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1

Periodontal ligament injection: alternative solutions.  

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This study was undertaken to investigate whether plain lidocaine, 3% plain mepivacaine and 3% prilocaine with felypressin were suitable epinephrine-free local anesthetic solutions for use in periodontal ligament anesthesia as alternatives to lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Two hundred and seven patients received one of the four test solutions via a periodontal ligament injection and the success rate of anesthesia was confirmed using an electric pulp stimulator. Although neither mepivacai...

Gray, R. J.; Lomax, A. M.; Rood, J. P.

1990-01-01

2

Cell survival within pulp and periodontal constructs.  

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The purpose of this study was to measure cell survival and degradation within tissue-engineered dental constructs. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PLSCs) were seeded on three types of tissue engineering scaffolds: a synthetic open-cell D,D-L,L-polylactic acid (polymer) scaffold, a bovine collagen scaffold (collagen), and a calcium phosphate bioceramic (calcium phosphate) scaffold. The dental pulp and periodontal constructs (n = 144) were maintained in cell culture for between 3 and 14 days. The cell survival and degradation within the constructs were measured using histologic criteria. The DPSC and PLSC survival was optimal in the polymer and collagen constructs but not the calcium phosphate constructs, especially over longer time periods. These in vitro results suggest that both the polymer and collagen scaffolds and the DPSCs and PLSCs can be combined to create pulp and periodontal constructs for use in future regenerative dental treatments. PMID:19084127

Gebhardt, Matthew; Murray, Peter E; Namerow, Kenneth N; Kuttler, Sergio; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

2009-01-01

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Decellularized periodontal ligament cell sheets with recellularization potential.  

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The periodontal ligament is the key tissue facilitating periodontal regeneration. This study aimed to fabricate decellularized human periodontal ligament cell sheets for subsequent periodontal tissue engineering applications. The decellularization protocol involved the transfer of intact human periodontal ligament cell sheets onto melt electrospun polycaprolactone membranes and subsequent bi-directional perfusion with NH4OH/Triton X-100 and DNase solutions. The protocol was shown to remove 92% of DNA content. The structural integrity of the decellularized cell sheets was confirmed by a collagen quantification assay, immunostaining of human collagen type I and fibronectin, and scanning electron microscopy. ELISA was used to demonstrate the presence of residual basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the decellularized cell sheet constructs. The decellularized cell sheets were shown to have the ability to support recellularization by allogenic human periodontal ligament cells. This study describes the fabrication of decellularized periodontal ligament cell sheets that retain an intact extracellular matrix and resident growth factors and can support repopulation by allogenic cells. The decellularized hPDL cell sheet concept has the potential to be utilized in future "off-the-shelf" periodontal tissue engineering strategies. PMID:25270757

Farag, A; Vaquette, C; Theodoropoulos, C; Hamlet, S M; Hutmacher, D W; Ivanovski, S

2014-12-01

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Influence of aging on biological properties of periodontal ligament cells.  

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The majority of patients eligible for periodontal regenerative therapies are aged subjects. Since periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) are essential for periodontal regeneration, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of cellular aging on PDLC, including genes associated with extracellular matrix metabolism and growth-associated factors. PDLC cultures were obtained from subjects aged 15 to 20 years and subjects aged more than 60 years. Proliferation, cell viability, mineralization assays, and mRNA levels were assessed for type I and III collagen, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and-8, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and-2. Data analysis demonstrated that aging negatively influenced cell proliferation and mineral nodule formation (p 0.05). In addition, mRNA levels for type I and III collagen were significantly lower in aged cells (p < 0.05), whereas MMP-2 and-8 and TIMP-1 mRNA levels were higher (p < 0.05). Within the limits of the present study, data analysis suggests that aging modulates important biological properties of periodontal ligament cells, diminishes the potential for mineral nodule formation, and favors extracellular matrix degradation. PMID:19085240

Benatti, Bruno Braga; Silvério, Karina Gonzales; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antônio; Nociti, Francisco Humberto

2008-01-01

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Histopathological Effect of Advanced Periodontal Disease on the Dental Pulp  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many authors have claimed that pulpal inflammation may occur following periodontal diseases. Appropriate diagnosis of different lesions that have affected the dental pulp or periodontium is critical for prevention of unnecessary or harmful treatments; this must be taken into account before treatment.Purpose: The purpose of this study was histological evaluation of the pulp in the teeth with advanced periodontitis.Materials and Method: 30 permanent single teeth root that had advanced periodontitis with attachment loss ? 5 mm at least in one surface were used. The teeth were not maintainable and did not have caries, restoration and any sign of primary trauma from occlusion and did not receive any periodontal professional treatment in the past 6 months with no background of trauma. After clinical and radiographical examination and confirmation of the existence of advanced periodontitis, the teeth were extracted. Then cracks were created in the teeth by special clips. After fixation of the teeth in 10% formalin solution and decalcification by 10% nitric acid, the sections were prepared and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and then evaluated from histological perspectives. The data were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient ANOVA, t-test and Kruskal wallis tests.Results: In this survey, we did not find any significant correlation between clinical findings and histopathological situation. The relationship between clinical attachment loss and pulp diagnosis was statistically significant ( p =0.043. Also there was a statistically significant relationship between clinical attachment loss and calcification in the pulp ( p =0.014.Conclusion: According to the result of this research, it seems that periodontal condition affects the pulpal condition and it should be considered in future treatments on these teeth.

Seyedmajidi M.

2011-08-01

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Capturing the Regenerative Potential of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available The cell population within the periodontal ligament (PDL tissue is remarkably heterogeneous1. Fibroblasts, a mixed population of cells, are the main cellular component of the PDL and the cell type most often studied for periodontal regeneration. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are found on the bone side, while fibroblasts, macrophages, undifferentiated adult/mesenchymal stem cells, neural elements, and endothelial cells are found throughout the PDL. Epithelial rests of Malassez cells and cementoblasts are focused near the root surface. PDL tissue also includes loose connective tissue between dense fiber bundles that contain branches of the periodontal blood vessels and nerves2. The complexity of the PDL tissue, with its various cell types and cell progenitor components, explains the challenges involved in therapies to restore tissue following periodontal disease. Cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and endothelial cells must migrate, differentiate, and coordinately interact with a variety of soluble mediators to regenerate the periodontium3. Stem cells located in the PDL tissue are key contributors to this process4. Stem cells in the PDL are important not only for formation and maintenance of the tissue but also for repair, remodeling, and regeneration of adjacent alveolar bone and cementum5. Our laboratory has shown that progenitor cells isolated from PDL tissue by selection with cell surface markers STRO-1+ and CD146+ are capable of differentiating into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic phenotypes under appropriate culture conditions6.

Christina Springstead Scanlon

2011-01-01

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ELECTRIC PULP TEST OF TEETH WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASE.  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is to investigate the change in pulp vitality of teeth with periodontal disease using electric pulp tester (EPT. Methods: Subjected to observation were 108 patients with chronic periodontitis. Vitality of 805 teeth with periodontal pocket depth greater than 4 mm was studied by EPT. The research was conducted with EPT "Yonovit ". Results: The highest percentage of surveyed teeth (68.4% respond to the norm when they are tested with EPT – values between 3 ?A and 10 ?A . Teeth that respond to EPT with values ??below 3 ?A and between 35-100 ?A are relatively equal - respectively 4.3% and 3.3%. With increased threshold of irritation – 10-35 ?A react 23.4% of teeth. Small number of teeth have threshold of irritation over 100 ?A - 0.6%. Conclusion: The value of EPT among periodontal damaged teeth depends on many factors - patient's age, extent of periodontal affect, group affiliation of teeth, etc.

Tsonko Uzunov

2014-10-01

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Periodontal Ligament Cell Sheet Engineering: A new Possible Strategy to Promote Periodontal Regeneration  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Osseointegration represents a direct structural and functional connection between ordered, living bone and the surface of a load-carrying implant without the periodontium. As a result, im-plant fracture or aggressive bone loss sometime occurs because the patient cannot feel the mechanical overloads exerted on the implant. Until now, no available method has been used to solve this problem.The hypothesis: Periodontal ligament (PDL cells are a desirable cell population capable of regenerating a functional periodontal at-tachment apparatus. Cell sheet engineering has emerged as a novel alternative approach for periodontal tissue engineering without the disruption of both critical cell surface proteins such as ion channels, growth factor receptors and cell-to-cell junction proteins. PDL cells can be isolated from an extracted tooth and can be cultured on temperature-responsive culture dishes at 37°C. Transplantable cell sheets can be harvested by reducing the temperature to 20°C, and would be transplanted into the implant beds before insertion of the implant.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Controlling the differentiation of PDL cell sheets to different functional peri-implant periodontal tissues is very difficult. Further studies are required to determine the fate of implanted cells. Fluorescence protein-labeled cell sheets would be a good approach to investigate the fate of the grafted cell sheet.

Dong-sheng Zhang

2010-06-01

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Evaluation of fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-ß expression by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to root end filling materials  

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Background and Aim: Several materials have been introduced for retrograde fillings, pulp capping and sealing root perforations, but their biological effect on vital tissues and cells is not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reaction of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to four root canal filling materials: Pro Root MTA, Root MTA, Portland cement and amalgam. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, impacted or semi impacted third molar teeth were extracted in...

Razmi H; Bashizade H.; Ar, Talaeipour

2008-01-01

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Gap-junction-mediated communication in human periodontal ligament cells.  

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Periodontal tissue homeostasis depends on a complex cellular network that conveys cell-cell communication. Gap junctions (GJs), one of the intercellular communication systems, are found between adjacent human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells; however, the functional GJ coupling between hPDL cells has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated functional gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication in isolated primary hPDL cells. SEM images indicated that the cells were in contact with each other via dendritic processes, and also showed high anti-connexin43 (Cx43) immunoreactivity on these processes. Gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) among hPDL cells was assessed by fluorescence recovery after a photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which exhibited dye coupling between hPDL cells, and was remarkably down-regulated when the cells were treated with a GJ blocker. Additionally, we examined GJs under hypoxic stress. The fluorescence recovery and expression levels of Cx43 decreased time-dependently under the hypoxic condition. Exposure to GJ inhibitor or hypoxia increased RANKL expression, and decreased OPG expression. This study shows that GJIC is responsible for hPDL cells and that its activity is reduced under hypoxia. This is consistent with the possible role of hPDL cells in regulating the biochemical reactions in response to changes in the hypoxic environment. PMID:23677649

Kato, R; Ishihara, Y; Kawanabe, N; Sumiyoshi, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Nakamura, M; Imai, Y; Yanagita, T; Fukushima, H; Kamioka, H; Takano-Yamamoto, T; Yamashiro, T

2013-07-01

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Role of ferritin in the cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament cells.  

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This study investigated the expression and functions of ferritin, which is involved in osteoblastogenesis, in the periodontal ligament (PDL). The PDL is one of the most important tissues for maintaining the homeostasis of teeth and tooth-supporting tissues. Real-time PCR analyses of the human PDL revealed abundant expression of ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) and ferritin heavy polypeptide (FTH), which encode the highly-conserved iron storage protein, ferritin. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated predominant expression of FTL and FTH in mouse PDL tissues in vivo. In in vitro-maintained mouse PDL cells, FTL and FTH expressions were upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels during the course of cytodifferentiation and mineralization. Interestingly, stimulation of PDL cells with exogenous apoferritin (iron-free ferritin) increased calcified nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as the mRNA expressions of mineralization-related genes during the course of cytodifferentiation. On the other hand, RNA interference of FTH inhibited the mineralized nodule formation of PDL cells. This is the first report to demonstrate that ferritin is predominantly expressed in PDL tissues and positively regulates the cytodifferentiation and mineralization of PDL cells. PMID:22975354

Hou, Jianxia; Yamada, Satoru; Kajikawa, Tetsuhiro; Ozaki, Nobuhiro; Awata, Toshihito; Yamaba, Satoko; Murakami, Shinya

2012-10-01

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Bone repair using periodontal ligament progenitor cell-seeded constructs.  

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The success of tissue-engineering therapies is dependent on the ability of scaffolds to guide differentiation of progenitor cells. Here we present a new approach using a biomimetic construct composed of hydroxyapatite modified with an in vitro-derived extracellular matrix (HA-ECM) and seeded with periodontal ligament progenitor cells (PDLCs). The study aimed to investigate the effect of HA-ECM on osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs and in vivo evaluation of the PDLC-seeded HA-ECM constructs using a rat calvarial critical-sized defect model. After flow-cytometric phenotyping of PDLCs for typical mesenchymal stem cell markers, the PDLCs were cultured on HA-ECM or HA alone in osteogenic media and assessed by MTT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays, and real-time qPCR at different time intervals after seeding. New bone formation induced by PDLC-seeded constructs was assessed by histomorphometric analysis at 12 weeks post-operatively. The PDLCs seeded on HA-ECM showed significantly higher ALP activity and up-regulation of bone-related genes. The treatment with PDLC-seeded HA-ECM significantly improved calvarial bone repair, with the highest amount of newly formed bone elicited by cell-seeded constructs cultured for 14 days. Our results highlight the PDLC-seeded HA-ECM constructs as a promising tool for craniofacial bone regeneration. PMID:22736447

Tour, G; Wendel, M; Moll, G; Tcacencu, I

2012-08-01

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Comparison of periodontal ligament cells responses to dense and nanophase hydroxyapatite.  

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Hydroxyapatite, a synthetic calcium phosphate ceramic, is used as a biomaterial for the restoration of human hard tissue as well as in techniques which aim to regenerate periodontal tissues. Generally, hydroxyapatite is believed to have osteoconductive effects and to be non-bioresorbable but not to induce to periodontal tissue regeneration. No report has been found on responses of periodontal ligament cells (PDLC), the main contributor to periodontal tissue regeneration, to nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible effects of nanophase powder of hydroxyapatite on proliferation of periodontal ligament cells. Using a sol-gel method, the nanophase hydroxyapatite powders were fabricated. These powders were proved to comprise nanoparticles by transmission electron microscope examination. The primary periodontal ligament cells were cultured on dense particle hydroxyapatite and nanometer particle hydroxyapatite. The effects on proliferation of periodontal ligament cells on dense and nanoparticle hydroxyapatite were examined in vitro using a methyl thiazolil tetracolium (MTT) test. The intercellular effects were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). In addition, the influence of the two materials on osteogenic differentiation was determined through measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity and flow cytometry. About 2, 3, and 4 days after treatment with nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, the proliferation activity of the PDLC increased significantly compared with those proliferating on dense hydroxyapatite and of control PDLC, but no significant difference was found between the PDLC proliferation on dense hydroxyapatite and the control PDLCs. After 3 and 5 days' incubation with nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased as compared to PDLCs incubated with dense hydroxyapatite and control PDLCs. Intracellular engulfment was found in the cultured cells with nanophase hydroxyapatite under electron microscopy. The results suggest that nanophase hydroxyapatite can promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells and further that it may be used as a bioresorbable agent in osseous restoration. PMID:17143736

Sun, Weibin; Chu, Chenlin; Wang, Juan; Zhao, Huating

2007-05-01

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Comparative study of human dental follicle cell sheets and periodontal ligament cell sheets for periodontal tissue regeneration.  

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Periodontal ligament cell (PDLC) sheets have been shown to contribute to periodontal tissue regeneration. Dental follicle cells (DFCs), acknowledged as the precursor cells of PDLCs, have demonstrated stemness, embryonic features, heterogeneity, and pluripotency. Therefore, we hypothesized that DFC sheets might be more effective and suitable for periodontal tissue regeneration than PDLC sheets. In this study, we compared the biological characteristics of DFC sheets and PDLC sheets in vitro. To investigate the potential for periodontal tissue regeneration in vivo, complexes composed of two types of cell sheets combined with dentin matrix were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 6 weeks. Our results showed that, when forming cell sheets, DFCs secreted richer extracellular matrix than PDLCs. And compared to DFCs, DFC sheets expressed high levels of calcification-related genes, including alkaline phosphatase (alp), bone sialoprotein (bsp), osteopontin (opn), runt-related transcription factor (runx2), as well as the periodontal ligament-specific genes collagen III (col III) and periostin, while the gene expression of bsp, osteocalcin (ocn), and opn were greatly increased in PDLC sheets, when compared to PDLCs. col I expression did not change significantly. However, cementum protein 23 (cp-23) expression increased several fold in PDLC sheets compared to PDLCs but decreased in DFC sheets compared to DFCs. DFC and PDLC sheets were both positive for Collagen I (Col I), cementum attachment protein (CAP), ALP, BSP, OCN, and OPN protein expression, and Col I, ALP, BSP, and OPN expression were increased after cell sheets were formed. Furthermore, the levels of laminin and fibronectin were higher in DFCs and DFC sheets than that of PDLCs and PDLC sheets, respectively. In vivo, DFC and PDLC sheets could both regenerate periodontal tissue-like structures, but DFC sheets demonstrated stronger periodontal regeneration potential than PDLC sheets. Therefore, DFC sheets derived from discarded dental follicle tissue after tooth extraction may be more advantageous for clinical periodontal tissue regeneration in the future. PMID:23007138

Guo, Shujuan; Guo, Weihua; Ding, Yi; Gong, Jian; Zou, Qing; Xie, Dan; Chen, Yali; Wu, Yafei; Tian, Weidong

2013-01-01

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Effect of F-spondin on cementoblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells  

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Cementum is a mineralized tissue produced by cementoblasts covering the roots of teeth that provides for the attachment of periodontal ligament to roots and surrounding alveolar bone. To study the mechanism of proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts is important for understanding periodontal physiology and pathology including periodontal tissue regeneration. However, the detailed mechanism of the proliferation and differentiation of human cementoblasts is still unclear. We previously established human cementoblast-like (HCEM) cell lines. We thought that comparing the transcriptional profiles of HCEM cells and human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells derived from the same teeth could be a good approach to identify genes that influence the nature of cementoblasts. We identified F-spondin as the gene demonstrating the high fold change expression in HCEM cells. Interestingly, F-spondin highly expressing HPL cells showed similar phenotype of cementoblasts, such as up-regulation of mineralized-related genes. Overall, we identified F-spondin as a promoting factor for cementoblastic differentiation

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EVALUATION OF HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES OF DENTAL PULP IN ADVANCED PERIODONTAL DISEASES  

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Full Text Available Abstract- The adverse effects of periodontal disease on dental pulp has been debated for many years. This case- control study was performed to assess the possible effects of advanced periodontal disease on the structure of dental pulp. Fifty-two permanent teeth extracted because of advanced periodontitis with ? 5mm attachment loss and grade III mobility were compared to fifty-two control teeth, obtained from systemically healthy adults. Two groups were matched for age and teeth types. Inflammation, fibrosis, calcification and necrosis were observed in the (27.8- 40%, (0-59.4%, (0-26.4% and (0-20.9% of the different sections of the study group, and (0%, (9.7-50%, (0-11.6% and (0% of the control group (P < 0.05. Abnormal pulp tissue was observed in the (33.3-88.1% and (12.9-50.5% of different sections of the study and control groups respectively (P < 0.05. Complete necrosis of dental pulp occurred only when depth of adjacent periodontal pocket reached the apical third of the root. There was an increase in frequency of pathologic changes as the depth of periodontal pocket increased (P = 0.00. We conclude that advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp, although not necessarily leading to complete pulp disintegration. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planning in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is recommended. Fibrosis and diffuse calcification of dental pulp in teeth with advanced periodontal involvement may endanger root canal therapy; if needed.

M. S. Sheykhrezaee

2007-05-01

17

LPS from P. gingivalis and Hypoxia Increases Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts and Contributes to Periodontitis  

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Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays a key role in the progression of inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that hypoxic and inflammatory events induce oxidative stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL) by activating NOX4. Human primary PDL fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-PG), a periodontal pathogen bacterium under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. By quantitative PCR, immunoblot, immunostaining, and a specific ROS assay we determined the amount of NOX4, ROS, and several redox systems. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were collected to evaluate NOX4 and redox systems by immunohistochemistry. We found significantly increased NOX4 levels after hypoxic or inflammatory stimulation in PDL cells (P NOX4 and redox systems is crucial for ROS formation which plays a pivotal role during oral diseases. PMID:25374447

Golz, L.; Memmert, S.; Rath-Deschner, B.; Jager, A.; Appel, T.; Baumgarten, G.; Gotz, W.; Frede, S.

2014-01-01

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Domain of dentine sialoprotein mediates proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells.  

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Classic embryological studies have documented the inductive role of root dentin on adjacent periodontal ligament differentiation.  The biochemical composition of root dentin includes collagens and cleavage products of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), such as dentin sialoprotein (DSP).  The high abundance of DSP in root dentin prompted us to ask the question whether DSP or peptides derived thereof would serve as potent biological matrix components to induce periodontal progenitors to further differentiate into periodontal ligament cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that domain of DSP influences cell fate. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the COOH-terminal DSP domain is expressed in mouse periodontium at various stages of root development. The recombinant COOH-terminal DSP fragment (rC-DSP) enhanced attachment and migration of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), human primary PDL cells without cell toxicity. rC-DSP induced PDLSC cell proliferation as well as differentiation and mineralization of PDLSC and PDL cells by formation of mineralized tissue and ALPase activity. Effect of rC-DSP on cell proliferation and differentiation was to promote gene expression of tooth/bone-relate markers, transcription factors and growth factors. The results for the first time showed that rC-DSP may be one of the components of cell niche for stimulating stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and a natural scaffold for periodontal regeneration application. PMID:24400037

Ozer, Alkan; Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Wang, Feng; Li, Wentong; Yang, Yuan; Guo, Feng; Gao, Qingping; Shoff, Lisa; Chen, Zhi; Gay, Isabel C; Donly, Kevin J; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

2013-01-01

19

An experimental study on the effect of irradiation on deciduous dental pulp and periodontal membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Left mandibular third deciduous molars of young dogs were irradiated for 3,000 R with 200 kVp X-ray and the effect on the dental pulp and periodontal membrane was investigated histopathologically. 1. From 3rd to 7th days after irradiation, localized inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in part in the dental pulp tissue. No abnormal findings were observed in the periodontal membrane. 2. On 14th day after irradiation in the coronal dental pulp, cells decreased; karyopycnosis occurred; cells were connected only by cellular processes, and large and small reticular networks were formed. In the periodontal membrane, fibers ran irregularly although in part and findings of atrophy were seen. Fibroblasts showed a decreasing tendency. 3. In the cases from 1 to 2 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue showed marked atrophy of odontoblasts and the dental pulp showed hyalinization-like changes. In the periodontal membrane, Sharpey's fibers ran irregularly or became indistinct, and fibroblasts decreased extensively. The periodontal membrane in general showed hyalinization. 4. In the cases of 4 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue on the whole showed marked atrophy and disappearance of odontoblast layers. In the periodontal membrane, inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in part and membrane fibers, as those in 2nd month, showed marked atrophy, became enlarged, and presented findings of hyalinization. 5. At 8th month, the necleoli nearly disappeared in the pulp tissue from the crown to the root and the cells were connected like filaments by cellular processes. Nearly all the blood vessels and fibers disappeared. In the periodontal membrane, most of Sharpey's fibers disappeared. Fibroblasts showed marked atrophy and disappearance, and few normal fibloblasts could be found. (J.P.N.)

20

Effects of mechanical force on primary human fibroblasts derived from the gingiva and the periodontal ligament.  

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Previous experiments have shown that mechanical stress may alter the interactions between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of mechanical load on metabolism and ECM expression of primary human periodontal cells. The influence of gravitational force on proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and tenascin expression of gingival (HGF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDL), as well as their adhesion to various extracellular matrix (ECM) components, was determined. Cells were centrifuged in microplates or flat tubes for 16 hrs at 217 g. Neither an enhanced release of LDH nor an alteration of cell proliferation could be detected after centrifugation. However, the attachment of loaded gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts to all tested ECM components significantly decreased in comparison with controls (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test; HGF, p < 0.05; HPDL, p < 0.01). Tenascin expression of mechanically stressed fibroblasts significantly increased in comparison with controls (p < 0.01). PMID:11669493

Theilig, C; Bernd, A; Leyhausen, G; Kaufmann, R; Geurtsen, W

2001-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

Stereological Analysis of the Dental Pulp in Patients with Advanced Periodontitis  

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Full Text Available Background: The adverse effects of periodontitis on dental pulp have long been argued. The purpose of this study was to investigate stereological indices of dental pulp in patients with advanced periodontitis compared with healthy people. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 15 single-rooted permanent teeth of patients with advanced periodontal diseases and that of people with healthy periodontium, as control group, were investigated. All teeth were intact, and without filling and decay. After tissue processing, longitudinal serial sections of the tooth were prepared and stained by Masson’s trichrome. A grid containing organized points superimposed on the images of each section randomly. Then, the points hit with each subject were counted. The volume of pulp and its components in both groups were estimated, using Cavalieri’s principle. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The significance level was considered as p<0.05.Results: No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of inflammation and calcification intensity (p<0.05. Microscopic evaluations of tissue sections showed significant increase in predentin thickness in periodontitis group than control group (p<0.05. In addition, statistically significant reduction was observed in periodontitis group with respect to pulp absolute volume, volume density, odontoblastic layer absolute volume, collagen fibers absolute volume, and absolute pulp blood vessels volume, compared with control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Results showed periodontal disease affects stereological parameters of pulp. Because of reduction of pulp volume and narrowing of root canal, precise diagnostic and therapeutic considerations are recommended during treatment of those teeth.

Zahra Heidari

2013-07-01

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Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induc [...] ed by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P

D.X., Li; T.Z., Deng; J., Lv; J., Ke.

2014-09-19

23

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induc [...] ed by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P

D.X., Li; T.Z., Deng; J., Lv; J., Ke.

1036-10-01

24

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induc [...] ed by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P

D.X., Li; T.Z., Deng; J., Lv; J., Ke.

25

In vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue formation with porous poly-L-lactide matrix.  

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This study aimed to establish an in vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue (HPdLLT) by three-dimensional culturing of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLFs) in a porous poly-L-lactide (PLLA) matrix modified hydrophilically with ammonia solution. After ammonia modification, the surface roughness and culture-medium-soaking-up ability of the PLLA matrix increased, whereas the contact angle of water drops decreased. The thickness, porosity, and pore size of the PLLA matrix were 400±50 ?m, 83.3%, and 75-150 ?m, respectively. HPdLFs (1×10(5) cells) were seeded on the modified PLLA matrix and centrifuged to facilitate seeding into its interior and cultured for 14 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, proliferation assay, picrosirius-red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for type-1 collagen (COL1), periodontal ligament associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA were conducted on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. HPdLFs were observed entirely from the surface to the rear side of the matrix. Cell proliferation analysis, SEM observation, and picrosirius-red staining showed both progressive growth of 3D-cultured HPdLFs and extracellular matrix maturation by the secretion of COL1 and type 3 collagen (COL3) from days 1 to 14. Expressions of COL1, PLAP-1, and FGF-2 mRNA suggested the formation of cellular components and supplementation of extracellular components. Expressions of ALP, COL1, and PLAP-1 mRNA suggested the osteogenic potential of the HPdLLT. The results indicated in vitro HPdLLT formation, and it could be used in future periodontal ligament tissue engineering to achieve optimal periodontal regeneration. PMID:23706210

Liao, Wen; Okada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Fumito; Okita, Naoya; Inami, Kaoru; Nishiura, Aki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

2013-08-01

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Effect of vitamin C administration on hydrogen peroxide?induced cytotoxicity in periodontal ligament cells.  

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Periodontitis is a disease, which is associated with chronic inflammation and leads to significant destruction of periodontal tissues. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) constitute the largest cell population in PDL tissues and a considerable body of evidence has demonstrated an association between oxidative stress and the progression of periodontitis. However, the effects on PDLCs exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the molecular mechanisms by which H2O2 affects periodontitis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the potential cytotoxic effect of H2O2 and the antioxidative function of vitamin C (Vc) in PDLCs were investigated. The results demonstrated that H2O2 treatment decreased the viability of PDLCs. The decreased PDLC viability was primarily induced by apoptosis, which was evidenced by cleaved caspases?3, caspases?9 and poly (ADP?ribose) polymerase. Following optimal Vc addition, the proapoptotic effects of H2O2 were partially antagonized. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that H2O2 primarily induced the apoptosis of PDLCs and that these adverse effects were partially rescued following treatment with Vc. These results revealed how H2O2 promotes the progression of periodontitis and provide an improved understanding of the reversal effect of antioxidant treatment. Therefore, optimal Vc administration may provide a potentially effective technique in periodontal therapy. PMID:25333298

Wu, Wenlei; Yang, Nanfei; Feng, Xiujing; Sun, Tingzhe; Shen, Pingping; Sun, Weibin

2015-01-01

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Application of modified superposition model to viscoelastic behavior of periodontal ligament  

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Full Text Available The periodontal ligament (PDL is a soft bio-logical tissue which shows a strongly nonlinear and time dependent mechanical behavior. Re-cent experiments on rabbit PDL revealed that the rate of stress relaxation is strain dependent. This nonlinear behavior of PDL cannot be de-scribed well by the separable quasi linear vis-coelasticity theory which is usually used in tis-sue biomechanics. Therefore, PDL requires a more general description which considers this nonlinearity and time dependency. The purpose of this study was to model strain dependent stress relaxation behavior of PDL using modi-fied superposition method. It is shown herein that modified superposition method describes viscoelastic nonlinearties well and shows a good compatibility with available experimental PDL data. Hence, the modified superposition model is suggested to describe periodontal ligament data, because it can suitably demon-strate both elastic nonlinearity and strain-dependent stress relaxation behavior of PDL.

B. Mirzakouchaki

2008-10-01

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Implications of cultured periodontal ligament cells for the clinical and experimental setting: a review  

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The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a key contributor to the process of regeneration of the periodontium. The heterogeneous nature of the PDL tissue, its development during early adulthood, and the different conditions to which the PDL tissue is exposed to in vivo impart on the PDL unique characteristics that may be of consequence during its cultivation in vitro. Several factors affecting the in vivo setting influence the behavior of PDL fibroblasts in culture. The purpose of this review is to ...

Marchesan, Julie Teresa; Scanlon, Christina Springstead; Soehren, Stephen; Matsuo, Masato; Kapila, Yvonne L.

2011-01-01

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Proliferation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal cells on polished and plasma nitriding titanium surfaces  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To evaluate the proliferative capacity of mesenchymal cells derived from human periodontal ligament on polished and plasma-treated titanium surfaces. METHODS: Eighteen titanium disks were polished and half of them (n=9) were submitted to plasma nitriding using the cathodic cage technique. Mesen [...] chymal cells were isolated from periodontal ligament of impacted third molars (n=2) and cultured on titanium disks (polished and nitrided) and on a plastic surface as a positive control of cell proliferation. Cell proliferation was analyzed and growth curves were constructed for the different groups by determining the number of cells adhered to the different surfaces at 24, 48 and 72 h after plating. RESULTS: Higher cell number was observed for the nitrided surface at 24 and 48 h. However, no statistically significant difference in cell proliferation was observed between the two different surface treatments (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that plasma nitriding produced surfaces that permitted the proliferation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal cells. Associated to other physical and chemical properties, it is possible to assume the feasibility of plasma nitriding method and its positive effect on the early cellular events of osseointegration.

Rodrigo Alves, Ribeiro; Rodrigo Gadelha, Vasconcelos; Fernanda, Ginani; José Sandro Pereira da, Silva; Clodomiro, Alves-Júnior; Carlos Augusto Galvão, Barboza.

2013-06-01

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Proliferation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal cells on polished and plasma nitriding titanium surfaces  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To evaluate the proliferative capacity of mesenchymal cells derived from human periodontal ligament on polished and plasma-treated titanium surfaces. METHODS: Eighteen titanium disks were polished and half of them (n=9) were submitted to plasma nitriding using the cathodic cage technique. Mesen [...] chymal cells were isolated from periodontal ligament of impacted third molars (n=2) and cultured on titanium disks (polished and nitrided) and on a plastic surface as a positive control of cell proliferation. Cell proliferation was analyzed and growth curves were constructed for the different groups by determining the number of cells adhered to the different surfaces at 24, 48 and 72 h after plating. RESULTS: Higher cell number was observed for the nitrided surface at 24 and 48 h. However, no statistically significant difference in cell proliferation was observed between the two different surface treatments (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that plasma nitriding produced surfaces that permitted the proliferation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal cells. Associated to other physical and chemical properties, it is possible to assume the feasibility of plasma nitriding method and its positive effect on the early cellular events of osseointegration.

Rodrigo Alves, Ribeiro; Rodrigo Gadelha, Vasconcelos; Fernanda, Ginani; José Sandro Pereira da, Silva; Clodomiro, Alves-Júnior; Carlos Augusto Galvão, Barboza.

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Semaphorin 3A Induces Mesenchymal-Stem-Like Properties in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.  

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Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have recently been proposed as a novel option in periodontal regenerative therapy. However, one of the issues is the difficulty of stably generating PDLSCs because of the variation of stem cell potential between donors. Here, we show that Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) can induce mesenchymal-stem-like properties in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Sema3A expression was specifically observed in the dental follicle during tooth development and in parts of mature PDL tissue in rodent tooth and periodontal tissue. Sema3A expression levels were found to be higher in multipotential human PDL cell clones compared with low-differentiation potential clones. Sema3A-overexpressing PDL cells exhibited an enhanced capacity to differentiate into both functional osteoblasts and adipocytes. Moreover, PDL cells treated with Sema3A only at the initiation of culture stimulated osteogenesis, while Sema3A treatment throughout the culture had no effect on osteogenic differentiation. Finally, Sema3A-overexpressing PDL cells upregulated the expression of embryonic stem cell markers (NANOG, OCT4, and E-cadherin) and mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD166), and Sema3A promoted cell division activity of PDL cells. These results suggest that Sema3A may possess the function to convert PDL cells into mesenchymal-stem-like cells. PMID:24380401

Wada, Naohisa; Maeda, Hidefumi; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Gronthos, Stan; Bartold, Peter Mark; Menicanin, Danijela; Fujii, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Akamine, Akifumi

2014-09-15

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Influence of periodontal ligament simulation on bond strength and fracture resistance of roots restored with fiber posts  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: Considering that periodontal ligament simulation may influence the stress distribution over teeth restored with intraradicular retainers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of mechanical cycling and periodontal ligament simulation on both the bond strength between fiber posts [...] and root dentin and the fracture resistance of teeth restored using glass fiber posts. Material and Methods: Ninety roots were randomly distributed into 3 groups (n=10) (C-MC: control; P-MC: polyether; AS-MC: addition silicone) to test bond strength and 6 groups (n=10) (C: control; P: polyether; AS: addition silicone, without mechanical cycling, and C-MC, P-MC and AS-MC with mechanical cycling) to test fracture strength, according to the material used to simulate the periodontal ligament. For the bond strength test, fiber posts were cemented, cores were built, mechanical cycling was applied (2×106 cycles, 88 N, 2.2 Hz, and 45º incline), and the teeth cut into 3 slices (2 mm), which were then subjected to the push-out test at 1 mm/min. For the fracture strength test, fiber posts were cemented, cores were built, and half of the groups received mechanical cycling, followed by the compressive strength (45° to the long axis and 1 mm/min) performed on all groups. Results: Periodontal ligament simulation did not affect the bond strength (p=0.244) between post and dentin. Simulation of periodontal ligament (p=0.153) and application of mechanical cycling (p=0.97) did not affect fracture resistance. Conclusions: The materials used to simulate the periodontal ligament did not affect fracture or bond strength, therefore periodontal ligament simulation using the tested materials could be considered optional in the conditions of the study.

Ana Maria Estivalete, MARCHIONATTI; Vinícius Felipe, WANDSCHER; Juliana, BROCH; César Dalmolin, BERGOLI; Juliana, MAIER; Luiz Felipe, VALANDRO; Osvaldo Bazzan, KAIZER.

2014-10-01

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Periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts participate in the production of TGF-?, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the production of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10 by human cultured periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts both obtained from the same donors challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Fibroblasts were exposed to 0.1-10 µg/mL of LPS from P. gingivalis and after 24 h the supernatants were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. TGF-? protein production was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner, mainly in gingival fibroblasts, which was statistically significant when challenged by 10 µg/mL LPS. Additionally, at this concentration, gingival fibroblasts had almost a two-fold increase in the amount of TGF-? when compared to periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Both periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts showed an increase in IL-8 production when challenged with 1 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL LPS. IL-10 production remained unaffected when challenged by any of the LPS concentrations tested in either periodontal ligament or gingival fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate that periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts when challenged by LPS from P. gingivalis with 24 h may play a critical role in producing TGF-? and IL-8 but not IL-10.

Ana Carolina de Faria Morandini

2011-04-01

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Periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts participate in the production of TGF-?, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the production of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 by human cultured periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts both obtained from the same donors challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gin [...] givalis. Fibroblasts were exposed to 0.1-10 µg/mL of LPS from P. gingivalis and after 24 h the supernatants were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGF-? protein production was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner, mainly in gingival fibroblasts, which was statistically significant when challenged by 10 µg/mL LPS. Additionally, at this concentration, gingival fibroblasts had almost a two-fold increase in the amount of TGF-? when compared to periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Both periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts showed an increase in IL-8 production when challenged with 1 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL LPS. IL-10 production remained unaffected when challenged by any of the LPS concentrations tested in either periodontal ligament or gingival fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate that periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts when challenged by LPS from P. gingivalis with 24 h may play a critical role in producing TGF-? and IL-8 but not IL-10.

Ana Carolina de Faria, Morandini; Carla Renata, Sipert; Erivan Schnaider, Ramos-Junior; Daniel Thomas, Brozoski; Carlos Ferreira, Santos.

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Periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone in the oldest herbivorous tetrapods, and their evolutionary significance.  

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Tooth implantation provides important phylogenetic and functional information about the dentitions of amniotes. Traditionally, only mammals and crocodilians have been considered truly thecodont, because their tooth roots are coated in layers of cementum for anchorage of the periodontal ligament, which is in turn attached to the bone lining the alveolus, the alveolar bone. The histological properties and developmental origins of these three periodontal tissues have been studied extensively in mammals and crocodilians, but the identities of the periodontal tissues in other amniotes remain poorly studied. Early work on dental histology of basal amniotes concluded that most possess a simplified tooth attachment in which the tooth root is ankylosed to a pedestal composed of "bone of attachment", which is in turn fused to the jaw. More recent studies have concluded that stereotypically thecodont tissues are also present in non-mammalian, non-crocodilian amniotes, but these studies were limited to crown groups or secondarily aquatic reptiles. As the sister group to Amniota, and the first tetrapods to exhibit dental occlusion, diadectids are the ideal candidates for studies of dental evolution among terrestrial vertebrates because they can be used to test hypotheses of development and homology in deep time. Our study of Permo-Carboniferous diadectid tetrapod teeth and dental tissues reveal the presence of two types of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, and therefore the earliest record of true thecodonty in a tetrapod. These discoveries in a stem amniote allow us to hypothesize that the ability to produce the tissues that characterize thecodonty in mammals and crocodilians is very ancient and plesiomorphic for Amniota. Consequently, all other forms of tooth implantation in crown amniotes are derived arrangements of one or more of these periodontal tissues and not simply ankylosis of teeth to the jaw by plesiomorphically retaining "bone of attachment", as previously suggested. PMID:24023957

LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Reisz, Robert R

2013-01-01

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Inflammatory and bone-related genes are modulated by aging in human periodontal ligament cells.  

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Periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) play a major role in periodontal tissues homeostasis and destruction. Most age-associated diseases seem to be closely related to an underlying chronic inflammatory state. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating in PDLC the effect of aging on the basal levels of inflammatory and bone-related genes. Primary PDLC cultures were obtained from subjects aged 15-20 years (control- n=5), and subjects aged more than 60 years (test- n=5). Proliferation, cell viability and total secreted protein assays were performed, and mRNA levels were quantitatively assessed for interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-8, and for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by real time PCR. Data analysis demonstrated that aging negatively influenced cell proliferation, whereas cell viability and total secreted protein were not affected (p>0.05). Gene expression analysis showed that mRNA levels for RANKL and IL-8 were not affected by aging (p>0.05) whereas, mRNA levels for IL-4 was significantly lower in aged cells (pPDLC to proliferate and modulated the expression of important inflammatory and bone-related genes in periodontal ligament cells, favoring a proinflammatory and an antiresorptive profile. PMID:19251432

Benatti, Bruno Braga; Silvério, Karina Gonzales; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antônio; Nociti, Francisco Humberto

2009-05-01

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Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests Influência do material de inclusão e da simulação do ligamento periodontal nos ensaios de resistência à fratura  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance of bovine teeth. Eighty bovine incisor teeth were randomized into 8 groups (n = 10), embedded in acrylic or polystyrene resin using 4 types of periodontal ligament simulation: 1 - absence of the ligament; 2 - polyether impression material; 3 - polysulfide impression material; 4 - polyurethane elastomeric material. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% ...

Carlos José Soares; Eliane Cristina Gava Pizi; Rodrigo Borges Fonseca; Luis Roberto Marcondes Martins

2005-01-01

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Study of tension in the periodontal ligament using the finite elements method  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Orthodontic movement is process of transformation of a physical stimulation into a force applied to a tooth, with a biological response identified as bone remodelling. Although it is possible to measure the force applied on a tooth, its distribution around the root is irregular forming areas of high [...] er concentration of tensions, which do not correspond to the force initially applied. To evaluate the behavior of the periodontal ligament after the application of an external action and to prove which would be the areas of higher tension generated in the periodontium, the Finite Elements Method (FEM) was used in comparison to the results obtained in vivo on experimental models in rat. To test the error susceptibility of the technique used in the experimental model, the force application was simulated in three different heights on the mesial surface of the molar. The resulting histological analysis was compared with the result obtained for the computational code and disclosed that the greater focus of osteoclasts in activity had coincided with the compressed areas of the periodontal ligament. The alteration of points of force application generated areas of more extensive deformations in the periodontal ligament, as the point of application was more distant of the initial point, the horizontal force vector became bigger. These results demonstrate that the FEM is an adequate tool to study the distribution of orthodontic forces. The sensitivity of the experimental model used was also observed in relation to the installation of the dental movement device, which should be considered depending on the objective of the research.

Eliziane, Cossetin; Selma Hissae S. da, Nóbrega; Maria Goretti Freire de, Carvalho.

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Osteoinductive and anti-inflammatory effect of royal jelly on periodontal ligament cells.  

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Royal jelly (RJ) has been reported to possess several physiological and pharmacological properties such as the ability to prevent osteoporosis in rats and anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that RJ could have beneficial effects on the prevention or treatment of periodontal diseases, which are chronic inflammatory diseases caused by bacterial infection that result in resorption of the tooth-supporting bone. We assessed the effect of RJ on mineralization in mouse periodontal ligament cell clone 22 (MPDL22 cells), which are of an osteogenic and cementogenic lineage. The mRNA expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin and osterix, and mineralized nodule formation were significantly enhanced in RJ-treated MPDL22 cells. In addition, we investigated the effects of RJ on the production of inflammatory cytokines from MPDL22 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontopathic bacterium. RJ suppressed LPS-induced interleukin-6 and CXC chemokine ligand 10 production from MPDL22 cells. Furthermore, RJ suppressed the expression of CD54 in MPDL22 cells: CD54 is the adhesion molecule involved in the accumulation of leukocytes in periodontal lesions. These findings suggest that the osteoinductive and anti-inflammatory effects of RJ can provide benefits for the treatment and prevention of periodontal diseases. PMID:21878736

Yanagita, Manabu; Kojima, Yuko; Mori, Kenta; Yamada, Satoru; Murakami, Shinya

2011-08-01

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The Pro-Apoptotic and Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Calprotectin on Human Periodontal Ligament Cells  

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Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9) and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9) in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF?, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-?B inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis. PMID:25338166

Peng, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Lingfei; Wang, Xian'e; Wei, Shicheng; Meng, Huanxin

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Histopatologic Evaluation of the Effect of Advanced Periodontal Diseases on Pulp Tissue  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnosis of the origin of the lesions is one of the basic problems in Endo-Perio lesion. In order to prevent unnecessary and harmful treatment, the accurate diagnosis must be developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of advanced periodontal diseases on pulp tissue.Methods and materials: In this experimental study, fourty two anterior teeth were extracted from 22 patients referred to dental clinic of Isfahan university with advanced periodontal disease and 5 intact teeth as control were sectioned immediately after extraction. Teeth were fixed in 10% formalin solution. They were decalcified with Nitric Acid 10% and finally two histopathologic sections were prepared and evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by Fisher’s exact test.Results: From total of 42 teeth; 13 teeth had normal pulp (30.95%, and the other 29 teeth (69.05% had pulpal problem. The control group showed 100% normal results. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant difference between two groups.Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study it was concluded that periodontal disease can develop inflammatory lesions, atrophic and degenerative changes in pulp.

A - Moghareabed

2006-01-01

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Modeling stress-relaxation behavior of the periodontal ligament during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment.  

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The periodontal ligament is the tissue that provides early tooth motion as a result of applied forces during orthodontic treatment: a force-displacement behavior characterized by an instantaneous displacement followed by a creep phase and a stress relaxation phase. Stress relaxation behavior is that which provides the long-term loading to and causes remodelling of the alveolar bone, which is responsible for the long-term permanent displacement of the tooth. In this study, the objective was to assess six viscoelastic models to predict stress relaxation behavior of rabbit periodontal ligament (PDL). Using rabbit stress relaxation data found in the literature, it was found that the modified superposition theory (MST) model best predicts the rabbit PDL behavior as compared to nonstrain-dependent and strain-dependent versions of the Burgers four-parameter and the five-parameter viscoelastic models, as well as predictions by Schapery's viscoelastic model. Furthermore, it is established that using a quadratic form for MST strain dependency provides more stable solutions than the cubic form seen in previous studies. PMID:23722595

Romanyk, Dan L; Melenka, Garrett W; Carey, Jason P

2013-09-01

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The Study of Dose- Response Mitogenic Effect of L-dopa on the Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts Cells  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Avulsion is one of the most serious emergencies in dental office.Avulsed teeth should be stored in a medium that supports the periodontal ligament cells viability. In some clinical situations, preserving media, contained growth factors and mitogenic products may be used for repair of traumatized (Periodontal Ligament tissues. It has been previously reported that levodopa (L-dopa accelerates healing by increasing the growth hormone level.Purpose: In this study, the local effect of L-dopa, on human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF cells was evaluated.Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from impacted or semi-impacted third molar teeth, which didn’t show inflammatory reaction. The cells obtained from periodontal ligament of these teeth, were cultured in appropriate medium. The passage number between3-6 was taken for further experiments. The viability of HPLF cells, which treated, by Ldopa were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and neutral red assay.Results: Results indicate that low concentration of L-dopa produces significant increase in number of these cells in comparison with control group. These results confirmed previous study about direct action of L-dopa on the viability of HPLF cells.Conclusion: On the basis of this study and previous reports, presence of L-dopa in preserving media may be useful in increasing the self-life transferring HPLF cells.

M. Zarabian

2004-09-01

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Simvastatin induces the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells.  

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Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are considered as potential mesenchymal stem cell sources for future clinical applications in periodontal regeneration therapy. Simvastation, widely used for lowering serum cholesterol, is known to have a bone stimulatory effect. However, it is not clear whether simvastation affects the differentiation of PDLSCs. This study examined the effects of simvastatin on human PDLSCs in vitro and in vivo. Using the limiting dilution technique, human PDLSCs were isolated and expanded. PDLSCs were cultured with simvastatin (0.01-10 ?M), and the proliferation was measured. The osteogenic differentiation was characterized by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Alizarin Red-S staining for calcium deposition. The gene expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated by RT-PCR. In addition, PDLSCs were transplanted into nude mice with ceramic bovine bone powders as carriers to observe the capacity of mineralized tissue formation in vivo. Simvastatin at concentrations simvastatin, the expression of ALP, bone sialoprotein, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 genes were significantly upregulated, and the ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation were significantly higher in the simvastatin-treated cells than the control cells. In addition, the in vivo transplantation results showed that simvastatin treatment promoted the degree of mineralized tissue formation. Collectively, simvastatin has positive effects on osteogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that simvastatin might be a useful osteogenic induction agent for periodontal bone regeneration. PMID:24112098

Zhao, Bing-jiao; Liu, Yue-hua

2014-10-01

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Relaxin stimulates MMP-2 and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression by human periodontal ligament cells.  

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The main cells in the periodontal ligament (PDL) are the fibroblasts, which play an important role in periodontal remodelling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are largely responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins in the PDL. Previous studies have indicated that MMP production can be stimulated by the hormone relaxin. This hormone facilitates delivery by softening the connective tissues of the reproductive tract, and it prepares the mammary gland for lactation. Periodontal remodelling takes place during orthodontic tooth movement, which might be enhanced by relaxin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of relaxin on gelatinase expression of human PDL cells. Cultures of human PDL cells were incubated with relaxin. Gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9) expression, alpha-smooth muscle actin expression (alpha-SMA), total MMP activity and DNA content were measured. Both proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 was identified in the cultures. There was a clear trend showing a dose-dependent increase of MMP-2 production, which was significant at 250 ng/ml. Total MMP activity was not affected. A stimulation of alpha-SMA expression was found at 50 ng/ml. The results indicate that relaxin activates human PDL cells by the stimulation of MMP-2 and alpha-smooth muscle actin. PMID:17920032

Henneman, S; Bildt, M M; Degroot, J; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

2008-02-01

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Effect of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF on proliferation and differentiation of mouse periodontal ligament-derived cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background CCN2/CTGF is known to be involved in tooth germ development and periodontal tissue remodeling, as well as in mesenchymal tissue development and regeneration. In this present study, we investigated the roles of CCN2/CTGF in the proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells (murine periodontal ligament-derived cell line: MPL in vitro. Results In cell cultures of MPL, the mRNA expression of the CCN2/CTGF gene was stronger in sparse cultures than in confluent ones and was significantly enhanced by TGF-?. The addition of recombinant CCN2/CTGF (rCCN2 to MPL cultures stimulated DNA synthesis and cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, rCCN2 addition also enhanced the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALPase, type I collagen, and periostin, the latter of which is considered to be a specific marker of the periosteum and periodontium; whereas it showed little effect on the mRNA expression of typical osteoblastic markers, e.g., osteopontin and osteocalcin. Finally, rCCN2/CTGF also stimulated ALPase activity and collagen synthesis. Conclusion These results taken together suggest important roles of CCN2/CTGF in the development and regeneration of periodontal tissue including the periodontal ligament.

Sugimoto Tomosada

2005-10-01

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In Vitro Cytotoxicity of White MTA, MTA Fillapex® and Portland Cement on Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a citotoxicidade in vitro de agregado trióxido mineral (MTA) branco, MTA Fillapex® e cimento Portland (PC) em cultura de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal humano. A cultura de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal foi estabelecida e as célul [...] as foram utilizadas para os testes citotóxicos após a quarta passagem. A densidade celular foi ajustada em 1,25X10 4 células/poço em placas de 96 poços. Extratos dos materiais endodônticos foram preparados por meio da inserção de corpos de prova dos cimentos (5 X 3 mm) em 1 mL de meio de cultura durante 72 h. Os extratos foram diluídos serialmente na razão de ½ e inseridos aos poços contendo as células por 24, 48 e 72 h. Ensaio de MTT foi realizado para a avaliação da viabilidade celular. O sobrenadante das células foi testado em relação à presença de óxido nítrico utilizando o sistema de reagentes de Griess. O MTA apresentou efeito citotóxico quando o extrato era aplicado sem diluição durante 24 e 72 h. O MTA Fillapex apresentou os maiores níveis de citotoxicidade com importante redução da viabilidade celular quando o extrato foi aplicado puro e em diluições de ½ e ¼. Neste estudo, PC não induziu alterações na viabilidade de fibroblastos. Óxido nítrico foi detectado no sobrenadante de células tratadas com os extratos e ainda nos extratos somente, o que sugere a presença de nitrito no conteúdo solúvel dos materiais testados. No presente estudo, MTA Fillapex foi o material que demonstrou o maior efeito citotóxico sobre fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal seguido do MTA branco e do PC. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic tests aft [...] er the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5X3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and ¼ dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

Patrícia, Yoshino; Celso Kenji, Nishiyama; Karin Cristina da Silva, Modena; Carlos Ferreira, Santos; Carla Renata, Sipert.

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In Vitro Cytotoxicity of White MTA, MTA Fillapex® and Portland Cement on Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a citotoxicidade in vitro de agregado trióxido mineral (MTA) branco, MTA Fillapex® e cimento Portland (PC) em cultura de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal humano. A cultura de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal foi estabelecida e as célul [...] as foram utilizadas para os testes citotóxicos após a quarta passagem. A densidade celular foi ajustada em 1,25X10 4 células/poço em placas de 96 poços. Extratos dos materiais endodônticos foram preparados por meio da inserção de corpos de prova dos cimentos (5 X 3 mm) em 1 mL de meio de cultura durante 72 h. Os extratos foram diluídos serialmente na razão de ½ e inseridos aos poços contendo as células por 24, 48 e 72 h. Ensaio de MTT foi realizado para a avaliação da viabilidade celular. O sobrenadante das células foi testado em relação à presença de óxido nítrico utilizando o sistema de reagentes de Griess. O MTA apresentou efeito citotóxico quando o extrato era aplicado sem diluição durante 24 e 72 h. O MTA Fillapex apresentou os maiores níveis de citotoxicidade com importante redução da viabilidade celular quando o extrato foi aplicado puro e em diluições de ½ e ¼. Neste estudo, PC não induziu alterações na viabilidade de fibroblastos. Óxido nítrico foi detectado no sobrenadante de células tratadas com os extratos e ainda nos extratos somente, o que sugere a presença de nitrito no conteúdo solúvel dos materiais testados. No presente estudo, MTA Fillapex foi o material que demonstrou o maior efeito citotóxico sobre fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal seguido do MTA branco e do PC. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic tests aft [...] er the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5X3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and ¼ dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

Patrícia, Yoshino; Celso Kenji, Nishiyama; Karin Cristina da Silva, Modena; Carlos Ferreira, Santos; Carla Renata, Sipert.

2013-04-01

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Modificações no periodonto de ratos diabéticos após a movimentação ortodôntica Periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement in diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as modificações do ligamento periodontal de incisivos de ratos diabéticos submetidos a forças ortodônticas. MÉTODOS: vinte ratos machos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus com 105 dias de idade foram empregados. Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: C - animais normoglicêmicos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; CAO - animais normoglicêmicos submetidos à movimentação dentária; D - animais diabéticos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; DAO - animais diabéticos submetidos à movimentação dentária. Os animais permaneceram com o dispositivo de movimentação dentária por 5 dias. Foram avaliados o número de vasos sangüíneos e a espessura do ligamento periodontal nos terços cervical, médio e apical dos cortes histológicos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: no lado de tensão, a movimentação dentária nos animais do grupo CAO resultou em um ligamento periodontal mais espesso (17,64% no terço apical, 39,28% no terço médio e 51,35% na região cervical, quando comparado ao grupo C (p 0,05. Ainda no lado de tensão, foram observadas lacunas de reabsorção nos animais dos grupos CAO, D e DAO. O lado de pressão não foi examinado nesta fase do estudo.AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement of the upper incisor in diabetic rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus with 105 days of age were used. The rats were divided in four groups: C - normoglicemic animals not submitted to dental movement; CAO - normoglicemic animals submitted to dental movement; D - diabetic animals not submitted the dental movement; DAO - diabetic animals submitted to dental movement. The animals had remained with dental movement devices during 5 days. The number of sanguine vessels and the thickness of the periodontal ligament were evaluated at cervical, medium and apical histological cut regions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At tension side, the dental movement in the animals of group CAO resulted in a thicker periodontal ligament (17.64% apical, 39.28% medium, 51.35% cervical when compared to C group (p < 0.05 for medium and cervical area. Group DAO exhibited an increase of periodontal ligament thickness of 50.55% (apical, 48.14% (average and 50% (cervical when compared to group D (p < 0.05. The periodontal ligament sanguine vessels number did not differed significantly for all groups (p < 0.05. At tension side, bone reabsorption lacunae were observed in CAO, D and DAO groups. The pressure side was not examined in this study phase.

Luis Alberto Sabino Vila Real

2009-02-01

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Primary cell culture from human oral tissue: gingival keratinocytes,gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available Primary cell culture of human oral tissue has many applications for oral biology research. There are two techniques in primary culture, which includes the enzymatic and direct explant technique. The objectives of this study were (1 to isolate and investigate the difference in percentage the success in culturing three cell types from human oral tissue: gingival keratinocytes, gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts by using the direct explant technique; (2 to compare the effect of sex and age on the success of tissue culturing. Twenty seven tissue samples were obtained from healthy human gingival tissue, 19 female and 8 male patients aged 14-67 years (37.7±17.5. The tissue was cut into 1x1 mm pieces and placed on plastic culture plates containing Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 µg/ml streptomycin and 1% amphotericin B. For the keratinocytes culture, after the epithelial cells started to multiply around the gingival origin and the diameter was 2-5 mm., the fibroblasts were liminated by mechanical removal under inverted microscope to prevent fibroblast overgrowth and the medium was changed to keratinocyte-SFM (Gibco, BRL supplemented with 5 µg/ml gentamycin. The results revealed that gingival fibroblast gave the highest success rate in culture (96.3%, followed by gingival keratinocytes (88.9% and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (81.5%. There was no significant difference in the success rate of cultivation between younger and older individuals, as between sex of the subjects (p>0.05. The risk of failure in culture techniques is mainly caused by microbiological contamination from the tissue samples.

Supreya Wanichpakorn

2010-08-01

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Influence of E-smoking liquids on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Over the last years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have become more popular, particularly in individuals who want to give up smoking tobacco. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the different e-smoking liquids on the viability and proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Method and materials For this study six test solutions with components from ECs were selected: lime-, hazelnut- and menthol-flavored liquids, nicotine, propylene glycol, and PBS as control group. The fibroblasts were incubated up to 96 h with the different liquids, and cell viability was measured by using the PrestoBlue® reagent, the ATP detection and the migration assay. Fluorescence staining was carried out to visualize cell growth and morphology. Data were statistically analyzed by two-tailed one-way ANOVA. Results The cell viability assay showed that the proliferation rates of the cells incubated with nicotine or the various flavored liquids of the e-cigarettes were reduced in comparison to the controls, though not all reductions were statistically significant. After an incubation of 96 h with the menthol-flavored liquid the fibroblasts were statistically significant reduced (p?periodontal ligament fibroblasts. This might indicate that menthol additives should be avoided for e-cigarettes. PMID:25224853

2014-01-01

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Immunohistochemical Localization of Versican, Link Protein and Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein in the Human Periodontal Ligament  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to histopathologically and immunohistochemically investigate the distribution of proteoglycans in human periodontal ligament (PDL. Specimens from osteotomy and tooth extraction having healthy PDL were studied. Histologically, PDL consisted of fibrous tissues, involving a compact arrangement area and edematous or myxoid area. Immuno-histochemically, versican binding region (12C5, versican link protein (8A4 and biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein (B-HABP were distributed in PDL. In addition, positive immunore-activity for 12C5 and 8A4 was stronger in the compact arrangement area than in the edematous or myxoid area. Reactivity for B-HABP was stronger in the edematous or myxoid area than in the compact fibrous area. These results suggest that versican and link protein are associated with fibrous tissues, whereas hyaluronic acid is related to the formation of edematous and/or myxoid tissue in human PDL. These substances may play a role in periodontal homeostasis by protecting against mechanical stress.

Tadahiko Utsunomiya

2014-08-01

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Finite element simulation of the behavior of the periodontal ligament: a validated nonlinear contact model.  

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Due to its significance in tooth movement, the stress/deformation field of periodontium and the alveolar bone remodeling process, periodontal ligament (PDL) cannot be excluded from the studies investigating dental biomechanics regarding its excessive deformability. Therefore, many analytical and numerical researches are carried out to simulate its response and to create a constitutive model via experiments intending to discover the material properties of PDL. The aim of this study is to formulate a user specified contact model that can be used in conjunction with finite element (FE) software and reflects PDL's influence on neighboring structures based on the currently available information, without requiring an actual volumetric finite element mesh of ligament. The results show good agreement with available experimental tooth mobility data. Smooth stress fields are obtained on the tooth root and alveolar bone, which is a significant aspect in bone-remodeling studies. The advantage of simulating PDL as a contact model at the interface of tooth root and the alveolar process instead of a solid-meshed FE model with poor geometric morphology and/or very dense mesh is expected to save pre/post-processing workforce, to increase the accuracy and to contribute to the smoothness of interface stress distributions. PMID:25110168

Tuna, Meral; Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun

2014-09-22

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Evaluation of fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-ß expression by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to root end filling materials  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several materials have been introduced for retrograde fillings, pulp capping and sealing root perforations, but their biological effect on vital tissues and cells is not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reaction of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to four root canal filling materials: Pro Root MTA, Root MTA, Portland cement and amalgam. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, impacted or semi impacted third molar teeth were extracted in aseptic conditions and tissues around the roots were used to obtain fibroblast cell line. After proliferation, cells were cultured in chamber slides and extracts of materials were added to wells. Fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-  expression were measured by immunocytochemistry method. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.0 using one way ANOVA and Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Collagen I expression was higher in Pro Root MTA group after 24 hours (p<0.05 and in Portland cement group and positive controls after 48  hours. Portland cement group showed the highest expression of collagen after 1 week. There was no significant difference in fibronectin expression after 24 hours. After 1 week the highest expression of fibronectin was seen in Portland cement, Root MTA and Pro Root MTA groups. TGF-  expression was higher in amalgam, Root MTA and Pro Root MTA specimens after 24 hours and was the highest in Pro Root MTA group after 48 hours. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Portland cement and Root MTA are comparable with Pro Root MTA and better than amalgam regarding their effects on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

Razmi H.

2008-10-01

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Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell-adhesive molecules were covalently immobilized on a Ti surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized cell-adhesive molecules maintained native function on the Ti surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized collagen enhanced adhesion of periodontal ligament cells to the Ti. - Abstract: A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p < 0.05). HPDLCs on the Col-immobilized titanium surfaces showed more extensive expression of vinculin at the tips of cell projections and more contiguously along the cell outline than on the as-polished, GRGDS-immobilized and pFN-immobilized titanium surfaces. It was concluded that cell-adhesive molecules successfully immobilized on the titanium surface and improved the compatibility of the surface with HPDLCs. The Col-immobilized titanium surface could be used for forming ligament-like tissues around titanium dental implants.

Kado, T.; Hidaka, T. [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Aita, H. [Division of Occlusion and Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Endo, K. [Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Furuichi, Y., E-mail: furuichi@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)

2012-12-01

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Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Cell-adhesive molecules were covalently immobilized on a Ti surface. ? Immobilized cell-adhesive molecules maintained native function on the Ti surface. ? Immobilized collagen enhanced adhesion of periodontal ligament cells to the Ti. - Abstract: A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greaterrocesses that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p < 0.05). HPDLCs on the Col-immobilized titanium surfaces showed more extensive expression of vinculin at the tips of cell projections and more contiguously along the cell outline than on the as-polished, GRGDS-immobilized and pFN-immobilized titanium surfaces. It was concluded that cell-adhesive molecules successfully immobilized on the titanium surface and improved the compatibility of the surface with HPDLCs. The Col-immobilized titanium surface could be used for forming ligament-like tissues around titanium dental implants.

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Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL Induces Osteoclastogenesis of Periodontal Ligament Cells and Enhances Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-?B activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin ?1 and ?2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor ?-B ligand (RANKL) activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption. PMID:25058444

Lin, Feng-Yen; Hsiao, Fung-Ping; Huang, Chun-Yao; Shih, Chun-Ming; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Yang, Shue-Fen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Hung, Shan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Wen

2014-01-01

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An electron microscopic radioautographic study of collagen secretion in periodontal ligament fibroblasts of the mouse: I. Normal fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of electron microscopic radioautographs revealed a maximum labeling with 3H-proline of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) at 3 minutes, Golgi saccules 1 and 2 at 10 minutes, Golgi saccules type 3 at 20 minutes, and presecretory and secretory granules at 30 minutes. Labeling of the extra-cellular collagen matrix occurred at 30 minutes and increased with time. These observations suggest that pro-a-chains of collagen in periodontal ligament fibroblasts are synthesized in the RER and transported to the Golgi apparatus within 10 minutes. These chains then undergo parallel alignment in Golgi saccules type 2 and form segment-long-spacing-like crystallites in Golgi saccules type 3 between 10 and 20 minutes. The peak labeling of presecretory granules and mature secretory granules in small amounts at 30 minutes and the rapid increase in labeling of extracellular collagen matrix which begins at 30 minutes, indicates that the formation of secretory granules requires approximately 30 minutes and that a rapid system of secretory granule translocation exists in periodontal ligament fibroblasts. This evidence further supports the previously published morphologic evidence for a microtubule-dependent system of collagen secretion in periodontal ligament fibroblasts

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Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells on akermanite and ?-TCP bioceramics  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of akermanite as compared to ?-TCP on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and actin filament labeling were used to reveal attachment and growth of hPDLCs seeded on ?-TCP and akermanite ceramic. Cell proliferation was tested by lactic acid production and MTT analysis, while osteogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP expression and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis on markers of osteopontin (OPN, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein-1 (DMP-1, and osteocalcin (OCN, and further detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA analysis for OCN expression. Besides, the ions released from akermanite and their effect on hPDLCs was also measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, MTT analysis, ALP expression and real-time PCR analysis. hPDLCs attached well on both ceramics, but showed better spreading on akermanite. hPDLCs proliferated more rapidly on akermanite than ?-TCP. Importantly, osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was enhanced on akermanite compared to ?-TCP. Besides, Ca, Mg and Si ions were released from akermanite, while only Ca ions were released from ?-TCP. Moreover, more pronounced proliferation and higher osteogenic gene expression for hPDLCs cultured with akermanite extract were detected as compared to cells cultured on akermanite. Therefore, akermanite ceramic showed an enhanced effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which might be attributed to the release of ions containing Ca, Mg and Si from the material. It is suggested that akermanite ceramics may serve as a potential material for periodontal bone regeneration.

L Xia

2011-07-01

60

Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells  

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A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p adhesive molecules successfully immobilized on the titanium surface and improved the compatibility of the surface with HPDLCs. The Col-immobilized titanium surface could be used for forming ligament-like tissues around titanium dental implants.

Kado, T.; Hidaka, T.; Aita, H.; Endo, K.; Furuichi, Y.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Immunolocalization of FGF-2 and VEGF in rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi identificar a expressão do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos 2 (FGF-2) e do fator de crescimento vascular endotelial (VEGF) nos lados de tensão e pressão do ligamento periodontal de ratos, durante movimento ortodôntico experimental, em diferentes períodos d [...] e tempo. MÉTODOS: uma força ortodôntica de 0,5N foi aplicada no primeiro molar superior direito de 18 ratos Wistar machos, por períodos de 3 (grupo I), 7 (grupo II) e 14 dias (grupo III). O primeiro molar do lado oposto foi utilizado como controle. Os animais foram sacrificados nos períodos de tempo mencionados, sendo a arcada superior removida e fixada. Após a desmineralização, os espécimes foram processados histologicamente e embebidos em parafina. A expressão do FGF-2 e do VEGF foram estudadas por meio de análise imuno-histoquímica. RESULTADOS: o ligamento periodontal dos dentes submetidos à movimentação ortodôntica mostraram maior expressão tanto de FGF-2 quanto de VEGF, em todos os grupos experimentais, quando comparados com os dentes do lado controle (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This article aimed at identifying the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tension and pressure areas of rat periodontal ligament, in different periods of experimental orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: An orthodonti [...] c force of 0.5 N was applied to the upper right first molar of 18 male Wistar rats for periods of 3 (group I), 7 (group II) and 14 days (group III). The counter-side first molar was used as a control. The animals were euthanized at the aforementioned time periods, and their maxillary bone was removed and fixed. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed and embedded in paraffin. FGF-2 and VEGF expressions were studied through immunohistochemistry and morphological analysis. RESULTS: The experimental side showed a higher expression of both FGF-2 and VEGF in all groups, when compared with the control side (P

Milene Freitas Lima, Salomão; Sílvia Regina de Almeida, Reis; Vera Lúcia Costa, Vale; Cintia de Vasconcellos, Machado; Roberto, Meyer; Ivana Lucia Oliveira, Nascimento.

2014-06-01

62

Immunolocalization of FGF-2 and VEGF in rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi identificar a expressão do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos 2 (FGF-2) e do fator de crescimento vascular endotelial (VEGF) nos lados de tensão e pressão do ligamento periodontal de ratos, durante movimento ortodôntico experimental, em diferentes períodos d [...] e tempo. MÉTODOS: uma força ortodôntica de 0,5N foi aplicada no primeiro molar superior direito de 18 ratos Wistar machos, por períodos de 3 (grupo I), 7 (grupo II) e 14 dias (grupo III). O primeiro molar do lado oposto foi utilizado como controle. Os animais foram sacrificados nos períodos de tempo mencionados, sendo a arcada superior removida e fixada. Após a desmineralização, os espécimes foram processados histologicamente e embebidos em parafina. A expressão do FGF-2 e do VEGF foram estudadas por meio de análise imuno-histoquímica. RESULTADOS: o ligamento periodontal dos dentes submetidos à movimentação ortodôntica mostraram maior expressão tanto de FGF-2 quanto de VEGF, em todos os grupos experimentais, quando comparados com os dentes do lado controle (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This article aimed at identifying the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tension and pressure areas of rat periodontal ligament, in different periods of experimental orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: An orthodonti [...] c force of 0.5 N was applied to the upper right first molar of 18 male Wistar rats for periods of 3 (group I), 7 (group II) and 14 days (group III). The counter-side first molar was used as a control. The animals were euthanized at the aforementioned time periods, and their maxillary bone was removed and fixed. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed and embedded in paraffin. FGF-2 and VEGF expressions were studied through immunohistochemistry and morphological analysis. RESULTS: The experimental side showed a higher expression of both FGF-2 and VEGF in all groups, when compared with the control side (P

Milene Freitas Lima, Salomão; Sílvia Regina de Almeida, Reis; Vera Lúcia Costa, Vale; Cintia de Vasconcellos, Machado; Roberto, Meyer; Ivana Lucia Oliveira, Nascimento.

63

The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement.  

Science.gov (United States)

During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five young adult male beagle dogs were used to test the null hypothesis that the mechanical behaviour of the PDL is identical in normal and hyalinized PDL. Therefore, tooth transposition was measured after standardized force application by super-elastic nickel titanium (NiTi) coil springs, exerting a constant force of 100 cN for 5 hours in both conditions. A rapid transposition during the first few seconds was found. However, it was significantly less for hyalinized than for non-hyalinized PDL. Subsequently, a short-lived creep movement was found for hyalinized PDL, while creep persisted at the non-hyalinized sides (analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons post hoc tests). The results showed substantial biomechanical differences between hyalinized and non-hyalinized PDL at different time points (Mann-Whitney). This indicates that FE models in the study of long-term orthodontic tooth movement, which are based solely on the characteristics of normal PDL should be reconsidered. PMID:21478299

Jónsdóttir, S H; Giesen, E B W; Maltha, J C

2012-10-01

64

Mechanical Strength and Viscoelastic Response of the Periodontal Ligament in Relation to Structure  

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Full Text Available The mechanical strength of the periodontal ligament (PDL was first measured as force required to extract a tooth from its socket using human specimens. Thereafter, tooth-PDL-bone preparations have extensively been used for measurement of the mechanical response of the PDL. In vitro treatments of such specimens with specific enzymes allowed one to investigate into the roles of the structural components in the mechanical support of the PDL. The viscoelastic responses of the PDL may be examined by analysis of the stress-relaxation. Video polarised microscopy suggested that the collagen molecules and fibrils in the stretched fibre bundles progressively align along the deformation direction during the relaxation. The stress-relaxation process of the PDL can be well expressed by a function with three exponential decay terms. Analysis after in vitro digestion of the collagen fibres by collagenase revealed that the collagen fibre components may play an important role in the long-term relaxation component of the stress-relaxation process of the PDL. The dynamic measurements of the viscoelastic properties of the PDL have recently suggested that the PDL can absorb more energy in compression than in shear and tension. These viscoelastic mechanisms of the PDL tissue could reduce the risk of injury to the PDL.

Koichiro Komatsu

2010-01-01

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The Biomechanical Function of Periodontal Ligament Fibres in Orthodontic Tooth Movement  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthodontic tooth movement occurs as a result of resorption and formation of the alveolar bone due to an applied load, but the stimulus responsible for triggering orthodontic tooth movement remains the subject of debate. It has been suggested that the periodontal ligament (PDL) plays a key role. However, the mechanical function of the PDL in orthodontic tooth movement is not well understood as most mechanical models of the PDL to date have ignored the fibrous structure of the PDL. In this study we use finite element (FE) analysis to investigate the strains in the alveolar bone due to occlusal and orthodontic loads when PDL is modelled as a fibrous structure as compared to modelling PDL as a layer of solid material. The results show that the tension-only nature of the fibres essentially suspends the tooth in the tooth socket and their inclusion in FE models makes a significant difference to both the magnitude and distribution of strains produced in the surrounding bone. The results indicate that the PDL fibres have a very important role in load transfer between the teeth and alveolar bone and should be considered in FE studies investigating the biomechanics of orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:25036099

McCormack, Steven W.; Witzel, Ulrich; Watson, Peter J.; Fagan, Michael J.; Groning, Flora

2014-01-01

66

The plastic nature of the human bone-periodontal ligament-tooth fibrous joint.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates bony protrusions within a narrowed periodontal ligament space (PDL-space) of a human bone-PDL-tooth fibrous joint by mapping structural, biochemical, and mechanical heterogeneity. Higher resolution structural characterization was achieved via complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano-transmission X-ray microscopy (nano-TXM), and microtomography (MicroXCT™). Structural heterogeneity was correlated to biochemical and elemental composition, illustrated via histochemistry and microprobe X-ray fluorescence analysis (?-XRF), and mechanical heterogeneity evaluated by AFM-based nanoindentation. Results demonstrated that the narrowed PDL-space was due to invasion of bundle bone (BB) into PDL-space. Protruded BB had a wider range with higher elastic modulus values (2-8GPa) compared to lamellar bone (0.8-6GPa), and increased quantities of Ca, P and Zn as revealed by ?-XRF. Interestingly, the hygroscopic 10-30?m interface between protruded BB and lamellar bone exhibited higher X-ray attenuation similar to cement lines and lamellae within bone. Localization of the small leucine rich proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) responsible for mineralization was observed at the PDL-bone interface and around the osteocyte lacunae. Based on these results, it can be argued that the LB-BB interface was the original site of PDL attachment, and that the genesis of protruded BB identified as protrusions occurred as a result of shift in strain. We emphasize the importance of bony protrusions within the context of organ function and that additional study is warranted. PMID:24063947

Ho, Sunita P; Kurylo, Michael P; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hurng, Jonathan; Herber, Ralf-Peter; Ryder, Mark I; Altoe, Virginia; Aloni, Shaul; Feng, Jian Q; Webb, Samuel; Marshall, Grayson W; Curtis, Donald; Andrews, Joy C; Pianetta, Piero

2013-12-01

67

Effect of storage in media with different ion strengths and osmolalities on human periodontal ligament cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is critical for a successful healing of replanted exarticulated teeth. It is mainly dependent on the duration of the extra-alveolar time and the storage medium. Saliva has usually been recommended as the most suitable storage medium, but recent experimental studies indicate that milk is preferable. In the present study the effect on cultured PDL cells of saliva and milk has been compared with some reference media such as tap water or saline by means of a 3H-uridine leakage test. Storage in milk or saline was found to cause much less 3H-uridine leakage than storage in saliva or tap water. Cells stored in milk for 60-180 min showed about the same leakage as cells stored in saline or Hanks' balanced salt solution. Osmolality measurements showed that saliva was hypotonic, while the osmolality of milk ranged within physiological limits. When the osmolality of saliva was increased by addition of NaCl the leakage of the stored cells decreased to the level of cells stored in 0.9% NaCl or milk. (author)

68

Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here we investigate the influences of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a non-thermal plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications. (paper)

69

Expression and effects of epidermal growth factor on human periodontal ligament cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repair of damaged periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue is an essential challenge in tooth preservation. Various researchers have attempted to develop efficient therapies for healing and regenerating PDL tissue based on tissue engineering methods focused on targeting signaling molecules in PDL stem cells and other mesenchymal stem cells. In this context, we investigated the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in normal and surgically wounded PDL tissues and its effect on chemotaxis and expression of osteoinductive and angiogenic factors in human PDL cells (HPDLCs). EGF as well as EGF receptor (EGFR) expression was observed in HPDLCs and entire PDL tissue. In a PDL tissue-injured model of rat, EGF and IL-1? were found to be upregulated in a perilesional pattern. Interleukin-1? induced EGF expression in HPDLCs but not EGFR. It also increased transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) expression. Transwell assays demonstrated the chemotactic activity of EGF on HPDLCs. In addition, EGF treatment significantly induced secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and gene expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and early growth response-1 and -2 (EGR-1/2). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells developed well-formed tube networks when cultured with the supernatant of EGF-treated HPDLCs. These results indicated that EGF upregulated under inflammatory conditions plays roles in the repair of wounded PDL tissue, suggesting its function as a prospective agent to allow the healing and regeneration of this tissue. PMID:24850273

Teramatsu, Yoko; Maeda, Hidefumi; Sugii, Hideki; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Hamano, Sayuri; Wada, Naohisa; Yuda, Asuka; Yamamoto, Naohide; Koori, Katsuaki; Akamine, Akifumi

2014-09-01

70

Biological behavior of neurally differentiated periodontal ligament stem cells on different titanium implant surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the biological behavior of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) induced to differentiate into Schwann cells (SCs) on the surfaces of titanium discs. Two types of titanium surfaces, sand blasted and acid etched (SA) and smooth polished, were prepared on titanium discs, and the behavior of SC-like cells on these discs was investigated. Cell morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and cell proliferation was assessed using assays for methylthiazol tetrazolium metabolism and total protein content. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses were used to determine the gene and protein expression, respectively, of SC markers by PDLSCs. Differentiated PDLSCs could adhere, proliferate, differentiate, and express SC marker genes and proteins on the prepared titanium surfaces, and the highest levels of SC marker protein expression were observed in PDLSCs on SA titanium surfaces. SA titanium surfaces show good biocompatibility for the SC-like cells, which is important for the application of these cells in peri-implant nerve tissue engineering, through which they are expected to improve the osseoperception of dental implants. PMID:24124075

Li, Xiaojie; Liao, Dapeng; Gong, Ping; Dong, Yan; Sun, Gang

2014-08-01

71

Effects of icariin on the alkline phosphatase activity of human periodontal ligament cells inhibited by lipopolysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Icariin (ICA), a flavanoid isolated from herbal Epimedium, has multiple biological activities. The present study investigated the effects of ICA on the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (an index for PDLC differentiation) of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). hPDLCs were cultured in vitro and stimulated with various concentrations of ICA. The proliferation ability of hPDLCs was detected by an MTT assay. The activity of ALP was determined by the p-Nitrophenyl phosphate method, and the expression of ALP was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. ICA exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the proliferation of hPDLCs in a suitable concentration range, from 10-6 to 10-8 mol/l, and with a mediate optimal concentration (10-6 mol/l). The alkaline phosphatase activity was markedly inhibited in 10 µg/ml LPS-treated PDLCs and this inhibition was suppressed in the presence of icariin at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L following prolonged treatment (96 h). Therefore, this study provided insight into the use of ICA for periapical tissue regeneration. PMID:24042495

Lv, Xue-Chao; Bi, Liang-Jia; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Xiang

2013-11-01

72

Expresión de la osteocalcina en el ligamento periodontal al inducir fuerzas ortodóncicas / Osteocalcin expression in periodontal ligament when inducing orthodontic forces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La osteocalcina es una proteína no colágena presente en hueso alveolar, cemento radicular y subpoblaciones del ligamento periodontal. Esta proteína juega un papel importante en la biomineralización y en la matriz extracelular regulando la maduración de los cristales de hidroxiapatita y en el recluta [...] miento de los osteoclastos participando en la remodelación ósea. La remodelación y la nueva formación de tejido periodontal es parte esencial durante los movimientos ortodóncicos, los cuales al aplicar fuerzas causan tensión en las células provocando una adaptación que se traduce en respuestas celulares y moleculares que pueden afectar la matriz extracelular. Por ello, el propósito de esta investigación fue determinar la expresión de la osteocalcina asociada a la remodelación periodontal cuando se aplican fuerzas ortodóncicas. En primeros premolares superiores e inferiores se colocó aparatología fija prescripción Roth 0.022 con un arco NiTi 0.016, la cual se aplicó a todos los dientes de ambas arcadas con excepción de los premolares superiores e inferiores izquierdos. Los premolares sin aparatología (t = 0) y en presencia de aparatología para inducir movimientos ortodóncicos durante 1, 3, 5, 7 y 9 días; fueron extraídos para analizar la expresión de la osteocalcina en la matriz extracelular del ligamento periodontal. Para determinar la expresión temporal y espacial de los mensajeros de la osteocalcina en el ligamento periodontal se llevó a cabo la técnica RT-PCR. La expresión de la osteocalcina en el grupo experimental estuvo presente en todos los días de prueba, sugiriendo que los movimientos ortodónticos generan cambios que son susceptibles en las concentraciones del mensajero de la proteína osteocalcina. Abstract in english Osteocalcin is a non-collagenous protein located in alveolar bone, root cementum and subpopulations of periodontal ligament cells. This protein plays an important role in the biomineralization process and in the extra-cellular matrix, regulating maturation of hydroxyapatite and osteoclast recruitmen [...] t which participate in bone remodeling. Periodontal tissue new formation and remodeling is a vital part of the process during orthodontic movements. These movements, when force is exerted, cause tension in the cells, provoking adaptation which results in molecular and cellular responses which, in turn, can affect the extracellular matrix. Due to the aforementioned facts, the aim of the present research was to determine osteocalcin expression associated to periodontal remodeling when orthodontic forces are applied. Roth 0.022 " fixed brackets with a NiTi 0.016" archwire were applied to first upper and lower bicuspids. This was applied to all teeth of both arches except to left lower and upper bicuspids. Bicuspids without brackets (t = 0) as well as with brackets to elicit orthodontic movements during 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days were extracted to assess osteocalcin expression in the extra-cellular matrix of the periodontal ligament. The RT-PCR technique was followed to determine temporal and spatial expression of osteocalcin messengers. Osteocalcin expression in the experimental group was present in all test days, suggesting thus the fact that orthodontic movements elicit changes that are susceptible in osteocalcin protein messenger concentrations.

Maritere, Villarreal Brito; Marco Antonio, Álvarez Pérez; Francisco Javier, Marichi Rodríguez.

73

Expresión de la osteocalcina en el ligamento periodontal al inducir fuerzas ortodóncicas / Osteocalcin expression in periodontal ligament when inducing orthodontic forces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La osteocalcina es una proteína no colágena presente en hueso alveolar, cemento radicular y subpoblaciones del ligamento periodontal. Esta proteína juega un papel importante en la biomineralización y en la matriz extracelular regulando la maduración de los cristales de hidroxiapatita y en el recluta [...] miento de los osteoclastos participando en la remodelación ósea. La remodelación y la nueva formación de tejido periodontal es parte esencial durante los movimientos ortodóncicos, los cuales al aplicar fuerzas causan tensión en las células provocando una adaptación que se traduce en respuestas celulares y moleculares que pueden afectar la matriz extracelular. Por ello, el propósito de esta investigación fue determinar la expresión de la osteocalcina asociada a la remodelación periodontal cuando se aplican fuerzas ortodóncicas. En primeros premolares superiores e inferiores se colocó aparatología fija prescripción Roth 0.022 con un arco NiTi 0.016, la cual se aplicó a todos los dientes de ambas arcadas con excepción de los premolares superiores e inferiores izquierdos. Los premolares sin aparatología (t = 0) y en presencia de aparatología para inducir movimientos ortodóncicos durante 1, 3, 5, 7 y 9 días; fueron extraídos para analizar la expresión de la osteocalcina en la matriz extracelular del ligamento periodontal. Para determinar la expresión temporal y espacial de los mensajeros de la osteocalcina en el ligamento periodontal se llevó a cabo la técnica RT-PCR. La expresión de la osteocalcina en el grupo experimental estuvo presente en todos los días de prueba, sugiriendo que los movimientos ortodónticos generan cambios que son susceptibles en las concentraciones del mensajero de la proteína osteocalcina. Abstract in english Osteocalcin is a non-collagenous protein located in alveolar bone, root cementum and subpopulations of periodontal ligament cells. This protein plays an important role in the biomineralization process and in the extra-cellular matrix, regulating maturation of hydroxyapatite and osteoclast recruitmen [...] t which participate in bone remodeling. Periodontal tissue new formation and remodeling is a vital part of the process during orthodontic movements. These movements, when force is exerted, cause tension in the cells, provoking adaptation which results in molecular and cellular responses which, in turn, can affect the extracellular matrix. Due to the aforementioned facts, the aim of the present research was to determine osteocalcin expression associated to periodontal remodeling when orthodontic forces are applied. Roth 0.022 " fixed brackets with a NiTi 0.016" archwire were applied to first upper and lower bicuspids. This was applied to all teeth of both arches except to left lower and upper bicuspids. Bicuspids without brackets (t = 0) as well as with brackets to elicit orthodontic movements during 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days were extracted to assess osteocalcin expression in the extra-cellular matrix of the periodontal ligament. The RT-PCR technique was followed to determine temporal and spatial expression of osteocalcin messengers. Osteocalcin expression in the experimental group was present in all test days, suggesting thus the fact that orthodontic movements elicit changes that are susceptible in osteocalcin protein messenger concentrations.

Maritere, Villarreal Brito; Marco Antonio, Álvarez Pérez; Francisco Javier, Marichi Rodríguez.

2013-09-01

74

Biomechanical time dependency of the periodontal ligament: a combined experimental and numerical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of the non-linear and time-dependent viscoelasticity of the periodontal ligament (PDL) enables a better understanding of the biomechanical features of the key regulator tissue for tooth movement. This is of great significance in the field of orthodontics as targeted tooth movement remains still one of the main goals to accomplish. The investigation of biomechanical aspects of the PDL function, a difficult area of research, helps towards this direction. After analysing the time-dependent biomechanical properties of pig PDL specimens in an in vitro experimental study, it was possible to confirm that PDL has a viscoelastic anisotropic behaviour. Three-dimensional finite element models of mini-pig mandibular premolars with surrounding tissues were developed, based on micro-computed tomography (?CT) data of the experimental specimens. Tooth mobility was numerically analysed under the same force systems as used in the experiment. A bilinear material parameter set was assumed to simulate tooth displacements. The numerical force/displacement curves were fitted to the experimental curves by repeatedly calculating tooth displacements of 0.2mm varying the loading velocities and the parameters, which describe the nonlinearity. The experimental results showed a good agreement with the numerical calculations. Mean values of Young's moduli E1, E2 and ultimate strain ?12 were derived for the elastic behaviour of the PDL for all loading velocities. E1 and E2 values increased with increasing the velocity, while ?12 remained relatively stable. A bilinear approximation of material properties of the PDL is a suitable description of measured force/displacement diagrams. The numerical results can be used to describe mechanical processes, especially stress-strain distributions in the PDL, accurately. Further development of suitable modelling assumptions for the response of PDL under load would be instrumental to orthodontists and engineers for designing more predictable orthodontic force systems and appliances. PMID:23314330

Papadopoulou, Konstantina; Hasan, Istabrak; Keilig, Ludger; Reimann, Susanne; Eliades, Theodore; Jäger, Andreas; Deschner, James; Bourauel, Christoph

2013-12-01

75

[The expression of transcription factor Osterix in human periodontal ligament cells].  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal ligament (PDL) has a heterogeneous cell population, where some of the cells may be capable of differentiating into either cementoblasts or osteoblasts. Recently, C 2 H 2 zinc finger transcription factor Osterix has been reported. Osterix is one of the master regulators of bone cell differentiation and it has two different isoforms. According to a recent report, osteogenic differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells can be induced by overexpression of Osterix. The purpose of this study was to investigate about the expression of Osterix on human PDL (hPDL), and whether the osteogenic differentiation of hPDL cells can be induced by overexpression of Osterix. hPDL cells were obtained from healthy human teeth indicated for extraction for orthodontic treatment. All procedure used in this study was approved by the local ethical committee of Tokyo Medical and Dental University. To investigate expression of Osterix mRNA in hPDL tissues and cells, RT-PCR experiments were performed. Two different isoform Osterix expression vectors were made and transiently transfected into hPDL cells. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by RT-PCR for genes associated with the osteoblast lineage such as Osteopontin, Osteocalcin, and Bone Sialoprotein. RT-PCR analyses showed that osterix mRNA was expressed in both hPDL tissue and cells. The expression of Osterix short isoform was higher than that of the long isoform. Overexpression of Osterix induced upregulated expression of Bone Sialoprotein mRNA. In expression levels of Osteopontin and Osteocalcin mRNA, compared to the control, no difference was observed. In conclusion, Osterix plays important roles in the osteoblastic differentiation in hPDL cells and modulates the mineralization. PMID:16629472

Ueda-Maeda, Mamiko

2006-03-01

76

Cytotoxic effects of four different endodontic materials in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity, induced apoptosis and/or necrosis, and apoptotic mechanisms in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts treated with four different endodontic materials: White ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (MTA/Dentsply; Tulsa Dental, Memphis, TN), Diaket (ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), Endion (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), and CYMED 8410 (NANO, Kaohsiung, Taiwan). The effects of these four materials on the viability of PDL fibroblasts were determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-SH-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Apoptotic pathways were evaluated via several mechanisms. Exposure to MTA for 24, 48, and 72 hours resulted in no significant differences in MTT reduction and viable cell number compared with controls. However, treatment of PDL fibroblasts with Diaket, Endion, and CYMED 8410 for 24, 48, and 72 hours resulted in cytotoxicity with MTT and a reduction of viable cell number with trypan blue dye exclusion test compared with controls (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that Diaket, Endion, and CYMED 8410 induced higher percentages of apoptosis and/or necrosis than in controls (45.6%, 25.5%, and 6.3%, respectively). Results of cell-cycle analyses were concordant with annexin V-FITC/PI staining findings. These results suggest that MTA is a very biocompatible filling material. However, Diaket, Endion, and CYMED 8410 are toxic to PDL fibroblasts in vitro. The main form of cell death induced by these filling materials was determined to be apoptosis and/or necrosis. PMID:18037057

Gorduysus, Melahat; Avcu, Nihal; Gorduysus, Omer; Pekel, Aysel; Baran, Yusuf; Avcu, Ferit; Ural, Ali Ugur

2007-12-01

77

Expression of Osterix in mechanical stress-induced osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osterix (Osx) is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor required for the differentiation of pre-osteoblasts into functional osteoblasts. This study sought to examine the changes of Osx expression in periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) subjected to mechanical force, and to investigate whether Osx is involved in the mechanical stress-induced differentiation of PDLC. Human PDLC were exposed to centrifugal force for 1-12 h. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot, and immunofluorescence assays were used to examine the mRNA and protein expression of Osx and its subcellular localization. Furthermore, PDLC were transfected with the expression vector pcDNA3.1 flag-Osx and subjected to mechanical force for 6 h. The changes in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and in the expression of core-binding factor alpha1 (Cbfa1), ALP, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and collagen I were measured. After the application of mechanical force, Osx was upregulated in a time-dependent manner at both mRNA and protein levels, and Osx protein was translocated from the cytosol into the cell nuclei. Overexpression of Osx did not affect the expression of Cbfa1, but it significantly enhanced the ALP activity and the mRNA expression of all the aforementioned osteogenic marker genes, all of which increased further under mechanical stress. These results suggest that Osx might play an important role in the mechanical stress-induced osteogenic differentiation of PDLC and therefore be involved in alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic therapy. PMID:18471237

Zhao, Yanhong; Wang, Chunling; Li, Shu; Song, Hui; Wei, Fulan; Pan, Keqing; Zhu, Kun; Yang, Pishan; Tu, Qisheng; Chen, Jake

2008-06-01

78

Effect of icariin on cell proliferation and the expression of bone resorption/formation-related markers in human periodontal ligament cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontitis is a common destructive inflammatory disease that leads to changes in the tooth-supporting tissues. Human periodontal ligament cells are essential in periodontal tissue regeneration. The traditional Chinese medicine icariin promoted bone formation, stimulated the osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblastic cells and inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Thus, in the present study, the effect of icariin on cell proliferation and the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL), core binding factor ?1 (Cbfa1) and osteocalcin (OC) was investigated in human periodontal ligament cells, by an MTT assay, qPCR and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that icariin promoted cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, upregulated OPG, Cbfa1 and OC expression, and downregulated RANKL production and the RANKL/OPG expression ratio. This suggested the potential value of icariin in treating alveolar bone resorption and promoting periodontal tissue regeneration, due to its ability to stimulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells and inhibit osteoclast differentiation. PMID:24065204

Pei, Zhenhua; Zhang, Fengqiu; Niu, Zhongying; Shi, Shenggen

2013-11-01

79

Gene-enhanced tissue engineering for dental hard tissue regeneration: (2) dentin-pulp and periodontal regeneration  

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Abstract Potential applications for gene-based tissue engineering therapies in the oral and maxillofacial complex include the delivery of growth factors for periodontal regeneration, pulp capping/dentin regeneration, and bone grafting of large osseous defects in dental and craniofacial reconstruction. Part 1 reviewed the principals of gene-enhanced tissue engineering and the techniques of introducing DNA into cells. This manuscript will review recent advances in gene-based th...

Mason James M; Edwards Paul C

2006-01-01

80

Rendimento de células mesenquimais do ligamento periodontal humano submetidas a diferentes protocolos de criopreservação / Yield of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal cells under different protocols of cryopreservation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A técnica de criopreservação tem como característica cessar reversivelmente todas as funções biológicas dos tecidos vivos em baixas temperaturas e tem sido aplicada a diversas células humanas, visando à sua utilização posterior. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a proliferação de células mesenquimais do [...] ligamento periodontal humano após a criopreservação por dois diferentes protocolos. MÉTODO: As células do ligamento periodontal foram obtidas a partir de dois dentes (terceiros molares) hígidos, com indicação de remoção cirúrgica. Após o processamento, as células foram cultivadas em placas de Petri e mantidas a 37 °C em 5% de CO2, até atingirem 70-90% de confluência, com troca de meio a cada três dias. Na primeira passagem, as células foram divididas em dois grupos e criopreservadas: Grupo -80 °C - criopreservação em ultrafreezer por 45 dias; Grupo -196 °C - criopreservação em nitrogênio líquido por 45 dias. Decorrido esse tempo, as células dos dois grupos foram descongeladas e plaqueadas para o experimento. A curva de crescimento dos grupos estudados foi traçada a partir de contagem em Câmara de Neubauer e pelo método de ensaio do MTT, nos intervalos de 24, 48 e 72 horas. Os resultados foram analisados por meio do teste de Mann?Whitney, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADO: Verificou-se um crescimento ascendente nos dois protocolos utilizados, porém uma maior taxa proliferativa foi verificada no grupo criopreservado em nitrogênio líquido (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Cryopreservation aims to stop reversibly the biological functions of living tissues at low temperatures, and is an important resource for the storage of human cells for later use. AIM: To assess the proliferation of mesenchymal cells from human periodontal ligament cryopreserved by two [...] different protocols. METHOD: Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from third molars with an indication for surgical removal. After processing, cells were grown and maintained at 37 °C in 5% CO2 until they reached 70-90% confluency, with medium changing every three days. In the first passage cells were divided into two groups, according to the protocol used: Group -80 °C - cryopreserved in ultrafreezer for 45 days, Group -196 °C - cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for 45 days. After this time, cells from both groups were thawed and plated for the experiment. The growth curve of the groups was drawn from counting cells in a Neubauer chamber and by the MTT assay method, in the intervals of 24, 48 and 72 hours. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test with a significance level of 5%. RESULT: There was an upward cell growth in both protocols used, but a higher proliferative rate was observed in group cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (p

Diego Moura, Soares; Fernanda, Ginani; Carlos Augusto Galvão, Barboza.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

"THE STUDY OF DOSE-RESPONSE MITOGENIC EFFECT OF L-DOPA ON THE HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLAST CELLS"  

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Full Text Available Avulsion is one of the most serious emergencies in dental office. In the event of any problem, the tooth should be stored in a medium that supports the periodontal ligament cell viability. In other clinical situations, preserving media, growth factors and mitogenic products may be useful in repairing the traumatized tissues. It has been previously reported that levodopa (L-dopa accelerates healing by increasing the growth hormone level. In this study, the local effect of L-dopa, as a mitogen, on human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF cells was evaluated. Samples from impacted or semiimpacted wisdom or canine teeth, which were devoid of inflammation, were taken. The cells obtained from this tissue were cultured in an appropriate medium. The passage numbers between 3-6 were taken for further experiments. The viability of HPLF cells, which were treated by L-dopa, was evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and neutral red assay. Results indicated that low concentration of L-dopa produces significant increase of these cells compared to control group. These results confirmed previous studies about direct action of L- dopa on the viability of HPLF cells. On the basis of this study and previous reports, presence of L-dopa in preserving media may be useful in increasing the self-life transferring HPLF cells.

M. Zarabian

2004-10-01

82

Senescent human periodontal ligament fibroblasts after replicative exhaustion or ionizing radiation have a decreased capacity towards osteoblastic differentiation.  

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Loss of teeth increases with age or after genotoxic treatments, like head and neck radiotherapy, due to periodontium breakdown. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts represent the main cell type in this tissue and are crucial for the maintenance of homeodynamics and for its regeneration. Here, we have studied the characteristics of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLF) that became senescent after replicative exhaustion or after exposure to ionizing radiation, as well as their ability for osteoblastic differentiation. We found that senescent hPDLF express classical markers of senescence, as well as a catabolic phenotype, as shown by the decrease in collagen type I and the increase of MMP-2 expression. In addition, we observed a considerably decreased expression of the major transcription factor for osteoblastic differentiation, i.e. Runx2, a down-regulation which was found to be p53-dependent. In accordance to the above, senescent cells have a significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase gene expression and activity, as well as a reduced ability for osteoblastic differentiation, as found by Alizarin Red staining. Interestingly, cells from both type of senescence express similar characteristics, implying analogous functions in vivo. In conclusion, senescent hPDLF express a catabolic phenotype and express a significantly decreased ability towards an osteoblastic differentiation, thus probably affecting tissue development and integrity. PMID:23934584

Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulou, Adamantia; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore; Basdra, Efthimia K; Kletsas, Dimitris

2013-12-01

83

Co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells enhances osteogenic gene expression in de-differentiated fat cells.  

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In recent decades, de-differentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) have emerged in regenerative medicine because of their trans-differentiation capability and the fact that their characteristics are similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Even so, there is no evidence to support the osteogenic induction using DFAT cells in periodontal regeneration and also the co-culture system. Consequently, this study sought to evaluate the DFAT cells co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro in terms of gene expression by comparing runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR?2) genes. We isolated DFAT cells from mature adipocytes and compared proliferation with PDLSCs. After co-culture with PDLSCs, we analyzed transcriptional activity implying by DNA methylation in all adipogenic gene promoters using combined bisulfite restriction analysis. We compared gene expression in RUNX2 gene with the PPAR?2 gene using quantitative RT-PCR. After being sub-cultured, DFAT cells demonstrated morphology similar to fibroblast-like cells. At the same time, PDLSCs established all stem cell characteristics. Interestingly, the co-culture system attenuated proliferation while enhancing osteogenic gene expression in RUNX2 gene. Using the co-culture system, DFAT cells could trans-differentiate into osteogenic lineage enhancing, but conversely, their adipogenic characteristic diminished. Therefore, DFAT cells and the co-culture system might be a novel cell-based therapy for promoting osteogenic differentiation in periodontal regeneration. PMID:24573839

Tansriratanawong, Kallapat; Tamaki, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Soh

2014-10-01

84

Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate  

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Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry. PMID:24959181

Saeki, Katsura; Shiono, Yasuhiro; Maki, Kenshi

2014-01-01

85

Bone morphogenetic protein-2, -6, and -7 differently regulate osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells.  

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The utility of adult stem cells for bone regeneration may be an attractive alternative in the treatment of extensive injury, congenital malformations, or diseases causing large bone defects. To create an environment that is supportive of bone formation, signals from molecules such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are required to engineer fully viable and functional bone. We therefore determined whether BMP-2, -6, and -7 differentially regulate the (1) proliferation, (2) mineralization, and (3) mRNA expression of bone/mineralized tissue associated genes of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), which were obtained from periodontal ligament tissue of human impacted third molars. hPDLSCs from six participants were isolated and characterized using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. A real-time cell analyzer was used to evaluate the effects of BMP-2, -6, and -7 on the proliferation of hPDLSCs. hPDLSCs were treated with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing different concentrations of BMP-2, -6, and -7 (10, 25, 50, 100 ng/mL) and monitored for 264 hours. After dose-response experiments, 50 and 100 ng/mL concentrations of BMPs were used to measure bone/mineralized tissue-associated gene expression. Type I collagen, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2 mRNA expression of hPDLSCs treated with BMP-2, -6, and -7, were evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. Biomineralization of hPDLSCs was assessed using von Kossa staining. This study demonstrated that BMPs at various concentrations differently regulate the proliferation, mineralization, and mRNA expression of bone/mineralized tissue associated genes in hPDLSCs. BMPs regulate hPDLSC proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner when compared to an untreated control group. BMPs induced bone/mineralized tissue-associated gene mRNA expression and biomineralization of hPDLSCs. The most pronounced induction occurred in the BMP-6 group in the biomineralization of the hPDLSCs. Our data suggest that BMP-2, -6, and -7 are potent regulators of hPDLSC gene expression and biomineralization. Employing BMPs with hPDLSCs isolated from periodontal ligament tissues provides a promising strategy for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23853066

Hakki, Sema S; Bozkurt, Buket; Hakki, Erdogan E; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Turac, Gizem; Yilmaz, Irem; Karaoz, Erdal

2014-01-01

86

Effect of the simulated periodontal ligament on cast post-and-core removal using an ultrasonic device  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simulated periodontal ligament (SPDL) on custom cast dowel and core removal by ultrasonic vibration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two human maxillary canines were included in resin cylinders with or without SPDL made from polyet [...] her impression material. In order to allow tensile testing, the roots included in resin cylinders with SPDL were fixed to cylinders with two stainless steel wires. Post-holes were prepared by standardizing the length at 8 mm and root canal impressions were made with self-cured resin acrylic. Cast dowel and core sets were fabricated and luted with Panavia F resin cement. Half of the samples were submitted to ultrasonic vibration before the tensile test. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (p

Manoel, Brito-Junior; Neilor Mateus Antunes, Braga; Danilo Costa, Rodrigues; Carla Cristina, Camilo; André Luis, Faria-e-Silva.

2010-10-01

87

Effect of the simulated periodontal ligament on cast post-and-core removal using an ultrasonic device  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simulated periodontal ligament (SPDL) on custom cast dowel and core removal by ultrasonic vibration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two human maxillary canines were included in resin cylinders with or without SPDL made from polyet [...] her impression material. In order to allow tensile testing, the roots included in resin cylinders with SPDL were fixed to cylinders with two stainless steel wires. Post-holes were prepared by standardizing the length at 8 mm and root canal impressions were made with self-cured resin acrylic. Cast dowel and core sets were fabricated and luted with Panavia F resin cement. Half of the samples were submitted to ultrasonic vibration before the tensile test. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (p

Manoel, Brito-Junior; Neilor Mateus Antunes, Braga; Danilo Costa, Rodrigues; Carla Cristina, Camilo; André Luis, Faria-e-Silva.

88

Isolation and characterization of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from the gingiva and the periodontal ligament of the horse  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine periodontium provides tooth support and lifelong tooth eruption on a remarkable scale. These functions require continuous tissue remodeling. It is assumed that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC reside in the periodontal ligament (PDL and play a crucial role in regulating physiological periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize equine periodontal MSC. Tissue samples were obtained from four healthy horses. Primary cell populations were har-vested and cultured from the gingiva, from three horizontal levels of the PDL (apical, midtooth and subgingival and for comparison purposes from the subcutis (masseteric region. Colony-forming cells were grown on uncoated culture dishes and typical in vitro characteristics of non-human MSC, i.e. self-renewal capacity, population doubling time, expression of stemness markers and trilineage differentiation were analyzed. Results Colony-forming cell populations from all locations showed expression of the stemness markers CD90 and CD105. In vitro self-renewal capacity was demonstrated by colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F assays. CFU-efficiency was highest in cell populations from the apical and from the mid-tooth PDL. Population doubling time was highest in subcutaneous cells. All investigated cell populations possessed trilineage differentiation potential into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Conclusions Due to the demonstrated in vitro characteristics cells were referred to as equine subcutaneous MSC (eSc-MSC, equine gingival MSC (eG-MSC and equine periodontal MSC (eP-MSC. According to different PDL levels, eP-MSC were further specified as eP-MSC from the apical PDL (eP-MSCap, eP-MSC from the mid-tooth PDL (eP-MSCm and eP-MSC from the subgingival PDL (eP-MSCsg. Considering current concepts of cell-based regenerative therapies in horses, eP-MSC might be promising candidates for future clinical applications in equine orthopedic and periodontal diseases.

Pfarrer Christiane

2011-08-01

89

The stimulation of proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells by the ionic products from Ca7Si2P2O16 bioceramics.  

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The ultimate goal of periodontal tissue engineering is to produce predictable regeneration of alveolar bone, root cementum, and periodontal ligament, which are lost as a result of periodontal diseases. To achieve this goal, it is of great importance to develop novel bioactive materials which could stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic/cementogenic gene expression of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) for periodontal regeneration. In this study, we synthesized novel Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) ceramic powders for the first time by the sol-gel method and investigated the biological performance of PDLCs after exposure to different concentrations of Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) extracts. The original extracts were prepared at 200 mg ml(-1) and further diluted with serum-free cell culture medium to obtain a series of diluted extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg ml(-1)). Proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Ca deposition, and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression (ALP, Col I, Runx2 and CEMP1) were assayed for PDLCs on days 7 and 14. The results showed that the ionic products from Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders significantly stimulated the proliferation, ALP activity, Ca deposition and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression of PDLCs. In addition, it was found that Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders had excellent apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluids. This study demonstrated that Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders with such a specific composition possess the ability to stimulate the PDLC proliferation and osteoblast/cemenoblast-like cell differentiation, indicating that they are a promising bioactive material for periodontal tissue regeneration application. PMID:22409874

Zhou, Yinghong; Wu, Chengtie; Xiao, Yin

2012-07-01

90

The ionic products of bioactive glass particle dissolution enhance periodontal ligament fibroblast osteocalcin expression and enhance early mineralized tissue development.  

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This study resulted in enhanced collagen type 1 and osteocalcin expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLF) when exposed to bioactive glass conditioned media that subsequently may promote early mineralized tissue development. Commercial Bioglass™ (45S5) and experimental bioactive coating glass (6P53-b), were used to make a glass conditioned media (GCM) for comparison to control medium. ICP-MS analysis showed increased concentrations of Ca(2+), PO(4) (3-), Si(4+), and Na(+), for 45S5 GCM and Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), Si(4+), and Na(+) for 6P53-b GCM (relative to control medium). Differentiating hPDLF cultures exposed to 45S5 and 6P53-b GCM showed enhanced expression of collagen type 1 (Col1?1, Col1?2), osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. These GCM also enhanced osteocalcin protein expression. After 16 d of culture, 45S5 and 6P53-b GCM treated cells showed regions of deep red Alizarin staining, indicating increased Ca within their respective extracellular matrices (ECM), while control-treated cells did not exhibit these features. SEM analysis showed more developed ECM in GCM treated cultures, indicated by multiple tissue layering and abundant collagen fiber bundle formation, while control treated cells did not exhibit these features. SEM analysis showed polygonal structures suggestive of CaP in 45S5 GCM treated cultures. These results indicate the osteogenic potential of bioactive coating glass in periodontal bone defect filling applications. PMID:21548068

Varanasi, Venu G; Owyoung, Jeremy B; Saiz, Eduardo; Marshall, Sally J; Marshall, Grayson W; Loomer, Peter M

2011-08-01

91

Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests / Influência do material de inclusão e da simulação do ligamento periodontal nos ensaios de resistência à fratura  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do material de inclusão e da simulação de ligamento periodontal na resistência à fratura de dentes bovinos. Oitenta incisivos bovinos foram divididos em 8 grupos (n = 10) e, então, incluídos em cilindros com dois materiais, resina acrílica ou resina d [...] e poliestireno, usando-se quatro tipos de simulação do ligamento periodontal: 1 - ausência do ligamento; 2 - material de moldagem à base de poliéter; 3 - material de moldagem à base de polissulfeto; e 4 - material elastomérico à base de poliuretano. As amostras foram armazenadas em 100% de umidade a 37°C por 24 horas e então submetidas a carregamento tangencial na superfície palatina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/minuto até a fratura. Os padrões de fratura foram analisados de acordo com: 1 - fraturas coronais; 2 - fratura da junção esmalte-cemento; 3 - fratura parcial da raiz; 4 - fratura radicular total. A análise estatística empregou análise de variância fatorial e teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance of bovine teeth. Eighty bovine incisor teeth were randomized into 8 groups (n = 10), embedded in acrylic or polystyrene resin using 4 types of periodontal ligament [...] simulation: 1 - absence of the ligament; 2 - polyether impression material; 3 - polysulfide impression material; 4 - polyurethane elastomeric material. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 hours. Specimens were submitted to tangential load on the palatal surface at 0.5 mm/minute crosshead speed until fracture. The fracture modes were analyzed as follows: 1 - coronal fracture; 2 - cemento-enamel junction fracture; 3 - partial root fracture; 4 - total root fracture. Statistical analyses by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied (p

Carlos José, Soares; Eliane Cristina Gava, Pizi; Rodrigo Borges, Fonseca; Luis Roberto Marcondes, Martins.

2005-03-01

92

Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests / Influência do material de inclusão e da simulação do ligamento periodontal nos ensaios de resistência à fratura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do material de inclusão e da simulação de ligamento periodontal na resistência à fratura de dentes bovinos. Oitenta incisivos bovinos foram divididos em 8 grupos (n = 10) e, então, incluídos em cilindros com dois materiais, resina acrílica ou resina d [...] e poliestireno, usando-se quatro tipos de simulação do ligamento periodontal: 1 - ausência do ligamento; 2 - material de moldagem à base de poliéter; 3 - material de moldagem à base de polissulfeto; e 4 - material elastomérico à base de poliuretano. As amostras foram armazenadas em 100% de umidade a 37°C por 24 horas e então submetidas a carregamento tangencial na superfície palatina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/minuto até a fratura. Os padrões de fratura foram analisados de acordo com: 1 - fraturas coronais; 2 - fratura da junção esmalte-cemento; 3 - fratura parcial da raiz; 4 - fratura radicular total. A análise estatística empregou análise de variância fatorial e teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance of bovine teeth. Eighty bovine incisor teeth were randomized into 8 groups (n = 10), embedded in acrylic or polystyrene resin using 4 types of periodontal ligament [...] simulation: 1 - absence of the ligament; 2 - polyether impression material; 3 - polysulfide impression material; 4 - polyurethane elastomeric material. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 hours. Specimens were submitted to tangential load on the palatal surface at 0.5 mm/minute crosshead speed until fracture. The fracture modes were analyzed as follows: 1 - coronal fracture; 2 - cemento-enamel junction fracture; 3 - partial root fracture; 4 - total root fracture. Statistical analyses by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied (p

Carlos José, Soares; Eliane Cristina Gava, Pizi; Rodrigo Borges, Fonseca; Luis Roberto Marcondes, Martins.

93

Role of Mechanical Stress-induced Glutamate Signaling-associated Molecules in Cytodifferentiation of Periodontal Ligament Cells*  

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In this study, we analyzed the effects of tensile mechanical stress on the gene expression profile of in vitro-maintained human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. A DNA chip analysis identified 17 up-regulated genes in human PDL cells under the mechanical stress, including HOMER1 (homer homolog 1) and GRIN3A (glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate 3A), which are related to glutamate signaling. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analyses revealed that human PDL cells constitutively expressed glutamate signaling-associated genes and that mechanical stress increased the expression of these mRNAs, leading to release of glutamate from human PDL cells and intracellular glutamate signal transduction. Interestingly, exogenous glutamate increased the mRNAs of cytodifferentiation and mineralization-related genes as well as the ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activities during the cytodifferentiation of the PDL cells. On the other hand, the glutamate signaling inhibitors riluzole and (+)-MK801 maleate suppressed the alkaline phosphatase activities and mineralized nodule formation during the cytodifferentiation and mineralization. Riluzole inhibited the mechanical stress-induced glutamate signaling-associated gene expressions in human PDL cells. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed up-regulation of glutamate signaling-associated gene expressions at tension sites in the PDL under orthodontic tooth movement in a mouse model. The present data demonstrate that the glutamate signaling induced by mechanical stress positively regulates the cytodifferentiation and mineralization of PDL cells. PMID:20576613

Fujihara, Chiharu; Yamada, Satoru; Ozaki, Nobuhiro; Takeshita, Nobuo; Kawaki, Harumi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Murakami, Shinya

2010-01-01

94

Role of mechanical stress-induced glutamate signaling-associated molecules in cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament cells.  

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In this study, we analyzed the effects of tensile mechanical stress on the gene expression profile of in vitro-maintained human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. A DNA chip analysis identified 17 up-regulated genes in human PDL cells under the mechanical stress, including HOMER1 (homer homolog 1) and GRIN3A (glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate 3A), which are related to glutamate signaling. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analyses revealed that human PDL cells constitutively expressed glutamate signaling-associated genes and that mechanical stress increased the expression of these mRNAs, leading to release of glutamate from human PDL cells and intracellular glutamate signal transduction. Interestingly, exogenous glutamate increased the mRNAs of cytodifferentiation and mineralization-related genes as well as the ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activities during the cytodifferentiation of the PDL cells. On the other hand, the glutamate signaling inhibitors riluzole and (+)-MK801 maleate suppressed the alkaline phosphatase activities and mineralized nodule formation during the cytodifferentiation and mineralization. Riluzole inhibited the mechanical stress-induced glutamate signaling-associated gene expressions in human PDL cells. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed up-regulation of glutamate signaling-associated gene expressions at tension sites in the PDL under orthodontic tooth movement in a mouse model. The present data demonstrate that the glutamate signaling induced by mechanical stress positively regulates the cytodifferentiation and mineralization of PDL cells. PMID:20576613

Fujihara, Chiharu; Yamada, Satoru; Ozaki, Nobuhiro; Takeshita, Nobuo; Kawaki, Harumi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Murakami, Shinya

2010-09-01

95

In vitro cytotoxicity of hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanoparticles on human periodontal ligament fibroblast and mouse dermal fibroblast cells.  

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The use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial applications has been expanding, as a consequence, risk of human exposure increases. In this study, the potential toxic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPDLFs) and on mouse dermal fibroblast cells (mDFs) were evaluated in vitro. We synthesized ZnO NPs (particle size; 7-8 nm) by the hydrothermal method. Characterization assays were performed with atomic force microscopy, Braun-Emmet-Teller analysis, and dynamic light scattering. The hPDLFs and mDFs were incubated with the NPs with concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 ?g/mL for 6, 24 and 48h. Under the control and NP-exposed conditions, we have made different types of measurements for cell viability and morphology, membrane leakage and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Also, we monitored cell responses to ZnO NPs using an impedance measurement system in real-time. While the morphological changes were visualized using scanning electron microscopy, the subcellular localization of NPs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that ZnO NPs have significant toxic effects on both of the primary fibroblastic cells at concentrations of ?50-100 ?g/mL. The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs on fibroblasts depended on concentration and duration of exposure. PMID:25016134

Seker, Sükran; Elçin, A Eser; Yumak, Tu?rul; S?na?, Ali; Elçin, Y Murat

2014-12-01

96

An electron microscopic radioautographic study of collagen secretion in periodontal ligament fibroblasts of the mouse: II. Colchicine-treated fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Colchicine administered intravenously depolymerized microtubules and disrupted the normal organization of the Golgi apparatus in periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Radioautography with 3H-proline indicated that collagen secretion was completely inhibited during a period of approximately 4 hours following the onset of the colchicine effect. During this period of secretory inhibition, labeled collagen precursors were present within a variety of dense bodies, primarily located in a juxtanuclear location replacing the normal Golgi complex. The time course of 3H-proline labeling from 2 to 8 hours suggested that small, newly formed dense bodies fused to form larger dense bodies and pleomorphic structures (zebra bodies), within which collagen precursors appeared to undergo partial polymerization. Autophagosomes, many labeled with 3H-proline, also increased in number after colchicine administration. A gradual decline in 3H-proline label occurred from 4 to 24 hours, presumably due to exocytosis of dense bodies or by the digestion of labeled collagen precursors within autophagosomes. These results support the concept that an intact microtubular network is essential for the organized transport of collagen precursors, from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, and the eventual transport and exocytosis of collagen secretory granules

97

Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Modulate Root Resorption of Human Primary Teeth via Runx2 Regulating RANKL/OPG System.  

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Physiological primary teeth exfoliation is a normal phenomenon during teeth development. However, retained primary teeth can often be observed in the patients with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) caused by mutation of Runx2. The potential regulative mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) were derived from different resorbed stages of primary teeth and permanent teeth from normal patients and primary teeth from CCD patient. The proliferative, osteogenic and osteoclast-inductive capacities of PDLSCs from each group were detected. We demonstrated here that the proliferative ability of PDLSCs was reduced while the osteogenic and the osteoclast-inductive capacity of PDLSCs were enhanced during root resorption. The results also showed that PDLSCs from permanent teeth and CCD patient expressed low level of Runx2 and RANKL while high level of OPG. However, expression of Runx2 and RANKL were increased while expression of OPG was decreased in PDLSCs derived from resorbed teeth. Furthermore, Runx2 regulating the expression of RANKL and OPG and the osteoclast-inductive capacity of PDLSCs were confirmed by gain or loss of function assay. These data suggest that PDLSCs promote osteoclast differentiation via Runx2 upregulating RANKL and downregulating OPG, leading to enhanced root resorption that results in physiological exfoliation of primary teeth. PMID:24827498

Li, Bei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qingchao; Dong, Zhiwei; Shang, Linjuan; Wu, Lizheng; Wang, Xiaojing; Jin, Yan

2014-10-15

98

JNK and AKT/GSK3? signaling pathways converge to regulate periodontal ligament cell survival involving XIAP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were incubated with H2O2 and the levels of XIAP protein, protein kinase B (AKT), phosphorylated forms of AKT (pAKT), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) were determined by western immunoblotting or immunocytochemistry. After overexpression and knockdown of XIAP, the AKT, pAKT, JNK and GSK3? levels were determined in PDLCs exposed to H2O2. We demonstrated that 72 h of 250 ?M H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase in apoptosis. Meanwhile, XIAP levels were decreased with 72 h of 250 ?M H2O2 exposure, while there were also a decrease of JNK2, AKT, pAKT, and GSK3? levels. Such reductions induced by 72 h of 250 ?M H2O2 treatment were partially recovered in PDLCs overexpressing XIAP. Interestingly, these reductions (except for pAKT) were mimicked by RNA interference of XIAP. These results suggest that, after 72 h of 250 ?M H2O2 exposure, Akt, JNK, and GSK3? intracellular kinase signaling pathways converge to regulate PDLC survival involving XIAP. PMID:24802394

Wei, Mouda; Zhang, Min; Adams, Andrew; Duan, Yinzhong

2014-06-13

99

Inhibited proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans: involvement of the cytolethal distending toxin.  

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Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans can inhibit fibroblast proliferation. The objective of this study was to characterize the early proliferative responses of human periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) and gingival fibroblasts (GF) to A. actinomycetemcomitans components and to investigate the possible involvement of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) produced by this bacterium. The PDLC and GF were challenged with surface components of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Both DNA and protein synthesis as well as cell lysis or apoptosis were assayed for a 6-h period after addition of the bacterial extract. Unlike the controls, inhibition of DNA synthesis had already occurred in the challenged cells at the end of the initial 3- to 6-h period. No lysis or apoptosis was detected, and the total protein synthesis remained unaffected. The persistence of the effect on cell growth was confirmed after a 72-h period of challenge, during which the cells remained viable but exhibited an elongated and distended cell body. No significant differences were observed between PDLC and GF. When a cdt-knockout strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans was used almost no inhibitory effect on cell proliferation was observed. It was concluded that A. actinomycetemcomitans causes a non-lethal inhibition of proliferation in PDLC and GF as a result of an early arrest of DNA synthesis. Cytolethal distending toxin is responsible for most of this effect. This bacterial property may compromise tissue homeostasis in the periodontium. PMID:12664467

Belibasakis, Georgios; Johansson, Anders; Wang, Ying; Claesson, Rolf; Chen, Casey; Asikainen, Sirkka; Kalfas, Sotirios

2002-10-01

100

Nicotine-induced alterations in human primary periodontal ligament and gingiva fibroblast cultures.  

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Various in vivo and in vitro investigations have indicated that tobacco smoking as well as the use of smokeless tobacco products may be important risk factors for the development and severity of inflammatory periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of nicotine by means of human primary oral fibroblast cultures and a permanent cell line. The cytotoxicity of nicotine was evaluated by determination of cell growth, cell membrane integrity, protein content, and alterations of the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, recovery following nicotine exposure was assessed by vital staining (trypan blue). Dose-dependent toxic effects of nicotine were measured within a range of 0.48 mM to 62 mM. Growth of fibroblasts was decreased by nicotine concentrations higher than 7.8 mM. Additionally, the protein content was significantly decreased and cell membranes were damaged. Morphological alterations of microtubules and vimentin filaments were observed at concentrations higher than 3.9 mM. Nicotine-exposed cells revealed atypical shapes and vacuoles. The toxic effects of nicotine became irreversible in the range between 10.5 and 15.5 mM, whereas at lower concentrations cells recovered after the withdrawal of nicotine. Our results confirm clinical oberservations regarding the important role of nicotine as a risk factor in the etiology and progression of periodontal disease. PMID:9667154

Alpar, B; Leyhausen, G; Sapotnick, A; Günay, H; Geurtsen, W

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comparación del efecto citotóxico de tres agentes quelantes sobre fibroblasto del ligamento periodontal humano. Estudio in vitro / Comparison of the cytotoxic effect of three chelating agents on human periodontal ligament fibroblast. In vitro study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Comparar in vitro el efecto citotóxico de tres agentes quelantes sobre fibroblastos del ligamento periodontal humano. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron cultivos de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal humano, los cuales fueron colocados en contacto con los agentes quelantes a evaluar (R [...] C-Prep, Glyde, EDTA al 17%) a intervalos de 15, 30 y 60 minutos. Se midió la absorbancia para cada uno de los grupos, para determinar el grado de actividad enzimática, que es indicador de muerte celular. Previo a la cuantificación de la absorbancia se corroboró microscópicamente la formación de los cristales de formazán, los cuales se forman alrededor de los fibroblastos, y su presencia es indicador de integridad de la membrana y de la actividad metabólica. Por microscopia se verificó la formación de cristales de formazan, después de agregar azul de tripán. Resultados: El Glyde mostró mayor grado de citotoxicidad, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa, al compararlo con EDTA 17% y el RC-PREP. El EDTA presentó mayor citotoxicidad que el RC-PREP a los 15minutos, evento que cambió a los 30 y 60 minutos. Conclusiones: Los agentes quelantes RC-Prep, Glyde y EDTA tienen un efecto citotóxico a nivel de los fibroblastos del ligamento periodontal, siendo el EDTA el de menor efecto citotóxico a los 30 y 60 minutos comparado con RC-Prep y Glyde Abstract in english Objectives: To compare in vitro, the cytotoxic effect of three chelating agents on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, RC-Prep, Glyde and EDTA. Methods: Fibroblast cultures of human periodontal ligament were used, which are placed in contact with chelating agents to evaluate (RC-Prep, Glyde, 17% [...] EDTA) at time intervals of 15,30 and 60 minutes. Absorbance was measured for each group to determine the degree of enzyme activity, which is an indicator of cell death. Prior to the measurement of absorbance was confirmed microscopically, the formation of formazan crystals, which are formed around fibroblasts, and its presence is an indicator of membrane integrity and metabolic activity. Microscopy verified the formation of formazan crystals, after adding trypan blue. Results: Glyde showed greater cytotoxicity with a statistically significant difference when compared with 17% EDTA and RC-PREPchelants. The EDTA showed higher cytotoxicity than the RC-PREP to 15min, and that event changed at 30 and 60 minutes. Conclusion: It was shown experimentally that the chelating agents RC-Prep, EDTA and Glyde have a cytotoxic effect at the periodontal ligament fibroblasts. EDTA has a lowest cytotoxic effect at 30 and 60 minutes compared to RC-Prep and Glyde.

Edwin, De la Cruz Rocha; Luisa Paola, Figueredo; Johana, Gómez; Idalith, Jiménez; Ilinka, Montes; Sergio, Roca; Gabriela, Vergel.

2012-12-01

102

Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests Influência do material de inclusão e da simulação do ligamento periodontal nos ensaios de resistência à fratura  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance of bovine teeth. Eighty bovine incisor teeth were randomized into 8 groups (n = 10, embedded in acrylic or polystyrene resin using 4 types of periodontal ligament simulation: 1 - absence of the ligament; 2 - polyether impression material; 3 - polysulfide impression material; 4 - polyurethane elastomeric material. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 hours. Specimens were submitted to tangential load on the palatal surface at 0.5 mm/minute crosshead speed until fracture. The fracture modes were analyzed as follows: 1 - coronal fracture; 2 - cemento-enamel junction fracture; 3 - partial root fracture; 4 - total root fracture. Statistical analyses by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do material de inclusão e da simulação de ligamento periodontal na resistência à fratura de dentes bovinos. Oitenta incisivos bovinos foram divididos em 8 grupos (n = 10 e, então, incluídos em cilindros com dois materiais, resina acrílica ou resina de poliestireno, usando-se quatro tipos de simulação do ligamento periodontal: 1 - ausência do ligamento; 2 - material de moldagem à base de poliéter; 3 - material de moldagem à base de polissulfeto; e 4 - material elastomérico à base de poliuretano. As amostras foram armazenadas em 100% de umidade a 37°C por 24 horas e então submetidas a carregamento tangencial na superfície palatina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/minuto até a fratura. Os padrões de fratura foram analisados de acordo com: 1 - fraturas coronais; 2 - fratura da junção esmalte-cemento; 3 - fratura parcial da raiz; 4 - fratura radicular total. A análise estatística empregou análise de variância fatorial e teste de Tukey (p < 0,05. Os resultados mostram que o método de inclusão e a simulação do ligamento periodontal tiveram efeito significativo na resistência à fratura. O ligamento periodontal artificial modificou os padrões de fratura.

Carlos José Soares

2005-03-01

103

Comparación del efecto citotóxico de tres agentes quelantes sobre fibroblasto del ligamento periodontal humano. Estudio in vitro / Comparison of the cytotoxic effect of three chelating agents on human periodontal ligament fibroblast. In vitro study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Comparar in vitro el efecto citotóxico de tres agentes quelantes sobre fibroblastos del ligamento periodontal humano. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron cultivos de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal humano, los cuales fueron colocados en contacto con los agentes quelantes a evaluar (R [...] C-Prep, Glyde, EDTA al 17%) a intervalos de 15, 30 y 60 minutos. Se midió la absorbancia para cada uno de los grupos, para determinar el grado de actividad enzimática, que es indicador de muerte celular. Previo a la cuantificación de la absorbancia se corroboró microscópicamente la formación de los cristales de formazán, los cuales se forman alrededor de los fibroblastos, y su presencia es indicador de integridad de la membrana y de la actividad metabólica. Por microscopia se verificó la formación de cristales de formazan, después de agregar azul de tripán. Resultados: El Glyde mostró mayor grado de citotoxicidad, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa, al compararlo con EDTA 17% y el RC-PREP. El EDTA presentó mayor citotoxicidad que el RC-PREP a los 15minutos, evento que cambió a los 30 y 60 minutos. Conclusiones: Los agentes quelantes RC-Prep, Glyde y EDTA tienen un efecto citotóxico a nivel de los fibroblastos del ligamento periodontal, siendo el EDTA el de menor efecto citotóxico a los 30 y 60 minutos comparado con RC-Prep y Glyde Abstract in english Objectives: To compare in vitro, the cytotoxic effect of three chelating agents on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, RC-Prep, Glyde and EDTA. Methods: Fibroblast cultures of human periodontal ligament were used, which are placed in contact with chelating agents to evaluate (RC-Prep, Glyde, 17% [...] EDTA) at time intervals of 15,30 and 60 minutes. Absorbance was measured for each group to determine the degree of enzyme activity, which is an indicator of cell death. Prior to the measurement of absorbance was confirmed microscopically, the formation of formazan crystals, which are formed around fibroblasts, and its presence is an indicator of membrane integrity and metabolic activity. Microscopy verified the formation of formazan crystals, after adding trypan blue. Results: Glyde showed greater cytotoxicity with a statistically significant difference when compared with 17% EDTA and RC-PREPchelants. The EDTA showed higher cytotoxicity than the RC-PREP to 15min, and that event changed at 30 and 60 minutes. Conclusion: It was shown experimentally that the chelating agents RC-Prep, EDTA and Glyde have a cytotoxic effect at the periodontal ligament fibroblasts. EDTA has a lowest cytotoxic effect at 30 and 60 minutes compared to RC-Prep and Glyde.

Edwin, De la Cruz Rocha; Luisa Paola, Figueredo; Johana, Gómez; Idalith, Jiménez; Ilinka, Montes; Sergio, Roca; Gabriela, Vergel.

104

Periodontal ligament influence on the stress distribution in a removable partial denture supported by implant: a finite element analysis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The non-homogenous aspect of periodontal ligament (PDL) has been examined using finite element analysis (FEA) to better simulate PDL behavior. The aim of this study was to assess, by 2-D FEA, the influence of non-homogenous PDL on the stress distribution when the free-end saddle removabl [...] e partial denture (RPD) is partially supported by an osseointegrated implant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six finite element (FE) models of a partially edentulous mandible were created to represent two types of PDL (non-homogenous and homogenous) and two types of RPD (conventional RPD, supported by tooth and fibromucosa; and modified RPD, supported by tooth and implant [10.00x3.75 mm]). Two additional Fe models without RPD were used as control models. The non-homogenous PDL was modeled using beam elements to simulate the crest, horizontal, oblique and apical fibers. The load (50 N) was applied in each cusp simultaneously. Regarding boundary conditions the border of alveolar ridge was fixed along the x axis. The FE software (Ansys 10.0) was used to compute the stress fields, and the von Mises stress criterion (svM) was applied to analyze the results. RESULTS: The peak of svM in non-homogenous PDL was higher than that for the homogenous condition. The benefits of implants were enhanced for the non-homogenous PDL condition, with drastic svM reduction on the posterior half of the alveolar ridge. The implant did not reduce the stress on the support tooth for both PDL conditions. Conclusion: The PDL modeled in the non-homogeneous form increased the benefits of the osseointegrated implant in comparison with the homogeneous condition. Using the non-homogenous PDL, the presence of osseointegrated implant did not reduce the stress on the supporting tooth.

Carlos Marcelo, Archangelo; Eduardo Passos, Rocha; João Antônio, Pereira; Manoel, Martin Junior; Rodolfo Bruniera, Anchieta; Amilcar Chagas, Freitas Júnior.

2012-06-01

105

Periodontal ligament influence on the stress distribution in a removable partial denture supported by implant: a finite element analysis  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The non-homogenous aspect of periodontal ligament (PDL has been examined using finite element analysis (FEA to better simulate PDL behavior. The aim of this study was to assess, by 2-D FEA, the influence of non-homogenous PDL on the stress distribution when the free-end saddle removable partial denture (RPD is partially supported by an osseointegrated implant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six finite element (FE models of a partially edentulous mandible were created to represent two types of PDL (non-homogenous and homogenous and two types of RPD (conventional RPD, supported by tooth and fibromucosa; and modified RPD, supported by tooth and implant [10.00x3.75 mm]. Two additional Fe models without RPD were used as control models. The non-homogenous PDL was modeled using beam elements to simulate the crest, horizontal, oblique and apical fibers. The load (50 N was applied in each cusp simultaneously. Regarding boundary conditions the border of alveolar ridge was fixed along the x axis. The FE software (Ansys 10.0 was used to compute the stress fields, and the von Mises stress criterion (svM was applied to analyze the results. RESULTS: The peak of svM in non-homogenous PDL was higher than that for the homogenous condition. The benefits of implants were enhanced for the non-homogenous PDL condition, with drastic svM reduction on the posterior half of the alveolar ridge. The implant did not reduce the stress on the support tooth for both PDL conditions. Conclusion: The PDL modeled in the non-homogeneous form increased the benefits of the osseointegrated implant in comparison with the homogeneous condition. Using the non-homogenous PDL, the presence of osseointegrated implant did not reduce the stress on the supporting tooth.

Carlos Marcelo Archangelo

2012-06-01

106

Periodontal ligament influence on the stress distribution in a removable partial denture supported by implant: a finite element analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The non-homogenous aspect of periodontal ligament (PDL) has been examined using finite element analysis (FEA) to better simulate PDL behavior. The aim of this study was to assess, by 2-D FEA, the influence of non-homogenous PDL on the stress distribution when the free-end saddle removabl [...] e partial denture (RPD) is partially supported by an osseointegrated implant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six finite element (FE) models of a partially edentulous mandible were created to represent two types of PDL (non-homogenous and homogenous) and two types of RPD (conventional RPD, supported by tooth and fibromucosa; and modified RPD, supported by tooth and implant [10.00x3.75 mm]). Two additional Fe models without RPD were used as control models. The non-homogenous PDL was modeled using beam elements to simulate the crest, horizontal, oblique and apical fibers. The load (50 N) was applied in each cusp simultaneously. Regarding boundary conditions the border of alveolar ridge was fixed along the x axis. The FE software (Ansys 10.0) was used to compute the stress fields, and the von Mises stress criterion (svM) was applied to analyze the results. RESULTS: The peak of svM in non-homogenous PDL was higher than that for the homogenous condition. The benefits of implants were enhanced for the non-homogenous PDL condition, with drastic svM reduction on the posterior half of the alveolar ridge. The implant did not reduce the stress on the support tooth for both PDL conditions. Conclusion: The PDL modeled in the non-homogeneous form increased the benefits of the osseointegrated implant in comparison with the homogeneous condition. Using the non-homogenous PDL, the presence of osseointegrated implant did not reduce the stress on the supporting tooth.

Carlos Marcelo, Archangelo; Eduardo Passos, Rocha; João Antônio, Pereira; Manoel, Martin Junior; Rodolfo Bruniera, Anchieta; Amilcar Chagas, Freitas Júnior.

107

Periodontal ligament influence on the stress distribution in a removable partial denture supported by implant: a finite element analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Objective The non-homogenous aspect of periodontal ligament (PDL) has been examined using finite element analysis (FEA) to better simulate PDL behavior. The aim of this study was to assess, by 2-D FEA, the influence of non-homogenous PDL on the stress distribution when the free-end saddle removable partial denture (RPD) is partially supported by an osseointegrated implant. Material and Methods Six finite element (FE) models of a partially edentulous mandible were created to represent two types of PDL (non-homogenous and homogenous) and two types of RPD (conventional RPD, supported by tooth and fibromucosa; and modified RPD, supported by tooth and implant [10.00x3.75 mm]). Two additional FE models without RPD were used as control models. The non-homogenous PDL was modeled using beam elements to simulate the crest, horizontal, oblique and apical fibers. The load (50 N) was applied in each cusp simultaneously. Regarding boundary conditions the border of alveolar ridge was fixed along the x axis. The FE software (Ansys 10.0) was used to compute the stress fields, and the von Mises stress criterion (?vM) was applied to analyze the results. Results The peak of ?vM in non-homogenous PDL was higher than that for the homogenous condition. The benefits of implants were enhanced for the non-homogenous PDL condition, with drastic ?vM reduction on the posterior half of the alveolar ridge. The implant did not reduce the stress on the support tooth for both PDL conditions. Conclusion The PDL modeled in the non-homogeneous form increased the benefits of the osseointegrated implant in comparison with the homogeneous condition. Using the non-homogenous PDL, the presence of osseointegrated implant did not reduce the stress on the supporting tooth. PMID:22858705

ARCHANGELO, Carlos Marcelo; ROCHA, Eduardo Passos; PEREIRA, Joao Antonio; MARTIN JUNIOR, Manoel; ANCHIETA, Rodolfo Bruniera; FREITAS JUNIOR, Amilcar Chagas

2012-01-01

108

The roles of calcium-sensing receptor and calcium channel in osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated periodontal ligament cells.  

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Elevated extracellular calcium has been shown to promote the differentiation of osteoblasts. However, the way that calcium affects the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs) remains unclear. Our aim has been to investigate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of a calcium-exposed human PDLSC line (cell line 1-17) that we have recently established and to elucidate the roles of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC) in this process. Proliferation activity was investigated by WST-1 assay, and gene and protein expression was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase plus the polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining, respectively. Calcification assay was performed by von Kossa and Alizarin red staining. Treatment with 5 mM CaCl2 significantly induced proliferation, bone-related gene expression, and calcification in cell line 1-17. During culture with 5 mM CaCl2, this cell line up-regulated the gene expression of CaSR, which was reduced after 7 days. Simultaneous treatment with NPS2143, a CaSR inhibitor, and calcium significantly further increased bone-related gene expression and calcification as compared with CaCl2 exposure alone. The L-VDCC inhibitor, nifedipine, significantly suppressed osteogenic differentiation of cell line 1-17 treated with 5 mM CaCl2 and promoted the expression of CaSR, as compared with calcium treatment alone. Thus, elevated extracellular calcium promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of a PDLSC line. Antagonizing CaSR further enhances the effect of calcium on osteogenic differentiation, with CaSR expression being regulated by L-VDCC under extracellular calcium. Extracellular calcium might therefore modulate the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs through reciprocal adjustments of CaSR and L-VDCC. PMID:24842051

Koori, Katsuaki; Maeda, Hidefumi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Kawachi, Giichiro; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Hamano, Sayuri; Sugii, Hideki; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

2014-09-01

109

Comparison of Coconut Water and Jordanian Propolis on Survival of Bench-dried Periodontal Ligament Cells: An in vitro Cell Culture Study  

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ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the efficacy of Jordanian propolis and full concentration mature coconut water in their ability to preserve periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability after exposure of PDL cells to up to 120 minutes dry storage. Materials and methods: PDL cells were obtained from sound permanent first molars which were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes dry storage times then incubated with 100% mature coconut water, Jordanian propolis and DMEM for 45 minutes at room temperature (18-26°C). Untreated cells served as controls at each dry storage time tested. PDL cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by Tukey test and the level of significance was 5% ( p 60 minutes dry storage. However, this improvement was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Avulsed teeth which have been left dry for 45 minutes may benefit from soaking for 45 minutes in mature coconut water. How to cite this article: Al-Haj Ali SN, Al-Jundi S, Mhaidat N. Comparison of Coconut Water and Jordanian Propolis on Survival of Bench-dried Periodontal Ligament Cells: An in vitro Cell Culture Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):161-165.

Al-Jundi, Suhad; Mhaidat, Nizar

2013-01-01

110

Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs  

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Research highlights: ? Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. ? Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. ? The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. ? Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. ? Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs. The exact mechanism underlying the role of ibandronate in osteoblasts has not been completely understood. Ibandronate may suppress the activity of osteoclasts while promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts by regulating the expression of miRNAs.

111

Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. {yields} Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. {yields} The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. {yields} Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. {yields} Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs. The exact mechanism underlying the role of ibandronate in osteoblasts has not been completely understood. Ibandronate may suppress the activity of osteoclasts while promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts by regulating the expression of miRNAs.

Zhou, Qiang [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Ning [Clinical Laboratory, 451 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Cheng, Jing-Tao [Department of Special Dentistry, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhang, Bin [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Jie [Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Huang, Fei; Zhao, Rui-Ni [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Chen, Yong-Jin, E-mail: cyj1229@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

2011-01-07

112

Compatibility of resorbable and nonresorbable guided tissue regeneration membranes in cultures of primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and human osteoblast-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate the cytocompatibility of three resorbable and nonresorbable membranes in fibroblast and osteoblast-like cell cultures and (b) to observe the growth of those cells on the various barriers by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) and human osteoblast-like cells (SAOS-2) were incubated with nonresorbable polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) barriers and resorbable polylactic acid as well as collagen membranes. Cytotoxic effects were determined by XTT (mitochondrial metabolic activity) and sulforhodamine B assays (cellular protein content). In addition, HPLF and SAOS-2 grown for 21 days on the investigated barriers were evaluated by SEM. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05). No changes were established in the periodontal ligament fibroblasts and human osteoblast-like cells after incubation with the collagen membrane. Cytotoxic effects, however, were induced by the polylactic acid barrier which slightly inhibited cell metabolism of the periodontal fibroblasts (XTT: 90.1% +/- 3.6 of control value). Moderate cytotoxic reactions were caused by the nonresorbable ePTFE membrane in HPLF-cultures (XTT: 82.7% +/- 3.5) and osteoblast-like cell monolayers (XTT: 80.0% +/- 0.6%). Mitochondrial activity in both cell cultures was significantly reduced by ePTFE barriers in comparison to non-incubated control cells (P = 0.028). SEM analysis of cell behavior on barriers demonstrated the differences between these materials: collagen barriers were densely populated with HPLF and SAOS-2, whereas only few or no cells were seen to adhere to the ePTFE and polylactic acid membranes. Our findings indicate that the collagen barrier investigated is very cytocompatible and may be integrated into connective tissue well. On the contrary, the ePTFE and polylactic acid membranes induced slight to moderate cytotoxic reactions which may reduce cellular adhesion. Thus, gap formation between the barrier surface and the connective tissue may be promoted which may facilitate epithelial downgrowth and microbial accumulation. Consequently, these effects may reduce the potential gain in periodontal attachment. PMID:11218492

Alpar, B; Leyhausen, G; Günay, H; Geurtsen, W

2000-12-01

113

Immunohistochemical and gene expression analysis of stem-cell-associated markers in rat dental pulp.  

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Stem cells in the dental pulp comprise rare populations lacking definitive cytological markers and thus are poorly characterized in vivo, especially in rat species. To gain more insight into the phenotypical characteristics and tissue distribution of these cells, we examined the distribution of stem-cell-associated marker-expressing cells and mRNA expression levels of stem-cell-associated markers in the rat molar. CD146-positive cells co-expressing microtubule-associated protein 1B were counted following double-labeling immunoperoxidase staining and their density in the coronal pulp, root pulp and periodontal ligament was compared. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of CD146, CD105, CD166 and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1; also known as osteopontin, a negative regulatory element of the stem cell niche) were analyzed in these regions by using real time polymerase chain reaction. The double-positive cells could be clearly distinguished from non-stem cells single-stained by either of the markers and showed a significantly higher density in the coronal pulp compared with the other regions (Pstem-cell-associated marker-expressing cells and stem-cell-associated gene expression levels are higher in the coronal pulp than in the root pulp and periodontal ligament, suggesting that the coronal pulp harbors more stem cells than the other regions. PMID:23263462

Kaneko, Tomoatsu; Arayatrakoollikit, Uthaiwan; Yamanaka, Yusuke; Ito, Takafumi; Okiji, Takashi

2013-03-01

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The role of cellular senescence on the cyclic stretching-mediated activation of MAPK and ALP expression and activity in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.  

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Mechanical loading is considered to be a major parameter of the periodontal ligament (PDL) remodeling and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms that translate these forces to cellular responses are not fully elucidated. Especially, although aging affects PDL homeostasis, the role of cellular senescence on the activation of signaling pathways in periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) in response to mechanical stimulation has not been studied yet. Here, we present evidence showing that cyclic mechanical stimulation activates ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK in young (early-passage) human PDLF, in a RhoK-dependent manner. This response was found to be independent of the substratum (i.e. fibronectin or collagen) on which these cells grow. Stretching up-regulates also c-fos, a classical cellular response to mechanical deformation. Inhibition of ERK and JNK reduces, while that of p38 enhances stress-mediated c-fos expression. In addition, cyclic stretching stimulates the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early marker of osteoblastic differentiation. We have recently shown that senescent human PDLF have a significantly decreased expression of ALP, linked to an inability towards osteoblastic differentiation. Here, we found that senescent PDLF are able to respond to cyclic mechanical stretching by activating ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK, with similar kinetics compared to young cells, and by up-regulating c-fos and ALP expression and activity. However, even after stimulation, ALP levels in senescent cells are still much lower compared to the basal levels of their young counterparts, suggesting that senescence impairs the differentiation of human PDLF when subjected to cyclic mechanical deformation. PMID:24858180

Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulou, Adamantia; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore; Basdra, Efthimia; Kletsas, Dimitris

2014-09-01

115

Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs  

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Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

SriramRavindran

2014-01-01

116

High-mobility group box protein-1 released by human-periodontal ligament cells modulates macrophage migration and activity in vitro.  

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Recent studies have demonstrated the interplay of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs) with immune cells, such as macrophages, during tissue repair. High-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is released into the extracellular milieu by damaged cells and functions as an alarmin to mediate the inflammatory host response. The present study addressed the role of HMGB1 released by hPDLs in the regulation of macrophage differentiation, migration and activity. The aim was to examine the inflammatory potential of HMGB1 itself and in combination with other mediators. The induction of sterile necrosis by thermal insult of hPDLs resulted in HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and on to the extracellular space, as determined by immunocytochemistry/ELISA. Exposure of human macrophages to the conditioned PDL cell medium increased the expression of macrophage differentiation/activation markers CD14, CD23, CD64 and CD163. Chemotactic migration and osteoclastic differentiation of macrophages were also enhanced. Supplementation of the conditioned medium with a saturating concentration of HMGB1-Ab reduced these effects. Challenge with recombinant HMGB1 protein induced less migration and osteoclast differentiation than thermal insult. These data point to the immune modulatory capacity of hPDLs by the release of mediators, including HMGB1, which modify macrophage differentiation, migration and activity during periodontal repair, and indicate an enhanced HMGB1 activity when acting in concert with other mediators. PMID:24107514

Wolf, Michael; Lossdörfer, Stefan; Craveiro, Rogerio; Jäger, Andreas

2014-10-01

117

Activation of cannabinoid receptor CB2 regulates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and osteoclastogenic gene expression in human periodontal ligament cells  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: It has been found that human periodontal ligament (hPDL cells express cannabinoid receptor CB2. However, the functional importance of CB2 in hPDL cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins is not known. Here we investigate if the inflammation promoter lipopolysaccharide (LPS affects CB2 expression and if activation of CB2 regulates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and osteoclastogenic gene expression in hPDL cells. Methods: The hPDL cells were obtained from extracted teeth of periodontally healthy subjects. CB2 expression in hPDL cells exposed to LPS was deter- mined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then, the cells were incubated with or without CB2-specific agonist HU-308 before further stimulation with LPS. In some experiments, the cells were pre-treated with CB2-specific antagonist SR144528. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL- 1?, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNF-? was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The mRNA expression of osteoclastogenic genes osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL was examined using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results: CB2 expression in hPDL cells was markedly enhanced by LPS. HU-308 significantly suppressed the production of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? exposed to LPS, whereas SR144528 attenuated this effect. The OPG/RANKL ratio decreased when exposed to LPS, furthermore increased significantly with the addition of HU-308 and finally decreased markedly after pretreatment with SR144528. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that activation of CB2 had anti-inflammatory and anti-resorptive effects on LPS-stimulated hPDL cells. These findings suggest that activation of CB2 might be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis.

Yongming Li

2013-03-01

118

Comparación histomorfométrica in vitro del ligamento periodontal de premolares extraídos mantenidos en cuatro medios de conservación / In vitro histomorphometric comparison of periodontal ligament of extracted premolar teeth preserved in different media storage  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar histológica y morfométricamente los resultados de diferentes tipos de medios de almacenamiento para los dientes avulsionados en el mantenimiento de la preservación de la integridad del ligamento periodontal. Material y métodos: Estudio de tipo exper [...] imental de laboratorio, se utilizaron veintitrés premolares extraídos por motivos ortodóncicos. Los medios de conservación evaluados fueron: leche tipo "B" y tipo "C", solución salina y medio seco. Un total de cinco dientes fueron almacenados en cada uno de los medios de conservación durante 120 minutos. Otros tres dientes sirvieron como controles fijados inmediatamente después de la extracción representando el ligamento periodontal íntegro. Los dientes se fijaron, procesaron y tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina para evaluación histológica a través de microscopia óptica. Resultados: La edad de los pacientes que aportaron los dientes osciló entre 13 a 17 años. Los resultados de la evaluación cualitativa mostraron que la solución fisiológica fue el medio de almacenamiento más adecuado seguido de la leche tipo C y tipo B. En el análisis estadístico no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos de solución fisiológica y leche tipo C. Después de 120 minutos se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las alteraciones histomorfométricas del grupo control y los grupos de dientes que se mantuvieron en condiciones de humedad y los secos. Conclusión: Dados los resultados de este estudio, la solución salina (grupo II) y la leche tipo C (Grupo III) pueden considerarse como las formas de conservación más adecuadas de los dientes avulsionados. Abstract in english Objective: The aim of this study was to histologically and morphometrically evaluate the results of different types of storage media for avulsed teeth in the maintenance and preserving the integrity of the periodontal ligament. Material and methods: Experimental study. It was used twenty-three extra [...] cted premolars for orthodontic reasons. Preserving methods evaluated were: type "B" and "C" milk, saline and dry environment. A total of five teeth were stored in each storage media for 120 minutes. Three teeth served as controls fixed immediately after extraction representing the entire periodontal ligament. The teeth were fixed, processed and stained with hematoxylin/eosin for histological evaluation by light microscopy. Results: The age of the patients who provided the teeth ranged from 13-17 years. The results of the qualitative assessment showed that saline was the most appropriate storage medium, followed by milk type C and type B. In the statistical analysis there was no statistically significant difference between saline and type C milk. After 120 minutes it was found statistically significant differences between histomorphometric changes in the control group and groups of teeth that were kept in wet conditions and dry. Conclusion: Given the results of this study, saline (group II) and milk type C (Group III) can be considered as the most suitable form of storage of avulsed teeth.

I., Prokopowitsch; R., Cabrales Salgado; A., Díaz Caballero; M., Simancas Pallares.

2013-04-01

119

Histometric analysis of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats: a comparison of histological section planes  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the histometry of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats at different histological section depths. Sixteen male adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: ligature and control. In the ligature group, rats received a sterile 4/0 silk ligature around the maxillary right 2nd molar. Thirty serial sections containing the 1st and 2nd molars, in which the coronal and root pulp, cementoenamel junction (CEJ in the mesial side of the 2nd molar, interproximal alveolar bone and connective fiber attachment were clearly visible, were selected for histometric analysis. The histological sections were clustered in groups of 10 sections corresponding the buccal (B, central (C and lingual (L regions of the of periodontal tissue samples. The distance between the CEJ in the mesial side of the 2nd molar and the attached periodontal ligament fibers (CEJ-PL as well as the distance between the CEJ and the alveolar bone crest (CEJ-BC were determined. From CEJ-PL and CEJ-BC distances measured for each specimen, the measurements obtained in the B, L and C regions were recorded individually and together. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant differences (p0.05. In conclusion, the selection of 10 serial sections of the central region of periodontal tissue samples at any depth can be considered as representative for the evaluation of periodontal ligament fiber attachment and bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.

Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove Semenoff

2008-08-01

120

The Effect of Propolis As A Biological Storage Media on Periodontal Ligament Cell Survival in An Avulsed Tooth: An In Vitro Study  

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Full Text Available Objective: Both the length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. This study aims to compare propolis 50%, propolis 10%, Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS, milk and egg white on periodontal ligament (PDL cell survival for different time points.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, we divided 60 extracted teeth without any periodontal diseases into five experimental and two control groups that consisted each experimental group with 10 and each control group with 5 teeth. The storage times were one and three hours for each media. The controls corresponded to 0-minute (positive and 12-hour (negative dry time. Rinsing in the experimental media, the teeth were treated with dispase and collagenase for one hour. Cell viability was determined by using trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s HSD post-hoc.Results: Within one hour, there was no significant difference between the two propolis groups, however these two groups had significantly more viable PDL cells compared to the other experimental media (p<0.05. The results of the three-hour group showed that propolis 10% was significantly better than egg white, whereas both propolis 10% and 50% were significantly better than milk (p<0.05.Conclusion: Based on PDL cell viability, propolis could be recommended as a suitable biological storage media for avulsed teeth.

Leila Ahangari

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Stem cells for periodontal regeneration.  

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Periodontal regeneration is considered to be biologically possible but clinically unpredictable. In periodontitis, inflammation manifests clinically as loss of supporting periodontal tissues and regeneration of damaged tissue is the main goal of treatment. For decades, periodontists have sought to repair the damage through a variety of surgical procedures, and use of grafting materials and growth factors, and of barrier membranes. Reports have emerged that demonstrate which populations of adult stem cells reside in the periodontal ligaments of humans and other animals. This opens the way for new cell-based therapies for periodontal regeneration. This review provides an overview of adult human stem cells and their potential use in periodontal regeneration. PMID:24265588

Pejcic, A; Kojovic, D; Mirkovic, D; Minic, I

2013-06-01

122

Remoción del ligamento periodontal por medio de fricción con gasa embebida en solución de hipoclorito de sodio a 1% / Periodontal ligament remotion using friction of sodium hypochloride 1% solution absorbed gauze  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Sabe-se que o hipoclorito de sódio pode remover o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado em dentes avulsionados. Adequações em seu uso se mostram necessárias para se obter um reparo mais satisfatório em dentes reimplantados. Portanto, estudou-se neste trabalho a capacidade de remoção do ligamento perio [...] dontal, por meio de fricção da superfície radicular de dentes de rato, com uma gaze embebida em solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Foram utilizados 40 dentes divididos em 4 grupos de 10, os quais após a extração, foram mantidos em meio seco por 60 minutos. No grupo controle, os dentes foram mantidos em 25ml de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% por 5 minutos. No grupo II, a superfície radicular foi friccionada com gaze embebida em 25ml de solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% por um período de 1 minuto e na seqüência lavados em soro fisiológico por 4 minutos. No grupo III, a fricção foi de 2 minutos, e o período de lavagem foi de 3 minutos. No grupo IV, a fricção foi de 4 minutos e o período de lavagem foi de 1 minuto. Após o processamento laboratorial, os cortes foram corados pelo Tricrômico de Masson e pela hematoxilina e eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os resultados demonstraram que no grupo controle, 100% da superfície radicular estava coberta por ligamento periodontal. Mediante o teste de proporção, observou-se que a fricção por 1 minuto foi menos eficaz, sendo estatisticamente significante (p Abstract in spanish Estudios han demostrado la capacidad del hipoclorito de sodio en la remoción del ligamento periodontal sin vitalidad en dientes avulsionados. Sin embargo el uso de esta sustancia puede ocasionar un efecto irritante en el tejido conjuntivo. Siendo así adecuaciones en su utilización se muestran necesa [...] rias para que se obtenga un reparo más satisfactorio cuando utilizados en dientes reimplantados. Por lo tanto es propuesta de ese estudio evaluar la capacidad de remoción del ligamento periodontal, por medio de fricción de la superficie radicular de dientes de ratones, con una gasa humedecida en solución de hipoclorito de sodio al 1%. Fueron utilizados 40 dientes divididos en 4 grupos de 10, los cuales después de la extracción, fueron mantenidos en medio seco por 60 minutos. En el grupo control, los dientes fueron mantenidos en 25ml de hipoclorito de sodio a 1% por 5 minutos. En el grupo II, la superficie radicular fue friccionada con gasa humedecida en 25ml de solución de hipoclorito de sodio a 1% por un periodo de 1 minuto y en la secuencia lavados en suero fisiológico por 4 minutos. En el grupo III, la fricción fue de 2 minutos, y el periodo del lavado 2 minuto. En el grupo IV, la fricción con 4 minutos y el periodo del lavado 1 minuto. Después del procesamiento laboratorial, los cortes obtenidos fueron coloreados por el Tricromio de Masson y Hematoxilina y eosina para análisis en microscopia de luz. Los resultados demostraron que en el grupo control 100% de la superficie radicular estaba cubierto por ligamento periodontal. A través del test de proporción, se observó que la fricción por 1 minuto fue menos eficaz, con diferencia estadísticamente significante (p Abstract in english Studies have demonstrated the capacity of the sodium hypochloride in removing the non-vital periodontal ligament in avulsed tooth. Adequacies in its use are necessary to get a repair more satisfactory when teeth are replanted. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluated the capacity of rem [...] oval the periodontal ligament in root surface of rats, using friction of sodium hypochloride 1% solution absorbed gauze. Forty teeth were divided in 4 groups with 10 teeth, which after the extration, had been kept in dry way per 60 minutes. In control group, the teeth had been kept in 25ml of sodium hypochloride 1% for 5 minutes. In group II, the root surface was rubbed with in 25ml of sodium hypochloride 1% solution absorbed gauze for 1 minute and rinsed for 4 minutes in saline. In group

Celso, Koogi Sonoda; Wilson, Roberto Poi; Sônia, Regina Panzarini; Maria Lúcia, Marçal Mazza Sundfeld; Fernando, Esgaib Kayatt; Tetuo, Okamoto.

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Effects of the. cap alpha. -adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine, and Idazoxan on sympathetic blood flow control in the periodontal ligament of the cat  

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Blood flow changes in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured indirectly by monitoring the local clearance of /sup 125/I/sup -/ during electric sympathetic nerve stimulation or close intra-arterial infusions of either noradrenaline (NA) or adrenaline (ADR) before and after administration of phentolamine (PA), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) or Idazoxan (RX). At the doses used in the present study, PA was the only antagonist that significantly reduced the blood flow decrease seen on activation of sympathetic fibers, although PBZ also reduced this response. Idazoxan, however, did not induce the consistent effect on blood flow decreases seen on sympathetic activation. All three ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor antagonists almost abolished the effects of exogenously administered NA and ADR. The results suggest the presence of functional post-junctional adrenoceptors of both the ..cap alpha.. 1 and ..cap alpha.. 2 subtypes in the sympathetic regulation of the blood flow in the PDL of the cat. A component of the response elicited by electrical sympathetic stimulation appeared to be resistant to ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor blockade. Administration of guanethidine (which inhibits further release of NA and neuropeptide Y) after PA abolished this residual sympathetic response. 32 refs.

Edwall, B.; Gazelius, B.

1988-01-01

124

Effects of the ?-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine, and Idazoxan on sympathetic blood flow control in the periodontal ligament of the cat  

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Blood flow changes in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured indirectly by monitoring the local clearance of 125I- during electric sympathetic nerve stimulation or close intra-arterial infusions of either noradrenaline (NA) or adrenaline (ADR) before and after administration of phentolamine (PA), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) or Idazoxan (RX). At the doses used in the present study, PA was the only antagonist that significantly reduced the blood flow decrease seen on activation of sympathetic fibers, although PBZ also reduced this response. Idazoxan, however, did not induce the consistent effect on blood flow decreases seen on sympathetic activation. All three ?-adrenoceptor antagonists almost abolished the effects of exogenously administered NA and ADR. The results suggest the presence of functional post-junctional adrenoceptors of both the ? 1 and ? 2 subtypes in the sympathetic regulation of the blood flow in the PDL of the cat. A component of the response elicited by electrical sympathetic stimulation appeared to be resistant to ?-adrenoceptor blockade. Administration of guanethidine (which inhibits further release of NA and neuropeptide Y) after PA abolished this residual sympathetic response

125

Ex vivo bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene delivery using periodontal ligament stem cells for enhanced re-osseointegration in the regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis.  

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Peri-implantitis is a chronic inflammatory process with advanced bone loss and impaired healing potential. For peri-implantitis treatment, tissue engineering can be applied to enhance bone regeneration of peri-implant defects. This study aimed to evaluate ex vivo bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene delivery using canine periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) for regeneration of peri-implantitis defects. Canine PDLSCs were transduced with adenoviral vectors containing BMP2 (BMP2/PDLSCs). After peri-implantitis was induced by ligature placement in six beagle dogs, regenerative procedures were performed; hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and collagen gel with autologous canine PDLSCs (PDLSC group) or BMP2/PDLSCs (BMP/PDLSC group) or without cells (control group) were grafted into the defects and covered by an absorbable membrane. Three months later, the animals were sacrificed. In vitro, BMP2/PDLSCs showed similar levels of stem cell properties to PDLSCs, such as colony-forming efficiency and expression of MSC markers STRO-1 and CD 146. BMP2/PDLSCs produced BMP-2 until day 21 at a concentration of 4-8 ng/mL. In vivo, the BMP2/PDLSC group showed significantly more new bone formation and re-osseointegration in peri-implantitis defects compared to the other groups. In conclusion, ex vivo BMP2 gene delivery using PDLSCs enhanced new bone formation and re-osseointegration in peri-implantitis defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 38-47, 2015. PMID:24616330

Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Gwak, Eun-Hye; Rhee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Shin, Seung-Yun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lee, Yong-Moo; Seol, Yang-Jo

2015-01-01

126

Biomechanical adaptation of the bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joint as a consequence of disease.  

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In this study, an in vivo ligature-induced periodontitis rat model was used to investigate temporal changes to the solid and fluid phases of the joint by correlating shifts in joint biomechanics to adaptive changes in soft and hard tissue morphology and functional space. After 6 and 12 weeks of ligation, coronal regions showed a significant decrease in alveolar crest height, increased expression of TNF-?, and degradation of attachment fibers as indicated by decreased collagen birefringence. Cyclical compression to peak loads of 5-15N at speeds of 0.2-2.0mm/min followed by load relaxation tests showed decreased stiffness and reactionary load rate values, load relaxation, and load recoverability, of ligated joints. Shifts in joint stiffness and reactionary load rate increased with time while shifts in joint relaxation and recoverability decreased between control and ligated groups, complementing measurements of increased tooth displacement as evaluated through digital image correlation. Shifts in functional space between control and ligated joints were significantly increased at the interradicular (?10-25?m) and distal coronal (?20-45?m) regions. Histology revealed time-dependent increases in nuclei elongation within PDL cells and collagen fiber alignment, uncrimping, and directionality, in 12-week ligated joints compared to random orientation in 6-week ligated joints and to controls. We propose that altered strains from tooth hypermobility could cause varying degrees of solid-to-fluid compaction, alter dampening characteristics of the joint, and potentiate increased adaptation at the risk of joint failure. PMID:24332618

Lin, Jeremy D; Lee, Jihyun; Ozcoban, Hüseyin; Schneider, Gerold A; Ho, Sunita P

2014-06-27

127

Exposure to transforming growth factor-?1 after basic fibroblast growth factor promotes the fibroblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cell lines.  

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Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine that promotes the regeneration of the periodontium, the specialized tissues supporting the teeth. bFGF, does not, however, induce the synthesis of smooth muscle actin alpha 2 (ACTA2), type I collagen (COL1), or COL3, which are principal molecules in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue, a component of the periodontium. We have suggested the feasibility of using transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF?1) to induce fibroblastic differentiation of PDL stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs). Here, we investigated the effect of the subsequent application of TGF?1 after bFGF (bFGF/TGF?1) on the differentiation of PDLSCs into fibroblastic cells. We first confirmed the expression of bFGF and TGF?1 in rat PDL tissue and primary human PDL cells. Receptors for both bFGF and TGF?1 were expressed in the human PDLSC lines 1-11 and 1-17. Exposure to bFGF for 2 days promoted vascular endothelial growth factor gene and protein expression in both cell lines and down-regulated the expression of ACTA2, COL1, and COL3 mRNA in both cell lines and the gene fibrillin 1 (FBN1) in cell line 1-11 alone. Furthermore, bFGF stimulated cell proliferation of these cell lines and significantly increased the number of cells in phase G2/M in the cell lines. Exposure to TGF?1 for 2 days induced gene expression of ACTA2 and COL1 in both cell lines and FBN1 in cell line 1-11 alone. BFGF/TGF?1 treatment significantly up-regulated ACTA2, COL1, and FBN1 expression as compared with the group treated with bFGF alone or the untreated control. This method might thus be useful for accelerating the generation and regeneration of functional periodontium. PMID:23324989

Kono, Kiyomi; Maeda, Hidefumi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naohide; Wada, Naohisa; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Teramatsu, Yoko; Hamano, Sayuri; Koori, Katsuaki; Akamine, Akifumi

2013-05-01

128

Bone regeneration potential of stem cells derived from periodontal ligament or gingival tissue sources encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate scaffold.  

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an advantageous alternative therapeutic option for bone regeneration in comparison to current treatment modalities. However, delivering MSCs to the defect site while maintaining a high MSC survival rate is still a critical challenge in MSC-mediated bone regeneration. Here, we tested the bone regeneration capacity of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) encapsulated in a novel RGD- (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide) coupled alginate microencapsulation system in vitro and in vivo. Five-millimeter-diameter critical-size calvarial defects were created in immunocompromised mice and PDLSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate microspheres were transplanted into the defect sites. New bone formation was assessed using microcomputed tomography and histological analyses 8 weeks after transplantation. Results confirmed that our microencapsulation system significantly enhanced MSC viability and osteogenic differentiation in vitro compared with non-RGD-containing alginate hydrogel microspheres with larger diameters. Results confirmed that PDLSCs were able to repair the calvarial defects by promoting the formation of mineralized tissue, while GMSCs showed significantly lower osteogenic differentiation capability. Further, results revealed that RGD-coupled alginate scaffold facilitated the differentiation of oral MSCs toward an osteoblast lineage in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by expression of osteogenic markers Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin. In conclusion, these results for the first time demonstrated that MSCs derived from orofacial tissue encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate scaffold show promise for craniofacial bone regeneration. This treatment modality has many potential dental and orthopedic applications. PMID:24070211

Moshaverinia, Alireza; Chen, Chider; Xu, Xingtian; Akiyama, Kentaro; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Shi, Songtao

2014-02-01

129

The time-dependent biomechanical behaviour of the periodontal ligament--an in vitro experimental study in minipig mandibular two-rooted premolars.  

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The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biomechanical behaviour of the periodontal ligament (PDL) with respect to force development with different controlled loading velocities. For this purpose, an in vitro experimental study was performed on 18 minipig jaw segments. Displacements with variable increasing loading time were applied to one premolar crown of each jaw segment into the linguobuccal direction through a force sensor provided by a specialized biomechanical set-up. The predefined displacement values to be achieved were 0.1 and 0.2 mm. Each of the given displacement increments was applied on the specimens with a linear displacement increase employing the following time spans: 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, 300, 450, and 600 seconds. Force values were measured during load application to register force/displacement diagrams and after the maximum displacement was reached force decay was monitored for a period of 600 seconds. Force/time curves for each tooth were plotted according to the data obtained. Diagrams of the maximum force values obtained from these plots and the force at the end of each measurement were extracted for all teeth. Forces at the point when maximum displacement was reached ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 N for the 0.1 mm activation and showed extreme variation with the specimens. The factor of volume and surface area of the individual roots were evaluated and found not to be responsible for these deviations. A comparable behaviour was recorded for the 0.2 mm deflection, however, on a higher force level. The results show that the force development at different displacement velocities is complex and dominated by the PDL biomechanical characteristics. PMID:22109942

Papadopoulou, Konstantina; Keilig, Ludger; Eliades, Theodore; Krause, Rolf; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

2014-02-01

130

Expression of P2X7 ATP receptor mediating the IL8 and CCL20 release in human periodontal ligament stem cells.  

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ATP is released by human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and has been shown to regulate PDL regeneration and responses to mechanical stress through activation of P2Y receptors. This nucleotide, however, has also been reported to trigger the pro-inflammatory cascade by inducing the maturation and/or release of chemokines/cytokines from various cell types mainly via P2X7 receptors. Much less is known on the possible role of ATP in stem cells deriving from PDL (hPDLSCs) which are considered to be a promising tool for cell-based therapy to restore lesions. Given the role played by P2X7 in pathophysiological conditions, in this study we investigated the expression of P2X7 ATP receptors in hPDLSCs. The results obtained showed that hPDLSCs express P2X7 receptors evaluated by means of cytofluorimetric, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-PCR, and Western blot analyses. P2X7 ligation by 2',3'-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP), a specific receptor agonist, was followed by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and in the uptake of ethidium bromide. These effects were dramatically reduced by oxidized ATP (oATP), the P2X7 irreversible inhibitor, suggesting that the P2X7 is the functional receptor involved. At 24 h treatment of hPDLSCs with BzATP it enhanced the release of the pro-inflammatory agents IL8 and CCL20, without influencing cell viability. These effects were counteracted by pre-treating the cells with oATP or with A-740003, a selective and potent P2X7 competitive antagonist. Collectively, these results indicated that extracellular ATP mediate a pro-inflammatory response via P2X7 receptors in hPDLSCs opening a further approach to control hPDLSCs behavior in their possible application as therapeutic tool. PMID:24851271

Trubiani, Oriana; Horenstein, Alberto L; Caciagli, Francesco; Caputi, Sergio; Malavasi, Fabio; Ballerini, Patrizia

2014-06-01

131

Identification of factors mediating the decrease of alkaline phosphatase activity caused by tension-force in periodontal ligament cells.  

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1. We examined the factors which mediate the decrease of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human peridontal ligament (PDL) cells in response to cyclic tension-force. 2. ALP activity in human PDL cells obtained from three donors in response to cyclic tension-force (24% elongation) was 43% lower than that of the corresponding control. 3. ALP activity was decreased by the addition of conditioned medium obtained from the culture of the cells exposed to tension-force. 4. The inhibitory effect of the conditioned medium on ALP activity was partially abolished in the presence of indomethacin (10(-6) M) and IL-1 beta antibody (10 ng/well). Moreover it was almost completely abolished in the presence of both indomethacin and IL-1 beta antibody. 5. Treatment of PDL cells with exogenous PGE2 or IL-1 beta for 24 hr caused a dose-dependent decrease in ALP activity. Treatment with both PGE2 (10(-8) M) and IL-1 beta (1.25 x 10(-10) M) together decreased ALP activity by 47% compared with the non-treated control. 6. These findings suggest that ALP activity in PDL cells was decreased in response to the cyclic tension-force and that the decrease in ALP activity was mainly mediated by PGE2 and IL-1 beta produced by PDL cells in response to cyclic tension-force. PMID:7875549

Yamaguchi, M; Shimizu, N

1994-10-01

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Inhibitory effects of baicalin on IL-1beta- induced MMP-1/TIMP-1 and its stimulated effect on collagen-I production in human periodontal ligament cells.  

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Our previous research has proved that baicalin can inhibit the expression of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) by cell immunocytochemistry. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address the effects of baicalin on the total protein amount and Collagen I mRNA expression in PDLC, and the regulatory effects on Matrix metalloproteinase-1/ tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1( MMP-1/ TIMP-1 ) expression. PDLC were incubated with 0-1000 ng/ml baicalin for 1, 3 and 5 days. Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining was used to detect the synthesis of the total protein, and the collagen I mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PDLC were treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) with or without 100 ng/ml baicalin and then mRNA levels for MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were detected. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the MMP-1 protein. The range of 1-1000 ng/ml baicalin can enhance the amount of the total protein of PDL cells and the response had a dose-dependent manner in the range of 1-100 ng/ml baicalin. And 0-1000 ng/ml baicalin also significantly increased the Collagen I mRNA expression of PDLC. 1-100 pmol/ml PMA and 0.01-1 ng/ml IL-1beta significantly (pPDLC at both the transcriptional and the translational level. Different concentration PMA enhanced TIMP-1 mRNA expression, but IL-1beta did not affect the TIMP-1 mRNA expression. Moreover, in the presence of 100 ng/ml baicalin, both the MMP-1 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression were down regulated. The present study suggests that baicalin inhibits IL-1beta induction of MMP-1 by altering the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, baicalin may increase Collagen I mRNA and total protein levels in PDLC. PMID:20471972

Cao, Zhengguo; Li, Chengzhang; Zhu, Guangxun

2010-09-01

133

Integrins in periodontal disease.  

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Cell surface integrin receptors mediate cell adhesion, migration and cellular signaling in all nucleated cells. They are activated by binding to extracellular ligands or by intracellular proteins, such as kindlins that engage with their cytoplasmic tails. Cells in the periodontal tissues express several integrins with overlapping ligand-binding capabilities. A distinct phenotype in the periodontium has only been described for knockouts or mutations of three integrin subunits, ?11, ?6 and ?2. Integrin ?11?1 appears to have some regulatory function in the periodontal ligament of continuously erupting incisors in mice. Integrin ?v?6 is expressed in the junctional epithelium (JE) of the gingiva. Animals deficient in this receptor develop classical signs of periodontal disease, including inflammation, apical migration of the JE and bone loss, suggesting that it plays a role in the regulation of periodontal inflmmation, likely through activation of transforming growth factor-?1. Lack of integrin activation in the JE is also associated with periodontitis. Patients with kindlin-1 mutations have severe early-onset periodontal disease. Finally, patients with mutations in the leukocyte-specific ?2 integrin subunit have severe periodontal problems due to lack of transiting neutrophils in the periodontal tissues. PMID:24662197

Larjava, Hannu; Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari

2014-07-15

134

An investigation of dentinal fluid flow in dental pulp during food mastication: simulation of fluid-structure interaction.  

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This study uses fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation to investigate the relationship between the dentinal fluid flow in the dental pulp of a tooth and the elastic modulus of masticated food particles and to investigate the effects of chewing rate on fluid flow in the dental pulp. Three-dimensional simulation models of a premolar tooth (enamel, dentine, pulp, periodontal ligament, cortical bone, and cancellous bone) and food particle were created. Food particles with elastic modulus of 2,000 and 10,000 MPa were used, respectively. The external displacement loading (5 ?m) was gradually directed to the food particle surface for 1 and 0.1 s, respectively, to simulate the chewing of food particles. The displacement and stress on tooth structure and fluid flow in the dental pulp were selected as evaluation indices. The results show that masticating food with a high elastic modulus results in high stress and deformation in the tooth structure, causing faster dentinal fluid flow in the pulp in comparison with that obtained with soft food. In addition, fast chewing of hard food particles can induce faster fluid flow in the pulp, which may result in dental pain. FSI analysis is shown to be a useful tool for investigating dental biomechanics during food mastication. FSI simulation can be used to predict intrapulpal fluid flow in dental pulp; this information may provide the clinician with important concept in dental biomechanics during food mastication. PMID:23913183

Su, Kuo-Chih; Chuang, Shu-Fen; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Chang, Chih-Han

2014-06-01

135

Evolution of periodontal regeneration: from the roots’ point of view  

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Tissues lost as a consequence of periodontal diseases, i.e. bone, cementum and a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), can be restored to some degree. Nevertheless, results are often disappointing. There is a need to develop new paradigms for regenerating periodontal tissues that are based on an understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the development and regeneration of periodontal tissues. As one approach we have developed strategies for maintaining cementoblasts i...

Somerman, M. J.; Ouyang, H. J.; Berry, J. E.; Saygin, N. E.; Strayhorn, C. L.; D’errico, J. A.; Hullinger, T.; Giannobile, W. V.

1999-01-01

136

Mechano-transduction in periodontal ligament cells identifies activated states of MAP-kinases p42/44 and p38-stress kinase as a mechanism for MMP-13 expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechano-transduction in periodontal ligament (PDL cells is crucial for physiological and orthodontic tooth movement-associated periodontal remodelling. On the mechanistic level, molecules involved in this mechano-transduction process in PDL cells are not yet completely elucidated. Results In the present study we show by western blot (WB analysis and/or indirect immunofluorescence (IIF that mechanical strain modulates the amount of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-13, and induces non-coherent modulation in the amount and activity of signal transducing molecules, such as FAK, MAP-kinases p42/44, and p38 stress kinase, suggesting their mechanistic role in mechano-transduction. Increase in the amount of FAK occurs concomitant with increased levels of the focal contact integrin subunits ?3 and ?1, as indicated by WB or optionally by IIF. By employing specific inhibitors, we further identified p42/44 and p38 in their activated, i.e. phosphorylated state responsible for the expression of MMP-13. This finding may point to the obedience in the expression of this MMP as extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling executioner from the activation state of mechano-transducing molecules. mRNA analysis by pathway-specific RT-profiler arrays revealed up- and/or down-regulation of genes assigning to MAP-kinase signalling and cell cycle, ECM and integrins and growth factors. Up-regulated genes include for example focal contact integrin subunit ?3, MMP-12, MAP-kinases and associated kinases, and the transcription factor c-fos, the latter as constituent of the AP1-complex addressing the MMP-13 promotor. Among others, genes down-regulated are those of COL-1 and COL-14, suggesting that strain-dependent mechano-transduction may transiently perturbate ECM homeostasis. Conclusions Strain-dependent mechano-/signal-transduction in PDL cells involves abundance and activity of FAK, MAP-kinases p42/44, and p38 stress kinase in conjunction with the amount of MMP-13, and integrin subunits ?1 and ?3. Identifying the activated state of p42/44 and p38 as critical for MMP-13 expression may indicate the mechanistic contribution of mechano-transducing molecules on executioners of ECM homeostasis.

Kohl Annette

2010-01-01

137

Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells  

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Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca2+Cao2+ has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Cao2+ signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Cao2+ increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca2+ increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca2+ channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca2+, suggesting that the Ca2+ influx from Ca2+ channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca2+-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr2+ and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Cao2+ to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Cao2+ among cations.

138

Enamel matrix protein derivatives: role in periodontal regeneration  

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Full Text Available Vandana J RathvaDepartment of Periodontics, KM Shah Dental College and Hospital, Sumandeep University, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: The role of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of lost periodontal structures, ie, new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The outcome of basic research has pointed to the important role of enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD in periodontal wound healing. Histologic results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of this paper is to review the existing literature on EMD.Keywords: enamel matrix protein derivative, Emdogain®, periodontal regeneration

Rathva VJ

2011-12-01

139

An endodontic-periodontal lesion with primary periodontal disease: a case report on its bacterial profile.  

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The microflora in the periodontal pockets can affect the dental pulp and cause endodontic-periodontal lesions or retrograde pulpitis. Here we report an endodontic-periodontal lesion together with its bacterial profile. The lesion occurred in the maxillary right first molar of a 40-year-old woman who presented at our hospital complaining of a violent toothache since the previous night. Clinically, the tooth was caries-free and an electric pulp test showed it to be vital. The tooth showed signs of advanced periodontitis and the periodontal pocket was deep, reaching the apex of the palatal root. The clinical diagnosis was an endodontic-periodontal lesion with primary periodontal disease. Subsequent endodontic treatment comprised pulp extirpation and root canal filling, followed by periodontal treatment consisting of scaling and root planing. The tooth was finally restored with a full metal crown. No further signs of periodontal disease or periapical lesions have been observed to date. Bacteria were sampled from the root canal and periodontal pocket for a microbiological assessment using 16S rRNA gene-based PCR. Microbiologically, the profile of the bacterial species from the palatal root canal was similar to that from the periodontal pocket of the palatal root. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Eikenella corrodens were detected in both samples. The occurrence of bacteria common to both sites in this patient further supports the proposition that periodontal disease is the definitive source of root canal infections. The present results suggest that a bacterial examination would be helpful in confirming and supporting the clinical diagnosis in such lesions. PMID:24717928

Fujii, Rie; Muramatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Asai, Tomohiro; Aida, Natsuko; Suehara, Masataka; Morinaga, Kazuki; Furusawa, Masahiro

2014-01-01

140

Potential Role of Dentin Sialoprotein by Inducing Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Mineralization for Dental Tissue Repair  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Dentin sialoprotein (DSP is a dentin extracellular matrix protein, a unique marker of dentinogenesis and plays a vital role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin mineralization. Recently, studies have shown that DSP induces differentiation and mineralization of periodontal ligament stem cells and dental papilla mesenchymal cells in vitro and rescues dentin deficiency and increases enamel mineralization in animal models.The hypothesis: DSP as a nature therapeutic agent stimulates dental tissue repair by inducing endogenous dental pulp mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells into odontoblast-like cells to synthesize and to secrete dentin extracellular matrix forming new tertiary dentin as well as to regenerate a functional dentin-pulp complex. As DSP is a nature protein, and clinical procedure for DSP therapy is easy and simple, application of DSP may provide a new avenue for dentists with additional option for the treatment of substantially damaged vital teeth.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Dental caries is the most common dental disease. Deep caries and pulp exposure have been treated by various restorative materials with limited success. One promising approach is dental pulp stem/progenitor-based therapies to regenerate dentin-pulp complex and restore its functions by DSP induction in vivo.

Zhi Chen

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Immunomodulatory and potential therapeutic role of mesenchymal stem cells in periodontitis.  

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Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to alveolar bone destruction, and eventually tooth loss. In genetically or environmentally predisposed individuals periodontopathogenic bacteria trigger an inflammatory immune response where activated macrophages secrete inflammatory cytokines and T helper 17 cells produce interleukin-17, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-?. Inflammation and the production of RANKL, the key cytokine responsible for osteoclast activation, cause excessive activation of osteoclasts. This results in a decoupling between bone formation and resorption, leading to bone loss. As conventional treatment does not target the inflammatory response and osteoclast activation, its effectiveness is limited. Novel treatments are thus required if we are to cure this disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including those of dental origin, are potent immunomodulators and are known to be suitable for tissue regeneration. MSCs can inhibit the immune response by suppressing T cells, inducing regulatory T cells and converting dendritic cells and macrophages into a regulatory phenotype. Additionally, genetic modulation may enhance the therapeutic potential of MSCs. In the present review the authors describe the potential use of MSCs, either unmodified or engineered for therapeutic purposes in periodontitis, with special emphasis on MSCs from dental pulp and periodontal ligament. The paper envisions that multiple targeting of this inflammatory disease by modulating the immune response, promoting bone regeneration and inhibiting bone resorption might yield significantly improved treatment outcomes when combined with conventional treatment modalities. PMID:24930504

Racz, G Z; Kadar, K; Foldes, A; Kallo, K; Perczel-Kovach, K; Keremi, B; Nagy, A; Varga, G

2014-06-01

142

TGF-?-Operated Growth Inhibition and Translineage Commitment into Smooth Muscle Cells of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells through Smad- and p38 MAPK-Dependent Signals  

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Full Text Available The periodontal ligament (PDL is a fibrous connective tissue that attaches the tooth to the alveolar bone. We previously demonstrated the ability of PDL fibroblast-like cells to construct an endothelial cell (EC marker-positive blood vessel-like structure, indicating the potential of fibroblastic lineage cells in PDL tissue as precursors of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs to facilitate the construction of a vascular system around damaged PDL tissue. A vascular regeneration around PDL tissue needs proliferation of vascular progenitor cells and the subsequent differentiation of the cells. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-? is known as an inducer of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT, however, it remains to be clarified what kinds of TGF-? signals affect growth and mesenchymal differentiation of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Here, we demonstrated that TGF-?1 not only suppressed the proliferation of the PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells, but also induced smooth muscle cell (SMC markers expression in the cells. On the other hand, TGF-?1 stimulation suppressed EC marker expression. Intriguingly, overexpression of Smad7, an inhibitor for TGF-?-induced Smad-dependent signaling, suppressed the TGF-?1-induced growth inhibition and SMC markers expression, but did not the TGF-?1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In contrast, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor SB 203580 suppressed the TGF-?1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In addition, the TGF-?1-induced SMC markers expression of the PDL-derived cells was reversed upon stimulation with fibroblast growth factor (FGF, suggesting that the TGF-?1 might not induce terminal SMC differentiation of the EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Thus, TGF-?1 not only negatively controls the growth of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells via a Smad-dependent manner but also positively controls the SMC-differentiation of the cells possibly at the early stage of the translineage commitment via Smad- and p38 MAPK-dependent manners.

Mariko Yoshida, Naoto Okubo, Naoyuki Chosa, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Miho Ibi, Masaharu Kamo, Seiko Kyakumoto, Akira Ishisaki

2012-01-01

143

Uncovering the molecular networks in periodontitis.  

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Periodontitis is a complex immune-inflammatory disease that results from a preestablished infection in gingiva, mainly due to Gram-negative bacteria that colonize deeper in gingival sulcus and latter periodontal pocket. Host inflammatory and immune responses have both protective and destructive roles. Although cytokines, prostaglandins, and proteases struggle against microbial burden, these molecules promote connective tissue loss and alveolar bone resorption, leading to several histopathological changes, namely destruction of periodontal ligament, deepening of periodontal pocket, and bone loss, which can converge to attain tooth loss. Despite the efforts of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics/peptidomics, and metabolomics, there is no available biomarker for periodontitis diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment evaluation, which could assist on the established clinical evaluation. Nevertheless, some genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites have already shown a different expression in healthy subjects and in patients. Though, so far, 'omics approaches only disclosed the host inflammatory response as a consequence of microbial invasion in periodontitis and the diagnosis in periodontitis still relies on clinical parameters, thus a molecular tool for assessing periodontitis lacks in current dental medicine paradigm. Saliva and gingival crevicular fluid have been attracting researchers due to their diagnostic potential, ease, and noninvasive nature of collection. Each one of these fluids has some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed in this review. PMID:24828325

Trindade, Fábio; Oppenheim, Frank G; Helmerhorst, Eva J; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Pedro S; Vitorino, Rui

2014-10-01

144

Emdogain in regenerative periodontal therapy. A review of the literature.  

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The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i.e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of the enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in the periodontal wound healing. Histological results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of the current overview is to present, based on the existing evidence, the clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD. Surgical periodontal treatment of deep intrabony defects with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. The application of EMD in the context of non-surgical periodontal therapy has failed to result in periodontal regeneration. Surgical periodontal therapy of deep intrabony defects with EMD may lead to significantly higher improvements of the clinical parameters than open flap debridement alone. The results obtained following treatment with EMD are comparable to those following treatment with GTR and can be maintained over a longer period. Treatment of intrabony defects with a combination of EMD + GTR does not seem to additionally improve the results compared to treatment with EMD alone or GTR alone. The combination of EMD and some types of bone grafts/bone substitutes may result in certain improvements in the soft and hard tissue parameters compared to treatment with EMD alone. Treatment of recession-type defects with coronally repositioned flaps and EMD may promote formation of cementum, periodontal ligament and bone, and may significantly increase the width of the keratinized tissue. Application of EMD seems to provide better long-term results than coronally repositioned flaps alone. Application of EMD may enhance periodontal regeneration in mandibular Class II furcations. The clinical results are comparable to those obtained following GTR. PMID:18078142

Sculean, Anton; Windisch, Péter; Döri, Ferenc; Keglevich, Tibor; Molnár, Balint; Gera, István

2007-10-01

145

Regeneração periodontal em cães / Periodontal regeneration in dogs  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A doença periodontal pode ser definida como a condição inflamatória dos tecidos de suporte do dente em resposta ao acúmulo do biofilme. A consequencia é a formação de graves defeitos ósseos, devido à perda dos tecidos periodontais, levando, em última instância, à perda dos dentes, predisposição a fr [...] aturas de mandíbula e formação de comunicações oronasais. O principal tratamento é a prevenção, incluindo a escovação dentária diária e a profilaxia periodontal, procedimento realizado pelo médico veterinário para remoção do biofilme e cálculo dentário acumulados. A recuperação dos tecidos perdidos, ou seja, a regeneração periodontal, é um processo mais complexo, pois envolve a formação de três tecidos intimamente ligados: osso alveolar, ligamento periodontal e cemento. Assim, diversos materiais e técnicas foram e são constantemente desenvolvidos, incluindo membranas para regeneração tecidual guiada e a aplicação de enxertos e biomateriais, amplamente estudados na odontologia humana e já disponíveis para aplicação na rotina clínica veterinária. Adicionalmente, novas possibilidades surgem com a associação dessas técnicas a fatores de crescimento e células-tronco e o desenvolvimento das membranas multifuncionais. Abstract in english Periodontal disease can be defined as the inflammatory condition of the tooth-supportive tissues as a response to biofilm accumulation. The consequence is the formation of severe bone defects due to the loss of periodontal tissues that ultimately lead to tooth loss, predispose to mandible fractures [...] and formation of oronasal communications. The main treatment is prevention, including daily tooth brushing and periodontal prophylaxis, a procedure done by veterinaries to remove retained biofilm and calculus. Recovering lost tissues, i.e. periodontal regeneration, is a more complex process involving the formation of three tissues highly connected: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. Therefore, several materials and techniques were and are constantly developed, including membranes for guided tissue regeneration and the application of bone grafts and biomaterials, widely studied in human dentistry and already available for veterinary practice. Additionally, new possibilities rise with the association of these techniques to growth factors and stem cells and the development of multifunctional membranes.

Emily Correna Carlo, Reis; Andréa Pacheco Batista, Borges; Ricardo Junqueira, Del Carlo.

2128-21-01

146

Regeneração periodontal em cães Periodontal regeneration in dogs  

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Full Text Available A doença periodontal pode ser definida como a condição inflamatória dos tecidos de suporte do dente em resposta ao acúmulo do biofilme. A consequencia é a formação de graves defeitos ósseos, devido à perda dos tecidos periodontais, levando, em última instância, à perda dos dentes, predisposição a fraturas de mandíbula e formação de comunicações oronasais. O principal tratamento é a prevenção, incluindo a escovação dentária diária e a profilaxia periodontal, procedimento realizado pelo médico veterinário para remoção do biofilme e cálculo dentário acumulados. A recuperação dos tecidos perdidos, ou seja, a regeneração periodontal, é um processo mais complexo, pois envolve a formação de três tecidos intimamente ligados: osso alveolar, ligamento periodontal e cemento. Assim, diversos materiais e técnicas foram e são constantemente desenvolvidos, incluindo membranas para regeneração tecidual guiada e a aplicação de enxertos e biomateriais, amplamente estudados na odontologia humana e já disponíveis para aplicação na rotina clínica veterinária. Adicionalmente, novas possibilidades surgem com a associação dessas técnicas a fatores de crescimento e células-tronco e o desenvolvimento das membranas multifuncionais.Periodontal disease can be defined as the inflammatory condition of the tooth-supportive tissues as a response to biofilm accumulation. The consequence is the formation of severe bone defects due to the loss of periodontal tissues that ultimately lead to tooth loss, predispose to mandible fractures and formation of oronasal communications. The main treatment is prevention, including daily tooth brushing and periodontal prophylaxis, a procedure done by veterinaries to remove retained biofilm and calculus. Recovering lost tissues, i.e. periodontal regeneration, is a more complex process involving the formation of three tissues highly connected: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. Therefore, several materials and techniques were and are constantly developed, including membranes for guided tissue regeneration and the application of bone grafts and biomaterials, widely studied in human dentistry and already available for veterinary practice. Additionally, new possibilities rise with the association of these techniques to growth factors and stem cells and the development of multifunctional membranes.

Emily Correna Carlo Reis

2011-12-01

147

Clinical evaluation of endodotic therapy on periodontal tissue healing in chronic advanced periodontitis  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There is a controversy about the relationship between pulpal and periodontal diseases. The interrelationship between pulp and periodontium could have an important effect on the treatment plan of the tooth. Purpose: The aim of the present research is to evaluate root canal therapy effects on periodontal healing of teeth with chronic advanced periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial 32 single rooted teeth which had necrotic pulp or irreversible pulpitis in 7 patients with chronic advanced periodontitis were selected based on specific criteria. Using a split mouth design, teeth were randomly put in two groups of test and control. In the test group root canal therapy ,scaling & root planing were done.In the control group, only scaling & root planing were performed. Clinical parameters including Pocket Depth (PD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL, mobility, pattern of bone destruction and plaque index (PI were evaluated in two groups at base line, 1 and 3 months after treatment. Appropriate tests such as paired Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney were performed. Results: Statistically significant reductions were found in the test group when comparing baseline and one-month post treatment values for Clinical Attachment level (CAL but not after 3-months. In the control group the CAL reductions were not statistically significant between baseline and one month post-treatment, but a increase were observed between one month and three months after treatment. There was a statstically significant difference between the test and the control groups. Other parameters didn’t show any significant differences in each group and between two groups. Conclusion: Since clinical attachment level was the most important parameter we found it can high lighted the role of pathogene with pulpal origin in progression of periodeontal disease and it is concluded that beside periodontal treatment in some advanced periodontal cases pulp therapy maybe an effective procedure for eleminating destructive pathogens of pulp and causing periodontal healing.

Sadeghi R.

2004-08-01

148

A review on periodontitis versus endodontics  

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Full Text Available Periodontitis (pair-e-o-don-TI-tis may be a serious gum infection that destroys the soft tissue and bone that support your teeth and endodontics is focused on the detection and treatment of pulp diseases as well. Disease will cause tooth loss or worse, associate with nursing inflated risk of heart failure or stroke and different serious health issues. Endodontics or periodontitis is however common for the most parts preventable. Disease is sometimes the result of poor oral hygiene. Daily brushing and flossing and regular skilled dental cleanings will greatly cut back your probability of developing disease. The purpose of the current review is to explore the important role for periodontitis/endodontics prevention in oral hygiene and health as well. In this review periodontitis/endodontics will be discussed in details in all aspects.

Mohammad Salarpour

2013-11-01

149

Periodontal biomechanics: finite element simulations of closing stroke and power stroke in equine cheek teeth  

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Abstract Background In equine dentistry periodontal diseases, especially periapical inflammation, are frequently occurring problems. Anachoresis is believed to be the most common cause for the development of such disorders. Nevertheless, there is still no substantiated explanation why settlement of pathogen microorganisms occurs in equine periodontal tissues. It is expected that excessive strains and stresses occurring in the periodontal ligament (PDL) during the horse’s ch...

Lüpke Matthias; Gardemin Moritz; Seifert Hermann; Staszyk Carsten

2012-01-01

150

Analysis of the dentin-pulp complex in teeth submitted to orthodontic movement in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to microscopically analyze the pulpal effects of orthodontic movement, 49 maxillary first molars of rats were submitted to orthodontic appliance composed of a closed coil spring anchored to the maxillary incisors, placed for the achievement of mesial movement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten anim [...] als were used as the control group and were not submitted to orthodontic force; the other animals were divided into groups according to the study period of tooth movement, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The investigation of pulp and periodontal changes included hyalinization, fibrosis, reactive dentin and vascular congestion. Statistical evaluation was performed between control and experimental groups and between periods of observation using non-parametric chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference concerning pulpal changes between control and experimental groups nor between periods of observation. The control group, at 3 and 5 days, revealed greater hyalinization of the periodontal ligament (p

Camila da Siveira, Massaro; Renata Bianco, Consolaro; Milton, Santamaria Junior; Maria Fernanda Martins-Ortiz, Consolaro; Alberto, Consolaro.

151

Periodontal Probe Improves Exams, Alleviates Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension measurements (Spinoff 2005). This ultrasound measurement system was adapted to the Periodontal Structures Mapping System, invented at Langley by John A. Companion, under the supervision of Dr. Joseph S. Heyman. Support of the research and development that led to this invention was provided by NASA s Technology Applications Engineering Program and by the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, in Great Lakes, Illinois.

2008-01-01

152

Comparison of the Amount of IL-1ß in Periodontally Involved Patients’ Saliva and Healthy Subjects  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Periodontitis is a chronic multi-factorial infectious disease,characterized by irreversible destruction of collagen fibers and other matrix constituents of the gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and resorption of the alveolar bone around the teeth with formation of periodontal pocket. Cytokines such as IL-1? are one of the components of host’s immune system and seem to play an important role in periodontitisPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of IL-1? as a per-inflammatory cytokine in the saliva of periodontally involved patients (generalized aggressive periodontitis and mild to moderate periodontitis and subjects with normal periodontium.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, unstimulated saliva of 24 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis, 15 patients with aggressive periodontitis, and 23 subjects with healthy periodontium was collected. The concentration of IL-1? was measured in the saliva samples by ELISA. Mann-Whitney test was used for analysis of data.Results: The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between mean level of IL-1ß in generalized aggressive periodontitis vs. control groups and chronic mild to moderate periodontitis vs. control groups ( p <0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the mean concentration of IL-1ß in the saliva of periodontally involved patients was greater than that of healthy subjects and this cytokine can be agood marker for determining the status of periodontal tissues.

Azizi A.

2012-02-01

153

Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells  

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Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

Tada, Hiroyuki [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@umin.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

2010-04-16

154

An endodontic conundrum: the association between pulpal infection and periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the classification of periodontal-endodontic lesions and considers the pathways through which inflammatory lesions or bacteria may communicate between the pulp and the periodontium. Such communications have previously underpinned the classification of periodontal-endodontic lesions but a more up-to-date approach is to focus specifically on those lesions that originate concurrently as pulpal infection (and necrosis) and periodontal disease on the affected teeth. In doing so, both conventional periodontal and endodontic treatments are indicated for the affected teeth, although more complex management strategies may occasionally be indicated. PMID:24651332

Heasman, P A

2014-03-01

155

Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

Stewart, Chris

2009-01-01

156

Mini Review: The Epithelial Cell Rests of Malassez: A Role in Periodontal Regeneration?  

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Full Text Available This article reviews general aspects about the epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM. The historical and general morphological features of the ERM are briefly described. The embryological derivation of the ERM is presented as an important consideration in understanding the events associated with their origin and possible functional roles within the periodontal ligament. The ultrastructural description of the ERM is also included to complement the morphological characteristics which distinguish these cells as the unique epithelial element of the periodontal ligament. The unique ability of these cells to synthesize and secrete a number of proteins usually associated with cells of mesenchymal origin, rather than ectodermal origin. Such considerations lead to our hypothesis that one of the functional roles of the ERM may lie not only their role in maintaining and contributing to the normal periodontal cellular elements and function but also contributing, in a significant manner, to periodontal regeneration.

Julio C. Rincón

2009-12-01

157

HMGB1 Localization during Experimental Periodontitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. This study sought to investigate the in vitro expression profile of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in murine periodontal ligament fibroblasts (mPDL) stimulated with LPS or IL-1? and in vivo during ligature- or LPS-induced periodontitis in rats. Material and Methods. For the in vivo study, 36 rats were divided into experimental and control groups, and biopsies were harvested at 7–30?d following disease induction. Bone loss and inflammation were evaluated. HMGB1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and Western blot. Results. Significant increases in mPDL HMGB1 mRNA occurred at 4, 8, and 12?h with protein expression elevated by 24?h. HMGB1 mRNA expression in gingival tissues was significantly increased at 15?d in the LPS-PD model and at 7 and 15?d in the ligature model. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a significant increase in the number of HMGB1-positive cells during the experimental periods. Conclusion. The results show that PDL cells produce HMGB1, which is increased and secreted extracellularly after inflammatory stimuli. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HMGB1 may be associated with the onset and progression of periodontitis, suggesting that further studies should investigate the potential role of HMGB1 on periodontal tissue destruction. PMID:24692854

Chaves de Souza, Joao Antonio; da Silva Mariano Pereira, Elyne; de Aquino, Sabrina Garcia; Giannobile, William V.; Cirelli, Joni Augusto

2014-01-01

158

Influence of periodontitis and nonsurgical periodontal intervention on atherosclerosis diseases  

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Full Text Available Objective: Periodontitis and atherosclerosis diseases are chronic inflammatory disorders which are highly prevalent in populations. Nonsurgical periodontal intervention belongs to the initial therapy strategy to periodontal diseases. Periodontal pathogen can enter into blood stream through the ulceration epithelial resulting in bacteraemia when periodontitis is severe. The objective is to investigate the relationship between periodontitis and atherosclerosis diseases, and the influence of nonsurgical periodontal intervention on atheroma and atherosclerosis diseases. Methods: This study reviewed and analyzed the papers which published in the world associated with periodontitis or periodontal intervention on atherosclerosis diseases. Results: Periodontitis and periodontal infectious are important risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases. Much evidence has proved the durative severe periodontitis can result in bacteraemia and systemic inflammation, elevated C-response protein in serum, gingival microcirculation changed, periodontal microorganism reproduced, and endothelial dys-function and endocarditis. Nonsurgical periodontal intervention can remove the pathogenesis bacteria and calculus to recover periodontal health. Effective periodontal therapy can reduce bacteraemia and stop the hurt to vessels. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy may interfere periodontal bacteria, inhibit inflammation response and C-response protein, improving gingival microcirculation and vessel epithelial function to prevent atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Nonsurgical periodontal intervention can improve or decrease the rate of atherosclerotic disease by interfere the severe periodontitis. The detailed mechanism of periodontal intervention on atheroma and atherosclerotic disease is still need to be explored.

Tielou Chen

2012-08-01

159

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL  

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Full Text Available The anterior cruciate ligament or ACL (ligamentum cruciatum anterius is often injured, either alone or within complex ligament injuries of the knee. Therefore, the knowledge of detailed anatomic (macro- and micro-morphological characteristics of this ligament is of key importance in therapy. The anatomy, structure, insertions, vascularization and innervations of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee are described from the aspect of modern treatment and rehabilitation methods.

Slavkovi? Nemanja

2005-01-01

160

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)  

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The anterior cruciate ligament or ACL (ligamentum cruciatum anterius) is often injured, either alone or within complex ligament injuries of the knee. Therefore, the knowledge of detailed anatomic (macro- and micro-morphological) characteristics of this ligament is of key importance in therapy. The anatomy, structure, insertions, vascularization and innervations of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee are described from the aspect of modern treatment and rehabilitation methods.

Slavkovi? Nemanja; Mili?evi? M.; Ivan?evi? N.; Malobabi? Slobodan; Bumbaširevi? Marko; Leši? Aleksandar

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Ultrasonography of ankle ligaments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lateral collateral ligament of the ankle is a complex of 3 ligaments: The anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments and the calcaneofibular ligament; these ligaments work together to support the lateral aspect of the ankle. The anterior talofibular (ATF) ligament (Fig. 1) runs from the anterior of the talus. The probe is placed in a slightly oblique position from the malleolus toward the forefoot. The ligament is hyperechoic when its fibres are perpendicular to the ultrasound beam (anisotropy artifact is present in ligaments as well as in tendons). It is approximately 2 mm thick and, during examination, must be straight and tight from one insertion point to the other, as seen in Fig. 2. The posterior talofibular (PTF) ligament, which runs from the posterior part of the malleolus to the posterior part of the talus, is difficult to see on US, being partially or sometimes completely hidden by the malleolus. The calcaneofibular ligament forms the middle portion of the lateral collateral ligament. It is tight between the inferior part of the lateral malleolus and the calcaneus, and runs in a slightly posterior oblique direction toward the heel (Fig. 3). The ligament lies on the deep surface of the fibular tendons, forming a hammock to fall deep on the calcaneus surface (Fig. 4). The calcaneofibular ligament is approximately 2-3 nun thick and is hyperechoic in the distal two-thirds only because of the obliquity of the proximal part. When examining this ligament, it il part. When examining this ligament, it is mandatory that the ankle be flexed dorsally; this stretches the ligament so that it can be seen clearly. (author)

162

Ultrasonography of ankle ligaments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lateral collateral ligament of the ankle is a complex of 3 ligaments: The anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments and the calcaneofibular ligament; these ligaments work together to support the lateral aspect of the ankle. The anterior talofibular (ATF) ligament (Fig. 1) runs from the anterior of the talus. The probe is placed in a slightly oblique position from the malleolus toward the forefoot. The ligament is hyperechoic when its fibres are perpendicular to the ultrasound beam (anisotropy artifact is present in ligaments as well as in tendons). It is approximately 2 mm thick and, during examination, must be straight and tight from one insertion point to the other, as seen in Fig. 2. The posterior talofibular (PTF) ligament, which runs from the posterior part of the malleolus to the posterior part of the talus, is difficult to see on US, being partially or sometimes completely hidden by the malleolus. The calcaneofibular ligament forms the middle portion of the lateral collateral ligament. It is tight between the inferior part of the lateral malleolus and the calcaneus, and runs in a slightly posterior oblique direction toward the heel (Fig. 3). The ligament lies on the deep surface of the fibular tendons, forming a hammock to fall deep on the calcaneus surface (Fig. 4). The calcaneofibular ligament is approximately 2-3 nun thick and is hyperechoic in the distal two-thirds only because of the obliquity of the proximal part. When examining this ligament, it is mandatory that the ankle be flexed dorsally; this stretches the ligament so that it can be seen clearly. (author)

Peetrons, P.A. [C.H. Moliere-Longchamp, Dept. of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Silvestre, A. [Hopital Militaire Laveran, Dept. of Radiology, Marseilles (France); Cohen, M. [Hoptial Saint-Joseph, Dept. of Radiology, Marseilles (France); Creteur, V. [C.H. Moliere-Longchamp, Dept. of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

2002-02-01

163

Diabetes and periodontitis  

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Full Text Available The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the "certain" articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1 Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2 Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3 What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4 What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene.

Deshpande Kalyani

2010-01-01

164

Cemental tear: a case report with nonsurgical periodontal therapy / Dilaceração cementária: relato de caso clínico com terapia periodontal não cirúrgica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de dilaceração cementária, uma condição periodontal rara caracterizada pela separação total ou parcial do cemento dental, abordando principalmente aspectos relativos ao seu diagnóstico e tratamento. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Um homem de 50 anos procurou assistência odontológica qu [...] eixando-se de dor localizada no segundo molar inferior que apresentava profundidade de sondagem de 4 mm com presença de um corpo estranho no sulco gengival da face distal. O exame radiográfico demonstrou um fragmento radiopaco destacado da raiz. O fragmento foi removido sem cirurgia periodontal. O exame histopatológico demonstrou tratar-se de um fragmento de cemento com presença de lamelas cementárias, cementócitos e fibras do ligamento periodontal, confirmando o diagnóstico de dilaceração cementária. CONCLUSÃO: Após dois anos, o tratamento periodontal não cirúrgico demonstrou aspectos clínicos e radiográficos satisfatórios. Portanto, a terapia periodontal não cirúrgica pode ser uma modalidade de tratamento adequada e previsível para a dilaceração cementária. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To report a case of cemental tear, a rare periodontal condition characterized by total or partial separation of the dental cementum, mainly addressing issues related to its diagnosis and treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 50 years-old man sought dental assistance complaining of pain located in [...] the mandibular left second premolar that showed a 4 mm probing depth with the presence of a foreign body in the distal gingival sulcus. Radiographic examination demonstrated a slight radiopaque fragment detached from the root. The fragment was removed without a periodontal flap. Histopathological examination was performed and evidenced the presence of a cementum fragment with cementum lamellae, cementocytes, and adhered periodontal ligament fibers, confirming the diagnosis of cemental tear. CONCLUSION: After a follow-up of 2 years, the nonsurgical periodontal therapy showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcome. Therefore, this approach should be a suitable and predictable treatment modality for the cemental tear.

Leonardo Silveira, Damasceno; Walderez Ornelas, Dutra; Eder Gonçalves, Melgaço; Paulo Eduardo Alencar de, Souza; Elton Gonçalves, Zenóbio; Martinho Campolina Rebello, Horta.

165

The Relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Periodontitis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of tooth supportive tissues and is characterized by destruction in periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone besides pocket formation and gingival recession. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common chroinic inflammatory disease of the joints. The aim of this study was to survey the relationship between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional-analytical study, 50 rheumatoid arthritis patients forming the case group and 50 healthy individuals as the control group were included. Mean of plaque index, percentage of bleeding sites, mean of probing depth, percentage of sites with probing depth more than 3mm, percentage of sites with attachment loss, and percentage of sites with gingival recession and the number of missing teeth were recorded in both groups. Mean values of each variable were compared between the two groups using t- test. The collected data were statistically analyzed via SPSS on a computer. (?=0/05.Results: Analyzing the data showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the mean of plaque index, percentage of bleeding sites , mean of probing depth, percentage of sites with probing depth more than 3mm, percentage of sites with attachment loss, and percentage of sites with gingival recession, between the case and the control group. The mean of attachment loss (P-value =0.04, mean of gingival recession (P-value =0.02 , and the average number of missing teeth (P-value =0.0001were significantly higher in the rheumatoid arthritis (the case group compared to the control group. Conclusion: periodontal disease (based on the average clinical attachment loss was seen with a higher severity among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, regular dental examination besides close attention to dental health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is highly recommended. Key words: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Periodontitis, Attachment loss

P Ghaliani

2010-01-01

166

SMOKING AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE  

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Full Text Available Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of present review is to consider the association between smoking and periodontal diseases.

Grover Harpreet Singh

2013-04-01

167

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee and prevents the knee from bending in. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

168

Ankle ligament injuries  

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Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL). For this reason, th...

Renstro?m, Per A. F. H.; Lynch, Scott A.

1998-01-01

169

Effect of irradiation on the periodontal tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

bone and the root in the late experimental phases, and obvious atrophic change of fibrous tissues was noted. This experiment suggests that osteoblastic activity was caused by irradiation in the late experimental phases, but atrophic change of the periodontal ligament tissues was induced after irradiation in diabetic state.

170

An investigation on clinical, radiological and biochemical methods for assessing periodontitis activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to recognize in which stage rapidly progressing destruction of periodontal ligament fibers occurs, a number of diagnostic methods are studied in this thesis. It turns out that the actual much utilized clinical methods can not be improved while radiological and biochemical diagnositic methods are much more promising. 106 refs.; 20 figs.; 36 tabs

171

The influence of cellular source on periodontal regeneration using calcium phosphate coated polycaprolactone scaffold supported cell sheets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell-based therapy is considered a promising approach to achieving predictable periodontal regeneration. In this study, the regenerative potential of cell sheets derived from different parts of the periodontium (gingival connective tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament) were investigated in an athymic rat periodontal defect model. Periodontal ligament (PDLC), alveolar bone (ABC) and gingival margin-derived cells (GMC) were obtained from human donors. The osteogenic potential of the primary cultures was demonstrated in vitro. Cell sheets supported by a calcium phosphate coated melt electrospun polycaprolactone (CaP-PCL) scaffold were transplanted to denuded root surfaces in surgically created periodontal defects, and allowed to heal for 1 and 4 weeks. The CaP-PCL scaffold alone was able to promote alveolar bone formation within the defect after 4 weeks. The addition of ABC and PDLC sheets resulted in significant periodontal attachment formation. The GMC sheets did not promote periodontal regeneration on the root surface and inhibited bone formation within the CaP-PCL scaffold. In conclusion, the combination of either PDLC or ABC sheets with a CaP-PCL scaffold could promote periodontal regeneration, but ABC sheets were not as effective as PDLC sheets in promoting new attachment formation. PMID:24120045

Dan, Hongxia; Vaquette, Cédryck; Fisher, Anthony G; Hamlet, Stephen M; Xiao, Yin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Ivanovski, Saso

2014-01-01

172

Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive forms of periodontal disease. PMID:24738586

Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

2014-06-01

173

Determinantes del diagnóstico periodontal / Determinants of periodontal diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un correcto diagnóstico periodontal es necesario para la realización de una terapia periodontal exitosa en nuestro paciente. Entendiendo que la enfermedad periodontal es un proceso infeccioso-inflamatorio, diferentes variables se deben analizar clínicamente para determinar el diagnóstico. El diagnós [...] tico entonces es un análisis concienzudo de la expresión clínica de la enfermedad, desde gingivitis hasta periodontitis. Este artículo analiza los determinantes más importantes del diagnóstico periodontal utilizados en la práctica clínica diaria. Abstract in english The correct diagnosis of periodontal disease is a pre-requisite for an appropriate periodontal treatment. Periodontal disease is an infectious-inflammatory process that affects different clinical variables that must be analyzed before reaching the diagnosis. The diagnosis should be a carefully perfo [...] rmed analysis of the clinical expression of the disease, from gingivitis to periodontitis. This article reviews the most important determinants of periodontal diagnosis.

JE, Botero; E, Bedoya.

174

Periodontal disease in smokers  

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Full Text Available Tobacco contains about 4000 different toxic substances from which almost 40 are proven to be cancerogenic. Nicotine, toxic alkaloid, is the most active substance in tobacco causing major number of harmful consequences for human organism as a whole, and for periodontal tissues as well. The aim of the paper was to show harmful effects of smoking on periodontal disease development, and to point out the problems caused by smoking during and after the periodontal treatment. Periodontal disease occurs in smokers more frequently as opposed to non-smokers. Typically, smokers have lower level of gingival inflammation, more excessive and accelerated loss of alveolar bone and epithelial insertion, deeper periodontal pockets and numerous gingival recessions. Along with that, smokers are carrying a decreased immune response that is expressed through various defense mechanisms. Smoking has negative impact on the outcome of conservative and surgical periodontal therapy. Effects of smoking on periodontal therapy success rate are requiring administration of antiseptic solutions and antibiotics throughout the treatment course. Every periodontologist must influence patients to stop smoking and thus act preventively on occurrence and progress of periodontal disease.

Cerovi? Olivera

2005-01-01

175

Periodontal Management of Non Healing Endodontic Lesion  

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Full Text Available The fact that the periodontium is anatomically interrelated with the dental pulp by virtue of apical foramina and lateral canals creates pathways for exchange of noxious agents between the two tissue compartments when either or both of the tissues are diseased. Proper diagnosis of the various disorders affecting the periodontium and the pulp is important to exclude unnecessary and even detrimental treatment. This is a clinical case report of an enododontic-periodontic lesion in relation to lower left central incisor. Root canal treatment has been done with the respected tooth six months ago, but the lesion showed no sign of healing resulting in draining sinus and increasing pocket depth. Radiographic examination revealed overobturation of gutta-percha with peri-radicular pathology. Periodontal flap surgery was performed and the defect was filled with bone graft mixed with Platelet rich plasma (PRP and covered by platelet rich fibrin (PRF. Patient reviewed for six months which showed uneventful healing and no recurrence of the lesion.

Nitin H. Dani

2011-04-01

176

Tabaquismo y enfermedad periodontal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal en 96 fumadores que acudieron al examen médico y control de salud en el Hospital Militar "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero" de Santa Clara, en el período comprendido de enero a junio del 2001. Para el examen de los fumadores se utilizó el índice de ne [...] cesidad de tratamiento periodontal en la comunidad; los objetivos de este fueron determinar la prevalencia y gravedad de la enfermedad periodontal según la edad del paciente y los años que lleva fumando, así como las necesidades de tratamiento periodontal en los pacientes estudiados. Se pudo observar que el grupo de edad más afectado por la enfermedad fue el de 45 a 54 años, y las personas que llevan más de 40 años fumando padecen de periodontitis más severas. Los fumadores que consumen más de 10 cigarrillos o 3 tabacos diarios son los que necesitan tratamiento periodontal complejo. Abstract in english An epidemiological cross-sectional study was performed on 96 smokers who went to undergo medical examination and health control tests in "Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Military Hospital in Santa Clara from January to June, 2001. For the examination of smokers, the periodontal treatment need index in the co [...] mmunity was used. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and seriousness of periodontal diseases according to the age of patients and years of smoking as well as the needs of periodontal treatment of the studied patients. It was observed that the most affected age group was 45-54 years and people who have been smoking for over 40 years suffered from the most severe type of periodontitis. The smokers who daily smoke more than 10 cigarettes or 3 cigars need complex periodontal treatment.

Bárbara, Toledo Pimental; María Elena, González Díaz; María Susana, Alfonso Tarraú; Aleida, Pérez Carrillo; María Lucía, Rodríguez Linares.

177

Tabaquismo y enfermedad periodontal  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal en 96 fumadores que acudieron al examen médico y control de salud en el Hospital Militar "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero" de Santa Clara, en el período comprendido de enero a junio del 2001. Para el examen de los fumadores se utilizó el índice de necesidad de tratamiento periodontal en la comunidad; los objetivos de este fueron determinar la prevalencia y gravedad de la enfermedad periodontal según la edad del paciente y los años que lleva fumando, así como las necesidades de tratamiento periodontal en los pacientes estudiados. Se pudo observar que el grupo de edad más afectado por la enfermedad fue el de 45 a 54 años, y las personas que llevan más de 40 años fumando padecen de periodontitis más severas. Los fumadores que consumen más de 10 cigarrillos o 3 tabacos diarios son los que necesitan tratamiento periodontal complejo.An epidemiological cross-sectional study was performed on 96 smokers who went to undergo medical examination and health control tests in "Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Military Hospital in Santa Clara from January to June, 2001. For the examination of smokers, the periodontal treatment need index in the community was used. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and seriousness of periodontal diseases according to the age of patients and years of smoking as well as the needs of periodontal treatment of the studied patients. It was observed that the most affected age group was 45-54 years and people who have been smoking for over 40 years suffered from the most severe type of periodontitis. The smokers who daily smoke more than 10 cigarettes or 3 cigars need complex periodontal treatment.

Bárbara Toledo Pimental

2002-06-01

178

Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG Registered-Sign ) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

Inukai, Takeharu, E-mail: t-inukai@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Katagiri, Wataru, E-mail: w-kat@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Yoshimi, Ryoko, E-mail: lianzi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Osugi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kawai, Takamasa, E-mail: takamasa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hibi, Hideharu, E-mail: hibihi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ueda, Minoru, E-mail: mueda@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

2013-01-11

179

Treatment of lateral periodontal cyst with guided tissue regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lateral periodontal cyst (LPC), originated from epithelial rests in the periodontal ligament, is a noninflammatory cyst on the lateral surface of the root of a vital tooth. LPC is generally asymptomatic and presents a round or oval uniform lucency with well-defined borders radiographically. In this case report, clinical, histological and radiographical findings and periodontal treatment of 32-year-old female patient, who was referred to Department of Periodontology Clinic of Faculty of Dentistry, Marmara University with a painless hyperplastic lesion on the distobuccal site of the tooth number 12, were presented. The tooth number 12 was vital and a well-defined round radiolucent area with corticated borders was determined radiographically. Preliminary diagnosis was LPC based on clinical and radiographical findings. Mechanical periodontal treatment consisted of oral hygiene instructions, scaling and root planing was applied and flap operation was performed to gain access to the lesion. Following enucleation of the lesion, alveolar bone destruction shaped as a tunnel from labial to palatinal site was observed. The bone cavity was grafted with bovine-derived xenograft, followed by placement of a resorbable collagen membrane. Tissues removed from of the lesion were examined histologically. Hematoxylen-eosin stained sections showed vasculature granulomatous structure underlying squamous epithelium, and destructed bone spaces, all of which were consisted with LPC. Acceptable clinical healing was achieved at 6 months follow-up period. Satisfactory clinical and radiographical outcome can be achieved in the treatment of LPC using regenerative periodontal approach. PMID:25202227

Meseli, Suleyman Emre; Agrali, Omer Birkan; Peker, Onder; Kuru, Leyla

2014-07-01

180

Secreted osteoclastogenic factor of activated T cells (SOFAT), a novel osteoclast activator, in chronic periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel activated human T cell-secreted cytokine, referred as secreted osteoclastogenic factor of activated T cells (SOFAT), that induce osteoclastogenesis in a RANKL-independent manner was recently described. This study evaluated the role of SOFAT in periodontal tissues and periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were harvested from systemically healthy non-periodontitis (n=15) and chronic periodontitis patients (n=15). The mRNA and protein levels of SOFAT were measured by qPCR and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Moreover, RAW 264.7 cells were cultured with SOFAT or Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Also, mice received a palatal injection between the first and second upper molar of SOFAT (100 ng/ml) or saline solution (0.9%). The upper jaw was removed, histologically processed and stained with hematoxilin and eosin to observe the presence of osteoclast-like cells. The mRNA and protein levels of SOFAT were significantly higher in the gingival tissue of the periodontitis group when compared to non-periodontitis one (pinduced TRAP-positive multinucleated cell formation by RAW 264.7 cells as well as induced the formation of osteoclast-like cells in the periodontal ligament in mice. The present study demonstrated that SOFAT may play an important role in periodontitis. PMID:23619471

Jarry, Christian Rado; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Freitas, Fabiana Furtado; de Macedo, Cristina Gomes; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; Saba-Chujfi, Eduardo; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

[Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is high. A mixed infectious biofilm etiology of periodontitis is known but not fully established in CVD. Cofactors; smoking habits, stress, ethnicity, genetics, socioeconomics and age contribute to both diseases. The objectives of this report are to summarize factors in regards to CVD and periodontitis that are clinically relevant. The hypothesis behind a relationship between the two conditions can be founded in (I) shared infections etiology, (II) shared inflammatory response, (III) epidemiological and case-control studies, and (IV) periodontal studies demonstrating improvements of CVD markers. Streptococcus species in the S. mitis group, and S. anginosus group have been identified in periodontitis and are known as pathogens in endocarditis possibly transported from the oral cavity to the heart through bacteremia during dental therapies, and tooth brushing. Other periodontal bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Parvimonas micra are beta-lactamase producing and may contribute to antibiotic resistance (extended spectrum beta-lactamases). Other bacteria in CVD and periodontitis include Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chlamydia pneumoniae and P. gingivalis lipopolyysaccharide capsels share homology and induce heat-shock protein activity and a cascade of proinflammatory cytokines. Associations between periodontitis and CVD have been presented in many studies when controlling for confounders. Other studies have demonstrated that periodontal therapies increase brachial artery flow rate and reduce serum inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, physicians caring for subjects at CVD risk should consult with dentists/periodontists. Dentists must improve their medical knowledge and also learn to consult with physicians when treating patients at CVD risk. PMID:18517068

Persson, G Rutger; Imfeld, Thomas

2008-02-01

182

Periodontal bone lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

183

Ultrasound in periodontics  

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Full Text Available Ultrasonic instruments were introduced in periodontal therapy in 1955. Approximately 50 years later, their effects on the teeth and periodontium have become much clearer. Currently, ultrasonic instruments are frequently used in daily practice. Most of these instruments work according to the magnetostrictive or reciprocal piezo-electric principle. Though, they are mainly used for routine prophylaxis, there are various other functions of these in the field of Periodontics. This article explains the principle and mechanism of action of ultrasonic instruments with their various applications in Periodontics.

Sapna N

2010-10-01

184

Nonsurgical periodontal treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary goal of nonsurgical periodontal therapy is to control microbial periodontal infection by removing bacterial biofilm, calculus, and toxins from periodontally involved root surfaces. A review of the scientific literature indicates that mechanical nonsurgical periodontal treatment predictably reduces the levels of inflammation and probing pocket depths, increases the clinical attachment level and results in an apical shift of the gingival margin. Another parameter to be considered, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence, is the reduction in the degree of tooth mobility, as clinically experienced. It is important to point out that nonsurgical periodontal treatment presents limitations such as the long-term maintainability of deep periodontal pockets, the risk of disease recurrence, and the skill of the operator. A high number of posttreatment residual pockets exhibiting bleeding on probing and > 5 mm deep are related to lower clinical stability. The successful treatment of plaque-induced periodontitis will restore periodontal health, but with reduced periodontium. In such cases, anatomical damage from previous periodontal disease will persist and inverse architecture of soft tissue may impair home plaque removal. The clinician can select one of the following therapeutic options according to the individual patient's needs: - Quadrant/sextant wise instrumentation (conventional staged debridement, CSD). - Instrumentation of all pockets within a 24-hour period with (full mouth disinfection [FMD]) or without (full mouth scaling and root planing [FMSRP]) local antiseptics. Both procedures can be associated with systemic antimicrobials. -CSD or FMD in combination with laser or photodynamic therapy. Patients with aggressive periodontitis constitute a challenge to the clinician. To date there are no established protocols for controlling the disease. However, data from the literature on the application of the FMD protocol combined with amoxicillin-metronidazole systemic administration are promising. A new classification in supra- and subcrestal nonsurgical periodontal therapy will be proposed. The supracrestal therapy includes the treatment of gingivitis, nonsurgical coverage of recession-type defects, treatment of suprabony defects and papilla reconstruction techniques. Within subcrestal periodontal therapy, it is of paramount importance to preserve both marginal tissues and connective fibers inserted in the root cementum at the apical part of the bony defects. PMID:24765632

Aimetti, Mario

2014-01-01

185

Endodontic-periodontal lesions – clinical and microbiological considerations  

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Full Text Available The pulp and the periodontium have a close link, and one can interferewith the health of the other. There are several ways by which thisinteraction occurs. The apical foramen, accessory canals, lateral canals and dentinal tubules are the main path. When a lesion occurs in the same time in the pulp and periodontium, this lesion is calledendoperiodontal lesion. A correct diagnosis is very important forestablishing the best treatment of lesions. The treatment of theseendoperiodontal lesions is in endodontic therapy, periodontal therapyor both. Similarities are found in bacterial flora of the pulp and theperiodontium, but the bacterial types exist in the canal are morerestricted than those of periodontium. In this article, a literature review was conducted. The goal was the knowledge of the clinical andmicrobiological diagnosis in endoperiodontal lesions. This work willmake a brief review of literature addressing the effect that theperiodontal and pulpal tissues may have one on the other, in order toassist in choosing the best form of treatment.

Carolina Fiamoncini FAGUNDES

2007-11-01

186

Synchrotron radiation analysis of possible correlations between metal status in human cementum and periodontal disease  

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Periodontitis is a serious disease that affects up to 50% of an adult population. It is a chronic condition involving inflammation of the periodontal ligament and associated tissues leading to eventual tooth loss. Some evidence suggests that trace metals, especially zinc and copper, may be involved in the onset and severity of periodontitis. Thus we have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging on cross sections of diseased and healthy teeth using a microbeam to explore the distribution of trace metals in cementum and adhering plaque. The comparison between diseased and healthy teeth indicates that there are elevated levels of zinc, copper and nickel in diseased teeth as opposed to healthy teeth. This preliminary correlation between elevated levels of trace metals in the cementum and plaque of diseased teeth suggests that metals may play a role in the progress of periodontitis.

Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Edwards, M.; Mithoowani, H.; Stakiw, J. (UWO); (Saskatchewan)

2010-03-16

187

Periodontal disease and halitosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Halitosis is a general term used to describe an unpleasant or offensive odor emanating from the oral cavity. It is a condition that has health and social implications in the life of those who suffer from it. The origin of halitosis is related to both systemic and oral conditions although the oral causes predominate. Volatile sulfur compound is the primary gas responsible for halitosis. They are formed as a result of gram-negative bacterial putrefaction. The major sites for oral halitosis are the dorsum of the tongue and periodontal pockets. There is a correlation between the amount of plaque on the tongue and periodontitis with the severity of halitosis. The aim of this article was to review the data and correlate periodontitis with severity of halitosis and the effect of halitosis- inducing factors on the progress of periodontal diseases. (author)

188

In Vitro Simulation of Tooth Mobility Resulting from Periodontal Attachment Loss  

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Full Text Available In our previous studies, we developed the normal periodontal ligament index (nPLI and the residual periodontal ligament index (rPLI, to estimate residual periodontal ligament support for individual teeth during treatment planning for partially edentulous patients. The purpose of the current in vitro study was to analyze tooth mobility resulting from periodontal attachment loss, and to determine the application range of both nPLI and rPLI. The association of horizontal load-displacement and conditions of attachment loss was measured in triplicate for each anatomical tooth model at 10-minute intervals, using a universal tester at a crosshead speed of 0.05 mm/min, and a load of 0.1 N. The conditions of attachment loss were: (I 0 mm (cementoenamel junction, (II 2 mm attachment level, and (III two-thirds, and (IV one-half lengths of normal attachment. Except for the upper first molar, lower lateral incisor, lower first premolar, and the lower first molar, the displacement of each tooth type was increased significantly relative to Level I (P P < 0.01. The results indicated that nPLI at two-thirds of normal attachment and greater, and rPLI at less than two-thirds of normal attachment should be applied, respectively.

Yasuhiko Abe

2014-06-01

189

Obesity and periodontal disease  

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Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis and related inflammatory diseases. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review adipose-tissue - derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis.

Jagannathachary Sunitha

2010-01-01

190

Pregnancy and periodontal tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontitis is today considered to be a serious disease of periodontal tissues, one caused in most cases by bacterial infection which stimulates proteolysis and osteolysis of the tissues. Typical for the disease is formation of periodontal pockets and a chronic destructive inflammation which impacts on the whole organism. Periodontopathic bacteria colonized in a subgingival biofilm cannot be removed by common oral hygiene. Overproduction of bacteria and other pro-inflammatory mediators can increase the total pro-inflammatory state of the organism in pregnant women. Increased levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (PGE2) and cells in fetoplacental space can lead to premature rupture of membranes and subsequent delivery of immature babies. An increasing number of studies in this field provide evidence that good professional care and personal oral hygiene can bring benefits through a decreased prevalence of preterm low birth weight infants (PLBWI) in women suffering periodontitis, although definitive conclusions have not yet been reached. Future mothers with periodontitis can run not only an increased risk of PLWBI but often also suffer pre-eclampsia - a state called acute atherosis - which can be ethiopathogenetically associated with high concentrations of various pro-inflammatory mediators. An increased production of female hormones during pregnancy contributes to the development of gingivitis and periodontitis because vascular permeability and possible tissue edema are both increased. PMID:21407157

Straka, Michal

2011-01-01

191

Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal regeneration following severe destruction by progressive periodontitis.

Anzai, Jun, E-mail: anzai_jun@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro, E-mail: kitamura@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nozaki, Takenori, E-mail: tnozaki@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Toshie, E-mail: nagayasu_toshie@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Terashima, Akio, E-mail: terashima_akio@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Asano, Taiji, E-mail: asano_taiji@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Murakami, Shinya, E-mail: ipshinya@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-12-17

192

Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Concomitant use of FGF-2 and ?-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. ? FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via ?-TCP at the defects. ? In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. ? Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. ? This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and ?-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus ?-TCP or ?-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with ?-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and ?-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal regeneration following severe destruction by progressive periodontitis.

193

Refining of Polysulfide Pulps  

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Full Text Available This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.. Polysulfide (PS pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

Yalcin Copur

2007-01-01

194

Refining of Polysulfide Pulps  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester) cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.). Polysulfide (PS) pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

Copur, Yalcin

195

Periodontal Disease: Causes and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... more likely to be of low birth weight. Diabetes — Diabetic patients with periodontal disease may have more trouble controlling their blood ... certain diseases have a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. For example, people with diabetes are more likely to get periodontitis than people ...

196

Ankle ligament injuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the [...] ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL). For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL), posterotalofibular (PTFL) and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability that is refractory to conservative measures and bracing as outlined above, surgical treatment must address the subtalar joint as well. Subtalar ligament injury and instability are probably more common than appreciated. Definition and diagnosis of this entity are difficult, however. Fortunately, it appears that in the majority of the acute injuries healing occurs with the same functional rehabilitation program as that for lateral ankle ligament sprains. For chronic subtalar instability an intial attempt at functional rehabilitation with ankle proprioceptive training and bracing should be attempted. If this program fails primary repair or reconstruction can be beneficial. Reconstructive procedures must address the subtalar joint. Subtalar instability often occurs in conjunction with talocrural instability, so careful diagnosis is critical in anyone with chronic ankle instability. If either is not addressed, the patient will continue to have problems. Deltoid ligament injuries most often occur in association with ankle fractures. They are rare as isolated injuries. If no fracture is evident on radiographs, particular attention must be paid to the syndesmosis to ensure there is not an associated syndesmosis disruption. True isolated deltoid injuries seem to do well with non-operative functional treatment as for lateral ankle ligament injuries. Deltoid ruptures associated with ankle fractures appear to heal well by addressing the other injuries and allowing the deltoid to heal on its own. It is vital to correct any syndesmosis injury and to obtain correct bony alignment. Syndesmosis injuries can be debilitating if not treated properly. Careful physical exam and interpretation of radiographs is necessary to obtain a correct diagnosis. Partial injuries appear to do well with functional rehabilitation. However, complete tears, if widening is not corrected, can lead to chronic ankle pain and early degenerative changes. Widening of the syndesmosis with a tear of the inferior tibiofibular ligaments is an ind

Per A.F.H., Renström; Scott A., Lynch.

1998-06-01

197

Ankle ligament injuries  

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Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability that is refractory to conservative measures and bracing as outlined above, surgical treatment must address the subtalar joint as well. Subtalar ligament injury and instability are probably more common than appreciated. Definition and diagnosis of this entity are difficult, however. Fortunately, it appears that in the majority of the acute injuries healing occurs with the same functional rehabilitation program as that for lateral ankle ligament sprains. For chronic subtalar instability an intial attempt at functional rehabilitation with ankle proprioceptive training and bracing should be attempted. If this program fails primary repair or reconstruction can be beneficial. Reconstructive procedures must address the subtalar joint. Subtalar instability often occurs in conjunction with talocrural instability, so careful diagnosis is critical in anyone with chronic ankle instability. If either is not addressed, the patient will continue to have problems. Deltoid ligament injuries most often occur in association with ankle fractures. They are rare as isolated injuries. If no fracture is evident on radiographs, particular attention must be paid to the syndesmosis to ensure there is not an associated syndesmosis disruption. True isolated deltoid injuries seem to do well with non-operative functional treatment as for lateral ankle ligament injuries. Deltoid ruptures associated with ankle fractures appear to heal well by addressing the other injuries and allowing the deltoid to heal on its own. It is vital to correct any syndesmosis injury and to obtain correct bony alignment. Syndesmosis injuries can be debilitating if not treated properly. Careful physical exam and interpretation of radiographs is necessary to obtain a correct diagnosis. Partial injuries appear to do well with functional rehabilitation. However, complete tears, if widening is not corrected, can lead to chronic ankle pain and early degenerative changes. Widening of the syndesmosis with a tear of the inferior tibiofibular ligaments is an indication for surgery to place a syndesmosis screw for reduction o

Per A.F.H. Renström

1998-06-01

198

Ankle ligament injuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the [...] ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL). For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL), posterotalofibular (PTFL) and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability that is refractory to conservative measures and bracing as outlined above, surgical treatment must address the subtalar joint as well. Subtalar ligament injury and instability are probably more common than appreciated. Definition and diagnosis of this entity are difficult, however. Fortunately, it appears that in the majority of the acute injuries healing occurs with the same functional rehabilitation program as that for lateral ankle ligament sprains. For chronic subtalar instability an intial attempt at functional rehabilitation with ankle proprioceptive training and bracing should be attempted. If this program fails primary repair or reconstruction can be beneficial. Reconstructive procedures must address the subtalar joint. Subtalar instability often occurs in conjunction with talocrural instability, so careful diagnosis is critical in anyone with chronic ankle instability. If either is not addressed, the patient will continue to have problems. Deltoid ligament injuries most often occur in association with ankle fractures. They are rare as isolated injuries. If no fracture is evident on radiographs, particular attention must be paid to the syndesmosis to ensure there is not an associated syndesmosis disruption. True isolated deltoid injuries seem to do well with non-operative functional treatment as for lateral ankle ligament injuries. Deltoid ruptures associated with ankle fractures appear to heal well by addressing the other injuries and allowing the deltoid to heal on its own. It is vital to correct any syndesmosis injury and to obtain correct bony alignment. Syndesmosis injuries can be debilitating if not treated properly. Careful physical exam and interpretation of radiographs is necessary to obtain a correct diagnosis. Partial injuries appear to do well with functional rehabilitation. However, complete tears, if widening is not corrected, can lead to chronic ankle pain and early degenerative changes. Widening of the syndesmosis with a tear of the inferior tibiofibular ligaments is an ind

Per A.F.H., Renström; Scott A., Lynch.

199

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common knee injury, especially for athletes. Ligaments are long, rope-like ... tibia forward. Doctors may order X-rays with knee injuries, but that's usually to see if a bone ...

200

Aterosclerosis en sujetos con periodontitis / Association between atherosclerosis and periodontitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Chronic infl ammation and infections are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Aim: To evaluate the association between periodontitis and early atherosclerosis. Material and Methods: Fifty-three subjects who received periodontal treatment and re [...] gular maintenance for at least 10 years, and 55 subjects with periodontitis but without a history of periodontal treatment were studied. Carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (CIMT) was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. A blood sample was obtained to measure high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipoprotein cholesterol, leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Covariates included age, gender, smoking, level of education, body mass index and physical activity. The benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA) test was used to determine the number of periodontal sites with periodontal pathogens. Results: CIMT value was significantly higher in subjects with periodontitis than those without it (0.775 ± 0.268 and 0.683 ± 0.131 mm respectively, p = 0.027). C-reactive protein, leukocyte count and percentage of sites with periodontal pathogens were also significantly higher in subjects with periodontitis. Regression analysis identified age, periodontitis, and smoking as independent predictors of CIMT. Conclusions: These results suggest that untreated periodontitis is associated with early atherosclerotic carotid lesions and higher levels of infl ammatory markers.

Néstor J, López; Adriana, Chamorro; Marcelo, Llancaqueo.

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Formas agudas de periodontitis Acute conditions of periodontal disease  

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Full Text Available La clasificación de las Enfermedades Periodontales ha cambiado en las últimas décadas. En la clasificación la AAP de 1989 la periodontitis necrotizante ocupaba el cuarto lugar. En el Workshop Europeo de 1993 la periodontitis necrotizante aparece en el grupo de los descriptores primarios. Según el Internacional Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions 1999 en el que se revisó y se modificó la clasificación de las patologías periodontales, las enfermedades periodontales necrotizantes ocupan el punto cinco, diferenciándose entre Gingivitis Necrotizante y Periodontitis Necrotizante. Y se añade en la clasificación el grupo de abscesos periodontales. En este artículo de revisión vamos a profundizar acerca de las formas agudas de periodontitis.The Periodontal Diseases classification had changed in the last decades. In AAP classification of 1989 the necrotize was in the 4th position. In the European Workshop was in the group of primary descriptors. According to the International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions 1999, review and modificated the classification of periodontal pathologies, the periodontal necrotize diseases are in the 5th position, distinguishing between Necrotize Gingivitis and Necrotize Periodontitis. And Peridontal Abscesses was add to the classification. In this paper we are going to review about the acute forms of Periodontal Diseases.

L. Pérez-Salcedo

2008-04-01

202

Formas agudas de periodontitis / Acute conditions of periodontal disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La clasificación de las Enfermedades Periodontales ha cambiado en las últimas décadas. En la clasificación la AAP de 1989 la periodontitis necrotizante ocupaba el cuarto lugar. En el Workshop Europeo de 1993 la periodontitis necrotizante aparece en el grupo de los descriptores primarios. Según el In [...] ternacional Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions 1999 en el que se revisó y se modificó la clasificación de las patologías periodontales, las enfermedades periodontales necrotizantes ocupan el punto cinco, diferenciándose entre Gingivitis Necrotizante y Periodontitis Necrotizante. Y se añade en la clasificación el grupo de abscesos periodontales. En este artículo de revisión vamos a profundizar acerca de las formas agudas de periodontitis. Abstract in english The Periodontal Diseases classification had changed in the last decades. In AAP classification of 1989 the necrotize was in the 4th position. In the European Workshop was in the group of primary descriptors. According to the International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Con [...] ditions 1999, review and modificated the classification of periodontal pathologies, the periodontal necrotize diseases are in the 5th position, distinguishing between Necrotize Gingivitis and Necrotize Periodontitis. And Peridontal Abscesses was add to the classification. In this paper we are going to review about the acute forms of Periodontal Diseases.

L., Pérez-Salcedo; A., Bascones-Martínez.

203

Periodontal disease and systemic complications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Periodontal diseases comprise a number of infectious and inflammatory conditions brought about by the interaction between supragingival and subgingival biofilms and the host inflammatory response. Periodontal diseases should be considered systemic conditions. This means that they are both modulated [...] by the body's systems and play a role as a risk factor for systemic derangements. The current evidence supports some of these interactions, such as smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, as both influenced by and influencing inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissue. Other potential associations are still being researched, such as obesity, hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease, and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. These, and others, still require further investigation before the repercussions of periodontal disease can be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, at the present time, the treatment of periodontal diseases-and, most importantly, their prevention-enables adequate intervention as a means of ensuring periodontal health.

Rui Vicente, Oppermann; Patricia, Weidlich; Marta Liliana, Musskopf.

204

Periodontal disease and systemic complications  

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Full Text Available Periodontal diseases comprise a number of infectious and inflammatory conditions brought about by the interaction between supragingival and subgingival biofilms and the host inflammatory response. Periodontal diseases should be considered systemic conditions. This means that they are both modulated by the body's systems and play a role as a risk factor for systemic derangements. The current evidence supports some of these interactions, such as smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, as both influenced by and influencing inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissue. Other potential associations are still being researched, such as obesity, hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease, and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. These, and others, still require further investigation before the repercussions of periodontal disease can be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, at the present time, the treatment of periodontal diseases-and, most importantly, their prevention-enables adequate intervention as a means of ensuring periodontal health.

Rui Vicente Oppermann

2012-01-01

205

Microbiology and management of periodontal infections.  

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The term periodontal disease refers to all diseases that involve the supportive structures of the periodontium. Peridontal diseases commonly begin as a gingivitis and progress to periodontitis. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is the most fulminate form of gingivitis. The two main forms of periodontitis are chronic periodontitis (also known as adult periodontitis) and aggressive periodontitis (also known as early onset periodontitis, destructive periodontitis, and juvenile periodontitis). Gingivitis treatment involves removing dental plaques and maintaining good oral hygiene. Periodontitis therapy should include root debriding, draining the infected root, and surgically resecting inflamed periodontal tissues. Systemic antimicrobials often are indicated in NUG, chronic periodontitis, and aggressive periodontitis. When possible, antimicrobial selection should be based upon culture and susceptibility testing of the subgingival flora. PMID:15055631

Brook, Itzhak

2003-01-01

206

SUBGINGIVAL MICROBIOTA IN SEVERE CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS  

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Full Text Available Literature data relate certain Gram-negative anaerobe microorganisms with advanced destructive periodontal lesion. There are some references which reported higher levels of periodontal pathogens by the red and orange complex in deep periodontal pockets. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of most important periodontal pathogens and Candida spp. in deep periodontal pockets in patients with severe chronic periodontitis. The results of this study indicate the presence of high levels of periodontal pathogens in a strong connection with periodontal disease in deep periodontal pockets of patients studied.

Christina Popova

2014-08-01

207

Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up  

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Full Text Available This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found.

Ticiane Cestari Fagundes

2009-02-01

208

Esthetic periodontal surgery for impacted dilacerated maxillary central incisors.  

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Clinicians do not frequently see impacted dilacerated maxillary incisors in their patients. When they do, there are several diagnostic and management challenges for correcting root dilacerations. An unfavorable esthetic outcome might occur as a result of soft-tissue complications during surgical eruption procedures. We present 2 patients with an impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Computed tomography scans with 3-dimensional reformation were used to accurately assess the positions of the dilacerated teeth, the degree of dilaceration, and the stage of root formation. The therapy primarily involved 2-stage crown exposure surgery combined with orthodontic traction. An apicoectomy was performed on 1 dilacerated tooth; the other exhibited pulp vitality. This article highlights the periodontal surgical strategies for the esthetic management of inverted crowns. Through periodontal plastic surgery and interdisciplinary cooperation, the impacted dilacerated central incisors were properly aligned, and successful esthetic results were achieved. PMID:22999678

Wei, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chun; Kaung, Shou-Shin; Yang, Shue-Fen; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin

2012-10-01

209

Scar formation and ligament healing  

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Ligaments are highly organized, dense, fibrous connective-tissue structures that provide stability to joints and participate in joint proprioception. Injuries to ligaments induce a healing response that is characterized by the formation of a scar. The scar tissue is weaker, larger and creeps more than normal ligament and is associated with an increased amount of minor collagens (types III, V and VI), decreased collagen cross-links and an increased amount of glycosaminoglycans. Studies have shown that certain surgical variables alter the healing of ligaments. Such factors include the size of gap between the healing ligament ends, the use of motion in a stable joint and the presence of multiple ligamentous injuries. Research on ligament healing includes studies on low-load and failure-load properties, alterations in the expression of matrix molecules, cytokine modulation of healing and gene therapy as a method to alter matrix protein and cytokine production. PMID:9854530

Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Frank, Cyril B.

1998-01-01

210

Nonlinear ligament viscoelasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ligaments display time-dependent behavior, characteristic of a viscoelastic solid, and are nonlinear in their stress-strain response. Recent experiments (25) reveal that stress relaxation proceeds more rapidly than creep in medial collateral ligaments, a fact not explained by linear viscoelastic theory but shown by Lakes and Vanderby (17) to be consistent with nonlinear theory. This study tests the following hypothesis: nonlinear viscoelasticity of ligament requires a description more general than the separable quasilinear viscoelasticity (QLV) formulation commonly used. The experimental test for this hypothesis involves performing both creep and relaxation studies at various loads and deformations below the damage threshold. Freshly harvested, rat medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) were used as a model. Results consistently show a nonlinear behavior in which the rate of creep is dependent upon stress level and the rate of relaxation is dependent upon strain level. Furthermore, relaxation proceeds faster than creep; consistent with the experimental observations of Thornton et al. (25) The above results from rat MCLs are not consistent with a separable QLV theory. Inclusion of these nonlinearities would require a more general formulation. PMID:11764321

Provenzano, P; Lakes, R; Keenan, T; Vanderby, R

2001-10-01

211

Proteases in Periodontal Disease  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The caries and the periodontal disease (PD are the most frequent alterations in the oral cavity. The PD presents two stages: gengivitis and periodontitis. The destruction of collagenous fibers which encases the tooth onto the alveolar bone is characteristic of the pariodontitis. The inclusion loss caused by this pathology is due to the presence of bacteria and their products, besides the tissue destruction. This process is caused by excessive discharge of cells of the organism defence which reach the damaged area, and among these cells are neutrophils. These cells free lysosomal granule, where enzymes known as proteases (elastase, colagenasis and catepsin G are present. When excessively delivered, they cause extensive tissue destruction. The organism innate defence respond to this process activating anti-proteases, such as alfa-1-antitripsin e alfa-2-macrogoblulin, and, as consequence, the inflammatory process is subdued. Objective: Revision of the literature on periodontitis and its markers. In periodontitis, the balance between protease and anti-protese seems to be altered and lead to the appearance of these ones. There is an increase of prevalence of PD in the world population. In recent times, it has been associated to systemic conditions that lead to tissue destruction. Perhaps, the cause is based on an exacerbated tissue reaction, more than on the bacterial aggression. Conclusion: The predisposition of the organism is an important factor for the disease development. At reading different studies, it was observed that the discharged protease during the neutrophils degranulation process has internal, not bacterial, origin.

Ana Rita Sokolonski ANTON

2006-09-01

212

Comparison of Periodontal Intraligamental Anesthesia Using Etidocaine HCL and Lidocaine HCL  

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A double-blind method was used to compare anesthesia duration following intraligamental administration of 1.5% etidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Durations of anesthesia in pulpal and soft tissues were monitored following periodontal ligament injections adjacent to the maxillary canines of 20 individuals. Complete pulpal anesthesia was attained in 35% of the teeth injected with etidocaine and in 55% of those receiving lidocaine. Soft tissue anes...

Johnson, Georgia K.; Hlava, Gwen L.; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L.

1985-01-01

213

Failure to process dentin sialophosphoprotein into fragments leads to periodontal defects in mice.  

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Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) plays a vital role in dentinogenesis. Previously, we showed that, in addition to dentin, DSPP is also highly expressed in alveolar bone and cellular cementum, and plays a crucial role in maintaining periodontal integrity; Dspp-deficient mice demonstrate severe periodontal defects, including alveolar bone loss, decreased cementum deposition, abnormal osteocyte morphology in the alveolar bone, and apical migration of periodontal ligament. Dentin sialophosphoprotein in dentin and bone is cleaved into NH? -terminal and COOH-terminal fragments. Whilst our previous study showed that the proteolytic processing of DSPP is critical for dentinogenesis, it is unclear whether the post-translational cleavage of DSPP also plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy periodontium. In this study, we analyzed the periodontal tissues from transgenic mice expressing the uncleavable full-length DSPP in the Dspp knockout (Dspp-KO) background (named 'Dspp-KO/D452A-Tg mice'), in comparison with those from wild-type mice, Dspp-KO mice, and mice expressing the normal Dspp transgene in the Dspp-KO background (designated 'Dspp-KO/normal-Tg mice'). We found that transgenic expression of the normal DSPP fully rescued the periodontal defects of the Dspp-KO mice, whereas this was not the case in Dspp-KO/D452A-Tg mice. These results indicate that proteolytic processing of DSPP is essential to periodontal integrity. PMID:24112131

Gibson, Monica P; Jani, Priyam; Liu, Ying; Wang, Xiaofang; Lu, Yongbo; Feng, Jian Q; Qin, Chunlin

2013-12-01

214

Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

Sculley, D V

2014-06-01

215

Periodontal Bioengineering: A Discourse in Surface Topographies, Progenitor Cells and Molecular Profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Stem/progenitor cells are a population of cells capable of providing replacement cells for a given differentiated cell type. We have applied progenitor cell-based technologies to generate novel tissue-engineered implants that use biomimetic strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Mesenchymal periodontal tissues such as cementum, alveolar bone (AB), and periodontal ligament (PDL) are neural crest-derived entities that emerge from the dental follicle (DF) at the onset of tooth root formation. Using a systems biology approach we have identified key differences between these periodontal progenitors on the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, in addition to differences in cellular morphologies. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Secondly, we have tested the influence of natural extracellular hydroxyapatite matrices on periodontal progenitor differentiation. Dimension and structure of extracellular matrix surfaces have powerful influences on cell shape, adhesion, and gene expression. Here we show that natural tooth root topographies induce integrin-mediated extracellular matrix signaling cascades in tandem with cell elongation and polarization to generate physiological periodontium-like tissues. In this study we replanted surface topography instructed periodontal ligament progenitors (PDLPs) into rat alveolar bone sockets for 8 and 16 weeks, resulting in complete attachment of tooth roots to the surrounding alveolar bone with a periodontal ligament fiber apparatus closely matching physiological controls along the entire root surface. Displacement studies and biochemical analyses confirmed that progenitor-based engineered periodontal tissues were similar to control teeth and uniquely derived from pre-implantation green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled progenitors. Together, these studies illustrate the capacity of natural extracellular surface topographies to instruct PDLPs to fully regenerate complex cellular and structural morphologies of tissues once lost to disease. We suggest that our strategy could be used for the replantation of teeth lost due to trauma or as a novel approach for tooth replacement using tooth-shaped replicas.

Dangaria, Smit J.

216

Periodontal breakdown in the Dmp1 null mouse model of hypophosphatemic rickets.  

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Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in alveolar bone and cementum, which are important components of the periodontium. Therefore, we hypothesized that Dmp1 is critical for the integrity of the periodontium, and that deletion may lead to increased susceptibility to disease. An early-onset periodontal defect was observed in the Dmp1 null mouse, a mouse model of hypophosphatemic rickets. The alveolar bone is porous, with increased proteoglycan expression. The cementum is also defective, as characterized by irregular, punctate fluorochrome labeling and elevated proteoglycan. The osteocyte and cementocyte lacuno-canalicular system of both alveolar bone and cementum is abnormal, with irregular lacunar walls and fewer canaliculi. As a consequence, there is significant interproximal alveolar bone loss, combined with detachment between the periodontal ligament (PDL) and cementum. We propose that defective alveolar bone and cementum may account for the periodontal breakdown and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in Dmp1 null mice. PMID:18573980

Ye, L; Zhang, S; Ke, H; Bonewald, L F; Feng, J Q

2008-07-01

217

Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the particular developing tissue, some examples of the stimuli being chemical stimuli, and electro-magnetic stimuli. Some examples of tissue which can be produced include other ligaments in the body (hand, wrist, elbow, knee), tendon, cartilage, bone, muscle, and blood vessels.

Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)

2001-01-01

218

Stress hormones regulate periodontal inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal disease involves inflammation of the gingival tissues, caused by microbial pathogens. Recent papers suggest that emotional stress worsens periodontal disease. Here we review the literature and propose that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secreted under stress stimulates gingival mast cells together with other neuropeptides and cytokines to secrete pro-inflammatory molecules that contribute to periodontal pathology. Stress reduction and/or mast cell inhibition may provide additional therapeutic approaches. PMID:24152831

Papathanasiou, E; Palaska, I; Theoharides, T C

2013-01-01

219

Condiciones sistémicas asociadas con periodontitis en la infancia y la adolescencia: Una revisión de las posibilidades diagnósticas / Systemic conditions associated with periodontitis in childhood and adolescence: A review of diagnostic possibilities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El término periodontitis se usa para describir un grupo de enfermedades multifactoriales que llevan a la destrucción progresiva de las estructuras que unen los dientes a los maxilares, el llamado aparato de soporte, que incluye el ligamento periodontal, cemento radicular y hueso alveolar. Si permane [...] ce sin tratamiento, este proceso conlleva en última instancia a la pérdida dentaria. La patogenia de estas enfermedades implica inicialmente la colonización del microambiente gingival de un huésped susceptible por una bacteria procedente de la placa dental. Posteriormente, la mayoría de la destrucción tisular característica de la periodontitis es una respuesta del huésped contra estos organismos. Uno de los factores principales que parecen modular la severidad de esta enfermedad es la salud general. Por lo tanto, la periodontitis severa en individuos jóvenes puede ser una manifestación de una enfermedad sistémica subyacente. En esta revisión discutiremos las enfermedades sistémicas más importantes que podrían ser consideradas en el diagnóstico diferencial al explorar a un paciente pediátrico con periodontitis. Abstract in english The term periodontitis is used to describe a group of multifactorial diseases that result in the progressive destruction of the structures that support the teeth within the jaws, the so-called attachment apparatus, which includes the periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone. If left untreate [...] d, this process can ultimately lead to tooth loss. The pathogenesis of these diseases involves the initial colonization of the gingival microenvironment of a susceptible host by pathogenic bacteria found in dental plaque. Subsequently, much of the tissue destruction characteristic of periodontitis is a "by-product" of the host response directed against these organisms. One of the major factors that appear to modulate disease severity is systemic health. Severe periodontitis in young individuals can therefore be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. In this review we will discuss the most important systemic diseases that should be considered in a differential diagnosis when evaluating a pediatric patient presenting with periodontitis.

Thomas P., Sollecito; Kathleen E., Sullivan; Andres, Pinto; Jeffrey, Stewart; Jonathan, Korostoff.

220

EFICACIA DEL MOXIFLOXACINO EN PERIODONTITIS Efficacy of Moxifloxacin on periodontitis  

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Full Text Available Un grupo de bacterias predominantemente Gram.-negativas anaerobias están asociadas con el inicio y progreso de la enfermedad periodontal. Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans y Tannerella forsythensis son los microorganismos fuertemente implicados como agentes etiológicos de la periodontitis. El propósito principal del tratamiento periodontal es reducir la infección, resolver la inflamación y prevenir un deterioro posterior. La terapia antibiótica adjunta puede usarse para mejorar los resultados del tratamiento en pacientes con periodontitis crónica avanzada y periodontitis agresiva. Es muy extenso el rango de antibióticos empleados para tratar las infecciones periodontales: tetraciclinas, metronidazol solo o combinado con amoxicilina, azitromicina, clindamicina etcétera. La presencia de resistencias bacterianas sugiere alternativas como el moxifloxacino, el cual ha mostrado efectividad contra Gram.-positivos, anaerobios, microor-ganismos plantónicos, y bacterias localizadas en biopelículas e intracelularmente.A group of predominantly gram-negative , anaerobic bacterias are associated with initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Microorganism strongly implicated as etiologic agents of periodontitis include Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythensis. The primary aim of periodontal treatment is to reduce the infection, resolve inflammation and prevent any further destruction. Antibiotics adjunctive can be used to improve treatment outcomes in patients with severe chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. The range of antibiotics used to treat periodontal infections is quite extensive including the tetracyclines, metronidazole and the combination with amoxicillin, azythromicin, clindamycin etc. Problems of bacterial resistance suggest alternatives as moxifloxacin that showed activity against gram-positives, anaerobes, planktonic microorganism as well as bacteria located within a biofilm or intracellularly.

Carlos Martín Ardila Medina

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

EFICACIA DEL MOXIFLOXACINO EN PERIODONTITIS / Efficacy of Moxifloxacin on periodontitis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un grupo de bacterias predominantemente Gram.-negativas anaerobias están asociadas con el inicio y progreso de la enfermedad periodontal. Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans y Tannerella forsythensis son los microorganismos fuertemente implicados como agentes etiológicos [...] de la periodontitis. El propósito principal del tratamiento periodontal es reducir la infección, resolver la inflamación y prevenir un deterioro posterior. La terapia antibiótica adjunta puede usarse para mejorar los resultados del tratamiento en pacientes con periodontitis crónica avanzada y periodontitis agresiva. Es muy extenso el rango de antibióticos empleados para tratar las infecciones periodontales: tetraciclinas, metronidazol solo o combinado con amoxicilina, azitromicina, clindamicina etcétera. La presencia de resistencias bacterianas sugiere alternativas como el moxifloxacino, el cual ha mostrado efectividad contra Gram.-positivos, anaerobios, microor-ganismos plantónicos, y bacterias localizadas en biopelículas e intracelularmente. Abstract in english A group of predominantly gram-negative , anaerobic bacterias are associated with initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Microorganism strongly implicated as etiologic agents of periodontitis include Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythens [...] is. The primary aim of periodontal treatment is to reduce the infection, resolve inflammation and prevent any further destruction. Antibiotics adjunctive can be used to improve treatment outcomes in patients with severe chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. The range of antibiotics used to treat periodontal infections is quite extensive including the tetracyclines, metronidazole and the combination with amoxicillin, azythromicin, clindamycin etc. Problems of bacterial resistance suggest alternatives as moxifloxacin that showed activity against gram-positives, anaerobes, planktonic microorganism as well as bacteria located within a biofilm or intracellularly.

Carlos Martín, Ardila Medina; Isabel Cristina, Guzmán Zuluaga; María Patricia, Arbeláez Montoya.

222

Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis  

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Full Text Available Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process in the following sequence: gingival mucosa connective tissue – Day 7, gingival epithelium – Day 14;periodontium of the tooth-gingival connection area – Day 21; bone tissue of the alveolar process of the jaw – Days 21-30.Inflammation was manifested at Day 30, only in areas of tooth-gingival connection.

Schneider S.A.

2011-01-01

223

Comparison of different tissue-derived stem cell sheets for periodontal regeneration in a canine 1-wall defect model.  

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Cytotherapeutic approaches have been investigated to overcome the limitations of existing procedures for periodontal regeneration. In this study, cell sheet transplantation was performed using three kinds of mesenchymal tissue (periodontal ligament, alveolar periosteum, and bone marrow)-derived cells to compare the differences between cell sources in a canine severe defect model (one-wall intrabony defect). Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), iliac bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs), and alveolar periosteal cells (APCs) were obtained from each dog; a total of four dogs were used. Three-layered cell sheets of each cell source supported with woven polyglycolic acid were autologously transplanted to the denuded root surface. One-wall intrabony defects were filled with a mixture of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and collagen. Eight weeks after the transplantation, periodontal regeneration was significantly observed with both newly formed cementum and well-oriented PDL fibers more in the PDLC group than in the other groups. In addition, nerve filament was observed in the regenerated PDL tissue only in the PDLC group. The amount of alveolar bone regeneration was highest in the PDLC group, although it did not reach statistical significance among the groups. These results indicate that PDLC sheets combined with ?-TCP/collagen scaffold serve as a promising tool for periodontal regeneration. PMID:21605900

Tsumanuma, Yuka; Iwata, Takanori; Washio, Kaoru; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Ohno, Takahiro; Lin, Konghua; Yamato, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Isao; Okano, Teruo; Izumi, Yuichi

2011-09-01

224

PULP dead or alive  

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Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption. The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

Pankaj Agarwal

2011-12-01

225

Biochemical pulping of bagasse.  

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This study deals with pretreatment of wheat straw with lignin-degrading fungi and its effect on chemical pulping. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora strains, which preferentially attack the lignin, were used for biochemical pulping of bagasse. Treatment of depithed bagasse with different strains of C. subvermispora reduced the kappa number by 10-15% and increased unbleached pulp brightness by 1.1-2.0 ISO points on chemical pulping at the same alkali charge. Bleaching of biopulps at the same chemical charge increased final brightness by 4.7-5.6 ISO points and whiteness by 10.2-11.4 ISO points. Fungal treatment did not result in any adverse effect on the strength properties of pulp. PMID:15296461

Bajpai, Pratima; Mishra, Shree Prakash; Mishra, Om Prakash; Kumar, Sanjay; Bajpai, Pramod K; Singh, Sarju

2004-01-01

226

The importance of drug delivery to optimize the effects of bone morphogenetic proteins during periodontal regeneration.  

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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) include a large number of proteins belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily which are characterized by their ability to induce bone and cartilage formation. Since the isolation and purification of BMPs by recombinant technology, the effects of single BMPs can now be evaluated in animal models. Subcutanous placement of a single recombinant BMP, such as recombinant human (rh) BMP-2, in a rat ectopic assay shows recruitment of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, cartilage formation, followed by replacement with bone, formation of its own bone marrow and physiological bone remodelling. The therapeutic use of recombinant BMPs in the treatment of periodontal disease (destruction of the tooth ligaments, surrounding bone and tooth cementum, the latter of which anchors the ligaments to the tooth surface from the adjacent tooth socket) has attracted considerable interest due to their potent ability to stimulate intramembranous bone formation without an endochondral intermediate. Their predictability in stimulating new bone may provide an alternative that has greater osteogenic potential than autogenous bone, other growth factors and bone substitutes. The biological processes and the potential role of growth factors involved in promoting regeneration are complicated by the involvement of different cell types each with their different growth rates and responses to various stimuli. The major cell types involved in periodontal regeneration include osteoblasts, cementoblasts and fibroblasts. Here, the formation of the new mineralized layers on the tooth and bone surfaces by cementoblasts and osteoblasts respectively are a prerequisite before periodontal ligament formation and attachment by fibroblasts can occur. In this regard, BMPs are likely candidates to stimulate periodontal regeneration because of their ability not only to promote osteogenesis but also to stimulate cementogenesis (new cementum formation). However, understanding when to manipulate each of the various cells differentiation pathway with the application of single or multiple doses of BMPs at the appropriate concentration is dependent upon a suitable delivery system that can be modified in order to optimize its effect during periodontal wound healing. Furthermore, treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with BMPs are likely to not only require appropriate temporal release of the agent, but also adaptation of a carrier that is robust enough to maintain its integrity around the coronal aspect of the root in order to provide space maintenance and support the mucoperiosteal flap. This review evaluates the effects of different delivery systems upon BMP-induced periodontal regeneration. PMID:11480418

King, G N

2001-06-01

227

Risk factors for periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking, diabetes and obesity, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, are relatively common and can be expected to affect most patients with periodontal disease seen in clinics and dental practices. Hence, risk factor identification and management has become a key component of care for periodontal patients. PMID:23574464

Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

2013-06-01

228

Regeneración periodontal: ¿sí o no? / Periodontal regeneration: yes or no?  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 45 años de edad con antecedentes de periodontitis aguda (localizada en el diente 21), bolsas periodontales de 3-8 mm, movilidad dentaria de grado IV y encía alterada con índice gingival de 2,5, que fue remitido a la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Doce [...] nte "Mártires del Moncada" en Santiago de Cuba. Se realizó tratamiento pulporradicular y ferulización de la pieza afectada, la técnica de colgajo periodontal. Transcurridos 6 meses se obtuvo una considerable disminución del índice gingival a 0,1, profundidad de 3 mm al sondeo y movilidad dentaria de grado I, con osteointegración positiva y regeneración periodontal demostrada radiográficamente. Abstract in english The case report of a 45-year-old patient with a history of acute periodontitis (located in tooth 21), 3-8 mm periodontal pockets, IV grade dental mobility and gingival swelling with a gingival rate of 2,5 was described, who was referred to "Mártires del Moncada" Provincial Teaching School of Dentist [...] ry in Santiago de Cuba. Pulpar radicular treatment and splinting of the affected tooth, technique of periodontal flap were performed. After 6 months a significant reduction of gingival rate to 0,1, deep to 3 mm at probing and dental mobility of grade I were obtained, with positive osteointegration and periodontal regeneration radiographically viewed.

Rafael Alberto, Clavería Clark; Clara, Ortiz Moncada; Xiomara, Perdomo Marsilly.

2011-02-01

229

Regeneración periodontal: ¿sí o no? Periodontal regeneration: yes or no?  

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Full Text Available Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 45 años de edad con antecedentes de periodontitis aguda (localizada en el diente 21, bolsas periodontales de 3-8 mm, movilidad dentaria de grado IV y encía alterada con índice gingival de 2,5, que fue remitido a la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente "Mártires del Moncada" en Santiago de Cuba. Se realizó tratamiento pulporradicular y ferulización de la pieza afectada, la técnica de colgajo periodontal. Transcurridos 6 meses se obtuvo una considerable disminución del índice gingival a 0,1, profundidad de 3 mm al sondeo y movilidad dentaria de grado I, con osteointegración positiva y regeneración periodontal demostrada radiográficamente.The case report of a 45-year-old patient with a history of acute periodontitis (located in tooth 21, 3-8 mm periodontal pockets, IV grade dental mobility and gingival swelling with a gingival rate of 2,5 was described, who was referred to "Mártires del Moncada" Provincial Teaching School of Dentistry in Santiago de Cuba. Pulpar radicular treatment and splinting of the affected tooth, technique of periodontal flap were performed. After 6 months a significant reduction of gingival rate to 0,1, deep to 3 mm at probing and dental mobility of grade I were obtained, with positive osteointegration and periodontal regeneration radiographically viewed.

Rafael Alberto Clavería Clark

2011-02-01

230

Regeneración periodontal: ¿sí o no? / Periodontal regeneration: yes or no?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 45 años de edad con antecedentes de periodontitis aguda (localizada en el diente 21), bolsas periodontales de 3-8 mm, movilidad dentaria de grado IV y encía alterada con índice gingival de 2,5, que fue remitido a la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Doce [...] nte "Mártires del Moncada" en Santiago de Cuba. Se realizó tratamiento pulporradicular y ferulización de la pieza afectada, la técnica de colgajo periodontal. Transcurridos 6 meses se obtuvo una considerable disminución del índice gingival a 0,1, profundidad de 3 mm al sondeo y movilidad dentaria de grado I, con osteointegración positiva y regeneración periodontal demostrada radiográficamente. Abstract in english The case report of a 45-year-old patient with a history of acute periodontitis (located in tooth 21), 3-8 mm periodontal pockets, IV grade dental mobility and gingival swelling with a gingival rate of 2,5 was described, who was referred to "Mártires del Moncada" Provincial Teaching School of Dentist [...] ry in Santiago de Cuba. Pulpar radicular treatment and splinting of the affected tooth, technique of periodontal flap were performed. After 6 months a significant reduction of gingival rate to 0,1, deep to 3 mm at probing and dental mobility of grade I were obtained, with positive osteointegration and periodontal regeneration radiographically viewed.

Rafael Alberto, Clavería Clark; Clara, Ortiz Moncada; Xiomara, Perdomo Marsilly.

231

Contesting conventional periodontal wisdom : implications for periodontal classifications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines the common approach used to classify periodontal diseases and how this obstructs our understanding of the disease process. We address the implications of including etiological and pathogenesis-related considerations in the classifications of complex diseases like periodontitis and argue that the number of periodontal entities in a classification system ought to be determined by well-documented differences in the management of each entity. We finally discuss how an ecosocial theory of disease distribution can be helpful to understand the determinants of the distribution of disease in the population.

Lopez, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2012-01-01

232

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE (PD AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD.  

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Full Text Available

The recent focus on the potential link between periodontal and cardiovascular disease (PD and CVD  is part of the larger renewed interest on the role of infection and inflammation in the etiology of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations.  Periodontal Disease is an inflammatory process affecting the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth . The process usually starts with an inflammatory process of the gum (gingivitis but it may progress with an extensive involvement of the gum, as well as the periodontal ligament and the bone surrounding the teeth resulting in substantial bone loss. Periodontal disease is a common oral pathological condition in the adult age and represents the leading cause of tooth loss. PD prevalence increases with age and there are estimates that up to 49,000,000 Americans may suffer from some form of gum disease. The gingival plaque associated with PD is colonized by a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to affect the initiation and development of PD and have been associated with the potential etiological role of PD in CVD and other chronic conditions. A potential etiological link between PD and CVD may have important public health implications as both the exposure (PD and the outcomes (CVD are highly prevalent in industrialized societies. In situations in which both the exposure and the outcome are highly prevalent even modest associations, like those observed in the studies reporting on the link between PD and CVD outcomes, may have relevance. There are  not  definite data on the effect of periodontal treatment on CVD clinical outcomes (either in primary or secondary prevention however it should be pointed out that the limited (both in terms of numbers and study design experimental evidence in humans suggests a possible beneficial effect of periodontal treatment of indices of functional and structural vascular health.

Maurizio Trevisan

2010-08-01

233

Matrix metalloproteinases and periodontal diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized a complex interaction between periodontopathic bacteria and the host inflammatory response resulting in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to the destruction of periodontal tissues and alveolar bone. One of the important host factors involved in periodontal diseases is matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is responsible for collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation of the periodontal tissues. MMPs comprise a family of around 25 members broadly categorized into six groups, which are involved in various physiological and pathological conditions. The activities of MMP are generally balanced by endogenous inhibitors such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP), and any imbalance between MMP and TIMP levels plays an important role in the disease progression. Assessment of MMP in tissues, GCF, and saliva may serve as an important biomarker in diagnosis of periodontal diseases and also for prognostic follow-up. Targeted therapy aimed at reducing effects of MMP may serve as a useful adjunct for treatment of periodontitis. This review provides an overview of MMP and its role in various physiological and pathological conditions with emphasis on its association with periodontal diseases. A note on its inhibitors and therapeutic importance is also provided. PMID:23849049

Sapna, G; Gokul, S; Bagri-Manjrekar, K

2014-09-01

234

Clinical features of early periodontitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Most of the evidence on periodontitis in young individuals originates in case series or case-control studies of poor quality. We investigated the intraoral distribution of clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing depth (PD) and the associations between the oral hygiene parameters and the signs of periodontitis (CAL and PD) in adolescents. METHODS: This study consisted of 87 cases presenting with CAL > or =3 mm in at least two of the 16 teeth recorded and 73 non-cases who did not fulfill this inclusion criterion, nested in a fully enumerated adolescent population, who were screened for signs of periodontitis. The 160 subjects were reexamined by a single trained and calibrated periodontist. The intraoral patterns of periodontal destruction were described graphically. RESULTS: Cases had more supragingival plaque, more supragingival calculus, and more bleeding on probing than non-cases. The intraoral patterns of periodontal destruction were similar in cases and non-cases. The site-specific associations between the putative determinants supragingival plaque, supragingival calculus, and bleeding on probing and the signs of periodontal destruction were highly positive. CONCLUSION: The results of this study lend little support to the notion that a particular intraoral pattern of breakdown is specific to young cases of severe periodontitis, nor do the results support the view that destruction is incommensurate with oral hygiene parameters.

López, Rodrigo; Frydenberg, Morten

2009-01-01

235

Severe periodontitis is inversely associated with coffee consumption in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study addressed the relationship between coffee consumption and periodontitis in patients during the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. A total of 414 periodontitis patients in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment completed a questionnaire including items related to coffee intake and underwent periodontal examination. Logistic regression analysis showed that presence of moderate/severe periodontitis was correlated with presence of hypertension (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.99, p coffee consumption (?1 cup/day, OR = 0.55, p coffee consumption (?1 cup/day) and prevalence of severe periodontitis in the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment. PMID:25338270

Machida, Tatsuya; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Takeuchi, Noriko; Maruyama, Takayuki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kataoka, Kota; Kawabata, Yuya; Morita, Manabu

2014-01-01

236

Pulp and periapical pathologies  

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Full Text Available The pulp undergoes inflammatory or degenerative reactions when submitted to an aggressive factor. These depend on the type, frequency and intensity of the irritant as well as the patient’s immune response. If the aggressive agent is not removed, the pulp will either show calcifications or result in necrosis. This latter would occur when a pulp alteration is present and not treated. Pulp necrosis is the complete cessation of the tissue’s metabolic processes. If it is not removed, the bacterial and the tissue decomposition’s toxic products ill injure the periapical tissues, resulting in periapical alterations. The dentist must know the histological, clinical and radiographic features of these pathologies to recognize them and indicate the best treatment option.

Denise Piotto Leonardi

2011-10-01

237

Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease  

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Full Text Available Introduction. This review highlights the relations between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease, as well as the pathogenic mechanisms which are still the subject of investigations. The possible pathogenic mechanisms important for developing periodontal disease in the diabetics are: vascular gingival changes, the disorders in the metabolism of the collagen, disorders in the function of the polimorphonuclear leukocytes and specific microbial flora in the parodontal pockets. Conclusion. It is clear that adequate early recognition and good treatment are very important and significant for treatment of diabetic periodontal disease.

Kesi? Ljiljana

2009-01-01

238

Enzimas salivales y enfermedad periodontal / Salivary enzymes and periodontal disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Las enfermedades que producen daño tisular producen la liberación de diferentes enzimas relacionadas con la muerte y destrucción celular, como son la aspartato y alanino aminotransferasa (AST, ALT), lactato dehidrogenasa (LDH), creatinin kinasa (CK), alcalina y ácida (ALP, ACP) y gamma gl [...] utamil transferasa (GGT). Al tratarse la enfermedad periodontal (EP) de un proceso inflamatorio con afectación de la encía y periodonto, parece lógico pensar que la actividad enzimática debe reflejar los cambios metabólicos secundarios a esta reacción inflamatoria. Diseño del estudio: En este artículo examinamos la actividad de CK, LDH, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP y ACP en la saliva de pacientes con EP, antes y después del tratamiento periodontal (grupo experimental-30 muestras) así como en la saliva de pacientes sin enfermedad periodontal (grupo control-20 muestras). La EP se diagnosticó en base a parámetros clínicos (índice gingival-GI, sangrado al sondaje-BOP y profundidad al sondaje-PD). Todos los pacientes con enfermedad periodontal recibieron tratamiento convencional de la misma. Se registró la actividad enzimática en todos los pacientes y se cuantificó por espectrofotometría Resultados: Se observó un aumento estadísticamente significativo en la actividad de CK, LDH, AST, ALT; GGT, ALP y ACP en la saliva de los pacientes con enfermedad periodontal en relación a los Resultados obtenidos en el grupo control. Se detectó una correlación positiva entre la actividad de las enzimas salivales examinadas y el valor del GI. Después del tratamiento periodontal convencional la actividad de estas enzimas salivales disminuyó significativamente. Conclusiones: Basándonos en estos Resultados. Podemos concluir que la actividad de estas enzimas puede ser útil en el diagnóstico y evaluación del tratamiento de la EP. Abstract in english Background: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes that are released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. There are important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death like: aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), lactate dehydr [...] ogenase (LDH), creatine cinase (CK), alkaline and acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), gama glutamil transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect metabolic changes in the gingiva and periodontium in inflammation. Design of Study: In this paper we have examined the activity of CK, LDH, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and ACP in saliva from patients with periodontal disease before and after periodontal treatment (experimental group - 30 samples) and in saliva from healthy patients (control group - 20 samples). Periodontal disease was determined based on clinical parameters (gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD)). Patients with periodontal disease were under conventional periodontal treatment. Results:Obtained Results were shown statistically significant increases of activity of CK, LDH, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, ACP in saliva from patients with periodontal disease in relation to control group. There is positive correlation between the activity of examined salivary enzymes and value of the gingival index. After conventional periodontal therapy the activity of all salivary enzymes was significantly decreased. Conclusions: Based on these Results, it can be assume that activity of these enzymes in saliva, as biochemical markers for periodontal tissue damage, may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of therapy effects in periodontal disease.

Tatjana, Todorovic; Ivan, Dozic; Mario, Vicente Barrero; Besir, Ljuskovic; Janko, Pejovic; Marjan, Marjanovic; Milan, Knezevic.

2006-04-01

239

DERESINATION OPTIONS IN SULPHITE PULPING  

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Full Text Available Three methods for improved deresination of sulphite pulps were evaluated, namely, alkaline washing, enzyme treatment, and pulp fractionation. Alkaline washing appears to come at a high cost, because caustic is expensive and affects cellulose chain length, as indicated by lower viscosity of the pulps. Thus this is not a viable option for pulps that are sensitive to changes in viscosity. Enzyme treatment did not completely degrade the glycerides under the mill conditions used. Fibre fractionation studies showed that the fines fractions contained 8 to 13 times more residual lipophilic extractives than the whole pulps. Removing this fraction, which represents only a small percentage of the whole pulp, could reduce by about a half the amount of lipophilic extractives in the remaining pulp. Thus pulp fractionation appears to be a viable option to achieve further deresination of sulphite pulps.

Bruce Sitholé

2010-02-01

240

Doença periodontal e diabete melito tipo 2  

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Full Text Available Introdução: a doença periodontal é considerada a sexta complicação clássica do diabete melito. Estudos recentes relatam que o diabete melito e a doença periodontal apresentam uma associação bidirecional, na qual o diabete favorece o desenvolvimento da doença periodontal e esta, quando não tratada, dificulta o controle metabólico do diabete. As periodontites relacionadas a doenças sistêmicas são causadas pela placa bacteriana e também exacerbadas pela condição oral. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão de literatura em relação à influência da doença periodontal no fator sistêmico do paciente diabético, e por sua vez, a influência do diabete no desenvolvimento e progressão da doença periodontal. Conclusão: o diabete melito é um fator de importância na incidência e prevalência da doença periodontal, assim como a doença periodontal pode ter influência sobre o controle metabólico do diabete. O tratamento periodontal parece contribuir para a melhoria do controle glicêmico de indivíduos diabéticos e com doença periodontal.

Georgia Verardi

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Dental pulp stem cells: Potential significance in regenerative medicine  

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Full Text Available To date, three types of dental stem cells have been isolated: Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC, Stem Cells From Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHED and Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (IDPC. These dental stem cells are considered as mesenchymal stem cells. They reside within the perivascular niche of dental pulp. They are highly proliferative, clonogenic, multipotent and are similar to mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells (BMSC. Also, they have high plasticity and can be easy isolated. The expressions of the alkaline phosphatase gene, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentinsialophosphoprotein are verified in these cells. Analyses of gene expression patterns indicated several genes which encode extracellular matrix components, cell adhesion molecules, growth factors and transcription regulators, cell signaling, cell communication or cell metabolism. In both conditions, in vivo and in vitro, these cells have the ability to differentiate into odontoblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, neurons, melanocytes, smooth and skeletal muscles and endothelial cells. In vivo, after implantation, they have shown potential to differentiate into dentin but also into tissues like bone, adipose or neural tissue. In general, DPSCs are considered to have antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory abilities. After being grafted into allogenic tissues these cells are ableto induce immunological tolerance. Immunosuppressive effect is shown through the ability to inhibit proliferation of T lymphocytes. Dental pulp stem cells open new perspectives in therapeutic use not only in dentin regeneration, periodontal tissues and skeletoarticular, tissues of craniofacial region but also in treatment of neurotrauma, autoimmune diseases, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy and connective tissue damages.

Todorovi? Vera

2008-01-01

242

Using risk assessment in periodontics.  

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Risk assessment has become a regular feature in both dental practice and society as a whole, and principles used to assess risk in society are similar to those used in a clinical setting. Although the concept of risk assessment as a prognostic indicator for periodontal disease incidence and activity is well established in the management of periodontitis, the use of risk assessment to manage the practical treatment of periodontitis and its sequelae appears to have less foundation. A simple system of initial risk assessment - building on the use of the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), clinical, medical and social factors - is described, linked to protocols for delivering care suited to general dental practice and stressing the role of long-term supportive care. The risks of not treating the patient are considered, together with the possible causes of failure, and the problems of successful treatment are illustrated by the practical management of post-treatment recession. PMID:25198640

Woodman, Alan J

2014-08-01

243

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper determines the efficacy of MR imaging in evaluation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) following reconstructive surgery. Forty-three MR examinations were performed in 33 patients who had undergone previous arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar bone-tendon- bone autografts (postoperative period, 1-24 months; mean, 5.2 months). Of the 40 studies performed in clinically stable knees (30 patients), MR demonstrated a well-defined, signal void ACL graft in 36. Of the three studies performed in three patients with clinical ACL laxity or suspected tear, the neoligament was of intermediate definition in one and nondiscernible in the other two. As in the native knee, buckling of the PCL was suggestive of ACL insufficiency. Bone tunnel placement, patellar tendon changes, and joint effusions were also evaluated

244

Low-cost periodontal therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250?mg of amoxicillin and 250?mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8?days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500?mg of each, twice daily for 8?days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent use of inexpensive antimicrobial agents can significantly retard or arrest progressive periodontitis in the great majority of patients. PMID:22909110

Slots, Jørgen

2012-10-01

245

The Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis  

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Full Text Available Chronic gingivitis and periodontitis are common inflammatory conditions of the periodontal tissues. Given the ‘right’ concurrence of risk factors, a person with periodontitis can experience significant destruction of tooth-supporting bone, ultimately resulting in tooth loss. Poorly controlled diabetes is an important risk factor for periodontitis, and gingivitis and periodontitis are sometimes the first sign that a patient has diabetes. As severe periodontitis can lead to the loss of teeth, it is important that patients with diabetes practise good oral hygiene and have regular dental check-ups so that problems can be detected quickly

A.M.Hussain

2011-01-01

246

Obesity, inflammation, and periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of obesity has increased substantially over the past decades in most industrialized countries. Obesity is a systemic disease that predisposes to a variety of co-morbidities and complications that affect overall health. Cross-sectional studies suggest that obesity is also associated with oral diseases, particularly periodontal disease, and prospective studies suggest that periodontitis may be related to cardiovascular disease. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis, and related inflammatory diseases. We provide an overview of the definition and assessment of obesity and of related chronic diseases and complications that may be important in the periodontist's office. Studies that have examined the association between obesity and periodontitis are reviewed, and adipose-tissue-derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis are discussed. Our aim is to raise the periodontist's awareness when treating obese individuals. PMID:17452558

Pischon, N; Heng, N; Bernimoulin, J-P; Kleber, B-M; Willich, S N; Pischon, T

2007-05-01

247

Dental Pulp Testing: A Review  

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Full Text Available Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry are examples of vitality tests. Whilst the prospect is promising, there are still many practical issues that need to be addressed before vitality tests can replace sensibility tests as the standard clinical pulp diagnostic test. With all pulp tests, the results need to be carefully interpreted and closely scrutinised as false results can lead to misdiagnosis which can then lead to incorrect, inappropriate, or unnecessary treatment.

Paul V. Abbott

2009-01-01

248

Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

... Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments Main Content Introduction ... this point forward. Back to top What causes gum disease? Our mouths are full of bacteria. These ...

249

Bis-enoxacin blocks rat alveolar bone resorption from experimental periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, caused by polymicrobial subgingival pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Chronic periodontal infection results in inflammation, destruction of connective tissues, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption, and ultimately tooth loss. Enoxacin and a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin (bis-enoxacin) inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption and also contain antibiotic properties. Our study proposes that enoxacin and/or bis-enoxacin may be useful in reducing alveolar bone resorption and possibly bacterial colonization. Rats were infected with 10(9) cells of polymicrobial inoculum consisting of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, as an oral lavage every other week for twelve weeks. Daily subcutaneous injections of enoxacin (5 mg/kg/day), bis-enoxacin (5, 25 mg/kg/day), alendronate (1, 10 mg/kg/day), or doxycycline (5 mg/day) were administered after 6 weeks of polymicrobial infection. Periodontal disease parameters, including bacterial colonization/infection, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone resorption, and systemic spread, were assessed post-euthanasia. All three periodontal pathogens colonized the rat oral cavity during polymicrobial infection. Polymicrobial infection induced an increase in total alveolar bone resorption, intrabony defects, and gingival inflammation. Treatment with bis-enoxacin significantly decreased alveolar bone resorption more effectively than either alendronate or doxycycline. Histologic examination revealed that treatment with bis-enoxacin and enoxacin reduced gingival inflammation and decreased apical migration of junctional epithelium. These data support the hypothesis that bis-enoxacin and enoxacin may be useful for the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:24638087

Rivera, Mercedes F; Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Velsko, Irina M; Lee, Ju-Youn; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Dolce, Calogero; Toro, Edgardo J; Holliday, L Shannon; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

2014-01-01

250

Inhibition of alveolar bone loss by matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors in experimental periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal disease is characterized by excessive host collagenase resulting in loss of gingival and periodontal ligament collagen and adjacent alveolar bone. Intragingival endotoxin injection induces a model of periodontal disease characterized by rapid bone loss with biochemical features similar to that of naturally occurring adult periodontitis. CH1766, a peptide with a zinc binding moeity which fits into the active site of the enzyme, and CH6631, a hydroxamic acid derivative with aryl-substituted sulphonamide residues, are inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPIs) with differing inhibitory profiles as characterized by in vitro assays. In this study, endotoxin was injected into the gingivae of rats which were then treated orally with either 3 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg of one of the two inhibitory compounds. The gingival tissues were assessed for collagenase and gelatinase activity, plus three different pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, alveolar bone height in defleshed jaws was studied by computerized morphometric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both drugs reduced active and/or total MMP activity, in many cases to normal, and also partially normalized cytokine levels as well. A dose-response effect was seen with regard to amelioration of lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolar bone loss with both drugs. Other than studies with tetracyclines, this is the first report of beneficial effects of MMPIs in a model of periodontal disease, strongly suggesting that this class of agents could bring therapeutic benefit to patients with this disorder, and that periodontal disease can be used as a model to demonstrate in vivo efficacy of this class of drugs. PMID:11842933

Ramamurthy, Nungavaram S; Xu, Jing-wen; Bird, John; Baxter, Andrew; Bhogal, Ranjev; Wills, Ruth; Watson, Bob; Owen, David; Wolff, Mark; Greenwald, Robert A

2002-02-01

251

Host Modulation Therapy - Restriction of Periodontal Destruction  

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Chronic inflammatory periodontal disease is caused by host immune responses to periodontal microorganisms. The past decade has produced remarkable advances in our understanding of host immune responses. New strategies for periodontal disease management have been emerging as more is learned about the role of the host response. Our increasing understanding of inflammation and its resolution has opened the door to the study of new periodontal treatment strategies. The emerging awareness of infla...

Harinath Reddy S; Satyanarayana D; Vidya Sagar S; Surykanth M

2011-01-01

252

EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING  

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Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

Cuihua Dong,

2012-07-01

253

Emdogain: Últimos avances en regeneración periodontal / Emdogain: An update in periodontal regeneration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Emdogain es un compuesto de proteínas derivadas de la matriz del esmalte, capaz de inducir la regeneración verdadera del aparato de inserción. Como principal indicación destaca el tratamiento de defectos infraóseos, ganancia de hueso y reducción de la profundidad de sondaje con mínima recesión gingi [...] val. Es un procedimiento técnicamente simple, con poco riesgo y menos invasivo que las técnicas de regeneración convencionales. La cuidada selección del paciente, el empleo de una técnica adecuada así como el riguroso control postoperatorio son factores importantes para el éxito del tratamiento. Abstract in english Emdogain is a compound of proteins derived from the enamel matrix which are a crucial factor in initiating the formation of acellular root cementum and stimulate the development of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The main indication for the application of EMD is the intrabony defects tre [...] atment with significant clinical attachment level gains, probing depht reductions and minimal gingival recession. The application of EMD is a simple procedure with less risk than other techniques and less invasive than conventional guided tissue regeneration. The carefully selection of the patient, the use of an adecuate technique and the strict postoperatory control are very important factors on the treatment success.

X., Pousa; C., Rodríguez; F., Pastor; D., Rodrigo.

254

Emdogain: Últimos avances en regeneración periodontal Emdogain: An update in periodontal regeneration  

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Full Text Available Emdogain es un compuesto de proteínas derivadas de la matriz del esmalte, capaz de inducir la regeneración verdadera del aparato de inserción. Como principal indicación destaca el tratamiento de defectos infraóseos, ganancia de hueso y reducción de la profundidad de sondaje con mínima recesión gingival. Es un procedimiento técnicamente simple, con poco riesgo y menos invasivo que las técnicas de regeneración convencionales. La cuidada selección del paciente, el empleo de una técnica adecuada así como el riguroso control postoperatorio son factores importantes para el éxito del tratamiento.Emdogain is a compound of proteins derived from the enamel matrix which are a crucial factor in initiating the formation of acellular root cementum and stimulate the development of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The main indication for the application of EMD is the intrabony defects treatment with significant clinical attachment level gains, probing depht reductions and minimal gingival recession. The application of EMD is a simple procedure with less risk than other techniques and less invasive than conventional guided tissue regeneration. The carefully selection of the patient, the use of an adecuate technique and the strict postoperatory control are very important factors on the treatment success.

X. Pousa

2005-04-01

255

Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-?1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG®) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM. PMID:23206704

Inukai, Takeharu; Katagiri, Wataru; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

2013-01-11

256

Chemically modified tetracyclines: Novel therapeutic agents in the management of chronic periodontitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic periodontitis is a complex infection initiated by gram-negative bacteria which destroy the supporting structures of the tooth. Recently, it has been recognized that it is the host response to bacterial infection which causes greater destruction of the connective tissue elements, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in periodontitis. This has led to the development of various host modulating approaches to target cells and their destructive mediators involved in tissue degradation. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are derivatives of tetracycline group of drugs which lack antimicrobial action but have potent host modulating affects. They inhibit pathologically elevated matrix metal loproteinases, pro-inflammtory cytokines and other destructive mediators. Bone resorption is also suppressed due to their combined anti-proteinase and apoptotic affects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Development of resistant bacteria and gastrointestinal toxicity seen with parent tetracyclines is not produced by CMTs. Hence, CMTs are viewed as potential therapeutic agents in the management of chronic diseases like periodontitis that involve destruction of connective tissue and bone. PMID:22529468

Agnihotri, Rupali; Gaur, Sumit

2012-01-01

257

Diagnosis and classification of the periodontal diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A classification for gingivitis and periodontitis has been proposed based on clinical observations and immunologic parameters (summarized in Table 10). Overlapping clinical situations and exceptions to the rule certainly exist and pose challenges to clinicians during diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. The clinical significance of making the diagnosis of either rapidly progressive periodontitis, juvenile, or prepubertal forms of periodontitis compared with adult periodontitis must be considered. A diagnosis of early-onset disease may (1) modify the periodontal treatment plan and may include the use of systemic antibiotics (for example, tetracyclines) or antiplaque agents (for example, sanguinarine, chlorhexidine); (2) modify the prosthetic treatment plan and require longer periods of monitoring before extensive replacement or splinting is initiated; (3) increase the frequency of periodontal recall appointments (at least four to six times during the first year or two following peridontal therapy); (4) implicate a genetic basis for the disease with the possibility of peridontal involvement of other family members; (5) influence decisions on prognosis; and (6) alert the clinician for potential future rapid periodontal breakdown. Future studies will further define and characterize all forms of periodontal diseases. Clinical, microbial, and immunologic information may permit inclusion of the relatively rare forms of periodontitis such as ANUG periodontitis and refractory periodontitis. Understanding the underlying biologic mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the periodontal diseases, coupled with clinical observations, will permit improved clinical investigations that ultimately will improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:3288510

Suzuki, J B

1988-04-01

258

Occurrence of periodontal pathogens among patients with chronic periodontitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the periodontal pathogens that form the red complex (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis. The sample consisted of 29 patie [...] nts with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of chronic periodontitis based on the criteria of the American Academy of Periodontology (3). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected from the four sites of greatest probing depth in each patient, totaling 116 samples. These samples were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction, which achieved the following positive results: 46.6% for P. gingivalis, 41.4% for T. forsythia, 33.6% for T. denticola and 27.6% for A. actinomycetemcomitans. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were more prevalent (p

B.C., Farias; P.R.E., Souza; B., Ferreira; R.S.A., Melo; F.B., Machado; E.S., Gusmão; R., Cimões.

259

Enfermedad periodontal y climaterio / Periodontal disease and climaterium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 282 pacientes que se encontraban en la etapa del climaterio, que acudieron a la consulta de Endocrinología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturnino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el 20 [...] 12, con vistas a caracterizar el estado de la enfermedad periodontal en este grupo según variables de interés clínico, periodontal y epidemiológico. Se obtuvo que la severidad de la enfermedad gingival y periodontal estuvo directamente relacionada con los grados de higiene bucal regular y malo, con predominio de la gingivitis (90,4 %), de la gingivitis severa (81,7 %), así como de la periodontitis establecida con higiene bucal regular (79,1 %) y de la periodontitis terminal con higiene bucal mala (76,0%); asimismo, la gingivitis resultó ser la afección más común en ambas etapas del período climatérico (67,9 y 35,3 % en las premenopáusicas y posmenopáusicas, respectivamente). Se demostró que a medida que pasan los años sin efecto estrogénico, la riesgo de la afección se incrementa, sin existir relación entre esta y la edad en que ocurrió la menopausia o la gravedad del síndrome climatérico. Se recomienda continuar las investigaciones para conocer el estado de la enfermedad periodontal en pacientes climatéricas a escala nacional y elaborar programas destinados a la prevención. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 282 patients who were in the climacteric stage and were assisted in the Endocrinology Department of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Clinical Surgical Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out during the 2012, w [...] ith the aim of characterizing the periodontal disease in this group according to variables of clinical, periodontal and epidemiological interest. It was obtained that the severity of the gingival and periodontal disease was directly related to the degrees of mean and poor oral hygiene, with prevalence of the gingivitis (90.4%), of the severe gingivitis (81.7%), as well as of the established periodontitis with mean oral hygiene (79.1%) and of the terminal periodontitis with poor oral hygiene (76.0%); also, gingivitis turned out to be the most common disorder in both stages of the climacteric period (67.9 and 35.3% in the premenopausic and posmenopausic women, respectively). It was demonstrated that, as the years pass without estrogenic effect, the risk for the disease increases, without existing relationship between it and the age in which menopause or the severity of the climacteric syndrome took place. It is recommended to continue the investigations to know the periodontal disease in climacteric patients at a national scale and to implement programs aimed at its prevention.

María Isabel, Aguilar Vallejo; Maritza, Peña Sisto; Jacqueline, Chacón Rodríguez; Frederick, Fernández Villasante; Dixan, Gutierrez Torres.

2014-02-01

260

Occurrence of periodontal pathogens among patients with chronic periodontitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the periodontal pathogens that form the red complex (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis. The sample consisted of 29 patie [...] nts with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of chronic periodontitis based on the criteria of the American Academy of Periodontology (3). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected from the four sites of greatest probing depth in each patient, totaling 116 samples. These samples were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction, which achieved the following positive results: 46.6% for P. gingivalis, 41.4% for T. forsythia, 33.6% for T. denticola and 27.6% for A. actinomycetemcomitans. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were more prevalent (p

B.C., Farias; P.R.E., Souza; B., Ferreira; R.S.A., Melo; F.B., Machado; E.S., Gusmão; R., Cimões.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Initial periodontal screening and radiographic findings - A comparison of two methods to evaluate the periodontal situation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodontal screening index (PSI is an element of the initial dental examination. The PSI provides information on the periodontal situation and allows a first estimation of the treatment required. The dental panoramic tomography (DPT indicates the proximal bone loss, thus also allowing conclusions on the periodontal situation. In this study, the results of both methods in determining the periodontal situation are compared. Methods The clinical examination covered DMF-T, QHI, and PSI scores at four proximal sites per tooth; the examining dentist was unaware of the radiographic finding. Based on the PSI scores, the findings were diagnosed as follows: score 0 - 2 "no periodontitis", score 3 and 4 "periodontitis". Independent of the locality and time of the clinical evaluation, two dentists examined the DPTs of the subjects. The results were classified as follows: no bone loss = "no periodontitis", and bone loss = "periodontitis". Results 112 male subjects (age 18 to 58, Ø 37.7 ± 8 years were examined. Regarding the PSI, 17 subjects were diagnosed "no periodontitis" and 95 subjects "periodontitis". According to the evaluation of the DPTs, 70 subjects were diagnosed "no periodontitis" and 42 "periodontitis". A comparison of both methods revealed that the diagnosis "no periodontitis" corresponded in 17 cases and "periodontitis" in 42 cases (53%. In 47% (53 cases the results were not congruent. The difference between both methods was statistically significant (p Conclusion The present study shows that the initial assessment of the periodontal situation significantly depends on the method of evaluation.

Hornecker Else

2011-01-01

262

ALTERNATIVE PULPING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP FROM JUTE  

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Full Text Available Dissolving pulps are the raw materials of cellulose derivatives and of many other cellulosic products. Jute is a very good source of cellulose and worthy of consideration for the production of dissolving pulp. In this investigation jute fiber, jute cuttings, and jute caddis were used as raw materials to prepare dissolving pulp by a formic acid process. A very high bleached pulp yield (49 to 59% was obtained in this process. The ?-cellulose content was 93 to 98%, with a high pulp viscosity. Also a good brightness (81 to 87% was achieved in totally chlorine free bleaching. Jute fiber showed the best and jute caddis showed lowest performance in producing dissolving pulp via the formic acid process. R18-R10 values were much lower than for conventional dissolving pulp.

M. Sarwar Jahan

2008-11-01

263

Drugs, medications and periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the effects that drugs may have on the gingival and periodontal tissues. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth has been recognised for over 70 years but is becoming a more prevalent occurrence with wider use of antihypertensive and immunosuppressant drugs. The anti-inflammatory steroids, non-steroidal drugs and anti-TNF-? agents might all be expected to exert a dampening effect on chronic periodontitis although the evidence is somewhat equivocal and none of these drugs has emerged as potentially valuable adjuncts to treat periodontal disease. Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical appearance of aggressive gingival inflammation with which a number of drugs have been associated and the oral contraceptives have also been implicated in the development of gingival inflammation. Patients who are prescribed bisphosphonates and anti-platelet drugs are at risk of serious side effects following more invasive dental procedures including extractions and surgical treatments although timely, conventional management of periodontal disease may be undertaken to reduce periodontal inflammation, prevent disease progression and ultimately the need for extractions. PMID:25342347

Heasman, P A; Hughes, F J

2014-10-24

264

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury - aftercare  

Science.gov (United States)

... of tissue that connects bone to bone. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is located inside your knee joint and ... Amy E, Micheo W. Anterior cruciate ligament tear. In: Frontera WR, ... of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 2nd ed. St. Louis, ...

265

Broad Ligament Fibroid - An Unusual Presentation  

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Full Text Available Giant fibroids are known to arise from the uterus, but occasionally from the broad ligament also. This is acase report of a giant broad ligament fibroid, reported for its rarity, and the diagnostic difficulties.

Veronica Irene Yuel, Vaneet Kaur

2006-10-01

266

Anterior cruciate ligament repair with LARS (ligament advanced reinforcement system): a systematic review  

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Abstract Background Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee is common. Following complete rupture of the ACL, insufficient re-vascularization of the ligament prevents it from healing completely, creating a need for reconstruction. A variety of grafts are available for use in ACL reconstruction surgery, including synthetic grafts. Over the last two decades new types of synthetic ligaments have been developed. One of these synthetic ligaments, the Ligament Ad...

Machotka Zuzana; Scarborough Ian; Duncan Will; Kumar Saravana; Perraton Luke

2010-01-01

267

Imaging evaluation of the postoperative knee ligaments  

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Until the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evaluation of ligament reconstruction of the knee was largely based on clinical examination and radiographs. MRI is the modality of choice for noninvasive evaluation of reconstructed ligaments, menisco-capsular structures and soft tissues. This article reviews the surgical techniques, normal and abnormal appearances of the ACL and PCL grafts and common complications following ligament reconstruction.

Ilaslan, Hakan [Department of Radiology, A21 Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)]. E-mail: ilaslah@ccf.org; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, A21 Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Miniaci, Anthony [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, A40 Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

2005-05-01

268

Indirect pulp therapy in a symptomatic mature molar using calcium enriched mixture cement  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental pulp has the ability of repair/regeneration. Indirect pulp therapy (IPT) is recommended for pulp preservation in asymptomatic teeth with extremely deep caries as well as teeth with clinical symptoms of reversible pulpitis. In this case study, we performed IPT with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement on a symptomatic permanent molar. After clinical/radiographic examinations the tooth was diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis and associated apical periodontitis. IPT involved partial caries removal, the placement of CEM cement pulp cap and overlying adhesive permanent restoration. At the 1 week follow-up, patient's spontaneous symptoms had resolved. One-year follow-up demonstrated pulp vitality, clinical function, as well as the absence of pain/tenderness to percussion/palpation/cold sensitivity tests; periapical radiograph showed a healing periradicular lesion with newly formed bone, that is normal pulp with normal periodontium. These favorable results indicate that IPT/CEM may be a good treatment option in comparison to endodontic treatment in young patients. IPT of deep-caries lesion is an easier, more practical and valuable treatment plan than complete caries removal. PMID:23349584

Torabzadeh, Hassan; Asgary, Saeed

2013-01-01

269

Gene therapy and its implications in Periodontics  

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Full Text Available Gene therapy is a field of Biomedicine. With the advent of gene therapy in dentistry, significant progress has been made in the control of periodontal diseases and reconstruction of dento-alveolar apparatus. Implementation in periodontics include: -As a mode of tissue engineering with three approaches: cell, protein-based and gene delivery approach. -Genetic approach to Biofilm Antibiotic Resistance. Future strategies of gene therapy in preventing periodontal diseases: -Enhances host defense mechanism against infection by transfecting host cells with an antimicrobial peptide protein-encoding gene. -Periodontal vaccination. Gene therapy is one of the recent entrants and its applications in the field of periodontics are reviewed in general here.

Mahale Swapna

2009-01-01

270

Host Modulation Therapy - Restriction of Periodontal Destruction  

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Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory periodontal disease is caused by host immune responses to periodontal microorganisms. The past decade has produced remarkable advances in our understanding of host immune responses. New strategies for periodontal disease management have been emerging as more is learned about the role of the host response. Our increasing understanding of inflammation and its resolution has opened the door to the study of new periodontal treatment strategies. The emerging awareness of inflammation and its control in periodontal disease management underscores the importance of exploring inflammatory pathways and mediators, thus setting the stage for the development of new prevention and treatment strategies of a widespread disease.

Harinath Reddy S

2011-10-01

271

Macrophage-mediated nanoparticle delivery to the periodontal lesions in established murine model via Pg-LPS induction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We established a murine periodontitis model by local injection of lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS) into the gingival sulcus of mandibular left incisor four times with 48-h interval. The histological examination of the periodontal tissues demonstrated that significant loss of periodontal bone and ligaments was observed in the lesion side with abundant inflammatory cell infiltration. Two days after the last injection, Cy5-labelled siRNA/chitosan particles were injected intraperitoneally (ip). The chitosan/siRNA particles were taken up by peritoneal macrophages, which subsequently migrated to the inflamed gingival area evaluated by in vivo imaging. The localization of macrophages in the inflamed region was further confirmed by immunofluorescent staining. The present report demonstrates that intragingival injection of Pg-LPS can be used to create an experimental model of periodontal inflammation in mice and that recruitment of macrophages with chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles to the inflamed area opens the possibility of an RNAi-based therapeutic approach using chitosan as a carrier in periodontitis.

Ma, Zhiwei; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik

2014-01-01

272

Different effects of 25-kDa amelogenin on the proliferation, attachment and migration of various periodontal cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have assumed that amelogenin is responsible for the therapeutic effect of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in periodontal tissue healing and regeneration. However, it is difficult to confirm this hypothesis because both the EMD and the amelogenins are complex mixtures of multiple proteins. Further adding to the difficulties is the fact that periodontal tissue regeneration involves various types of cells and a sequence of associated cellular events including the attachment, migration and proliferation of various cells. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of a 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin (rPAm) on primarily cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF), gingival fibroblasts (GF) and gingival epithelial cells (GEC). The cells were treated with 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin at a concentration of 10 ?g/mL. We found that rPAm significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of PDLF, but not their adhesion. Similarly, the proliferation and adhesion of GF were significantly enhanced by treatment with rPAm, while migration was greatly inhibited. Interestingly, this recombinant protein inhibited the growth rate, cell adhesion and migration of GEC. These data suggest that rPAm may play an essential role in periodontal regeneration through the activation of periodontal fibroblasts and inhibition of the cellular behaviors of gingival epithelial cells.

273

Different effects of 25-kDa amelogenin on the proliferation, attachment and migration of various periodontal cells  

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Previous studies have assumed that amelogenin is responsible for the therapeutic effect of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in periodontal tissue healing and regeneration. However, it is difficult to confirm this hypothesis because both the EMD and the amelogenins are complex mixtures of multiple proteins. Further adding to the difficulties is the fact that periodontal tissue regeneration involves various types of cells and a sequence of associated cellular events including the attachment, migration and proliferation of various cells. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of a 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin (rPAm) on primarily cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF), gingival fibroblasts (GF) and gingival epithelial cells (GEC). The cells were treated with 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/mL. We found that rPAm significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of PDLF, but not their adhesion. Similarly, the proliferation and adhesion of GF were significantly enhanced by treatment with rPAm, while migration was greatly inhibited. Interestingly, this recombinant protein inhibited the growth rate, cell adhesion and migration of GEC. These data suggest that rPAm may play an essential role in periodontal regeneration through the activation of periodontal fibroblasts and inhibition of the cellular behaviors of gingival epithelial cells.

Li, Xiting [Department of Periodontology, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, No. 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Shu, Rong, E-mail: shurong123@hotmail.com [Department of Periodontology, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, No. 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Dali; Jiang, Shaoyun [Department of Periodontology, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, No. 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China)

2010-04-09

274

Meniscus and ligament injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The knee is one of the major weight-bearing joints and is relatively exposed to trauma. Capsuloligamentous structures are essential to provide joint stability and - in turn - persistent instability bears a risk for osteoarthritis that needs timely and comprehensive diagnosis. Using MRI it may be beneficial to routinely apply (T)SE sequences in all three major planes as a basic protocol and to add additional sequences according to the clinical information available and imaging findings in the basic protocol. Especially fat-suppressed sequences (STIR, T2w/PDw FS TSE) are very useful because they sensitively depict bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP)-like changes. This finding often alerts the reader to - sometimes only discrete - underlying pathologies and may - if found in typical locations - give information about the mechanism of injury and thus lead the radiologist to look for specific concomitant capsuloligamentous, cartilage, and/or meniscal injury. BMEP is quite prominent in contusion injury, whereas often it is but discrete in avulsion lesions. There is extensive literature about the signs, possible pitfalls, and the accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of specific pathologies such as meniscal tears or cruciate or collateral ligament ruptures. However, combined injuries of more than one structure are frequent and affect the therapeutic approach. Thus, the primary goal of the radiologist is to go beyond the description of any isolated lesion and to give a comprehensivesolated lesion and to give a comprehensive description of (or to reliably exclude) any injury to other structures. A necessary prerequisite to accomplish this is a thorough knowledge of the - in some locations - complex anatomic relationships, pitfalls, and locations where lesions typically occur and where they may be overlooked. (orig.)

275

Features of morphofunctional changes in periodontal tissue in patients with chronic parodontitis and periodontitis  

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Full Text Available The features of the morphological changes in the periodontal tissues in the cervical and periapical areas in different forms of chronic parodontitis and periodontitis were studied. Under supervision there were patients diagnosed with chronic granulomatous periodontitis and chronic parodontitis. Data of investigation suggest the existence of differences in morpho-logical and functional properties of the periodontal tissues of chronic periodontitis. Patients with chronic granulomatous peri-odontitis can be divided into three groups: patients with a predominance of inflammatory changes, with a predominance of degenerative changes and mixed form. On X-ray imaging to set histological differentiation into subgroups was not possible. These data suggest the existence of differences of morphological and functional changes in the properties of periodontal tissue in chronic periodontitis, namely the prevalence of inflammatory or degenerative changes that require a differentiated approach to the treatment of chronic periodontitis include data pathomorphological study.

Kernytskyy R.V.

2012-01-01

276

Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e.g. periodontal pocket depth or loss of attachment). All tools reviewed in this paper were developed based on the state of the science of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease at the time of their design and the need to provide valid and reliable measurements of the presence and severity of periodontal diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index, have been used extensively to report periodontal status. Laboratory tests for detecting putative microorganisms or inflammatory agents present in periodontal diseases have been used at the clinical level, and at least one has been tested at the population level. Other approaches, such as self-report measures, are currently under validation. In this paper, we do not review indices designed to measure plaque or residual accumulation around the tooth, indices focussed only on gingival inflammation or radiographic approaches with limited applicability in surveillance systems. Finally, we review current case-definitions proposed for surveillance of periodontal disease severity.

Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I

2012-01-01

277

Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. PMID:24738583

Albandar, Jasim M

2014-06-01

278

TRATAMIENTO ORTODÓNCICO Y PERIODONTAL COMBINADO EN PACIENTES CON PERIODONTITIS AGRESIVA TRATADA Y CONTROLADA / COMBINED ORTHODONTIC-PERIODONTAL TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH TREATED AND CONTROLLED AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para diagnosticar correctamente la periodontitis agresiva (PA) se debe tener en cuenta la información obtenida de la entrevista con el paciente, examen clínico periodontal, radiográfico y de laboratorio, según necesidad. El tratamiento de la PA va encaminado a la reducción o eliminación de los agent [...] es causales, manejo de los factores de riesgo y la corrección de los efectos de la enfermedad sobre los tejidos periodontales. Cuando se pretende realizar un tratamiento de ortodoncia en un paciente con PA, se requiere una evaluación detallada por ambas especialidades. Este artículo describe la terapia periodontal y ortodóncica combinada en cuatro pacientes jóvenes con periodontitis agresiva localizada (PAL) y periodontits agresiva generalizada (PAG). En primer lugar, se llevó a cabo un tratamiento periodontal completo. Una vez que se confirmó la ausencia de inflamación y la estabilidad del periodonto, se inició el tratamiento de ortodoncia utilizando fuerzas ligeras acompañadas de un monitoreo periodontal, alcanzando los objetivos estéticos y funcionales planteados al inicio del tratamiento. Abstract in english Accurate diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis (AP) requires taking into account information obtained from the interview with the patient and from clinical periodontal examination, radiographic evaluation, and laboratory tests when needed. AP treatment is aimed at reducing or eliminating triggering [...] agents, managing risk factors, and correcting effects on periodontal tissues. Before starting orthodontic treatment in an AP patient, it is necessary to perform a detailed evaluation by both specialties. This article describes a combined periodontal-orthodontic therapy in four young patients with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP). A complete periodontal treatment was first conducted. After completely reducing inflammation and stabilizing the periodontium, the clinicians started the orthodontic treatment by using moderate forces along with periodontal monitoring, thus reaching the aesthetic and functional objectives set when treatment started.

Juan Fernando, Aristizábal; Rosana, Martínez Smit.

2014-12-01

279

Oral Chlamydia trachomatis in Patients with Established Periodontitis  

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Periodontitis is considered a consequence of a pathogenic microbial infection at the periodontal site and host susceptibility factors. Periodontal research supports the association of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Bacteroides forsythus, and periodontitis; however causality has not been demonstrated. In pursuit of the etiology of periodontitis, we hypothesized that the intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, may play a role. A...

Reed, Susan G.; Lopatin, Dennis E.; Foxman, Betsy; Burt, Brian A.

2000-01-01

280

A scanning electron-microscopic, stereo-pair study of methacrylate corrosion casts of the mouse palatal and molar periodontal microvasculature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microvascular beds of the palate, gingiva and periodontal ligament had interconnected but distinct, regional patterns. The palatal vasculature reflected mucosal-crest morphology: crestal capillary vessels of the rugae anastomosed with sagitally-orientated rows of 8 microns capillary loops, and, in the inter-rugal troughs, these formed a flat plexus overlying collecting veins more than 100 microns in diameter. Maxillary and mandibular molar ligaments had similar microvascular patterns. The molar gingiva had a circular, outer capillary and inner venous system linked by radial anastomoses. The outer (7 microns) capillaries enclosed the three molars in a continuous horizontal loop coursing beneath the crestal epithelium; the inner (10-15 microns) venous vessels encircled each molar just below the epithelial attachment. Glomerulus-like vascular formations, with an arterial and venous stalk, were associated with the inner circular system and extended toward the crevicular epithelium. Axially aligned, post-capillary, periodontal-ligament vessels (21 microns) anastomosed with the inner circular system, forming different patterns in the occlusal, middle and apical thirds. The apical pattern comprised an enveloping plexus of anastomosing venous vessels supplied by arterio-venous shunts; similar shunts were present throughout the ligament. The microvascular bed of the mandibular inter-radicular ligament was characterized by the presence of a large venous ampulla measuring 60 by 200 microns. Some regions of the ligament microvasculature drained via the medullary vessels into 50 microns-diameter venules located interdentally deep to the molar apices. Volumetrically, the ligament microvascular bed was predominantly of post-capillary venules, and morphologically, a paired arterial and venous system was not demonstrated. PMID:3479097

Wong, R S; Sims, M R

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

CT-arthrography of the cruciate ligaments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of the cruciate ligaments using CT in 218 patients shall be presented. An intraarticular administration of air must be performed. Special positionings are required in order to bring the axis of the cruciate ligaments into the cross-sectional plane of the CT. The normal appearance of the cruciate ligaments in CT-arthrography is described. A classification of the anterior cruciate ligament lesions with 4 different types is proposed. The four types of the anterior cruciate ligament lesions and the posterior cruciate ligament lesions are met with different frequency. For CT-arthrography a sensitivity of 93% and a specifity of 95% was found. In patients with previous reconstructive surgery of the cruciate ligaments the results can be objectively documented. Thus CT-arthrography can contribute in the diagnosis of postoperative complaints. (orig.)

282

Periodontal diseases in adult Kenyans.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study comprised 1131 persons who constitute a stratified random sample of the entire population aged 15-65 years in Machakos District, Kenya. Each person was examined for tooth mobility, plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding, loss of attachment and pocket depth on the mesial, buccal, distal and lingual surface of each tooth. The oral hygiene was poor with plaque on 75-95% and calculus on 10-85% of the surfaces depending on age. Irrespective of age, pockets greater than or equal to 4 mm was seen on less than 20% of the surfaces, whereas 10-85% of the surfaces had loss of attachment greater than or equal to 1 mm. The proportion of surfaces per individual with loss of attachment greater than or equal to 4 mm or greater than or equal to 7 mm, and pocket depths greater than or equal to 4 mm or greater than or equal to 7 mm, respectively, showed a pronounced skewed distribution, indicating that in each age group, a subfraction of individuals is responsible for a substantial proportion of the total periodontal breakdown. The individual teeth within the dentition also showed a marked variation in the severity of periodontal breakdown. Our findings provide additional evidence that destructive periodontal disease should not be perceived as an inevitable consequence of gingivitis which ultimately leads to considerable tooth loss. A more specific characterization of the features of periodontal breakdown in those individuals who seem particularly susceptible is therefore warranted. PMID:3263399

Baelum, V; Fejerskov, O; Manji, F

1988-08-01

283

Lateral collateral ligament injury (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

A second degree injury is a partial tear with no firm endpoint when the joint is stressed, and a third degree is a complete tear of the ligament. A physical examination will be done to test the extent of damage. Some other tests may include an MRI or joint X- ...

284

Medial collateral ligament injury (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

A second degree injury is a partial tear with no firm endpoint when the joint is stressed, and a third degree is a complete tear of the ligament. A physical examination will be done to test the extent of damage. Some other tests may include an MRI or joint X- ...

285

Periapical fluid RANKL and IL-8 are differentially regulated in pulpitis and apical periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dental pulp space can become infected due to a breach in the surrounding hard tissues. This leads to inflammation of the pulp (pulpitis), soft tissue breakdown, and finally to bone loss around the root apex (apical periodontitis). The succession of the molecular events leading to apical periodontitis is currently not known. The main inflammatory mediator associated with neutrophil chemotaxis is interleukin-8 (IL-8), and with bone resorption the dyad of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The levels of RANKL, OPG and IL-8 were studied in periapical tissue fluid of human teeth (n = 48) diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP). SIP represents the starting point, and AAP an established steady state of the disease. Periapical tissue fluid samples were collected using paper points and then evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Target protein levels per case were calibrated against the corresponding total protein content, as determined fluorometrically. RANKL was expressed at significantly higher levels in SIP compared to AAP (P < 0.05), whereas OPG was under the detection limit in most samples. In contrast, IL-8 levels were significantly lower in SIP compared to AAP (P < 0.05). Spearman's correlation analysis between RANKL and IL-8 revealed a significantly (P < 0.05) negative correlation between the two measures (rho = -.44). The results of this study suggest that, in the development of apical periodontitis, periapical bone resorption signaling, as determined by RANKL, occurs prior to inflammatory cell recruitment signaling, as determined by IL-8. PMID:25022970

Rechenberg, Dan-K; Bostanci, Nagihan; Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N

2014-09-01

286

Enfermedad periodontal necrosante: Conducta odontológica / Necrotizing periodontal disease: Dental behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cuidado periodontal es, en esencia, labor del odontólogo y éste no puede pasar por alto la responsabilidad de proveer atención a todo paciente. La incidencia excesivamente elevada de problemas periodontales entre la población, dificulta que un número reducido de especialistas pueda enfrentarlos. [...] En la cavidad bucal se pueden producir variedades de enfermedades de etiología diferente en este caso infeccioso bacteriano, por ello es muy importante que el odontólogo identifique y conozca las consecuencias ocasionadas si no se previenen o tratan a tiempo, así como las complicaciones. El término enfermedad periodontal necrosante se emplea como denominador común de la gingivitis, periodontitis y estomatitis necrosante, las cuales son un conjunto de enfermedades inflamatorias, dolorosas y destructivas que afecta primariamente la encía marginal como la papilar y con menor frecuencia, la encía adherida, llegando afectar el hueso alveolar. Suele encontrarse en cavidades bucales sanas o sobre añadido a una enfermedad gingival o periodontal, aparece en un diente, o un grupo de ellos, o abarcar toda la cavidad bucal y presentarse en individuos, con buena o deficiente higiene bucal. Es anómalo en edéntulos, pero a veces, se producen lesiones esféricas aisladas en el paladar blando. El propósito de esta revisión es describir las diferentes presentaciones clínicas de dicha patología, su etiología, diagnósticos diferenciales y diferentes métodos de tratamiento, además de la interconsulta con diferentes áreas, para valorar sus complicaciones y cuidados postoperatorios. Para ello se realizó basado en los lineamientos de la investigación descriptiva documental, una revisión de la literatura nacional e internacional Abstract in english The premise is that periodontal problems are treated by general dentists and they should not skip the responsibility to treat all of their patients. The excessive incidence of periodontal problems in the population makes it difficult to treat them by a specific number of specialists. There is a vari [...] ety of diseases from various infectious etiology that take place in the mouth, it is essential that dentists know the importance of diagnosing, and also be aware of the consequences if they are not treated on time. The term necrotizing periodontal disease is used as common denominator of gingivitis, periodontal and necrotizing estomatitis, which are a group of dangerous, inflammatory and destructive diseases that affect mainly the marginal gum like the papilar and less frequently the adhesive gum affecting the alveolar bone. They can be found in healthy mouths or additional to a periodontal or gingival disease, in a tooth or in a group of them, or in the whole mouth or in individuals with good or poor mouth hygiene. It is not usual to find them as edentulous but sometimes isolated spheric injuries in the soft palate. The purpose of this report is to describe the different clinic presentation, etiology and pathogenesis, epidemiology diagnose, differentials, treatment, prognosis, complications and post surgery care. That’s why a revision of the national and international literature was made based upon on documentary descriptive research techniques

Yuni J, Salinas M; Ronald E, Millán I.

287

Periodontal disease epidemiology - learned and unlearned?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The notion of periodontal disease being the major cause of tooth loss among adults was rooted in the focal infection paradigm that dominated the first half of the 20th century. This paradigm was established largely by personal opinions, and it was not until the development of periodontal indices in the mid-1950s that periodontal epidemiology gained momentum. Unfortunately, the indices used suffered from a number of flaws, whereby the interpretation of the research results took the form of circular reasoning. It was under this paradigm that therapeutic and preventive intervention for periodontal diseases became entirely devoted to oral hygiene, as poor oral hygiene and older age were understood to explain nearly all the variation in disease occurrence. In the early 1980s, studies appeared that contradicted the concepts of poor oral hygiene as the inevitable trigger of periodontitis and of linear and ubiquitous periodontitis progression, whereby periodontal epidemiology was led into a relatively short-lived high-risk era. At this time, it became evident that old scourges continue to haunt periodontology: the inability to agree in operational clinical criteria for a periodontitis diagnosis and the inability to devise both a meaningful and a useful classification of periodontal diseases based on nominalist principles. The meager outcome of the high-risk era led researchers to resurrect the focal infection paradigm, which is now dressed up as periodontal medicine. Unfortunately, these developments have left the core of periodontology somewhat disheveled and deserted.

Bælum, Vibeke; López, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

288

Periodontal regeneration using an injectable bone cement combined with BMP-2 or FGF-2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontitis is a frequently diagnosed oral disease characterized by bone resorption and soft tissue loss around teeth. Unfortunately, currently available therapies only slow or arrest progress of the disease. Ideally, treatment of periodontal defects should be focused on complete regeneration of the lost tissues [(bone and periodontal ligament (PDL)]. As a result, this study used intrabony defects to evaluate the regenerative potential of an injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cement (CaP) in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). After creating 30 periodontal defects in 15 Wistar rats, three treatment strategies were conducted: application of CaP only, CaP?+?BMP-2 and CaP?+?FGF-2. Animals were euthanized after 12?weeks and processed for histology and histomorphometry. Using CaP alone resulted in limited effects on PDL and bone healing. CaP?+?BMP-2 showed a good response for bone healing; a significant 2.4 fold increase in bone healing score was observed compared to CaP. However, for PDL healing, CaP?+?BMP-2 treatment showed no difference compared to the CaP group. The best results were observed with the combined treatment of CaP?+?FGF-2, which showed a significant 3.3 fold increase in PDL healing score compared to CaP?+?BMP-2 and a significant 2.6 fold increase compared to CaP. For bone healing, CaP?+? FGF-2 showed a significant 1.9 fold increase compared to CaP but no significant difference was noted compared to the CaP?+?BMP-2 group. The combination of a topical application of FGF-2 and an injectable CaP seems to be a promising treatment modality for periodontal regeneration. PMID:22552898

Oortgiesen, Daniël A W; Walboomers, X Frank; Bronckers, Antonius L J J; Meijer, Gert J; Jansen, John A

2014-03-01

289

Direct pulp capping using biodentine  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping is therapeutic method of applying medication on exposed pulp in order to allow bridge formation and healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Biodentine on exposed dental pulp of Vietnamese pigs. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 20 teeth of Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. On buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, class V cavities were prepared and pulp was exposed. In the experimental group (six incisors, two canines and two premolars the perforation was covered with Biodentine® (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France. In the control group, the perforation was covered with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Observation period was 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, histological preparations were done to analyze the presence of dentin bridge, an inflammatory reaction of the pulp, pulp tissue reorganization and the presence of bacteria. Results. Dentin bridge was observed in all teeth (experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Neoangiogenesis and many odontoblast like cells responsible for dentin bridge formation were detected. Necrosis was not observed in any case, neither the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated favorable therapeutic effects of Biodentine for direct pulp capping in teeth of Vietnamese pigs. Findings were similar with Biodentine and MTA.

Popovi?-Baji? Marijana

2014-01-01

290

Anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis and treatment of combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries have evolved over the past 30 years. A detailed physical examination along with careful review of the magnetic resonance imaging and stress radiographs will guide decision making. Early ACL reconstruction and acute MCL repair are recommended when there is increased medial joint space opening with valgus stress in extension, a significant meniscotibial deep MCL injury (high-riding medial meniscus), or a displaced tibial-sided superficial MCL avulsion (stener lesion of the knee). Delayed ACL reconstruction to allow for MCL healing is advised when increased valgus laxity is present only at 30 degrees of flexion and not at 0 degree. However, at the time of ACL surgery, medial stability has to be re-assessed after the reconstruction is completed. In patients with neutral alignment in the chronic setting, graft reconstruction of both the ACL and MCL is recommended. PMID:24949985

Bollier, Matthew; Smith, Patrick A

2014-10-01

291

Agrupaciones familiares en periodontitis crónica / Family groupings in chronic periodontitis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la periodontitis crónica es una enfermedad infecciosa asociada a microorganismos Gram-negativos anaerobios. Estos microorganismos inician una serie de eventos que conducen a la pérdida de inserción periodontal y alveolar alrededor del diente. Objetivo: presentar algunos patrones clínicos [...] , radiográficos y microbiológicos comunes a cinco hermanos, dos esposos, y padre e hijo, con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica avanzada generalizada. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, donde se evaluaron cinco hermanos (grupo familiar 1), dos parejas (grupo familiar 2), y padre e hijo (grupo familiar 3). Los pacientes evaluados asistieron a las clínicas odontológicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín Colombia), en busca de atención periodontal. A cada paciente se le realizó una historia clínica completa, además de un examen clínico, radiográfico y microbiológico. Resultados: todos los pacientes presentaron altos porcentajes de placa bacteriana y sangrado al sondaje, además de un gran número de bolsas periodontales con profundidades >;= 5mm y pérdida de niveles de inserción >;= a 2mm. A partir de las radigrafías, se observó pérdida ósea horizontal en la mayoría de pacientes y defectos óseos angulados en algunos de ellos. Los exámenes microbiológicos del grupo familiar 1 presentaron una mayor prevalencia de Fusobacterium nucleatum, seguido por Porphyromona gingivalis, mientras que los grupos dos y tres mostraron una frecuencia elevada de P. gingivalis. Conclusiones: las agrupaciones familiares observadas y los hallazgos de varios estudios, sugieren que la transmisión intrafamiliar de periodontopatógenos es un factor importante a tener en cuenta en la organización de las bacterias en la biopelícula. Abstract in english Background: chronic periodontitis is an infectious disease associated with anaerobic gram-negative microorganisms. These organisms begin a series of events leading to periodontal and alveolar attachment loss around the tooth. Objective: to present some clinical, x-ray and microbiological patterns co [...] mmon to five brothers, two husbands, and father and son, diagnosed with generalized severe chronic periodontitis. Method: a descriptive study was conducted, where five brothers (family group 1), two couples (family group 2), and father and son (family group 3) were evaluated in the dental clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Antioquia (Medellin, Colombia). Each patient was carried out a complete medical history, as well as clinical, radiographic and microbiological examination. Results: all patients showed high percentages of bacterial plaque and bleeding on probing, as well as a large number of periodontal pockets with depths >;= 5 mm and attachment levels loss >;= 2 mm. Radiographically, horizontal bone loss was observed in most patients and angled bone defects in some of them. The microbiological examination of family group 1 had a higher prevalence of Fusobacterium nucleatum followed by Porphyromona gingivalis, while groups two and three showed a high frequency of P. gingivalis. Conclusions: family groupings observed and findings of several studies suggest that family transmission of pathogens is an important factor to take into account in the organization of bacteria in the biofilm.

Carlos Martín, Ardila Medina; Isabel Cristina, Guzmán.

292

Social gradients in periodontal diseases among adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socioeconomic position and periodontal diseases among adolescents. METHODS: Data were obtained from 9203 Chilean high school students. Clinical examinations included direct recordings of clinical attachment level and the necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions. Students answered a questionnaire on various dimensions of socioeconomic position. Seven periodontal outcomes were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify socioeconomic variables associated with the periodontal outcomes. RESULTS: The occurrence of all periodontal outcomes investigated followed social gradients, and paternal income and parental education were the most influential variables. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates the existence of significant social gradients in periodontal diseases already among adolescents. This is worrying, and indicates a new potential for further insight into the mechanisms of periodontal disease causation.

López, Rodrigo; Fernández, Olaya

2006-01-01

293

ENFERMEDAD PERIODONTAL Y EMBARAZO: (REVISION BIBLIOGRAFICA  

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Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la enfermedad periodontal en el embarazo, con el objetivo de corroborar los criterios actuales sobre el tema, teniendo en cuenta que las hormonas sexuales femeninas son un factor condicionante en la enfermedad periodontal; su aumento en el embarazo provoca alteraciones vasculares, celulares, microbiológicas e inmunológicas, que condicionan una respuesta clínica diferente al resto de las pacientes. La enfermedad periodontal supone un depósito permanente de microorganismos y productos bacterianos que pueden ocasionar un riesgo sistémico. La infección periodontal provoca un aumento de la concentración intramniótica de PGE-2 y TNF alfa, mediadores fisiológicos del parto, de modo que pudiera precipitarse el trabajo del parto. Se necesitan estudios longitudinales en humanos para establecer la asociación entre infección periodontal y embarazo de riesgo, si dicha hipótesis pudiera ser confirmada habría que considerar la enfermedad periodontal un factor de riesgo de bajo peso y parto prematuro.

José Alberto Méndez González

2008-03-01

294

Genetic variants in periodontal health and disease  

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Periodontitis is a complex, multifactorial disease and its susceptibility is genetically determined. The present book systematically reviews the evidence of the association between the genetic variants and periodontitis progression and/or treatment outcomes. Genetic syndromes known to be associated with periodontal disease, the candidate gene polymorphisms investigated in relation to periodontitis, the heritability of chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as common guidelines for association studies are described. This growing understanding of the role of genetic variation in inflammation and periodontal chronic disease presents opportunities to identify healthy persons who are at increased risk of disease and to potentially modify the trajectory of disease to prolong healthy aging. The book represents a new concept in periodontology with its pronounced focus on understanding through knowledge rather than presenting the presently valid answers. Connections between genetics and periodontology are systematically reviewed and covered in detail. (orig.)

Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L. [Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Dentistry; Kobayashi, Junya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Genome Repair Dynamics

2010-07-01

295

Influence of dimethyl formamide pulping of bagasse on pulp properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organosolv pulping of bagasse was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three pulping variables (temperature: 190-210 degrees C, time: 120-180 min, organic solvent charge: 40-60% dimethyl formamide). Responses of pulp properties (yield and holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, kappa number, ash and ethanol-dichloromethane extractives contents) and the pH of the resulting wastewater to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB). Main factor analysis revealed that optimum pulp has the following characteristics: 82.7% (yield), 92.9 (kappa number), 95.84% (holocellulose), 83.53% (alpha-cellulose), 1.403% (ash), 2.562% (ethanol-dichloromethane extractives contents) and 6.39 (pH). These results showed that acceptable properties of pulps could be gained at 200-210 degrees C for 150 min and 40-60% DMF. Based on these results, this method could be used for pulping of bagasse equivalent NSSC concerning high yield at a fixed kappa number. In addition, bagasse could be pulped with ease to approximately 55% yield with a kappa number approximately 31. Numerical analyses showed that cooking temperature had the greatest influence on properties of obtained pulps within the DMF concentrations and cooking time as cooking variables. PMID:16324845

Rezayati-Charani, P; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J; Hashemi, S J; Kazemi-Najafi, S

2006-12-01

296

Case report: cheilitis granulomatosa with periodontitis.  

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We report a case of cheilitis granulomatosa with periodontitis in a 39-year-old Japanese man. Biopsy specimens from both areas showed noncaseating epithelioid cell granuloma. Dental examination revealed that the lower left first molar had periodontitis. The lower left first molar was removed, and antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs were administered. After 2 months of periodontitis therapy, the lips returned to normal size without recurrence and the swelling of the buccal mucosa regressed. PMID:8586766

Takeshita, T; Koga, T; Yashima, Y

1995-10-01

297

Severe periodontitis associated with chronic kidney disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The data on Indian population with regard to severity/prevalence of chronic periodontitis in association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is scarce. We are describing an interesting case of severe periodontitis associated with CKD. The patient had unusual inflammatory gingival overgrowth which persisted even after treatment. By describing this case we want to highlight our current lack of understanding with regard to etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease in CKD patients and need for further research in this area. PMID:23633788

Jain, Anurag; Kabi, Debipada

2013-01-01

298

Association of Treponema spp. with canine periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the association of oral Treponema (T.) spp. with severity of canine periodontitis, subgingival plaque samples of dogs of various breeds undergoing surgery were investigated. A wide range of oral Treponema spp. was analysed by a molecular and culture-independent approach applying DNA-DNA dot blot hybridization analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using Treponema specific oligonucleotide probes specific for phylogenetic groups I-VII of oral treponemes as well as probes specific for T. socranskii and T. denticola. To assess the periodontal status of affected dogs clinical parameters were measured and the periodontal status was classified from grade 0 (physiological periodont) to 3 (severe periodontitis). The periodontal status correlated significantly with an increasing concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC, r=0.854) determined with a Halimeter, indicating a positive correlation between the presence of VSC-producing bacteria and periodontitis. In this study Treponema spp. of phylogenetic groups III, V-VII were not detected in any sample, whereas T. denticola-like treponemes were found only in 2 of 51 animals. However, treponemes belonging to phylogenetic groups I, II and IV of oral treponemes or T. socranskii were found in up to 64.84% of the dogs. The detection rate of Treponema spp. was significantly associated with an increased periodontal status. Treponemes present in periodontal lesions were also visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization of gingival biopsies showing Treponema spp. not only in the microbial biofilm but also within the gingival tissue. The data presented here indicate that oral Treponema spp. are associated with canine periodontitis. Similar to human periodontitis, treponemes of groups I, II and IV and T. socranskii were found more frequently the higher the degree of periodontitis was. PMID:17997236

Nordhoff, Marcel; Rühe, Bärbel; Kellermeier, Claudia; Moter, Annette; Schmitz, Rose; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H

2008-03-18

299

Periodontal status in patients undergoing hemodialysis  

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The aim of the study was to assess the periodontal status of patients among group of patients receiving hemodialysis in two super specialty renal institutes in the state of Gujarat. A cross-sectional study of 304 subjects, 152 subjects each in dialysis, and control group was conducted. Oral hygiene status was assessed using a Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LOA) as per WHO methodology 1997. ...

Parkar, S. M.; Ajithkrishnan, C. G.

2012-01-01

300

Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT) of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close t [...] o the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found.

Ticiane Cestari, Fagundes; Terezinha Jesus Esteves, Barata; Anuradha, Prakki; Eduardo, Bresciani; José Carlos, Pereira.

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Lateral periodontal cyst with extremely rare clinical-radiographic presentation / Cisto periodontal lateral com apresentação clínico-radiográfica extremamente rara  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O presente artigo descreve os aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e histopatológicos de um caso extremamente raro de cisto periodontal lateral, bem como o tratamento e acompanhamento pós-cirúrgico. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Um paciente masculino de 43 anos de idade, mulato, procurou a Clínica de Esto [...] matologia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Caruaru (Brasil) queixando-se de grande aumento de volume no lado direito de seu rosto de aproximadamente cinco anos. Tal aumento de volume era assintomático e a assimetria facial foi o principal motivo pelo qual procurou o tratamento. Com base nos exames clínicos e radiográficos, bem como a falta de vitalidade pulpar no elemento 13, a hipótese diagnóstica foi de cisto radicular inflamatório e o plano cirúrgico envolveu a competa enucleação cística. A biópsia excisional foi realizada e enviada para análise histopatológica, a qual revelou múltiplas cavidades com hialinização do tecido conjuntivo abaixo do epitélio e presença de células não-epiteliais. CONCLUSÃO: O caso relatado revelou que a extremamente rara variação botrióide do cisto periodontal lateral possui aparência multilocular e crescimento excessivo. A biópsia excisional foi o tratamento para esse caso e nenhum sinal de recorrência foi observado durante o acompanhamento de nove meses. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The present article describes the clinical, radiographic and histological features of an extremely rare case of lateral periodontal cyst as well as the treatment and postoperative follow-up. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old male patient, mulatto, sought the Stomatology Clinic of the Caruaru [...] Dental School (Brazil) with a complaint of increased volume on the right side of his face for approximately five years. The increase in volume was asymptomatic and facial asymmetry was the main reason he sought treatment. Based on the clinical and imaging exams as well as the lack of pulp vitality in tooth 13, the presumed clinical diagnosis was inflammatory radicular cyst and the surgical plan was total cystic enucleation. Excisional biopsy was performed and sent for pathologic microscopic analysis, which revealed multiple cavities with hyalinization of the connective tissue below the epithelium and the presence of clear non-epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: The case reported reveals that the extremely rare botryoid variant of lateral periodontal cyst exhibits multilocular presentation and excessive growth. Excisional biopsy was the treatment for this case and no sign of recurrence was observed over the nine-month follow-up period.

Marconi Eduardo S, Maciel-Santos; Vinícius de Farias, Pereira; Pettely Thaíse de S Santos, Palmeira; Diego Moura, Soares; Danielle Lago Bruno de, Faria; Uoston Holder da, Silva.

302

Relación entre diabetes mellitus y enfermedad periodontal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La asociación entre diabetes mellitus y la enfermedad periodontal ha sido motivo de estudio durante mucho tiempo. Son varias las hipótesis que se barajan a la hora de explicar dicha relación. El propósito de este artículo es revisar los estudios publicados en la literatura periodontal hasta la fecha [...] . Abstract in english The association between diabetes mellitus und Periodontal. Disease have been studied for a long time. There are several hypothesis which have tried to explain this relation. The purpose of this paper is to review the Periodontal literature up to day. [...

A.B., Navarro Sánchez; R., Faria Almeida; A., Bascones Martínez.

303

ASSOCIATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN CONCENTRATION AND PERIODONTITIS  

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Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a complex, multi-factorial, chronic inflammatory disease that involves degradation of periodontal structures, including alveolar bone. Many systemic diseases and disorders have been implicated as risk indicators or risk factors in periodontal disease. Clinical and basic science research over the past several decades have led to an improved understanding and appreciation for the complexity and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. It has been indicated that there might be an inverse relationship between periodontal disease and serum albumin concentration in elderly subjects. The present study adopted serum albumin concentration as a criterion which indicates the general health condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of periodontal disease condition on serum albumin concentration in the adult population. Our study showed a significant inverse association between the loss of attachment and the serum albumin concentration and this association was more pronounced in periodontitis group. The level of serum albumin was comparatively less in periodontitis patients when compared to the healthy controls which were of no much statistical significance. As the loss of attachment increased the serum albumin concentration decreased in the test group. But the cause to effect relationship of periodontal disease and serum albumin concentration is still unknown. This relationship might be explained by two conceivable possibilities, namely the influence of nutritional aspect or chronic disease aspect.

Ramesh Amitha

2012-11-01

304

The association of periodontitis and metabolic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition, which constitutes a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk for Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder is found prevalent in the industrialized societies of the world in epidemic proportions. Periodontitis is an oral disease of microbial origin characterized by loss of attachment apparatus of tooth, resulting in edentulism if untreated. Periodontitis has been attributed to produce a low grade systemic inflammatory condition. The link of periodontitis to various systemic disorders has led to the evolution of a new branch termed as "periodontal medicine." Studies reviewed in the present paper have indicated a positive link between the MS and periodontitis and it is suggested that subjects displaying several components of MS should be submitted to periodontal examination. Present studies have displayed coherent relation between the two entities. This review will address the vicious association between MS and periodontitis, depicting the commonality of pathophysiological pathway between the two entities. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis addressing the concerned subject were screened. Whether the systematic periodontal therapy in individuals exhibiting MS has the potential to reduce the incidence of various adverse systemic complications remains a logical proposition. Further, longitudinal and controlled trials with a large population would be imperative to depict the robustness in the association between MS and periodontal disease in human subjects. PMID:24688553

Gurav, Abhijit N

2014-01-01

305

Relación entre diabetes mellitus y enfermedad periodontal  

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Full Text Available La asociación entre diabetes mellitus y la enfermedad periodontal ha sido motivo de estudio durante mucho tiempo. Son varias las hipótesis que se barajan a la hora de explicar dicha relación. El propósito de este artículo es revisar los estudios publicados en la literatura periodontal hasta la fecha.The association between diabetes mellitus und Periodontal. Disease have been studied for a long time. There are several hypothesis which have tried to explain this relation. The purpose of this paper is to review the Periodontal literature up to day.

A.B. Navarro Sánchez

2002-04-01

306

Advances in anterior cruciate ligament surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anterior cruciate ligament is the most frequently torn ligament in the knee. Diagnosis of cruciate ligament tears is often a difficult task. Tests typically used in diagnosis are the anterior drawer test, Lachman's test, pivot shift test, and the flexion rotation drawer. Arthroscopy has increasingly become the standard for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament tears. Management of these tears has been controversial. The diagnostic techniques are discussed and a surgical technique is described for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as an outpatient procedure. The middle one-third of the patellar tendon is used as a graft, harvested subcutaneously, and fixed with interference fit screws. The postoperative function of anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees has been quite satisfactory. Morbidity is decreased relative to open surgical inpatient procedures. Finally, overall cost to the patient has been significantly reduced. PMID:2240487

McGuire, D A; Grinstead, G L

1990-01-01

307

MRT in following up augmentation of the anterior cruciate ligament with a carbon fiber ligament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 19 patients treated with carbon-fiber ligament augmentation for the anterior cruciate ligament, the clinical findings were compared via MRI. Visualization of the intra- and extra-articular portion of the graft was possible in 84%. The integrity of the ligaments was shown in an equal percentage. Thus, MRI is a useful diagnostic tool for non-invasive imaging for repeated follow-ups in patients with carbon-fiber ligament augmentation. (orig.)

308

Compliance improvement in periodontal maintenance  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the infuence of efforts applied to modify the patients' behavior towards periodontal maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were classifed into three groups: Complete Compliance (participation in all visits, Irregular Compliance (irregular participation, one or more missing appointments, and Noncompliance (abandoned or never returned to the program. Complete compliers received usual procedures of the maintenance visit. The irregular compliers and non-compliers received usual procedures and strategies such as reminding next visit, informing patients on both periodontal disease and importance of maintenance, motivating the patient who showed an improvement in compliance. Thus, 137 patients were observed for 12 months. RESULTS: The degree of compliance has increased signifcantly during this period (p=0.001. No association was detected between age or gender and compliance degree. CONCLUSIONS: The results have shown that the intervention applied had a favorable infuence on the patients' compliance.

Verônica Franco de Carvalho

2010-06-01

309

Temperature gradients in periodontal pockets.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine whether there is any correlation of temperature within periodontal pockets with their depths. Pocket temperatures were measured with a thermocouple at 1 mm intervals of depth in 247 pockets, in 20 patients with periodontitis, mesiobucally and mesiopalatally/mesiolingually in relation to 6 standard teeth. Pocket temperatures increased consistently with pocket depth. Maxillary pockets were cooler than mandibular pockets, but in both jaws the differences between buccal and palatal/lingual pockets were not statistically significant. The findings are in keeping with knowledge about the increased temperature of inflamed tissues and the study appears to have relevance to the diagnosis of disease activity in pockets, but further studies are necessary to establish reference levels of pocket temperature. PMID:2027067

Meyerov, R H; Lemmer, J; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Volchansky, A

1991-02-01

310

Metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease  

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Full Text Available It is important for a dentist to be well informed and updated on the latest research on the association of oral and systemic health. Of late, the metabolic syndrome has gained importance in dental literature, and metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease have been linked. Metabolic syndrome (MeS is a group of three or more (up to five interrelated metabolic abnormalities, which increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Also, both MeS and periodontal disease may be linked through a common pathophysiological pathway. Some studies have been conducted to show such an association and additional studies are required to establish this association. A dental surgeon can play a major role in evaluating patients with MeS and thus prevent the development of overt cardiovascular disease.

Bharti Vipin

2009-01-01

311

Automated Periodontal Diseases Classification System  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and innovative system for automated classification of periodontal diseases, The strength of our technique lies in the fact that it incorporates knowledge from the patients' clinical data, along with the features automatically extracted from the Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E stained microscopic images. Our system uses image processing techniques based on color deconvolution, morphological operations, and watershed transforms for epithelium & connective tissue segmentation, nuclear segmentation, and extraction of the microscopic immunohistochemical features for the nuclei, dilated blood vessels & collagen fibers. Also, Feedforward Backpropagation Artificial Neural Networks are used for the classification process. We report 100% classification accuracy in correctly identifying the different periodontal diseases observed in our 30 samples dataset.

Aliaa A. A. Youssif

2012-01-01

312

Agrupaciones familiares en periodontitis crónica  

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Full Text Available Fundamento: la periodontitis crónica es una enfermedad infecciosa asociada a microorganismos Gram-negativos anaerobios. Estos microorganismos inician una serie de eventos que conducen a la pérdida de inserción periodontal y alveolar alrededor del diente. Objetivo: presentar algunos patrones clínicos, radiográficos y microbiológicos comunes a cinco hermanos, dos esposos, y padre e hijo, con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica avanzada generalizada. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, donde se evaluaron cinco hermanos (grupo familiar 1, dos parejas (grupo familiar 2, y padre e hijo (grupo familiar 3. Los pacientes evaluados asistieron a las clínicas odontológicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín Colombia, en busca de atención periodontal. A cada paciente se le realizó una historia clínica completa, además de un examen clínico, radiográfico y microbiológico. Resultados: todos los pacientes presentaron altos porcentajes de placa bacteriana y sangrado al sondaje, además de un gran número de bolsas periodontales con profundidades >;= 5mm y pérdida de niveles de inserción >;= a 2mm. A partir de las radigrafías, se observó pérdida ósea horizontal en la mayoría de pacientes y defectos óseos angulados en algunos de ellos. Los exámenes microbiológicos del grupo familiar 1 presentaron una mayor prevalencia de Fusobacterium nucleatum, seguido por Porphyromona gingivalis, mientras que los grupos dos y tres mostraron una frecuencia elevada de P. gingivalis. Conclusiones: las agrupaciones familiares observadas y los hallazgos de varios estudios, sugieren que la transmisión intrafamiliar de periodontopatógenos es un factor importante a tener en cuenta en la organización de las bacterias en la biopelícula.

Carlos Mart\\u00EDn Ardila Medina

2011-01-01

313

Diagnóstico educativo y capacitación periodontal  

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Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación en individuos de ambos sexos, mayores de 14 años de edad y pertenecientes al área de salud que atiende la Facultad de Estomatología del ISCM-H, con el objetivo de evaluar un método de diagnóstico y capacitación en salud periodontal. La muestra fue seleccionada al azar y se dividió en 2 grupos (estudio y control. A cada uno de los individuos escogidos se les realizó una encuesta inicial para determinar conocimientos relativos a la enfermedad periodontal (diagnóstico educativo, y se determinó que eran semejantes, pues no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambas. El grupo de estudio se sometió al método educativo propuesto y los resultados de conocimientos obtenidos después de este mostraron diferencias significativas en relación con el diagnóstico educativo. Ambos grupos, que a su inicio eran semejantes, volvieron a encuestarse al año, y se observó que el grupo de estudio seguía manteniendo mejores resultados.A research was made in individuals over 14 of both sexes from the health area receiving attention at the Dental Faculty of the Higher Institute of Medical Sciences of Havana City aimed at evaluating a method of diagnosis and upgrading in periodontal health. The sample was selected at random and it was divided into 2 groups (study and control. An inititial survey was done to every selected individual to determine his knowledge of periodontal disease (diagnostic-educative and it was found that they were similar, since no statistically significant differences were observed between them. The study group was applied the proposed educative method and the results obtained showed marked differences in relation to the educative diagnosis. Both groups that were similar at the beginning were surveyed again a year later and the study group still had better results.

Odalys V Campaña Proenza

2002-12-01

314

Imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament  

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Full Text Available The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is an important structure in maintaining the normal biomechanics of the knee and is the most commonly injured knee ligament. However, the oblique course of the ACL within the intercondylar fossa limits the visualization and assessment of the pathology of the ligament. This pictorial essay provides a comprehensive and illustrative review of the anatomy and biomechanics as well as updated information on different modalities of radiological investigation of ACL, particularly magnetic resonance imaging.

Wing Hung Alex Ng

2011-01-01

315

Novel chitosan/collagen scaffold containing transforming growth factor-?1 DNA for periodontal tissue engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current rapid progression in tissue engineering and local gene delivery system has enhanced our applications to periodontal tissue engineering. In this study, porous chitosan/collagen scaffolds were prepared through a freeze-drying process, and loaded with plasmid and adenoviral vector encoding human transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). These scaffolds were evaluated in vitro by analysis of microscopic structure, porosity, and cytocompatibility. Human periodontal ligament cells (HPLCs) were seeded in this scaffold, and gene transfection could be traced by green fluorescent protein (GFP). The expression of type I and type III collagen was detected with RT-PCR, and then these scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. Results indicated that the pore diameter of the gene-combined scaffolds was lower than that of pure chitosan/collagen scaffold. The scaffold containing Ad-TGF-?1 exhibited the highest proliferation rate, and the expression of type I and type III collagen up-regulated in Ad-TGF-?1 scaffold. After implanted in vivo, EGFP-transfected HPLCs not only proliferated but also recruited surrounding tissue to grow in the scaffold. This study demonstrated the potential of chitosan/collagen scaffold combined Ad-TGF-?1 as a good substrate candidate in periodontal tissue engineering

316

Periodontal biomechanics: finite element simulations of closing stroke and power stroke in equine cheek teeth  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In equine dentistry periodontal diseases, especially periapical inflammation, are frequently occurring problems. Anachoresis is believed to be the most common cause for the development of such disorders. Nevertheless, there is still no substantiated explanation why settlement of pathogen microorganisms occurs in equine periodontal tissues. It is expected that excessive strains and stresses occurring in the periodontal ligament (PDL during the horse’s chewing cycle might be a predisposing factor. In this study this assumption was examined by finite element (FE analyses on virtual 3-D models of equine maxillary and mandibular cheek teeth, established on the basis of ?CT datasets. Calculations were conducted both under conditions of closing and power stroke. Results Results showed a uniform distribution of low stresses and strain energy density (SED during closing stroke, whereas during power stroke an occurrence of high stresses and SED could be observed in the PDL near the alveolar crest and in periapical regions. Conclusion The concentration of forces during power stroke in these specific areas of the PDL may cause local tissue necrosis and inflammation and thus establish a suitable environment for the settlement of microorganisms.

Cordes Vanessa

2012-07-01

317

Health Literacy in Periodontal Patients  

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Full Text Available Introduction: health literacy is a fundamental part of the healing promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate periodontal health literacy among patients. Materials and methods: 296 patients attending periodontal clinic who were above 16 years old participated in this study. Gathering data was based on screening questions on a 5-point Likert scale. After completion questionnaire, data was analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Based on the scores of questions, patients were classified as weak, medium and good health literacy. Result: This study showed significant difference in health literacy between age and education groups (P value = 0.015, P value = 0.003, while there was no significant difference between male and female (P value = 0.54. It was also revealed that patients who had been exposed to oral health education had higher health literacy levels ( P value < 0.0001, P value = 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed patients less than 20 years and over 50 years old had poorer heath literacy in relation of periodontal heath, also, patients with higher educational level have higher health literacy.

Ahmad Haerian

2013-04-01

318

Pulps: more whiteness, less wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Only chemical processes give high quality pulps. Mechanical processes give pulps with not so good fibers. Two chemical methods subsist: the bisulphite process, which gives no resistant pulps, and the Kraft process, which gives very good mechanical qualities pulps. To remove the lignin to a maximum, there are two processes: the first consists in a prolonged cooking, the second a first oxidation by oxygen. Four methods are used for the pulp whitening: the chlorine dioxide, the oxygen, the hydrogen peroxide, and the ozone. The whitening sequences which take care of the environment use oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, when they add chloride dioxide: they are elemental chlorine free (ECF). Some sequences are totally chlorine free (TCF), they use only oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. With these methods, wastes and releases levels are low. France, Federal Republic of Germany, Scandinavia and Usa paper treatment policies are shortly compared. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Fauvarque, J.

1994-05-01

319

Diabetes y su impacto en el territorio periodontal / Diabetes and its impact in periodontal tissues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Diabetes y enfermedad periodontal corresponden probablemente al mejor ejemplo de cómo una enfermedad sistémica puede tener un efecto en el territorio periodontal. Si bien esta asociación ha sido extensamente estudiada, muchas de las asociaciones propuestas presentan contradicciones. En la presente r [...] evisión de la literatura se analizan los siguientes tópicos relevantes para la práctica clínica en periodoncia e implantología: i) Identificación de enfermedad periodontal severa y su capacidad para diagnosticar casos de diabetes; ii) Efectos de la diabetes sobre la enfermedad periodontal; iii) Efectos de la diabetes sobre la reparación periodontal y periimplantaria; iv) Efecto del tratamiento periodontal sobre el control metabólico de la diabetes. Abstract in english Diabetes and periodontal disease correspond to conditions that probably exemplify how a systemic disease may have a strong impact in the periodontium. Although this association has been studied for several years, many of these studies still show contradictory results. The present review analyses the [...] following questions relevant for the clinician in the fields of periodontology: i) Value of the diagnosis of severe periodontitis and its capacity to identify previously un-diagnosed cases of diabetes; ii) Effects of diabetes on periodontal disease; iii) Effects of diabetes on periodontal and peri-implant tissue repair and regeneration and; iv) Effect of periodontal therapy on the metabolic control of diabetes.

P, Smith; I, Retamal; M, Cáceres; A, Romero; D, Silva; R, Arancibia; C, Martínez.

320

Diabetes y su impacto en el territorio periodontal Diabetes and its impact in periodontal tissues  

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Full Text Available Diabetes y enfermedad periodontal corresponden probablemente al mejor ejemplo de cómo una enfermedad sistémica puede tener un efecto en el territorio periodontal. Si bien esta asociación ha sido extensamente estudiada, muchas de las asociaciones propuestas presentan contradicciones. En la presente revisión de la literatura se analizan los siguientes tópicos relevantes para la práctica clínica en periodoncia e implantología: i Identificación de enfermedad periodontal severa y su capacidad para diagnosticar casos de diabetes; ii Efectos de la diabetes sobre la enfermedad periodontal; iii Efectos de la diabetes sobre la reparación periodontal y periimplantaria; iv Efecto del tratamiento periodontal sobre el control metabólico de la diabetes.Diabetes and periodontal disease correspond to conditions that probably exemplify how a systemic disease may have a strong impact in the periodontium. Although this association has been studied for several years, many of these studies still show contradictory results. The present review analyses the following questions relevant for the clinician in the fields of periodontology: i Value of the diagnosis of severe periodontitis and its capacity to identify previously un-diagnosed cases of diabetes; ii Effects of diabetes on periodontal disease; iii Effects of diabetes on periodontal and peri-implant tissue repair and regeneration and; iv Effect of periodontal therapy on the metabolic control of diabetes.

P Smith

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Diabetes y su impacto en el territorio periodontal / Diabetes and its impact in periodontal tissues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Diabetes y enfermedad periodontal corresponden probablemente al mejor ejemplo de cómo una enfermedad sistémica puede tener un efecto en el territorio periodontal. Si bien esta asociación ha sido extensamente estudiada, muchas de las asociaciones propuestas presentan contradicciones. En la presente r [...] evisión de la literatura se analizan los siguientes tópicos relevantes para la práctica clínica en periodoncia e implantología: i) Identificación de enfermedad periodontal severa y su capacidad para diagnosticar casos de diabetes; ii) Efectos de la diabetes sobre la enfermedad periodontal; iii) Efectos de la diabetes sobre la reparación periodontal y periimplantaria; iv) Efecto del tratamiento periodontal sobre el control metabólico de la diabetes. Abstract in english Diabetes and periodontal disease correspond to conditions that probably exemplify how a systemic disease may have a strong impact in the periodontium. Although this association has been studied for several years, many of these studies still show contradictory results. The present review analyses the [...] following questions relevant for the clinician in the fields of periodontology: i) Value of the diagnosis of severe periodontitis and its capacity to identify previously un-diagnosed cases of diabetes; ii) Effects of diabetes on periodontal disease; iii) Effects of diabetes on periodontal and peri-implant tissue repair and regeneration and; iv) Effect of periodontal therapy on the metabolic control of diabetes.

P, Smith; I, Retamal; M, Cáceres; A, Romero; D, Silva; R, Arancibia; C, Martínez.

2012-08-01

322

NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP  

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Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

2011-05-01

323

An update on periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships  

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Full Text Available Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opinions concerning periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships. Specific areas reviewed are the ability of orthodontic treatment to afford some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown, short-term and long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, and some mucogingival considerations. Topics considering orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised patients were not included in this review. While past studies have shown that orthodontic treatment can positively affect the periodontal health, recent reviews indicate an absence of reliable evidence for the positive effects of orthodontic therapy on patients? periodontal status. Periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships are still controversial issues. However, a standard language between the periodontist and the orthodontist must always be established to eliminate the existing communications barrier, and to improve the outcomes of the whole treatment.

Dannan Aous

2010-01-01

324

Psychosocial distress and periodontitis in adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease associated with predominantly gram negative biofilms and characterized by the progressive destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Some studies conducted among adults have found a significant association between periodontitis and dimensions of psychosocial distress and it is unclear whether this association can be found among younger subjects in which destruction of periodontal tissues as a result of periodontitis are less severe. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to assess whether adolescents with periodontitis presented with higher scores for non-psychotic psychosocial disorders than control subjects without periodontitis. Materials and Methods: We used a case control study (n=160) nested in a well-defined adolescent population (n=9,163) and the 28-item Spanish version of the General Health Questionnaire. The inclusion criterion for being a case was clinical attachment level ? 3 mm in at least two teeth. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between periodontitis and psychosocial distress. Results: The response rate was high and 94% of the participants answered all the items of the questionnaire. Similarly, the internal consistency of the instrument was high (Cronbach’s ? = 0.91). The results of multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, suggested an association between case status and higher total scoring for psychosocial distress (OR=1.69). Among the four subdomains of General Health Questionnaire, the dimensions ‘somatic symptoms’ and ‘severe depression’ appeared positively associated with periodontal case status though not significantly.

Lopez, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Valeria

2012-01-01

325

Smoking-a true periodontal hazard  

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Full Text Available It is now well established that tobacco use in general and cigarette smoking in particular, is a major risk factor in the incidence and severity of several forms of periodontal diseases.A large number of studies have been published in the dental literature regarding this possible role. Much of the literature has also indicated that smokers affected with periodontitis respond less favourably to periodontal treatment be it non-surgical, surgical or regenerative. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of this review is to consider the evidence for the association between smoking and periodontal diseases and to highlight the biological mechanisms whereby smoking may affect the periodontium.

Mani Ameet M, Mani Shubhangi A, Tejnani Avneesh H, Gupta Ankit

2013-04-01

326

Effect of polyphenols on periodontal diseases  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Polyphenpls are the most common antioxidants in foodstuffs, which have an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. Periodontitis is a chronic disease of the supporting structures of teeth, which can destroy periodontal structures and result in tooth loss. The aim of this review article was to evaluate the effect of polyphenols on periodontal diseases.Review report: All the relevant articles indexed in the Pubmed from 2002 to 2011 were surveyed. After studying the abstracts of 48 collected articles, 13 irrelevant ones were excluded and full texts of 35 remaining articles were assessed.Conclusion: Regarding the existing articles about polyphenols, it appears consumption of polyphenol-containing products may be effective in plaque control and prevention of periodontal diseases. Therefore, it is suggested that the results of in vitro studies be assessed by clinical trials. Key words: Chronic periodontitis, Dental plaque, Gingivitis, Polyphenols.?

Elham Fakhari

2011-01-01

327

Some modern aspects of periodontal disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last three to four decades, extensive changes in opinion concerning the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of periodontal disease have taken place. During these decades, contributing factors are standardized and controlled trials, as well as epidemiological studies, were performed. Periodontics is no longer an art as it was at the end of the 19th century- it is a science based on research. Pyorrhea alveoiaris or periodontitis has been considered a multifactorial disease with bad prognosis which, together with caries, causes loss of teeth in the population. It was supposed to affect most of the population with age progress, trauma from occlusion, systemic diseases, and bad oral hygiene. The discovery that plaque was the cause of gingivitis, and that the subgingival microflora differed in composition between sites, teeth, and individuals created new suggestions and demands for the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this paper is to summarize some modern aspects on periodontal disease. (author)

328

PERIODONTAL INFECTIONS AS A RISK FACTOR FOR VARIOUS SYSTEMIC DISEASES  

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A healthy periodontium is needed for the general well being of an individual. However, periodontal diseases are common and periodontal infections are increasingly associated with systemic diseases. The literature is focused on the association between periodontal infections and systemic diseases. The individuals with periodontal disease may be at higher risk for adverse medical outcomes including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory infections, adverse pregnancy outcomes, rheumatoid arthrit...

Gaurav Solanki; Renu Solanki

2012-01-01

329

Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs  

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Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson?s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results suggest that there is a strong association of occurrence of periodontal disease in high-fluoride areas. The role of plaque is well understood in contrast to the effect of fluorides on periodontal tissues. It goes a long way to reason out fluoride as an important etiological agent in periodontal disease.

Vandana K

2007-01-01

330

Resistin: a potential biomarker for periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomarkers are highly specific and sensitive indicators of disease activity. Resistin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, having a potent biomarker quality. Initially resistin was thought to be produced by adipocytes alone; however, emerging evidence suggests that it is also produced in abundance by various cells of the immunoinflammatory system, indicating its role in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Data suggests that resistin plays a role in obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and periodontitis. Resistin derived its name from the original observation that it induced insulin resistance (resist-in: resist insulin) in mice and is downregulated in mature murine adipocytes cultured in the presence of insulin sensitizing drugs like thiazolidinediones. It is well recognized that obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A three-way relationship has been established between diabetes, obesity and periodontitis. Recent evidence also suggests an association between obesity and increased risk for periodontitis. Our previous research showed incremental elevation of resistin with periodontal disease activity and a reduced level of resistin, after periodontal therapy. Thus resistin would be one of the molecular links connecting obesity, periodontitis, and diabetes and may serve as a marker that links periodontal disease with other systemic diseases. A Medline/PubMed search was carried out for keywords "Diabetes Mellitus," "Periodontitis," and "Resistin," and all relevant research papers from 1990 in English were shortlisted and finalized based on their importance. This review provides an insight into the biological action of resistin and its possible role in periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis. PMID:24692844

Devanoorkar, Archana; Kathariya, Rahul; Guttiganur, Nagappa; Gopalakrishnan, D; Bagchi, Paulami

2014-01-01

331

Role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in RANKL-mediated bone destruction in periodontal disease  

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Full Text Available Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that hyperimmune responses to periodontal bacteria result in the destruction of periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone. The etiological roles of periodontal bacteria in the onset and progression of periodontal disease (PD are well documented. However, the mechanism underlying the engagement of periodontal bacteria in RANKL-mediated alveolar bone resorption remains unclear. Therefore, this review article addresses three critical subjects. First, we discuss earlier studies of immune intervention, ultimately leading to the identification of bacteria-reactive lymphocytes as the cellular source of osteoclast-induction factor lymphokine (now called RANKL in the context of periodontal bone resorption. Next, we consider (1 the effects of periodontal bacteria on RANKL production from a variety of adaptive immune effector cells, as well as fibroblasts, in inflamed periodontal tissue and (2 the bifunctional roles (upregulation vs. downregulation of LPS produced from periodontal bacteria in a RANKL-induced osteoclast-signal pathway. Future studies in these two areas could lead to new therapeutic approaches for the management of PD by down-modulating RANKL production and/or RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in the context of host immune responses against periodontal pathogenic bacteria.

Mikihito Kajiya

2010-11-01

332

Anti-Nanobacterial Therapy for Prevention and Control of Periodontal Diseases  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria have been implicated in the formation of pathogenic calcifications e.g. kidney stones, arterial plaque, calcified cardiac valves, dental pulp stone, etc. It has been hypothesized that nanobacteria may be present in dental calculus which has a similar mineralization formation process and that nanobacteria may play an efficient role in the calcification of dental calculus. Recently nanobacteria were found in gingival crevicular fluid samples from two subjects with chronic periodontitis.The hypothesis: An anti-nanobacterial mouthwash or tooth paste containing bisphosphonates specifically etidronate and clodronate (1 mg/ml, gallium nitrate 14% (3.4% w/w gallium at 99.995% purity and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1% with neutral pH (7.0 will may be effective for prevention of calculus formation and consequently prevention of periodontal diseases. Despite of excellent anti-nanobacterial activity of tetracycline, it is removed from the formulation. It has a wide spectrum of anti-bactericidal activity and may affect normal oral flora and cause supra-infection. Evaluation of the hypothesis: We should consider a balance between negative effect of nanobacteria regarding formation of calculus and periodontal diseases and positive role of nanobacteria in enamel repair and prevention of dental caries and its positive role in enamel repair and prevention of dental caries.

Jafar Kolahi

2010-03-01

333

Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

2010-06-01

334

Ameloblastoma suggesting large apical periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes the endodontic treatment of a large apical periodontitis with well-defined margins adjacent to teeth #22-24. After the initial endodontic treatment, continued expansion of the mandible cortical bone was observed, indicating a need to surgically enucleate the lesion and submit it for histopathologic examination. The microscopic examination indicated a diagnosis of ameloblastoma. Ameloblastoma is a benign epithelial neoplasm of odontogenic origin, and depending on the stage of development, it can mimic a periapical lesion and therefore should be considered in establishing an endodontic differential diagnosis. The definitive diagnosis for some periapical lesions can only be made by a histopathologic examination. PMID:18215686

Faitaroni, Luiz Augusto; Bueno, Mike Reis; De Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bruehmueller Ale, Karin Astrid; Estrela, Carlos

2008-02-01

335

NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were st...

Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy; Hossein Resalati Mail; pejman Rezayati Charani Mail

2011-01-01

336

Recent advances in periodontal drug delivery systems.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Periodontitis, a disease involving supportive structures of the teeth prevails in all groups, ethnicities, races and both genders. The relationship between bacterial plaque and the development of periodontal disease and caries is well established. Antibacterial agents have been used effectively in the management of periodontal infection. The effectiveness of mechanical debridement of plaque and repeated topical and systemic administration of antibacterial agents are limited due to the lack of accessibility to periodontopathic organisms in the periodontal pocket. Systemic administration of drugs leads to therapeutic concentrations at the site of infection, but for short periods of time, forcing repeated dosing for longer periods. Local delivery of antimicrobials has been investigated for the possibility of overcoming the limitations of conventional therapy. The use of sustained release formulations to deliver antibacterials to the site of infection (periodontal pocket has recently gained interest. These products provide a long-term, effective treatment at the site of infection at much smaller doses. Biodegradable polymers are extensively employed in periodontal drug delivery devices because of their abundant source, lack of toxicity, and high tissue compatibility. A major advantage of natural polymers is that they do not affect periodontal tissue regeneration. Amongst various natural polymers, chitosan, a deacetylated product of chitin is widely used in drug delivery devices. Since it exhibits favourable biological properties such as non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability and wound healing traits, it has attracted great attention in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. The conventional treatment consists of tooth surface mechanical cleaning and root planning, associated or not to the systemic use of high concentrations of antibiotics, but with reduced effectiveness, and adverse effects. The patient compliance to the therapeutic is committed too. In the last decades, the treatment has been optimized for the use of drug delivery systems to the periodontal pocket, with the advantage of delivering the drug in the specific site, sustaining and/or controlling the drug concentration. Recently, the use of new drug delivery systems has been receiving great interest. This review approaches the main delivery systems for the administration of drugs to the periodontal pocket, their usefulness, as well as the advancement of these systems effectiveness in the periodontal therapy.

Keywords : Periodontal diseases; Periodontal pocket; Delivery systems; Periodontal pocket delivery

Pragati S

2011-04-01