proper training in food handling operations, mass feeding, and sanitary practices. This situation may encourage causing food poisoning especially with staphylococcus enterotoxins. 1516 clinical specimens from food handlers of different nationalities in Makkah were microbiologically investigated for bacterial pathogens during the hajj seasons of 2001-2002 in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. 129 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were isolated. Of which, 35% produced enterotoxins A, B, C and D singly or in pairs, when such enterotoxins were evaluated by Reversed Passive Latex Agglutination test (RPLA. Enterotoxins C and A, elaborated by 15.5% and 12.4%, isolates respectively, which showed the highest percentage. They were mostly isolated from nasal swabs than throat swabs. All isolates were resistant to Penicillin G. On the other hand, they were sensitive to Clindamycin, Oxacillin and Gentamicin when tested by Kirby-Bauer method. The (RPLA method yielded satisfactory results.

  1. An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.

  2. Pharmacoeconomic Analysis in Saudi Arabia: An Overdue Agenda Item for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jazairi Abdulrazaq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics is a branch of health economics related to the most economical and efficient use of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacoeconomic research identifies, measures and compares the costs and outcomes (clinical, economic and humanistic of pharmaceutical products and services. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation can play a significant role in the efficient allocation of resources in healthcare systems with constrained budgets. Countries are trying to control the rising costs of health care in their aging population. They are all asking the same question: Is the new drug good value for money; and if so, what is the society willing to pay for it? This article reviews the importance of, and the need for, adaptation of pharmacoeconomic analysis to the conditions in Saudi Arabia. It will shed some light on the important steps for converting the concept into practice, including the need for identifying the willing-to-pay (WTP or the threshold cutoff, the existence of a real cost for each utility, the nonexistence of an pharmacoeconomic advisory forum, pharmaceutical budget allocation, and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing. It will also provide recommendations for easing any challenges that might jeopardize the conduct of such analysis in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Physicians’ knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward antimicrobial prescribing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadani, Abeer M.; Baig, Kamran; Alfahad, Wafa A.; Aldalbahi, Sultan; Omrani, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward antimicrobial prescribing among physicians practicing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and distributed to physicians working in hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between June and August 2013. The results were analyzed using Stata 12 software. Results: Two hundred and twelve (84.8%) full responses were returned. Most respondents perceived antimicrobial resistance as a significant problem in their daily practice (119, 56.1%) and at a national level (148, 69.8%). Inappropriate empirical therapy (101, 47.6%) and excessive use of antimicrobials in healthcare settings (66, 31.1%) were believed to be the main contributors to increasing bacterial resistance. Respondents favor treating infection rather than colonization (98, 46.2%), and physician education (74, 34.9%) as the most effective interventions to reduce antimicrobial resistance. Many respondents (95, 44.8%) do not feel confident in their knowledge of antimicrobial prescribing. Two-thirds of the respondents (135, 63.7%) have local antimicrobial guidelines, of which 90 (66.7%) felt were useful. Most respondents (160, 75.5%) considered their local infectious diseases service to be very helpful. Conclusion: There are considerable unmet training and education need for physicians in the area of antimicrobial prescribing. Local antimicrobial guidelines need revision to ensure they are more relevant and helpful for medical practitioners. PMID:25935184

  4. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  5. Thermoregulatory and Physiological Responses of Najdi Sheep Exposed to Environmental Heat Load Prevailing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al-Haidary, R. S. Aljumaah, M. A. Alshaikh, K. A. Abdoun*, E. M. Samara, A. B. Okab and M. M. Alfuraiji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermoregulatory and physiological responses of Najdi rams raised under hot summer conditions prevailing in Kingdom Saudi Arabia. The core temperature (Tcore showed circadian rhythm characterized by biphasic achrophases, which were associated with the feeding times during both seasons. Average daily Tcore was significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. However, the amplitudes of the rhythmic oscillation during winter and summer seasons were 0.85 and 0.56?C, respectively. Rectal (Tre and skin temperatures (Tsk were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions and exhibited similar patterns during both seasons concurrent with the pattern of temperature humidity index (THI, reaching the maximum values late in the afternoon and the minimum values early in the morning. Respiratory rate (RR and heart rate (HR showed the same pattern of the thermal parameters and were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. Serum concentrations of total protein, globulin, glucose, sodium and chloride were significantly (P<0.05 increased while those of albumin and calcium were decreased under hot summer conditions. The results obtained from this study indicate that hot summer conditions of Saudi Arabia is thermally stressful to Najdi rams. Therefore, Najdi sheep production under such conditions would require environmental and/or nutritional modification to alleviate the impact of heat stress.

  6. Gender and risk of depression in Saudi Arabia, a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagi A.M. Elawad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.

  7. Phytosociological studies of Citrullus colocyanthis L., Growing in Different Altitudinal Sites in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Al-Ghamdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to survey and record the plant species associated with Citrullus colocynthis in different altitudinal localities in the West of Saudi Arabia. Depending on the presence of Citrullus colocynthis L. species, seven stands on the West of Saudi Arabia; expending from 25 m up to 2220 m a.s.l. height and 330 km long were selected for this study. Soil samples were collected from the studied localities and the soil properties were investigated. Also, plant species associated with C. colocynthis were collected, recorded and prepared as herbarium specimens. The studied localities were represented by different ecological, geographical and edaphic sites. A list of 127 species belonging to 41 families present in all locations was recorded. Calotropis procera was the representative species with C. colocynthis in all localities. The percentage of presence of the associated species were different between species in each location and also from location to other. Three different ecological areas could be distinguished in the study area. The area near the red sea characterized by salty sandy soil and low vegetation represented the first area. The second one was the coastal plain and West slope which characterized by low rainfall and xerophytic plants. The third one was the mountainous area which characterized by high altitude, more rainfall and high density of vegetation.

  8. Association of physicians' knowledge and behavior with prostate cancer counseling and screening in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of iases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).

  9. Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

  10. Attitudes of Managers towards the Potential Effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia: Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Akeil Kadasah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the attitudes of managers in Saudi Arabia towards the effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia. The study includes 143 firms in three sectors of activities; private manufacturing, private service and public firms. The study reveals that the five most significant benefits are; safer environment, improvement of image of the certified firms with the international environmental organizations, ensure the safety of workers inside the organizations, improvement of firms image with customers and the reduction of pollution. When using Factor Analysis, it produces five factors; employee morale, efficiency and quality, relations with government, safety of products and relations with environmental organizations. Furthermore, the study shows that the five most difficulties are related to the costs and fees; fees of consultants, costs of changing within organizations, costs of maintain the system, fees of the certification agencies and costs of internal auditing. The Factor Analysis suggests two factors for difficulties namely; preparation and documentation and costs and fees. The study also finds that there is an overwhelming satisfaction about ISO 14001 among managers where the private service firms come first followed by public firms then the private manufacturing firms.

  11. Anomalous indoor radon concentration in a dwelling in Qatif City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2005-01-01

    An indoor radon survey was carried out recently in nine cities of Saudi Arabia using nuclear track detectors (NTD)-based passive radon detectors. The survey included Qatif City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where 225 detectors were collected back successfully. It was found that the average indoor radon concentration in the dwellings was 22 +/- 15 Bq m(-3). However, one of the dwellings showed an anomalous radon concentration of 535 +/- 23 Bq m(-3). This finding led to a detailed investigation of this dwelling using active and passive techniques. In the active technique, an AlphaGUARD 2000 PRQ radon gas analyser was used. In the passive technique, CR-39 based passive radon detectors were used in all the rooms of the dwelling. Radon exhalation from the wall and the floor was also measured using the can technique. The active measurement confirms the passive one. Before placing the passive radon detectors in all the rooms of the two-storey building, the inhabitant was advised to ventilate his house regularly. The radon concentration in the different rooms was found to vary from 124 to 302 Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation from the floor and the wall of the room with the anomalous radon concentration was found to vary from 0.5 to 0.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1). These low radon exhalation rates suggest that the anomalous radon concentration is most probably due to underground radon diffusion into the dwelling through cracks and joints in the concrete floor. PMID:15944144

  12. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  13. The prevalence of dental anomalies in the Western region of saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for congenitally missing teeth, supernumerary teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, transposition, germination, fusion, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dent, and any other unusual conditions that can be assessed with OPG. Results. The prevalence of patient that exhibited at least one dental anomaly was 396 (45.1%) patients. The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth was 226 (25.7%), impacted teeth 186 (21.1%), dilacerated teeth 10 (1.1%), supernumerary teeth 3 (0.3%), odontoma 1 (0.1%), and taurodontism was also 1 case (0.1%) of the total radiographs reviewed. Conclusions. Congenitally missing teeth were found to be the most prevalent anomaly (25.7%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (21.1%), whereas root dilacerations, supernumerary teeth, and taurodontism were the least frequent anomalies (1.1%, 0.3% and 0.1%, resp.). PMID:22778974

  14. Recharge Regimes of the Saq Aquifer System, Saudi Arabia: Inferences from Geochemical and Isotopic Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelmagd, A.; McCabe, M. F.; Castro, M. C.; Sultan, M.; Jana, R. B.; Al-Mashharawi, S.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most valuable groundwater reserves in Saudi Arabia is the Saq aquifer system (SAS), a thick (400?1200 meters) sandstone unit that extends across 300,000 km2 in Saudi Arabia and neighboring Jordan. Due to its high productivity and high water quality, current pumping and overexploitation of the aquifer has significantly lowered the groundwater level over the years. Understanding the recharge regimes of the SAS is critical for the development of sustainable exploitation of water resources in the region and for the establishment of appropriate management practices. In this study, we investigate the hydrologic setting of the SAS and seek to differentiate the degree of paleo versus modern contributions using a range of geochemical approaches. Multiple groundwater samples were collected from deep production wells tapping the SAS at depths between 375?1800 m and across a range of locations. Samples were analyzed for their chemical concentrations, stable isotopic compositions (?18O and ?2H), and dissolved noble gas concentrations and isotopic ratios. Examining these data identifies unmixed pools of fossil groundwater at deeper depths as well as mixed shallower systems that indicate contributions from modern precipitation. Through isotopic and noble gas analyses, the relative age and timing of these recharge events was examined and show contributions from both glacial and inter-glacial periods, with some modest contributions from modern meteoric sources.

  15. Trends in Residential Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia with Particular Reference to the Eastern Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farajallah Alrashed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.

  16. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; pdesalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. PMID:22353176

  17. Financial Synergy in Mergers and Acquisitions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basmah Al Qudaiby (Basmah, A. Q.,

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Businesses today consider mergers and acquisitions a new strategy for their company’s growth. Companies aim to grow through sales’ increase, assets purchase, profits’ accumulation and market share gains. The better way for achieving these targets is by getting into either a Merger or an Acquisition. As a matter of fact, growth through mergers and acquisitions has been a critical part of the success of many companies operating in the new economy. Mergers and Acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization. Based on three detailed and in depth structured interviews with major Saudi Arabian banks it has been found that, Mergers motivated by economies of scale should be approached cautiously. Companies should also approach vertical mergers cautiously because it is often difficult to gain synergy through a vertical merger and firms should also seek out mergers which allow the firm to acquire specialized knowledge. It has also been found that the firms should look for mergers that increase market power and avoid unrelated or conglomerate mergers.

  18. Outcome of corneal transplantation in a private institution in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Results: Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2% males and 33 (38.8% females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3–85 years, and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6–108 months. The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038, immune rejection (P < 0.001, preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022, and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032 were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001 and vascularization (P = 0.009. Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99–52.69 and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36–11.09. At last visit following PKP, 34 (40% eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0% eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6% eyes. Conclusion: The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation and comprehensive postoperative management are crucial for successful corneal transplantation. A larger multicenter study is recommended to portray the outcome of private corneal transplantation in Saudi Arabia in general. Keywords: cornea, corneal transplantation, corneal dystrophy, corneal scars, bullous keratopathy, keratoconus, herpetic keratitis

  19. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Musculoskeletal disorders are common causes of work-related disability in different professions involving the frequent practice of lifting, stooping, twisting, prolonged sitting, or standing. The dental profession is one such profession. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia, the factors associated with them, and their consequences and to propose preventive measures for them. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 225 members of the Saudi Dental Association. It included questions on demographic and professional characteristics, general medical history, and history of work-related musculoskeletal disorders before and after joining the dental profession. [Results] The questionnaire was completed by 65% of the respondents. Among them 85% reported that they had developed some pain due to work after joining the dental profession, and 42% reported that they were suffering pain at the time of the survey. Besides lower back, shoulder, and neck regions, the hands, upper back, and other regions like the elbows, buttocks, thighs, leg, and feet were areas in which they pain. [Conclusion] The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia is high, affecting their daily activities, sometimes even forcing them to change their work setting. Age, gender, specialty of work, work setting, number of contact hours with patients, etc., were all found to be related to their work-related pain. We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics, counseling, proper techniques of patient handling, etc., during the training of dental professionals so that they can work efficiently. PMID:25995567

  20. Gunshot injuries in adults in the Abha region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softah, A L; Eid Zahrani, M; Osinowo, O

    2002-03-01

    In the four-year period from 1996 to 1999, 42 adult patients (age 12 years and above) were admitted to the Assir Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia, following gunshot injuries. The mean annual admissions for gunshot injuries was 10.5 +/- 4.04 (range = 8-16 cases/annum). All the patients were males. The distribution of the patients' nationalities were: Saudis 66.7%, Yemenis 11.9%, Ethiopians 11.9%, Eritreans 7.1% and Sudanis 2.4%. In 38 cases, others shot the patient, while only one patient (2.4%) admitted to shooting himself accidentally. A pistol was used in 81% of cases while an air gun was used in 9.5% of the cases. Wound of entry analysis showed that gunshots were to the lower limbs in 20 cases (47.2%), the upper limbs in 22% and the chest in 13% of cases. Gunshots to the head and neck occurred in 7% and 2% of cases, respectively, while the abdomen was hit in 4% of cases. The injuries sustained included: superficial wounds (64.3%), haemothorax (9.5%), nerve injury (9.5%), lower limb fractures (9.5%), haematoma (7.1%), liver and kidney injuries (2.4%, respectively). Management included wound debridement and suturing (76.2%), thoracostomy tube drainage (14.3%), bullet removal (11.9%), internal fixation of fractures of long bones (9.5%), laparotomy and repair of gut (7.1%), nerve repair (4.8%), ulnar nerve graft (2.4%), and external fixation compound fracture of the tibia (2.4%). All the patients survived. The mean hospital stay was 15.45 +/- 23.06 days (range = 1-150 days). Although gunshot injuries are increasingly being reported from Saudi Arabia, the injuries are accidental and the morbidity appears to be low. PMID:12518928

  1. Paget disease of the bone: Does it exist in Saudi Arabia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaikh Omalkhaire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paget disease of the bone is a chronic disease characterized by accelerated bone turnover with abnormal repair leading to expansion, pain and deformities. The disease is common in the West, but little if any information is available on its existence in the Arab world, including Saudi Arabia. We present four cases of Saudi patients with Paget disease with variable presentations. The first case, a 63-year-old woman with a history of papillary thyroid cancer, presented with bone, shoulder and chest wall pain and foci of uptake in the ribs and skull that were thought to be metastases, indicating the possibility of diagnostic difficulty in a patient with history of malignancy. Bone biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Paget disease. The second case was a 47-year-old asymptomatic woman with an elevated alkaline phosphatase of 427 U/L, a common presentation but at an unusual age. Plain x-rays and bone scan confirmed the diagnosis. The third case was a 43-year-old man who presented with hearing impairment and right knee osteoarthritis, unusual presentations at a young age leading to a delay in diagnosis. The fourth case was a 45-year-old man who presented with sacroiliac pain and normal biochemical values, including a normal alkaline phosphatase. Bone biopsy unexpectedly revealed features of Paget disease, which evolved over time into a classical form. A common feature in all except the first case was the relatively young age. Paget disease does exist in Saudi Arabia, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of similar cases.

  2. Patterns of radiographic changes in hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)

  3. Attitudes and Practices of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females aged 15–19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatment, with significant differences between genders, except in the use of dietary supplements, black cumin, and acupuncture therapies. Females were more likely to use CAM for treating abdominal pains, cold and flu, and cough than males (P < 0.000. Family members and friends (67.7% were the main source of CAM usage, followed by television (10%, and Internet (8%. Religious and medicinal herb healers were the CAM healers most commonly visited by adolescents. Nearly 21–43% of adolescents had positive attitudes toward CAM, with some significant differences between males and females. It can be concluded that CAM is widely used by Saudi adolescents, but caution should be exercised for the safe usage of some CAM treatments. CAM should not be ignored; however there is an urgent need to establish regulations for CAM usage.

  4. An exploratory study of factors determining e-government success in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasser H. Al-Solbi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The public policy and e-government implementation issues of any country have a direct impact on the e-readiness of that country. It helps in creating and promoting public and private sectors to invest in the ICT field. The aim of this paper to explore the main key e-government and policies factors that contribute to the success of e-readiness assessment from the experience of some of the public and private organizations in Saudi Arabia. With this aim, a questionnaire has been developed and distributed, and semistructured interviews have been conducted with ICT managers in those organizations. The findings are very important since they indicate that both the Saudi leadership and the organisations bosses are aware of the importance of the ICT Infrastructure to the Saudi society. However, the lack of legalisations to regulate the Internet use is very important issues. The designed ereadiness tool has highlighted these important issues. The legislation to regulate the use of the Internet is the most important issue in any e-readiness assessment tool.

  5. Analyzing privacy requirements: a case study of healthcare in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebad, Shouki A; Jaha, Emad S; Al-Qadhi, Mohammed A

    2014-10-17

    Developing legally compliant systems is a challenging software engineering problem, especially in systems that are governed by law, such as healthcare information systems. This challenge comes from the ambiguities and domain-specific definitions that are found in governmental rules. Therefore, there is a significant business need to automatically analyze privacy texts, extract rules and subsequently enforce them throughout the supply chain. The existing works that analyze health regulations use the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act as a case study. In this article, we applied the Breaux and Antón approach to the text of the Saudi Arabian healthcare privacy regulations; in Saudi Arabia, privacy is among the top dilemmas for public and private healthcare practitioners. As a result, we extracted and analyzed 2 rights, 4 obligations, 22 constraints and 6 rules. Our analysis can assist requirements engineers, standards organizations, compliance officers and stakeholders by ensuring that their systems conform to Saudi policy. In addition, this article discusses the threats to the study validity and suggests open problems for future research. PMID:25325796

  6. Exploring Identity Motives in Twitter Usage in Saudi Arabia and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Heyla A; Long, Karen M; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2014-01-01

    This study explores identity motives for using a microblogging site (Twitter) among Internet users in Saudi Arabia and the UK. The former boasts the world's highest per capita use of Twitter, which provides a forum in which users have more opportunity for self-expression than they do in the offline world, and is not subject to the heavy censorship which the Saudi government imposes on other Internet content [1]. Approximately 5000 tweets from the period April-May 2013 were coded and analyzed, using Motivated Identity Construction Theory as a conceptual framework [2]. This theory proposes six universal identity motives of meaning, belonging, continuity, distinctiveness, efficacy, and self-esteem. We consider these motives in turn, and examine their relative prominence in an online context. Support was found for all six universal motives, but the relative prominence of motives and the ways in which they were pursued appeared to depend on the affordances of both the OSN in question, Twitter and the cultural context in which the user was posting: Saudi users appeared to seek distinctiveness, whereas for British users, belonging was a more salient motive. Themes related to meaning, efficacy, and self-esteem were detected frequently, whereas themes related to continuity were less apparent. PMID:24875705

  7. Communication to the Director General of 24 April 1996 received from the resident representative of Saudi Arabia to the International Atomic Energy Agency. Reply by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Director General's reply to the communication of 24 April 1996 from the Resident Representative of Saudi Arabia to the IAEA concerning the Israeli Dimona Reactor

  8. The rapid growth of domestic oil consumption in Saudi Arabia and the opportunity cost of oil exports foregone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, a nine-fold increase in 40 years, to nearly 3 million barrels per day, about one-fourth of production. Such rapid growth in consumption – 5.7% annually, which is 37% faster than its income growth of 4.2% – will challenge Saudi Arabia's ability to increase its oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in Saudi oil consumption – from 5.7% annual growth historically to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in Saudi oil exports. Using 1971–2010 data, we estimate that the income responsiveness (elasticity) of oil consumption is at least 1.5—using both Ordinary Least Squares regression and Cointegration methods. We believe that continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the dramatic slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE and BP. This will have major implications for Saudi production and export levels. - Highlights: ? We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, now one-fourth of production. ? Estimated income elasticity of oil demand at least 1.5, using OLS and Co-integration. ? Yet IEA, DOE and BP project unprecedented slowdowns, from 5.7% historically to below 2%, half the rate of income growth. ? Continued high growth Continued high growth rates are more likely, with major implications for Saudi production and export levels.

  9. Annual Survey on the Level and Extent of Usage of Electronic Health Records in Government-related Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bah, Sulaiman; Alharthi, Hana; El Mahalli, Azza Ali; Jabali, Abdelkaream; Al-Qahtani, Mona; Al-kahtani, Nouf

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level and extent of usage of electronic health records (EHRs) in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Another aim is to develop a Web site to serve as a forum of exchange on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. All government hospitals (n = 19) in the province were included. The information technology (IT) managers in those hospitals made up the target population. An online questionnaire was developed, and the IT managers in all ...

  10. Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, southern Saudi Arabia. Presentation of isolates from the routine laboratory setting

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed E. Hamid; Mohammed M. Assiry; Martin R. Joseph; Waleed O Haimour; Ihab M. Abdelrahim; Fatin Al-Abed; Abdalla N. Fadul; Ahmed M. Al-Hakami

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 201...

  11. Between the Fears and Hopes for a Different Future for the Nation-states: Scholarship Programs in Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates from a Public Policy Standpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal, Kholoud T.

    2013-01-01

    As Bereday (1964) once said, comparative education research, in its most rudimentary form, begins with juxtaposition. When juxtaposing contemporary trends concerning higher education in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates---both of which currently provide substantial support to improve their higher education systems---differences abound in terms of approach, strategic 'cultural' foresight, openness, and outreach. What do Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates aim to achieve via overseas ...

  12. Determining the causal relationships among balanced scorecard perspectives on school safety performance: case of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolah, Turki; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Mohamed, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    In the public schools of many developing countries, numerous accidents and incidents occur because of poor safety regulations and management systems. To improve the educational environment in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education seeks novel approaches to measure school safety performance in order to decrease incidents and accidents. The main objective of this research was to develop a systematic approach for measuring Saudi school safety performance using the balanced scorecard framework philosophy. The evolved third generation balanced scorecard framework is considered to be a suitable and robust framework that captures the system-wide leading and lagging indicators of business performance. The balanced scorecard architecture is ideal for adaptation to complex areas such as safety management where a holistic system evaluation is more effective than traditional compartmentalised approaches. In developing the safety performance balanced scorecard for Saudi schools, the conceptual framework was first developed and peer-reviewed by eighteen Saudi education experts. Next, 200 participants, including teachers, school executives, and Ministry of Education officers, were recruited to rate both the importance and the performance of 79 measurement items used in the framework. Exploratory factor analysis, followed by the confirmatory partial least squares method, was then conducted in order to operationalise the safety performance balanced scorecard, which encapsulates the following five salient perspectives: safety management and leadership; safety learning and training; safety policy, procedures and processes; workforce safety culture; and safety performance. Partial least squares based structural equation modelling was then conducted to reveal five significant relationships between perspectives, namely, safety management and leadership had a significant effect on safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes, both safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes had significant effects on workforce safety culture, and workforce safety culture had a significant effect on safety performance. PMID:24589246

  13. The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results: A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%] was higher than in women (162 cases [38%], and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52% than for women (23%. In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths, followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths. The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%, followed by Medinah (36% and Najran (33%. MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20% and high temperature (15°C–35°C. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome, case fatality rate, descriptive epidemiology, temperature, humidity

  14. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bedah AM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly increased the odds of smoking by students.Conclusion: The common use of tobacco in school populations needs to be addressed by, among other tobacco control measures, a strict ban on cigarette selling to minors and intensive regular tobacco control campaigns involving health and religious messages.Keywords: tobacco use, secondhand tobacco smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, intermediate school boys, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Saudi Arabia 

  15. The Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to Exploring Sedimentary Ore In North-Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Yasir; Almutair, Muteb

    2015-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a non-destructive geophysical method that provides a continuous subsurface profile, without drilling. This geophysical technique has great potential in delineating the extension of bauxites ore in north-central Saudi Arabia. Bauxite is from types sedimentary ores. This study aim to evaluate the effectiveness of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to illustrate the subsurface feature of the Bauxite deposits at some selected mining areas north-central Saudi Arabia. Bauxite is a heterogeneous material that consists of complex metals such as alumina and aluminum. An efficient and cost-effect exploration method for bauxite mine in Saudi Arabia is required. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have been carrying out along outcrop in order to assess the potential of GPR data for imaging and characterising different lithological facies. To do so, we have tested different antenna frequencies to acquire the electromagnetic signals along a 90 m profile using the IDS system. This system equipped with a 25 MHz antenna that allows investigating the Bauxite layer at shallow depths where the clay layers may existed. Therefore, the 25 MHz frequency antenna has been used in this study insure better resolution of the subsurface and to get more penetration to image the Bauxite layer. After the GPR data acquisition, this data must be processed in order to be more easily visualized and interpreted. Data processing was done using Reflex 6.0 software. A series of tests were carried out in frequency filtering on a sample of radar sections, which was considered to better represent the entire set of data. Our results indicated that the GPR profiling has a very good agreement for mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 7 m to 11 m. This study has emphasized that the high-resolution GPR method is the robust and cost-effect technique to map the Bauxite layer. The exploration of Bauxite resource using the GPR technique could reduce the number of holes to be strategically placed in the most promising zones.

  16. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA

    2013-01-01

    Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 am...

  17. Epidemiology of urolithiasis with emphasis on ultrasound detection: a retrospective analysis of 5371 cases in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farid; Nada, Medhat O; Farid, Afsan Bin; Haleem, M A; Razack, S M A

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of urinary calculi in the indigenous population of Saudi Arabia and compare it with expatriates of different nationalities working in Saudi Arabia with emphasis on the anatomic location of the calculi and the role of ultrasound in the detection and management. The study included 5371 patients (both sexes, mean age 36.6 years) examined by us from September 2004 to February 2008. The patients hailed from 30 countries, which included Bangladesh (42.3%), Pakistan (18.3%), Yemen (17.5%), India (6.5%), Sudan (3.4%), Saudi Arabia (2.8%), Egypt (2.3%) and Eritrea (1.7%). All patients were referred for abdominal/renal ultrasonography. Urinary calculi were detected in 1029 patients. The distribution of calculi was as follows: Renal 73.3%, pelviureteric junction 2.3%, proximal, middle and distal thirds of the ureter 13%, vesicouretic junction 9.8%, vesical 1.1% and urethral 0.5%. The prevalence of urinary calculi according to ethnic origin in descending order of frequency was Egyptians (29.5%), Pakistani (24.9%), Indian (23.3%),Yemeni (20.5%), Sudanese (17.6%), Bangladeshi (16.2%), Eritrean (15.4%) and Saudi Arabian (7.4%). Urinary calculi were found in 19.1% of the studied population. Approximately three-quarters of the calculi were located within the kidney. The nationalities with the highest prevalences were Egyptian, Pakistani and Indian. PMID:25758899

  18. Assessing the role of optometrists in the control of systemic hypertension in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C; Almubrad, Turki M

    2013-01-01

    The low level of awareness, treatment, and control of systemic hypertension is a global problem, but it is much more serious in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the contribution made by Saudi optometrists in detection and management of patients with systemic hypertension. We surveyed a sample of 250 optometrists practicing in Saudi Arabia to evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness of their role in combating systemic hypertension. A 48.4% response rate was obtained from practicing optometrists. Of those responding, optometrists were very positive towards the use of blood pressure (BP) monitors in optometric practice on a routine basis. Forty-six percent of the optometrists had access to a BP monitor, and about 93% of these respondents actually used the monitors during clinic consultations. Automated monitors were the most common (54%). Fifty-one percent and 49% of the optometrists reported that they did routinely question their patients about high BP and about their current BP medications, respectively. The less frequently asked question concerned the cholesterol level of the patient (21%). The tests most widely used by the optometrists while examining hypertensive patients was direct ophthalmoscopy with red free filter (56%) and the least was binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (21%). Optometrists were more likely to refer patients suspected of systemic hypertension on the basis of elevated BP (74%) and presence of retinal hemorrhages (72%), but were less likely to refer patients with changes in arteriolar reflex (41%). The opinions were very positive towards the routine monitoring of BP within the Saudi optometry profession, as optometrists indicated that they had time within an eye examination to measure BP, it was financially rewarding (56% of respondents), and patients appreciated it (64% of respondents). Despite half of the optometrists having access to BP monitors (predominantly automated devices), many of the optometrists were unsure if they were trained enough to monitor BP in such patients. There is urgent need to train optometrists on the use of BP devices, interpretation of readings, and use of additional diagnostic tests during such eye examinations. PMID:23582875

  19. Molecular basis of ?-thalassemia in the western province of Saudi Arabia: identification of rare ?-thalassemia mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzenadah, Adel M; Hussein, Ibtessam M Ramzi; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; A-Sayes, Faten M; Gari, Mamdouh A; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Zaher, Galila F; Al-Attas, Asma'a; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the identification of the spectrum of mutations in patients with ?-thalassemia (?-thal) in the western province of Saudi Arabia. Screening for the mutations was done using the polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS) technique to test for 12 mutations, and direct automated DNA sequencing for the unknown samples. The study included 172 patients; of these 15 patients had sickle cell anemia and one Hb S [?6(A3)Glu?Val, GAG>GTG]/?-thal. A total of 23 mutations were identified to cause the disease in the western area. Seven common mutations were responsible for the ?-thal alleles in 78% of patients and could be detected by the ARMS technique: IVS-II-1 (G>A), IVS-I-110 (G>A), IVS-I-5 (G>C), codon 39 (C>T), codon 26 (G>A) [Hb E or ?26(B8)Glu?Lys, GAG>AAG], frameshift codons (FSC) 8/9 (+G), and IVS-I-1 (G>A). DNA sequencing of uncharacterized alleles detected eight less common mutations: FSC 41/42 (-TCTT), IVS-I 25 bp deletion, codon 37 (G>A), FSC 44 (-C), Cap site +1 (A>C), IVS-I-6 (T>C), FSC 5 (-CT) and IVS-I-1 (G>T), and eight rare mutations: -87 (C>G), initiation codon -1 (T>G), codon 15 (G>A), FSC 16 (-C), FSC 20/21 (+G), codon 27 (G>A), IVS-I-130 (G>C) and IVS-II-837 (A>C). Four alleles were normal by DNA sequencing. Genetic heterogeneity was observed in this study, 10 mutations were of Asian or Asian/Indian origin, two were Kurdish, one Chinese, one Turkish, one Saudi, and the remainder were of Mediterranean origin. The presence of a large population of immigrants in the western province is responsible for the great heterogeneity at the molecular level, and for the difference observed in the frequencies of mutations from those reported in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Screening for ?-thal mutations using PCR-ARMS for the seven most frequent mutations in the Saudi population followed by DNA sequencing of the unknown alleles could be useful for the implementation of a strategy for carrier detection and preimplantation genetic diagnosis in high risk families. PMID:21797702

  20. Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ahaideb A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdulaziz Al-Ahaideb,1 Hamza M Alrabai,1 Osama A Alrehaili,1 Abdulaziz N Aljurayyan,1 Ranyah M Alsaif,2 Nizar Algarni,1 Hazem M Al-Khawashki,1 Abdulrahman D Algarni1 1Department of Orthopedics, 2Department of Physiotherapy, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology: As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results: The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002. The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001. Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents' progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. Keywords: evaluation, medical education, orthopedic board, residency program, training