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Autoradiographic study of 3H-proline incorporation by rat periodontal ligament, gingival connective tissue and dental pulp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rates of 3H-proline incorporation by the rat periodontal ligament, the gingival connective tissue and the dental pulp were studied by autoradiography. The rate of 3H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was 2.8 times higher than by the gingival connective tissue and 5 times higher than by the dental pulp. These differences were significant (p3H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was significantly different (p3H-proline incorporation. The ratio of the rates of 3H-proline incorporation by the three tissues did not correlate with the ratio of the cellular densities in the same three tissues. (author)

1975-01-01

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Lineage differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from dental pulp, apical papilla, and periodontal ligament.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, a variety of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, periodontal ligament stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells derived from human gingival, were isolated from orofacial and dental tissues. However, it is unknown whether these orofacial stem cells are derived from mesoderm or neural crest cell. In order to encourage orofacial MSC investigation, we provide detailed protocols for assessing lineage -differentiation of orofacial MSCs. PMID:22566051

Akiyama, Kentaro; Chen, Chider; Gronthos, Stan; Shi, Songtao

2012-01-01

3

Engineering bone formation from human dental pulp- and periodontal ligament-derived cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A robust method for inducing bone formation from cultured dental mesenchymal cells has not been established. In this study, a method for generating bone tissue in vivo from cultured human dental pulp- and periodontal ligament-derived cells (DPCs and PDLCs, respectively) was designed using exogenous bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). DPCs and PDLCs showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcified nodule formation in medium containing dexamethasone, ?-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid (osteogenic medium). However, the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) to osteogenic medium remarkably increased ALP activity and in vitro calcification above the increases observed with osteogenic medium alone. rhBMP2 also significantly upregulated the expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and dentin matrix protein 1 mRNA in both cell types cultured in osteogenic medium. Finally, we detected prominent bone-like tissue formation in vivo when cells had been exposed to rhBMP2 in osteogenic medium. In contrast, treatments with osteogenic medium or rhBMP2 alone could not induce abundant mineralized tissue formation. We propose here that treatment with rhBMP2 in osteogenic medium can make dental mesenchymal tissues a highly useful source of cells for bone tissue engineering. In addition, both DPCs and PDLCs showed similar and remarkable osteo-inducibility. PMID:20614244

Ikeda, Hideyoshi; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Mihoko; Ikeda, Hisazumi; Okumura, Teruhito; Sakai, Eiko; Nishimura, Masahiro; Asahina, Izumi

2011-01-01

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Mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of dental pulp and periodontal ligament stem cells after in vivo transplantation.  

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human postnatal dental pulp and periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues can give rise to multilineage differentiation in vitro and generate related dental tissues in vivo. However, the cell properties of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and PDL stem cells (PDLSCs) after in vivo implantation remain largely unidentified. In this study, cells were re-isolated from in vivo-generated dental pulp-like and PDL-like tissues (termed re-DPCs and re-PDLCs, respectively) as a result of ectopic transplantation of human DPSC and PDLSC sheets. The cell characteristics in terms of colony-forming ability, cell surface antigens and multi-differentiation potentials were all evaluated before and after implantation. It was found that re-DPCs and re-PDLCs were of human and mesenchymal origin and positive for MSC markers such as STRO-1, CD146, CD29, CD90 and CD105; and, to some extent, re-DPCs could maintain their colony forming abilities. Moreover, both cell types were able to form mineral deposits and differentiate into adipocytes and chondrocytes; however, quantitative analysis and related gene expression determination showed that the osteo-/chondro-differentiation capabilities of re-DPCs and re-PDLCs were significantly reduced compared to those of DPSCs and PDLSCs, respectively (P < 0.05); re-PDLCs showed a greater reduction potential than re-DPCs. We conclude that DPSCs and PDLSCs may maintain their MSC characteristics after in vivo implantation and, compared to PDLSCs, DPSCs appear much more stable under in vivo conditions. These findings provide additional cellular and molecular evidence that supports expanding the use of dental tissue-derived stem cells in cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:24824581

Lei, Ming; Li, Kun; Li, Bei; Gao, Li-Na; Chen, Fa-Ming; Jin, Yan

2014-08-01

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Successful Periodontal Ligament Regeneration by Periodontal Progenitor Preseeding on Natural Tooth Root Surfaces  

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The regeneration of lost periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone is the purpose of periodontal tissue engineering. The goal of the present study was to assess the suitability of 3 odontogenic progenitor populations from dental pulp, PDL, and dental follicle for periodontal regeneration when exposed to natural and synthetic apatite surface topographies. We demonstrated that PDL progenitors featured higher levels of periostin and scleraxis expression, increased adipogenic and osteogenic di...

Dangaria, Smit Jayant; Ito, Yoshihiro; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.

2011-01-01

6

Periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell-transferred amnion.  

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Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Regeneration of periodontal tissues using ex vivo expanded cells has been introduced and studied, although appropriate methodology has not yet been established. We developed a novel cell transplant method for periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC)-transferred amniotic membrane (PDLSC-amnion). The aim of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of PDLSC-amnion in a rat periodontal defect model. Cultured PDLSCs were transferred onto amniotic membranes using a glass substrate treated with polyethylene glycol and photolithography. The properties of PDLSCs were investigated by flow cytometry and in vitro differentiation. PDLSC-amnion was transplanted into surgically created periodontal defects in rat maxillary molars. Periodontal regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell-like characteristics such as cell surface marker expression (CD90, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and STRO-1) and trilineage differentiation ability (i.e., into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes). PDLSC-amnion exhibited a single layer of PDLSCs on the amniotic membrane and stability of the sheet even with movement and deformation caused by surgical instruments. We observed that the PDLSC-amnion enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration as determined by micro-CT and histology by 4 weeks after transplantation. These data suggest that PDLSC-amnion has therapeutic potential as a novel cell-based regenerative periodontal therapy. PMID:24032400

Iwasaki, Kengo; Komaki, Motohiro; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tanaka, Yuichi; Taki, Atsuko; Honda, Izumi; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Akazawa, Keiko; Oda, Shigeru; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

2014-02-01

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Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell-Mediated Treatment for Periodontitis in Miniature Swine  

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Periodontitis is a periodontal tissue infectious disease and the most common cause for tooth loss in adults. It has been linked to many systemic disorders, such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and diabetes. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure periodontitis and achieve optimal periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, we explored the potential of using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to treat periodontal defects in a porcine model of periodo...

Liu, Yi; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Gang; Fang, Dianji; Zhang, Chunmei; Bartold, Peter Mark; Gronthos, Stan; Shi, Songtao; Wang, Songlin

2008-01-01

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Cell Culture Methods for the Selection of Osteoblast-Like Cells from the Periodontal Ligament.  

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Periodontal regenerative therapy involves restoration of lost periodontal architecture through the coordinated efforts of fibroblasts, osteoblasts and cementoblasts. The periodontal ligament plays an important role in this process because it is thought to...

M. E. Poth

1998-01-01

9

Promise of periodontal ligament stem cells in regeneration of periodontium  

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A great number of patients around the world experience tooth loss that is attributed to irretrievable damage of the periodontium caused by deep caries, severe periodontal diseases or irreversible trauma. The periodontium is a complex tissue composed mainly of two soft tissues and two hard tissues; the former includes the periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and gingival tissue, and the latter includes alveolar bone and cementum covering the tooth root. Tissue engineering techniques are therefore...

Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

2011-01-01

10

Capturing the Regenerative Potential of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts  

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The cell population within the periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue is remarkably heterogeneous1. Fibroblasts, a mixed population of cells, are the main cellular component of the PDL and the cell type most often studied for periodontal regeneration. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are found on the bone side, while fibroblasts, macrophages, undifferentiated adult/mesenchymal stem cells, neural elements, and endothelial cells are found throughout the PDL. Epithelial rests of Malassez cells and cemento...

2011-01-01

11

Autologous dental pulp stem cells in regeneration of defect created in canine periodontal tissue.  

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This study aimed to investigate effects of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on regeneration of a defect experimentally created in the periodontium of a canine model. Surgically created mesial 3-walled periodontal defects with ligature-induced periodontitis were produced bilaterally in the first lower premolar teeth of 10 mongrel dogs. Simultaneously, DPSCs were derived from the maxillary premolar teeth of the same dogs. Four weeks after creation of the periodontitis model, autologous passaged-3 DPSCs combined with Bio-Oss were implanted on one side as the test group. On the other side, only Bio-Oss was implanted as a control. Eight weeks after surgery, regeneration of the periodontal defects was evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically in terms of bone, periodontal ligament (PDL), and cement formation. Histologically, in all test specimens (10 defects), regeneration of cementum, bone, and PDL was observed. In the control groups, although we observed the regeneration of bone in all defects, the formation of cementum was seen in 9 defects and PDL was seen in 8 defects. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the amount of regenerated cementum and PDL in the test groups (3.83 ± 1.32 mm and 3.30 ± 1.12 mm, respectively) was significantly higher than that of the control groups (2.42 ± 1.40 mm and 1.77 ± 1.27 mm, respectively; P < .05). A biocomplex consisting of DPSCs and Bio-Oss would be promising in regeneration of periodontal tissues. PMID:23964777

Khorsand, Afshin; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Arabsolghar, Mohadeseh; Paknejad, Mojghan; Ghaedi, Baharak; Rokn, Amir Reza; Moslemi, Neda; Nazarian, Hamid; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo

2013-08-01

12

Progenitor cell populations in the periodontal ligament of mice  

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Stem cells in a variety of renewal tissues exhibit a slow rate of cell proliferation. The periodontal ligament of mouse molars was examined for the presence of slowly cycling progenitor cells to provide evidence for the existence of stem cells in this tissue. A pulse injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine was administered and mice were sacrificed between 1 hour and 14 days after injection. Analysis of radioautographs using percentage of labeled cells and grain counts demonstrated that a population of label-retaining cells within 10 micron of blood vessels traversed the cell cycle more slowly than proliferating cells located greater than 10 micron from blood vessels. These data suggest that there is a slowly dividing population of progenitor cells in paravascular sites in mouse molar periodontal ligament which may be stem cells.

McCulloch, C.A.

1985-03-01

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Progenitor cell populations in the periodontal ligament of mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stem cells in a variety of renewal tissues exhibit a slow rate of cell proliferation. The periodontal ligament of mouse molars was examined for the presence of slowly cycling progenitor cells to provide evidence for the existence of stem cells in this tissue. A pulse injection of "3H-thymidine was administered and mice were sacrificed between 1 hour and 14 days after injection. Analysis of radioautographs using percentage of labeled cells and grain counts demonstrated that a population of label-retaining cells within 10 micron of blood vessels traversed the cell cycle more slowly than proliferating cells located greater than 10 micron from blood vessels. These data suggest that there is a slowly dividing population of progenitor cells in paravascular sites in mouse molar periodontal ligament which may be stem cells

1985-01-01

14

Identification and Cementoblastic / Osteoblastic Differentiation of Postnatal Stem Cells from Human Periodontal Ligament  

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Background. Periodontal diseases that lead to the destruction of periodontal tissues, including periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and bone, are a major cause of tooth loss in adults and are a substantial public health burden worldwide. PDL is a specialized connective tissue that connects cementum and alveolar bone to maintain and support teeth in situ and preserve tissue homoeostasis. In this study we aimed to isolate, identify periodontal ligament stem cells and their osteoblastic/ cemen...

2011-01-01

15

Trial analysis of swine's periodontal ligament with Bragg grating sensors  

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In this work it is reported the measurement of the differential strain between the dental and bone tissues under effect of an applied load. Slices of swine mandible, containing the premolar tooth, are cut and measured in fresh condition. The strain is measured using fibre Bragg grating sensors glued to both tissues. In the measured range the results show a linear behaviour and confirm the importance of the periodontal ligament in the load transfer mechanism.

Menegotto, G. F.; Grabarski, L.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Simões, J. A.

2009-10-01

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Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human periodontal ligament  

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Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were isolated from human periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs and characterized by their morphology, clonogenic efficiency, proliferation and differentiation capabilities. hPDL-MSCs, derived from normal impacted third molars, possessed all of the properties of MSC, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate and multi-lineage (osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, myogenic differentiation potential. Moreover, hPDL-MSCs expressed a typical MSC epitope profile, being positive for mesenchymal cell markers (CD44H, CD90, CD105, CD73, CD29, Stro-1, fibronectin, vimentin, ?-SMA, and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD34, CD11b, CD45, Glycophorin-CD235a. Additionally, hPDL-MSCs, as primitive and highly multipotent cells, showed high expression of embryonic markers (Nanog, Sox2, SSEA4. The data obtained provided yet further proof that cells with mesenchymal properties can be obtained from periodontal ligament tissue. Although these cells should be further investigated to determine their clinical significance, hPDL-MSCs are believed to provide a renewable and promising cell source for new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of periodontal defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175062 i br. III 41011

Mileti? Maja

2014-01-01

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Capturing the Regenerative Potential of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available The cell population within the periodontal ligament (PDL tissue is remarkably heterogeneous1. Fibroblasts, a mixed population of cells, are the main cellular component of the PDL and the cell type most often studied for periodontal regeneration. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are found on the bone side, while fibroblasts, macrophages, undifferentiated adult/mesenchymal stem cells, neural elements, and endothelial cells are found throughout the PDL. Epithelial rests of Malassez cells and cementoblasts are focused near the root surface. PDL tissue also includes loose connective tissue between dense fiber bundles that contain branches of the periodontal blood vessels and nerves2. The complexity of the PDL tissue, with its various cell types and cell progenitor components, explains the challenges involved in therapies to restore tissue following periodontal disease. Cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and endothelial cells must migrate, differentiate, and coordinately interact with a variety of soluble mediators to regenerate the periodontium3. Stem cells located in the PDL tissue are key contributors to this process4. Stem cells in the PDL are important not only for formation and maintenance of the tissue but also for repair, remodeling, and regeneration of adjacent alveolar bone and cementum5. Our laboratory has shown that progenitor cells isolated from PDL tissue by selection with cell surface markers STRO-1+ and CD146+ are capable of differentiating into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic phenotypes under appropriate culture conditions6.

Christina Springstead Scanlon

2011-01-01

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A periodontal ligament driven remodeling algorithm for orthodontic tooth movement.  

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While orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) gains considerable popularity and clinical success, the roles played by relevant tissues involved, particularly periodontal ligament (PDL), remain an open question in biomechanics. This paper develops a soft-tissue induced external (surface) remodeling procedure in a form of power law formulation by correlating time-dependent simulation in silico with clinical data in vivo (ptooth movement through an iterative hyperelastic finite element analysis (FEA) procedure. This algorithm was found rather indicative and effective to simulate OTM under different loading conditions, which is of considerable potential to predict therapeutical outcomes and develop a surgical plan for sophisticated orthodontic treatment. PMID:24703301

Chen, Junning; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael V; Ali Darendeliler, M; Li, Qing

2014-05-01

19

Promise of periodontal ligament stem cells in regeneration of periodontium.  

Science.gov (United States)

A great number of patients around the world experience tooth loss that is attributed to irretrievable damage of the periodontium caused by deep caries, severe periodontal diseases or irreversible trauma. The periodontium is a complex tissue composed mainly of two soft tissues and two hard tissues; the former includes the periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and gingival tissue, and the latter includes alveolar bone and cementum covering the tooth root. Tissue engineering techniques are therefore required for regeneration of these tissues. In particular, PDL is a dynamic connective tissue that is subjected to continual adaptation to maintain tissue size and width, as well as structural integrity, including ligament fibers and bone modeling. PDL tissue is central in the periodontium to retain the tooth in the bone socket, and is currently recognized to include somatic mesenchymal stem cells that could reconstruct the periodontium. However, successful treatment using these stem cells to regenerate the periodontium efficiently has not yet been developed. In the present article, we discuss the contemporary standpoints and approaches for these stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine in dentistry. PMID:21861868

Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

2011-01-01

20

Material parameters and stress profiles within the periodontal ligament.  

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Levels and profiles of initial stress in the periodontal ligament after application of various force systems were studied. Two finite-element models, based on sections of human autopsy material, were developed to simulate one full and one partial mandible. The validity of the finite-element model was improved by identification of material parameters; the mechanical properties of the tissue were described by means of strain-gauge measurements of initial tooth movements in human autopsy material. The multiple modeling technique, in which data from a coarse global model are transferred to a more detailed one, was used to identify bone structure and boundary conditions. Parameters known to influence the results were varied to establish the validity of the finite-element model. Iterative calculation methods were used to gain stable results. However, optimizing features of the bone structure and boundary conditions did not influence the results significantly. The elastic stiffness of the periodontal ligament was determined to 0.07 MPa and tau = 0.49 (tau being the Poisson's ratio). Stress profiles were obtained for various force systems--as in tipping, translation, and root movement. As we expected, there was a marked variation in the stress distribution from cervix to apex when tipping forces were applied. Bodily movement of the tooth produced an almost uniform stress distribution; root movement produced stress patterns opposite to those observed during tipping; and masticatory forces alone produced stress patterns almost identical to those achieved by masticatory force in combination with orthodontic forces. PMID:2028932

Andersen, K L; Pedersen, E H; Melsen, B

1991-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Osteogenic differentiated periodontal ligament stem cells maintain their immunomodulatory capacity.  

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Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have great potential for regenerating periodontal ligament tissue, which is involved in attaching teeth to the underlying alveolar bone. Recently, PDLSCs were characterized as having both low immunogenicity and profound immunomodulation abilities. Further, transplanted PDLSCs differentiate into osteoblasts in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the immunological characteristics of osteogenic differentiated PDLSCs. We found that PDLSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cells markers, including STRO-1 and CD146, but were negative for CD14, CD34 and CD45. RT-PCR indicated that NCAM1, MSX1 and S100A4 were expressed in PDLSCs. The cells underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation when cultured in defined medium. Osteogenic differentiated PDLSCs failed to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation and suppressed phytohaemagglutinin-triggered T cell proliferation. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, restored the T cell proliferation inhibited by osteogenic differentiated PDLSCs. These data confirm that osteogenic differentiated PDLSCs have low immunogenicity and demonstrate that they suppress T cell proliferation in vitro through secretion of PGE2. PMID:22700341

Tang, Ruiling; Wei, Fulan; Wei, Limei; Wang, Songlin; Ding, Gang

2014-03-01

22

Evaluation of fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-ß expression by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to root end filling materials  

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Background and Aim: Several materials have been introduced for retrograde fillings, pulp capping and sealing root perforations, but their biological effect on vital tissues and cells is not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reaction of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to four root canal filling materials: Pro Root MTA, Root MTA, Portland cement and amalgam. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, impacted or semi impacted third molar teeth were extracted in...

Razmi H.; Bashizade H.; Ar, Talaeipour

2008-01-01

23

Periodontal Ligament Cell Sheet Engineering: A new Possible Strategy to Promote Periodontal Regeneration  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Osseointegration represents a direct structural and functional connection between ordered, living bone and the surface of a load-carrying implant without the periodontium. As a result, im-plant fracture or aggressive bone loss sometime occurs because the patient cannot feel the mechanical overloads exerted on the implant. Until now, no available method has been used to solve this problem.The hypothesis: Periodontal ligament (PDL cells are a desirable cell population capable of regenerating a functional periodontal at-tachment apparatus. Cell sheet engineering has emerged as a novel alternative approach for periodontal tissue engineering without the disruption of both critical cell surface proteins such as ion channels, growth factor receptors and cell-to-cell junction proteins. PDL cells can be isolated from an extracted tooth and can be cultured on temperature-responsive culture dishes at 37°C. Transplantable cell sheets can be harvested by reducing the temperature to 20°C, and would be transplanted into the implant beds before insertion of the implant.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Controlling the differentiation of PDL cell sheets to different functional peri-implant periodontal tissues is very difficult. Further studies are required to determine the fate of implanted cells. Fluorescence protein-labeled cell sheets would be a good approach to investigate the fate of the grafted cell sheet.

Dong-sheng Zhang

2010-06-01

24

Dental trauma involving root fracture and periodontal ligament injury: a 10-year retrospective study  

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The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the cases of traumatic dental injuries involving root fracture and/or periodontal ligament injury (except avulsion) treated at the Discipline of Integrated Clinic, School of Dentistry of Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil, from January 1992 to December 2002. Clinical and radiographic records from 161 patients with 287 traumatized teeth that had sustained root fracture and/or injuries to the periodontal ligament were e...

Sônia Regina Panzarini; Denise Pedrini; Wilson Roberto Poi; Celso Koogi Sonoda; Daniela Atili Brandini; José Carlos Monteiro de Castro

2008-01-01

25

Stem cells derived from tooth periodontal ligament enhance functional angiogenesis by endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

In regenerative medicine approaches involving cell therapy, selection of the appropriate cell type is important in that the cells must directly (differentiation) or indirectly (trophic effects) participate in the regenerative response. Regardless of the mode of action of the cells, angiogenesis underlies the success of these approaches. Stem cells derived from tooth tissues, specifically the periodontal ligament of teeth (periodontal ligament stem cells [PDLSCs]), have recently been identified as a good source of multipotent cells for cell therapies. PDLSCs have demonstrated properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), yet, unlike MSCs, their vascular potential has not been previously demonstrated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if PDLSCs could modulate angiogenesis. In comparison to MSCs and stem cells derived from tooth pulp tissues (SHEDs), we first determined if PDLSCs released soluble proangiogenic factors with the capacity to induce vessel formation by endothelial cells (ECs). Next, the ability of PDLSCs to modulate angiogenesis was examined through their cotransplantation with ECs in subcutaneous sites of immunocompromised mice. Finally, the stability of the PDLSC-mediated vasculature was determined through evaluation of the maturity and functionality of the vessels formed following PDLSC transplantation. It was determined that PDLSCs produced appreciable levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and additionally, were able to initiate in vitro angiogenesis of ECs comparable to MSC- and SHED-mediated angiogenesis. In vivo cotransplantation of ECs with PDLSCs significantly (>50% increase) enhanced the number of blood vessels formed relative to transplantation of ECs alone. Finally, vessels formed following PDLSC cotransplantation were more mature and less permeable than those formed after transplantation of EC alone. These data demonstrate for the first time that PDLSCs have vascular potential, which could make them a very attractive cell population for utilization in regenerative cell therapies. PMID:24147894

Yeasmin, Shamima; Ceccarelli, Jacob; Vigen, Marina; Carrion, Bita; Putnam, Andrew J; Tarle, Susan A; Kaigler, Darnell

2014-04-01

26

Morinda citrifolia leaves enhance osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells.  

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This present study investigated the potential of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract to induce osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured in complete medium, ascorbic acid with ?-glycerophosphate, or Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity compared to culturing in complete medium or ascorbic acid with ?-glycerophosphate. Matrixcontaining mineralized nodules were formed only when the cells were cultured in the presence of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. These nodules showed positive alizarin red S staining and were rich in calcium and phosphorus according to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In conclusion, Morinda citrifolia leaf extract promoted osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in human periodontal ligament cells, a clear indication of the therapeutic potential of Morinda citrifolia leaves in bone and periodontal tissue regeneration. PMID:24682022

Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Suppakpatana, Prapan; Arayapisit, Tawepong; Rodsutthi, Jit-aree; Chunhabundit, Panjit; Boonanuntanasarn, Surintorn; Sripairojthikoon, Wanida

2014-01-01

27

Effect of storage media on the proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of storage media, which are routinely used in replantation, upon the proliferative capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, was compared with the effect of a tissue culture medium. The periodontal tissue was obtained from mandibular central incisors of White New Zealand rabbits. The experiments were performed in fibroblasts derived during second subculture. The storage media were physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol; the tissue culture medium was alpha-minimum essential medium without nucleosides. The incubation period was 1 hour. [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counts were taken to indicate changes in the proliferative capacity of the fibroblasts. The tissue culture experiments showed that the proliferative ability of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts was dependent upon the composition of the storage medium. Physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol were unable to maintain the metabolism of the fibroblasts. alpha-MEM medium, however, was capable of stimulating proliferation of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts

1987-01-01

28

Tensile and compressive behaviour of the bovine periodontal ligament.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical response of the bovine periodontal ligament (PDL) subjected to uniaxial tension and compression is reported. Several sections normal to the longitudinal axis of bovine incisors and molars were extracted from different depths. Specimens with dimensions 10 x 5 x 2 mm including dentine, PDL and alveolar bone were obtained from these sections. Scanning electron microscopy suggested a strong similarity between the bovine PDL and the human PDL microstructure described in the literature. The prepared specimens were tested in a custom made uniaxial testing machine. They were clamped on their bone and dentine extremities and immersed in a saline solution at 37 degrees C. Stress-strain curves indicated that the PDL is characterized by a non-linear and time-dependent mechanical behaviour with the typical features of collagenous soft tissues. The curves exhibited hysteresis and preconditioning effects. The mechanical parameters evaluated in tension were maximum tangent modulus, strength, maximizer strain and strain energy density. For the molars, all these parameters increased with depth except for the apical region. For the incisors, all parameters increased with depth except ultimate strain which decreased. It was assumed that collagen fibre density and orientation were responsible for these findings. PMID:14672574

Pini, M; Zysset, Ph; Botsis, J; Contro, R

2004-01-01

29

EVALUATION OF HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES OF DENTAL PULP IN ADVANCED PERIODONTAL DISEASES  

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Full Text Available Abstract- The adverse effects of periodontal disease on dental pulp has been debated for many years. This case- control study was performed to assess the possible effects of advanced periodontal disease on the structure of dental pulp. Fifty-two permanent teeth extracted because of advanced periodontitis with ? 5mm attachment loss and grade III mobility were compared to fifty-two control teeth, obtained from systemically healthy adults. Two groups were matched for age and teeth types. Inflammation, fibrosis, calcification and necrosis were observed in the (27.8- 40%, (0-59.4%, (0-26.4% and (0-20.9% of the different sections of the study group, and (0%, (9.7-50%, (0-11.6% and (0% of the control group (P < 0.05. Abnormal pulp tissue was observed in the (33.3-88.1% and (12.9-50.5% of different sections of the study and control groups respectively (P < 0.05. Complete necrosis of dental pulp occurred only when depth of adjacent periodontal pocket reached the apical third of the root. There was an increase in frequency of pathologic changes as the depth of periodontal pocket increased (P = 0.00. We conclude that advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp, although not necessarily leading to complete pulp disintegration. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planning in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is recommended. Fibrosis and diffuse calcification of dental pulp in teeth with advanced periodontal involvement may endanger root canal therapy; if needed.

M. S. Sheykhrezaee

2007-05-01

30

Proteomic analyses of human gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Although human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) exhibit numerous phenotypic similarities, it has been suggested that the secretory and behavioral differences, which exist between these cell types, are a result of the membrane protein composition of these cells. Methods: Four matched pairs of hGFs and hPDLFs were cultured. Before confluence, membrane-bound and -associated proteins from cells of the fourth passage were extracted. The processed protein samples were evaluated using capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Global protein identification was performed on an orbitrap mass spectrometer equipped with a microspray source operated in positive ion mode. Proteome software was used to validate protein identifications derived from tandem mass spectrometry sequencing results. Results: Four hundred fifty proteins were common to both hGFs and hPDLFs. Of the proteins identified, 214 were known membrane-bound or -associated proteins, and 165 proteins were known nuclear-associated proteins. Twenty-seven proteins, identified from the 450 proteins, common to both hGFs and hPDLFs, were detected in statistically significant greater quantities in either hGFs or hPDLFs. More specifically, 13 proteins were detected in significantly greater quantities in hGFs, whereas 14 proteins were detected in significantly greater quantities in hPDLFs. Conclusions: Distinct differences in the cellular protein catalog may reflect the dynamic role and high energy requirements of hGFs in extracellular matrix remodeling and response to inflammatory challenge as well as the role of hPDLFs in monitoring mechanical stress and maintaining tissue homeostasis during regeneration and remineralization. PMID:24171499

McKnight, Holly; Kelsey, W Patrick; Hooper, Deborah A; Hart, Thomas C; Mariotti, Angelo

2014-06-01

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An experimental study on the effect of irradiation on deciduous dental pulp and periodontal membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Left mandibular third deciduous molars of young dogs were irradiated for 3,000 R with 200 kVp X-ray and the effect on the dental pulp and periodontal membrane was investigated histopathologically. 1. From 3rd to 7th days after irradiation, localized inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in part in the dental pulp tissue. No abnormal findings were observed in the periodontal membrane. 2. On 14th day after irradiation in the coronal dental pulp, cells decreased; karyopycnosis occurred; cells were connected only by cellular processes, and large and small reticular networks were formed. In the periodontal membrane, fibers ran irregularly although in part and findings of atrophy were seen. Fibroblasts showed a decreasing tendency. 3. In the cases from 1 to 2 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue showed marked atrophy of odontoblasts and the dental pulp showed hyalinization-like changes. In the periodontal membrane, Sharpey's fibers ran irregularly or became indistinct, and fibroblasts decreased extensively. The periodontal membrane in general showed hyalinization. 4. In the cases of 4 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue on the whole showed marked atrophy and disappearance of odontoblast layers. In the periodontal membrane, inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in part and membrane fibers, as those in 2nd month, showed marked atrophy, became enlarged, and presented findings of hyalinization. 5. At 8th month, the necleoli nearly disappeared in the pulp tissue from the crown to the root and the cells were connected like filaments by cellular processes. Nearly all the blood vessels and fibers disappeared. In the periodontal membrane, most of Sharpey's fibers disappeared. Fibroblasts showed marked atrophy and disappearance, and few normal fibloblasts could be found. (J.P.N.)

1986-01-01

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Domain of dentine sialoprotein mediates proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells.  

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Classic embryological studies have documented the inductive role of root dentin on adjacent periodontal ligament differentiation.  The biochemical composition of root dentin includes collagens and cleavage products of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), such as dentin sialoprotein (DSP).  The high abundance of DSP in root dentin prompted us to ask the question whether DSP or peptides derived thereof would serve as potent biological matrix components to induce periodontal progenitors to further differentiate into periodontal ligament cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that domain of DSP influences cell fate. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the COOH-terminal DSP domain is expressed in mouse periodontium at various stages of root development. The recombinant COOH-terminal DSP fragment (rC-DSP) enhanced attachment and migration of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), human primary PDL cells without cell toxicity. rC-DSP induced PDLSC cell proliferation as well as differentiation and mineralization of PDLSC and PDL cells by formation of mineralized tissue and ALPase activity. Effect of rC-DSP on cell proliferation and differentiation was to promote gene expression of tooth/bone-relate markers, transcription factors and growth factors. The results for the first time showed that rC-DSP may be one of the components of cell niche for stimulating stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and a natural scaffold for periodontal regeneration application. PMID:24400037

Ozer, Alkan; Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Wang, Feng; Li, Wentong; Yang, Yuan; Guo, Feng; Gao, Qingping; Shoff, Lisa; Chen, Zhi; Gay, Isabel C; Donly, Kevin J; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

2013-01-01

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Migration of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts on Nanometric Topographical Patterns: Influence of Filopodia and Focal Adhesions on Contact Guidance  

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Considered to be the “holy grail” of dentistry, regeneration of the periodontal ligament in humans remains a major clinical problem. Removal of bacterial biofilms is commonly achieved using EDTA gels or lasers. One side effect of these treatment regimens is the etching of nanotopographies on the surface of the tooth. However, the response of periodontal ligament fibroblasts to such features has received very little attention. Using laser interference lithography, we fabricated precisely d...

Hamilton, Douglas W.; Oates, Christine J.; Hasanzadeh, Abdollah; Mittler, Silvia

2010-01-01

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Crucial role of Notch signaling in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells in osteoporotic rats.  

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Estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis typically occurs in postmenopausal women and has been strongly associated with periodontal diseases. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) isolated from the periodontal ligament can differentiate into many types of specialized cells, including osteoblast-like cells that contribute to periodontal tissue repair. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved and associated with self-renewal potential and cell-fate determination. Recently, several studies have focused on the relationship between Notch signaling and osteogenic differentiation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship are largely unknown. We have successfully isolated PDLSCs from both ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated rats. Both the mRNA and protein levels of Notch1 and Jagged1 were upregulated when PDLSCs were cultured in osteogenic induction media. Mineralization assays showed decreased calcium deposits in OVX-PDLSCs treated with a ?-secretase inhibitor compared with control cells. Thus Notch signaling is important in maintaining the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in osteoporotic rats, which help in the development of a potential therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women. PMID:24677709

Li, Ying; Li, S Q; Gao, Y M; Li, Jin; Zhang, Bin

2014-06-01

35

[The effects of fibronectin on DNA synthesis and ultrastructure of periodontal ligament cells  

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Microspectrophotometer and transmitted electron microscope (TEM) were used to study the change of DNA synthesis and ultrastructure after fibronection(FN) acted on cultured periodontal ligament cells (PDLC).The results showed that the data of nuclus area,nuclus total absorbs and nuclus mean absorbs of PDLC in FN group was higher than control(Pnuclues and more organ cells such as microfilaments,chondriosomes and endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasm.It suggested that FN can accelerate periodontal regeneration by promoting DNA and protein synthesis of PDLC. PMID:15160149

Wan, L; Wu, Z F; Zhou, Y J

1994-06-01

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Proliferation of the human periodontal ligament fibroblast by laser biostimulation: an in vitro study  

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Laser produces a monochormatic collimated and coherent radiation. In dentistry, diode lasers have been used predominantly for application which are broadly termed "Low level laser therapy (LLLT) or biostimulation (L.J. Walch 1997)". Periodontal ligament fibroblast (PDLF) have a key function in periodontal regeneration. Stimulatory effects on the proliferation of these cells could therefore be beneficial for the reestablishment of connective tissue attachment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the potential stimulatory effect of low level laser irradiation on the proliferation of PDLF.

Shelly, Ahuja; Shaila, Kothiwale; Kishore, Bhat

2006-03-01

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Correction of hypophosphatasia (HPP) associated mineralization deficiencies in vitro by phosphate/pyrophosphate modulation in periodontal ligament cells  

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Background Mutations in the Alpl gene in hypophosphatasia (HPP) reduce the function of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), resulting in increased pyrophosphate (PPi) and a severe deficiency in acellular cementum. We hypothesized that exogenous phosphate (Pi) would rescue the in vitro mineralization capacity of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells harvested from HPP-diagnosed subjects, by correcting Pi/PPi ratio and modulating expression of genes involved with Pi/PPi metabolism. Methods Ex vivo and in vitro analyses were employed to identify mechanisms involved in HPP-associated PDL/tooth root deficiencies. Constitutive expression of PPi-associated genes was contrasted in PDL versus pulp tissues obtained from healthy subjects. Primary PDL cell cultures from HPP subjects (monozygotic twin males) were established to assay alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), in vitro mineralization, and gene expression. Exogenous Pi was provided to correct Pi/PPi ratio. Results PDL tissues obtained from healthy individuals featured higher basal expression of key PPi regulators, genes Alpl, progressive ankylosis protein (Ankh) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (Enpp1), versus paired pulp tissues. A novel Alpl mutation was identified in the twin HPP subjects enrolled in this study. Compared to controls, HPP-PDL cells exhibited significantly reduced ALP and mineralizing capacity, which were rescued by addition of 1mM Pi. Dysregulated expression of PPi regulatory genes Alpl, Ankh, and Enpp1 was also corrected by adding Pi, though other matrix markers evaluated in our study remained down-regulated. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of controlling Pi/PPi ratio toward development of a functional periodontal apparatus, and support Pi/PPi imbalance as the etiology of HPP-associated cementum defects.

Rodrigues, Thaisangela L.; Foster, Brian L.; Silverio, Karina G.; Martins, Luciane; Casati, Marcio Z.; Sallum, Enilson A.; Somerman, Martha J.; Nociti, Francisco H.

2013-01-01

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Experimental study on the effect of x-irradiation in the rat periodontal ligament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author studied on the effects of X-ray irradiation to the development of periodontal ligament in gestation rats. They were irradiated in their abdomen with 100, 200 and 300 rads respectively in one shot irradiation with deep radiation therapy equipment(MAXIMAR 250-III). In 7th, 14th, 21th and 28th day after delivery, those new born rats were respectively sacrificed with ether anesthesia and removed of their mandibles. After removal, those mandibles were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, decalcified with 5% trichloroacetic acid for 5 days and embedded with paraffin. Staining was performed with H-E, Van Gieson, Mallory azan, Bielshowsky-Gomori silver stain and Halmi's oxytalan fiber stain. The results were as follows: 1. Before tooth eruption, all the fiber components in dental sac were almost always oriented near the outer enamel epithelial layer. But in irradiated new born rats, those collagen fiber orientation was more irregular than those of control groups, and this phenomenon was more severe in proportion to the amount of irradiation in the gestation period. 2. Before tooth eruption, the connective tissue fibers in periodontal ligament were stained with lighter in the irradiated groups than those of control groups. Oxytalan fibers of irradiated groups were thin and splitting pattern of their fiber morphology to compare with those of control groups. 3. After tooth eruption, the periodontal ligament fibers of irradiated groups were oriented functionally and their morphology was thick, fine and heavy staining. Oxytalan fibers were revealed with oblique parallel arrangement in the periodontal ligament of irradiated groups.

1980-11-01

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Function of Chemokine (CXC Motif) Ligand 12 in Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts  

Science.gov (United States)

The periodontal ligament (PDL) is one of the connective tissues located between the tooth and bone. It is characterized by rapid turnover. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs) play major roles in the rapid turnover of the PDL. Microarray analysis of human PDLFs (HPDLFs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) demonstrated markedly high expression of chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) in the HPDLFs. CXCL12 plays an important role in the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The function of CXCL12 in the periodontal ligament was investigated in HPDLFs. Expression of CXCL12 in HPDLFs and HDFs was examined by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and ELISA. Chemotactic ability of CXCL12 was evaluated in both PDLFs and HDFs by migration assay of MSCs. CXCL12 was also immunohistochemically examined in the PDL in vivo. Expression of CXCL12 in the HPDLFs was much higher than that in HDFs in vitro. Migration assay demonstrated that the number of migrated MSCs by HPDLFs was significantly higher than that by HDFs. In addition, the migrated MSCs also expressed CXCL12 and several genes that are familiar to fibroblasts. CXCL12 was immunohistochemically localized in the fibroblasts in the PDL of rat molars. The results suggest that PDLFs synthesize and secrete CXCL12 protein and that CXCL12 induces migration of MSCs in the PDL in order to maintain rapid turnover of the PDL.

Yashiro, Yuichi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Kanazashi, Mikimoto; Noda, Koji; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiki

2014-01-01

40

Cell proliferation and 3H-proline incorporation in periodontal ligament exposed to mechanical stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the metabolic processes induced in the periodontal ligament by mechanical influences, a tension spring was implanted in rats between the incisor and the first maxillary molar on the right-hand side, while the left maxilla of these animals as well as non-operated rats served as controls. Under such mechanical stress, there occurred at 3, 10 and 21 days after implantation a significant increase in the 3H-thymidine labelling index, which was demonstrate histoautoradiographically. A change in cell density was not discovered. Therefore, the increase in S-phase fraction as equally recorded in both pressure and tension zones is regarded as an expression of an enhanced cell turnover. Cell renewal in the periodontal ligament can be modified by inflammatory processes within the gingival region. There is a slight enlargement of the periodontal space in the tension zone. Under experimental conditions, no change occurs in the silver grain number per cell after 3H-proline administration. The results indicate that, following the impact of orthodontic forces, the reactivity of periodontal cell proliferation as compared to collagen synthesis is enhanced. (author)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts participate in the production of TGF-?, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the production of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 by human cultured periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts both obtained from the same donors challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gin [...] givalis. Fibroblasts were exposed to 0.1-10 µg/mL of LPS from P. gingivalis and after 24 h the supernatants were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGF-? protein production was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner, mainly in gingival fibroblasts, which was statistically significant when challenged by 10 µg/mL LPS. Additionally, at this concentration, gingival fibroblasts had almost a two-fold increase in the amount of TGF-? when compared to periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Both periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts showed an increase in IL-8 production when challenged with 1 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL LPS. IL-10 production remained unaffected when challenged by any of the LPS concentrations tested in either periodontal ligament or gingival fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate that periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts when challenged by LPS from P. gingivalis with 24 h may play a critical role in producing TGF-? and IL-8 but not IL-10.

Ana Carolina de Faria, Morandini; Carla Renata, Sipert; Erivan Schnaider, Ramos-Junior; Daniel Thomas, Brozoski; Carlos Ferreira, Santos.

42

Periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts participate in the production of TGF-?, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the production of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10 by human cultured periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts both obtained from the same donors challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Fibroblasts were exposed to 0.1-10 µg/mL of LPS from P. gingivalis and after 24 h the supernatants were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. TGF-? protein production was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner, mainly in gingival fibroblasts, which was statistically significant when challenged by 10 µg/mL LPS. Additionally, at this concentration, gingival fibroblasts had almost a two-fold increase in the amount of TGF-? when compared to periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Both periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts showed an increase in IL-8 production when challenged with 1 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL LPS. IL-10 production remained unaffected when challenged by any of the LPS concentrations tested in either periodontal ligament or gingival fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate that periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts when challenged by LPS from P. gingivalis with 24 h may play a critical role in producing TGF-? and IL-8 but not IL-10.

Ana Carolina de Faria Morandini

2011-04-01

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Periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone in the oldest herbivorous tetrapods, and their evolutionary significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tooth implantation provides important phylogenetic and functional information about the dentitions of amniotes. Traditionally, only mammals and crocodilians have been considered truly thecodont, because their tooth roots are coated in layers of cementum for anchorage of the periodontal ligament, which is in turn attached to the bone lining the alveolus, the alveolar bone. The histological properties and developmental origins of these three periodontal tissues have been studied extensively in mammals and crocodilians, but the identities of the periodontal tissues in other amniotes remain poorly studied. Early work on dental histology of basal amniotes concluded that most possess a simplified tooth attachment in which the tooth root is ankylosed to a pedestal composed of "bone of attachment", which is in turn fused to the jaw. More recent studies have concluded that stereotypically thecodont tissues are also present in non-mammalian, non-crocodilian amniotes, but these studies were limited to crown groups or secondarily aquatic reptiles. As the sister group to Amniota, and the first tetrapods to exhibit dental occlusion, diadectids are the ideal candidates for studies of dental evolution among terrestrial vertebrates because they can be used to test hypotheses of development and homology in deep time. Our study of Permo-Carboniferous diadectid tetrapod teeth and dental tissues reveal the presence of two types of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, and therefore the earliest record of true thecodonty in a tetrapod. These discoveries in a stem amniote allow us to hypothesize that the ability to produce the tissues that characterize thecodonty in mammals and crocodilians is very ancient and plesiomorphic for Amniota. Consequently, all other forms of tooth implantation in crown amniotes are derived arrangements of one or more of these periodontal tissues and not simply ankylosis of teeth to the jaw by plesiomorphically retaining "bone of attachment", as previously suggested. PMID:24023957

LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Reisz, Robert R

2013-01-01

44

Autologous dental pulp stem cells in periodontal regeneration: a case report.  

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Histologic findings in animal models suggest that the application of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) may promote periodontal regeneration in infrabony defects. This case report describes the clinical and radiographic regenerative potential of autologous DPSCs in the treatment of human noncontained intraosseous defects. A chronic periodontitis patient with one vital third molar requiring extraction was surgically treated. The third molar was extracted and used as an autologous DPSCs source to regenerate the infrabony defect on the mandibular right second premolar. At the 1-year examination, the defect was completely filled with bonelike tissue as confirmed through the reentry procedure. PMID:24956088

Aimetti, Mario; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Cricenti, Luca; Mariani, Giulia Maria; Romano, Federica

2014-01-01

45

Inflammatory and bone-related genes are modulated by aging in human periodontal ligament cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) play a major role in periodontal tissues homeostasis and destruction. Most age-associated diseases seem to be closely related to an underlying chronic inflammatory state. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating in PDLC the effect of aging on the basal levels of inflammatory and bone-related genes. Primary PDLC cultures were obtained from subjects aged 15-20 years (control- n=5), and subjects aged more than 60 years (test- n=5). Proliferation, cell viability and total secreted protein assays were performed, and mRNA levels were quantitatively assessed for interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-8, and for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by real time PCR. Data analysis demonstrated that aging negatively influenced cell proliferation, whereas cell viability and total secreted protein were not affected (p>0.05). Gene expression analysis showed that mRNA levels for RANKL and IL-8 were not affected by aging (p>0.05) whereas, mRNA levels for IL-4 was significantly lower in aged cells (p<0.05) and OPG, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA levels were higher (p<0.05). Data analysis suggests that aging decreased the ability of PDLC to proliferate and modulated the expression of important inflammatory and bone-related genes in periodontal ligament cells, favoring a proinflammatory and an antiresorptive profile. PMID:19251432

Benatti, Bruno Braga; Silvério, Karina Gonzales; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antônio; Nociti, Francisco Humberto

2009-05-01

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Movement of fibroblasts in the periodontal ligament of the mouse incisor is related to eruption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Movement of fibroblasts in the periodontal ligament of the lower incisor of the mouse was studied by pulse-labeling with tritiated thymidine and proline. 3H-Thymidine was administered to mark the nuclei of the cells in the proliferative compartment near the basal end of the tooth; 3H-proline gave rise to a narrow band of radioactivity in the dentin, which served as a reference line for measurement of eruption. One or three weeks after injection in each animal, the lower right incisor was prevented from further eruption by being pinned to its alveolar process. The animals were killed 0, 1, or 2 weeks later, and their mandibles processed for LM-radioautography. It was found that in the left incisors, which were not inhibited in their eruption, labeled cells in the tooth-half of the periodontal ligament moved incisally at a rate similar to the eruption rate. In the pinned incisors, no further incisal migration could be established. It is concluded that fibroblast migration in the tooth-half of the ligament is strictly coupled to the eruptive process

1987-01-01

47

Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests Influência do material de inclusão e da simulação do ligamento periodontal nos ensaios de resistência à fratura  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance of bovine teeth. Eighty bovine incisor teeth were randomized into 8 groups (n = 10), embedded in acrylic or polystyrene resin using 4 types of periodontal ligament simulation: 1 - absence of the ligament; 2 - polyether impression material; 3 - polysulfide impression material; 4 - polyurethane elastomeric material. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% ...

Carlos José Soares; Eliane Cristina Gava Pizi; Rodrigo Borges Fonseca; Luis Roberto Marcondes Martins

2005-01-01

48

Study of tension in the periodontal ligament using the finite elements method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Orthodontic movement is process of transformation of a physical stimulation into a force applied to a tooth, with a biological response identified as bone remodelling. Although it is possible to measure the force applied on a tooth, its distribution around the root is irregular forming areas of high [...] er concentration of tensions, which do not correspond to the force initially applied. To evaluate the behavior of the periodontal ligament after the application of an external action and to prove which would be the areas of higher tension generated in the periodontium, the Finite Elements Method (FEM) was used in comparison to the results obtained in vivo on experimental models in rat. To test the error susceptibility of the technique used in the experimental model, the force application was simulated in three different heights on the mesial surface of the molar. The resulting histological analysis was compared with the result obtained for the computational code and disclosed that the greater focus of osteoclasts in activity had coincided with the compressed areas of the periodontal ligament. The alteration of points of force application generated areas of more extensive deformations in the periodontal ligament, as the point of application was more distant of the initial point, the horizontal force vector became bigger. These results demonstrate that the FEM is an adequate tool to study the distribution of orthodontic forces. The sensitivity of the experimental model used was also observed in relation to the installation of the dental movement device, which should be considered depending on the objective of the research.

Eliziane, Cossetin; Selma Hissae S. da, Nóbrega; Maria Goretti Freire de, Carvalho.

49

In vitro comparative analysis of cryopreservation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells derived from human periodontal ligament.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryopreservation aims to cease all biological functions of living tissues in a reversible and controlled manner, i.e., to permit the recovery of cells by maintaining a high degree of their viability and functional integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of cryopreservation on undifferentiated mesenchymal cells derived from the periodontal ligament of human third molars. Mesenchymal cells were isolated from six healthy teeth and cultured in ?-MEM medium supplemented with antibiotics and 15% FBS in a humid atmosphere with 5% CO(2) at 37°C. The cells isolated from each tooth were divided into two groups: group I (fresh, non-cryopreserved cells) was immediately cultured, and group II was submitted to cryopreservation for 30 days. The rates of cell adhesion and proliferation were analyzed in the two groups by counting the cells adhered to the wells at 24, 48 and 72 h after plating. The number of cells per well was obtained by counting viable cells in a hemocytometer using the Trypan blue exclusion method. Differences between groups at each time point were evaluated by the Wilcoxon test. The Friedman test was used to determine differences between time points and, if detected, the Wilcoxon test with Bonferroni correction was applied. The results showed no significant difference in the in vitro growth capacity of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells between the two groups. In conclusion, cryopreservation for 30 days had no influence on periodontal ligament mesenchymal cells. PMID:21833489

Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Gadelha; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Alves; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Gadelha; Lima, Kenio Costa; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão

2012-08-01

50

The effect of electrospun fibre alignment on the behaviour of rat periodontal ligament cells  

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Full Text Available It is envisioned that for the regeneration of highly organized structures, like tendon and ligaments, only aligned fibrous scaffolds can provide adequate topographic guidance to cells. In this study, a novel method to electrospin an aligned scaffold is presented. Electrospun fibres were deposited into a water bath and then the fibres were drawn to a rotating mandrel in a controlled manner. In this way, parallel and cross-aligned fibrous poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA scaffolds were fabricated, which were subsequently used to study their effect on the growth behaviour of rat periodontal ligament (PDL cells. First, the scaffolds were characterized regarding mechanical properties, scaffold stability and degradation in vitro. Then, rat PDL cells were seeded and cultured on these scaffolds for up to 7 days. Randomly oriented PLGA and solvent cast plain PLGA films served as controls. Results showed that the alignment of fibres resulted in a higher tensile stress and Young’s modulus. Aligned scaffolds maintained their structural stability better compared to the controls after incubation in phosphate-buffered saline for 6 weeks. Further, cells were observed to elongate along the fibre after 3 days of culture. Proliferation and migration of PDL cells was significantly more prevalent on the aligned fibres compared to the controls. It was concluded that aligned scaffolds seem to be able to promote the organized regeneration of periodontal tissue.

S Shang

2010-04-01

51

A nonlinear finite element analysis of the periodontal ligament under orthodontic tooth loading.  

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The stressed state of the periodontal ligament (PDL) is understood to play a critical role in the tooth movement initiated by orthodontic treatment. Finite element simulations have been used to describe PDL stresses for orthodontic loading; however, these models have predominantly assumed linear mechanical properties for the PDL. The present study sought to determine the importance of using nonlinear mechanical properties and nonuniform geometric data in computer predictions of periodontal ligament stresses and tooth movements. A 2-dimensional plane-strain finite element model of a mandibular premolar was constructed based on anatomic data of transverse sections of tooth, PDL, and bone from a 24-year-old cadaveric man. A second model was constructed of the same tooth but with a PDL of uniform thickness. Each of these was prescribed linear or nonlinear elastic mechanical properties, as obtained in our own experiments. Predictions of the maximum and minimum principal stresses and von Mises stresses in the PDL were determined for extrusive and tipping forces. The results indicated that biofidelic finite element models predicted substantially different stresses in the PDL for extrusive loading than did the uniform thickness model, suggesting that incorporation of the hourglass shape of the PDL is warranted. In addition, incorporation of nonlinear mechanical properties for the PDL resulted in dramatic increases in the stresses at the apex and cervical margin as compared with the linear models. PMID:12806346

Toms, Stephanie R; Eberhardt, Alan W

2003-06-01

52

A stress analysis of the periodontal ligament under various orthodontic loadings.  

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The accurate modelling of teeth under orthodontic load in the laboratory has many shortcomings in that it has not been possible to integrate methods, such as three-dimensional models, photo-elastic stress analysis, laser holographic interferometry, and animal studies, to give comprehensive and repeatable results. In this study, using a three-dimensional finite element model of a human maxillary canine tooth, the maximum principal stresses in the periodontal ligament produced by various orthodontic forces were determined. 1 Newton tipping forces produced stresses at the cervical margin of the periodontal ligament as high as 0.196 N/mm2 and apical stresses up to -0.034 N/mm2, while rotatory forces of two equal, but opposing forces of 0.5 Newton at the cervical margin of the crown produced cervical margin stresses ranging between -0.035 and 0.051 N/mm2, and apical stresses of between 0.0018 and 0.0027 N/mm2. These stresses are examined and discussed in relation to previous clinical, laboratory, and histological studies. PMID:1936141

McGuinness, N J; Wilson, A N; Jones, M L; Middleton, J

1991-06-01

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The Study of Dose- Response Mitogenic Effect of L-dopa on the Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts Cells  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Avulsion is one of the most serious emergencies in dental office.Avulsed teeth should be stored in a medium that supports the periodontal ligament cells viability. In some clinical situations, preserving media, contained growth factors and mitogenic products may be used for repair of traumatized (Periodontal Ligament tissues. It has been previously reported that levodopa (L-dopa accelerates healing by increasing the growth hormone level.Purpose: In this study, the local effect of L-dopa, on human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF cells was evaluated.Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from impacted or semi-impacted third molar teeth, which didn’t show inflammatory reaction. The cells obtained from periodontal ligament of these teeth, were cultured in appropriate medium. The passage number between3-6 was taken for further experiments. The viability of HPLF cells, which treated, by Ldopa were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and neutral red assay.Results: Results indicate that low concentration of L-dopa produces significant increase in number of these cells in comparison with control group. These results confirmed previous study about direct action of L-dopa on the viability of HPLF cells.Conclusion: On the basis of this study and previous reports, presence of L-dopa in preserving media may be useful in increasing the self-life transferring HPLF cells.

M. Zarabian

2004-09-01

54

[Effects of anandamide on IL-11 production through the TRPV1 of human periodontal ligament cells].  

Science.gov (United States)

A functional endocannabinoid system is present in several mammalian organs and tissues. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is a bioactive lipid neurotransmitter that is present in a variety of tissues and has multiple functions. Recently, this cannabinoid system was reported to play important roles in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. Human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells modulate alveolar bone remodeling by producing cytokines when stimulated by many factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the AEA level in periodontal regions and the osteogenic effect of AEA on hPDL cells. The levels of AEA in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Expressions of cannabinoid receptor mRNA were detected by RT-PCR in hPDL cells and expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) was observed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). IL-11 production from hPDL cells was measured using an ELISA, with or without AEA in the presence or absence of capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 antagonist AEA secreted into GCF was detected, but there was no correlation between the probing pocket depth (PPD) and AEA level. TRPV1 mRNA was detected in hPDL cells and the TRPV1 expression was observed by CLSM. IL-11 production from hPDL cells was significantly enhanced by AEA stimulation and this IL-11 production was suppressed by capsazepine. Our findings indicate that this endogenous cannabinoid system has a possible role in bone metabolism in periodontitis through TRPV1. PMID:22568077

Haruta, Chihiro

2012-03-01

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In Vitro Cytotoxicity of White MTA, MTA Fillapex® and Portland Cement on Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a citotoxicidade in vitro de agregado trióxido mineral (MTA) branco, MTA Fillapex® e cimento Portland (PC) em cultura de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal humano. A cultura de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal foi estabelecida [...] e as células foram utilizadas para os testes citotóxicos após a quarta passagem. A densidade celular foi ajustada em 1,25X10 4 células/poço em placas de 96 poços. Extratos dos materiais endodônticos foram preparados por meio da inserção de corpos de prova dos cimentos (5 X 3 mm) em 1 mL de meio de cultura durante 72 h. Os extratos foram diluídos serialmente na razão de ½ e inseridos aos poços contendo as células por 24, 48 e 72 h. Ensaio de MTT foi realizado para a avaliação da viabilidade celular. O sobrenadante das células foi testado em relação à presença de óxido nítrico utilizando o sistema de reagentes de Griess. O MTA apresentou efeito citotóxico quando o extrato era aplicado sem diluição durante 24 e 72 h. O MTA Fillapex apresentou os maiores níveis de citotoxicidade com importante redução da viabilidade celular quando o extrato foi aplicado puro e em diluições de ½ e ¼. Neste estudo, PC não induziu alterações na viabilidade de fibroblastos. Óxido nítrico foi detectado no sobrenadante de células tratadas com os extratos e ainda nos extratos somente, o que sugere a presença de nitrito no conteúdo solúvel dos materiais testados. No presente estudo, MTA Fillapex foi o material que demonstrou o maior efeito citotóxico sobre fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal seguido do MTA branco e do PC. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic test [...] s after the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5X3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and ¼ dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

Yoshino, Patrícia; Nishiyama, Celso Kenji; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Sipert, Carla Renata.

56

Pulp revascularization of an immature permanent tooth with apical periodontitis: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present case report analyzes the outcome of revascularization treatment of an immature permanent tooth with necrotic pulp and apical periodontitis. The canal was disinfected with copious irrigation and application of triple antibiotic paste. After the disinfection protocol was completed, apical bleeding was induced in the canal resulting in the formation of a blood clot. An absorbable scaffold was placed over it followed by an adequate triple coronal seal. After nine months follow-up, increased thickening of dentinal walls with intact lamina dura and complete apical closure was reported radiographically. Therefore, revascularization therapy could be recommended as an alternative treatment option.

Makkar Sameer

2013-01-01

57

Modificações no periodonto de ratos diabéticos após a movimentação ortodôntica Periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement in diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as modificações do ligamento periodontal de incisivos de ratos diabéticos submetidos a forças ortodônticas. MÉTODOS: vinte ratos machos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus com 105 dias de idade foram empregados. Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: C - animais normoglicêmicos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; CAO - animais normoglicêmicos submetidos à movimentação dentária; D - animais diabéticos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; DAO - animais diabéticos submetidos à movimentação dentária. Os animais permaneceram com o dispositivo de movimentação dentária por 5 dias. Foram avaliados o número de vasos sangüíneos e a espessura do ligamento periodontal nos terços cervical, médio e apical dos cortes histológicos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: no lado de tensão, a movimentação dentária nos animais do grupo CAO resultou em um ligamento periodontal mais espesso (17,64% no terço apical, 39,28% no terço médio e 51,35% na região cervical, quando comparado ao grupo C (p 0,05. Ainda no lado de tensão, foram observadas lacunas de reabsorção nos animais dos grupos CAO, D e DAO. O lado de pressão não foi examinado nesta fase do estudo.AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement of the upper incisor in diabetic rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus with 105 days of age were used. The rats were divided in four groups: C - normoglicemic animals not submitted to dental movement; CAO - normoglicemic animals submitted to dental movement; D - diabetic animals not submitted the dental movement; DAO - diabetic animals submitted to dental movement. The animals had remained with dental movement devices during 5 days. The number of sanguine vessels and the thickness of the periodontal ligament were evaluated at cervical, medium and apical histological cut regions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At tension side, the dental movement in the animals of group CAO resulted in a thicker periodontal ligament (17.64% apical, 39.28% medium, 51.35% cervical when compared to C group (p < 0.05 for medium and cervical area. Group DAO exhibited an increase of periodontal ligament thickness of 50.55% (apical, 48.14% (average and 50% (cervical when compared to group D (p < 0.05. The periodontal ligament sanguine vessels number did not differed significantly for all groups (p < 0.05. At tension side, bone reabsorption lacunae were observed in CAO, D and DAO groups. The pressure side was not examined in this study phase.

Luis Alberto Sabino Vila Real

2009-02-01

58

Gene-enhanced tissue engineering for dental hard tissue regeneration: (2 dentin-pulp and periodontal regeneration  

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Full Text Available Abstract Potential applications for gene-based tissue engineering therapies in the oral and maxillofacial complex include the delivery of growth factors for periodontal regeneration, pulp capping/dentin regeneration, and bone grafting of large osseous defects in dental and craniofacial reconstruction. Part 1 reviewed the principals of gene-enhanced tissue engineering and the techniques of introducing DNA into cells. This manuscript will review recent advances in gene-based therapies for dental hard tissue regeneration, specifically as it pertains to dentin regeneration/pulp capping and periodontal regeneration.

Mason James M

2006-05-01

59

Application of the iodide clearance technique to monitor local changes in periodontal ligament blood flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to validate a newly developed technique for monitoring blood flow changes with local clearance of 125I in the periodontal ligament (PDL). The tracer substance was allowed to diffuse into the intact PDL via a cavity that was drilled from the root canal out towards the root surface. Electric stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk caused a reduction in the clearance rate of the tracer from the cavity in a frequency-dependent manner. Intra-arterial infusions of noradrenaline also induced decreases in clearance rate. Intra-arterial infusions of the vasodilators substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced increases in clearance rate. The present technique makes it possible to monitor local blood flow changes in the intact PDL during both decreases and increases in blood flow

1988-01-01

60

Bone repair by periodontal ligament stem cell-seeded nanohydroxyapatite-chitosan scaffold  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shaohua Ge,1 Ning Zhao,1 Lu Wang,1 Meijiao Yu,1 Hong Liu,2 Aimei Song,1 Jing Huang,1 Guancong Wang,2 Pishan Yang11Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine of Shandong Province, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, 2Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, ChinaBackground: A nanohydroxyapatite-coated chitosan scaffold has been developed in recent years, but the effect of this composite scaffold on the viability and differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and bone repair is still unknown. This study explored the behavior of PDLSCs on a new nanohydroxyapatite-coated genipin-chitosan conjunction scaffold (HGCCS in vitro as compared with an uncoated genipin-chitosan framework, and evaluated the effect of PDLSC-seeded HGCCS on bone repair in vivo.Methods: Human PDLSCs were cultured and identified, seeded on a HGCCS and on a genipin-chitosan framework, and assessed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at different time intervals. Moreover, PDLSC-seeded scaffolds were used in a rat calvarial defect model, and new bone formation was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining at 12 weeks postoperatively.Results: PDLSCs were clonogenic and positive for STRO-1. They had the capacity to undergo osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in vitro. When seeded on HGCCS, PDLSCs exhibited significantly greater viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and upregulated the bone-related markers, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin to a greater extent compared with PDLSCs seeded on the genipin-chitosan framework. The use of PDLSC-seeded HGCCS promoted calvarial bone repair.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of HGCCS combined with PDLSCs as a promising tool for bone regeneration.Keywords: periodontal ligament, stem cells, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, scaffold, tissue engineering

Ge S

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Significant Type I and Type III Collagen Production from Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts in 3D Peptide Scaffolds without Extra Growth Factors  

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We here report the development of two peptide scaffolds designed for periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The scaffolds consist of one of the pure self-assembling peptide scaffolds RADA16 through direct coupling to short biologically active motifs. The motifs are 2-unit RGD binding sequence PRG (PRGDSGYRGDS) and laminin cell adhesion motif PDS (PDSGR). RGD and laminin have been previously shown to promote specific biological activities including periodontal ligament fibroblasts adhesion, prolife...

Kumada, Yoshiyuki; Zhang, Shuguang

2010-01-01

62

Significant Type I and Type III Collagen Production from Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts in 3D Peptide Scaffolds without Extra Growth Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We here report the development of two peptide scaffolds designed for periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The scaffolds consist of one of the pure self-assembling peptide scaffolds RADA16 through direct coupling to short biologically active motifs. The motifs are 2-unit RGD binding sequence PRG (PRGDSGYRGDS) and laminin cell adhesion motif PDS (PDSGR). RGD and laminin have been previously shown to promote specific biological activities including periodontal ligament fibroblasts adhesion, prolife...

Kumada, Yoshiyuki; Zhang, Shuguang

2009-01-01

63

Evaluation of fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-ß expression by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to root end filling materials  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several materials have been introduced for retrograde fillings, pulp capping and sealing root perforations, but their biological effect on vital tissues and cells is not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reaction of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to four root canal filling materials: Pro Root MTA, Root MTA, Portland cement and amalgam. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, impacted or semi impacted third molar teeth were extracted in aseptic conditions and tissues around the roots were used to obtain fibroblast cell line. After proliferation, cells were cultured in chamber slides and extracts of materials were added to wells. Fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-  expression were measured by immunocytochemistry method. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.0 using one way ANOVA and Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Collagen I expression was higher in Pro Root MTA group after 24 hours (p<0.05 and in Portland cement group and positive controls after 48  hours. Portland cement group showed the highest expression of collagen after 1 week. There was no significant difference in fibronectin expression after 24 hours. After 1 week the highest expression of fibronectin was seen in Portland cement, Root MTA and Pro Root MTA groups. TGF-  expression was higher in amalgam, Root MTA and Pro Root MTA specimens after 24 hours and was the highest in Pro Root MTA group after 48 hours. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Portland cement and Root MTA are comparable with Pro Root MTA and better than amalgam regarding their effects on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

Razmi H.

2008-10-01

64

Asiaticoside induces type I collagen synthesis and osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asiaticoside, an active ingredient extracted from Centella asiatica, has been widely used to promote wound healing. In this study, the effects of asiaticoside on proliferation, protein synthesis, and osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLs) were investigated. HPDLs were treated with asiaticoside at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL. Cell number was determined by MTT assay. The mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to confirm protein synthesis. Osteogenic differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase activity, osteoblast marker gene expression, and in vitro mineralization. The results showed that asiaticoside treatment, ranging from 25 to 100 mg/mL, had no effect on cytotoxicity or cell proliferation. When HPDLs were treated with asiaticoside in serum-free medium, dose-dependent increases in the levels of fibronectin and collagen type I mRNA and protein were observed at 72 h. Moreover, asiaticoside attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-1 but enhanced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression. The addition of asiaticoside to osteogenic medium resulted in an increase in alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity, up-regulation of osteoblast marker gene mRNA expression, and enhancement of mineralization by HPDLs. These results suggest the potential application of asiaticoside for enhancing periodontal tissue healing. PMID:22628285

Nowwarote, Nunthawan; Osathanon, Thanaphum; Jitjaturunt, Peachaya; Manopattanasoontorn, Sukuman; Pavasant, Prasit

2013-03-01

65

The performance of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells on xenogenic biomaterials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenchymal stem cells from periodontal ligament (PDL-MSCs) hold great promise for bone regeneration. Most studies regarding the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from periodontal tissue suggest that PDL cells may have many osteoblast-like properties, including the ability to form calcified nodules in vitro. This study investigated the morphological and histochemistry aspects of human PDL-MSCs, induced for osteogenic differentiation and seeded on a xenogenic porcine bone substitute in vitro, at different times of incubation. This biomaterial seems physically identical to human bone, and it has been reported to be osteoconductive. Our results indicated that the cells had a high affinity for the three-dimensional biomaterials; in fact, cellular proliferation and colonization was evident, and after 21 days the adherent cells started to detach themselves from the substrate, and at 30 days of incubation in differentiation medium, the cells completely lost the adhesion to the Petri's disk, englobing all bioparticles. In conclusion, the in vitro behaviour of PDL-MSCs and their relationship with three-dimensional scaffold biomaterials encourage in vivo investigations for their use in dental tissue regeneration. PMID:17897507

Trubiani, O; Scarano, A; Orsini, G; Di Iorio, D; D'Arcangelo, C; Piccirilli, M; Sigismondo, M; Caputi, S

2007-01-01

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Evaluation of the resolving potency of a novel reconstruction filter on periodontal ligament space with dental cone-beam CT: a quantitative phantom study  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of the alveolar bone condition is important for the treatment planning of periodontal disease. Especially the determination of periodontal ligament space is the most important remark because it represents the periodontal tissue support for tooth retention. However, owing to the image blur of the current cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging technique, the periodontal ligament space is difficult to visualize. In this study, we developed an original periodontal ligament phantom (PLP) and evaluated the image quality of simulated periodontal ligament space using a novel reconstruction filter for CBCT that emphasized high frequency component. PLP was composed from two resin blocks of different materials, the bone equivalent block and the dentine equivalent block. They were assembled to make continuously changing space from 0.0 to 1.0 millimeter that mimics periodontal ligament space. PLP was placed in water and the image was obtained by using Alphard-3030 dental cone-beam CT (Asahi Roentgen Industry Co., Ltd.). Then we reconstructed the projection data with a novel reconstruction filter. The axial images were compared with conventional reconstructed images. In novel filter reconstruction images, 0.4 millimeter of the space width was steadily detected by calculation of pixel value, on the other hand 0.6 millimeter was in conventional images. With our method, the resolving potency of conebeam CT images was improved.

Houno, Yuuki; Hishikawa, Toshimitsu; Gotoh, Ken-ichi; Naitoh, Munetaka; Ariji, Eiichiro; Kodera, Yoshie

2014-03-01

67

Comparison of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gingival tissue and periodontal ligament in different incubation conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gingival tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were recently identified and characterized as having multipotential differentiation and immunomodulatory properties in vitro and in vivo, and they represent new postnatal stem cell types for cytotherapy and regenerative medicine. However, the utility of gingival MSCs (GMSCs) as alternatives to periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which have been demonstrated to be effective but with limited cell availability and reduced clinical feasibility, for periodontal regeneration in a previously diseased/inflamed environment remains obscure. In this study, patient-matched human GMSCs and PDLSCs were evaluated in terms of their colony-forming ability, proliferative capacity, cell surface epitopes, multi-lineage differentiation potentials, and related gene expression when incubated in different designed culture conditions, with or without the presence of inflammatory cytokines. An in vivo ectopic transplantation model using transplants from inflammatory cytokine-treated or untreated cells was applied to assess bone formation. We found that cells derived from both tissues expressed MSC markers, including CD146, CD105, CD90, CD29, and STRO-1. Both cells successfully differentiated under osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic microenvironments; PDLSCs displayed a more effective differentiation potential in all of the incubation conditions compared to GMSCs (P < 0.01). Although inflammatory cytokine-treated GMSCs and PDLSCs are inferior to normally cultured, patient and tissue-matched cells in terms of their osteogenic capacity and regenerative potential (P < 0.05), they retain the capacity for osteoblastic and adipose differentiation, as well as ectopic bone formation, similar to what has been demonstrated for other MSCs. Interestingly, GMSCs exhibited fewer inflammation-related changes in terms of osteogenic potential in vitro and bone formation in vivo compared to PDLSCs (P < 0.01). These results suggest that both gingiva and PDL tissues are putative cell sources for future cytotherapeutic applications. Whether GMSCs act as an adjunctive or alternative cell source for cytotherapy of inflammatory periodontal disease warrants further investigation. PMID:23768902

Yang, Hao; Gao, Li-Na; An, Ying; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Jin, Fang; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Yan; Chen, Fa-Ming

2013-09-01

68

Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell-adhesive molecules were covalently immobilized on a Ti surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized cell-adhesive molecules maintained native function on the Ti surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized collagen enhanced adhesion of periodontal ligament cells to the Ti. - Abstract: A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p < 0.05). HPDLCs on the Col-immobilized titanium surfaces showed more extensive expression of vinculin at the tips of cell projections and more contiguously along the cell outline than on the as-polished, GRGDS-immobilized and pFN-immobilized titanium surfaces. It was concluded that cell-adhesive molecules successfully immobilized on the titanium surface and improved the compatibility of the surface with HPDLCs. The Col-immobilized titanium surface could be used for forming ligament-like tissues around titanium dental implants.

Kado, T.; Hidaka, T. [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Aita, H. [Division of Occlusion and Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Endo, K. [Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Furuichi, Y., E-mail: furuichi@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)

2012-12-01

69

Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Cell-adhesive molecules were covalently immobilized on a Ti surface. ? Immobilized cell-adhesive molecules maintained native function on the Ti surface. ? Immobilized collagen enhanced adhesion of periodontal ligament cells to the Ti. - Abstract: A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p < 0.05). HPDLCs on the Col-immobilized titanium surfaces showed more extensive expression of vinculin at the tips of cell projections and more contiguously along the cell outline than on the as-polished, GRGDS-immobilized and pFN-immobilized titanium surfaces. It was concluded that cell-adhesive molecules successfully immobilized on the titanium surface and improved the compatibility of the surface with HPDLCs. The Col-immobilized titanium surface could be used for forming ligament-like tissues around titanium dental implants.

2012-12-01

70

Gene-enhanced tissue engineering for dental hard tissue regeneration: (2) dentin-pulp and periodontal regeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Potential applications for gene-based tissue engineering therapies in the oral and maxillofacial complex include the delivery of growth factors for periodontal regeneration, pulp capping/dentin regeneration, and bone grafting of large osseous defects in dental and craniofacial reconstruction.

Edwards, Paul C.; Mason, James M.

2006-01-01

71

"THE STUDY OF DOSE-RESPONSE MITOGENIC EFFECT OF L-DOPA ON THE HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLAST CELLS"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avulsion is one of the most serious emergencies in dental office. In the event of any problem, the tooth should be stored in a medium that supports the periodontal ligament cell viability. In other clinical situations, preserving media, growth factors and mitogenic products may be useful in repairing the traumatized tissues. It has been previously reported that levodopa (L-dopa) accelerates healing by increasing the growth hormone level. In this study, the local effect of L-dopa, as a mitogen...

Zarabian, M.; Ostad, F. Salehipour S. N.

2004-01-01

72

Effect of the simulated periodontal ligament on cast post-and-core removal using an ultrasonic device  

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ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simulated periodontal ligament (SPDL) on custom cast dowel and core removal by ultrasonic vibration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two human maxillary canines were included in resin cylinders with or without SPDL made from polyether impression material. In order to allow tensile testing, the roots included in resin cylinders with SPDL were fixed to cylinders with two stainless steel wires. Post-holes were prepared by stand...

Manoel Brito-Junior; Neilor Mateus Antunes Braga; Danilo Costa Rodrigues; Carla Cristina Camilo; André Luis Faria-e-Silva

2010-01-01

73

Periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts participate in the production of TGF-?, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10  

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The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the production of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 by human cultured periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts both obtained from the same donors challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Fibroblasts were exposed to 0.1-10 µg/mL of LPS from P. gingivalis and after 24 h the supernatants were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGF-β...

Ana Carolina de Faria Morandini; Carla Renata Sipert; Erivan Schnaider Ramos-Junior; Daniel Thomas Brozoski; Carlos Ferreira Santos

2011-01-01

74

An electron microscopic radioautographic study of collagen secretion in periodontal ligament fibroblasts of the mouse: I. Normal fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of electron microscopic radioautographs revealed a maximum labeling with "3H-proline of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) at 3 minutes, Golgi saccules 1 and 2 at 10 minutes, Golgi saccules type 3 at 20 minutes, and presecretory and secretory granules at 30 minutes. Labeling of the extra-cellular collagen matrix occurred at 30 minutes and increased with time. These observations suggest that pro-a-chains of collagen in periodontal ligament fibroblasts are synthesized in the RER and transported to the Golgi apparatus within 10 minutes. These chains then undergo parallel alignment in Golgi saccules type 2 and form segment-long-spacing-like crystallites in Golgi saccules type 3 between 10 and 20 minutes. The peak labeling of presecretory granules and mature secretory granules in small amounts at 30 minutes and the rapid increase in labeling of extracellular collagen matrix which begins at 30 minutes, indicates that the formation of secretory granules requires approximately 30 minutes and that a rapid system of secretory granule translocation exists in periodontal ligament fibroblasts. This evidence further supports the previously published morphologic evidence for a microtubule-dependent system of collagen secretion in periodontal ligament fibroblasts

1981-01-01

75

Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O ácido ascórbico (AA) neutraliza essas espécies reativas de oxigênio e é imprescindível para a síntese do colágeno. No processo de envelhecimento ocorre aumento do estresse oxidativo. Objetivamos investigar o efeito da suplementação com AA sobre o l [...] igamento periodontal (LP) de ratos durante o processo de envelhecimento. Foram utilizados 25 ratos divididos em cinco grupos: J90 (90 dias de idade), E345 (345 dias de idade), E428 (428 dias de idade), EA345 (tratados com AA do 90º ao 345º dia) e EA428 (tratados com AA do 90º ao 428º dia). Foram analisadas espessura, densidade de fibroblastos e vasos sanguíneos, e o tipo de fibra colágena presente no LP. No grupo J90 houve um predomínio de fibras colágenas do tipo III (87,64%). Nos animais suplementados com AA, a área ocupada pelas fibras tipo I (grupo EA345 - 65,67%; grupo EA428 - 52,23%) foi maior que aquelas do tipo III. A espessura do LP no grupo EA428 foi maior do que a observada no grupo E428 (P < 0,05). No processo de envelhecimento natural o AA atuou na maturação das fibras colágenas e estimulou a angiogênese no ligamento periodontal. Pode-se concluir que a suplementação com AA foi positiva para o LP de ratos envelhecidos. Abstract in english Ascorbic acid (AA) is able to neutralize reactive oxygen species and is essential for collagen synthesis. In aging process oxidative stress is elevated. This study aims to investigate the effects of AA supplementation on the periodontal ligament (PL) of rats during aging. Twenty five rats were used [...] and divided into groups: J90 (90-day-old control), E345 (345-day-old control), E428 (428-day-old control), EA345 (345-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on) and EA428 (428-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on). We analyzed the thickness, density of fibroblasts and blood vessels and collagen fibers types in the PL. In group J90 there was predominantly type III collagen fibers (87.64%). In animals supplemented with AA, the area filled by type I fibers (group EA345: 65.67%, group EA428: 52.23%) was higher than type III fibers. PL in group EA428 was thicker than the one observed in group E428 (P < 0.05). During natural aging process, AA promoted the maturation of collagen fibers and enhanced angiogenesis in periodontal ligament. One can conclude that the supplementation with AA represented a beneficial factor for the development of PL in aged rats.

Zanoni, Jacqueline N.; Lucas, Nathalia M.; Trevizan, Aline R.; Souza, Ivan D.S..

2013-01-03

76

Immunolocalization of lubricin in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.  

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Lubricin is a protein which contributes to the boundary lubrication, facilitating low friction levels at the interfacing surfaces of joints. In tendons and ligaments it facilitates the relative movement of collagen bundles. Its expression is affected by mechanical signals and cytokines. During application of orthodontic forces to teeth, there is a transduction of mechanical forces to the cells of the periodontal ligament (PDL), which triggers several biological reactions causing the synthesis of prostaglandins, cytokines and growth factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunolocalization of lubricin and to evaluate if it is time-dependently and differentially detected within the PDL following the application of orthodontic forces to create areas of compression and tension. This was achieved by placing elastic bands between the maxillary first and second molars of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats (each weighing 120-200g) for 12 and 24h. The molar-bearing segments were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Binding of a monoclonal antibody was used to evaluate lubricin localization using an indirect streptavidin/biotin immunperoxidase technique. Lubricin, was constitutively expressed in the PDL of rat molars. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, lubricin was down-regulated, on both sides (compression and tension) of the PDL, in a time-dependent fashion, although to a different extent, being at any time more expressed on the tension side. Furthermore, in every sample, almost all PDL cells in the adjacent tooth cementum and alveolar bone, were more heavily immunolabeled by lubricin antibody, contrary to those located in the central portion of the PDL. Lubricin expression therefore seems related to PDL remodeling and tooth displacement following the application of an orthodontic force, and it appears that lubricin may play an important role during tooth movement. PMID:22209395

Leonardi, Rosalia; Loreto, Carla; Talic, Nabeel; Caltabiano, Rosario; Musumeci, Giuseppe

2012-11-01

77

Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells  

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A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p < 0.05). HPDLCs on the Col-immobilized titanium surfaces showed more extensive expression of vinculin at the tips of cell projections and more contiguously along the cell outline than on the as-polished, GRGDS-immobilized and pFN-immobilized titanium surfaces. It was concluded that cell-adhesive molecules successfully immobilized on the titanium surface and improved the compatibility of the surface with HPDLCs. The Col-immobilized titanium surface could be used for forming ligament-like tissues around titanium dental implants.

Kado, T.; Hidaka, T.; Aita, H.; Endo, K.; Furuichi, Y.

2012-12-01

78

IL-6 trans-signaling enhances CCL20 production from IL-1?-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells.  

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CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) plays a central role in the recruitment of CCR6-expressing cells, including Th17 cells which are related to bone resorption in periodontal lesions and thus in the development of periodontal disease. IL-6 is an important cytokine that is associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, the effect of IL-6 on CCL20 production is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine whether IL-6 could modify CCL20 expression in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs). HPDLCs expressed gp130 but did not express IL-6R on the surface of HPDLCs. So, IL-6 trans-signaling is important to recognize IL-6 by HPDLCs. IL-6/sIL-6R stimulation enhanced CCL20 production in IL-1?-stimulated HPDLCs. IL-6 produced from IL-1?-stimulated HPDLCs with sIL-6R could increase CCL20 production in HPDLCs with sIL-6R. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 activation was related to CCL20 production in IL-1? and IL-6/sIL-6R-stimulated HPDLCs. Our data suggests that HPDLCs, in response to IL-6, sIL-6R, and IL-1?, may shift chemokine production to that favoring CCR6-expressing cells recruitment in periodontal lesions. PMID:24081898

Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Shindo, Satoru; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

2014-04-01

79

Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells  

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Here we investigate the influences of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a non-thermal plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications.

Mileti?, M.; Mojsilovi?, S.; Oki? ?or?evi?, I.; Maleti?, D.; Pua?, N.; Lazovi?, S.; Malovi?, G.; Milenkovi?, P.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj; Bugarski, D.

2013-08-01

80

Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here we investigate the influences of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a non-thermal plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications. (paper)

2013-08-28

 
 
 
 
81

A constitutive model for the periodontal ligament as a compressible transversely isotropic visco-hyperelastic tissue.  

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This study is devoted to the development of a non-linear anisotropic model for the human periodontal ligament (PDL). A thorough knowledge of the behaviour of the PDL is vital in understanding the mechanics of orthodontic tooth mobility, soft tissue response and proposed treatment plans. There is considerable evidence that the deformation of the PDL is the key factor determining the orthodontic tooth movement. The paper focuses on the biomechanical aspect of the behaviour of the PDL. In terms of continuous mechanics, the PDL may be treated as an anisotropic poro-visco-hyperelastic fibre-reinforced compressible material which is subject to large deformations and has an essentially non-linear behaviour. Furthermore, there are issues related to the non-linear tooth and PDL geometry. A new constitutive model for the PDL is proposed. The macroscopic continuum approach is used. The model is based on the non-linear large deformation theory, involving the Lagrangian description. The material is assumed to be compressible, visco-hyperelastic and transversely isotropic. A free-energy function is suggested that incorporates the properties. It also takes into account that the PDL behaves differently in tension and compression. The free-energy function and the associated constitutive equations involve several material parameters, which are to be evaluated from experimental strain-stress data available from the literature and the tooth movement experiments conducted by our team using novel optical motion analysis techniques. PMID:17558650

Zhurov, Alexei I; Limbert, Georges; Aeschlimann, Daniel P; Middleton, John

2007-06-01

82

The plastic nature of the human bone-periodontal ligament-tooth fibrous joint.  

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This study investigates bony protrusions within a narrowed periodontal ligament space (PDL-space) of a human bone-PDL-tooth fibrous joint by mapping structural, biochemical, and mechanical heterogeneity. Higher resolution structural characterization was achieved via complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano-transmission X-ray microscopy (nano-TXM), and microtomography (MicroXCT™). Structural heterogeneity was correlated to biochemical and elemental composition, illustrated via histochemistry and microprobe X-ray fluorescence analysis (?-XRF), and mechanical heterogeneity evaluated by AFM-based nanoindentation. Results demonstrated that the narrowed PDL-space was due to invasion of bundle bone (BB) into PDL-space. Protruded BB had a wider range with higher elastic modulus values (2-8GPa) compared to lamellar bone (0.8-6GPa), and increased quantities of Ca, P and Zn as revealed by ?-XRF. Interestingly, the hygroscopic 10-30?m interface between protruded BB and lamellar bone exhibited higher X-ray attenuation similar to cement lines and lamellae within bone. Localization of the small leucine rich proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) responsible for mineralization was observed at the PDL-bone interface and around the osteocyte lacunae. Based on these results, it can be argued that the LB-BB interface was the original site of PDL attachment, and that the genesis of protruded BB identified as protrusions occurred as a result of shift in strain. We emphasize the importance of bony protrusions within the context of organ function and that additional study is warranted. PMID:24063947

Ho, Sunita P; Kurylo, Michael P; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hurng, Jonathan; Herber, Ralf-Peter; Ryder, Mark I; Altoe, Virginia; Aloni, Shaul; Feng, Jian Q; Webb, Samuel; Marshall, Grayson W; Curtis, Donald; Andrews, Joy C; Pianetta, Piero

2013-12-01

83

Intraseptal vs. periodontal ligament anaesthesia for maxillary tooth extraction: quality of local anaesthesia and haemodynamic response.  

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There is no data concerning the use of the intraseptal anaesthesia (ISA) for single tooth extraction. The aims of this study were to compare the clinical efficacy and haemodynamic responses of the ISA with the periodontal ligament anaesthesia (PLA) for single tooth extraction. Thirty-five randomly selected healthy patients (ASA I) undergoing maxillary lateral incisors extraction entered the study. Onset of anaesthesia, the width of the anaesthetic field and duration of anaesthesia were recorded by pinprick testing. Intensity of anaesthesia was evaluated on a visual analogue scale. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded simultaneously at different time points after anaesthesia injection. The two techniques of local anaesthesia did not show statistically significant differences regarding the success rate and onset of anaesthesia, while the duration of the ISA on the buccal site was significantly longer in comparison with the PLA. The intensity of the achieved anaesthesia, estimated by the experienced pain during procedure, pointed out that pain was recorded in 24% of cases in the ISA group, and in 19% in the PLA group without significant differences. Postoperative pain was found to be smaller in the ISA group (70.9% of treated sites) than in the PLA group (81.3% of treated sites); however, this difference was not significant. Although the heart rate increased in both groups, there were no significant differences in the patients' haemodynamic response between the ISA and the PLA. The results of the present study indicate that both techniques are useful and suitable for the routine tooth extraction. PMID:19902278

Brkovic, Bozidar M B; Savic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Jurisic, Milan; Todorovic, Ljubomir

2010-12-01

84

NOD1 and NOD2 stimulation triggers innate immune responses of human periodontal ligament cells.  

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Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are cytosolic sensors for microbial molecules. ?ucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)1 and NOD2 recognize the peptidoglycan derivatives, meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP), respectively, and trigger host innate immune responses. In the present study, we examined the function of NOD1 and NOD2 on innate immune responses in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. The gene expression of NOD1 and NOD2 was examined by RT-PCR. IL-6 and IL-8 production in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the activation of NF-?B and MAPK in response to Tri-DAP and MDP. The genes of NOD1 and NOD2 appeared to be expressed in PDL cells. Although the levels of NOD2 expression were weak in intact cells, MDP stimulation increased the gene expression of NOD2 in PDL cells. Tri-DAP and MDP led to the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and the activation of NF-?B and MAPK in PDL cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation led to increased gene expression of NOD1 and NOD2 in PDL cells. Pam3CSK4 (a TLR2 agonist) and IFN-? synergized with Tri-DAP and MDP to produce IL-8 and IL-6 in PDL cells. Our results indicate that NOD1 and NOD2 are functionally expressed in human PDL cells and can trigger innate immune responses. PMID:22218461

Jeon, Do-In; Park, Se-Ra; Ahn, Mee-Young; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Park, Jong-Hwan; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

2012-04-01

85

Experiment and hydro-mechanical coupling simulation study on the human periodontal ligament.  

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In this paper, a new method involving an experiment in vivo and hydro-mechanical coupling simulations was proposed to investigate the biomechanical property of human periodontal ligament (PDL). Teeth were loaded and their displacements were measured in vivo. The finite element model of the experiment was built and hydro-mechanical coupling simulations were conducted to test some PDL's constitutive models. In the simulations, the linear elastic model, the hyperfoam model, and the Ogden model were assumed for the solid phase of the PDL coupled with a model of the fluid phase of the PDL. The displacements of the teeth derived from the simulations were compared with the experimental data to validate these constitutive models. The study shows that a proposed constitutive model of the PDL can be reliably tested by this method. Furthermore, the influence of species, areas, and the fluid volume ratio on PDL's mechanical property should be considered in the modeling and simulation of the mechanical property of the PDL. PMID:24440132

Wei, Zhigang; Yu, Xiaoliu; Xu, Xiangrong; Chen, Xinyuan

2014-03-01

86

Biological behavior of neurally differentiated periodontal ligament stem cells on different titanium implant surfaces.  

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We investigated the biological behavior of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) induced to differentiate into Schwann cells (SCs) on the surfaces of titanium discs. Two types of titanium surfaces, sand blasted and acid etched (SA) and smooth polished, were prepared on titanium discs, and the behavior of SC-like cells on these discs was investigated. Cell morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and cell proliferation was assessed using assays for methylthiazol tetrazolium metabolism and total protein content. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses were used to determine the gene and protein expression, respectively, of SC markers by PDLSCs. Differentiated PDLSCs could adhere, proliferate, differentiate, and express SC marker genes and proteins on the prepared titanium surfaces, and the highest levels of SC marker protein expression were observed in PDLSCs on SA titanium surfaces. SA titanium surfaces show good biocompatibility for the SC-like cells, which is important for the application of these cells in peri-implant nerve tissue engineering, through which they are expected to improve the osseoperception of dental implants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2805-2812, 2014. PMID:24124075

Xiaojie, Li; Dapeng, Liao; Ping, Gong; Yan, Dong; Gang, Sun

2014-08-01

87

Neurogenesis of neural crest-derived periodontal ligament stem cells by EGF and bFGF.  

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Neuroregenerative medicine is an ever-growing field in which regeneration of lost cells/tissues due to a neurodegenerative disease is the ultimate goal. With the scarcity of available replacement alternatives, stem cells provide an attractive source for regenerating neural tissue. While many stem cell sources exist, including: mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells, the limited cellular potency, technical difficulties, and ethical considerations associated with these make finding alternate sources a desirable goal. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) derived from the neural crest were induced into neural-like cells using a combination of epidermal growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Morphological changes were evident in our treated group, seen under both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A statistically significant increase in the expression of neuron-specific ?-tubulin III and the neural stem/progenitor cell marker nestin, along with positive immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein, demonstrated the success of our treatment in inducing both neuronal and glial phenotypes. Positive staining for synaptophysin demonstrated neural connections and electrophysiological recordings indicated that when subjected to whole-cell patch clamping, our treated cells displayed inward currents conducted through voltage-gated sodium (Na(+) ) channels. Taken together, our results indicate the success of our treatment in inducing PDLSCs to neural-like cells. The ease of sourcing and expansion, their embryologic neural crest origin, and the lack of ethical implications in their use make PDLSCs an attractive source for use in neuroregenerative medicine. PMID:24105823

Fortino, Veronica R; Chen, Ren-Shiang; Pelaez, Daniel; Cheung, Herman S

2014-04-01

88

Nuclear morphometric analysis of osteoblast precursor cells in periodontal ligament, SL-3 rats  

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Five small (55 days old, 196 +/- 5 g) (mean +/- SE) and five large (83 days old, 382 +/- 4 g) Sprague-Dawley strain, specific pathogen-free rats were exposed to a 7-day spaceflight and 12-h postflight recovery period. As measured in 3-micron sections, periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblastlike cells were classified according to nuclear size: A + A' (40-79), B (80-119), C (120-169), and D (greater than or equal to 170 microns 3). Since the histogenesis sequence is A----A'----C----D----osteoblast, the relative incidence of A + A' to C + D is an osteogenic index. No difference in A + A' or C + D cells in small rats may reflect partial recovery of preosteoblast formation (A----C) during the 12-h postflight period. Large flight rats demonstrated increased numbers of A + A', indicating an inhibition of preosteoblast formation (A----C). At least in the older group, a 7-day flight is adequate to reduce PDL osteogenic potential (inhibition in PDL osteoblast differentiation and/or specific attrition of C + D cells) that does not recover by 12-h postflight.

Roberts, W. E.; Fielder, P. J.; Rosenoer, L. M.; Maese, A. C.; Gonsalves, M. R.; Morey, E. R.; Morey-Holton, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

1987-01-01

89

The Biomechanical Function of Periodontal Ligament Fibres in Orthodontic Tooth Movement  

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Orthodontic tooth movement occurs as a result of resorption and formation of the alveolar bone due to an applied load, but the stimulus responsible for triggering orthodontic tooth movement remains the subject of debate. It has been suggested that the periodontal ligament (PDL) plays a key role. However, the mechanical function of the PDL in orthodontic tooth movement is not well understood as most mechanical models of the PDL to date have ignored the fibrous structure of the PDL. In this study we use finite element (FE) analysis to investigate the strains in the alveolar bone due to occlusal and orthodontic loads when PDL is modelled as a fibrous structure as compared to modelling PDL as a layer of solid material. The results show that the tension-only nature of the fibres essentially suspends the tooth in the tooth socket and their inclusion in FE models makes a significant difference to both the magnitude and distribution of strains produced in the surrounding bone. The results indicate that the PDL fibres have a very important role in load transfer between the teeth and alveolar bone and should be considered in FE studies investigating the biomechanics of orthodontic tooth movement.

McCormack, Steven W.; Witzel, Ulrich; Watson, Peter J.; Fagan, Michael J.; Groning, Flora

2014-01-01

90

Mechanical Strength and Viscoelastic Response of the Periodontal Ligament in Relation to Structure  

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Full Text Available The mechanical strength of the periodontal ligament (PDL was first measured as force required to extract a tooth from its socket using human specimens. Thereafter, tooth-PDL-bone preparations have extensively been used for measurement of the mechanical response of the PDL. In vitro treatments of such specimens with specific enzymes allowed one to investigate into the roles of the structural components in the mechanical support of the PDL. The viscoelastic responses of the PDL may be examined by analysis of the stress-relaxation. Video polarised microscopy suggested that the collagen molecules and fibrils in the stretched fibre bundles progressively align along the deformation direction during the relaxation. The stress-relaxation process of the PDL can be well expressed by a function with three exponential decay terms. Analysis after in vitro digestion of the collagen fibres by collagenase revealed that the collagen fibre components may play an important role in the long-term relaxation component of the stress-relaxation process of the PDL. The dynamic measurements of the viscoelastic properties of the PDL have recently suggested that the PDL can absorb more energy in compression than in shear and tension. These viscoelastic mechanisms of the PDL tissue could reduce the risk of injury to the PDL.

Koichiro Komatsu

2010-01-01

91

Effect of storage in media with different ion strengths and osmolalities on human periodontal ligament cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is critical for a successful healing of replanted exarticulated teeth. It is mainly dependent on the duration of the extra-alveolar time and the storage medium. Saliva has usually been recommended as the most suitable storage medium, but recent experimental studies indicate that milk is preferable. In the present study the effect on cultured PDL cells of saliva and milk has been compared with some reference media such as tap water or saline by means of a "3H-uridine leakage test. Storage in milk or saline was found to cause much less "3H-uridine leakage than storage in saliva or tap water. Cells stored in milk for 60-180 min showed about the same leakage as cells stored in saline or Hanks' balanced salt solution. Osmolality measurements showed that saliva was hypotonic, while the osmolality of milk ranged within physiological limits. When the osmolality of saliva was increased by addition of NaCl the leakage of the stored cells decreased to the level of cells stored in 0.9% NaCl or milk. (author)

1981-01-01

92

Modificações no periodonto de ratos diabéticos após a movimentação ortodôntica / Periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement in diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as modificações do ligamento periodontal de incisivos de ratos diabéticos submetidos a forças ortodônticas. MÉTODOS: vinte ratos machos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) com 105 dias de idade foram empregados. Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: C - a [...] nimais normoglicêmicos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; CAO - animais normoglicêmicos submetidos à movimentação dentária; D - animais diabéticos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; DAO - animais diabéticos submetidos à movimentação dentária. Os animais permaneceram com o dispositivo de movimentação dentária por 5 dias. Foram avaliados o número de vasos sangüíneos e a espessura do ligamento periodontal nos terços cervical, médio e apical dos cortes histológicos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: no lado de tensão, a movimentação dentária nos animais do grupo CAO resultou em um ligamento periodontal mais espesso (17,64% no terço apical, 39,28% no terço médio e 51,35% na região cervical), quando comparado ao grupo C (p 0,05). Ainda no lado de tensão, foram observadas lacunas de reabsorção nos animais dos grupos CAO, D e DAO. O lado de pressão não foi examinado nesta fase do estudo. Abstract in english AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement of the upper incisor in diabetic rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) with 105 days of age were used. The rats were divided in four groups: C - normoglicemic animals not submitt [...] ed to dental movement; CAO - normoglicemic animals submitted to dental movement; D - diabetic animals not submitted the dental movement; DAO - diabetic animals submitted to dental movement. The animals had remained with dental movement devices during 5 days. The number of sanguine vessels and the thickness of the periodontal ligament were evaluated at cervical, medium and apical histological cut regions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At tension side, the dental movement in the animals of group CAO resulted in a thicker periodontal ligament (17.64% apical, 39.28% medium, 51.35% cervical) when compared to C group (p

Luis Alberto Sabino Vila, Real; Adilson Luiz, Ramos; Jacqueline Nelisis, Zanoni.

93

Gene-enhanced tissue engineering for dental hard tissue regeneration: (2) dentin-pulp and periodontal regeneration  

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Abstract Potential applications for gene-based tissue engineering therapies in the oral and maxillofacial complex include the delivery of growth factors for periodontal regeneration, pulp capping/dentin regeneration, and bone grafting of large osseous defects in dental and craniofacial reconstruction. Part 1 reviewed the principals of gene-enhanced tissue engineering and the techniques of introducing DNA into cells. This manuscript will review recent advances in gene-based th...

Edwards Paul C; Mason James M

2006-01-01

94

Expresión de la osteocalcina en el ligamento periodontal al inducir fuerzas ortodóncicas / Osteocalcin expression in periodontal ligament when inducing orthodontic forces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La osteocalcina es una proteína no colágena presente en hueso alveolar, cemento radicular y subpoblaciones del ligamento periodontal. Esta proteína juega un papel importante en la biomineralización y en la matriz extracelular regulando la maduración de los cristales de hidroxiapatita y en el recluta [...] miento de los osteoclastos participando en la remodelación ósea. La remodelación y la nueva formación de tejido periodontal es parte esencial durante los movimientos ortodóncicos, los cuales al aplicar fuerzas causan tensión en las células provocando una adaptación que se traduce en respuestas celulares y moleculares que pueden afectar la matriz extracelular. Por ello, el propósito de esta investigación fue determinar la expresión de la osteocalcina asociada a la remodelación periodontal cuando se aplican fuerzas ortodóncicas. En primeros premolares superiores e inferiores se colocó aparatología fija prescripción Roth 0.022 con un arco NiTi 0.016, la cual se aplicó a todos los dientes de ambas arcadas con excepción de los premolares superiores e inferiores izquierdos. Los premolares sin aparatología (t = 0) y en presencia de aparatología para inducir movimientos ortodóncicos durante 1, 3, 5, 7 y 9 días; fueron extraídos para analizar la expresión de la osteocalcina en la matriz extracelular del ligamento periodontal. Para determinar la expresión temporal y espacial de los mensajeros de la osteocalcina en el ligamento periodontal se llevó a cabo la técnica RT-PCR. La expresión de la osteocalcina en el grupo experimental estuvo presente en todos los días de prueba, sugiriendo que los movimientos ortodónticos generan cambios que son susceptibles en las concentraciones del mensajero de la proteína osteocalcina. Abstract in english Osteocalcin is a non-collagenous protein located in alveolar bone, root cementum and subpopulations of periodontal ligament cells. This protein plays an important role in the biomineralization process and in the extra-cellular matrix, regulating maturation of hydroxyapatite and osteoclast recruitmen [...] t which participate in bone remodeling. Periodontal tissue new formation and remodeling is a vital part of the process during orthodontic movements. These movements, when force is exerted, cause tension in the cells, provoking adaptation which results in molecular and cellular responses which, in turn, can affect the extracellular matrix. Due to the aforementioned facts, the aim of the present research was to determine osteocalcin expression associated to periodontal remodeling when orthodontic forces are applied. Roth 0.022 " fixed brackets with a NiTi 0.016" archwire were applied to first upper and lower bicuspids. This was applied to all teeth of both arches except to left lower and upper bicuspids. Bicuspids without brackets (t = 0) as well as with brackets to elicit orthodontic movements during 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days were extracted to assess osteocalcin expression in the extra-cellular matrix of the periodontal ligament. The RT-PCR technique was followed to determine temporal and spatial expression of osteocalcin messengers. Osteocalcin expression in the experimental group was present in all test days, suggesting thus the fact that orthodontic movements elicit changes that are susceptible in osteocalcin protein messenger concentrations.

Maritere, Villarreal Brito; Marco Antonio, Álvarez Pérez; Francisco Javier, Marichi Rodríguez.

95

Hydro-mechanical coupling in the periodontal ligament: a porohyperelastic finite element model.  

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Harmonic tension-compression tests at 0.1, 0.5 and 1 Hz on hydrated bovine periodontal ligament (PDL) were numerically simulated. The process was modeled by finite elements (FE) within the framework of poromechanics, with the objective of isolating the contributions of the solid- and fluid phases. The solid matrix was modeled as a porous hyperelastic material (hyperfoam) through which the incompressible fluid filling the pores flowed in accordance with the Darcy's law. The hydro-mechanical coupling between the porous solid matrix and the fluid phase circulating through it provided an apparent time-dependent response to the PDL, whose rate of deformation depended on the permeability of the porous solid with respect to the interstitial fluid. Since the PDL was subjected to significant deformations, finite strains were taken into account and an exponential dependence of PDL permeability on void ratio - and therefore on the deformation state - was assumed. PDL constitutive parameters were identified by fitting the simulated response to the experimental data for the tests at 1 Hz. The values thus obtained were then used to simulate the tests at 0.1 and 0.5 Hz. The results of the present simulation demonstrate that a porohyperelastic model with variable permeability is able to describe the two main aspects of the PDL's response: (1) the dependency on strain-rate-the saturated material can develop volumetric strains by only exchanging fluid and (2) the asymmetry between tension and compression, which is due to the effect of both the permeability and the elastic properties on deformation. PMID:20825940

Bergomi, Marzio; Cugnoni, Joël; Galli, Matteo; Botsis, John; Belser, Urs C; Wiskott, H W Anselm

2011-01-01

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Comparative gene expression analysis of the human periodontal ligament in deciduous and permanent teeth.  

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There are histological and functional differences between human deciduous and permanent periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between these two types of tissue at the molecular level by comparing their gene expression patterns. PDL samples were obtained from permanent premolars (n = 38) and anterior deciduous teeth (n = 31) extracted from 40 healthy persons. Comparative cDNA microarray analysis revealed several differences in gene expression between the deciduous and permanent PDL tissues. These findings were verified by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis, and the areas where genes are expressed were revealed by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of 21 genes were up-regulated in deciduous relative to PDL tissues, and those of 30 genes were up-regulated in permanent relative to deciduous PDL tissues. The genes that were up-regulated in deciduous PDL tissues were those involved in the formation of the extracellular matrix (LAMC2, LAMB3, and COMP), tissue development (IGF2BP, MAB21L2, and PAX3), and inflammatory or immune reactions leading to tissue degradation (IL1A, CCL21, and CCL18). The up-regulated genes in permanent PDL tissues were related to tissue degradation (IL6 and ADAMTS18), myocontraction (PDE3B, CASQ2, and MYH10), and neurological responses (FOS, NCAM2, SYT1, SLC22A3, DOCK3, LRRTM1, LRRTM3, PRSS12, and ARPP21). The analysis of differential gene expressions between deciduous and permanent PDL tissues aids our understanding of histological and functional differences between them at the molecular level. PMID:23593441

Song, Je Seon; Hwang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Seong-Oh; Jeon, Mijeong; Choi, Byung-Jai; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok Jun; Park, Wonse; Choi, Hyung-Jun

2013-01-01

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Altered distribution of extracellular matrix proteins in the periodontal ligament of periostin-deficient mice.  

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Verifying whether periostin affects the distribution of type I collagen, fibronectin and tenascin C in the periodontal ligament (PDL) is important to contribute to a more thorough understanding of that protein's functions. In this study, we have histologically examined incisor PDL of mandibles in 20 week-old male wild-type and periostin-deficient (periostin-/-) mice, by means of type I collagen, fibronectin, tenascin C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP)-1 and F4/80-positive monocyte/macrophage immunostaining, transmission electron microscopy and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation. Wild-type PDL featured well-arranged layers of collagen bundles intertwined with PDL cells, whose longitudinal axis ran parallel to the collagen fibers. However, cells in the periostin-/- PDL were irregularly distributed among collagen fibrils, which were also haphazardly arranged. Type I collagen and fibronectin reactivity was seen throughout the wild-type PDL, while in the periostin-/- PDL, only focal, uneven staining for these proteins could be seen. Similarly, tenascin C staining was evenly distributed in the wild-type PDL, but hardly seen in the periostin-/- PDL. MMP-1 immunoreactivity was uniformly distributed in the wild-type PDL, but only dotted staining could be discerned in the periostin-/- PDL. F4/80-positive monocyte/macrophages were found midway between tooth- and bone-related regions in the wild-type PDL, a pattern that could not be observed in the periostin-/- PDL. In summary, periostin deficiency may not only cause PDL collagen fibril disorganization, but could also affect the distribution of other major extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and tenascin C. PMID:24352874

Tabata, Chihiro; Hongo, Hiromi; Sasaki, Muneteru; Hasegawa, Tomoka; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Suzuki, Reiko; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Oda, Kimimitsu; Li, Minqi; Kudo, Akira; Iida, Junichiro; Amizuka, Norio

2014-06-01

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Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate  

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Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry.

Saeki, Katsura; Shiono, Yasuhiro; Maki, Kenshi

2014-01-01

99

Acute changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local clearance of /sup 125/I from the periodontal ligament  

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Changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local /sup 125/I clearance from the periodontal ligament (PDL) were monitored simultaneously in cats. Axial tooth movements, reflecting periodontal ligament volume changes, were measured with an ultrasonic transit time technique. Local blood flow changes in the PDL were studied indirectly by measuring the local clearance of /sup 125/I. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk caused an intrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant reduction of the /sup 125/I-clearance. Infusion of noradrenaline induced a similar respone. Stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve during systemic treatment with phentolamine caused an extrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant increase in the clearance of the tracer from the PDL. Intra-arterial infusion of the vasodilator substance P mimicked that response. Fization of the tooth to the jaw bone, thus preventing an intrusive movement, did not change the reductions in clearance seen on sympathetic stimulation, indicating that this blood flow reduction was not dependent on tooth movement. A qualitative relation between PDL blood flow (as measured by local /sup 125/I clearance) and PDL volume (as measured by tooth position) in shown. The two variables measured are suggested to reflect two aspects of blood flow in the PDL. 22 refs.

Edwall, B.; Berg, J.O.; Gazelius, B.; Edwall L.; Aars, H.

1987-01-01

100

Acute changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local clearance of 125I from the periodontal ligament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local 125I clearance from the periodontal ligament (PDL) were monitored simultaneously in cats. Axial tooth movements, reflecting periodontal ligament volume changes, were measured with an ultrasonic transit time technique. Local blood flow changes in the PDL were studied indirectly by measuring the local clearance of 125I. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk caused an intrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant reduction of the 125I-clearance. Infusion of noradrenaline induced a similar respone. Stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve during systemic treatment with phentolamine caused an extrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant increase in the clearance of the tracer from the PDL. Intra-arterial infusion of the vasodilator substance P mimicked that response. Fization of the tooth to the jaw bone, thus preventing an intrusive movement, did not change the reductions in clearance seen on sympathetic stimulation, indicating that this blood flow reduction was not dependent on tooth movement. A qualitative relation between PDL blood flow (as measured by local 125I clearance) and PDL volume (as measured by tooth position) in shown. The two variables measured are suggested to reflect two aspects of blood flow in the PDL

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Stem cells, tissue engineering and periodontal regeneration.  

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The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical utility of stem cells in periodontal regeneration by reviewing relevant literature that assesses the periodontal-regenerative potential of stem cells. We consider and describe the main stem cell populations that have been utilized with regard to periodontal regeneration, including bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and the main dental-derived mesenchymal stem cell populations: periodontal ligament stem cells, dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla and dental follicle precursor cells. Research into the use of stem cells for tissue regeneration has the potential to significantly influence periodontal treatment strategies in the future. PMID:24111843

Han, J; Menicanin, D; Gronthos, S; Bartold, Pm

2014-06-01

102

Establishment of immortalized periodontal ligament progenitor cell line and its behavioural analysis on smooth and rough titanium surface  

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Full Text Available Periodontal ligament (PDL can be obtained from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. PDL contains progenitor cells that can be expanded and differentiated towards several mesenchymal lineages in vitro. Furthermore, PDL-derived cells have been shown to generate bone- and PDL-like structures in vivo. Thus, PDL cells, combined with suitable biomaterials, represent a promising tool for periodontitis-related research and PDL engineering.Here, a new PDL cell line using lentiviral gene transfer of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT was created. HTERT-expressing PDL cells showed similar morphology and population doubling time but an extended lifespan compared to the primary cells. In addition, PDL-hTERT cells expressed several characteristic genes and upon osteogenic stimulation produced a calcified matrix in vitro. When cultivated on two topographically different titanium scaffolds (MA and SLA, PDL-hTERT cells exhibited augmented spreading, survival and differentiation on smooth (MA compared to rough (SLA surfaces. These findings differ from previously reported osteoblast behaviour, but they are in agreement with the behaviour of chondrocytes and gingival fibroblasts, suggesting a very cell type-specific response to different surface textures.In summary, we report the testing of titanium biomaterials using a new PDL-hTERT cell line and propose this cell line as a useful model system for periodontitis research and development of novel strategies for PDL engineering.

D Docheva

2010-05-01

103

Establishment of immortalized periodontal ligament progenitor cell line and its behavioural analysis on smooth and rough titanium surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal ligament (PDL) can be obtained from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. PDL contains progenitor cells that can be expanded and differentiated towards several mesenchymal lineages in vitro. Furthermore, PDL-derived cells have been shown to generate bone- and PDL-like structures in vivo. Thus, PDL cells, combined with suitable biomaterials, represent a promising tool for periodontitis-related research and PDL engineering. Here, a new PDL cell line using lentiviral gene transfer of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) was created. HTERT-expressing PDL cells showed similar morphology and population doubling time but an extended lifespan compared to the primary cells. In addition, PDL-hTERT cells expressed several characteristic genes and upon osteogenic stimulation produced a calcified matrix in vitro. When cultivated on two topographically different titanium scaffolds (MA and SLA), PDL-hTERT cells exhibited augmented spreading, survival and differentiation on smooth (MA) compared to rough (SLA) surfaces. These findings differ from previously reported osteoblast behaviour, but they are in agreement with the behaviour of chondrocytes and gingival fibroblasts, suggesting a very cell type-specific response to different surface textures. In summary, we report the testing of titanium biomaterials using a new PDL-hTERT cell line and propose this cell line as a useful model system for periodontitis research and development of novel strategies for PDL engineering. PMID:20473831

Docheva, D; Padula, D; Popov, C; Weishaupt, P; Prägert, M; Miosge, N; Hickel, R; Böcker, W; Clausen-Schaumann, H; Schieker, M

2010-01-01

104

Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement  

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Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the expression of MT1-MMPand of the osteoclast marker Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP in a model of tooth migration in rats. Tooth migration was induced after the insertion of a rubber band between the upper incisors. The distribution of TRAP and MT1 -MMP was evaluated by means of cytochemistry and immunohistochemistry respectively at days 1, 3, 5 and 7. TRAP production was identified in osteoclasts at the area of compression of the periodontal ligament. MT1-MMP distribution was observed in fibroblastsatthe compressed area of the periodontal ligament and also in osteoclasts of the same region. Our findings allow us to propose that MT1-MMP and TRAP take part of the tissue remodeling events observed during tooth movement.

P Rey Droghetti

2010-12-01

105

Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria / Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración de [...] ntaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP) en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria. Abstract in english Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachm [...] ent. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the expression of MT1-MMPand of the osteoclast marker Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) in a model of tooth migration in rats. Tooth migration was induced after the insertion of a rubber band between the upper incisors. The distribution of TRAP and MT1 -MMP was evaluated by means of cytochemistry and immunohistochemistry respectively at days 1, 3, 5 and 7. TRAP production was identified in osteoclasts at the area of compression of the periodontal ligament. MT1-MMP distribution was observed in fibroblastsatthe compressed area of the periodontal ligament and also in osteoclasts of the same region. Our findings allow us to propose that MT1-MMP and TRAP take part of the tissue remodeling events observed during tooth movement.

P, Rey Droghetti; F, Cruzat; P, Smith Ferrer; A, Oyarzún Droguett.

106

Both 25-Hydroxyvitamin-D3 and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 Reduces Inflammatory Response in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells  

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Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease leading to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Vitamin D3 is an important hormone involved in the preservation of serum calcium and phosphate levels, regulation of bone metabolism and inflammatory response. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D3 metabolism might play a role in the progression of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 25(OH)D3, which is stable form of vitamin D3 in blood, and biologically active form 1,25(OH)2D3 on the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by cells of periodontal ligament. Commercially available human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPdLF) and primary human periodontal ligament cells (hPdLC) were used. Cells were stimulated with either Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or heat-killed P. ginigvalis in the presence or in the absence of 25(OH)D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3 at concentrations of 10–100 nM. Stimulation of cells with either P. gingivalis LPS or heat-killed P. gingivalis resulted in a significant increase of the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in gene as well as in protein levels, measured by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. The production of these pro-inflammatory mediators in hPdLF was significantly inhibited by both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 in a dose-dependent manner. In primary hPdLCs, both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the production of IL-8 and MCP-1 but have no significant effect on the IL-6 production. The effect of both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 was abolished by specific knockdown of vitamin D3 receptor by siRNA. Our data suggest that vitamin D3 might play an important role in the modulation of periodontal inflammation via regulation of cytokine production by cells of periodontal ligament. Further studies are required for better understanding of the extents of this anti-inflammatory effect and its involvement in the progression of periodontal disease.

Andrukhov, Oleh; Andrukhova, Olena; Hulan, Ulamnemekh; Tang, Yan; Bantleon, Hans-Peter; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

2014-01-01

107

Both 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 reduces inflammatory response in human periodontal ligament cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease leading to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Vitamin D3 is an important hormone involved in the preservation of serum calcium and phosphate levels, regulation of bone metabolism and inflammatory response. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D3 metabolism might play a role in the progression of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 25(OH)D3, which is stable form of vitamin D3 in blood, and biologically active form 1,25(OH)2D3 on the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by cells of periodontal ligament. Commercially available human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPdLF) and primary human periodontal ligament cells (hPdLC) were used. Cells were stimulated with either Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or heat-killed P. ginigvalis in the presence or in the absence of 25(OH)D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3 at concentrations of 10-100 nM. Stimulation of cells with either P. gingivalis LPS or heat-killed P. gingivalis resulted in a significant increase of the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in gene as well as in protein levels, measured by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. The production of these pro-inflammatory mediators in hPdLF was significantly inhibited by both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 in a dose-dependent manner. In primary hPdLCs, both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the production of IL-8 and MCP-1 but have no significant effect on the IL-6 production. The effect of both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 was abolished by specific knockdown of vitamin D3 receptor by siRNA. Our data suggest that vitamin D3 might play an important role in the modulation of periodontal inflammation via regulation of cytokine production by cells of periodontal ligament. Further studies are required for better understanding of the extents of this anti-inflammatory effect and its involvement in the progression of periodontal disease. PMID:24587317

Andrukhov, Oleh; Andrukhova, Olena; Hulan, Ulamnemekh; Tang, Yan; Bantleon, Hans-Peter; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

2014-01-01

108

Effect of the simulated periodontal ligament on cast post-and-core removal using an ultrasonic device  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simulated periodontal ligament (SPDL) on custom cast dowel and core removal by ultrasonic vibration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two human maxillary canines were included in resin cylinders with or without SPDL made from polyet [...] her impression material. In order to allow tensile testing, the roots included in resin cylinders with SPDL were fixed to cylinders with two stainless steel wires. Post-holes were prepared by standardizing the length at 8 mm and root canal impressions were made with self-cured resin acrylic. Cast dowel and core sets were fabricated and luted with Panavia F resin cement. Half of the samples were submitted to ultrasonic vibration before the tensile test. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (p

Manoel, Brito-Junior; Neilor Mateus Antunes, Braga; Danilo Costa, Rodrigues; Carla Cristina, Camilo; André Luis, Faria-e-Silva.

109

Erk1/2 signalling is involved in the differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells to Schwann cells in dog.  

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Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) show a multi-differentiation potential, however, the mechanism of its neural differentiation is still unclear. We aim to explore the potential role of Erk1/2 signalling pathway in the differentiation of PDLSCs to Schwann cells (SCs). When PDLSCs were induced to differentiate to SCs, the cells were treated with U0126, an Erk1/2 pathway specific inhibitor, and its potential effect on SC differentiation was appraised using Western-blotting, immunostaining, and reverse transcriptase PCR. Specifically inhibiting the Erk1/2 signalling pathway reduced the expression of SC-specific marker genes, S100, GFAP, and P75 and SC differentiation regulators, krox-20, Oct-6, and P0 in the cells undergoing induced differentiation from PDLSCs. From these results, we conclude that the Erk1/2 signalling pathway is involved in the induced differentiation of PDLSCs to SCs. PMID:24631630

Dapeng, Liao; Xiaojie, Li; Ping, Gong; Yan, Dong; Gang, Sun

2014-05-01

110

Effects of hydroxyapatite nanostructure on channel surface of porcine acellular dermal matrix scaffold on cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells  

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Full Text Available Shaohua Ge,1 Ning Zhao,1 Lu Wang,1 Hong Liu,2 Pishan Yang11Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Department of Periodontology, Shandong University; 2State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: A new nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated porcine acellular dermal matrix (HAp-PADM was fabricated by a biomimetic mineralization method. Human periodontal ligament stem cells were seeded on HAp-PADM and the effects of this scaffold on cell shape, cytoskeleton organization, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation were examined. Periodontal ligament stem cells cultured on HAp-PADM exhibited different cell shape when compared with those on pure PADM. Moreover, HAp-PADM promoted cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity significantly. Based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the expression of bone-related markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, osteopontin (OPN, and osteocalcin (OCN upregulated in the HAp-PADM scaffold. The enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells on the HAp-PADM scaffold was proposed based on the research results. The results of this study highlight the micro-nano, two-level, three-dimensional HAp-PADM composite as a promising scaffold for periodontal tissue engineering.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, scaffold, nanostructure, proliferation, differentiation, tissue engineering

Ge S

2013-05-01

111

The potential role of transient receptor potential type A1 as a mechanoreceptor in human periodontal ligament cells.  

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Transient receptor potential type A1 (TRPA1) is reported to be a Ca(2+) -permeable channel and is activated by cold temperatures and mechanical stimuli in the hair cells and in dorsal root ganglion. Using a DNA microarray, we found that TRPA1 was significantly up-regulated in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells 2 d after intermittent mechanical stimulation (iMS) loading compared with unloaded cells. Although hPDL cells are known to respond to mechanical stimulation induced by occlusal force, little is known about the expression and functional role of TRPA1 in these cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of iMS on TRPA1 expression and its signaling pathway in hPDL cells. Intermittent mechanical stimulation loading up-regulated TRPA1 expression in hPDL cells in a time-dependent manner, but had no effect on other mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, iMS significantly increased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, and the expression of C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). Transient receptor potential type A1 agonists also increased MAPK phosphorylation and the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. By contrast, inhibition or silencing of TRPA1 partially suppressed iMS-induced MAPK phosphorylation. In summary, iMS during occlusion activates TRPA1 and MAPK signaling in periodontal ligament tissues, suggesting that TRPA1 regulates the mechanosensitivity of occlusal force via activation of MAPKs in hPDL cells. PMID:24206072

Tsutsumi, Takashi; Kajiya, Hiroshi; Fukawa, Teruhisa; Sasaki, Mina; Nemoto, Tetsuomi; Tsuzuki, Takashi; Takahashi, Yutaka; Fujii, Shinsuke; Maeda, Hidefumi; Okabe, Koji

2013-12-01

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Isolation and characterization of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from the gingiva and the periodontal ligament of the horse  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine periodontium provides tooth support and lifelong tooth eruption on a remarkable scale. These functions require continuous tissue remodeling. It is assumed that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC reside in the periodontal ligament (PDL and play a crucial role in regulating physiological periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize equine periodontal MSC. Tissue samples were obtained from four healthy horses. Primary cell populations were har-vested and cultured from the gingiva, from three horizontal levels of the PDL (apical, midtooth and subgingival and for comparison purposes from the subcutis (masseteric region. Colony-forming cells were grown on uncoated culture dishes and typical in vitro characteristics of non-human MSC, i.e. self-renewal capacity, population doubling time, expression of stemness markers and trilineage differentiation were analyzed. Results Colony-forming cell populations from all locations showed expression of the stemness markers CD90 and CD105. In vitro self-renewal capacity was demonstrated by colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F assays. CFU-efficiency was highest in cell populations from the apical and from the mid-tooth PDL. Population doubling time was highest in subcutaneous cells. All investigated cell populations possessed trilineage differentiation potential into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Conclusions Due to the demonstrated in vitro characteristics cells were referred to as equine subcutaneous MSC (eSc-MSC, equine gingival MSC (eG-MSC and equine periodontal MSC (eP-MSC. According to different PDL levels, eP-MSC were further specified as eP-MSC from the apical PDL (eP-MSCap, eP-MSC from the mid-tooth PDL (eP-MSCm and eP-MSC from the subgingival PDL (eP-MSCsg. Considering current concepts of cell-based regenerative therapies in horses, eP-MSC might be promising candidates for future clinical applications in equine orthopedic and periodontal diseases.

Pfarrer Christiane

2011-08-01

113

Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior  

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Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation thus may benefit in vitro PDLC expansion. The aim was to evaluate the effect of STRO-1 cell sorting and Wnt3a treatment on cell behavior of human PDLCs (hPDLCs). Materials and Methods. STRO-1 positive hPDLCs were sorted and the sorted cells were expanded and compared with their unsorted parental cells. Thereafter, hPDLCs were treated with or without Wnt3a and the cell proliferation, self-renewal, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Results. No differences were measured between the expanded STRO-1-sorted cells and unsorted parental cells in terms of proliferation, CFU, and mineralization capacity. Wnt3a enhanced the proliferation and self-renewal ability of hPDLCs significantly as displayed by higher DNA content values, a shorter cell population doubling time, and higher expression of the self-renewal gene Oct4. Moreover, Wnt3a promoted the expansion of hPDLCs for 5 passages without affecting cell proliferation, CFU, and osteogenic capacity. Conclusions. Expanded STRO-1-sorted hPDLCs showed no superiority compared to their unsorted parental cells. On the other hand, Wnt3a promotes the efficient hPDLC expansion and retains the self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation capacity.

Yan, Xiang-Zhen; Both, Sanne K.; Yang, Pi-Shan; Jansen, John A.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.; Yang, Fang

2014-01-01

114

Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior.  

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Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation thus may benefit in vitro PDLC expansion. The aim was to evaluate the effect of STRO-1 cell sorting and Wnt3a treatment on cell behavior of human PDLCs (hPDLCs). Materials and Methods. STRO-1 positive hPDLCs were sorted and the sorted cells were expanded and compared with their unsorted parental cells. Thereafter, hPDLCs were treated with or without Wnt3a and the cell proliferation, self-renewal, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Results. No differences were measured between the expanded STRO-1-sorted cells and unsorted parental cells in terms of proliferation, CFU, and mineralization capacity. Wnt3a enhanced the proliferation and self-renewal ability of hPDLCs significantly as displayed by higher DNA content values, a shorter cell population doubling time, and higher expression of the self-renewal gene Oct4. Moreover, Wnt3a promoted the expansion of hPDLCs for 5 passages without affecting cell proliferation, CFU, and osteogenic capacity. Conclusions. Expanded STRO-1-sorted hPDLCs showed no superiority compared to their unsorted parental cells. On the other hand, Wnt3a promotes the efficient hPDLC expansion and retains the self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation capacity. PMID:24864228

Yan, Xiang-Zhen; Both, Sanne K; Yang, Pi-Shan; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Yang, Fang

2014-01-01

115

Lipopolysaccharide differentially affects the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through Toll-like receptor 4 mediated nuclear factor ?B pathway  

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Introduction Periodontitis is initiated and sustained by bacteria. However, the mechanism of bacteria induced periodontitis is still unknown. We hypothesized that bacterial components can affect the functions of stem cells in the periodontium. In this study, we comparatively investigated the influence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the osteogenesis potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). Methods Human PDLSCs and BMMSCs were harvested and mineralized nodule formation was assessed by alizarin red S staining. Expression level of osteogenic related gene was detected by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its downstream signaling pathway were examined by western blot. The role of TLR4 and related signaling pathway in LPS impairing the osteogenic potential of human PDLSCs and BMMSCs were also studied by alizarin red S staining and qRT-PCR. Experimental periodontitis was induced in adult Sprague–Dawley rats and the alveolar bone loss was measured by micro computed tomography analysis. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and the number of osteoclasts was shown by Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results LPS decreased the osteogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs through TLR4 regulated nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway, but not for BMMSCs. Blocking TLR4 or NF-?B signaling partially reversed the decreased osteogenic potential of PDLSCs and prevented the alveolar bone loss caused by LPS experimental periodontitis in rats. The ALP expression in the periodontal ligament was elevated after treatment with anti-TLR4 antibody or pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, whereas there was no statistical significance among groups for the number of osteoclasts. Conclusions These data suggest that LPS can activate TLR4 regulated NF-?B pathway of human PDLSCs, thus decreasing their osteogenic potential. Blockage of TLR4 or NF-?B pathway might provide a new approach for periodontitis treatment.

2014-01-01

116

Activation of cannabinoid receptor CB2 regulates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and osteoclastogenic gene expression in human periodontal ligament cells  

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Background and Objective: It has been found that human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells express cannabinoid receptor CB2. However, the functional importance of CB2 in hPDL cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins is not known. Here we investigate if the inflammation promoter lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects CB2 expression and if activation of CB2 regulates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and osteoclastogenic gene expressi...

2013-01-01

117

In vitro-activity of oily calcium hydroxide suspension on microorganisms as well as on human alveolar osteoblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts  

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Background Findings from animal and human studies have indicated that an oily calcium hydroxide suspension (OCHS) may improve early wound healing in the treatment of periodontitis. Calcium hydroxide as the main component is well known for its antimicrobial activity, however at present the effect of OCHS on the influence of periodontal wound healing/regeneration is still very limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of OCHS on periodontopathogenic bacteria as well as on the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Methods Human alveolar osteoblasts (HAO) and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were cultured on 3 concentrations of OCHS (2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg). Adhesion and proliferation were counted up to 48 h and mineralization was assayed after 1 and 2 weeks. Furthermore potential growth inhibitory activity on microorganisms associated with periodontal disease (e.g. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) as well as the influence of periodontopathogens and OCHS on the HAO and PDL fibroblasts counts were determined. Results More than a 2-fold increase in adherent HAO cells was observed at 4 h following application of OCHS when compared to the control group (p?=?0.007 for 2.5 mg). Proliferation of HAO cells at 48 h was stimulated by moderate concentrations (2.5 mg; 5 mg) of OCHS (each p?periodontal pathogens.

2014-01-01

118

Effect of the simulated periodontal ligament on cast post-and-core removal using an ultrasonic device  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simulated periodontal ligament (SPDL on custom cast dowel and core removal by ultrasonic vibration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two human maxillary canines were included in resin cylinders with or without SPDL made from polyether impression material. In order to allow tensile testing, the roots included in resin cylinders with SPDL were fixed to cylinders with two stainless steel wires. Post-holes were prepared by standardizing the length at 8 mm and root canal impressions were made with self-cured resin acrylic. Cast dowel and core sets were fabricated and luted with Panavia F resin cement. Half of the samples were submitted to ultrasonic vibration before the tensile test. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The ultrasonic vibration reduced the tensile strength of the samples directly included in resin cylinders. There was no difference between the values, whether or not ultrasonic vibration was used, when the PDL was simulated. However, the presence of SPDL affected the tensile strength values even when no ultrasonic vibration was applied. CONCLUSION: Simulation of PDL has an effect on both ultrasonic vibration and tensile testing.

Manoel Brito-Junior

2010-10-01

119

In vitro and in vivo characteristics of stem cells derived from the periodontal ligament of human deciduous and permanent teeth.  

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In many studies, adult stem cells have been found in human periodontal ligament (PDL), but in most cases they were found in the permanent teeth. The aim of the present study was to characterize stem cells from the PDL of deciduous teeth (dPDLSCs) and compare them with those from the PDL of permanent teeth (pPDLSCs). Stem cell markers were examined by a flow cytometric analysis. The results of in vitro differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages were analyzed by histochemical staining and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results of in vivo transplantation were analyzed by histological staining, immunohistochemical staining, and quantitative RT-PCR. There were no significant differences in the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution, expressions of stem cell markers such as Stro-1 and CD146, or in vitro differentiation. The pPDLSC transplants made more typical cementum/PDL-like tissues and expressed more cementum/PDL-related genes (CP23 and collagen XII) than did the dPDLSC transplants. Together, these results suggest that pPDLSCs are better candidates for use in reconstructing periodontium. PMID:22571499

Song, Je Seon; Kim, Seong-Oh; Kim, Seung-Hye; Choi, Hyung-Jun; Son, Heung-Kyu; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho

2012-10-01

120

An electron microscopic radioautographic study of collagen secretion in periodontal ligament fibroblasts of the mouse: II. Colchicine-treated fibroblasts  

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Colchicine administered intravenously depolymerized microtubules and disrupted the normal organization of the Golgi apparatus in periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Radioautography with "3H-proline indicated that collagen secretion was completely inhibited during a period of approximately 4 hours following the onset of the colchicine effect. During this period of secretory inhibition, labeled collagen precursors were present within a variety of dense bodies, primarily located in a juxtanuclear location replacing the normal Golgi complex. The time course of "3H-proline labeling from 2 to 8 hours suggested that small, newly formed dense bodies fused to form larger dense bodies and pleomorphic structures (zebra bodies), within which collagen precursors appeared to undergo partial polymerization. Autophagosomes, many labeled with "3H-proline, also increased in number after colchicine administration. A gradual decline in "3H-proline label occurred from 4 to 24 hours, presumably due to exocytosis of dense bodies or by the digestion of labeled collagen precursors within autophagosomes. These results support the concept that an intact microtubular network is essential for the organized transport of collagen precursors, from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, and the eventual transport and exocytosis of collagen secretory granules

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

JNK and AKT/GSK3? signaling pathways converge to regulate periodontal ligament cell survival involving XIAP.  

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Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were incubated with H2O2 and the levels of XIAP protein, protein kinase B (AKT), phosphorylated forms of AKT (pAKT), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) were determined by western immunoblotting or immunocytochemistry. After overexpression and knockdown of XIAP, the AKT, pAKT, JNK and GSK3? levels were determined in PDLCs exposed to H2O2. We demonstrated that 72h of 250?M H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase in apoptosis. Meanwhile, XIAP levels were decreased with 72h of 250?M H2O2 exposure, while there were also a decrease of JNK2, AKT, pAKT, and GSK3? levels. Such reductions induced by 72h of 250?M H2O2 treatment were partially recovered in PDLCs overexpressing XIAP. Interestingly, these reductions (except for pAKT) were mimicked by RNA interference of XIAP. These results suggest that, after 72h of 250?M H2O2 exposure, Akt, JNK, and GSK3? intracellular kinase signaling pathways converge to regulate PDLC survival involving XIAP. PMID:24802394

Wei, Mouda; Zhang, Min; Adams, Andrew; Duan, Yinzhong

2014-06-13

122

Periodontal-ligament-derived stem cells exhibit the capacity for long-term survival, self-renewal, and regeneration of multiple tissue types in vivo.  

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Primary periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are known to possess multidifferentiation potential and exhibit an immunophenotype similar to that described for bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled ovine PDLSCs implanted into immunodeficient mice survived after 8 weeks post-transplantation and exhibited the capacity to form bone/cementum-like mineralized tissue, ligament structures similar to Sharpey's fibers with an associated vasculature. To evaluate self-renewal potential, PDLSCs were recovered from harvested primary transplants 8 weeks post-transplantation that exhibit an immunophenotype and multipotential capacity comparable to primary PDLSCs. The re-derived PDLSCs isolated from primary transplants were implanted into secondary ectopic xenogeneic transplants. Histomorphological analysis demonstrated that four out of six donor re-derived PDLSC populations displayed a capacity to survive and form fibrous ligament structures and mineralized tissues associated with vasculature in vivo, although at diminished levels in comparison to primary PDLSCs. Further, the capacity for long-term survival and the potential role of PDLSCs in dental tissue regeneration were determined using an ovine preclinical periodontal defect model. Autologous ex vivo-expanded PDLSCs that were prelabeled with BrdU were seeded onto Gelfoam(®) scaffolds and then transplanted into fenestration defects surgically created in the periodontium of the second premolars. Histological assessment at 8 weeks post-implantation revealed surviving BrdU-positive PDLSCs associated with regenerated periodontium-related tissues, including cementum and bone-like structures. This is the first report to demonstrate the self-renewal capacity of PDLSCs using serial xenogeneic transplants and provides evidence of the long-term survival and tissue contribution of autologous PDLSCs in a preclinical periodontal defect model. PMID:24351050

Menicanin, Danijela; Mrozik, Krzysztof Marek; Wada, Naohisa; Marino, Victor; Shi, Songtao; Bartold, P Mark; Gronthos, Stan

2014-05-01

123

Rapid canine distalization using distraction of the periodontal ligament: a preliminary clinical validation of the original technique.  

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The process of rapid canine distalization through the distraction of the periodontal ligament is similar to the process in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. Rapid canine distalization can be achieved in three weeks with this technique. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of rapid canine distalization on dentoalveolar tissues during the rapid distalization of canine teeth with semirigid, individual tooth-borne distractors. The study was carried out on 43 canine teeth in 18 (seven male and 11 female) patients who required first premolar extractions. The mean age of the patients was 16.7 years. The second premolars and first molars were used as anchor units. Orthodontic models, cephalometric and panoramic radiographs, and standard photographs of all the patients were taken before treatment and after the consolidation period. Periapical radiographies of the canines and anchor units were obtained once a week during the distalization period. The distractors were activated 0.25 mm three times a day, and the canines were distalized efficiently an average of three weeks. The within-group differences were evaluated with the Wilcoxon test. The maxillary canines were distalized an average of 5.76 mm with 11.47 degrees distal tipping. The maxillary first molars moved mesially 0.56 mm and extruded 0.64 mm. The maxillary incisors showed 1.44 degrees of palatal tipping. The mean distal movement of the mandibular canines was 3.5 mm with 7.16 degrees distal tipping. Anchorage loss was not observed in the mandibular first molars. PMID:15264639

Sayin, Seher; Bengi, A Osman; Gürton, A Umit; Ortako?lu, Kerim

2004-06-01

124

Characterization of Highly Osteoblast/Cementoblast Cell Clones From a CD105-Enriched Periodontal Ligament Progenitor Cell Population.  

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Background: It is known that periodontal ligament (PDL) harbors a heterogeneous progenitor cell population at different stages of lineage commitment. However, characterization of PDL stem cells committed to osteoblast/cementoblast (O/C) differentiation remains to be elucidated. The present study is carried out to isolate single cell-derived, cluster of differentiation (CD)105-positive PDL clones and to characterize the clones that present high potential to differentiate toward O/C phenotype in vitro. Methods: Isolation of single cell-derived colonies (clones) from a CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell population was performed by the ring-cloning technique. Cell clones were evaluated for their O/C differentiation potential, metabolic activity, and expression of STRO-1 protein. Additionally, the clones that showed potential to O/C differentiation were characterized by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for expression of runt-related transcriptor factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase, CD105, and CD166 during osteogenic induction. Results: Six PDL-CD105(+) clones were obtained, three being highly O/C clones (C-O) and three others that did not have the ability to produce mineralized matrix in vitro (C-F). The C-O group showed lower metabolic activity compared with the C-F group, and both cell groups were positively immunostained for STRO-1. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated an increased expression of transcripts for RUNX2 and CD166 during the maturation of C-O cells toward O/C phenotype. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that PDL-CD105(+) purified progenitor cells comprise a heterogeneous cell population that presents a cell subset with high O/C potential and, further, that surface antigen CD166 is modulated during the O/C maturation of this cell subset. PMID:24579765

Saito, Miki T; Salmon, Cristiane R; Amorim, Bruna R; Ambrosano, Gláucia M B; Casati, Márcio Z; Sallum, Enilson A; Nociti, Francisco H; Silvério, Karina G

2014-06-01

125

Periodontal ligament influence on the stress distribution in a removable partial denture supported by implant: a finite element analysis  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The non-homogenous aspect of periodontal ligament (PDL has been examined using finite element analysis (FEA to better simulate PDL behavior. The aim of this study was to assess, by 2-D FEA, the influence of non-homogenous PDL on the stress distribution when the free-end saddle removable partial denture (RPD is partially supported by an osseointegrated implant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six finite element (FE models of a partially edentulous mandible were created to represent two types of PDL (non-homogenous and homogenous and two types of RPD (conventional RPD, supported by tooth and fibromucosa; and modified RPD, supported by tooth and implant [10.00x3.75 mm]. Two additional Fe models without RPD were used as control models. The non-homogenous PDL was modeled using beam elements to simulate the crest, horizontal, oblique and apical fibers. The load (50 N was applied in each cusp simultaneously. Regarding boundary conditions the border of alveolar ridge was fixed along the x axis. The FE software (Ansys 10.0 was used to compute the stress fields, and the von Mises stress criterion (svM was applied to analyze the results. RESULTS: The peak of svM in non-homogenous PDL was higher than that for the homogenous condition. The benefits of implants were enhanced for the non-homogenous PDL condition, with drastic svM reduction on the posterior half of the alveolar ridge. The implant did not reduce the stress on the support tooth for both PDL conditions. Conclusion: The PDL modeled in the non-homogeneous form increased the benefits of the osseointegrated implant in comparison with the homogeneous condition. Using the non-homogenous PDL, the presence of osseointegrated implant did not reduce the stress on the supporting tooth.

Carlos Marcelo Archangelo

2012-06-01

126

Essentials in Periodontal Regeneration  

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Full Text Available Various materials and techniques have been used in the treatment of periodontal disease to achieve regeneration of lost periodontal tissues including cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL and alveolar bone. The composition, regenerative potential, application and therapeutic characteristics of several regenerative materials have been evaluated in the present study.

F. Haghighati

2007-06-01

127

Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs  

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Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

SriramRavindran

2014-01-01

128

Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs  

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Research highlights: {yields} Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. {yields} Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. {yields} The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. {yields} Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. {yields} Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs. The exact mechanism underlying the role of ibandronate in osteoblasts has not been completely understood. Ibandronate may suppress the activity of osteoclasts while promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts by regulating the expression of miRNAs.

Zhou, Qiang [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Ning [Clinical Laboratory, 451 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Cheng, Jing-Tao [Department of Special Dentistry, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhang, Bin [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Jie [Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Huang, Fei; Zhao, Rui-Ni [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Chen, Yong-Jin, E-mail: cyj1229@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

2011-01-07

129

Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs  

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Research highlights: ? Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. ? Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. ? The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. ? Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. ? Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs. The exact mechanism underlying the role of ibandronate in osteoblasts has not been completely understood. Ibandronate may suppress the activity of osteoclasts while promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts by regulating the expression of miRNAs.

2011-01-07

130

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Periodontal Regeneration  

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Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic pr...

2013-01-01

131

Activation of cannabinoid receptor CB2 regulates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and osteoclastogenic gene expression in human periodontal ligament cells  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: It has been found that human periodontal ligament (hPDL cells express cannabinoid receptor CB2. However, the functional importance of CB2 in hPDL cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins is not known. Here we investigate if the inflammation promoter lipopolysaccharide (LPS affects CB2 expression and if activation of CB2 regulates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and osteoclastogenic gene expression in hPDL cells. Methods: The hPDL cells were obtained from extracted teeth of periodontally healthy subjects. CB2 expression in hPDL cells exposed to LPS was deter- mined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then, the cells were incubated with or without CB2-specific agonist HU-308 before further stimulation with LPS. In some experiments, the cells were pre-treated with CB2-specific antagonist SR144528. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL- 1?, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNF-? was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The mRNA expression of osteoclastogenic genes osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL was examined using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results: CB2 expression in hPDL cells was markedly enhanced by LPS. HU-308 significantly suppressed the production of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? exposed to LPS, whereas SR144528 attenuated this effect. The OPG/RANKL ratio decreased when exposed to LPS, furthermore increased significantly with the addition of HU-308 and finally decreased markedly after pretreatment with SR144528. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that activation of CB2 had anti-inflammatory and anti-resorptive effects on LPS-stimulated hPDL cells. These findings suggest that activation of CB2 might be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis.

Yongming Li

2013-03-01

132

TGF-?-Operated Growth Inhibition and Translineage Commitment into Smooth Muscle Cells of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells through Smad- and p38 MAPK-Dependent Signals  

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The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a fibrous connective tissue that attaches the tooth to the alveolar bone. We previously demonstrated the ability of PDL fibroblast-like cells to construct an endothelial cell (EC) marker-positive blood vessel-like structure, indicating the potential of fibroblastic lineage cells in PDL tissue as precursors of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to facilitate the construction of a vascular system around damaged PDL tissue. A vascular regeneration around PDL ti...

Yoshida, Mariko; Okubo, Naoto; Chosa, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Tomokazu; Ibi, Miho; Kamo, Masaharu; Kyakumoto, Seiko; Ishisaki, Akira

2012-01-01

133

Comparación histomorfométrica in vitro del ligamento periodontal de premolares extraídos mantenidos en cuatro medios de conservación / In vitro histomorphometric comparison of periodontal ligament of extracted premolar teeth preserved in different media storage  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar histológica y morfométricamente los resultados de diferentes tipos de medios de almacenamiento para los dientes avulsionados en el mantenimiento de la preservación de la integridad del ligamento periodontal. Material y métodos: Estudio de tipo exper [...] imental de laboratorio, se utilizaron veintitrés premolares extraídos por motivos ortodóncicos. Los medios de conservación evaluados fueron: leche tipo "B" y tipo "C", solución salina y medio seco. Un total de cinco dientes fueron almacenados en cada uno de los medios de conservación durante 120 minutos. Otros tres dientes sirvieron como controles fijados inmediatamente después de la extracción representando el ligamento periodontal íntegro. Los dientes se fijaron, procesaron y tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina para evaluación histológica a través de microscopia óptica. Resultados: La edad de los pacientes que aportaron los dientes osciló entre 13 a 17 años. Los resultados de la evaluación cualitativa mostraron que la solución fisiológica fue el medio de almacenamiento más adecuado seguido de la leche tipo C y tipo B. En el análisis estadístico no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos de solución fisiológica y leche tipo C. Después de 120 minutos se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las alteraciones histomorfométricas del grupo control y los grupos de dientes que se mantuvieron en condiciones de humedad y los secos. Conclusión: Dados los resultados de este estudio, la solución salina (grupo II) y la leche tipo C (Grupo III) pueden considerarse como las formas de conservación más adecuadas de los dientes avulsionados. Abstract in english Objective: The aim of this study was to histologically and morphometrically evaluate the results of different types of storage media for avulsed teeth in the maintenance and preserving the integrity of the periodontal ligament. Material and methods: Experimental study. It was used twenty-three extra [...] cted premolars for orthodontic reasons. Preserving methods evaluated were: type "B" and "C" milk, saline and dry environment. A total of five teeth were stored in each storage media for 120 minutes. Three teeth served as controls fixed immediately after extraction representing the entire periodontal ligament. The teeth were fixed, processed and stained with hematoxylin/eosin for histological evaluation by light microscopy. Results: The age of the patients who provided the teeth ranged from 13-17 years. The results of the qualitative assessment showed that saline was the most appropriate storage medium, followed by milk type C and type B. In the statistical analysis there was no statistically significant difference between saline and type C milk. After 120 minutes it was found statistically significant differences between histomorphometric changes in the control group and groups of teeth that were kept in wet conditions and dry. Conclusion: Given the results of this study, saline (group II) and milk type C (Group III) can be considered as the most suitable form of storage of avulsed teeth.

I., Prokopowitsch; R., Cabrales Salgado; A., Díaz Caballero; M., Simancas Pallares.

134

The Effect of Propolis As A Biological Storage Media on Periodontal Ligament Cell Survival in An Avulsed Tooth: An In Vitro Study  

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Full Text Available Objective: Both the length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. This study aims to compare propolis 50%, propolis 10%, Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS, milk and egg white on periodontal ligament (PDL cell survival for different time points.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, we divided 60 extracted teeth without any periodontal diseases into five experimental and two control groups that consisted each experimental group with 10 and each control group with 5 teeth. The storage times were one and three hours for each media. The controls corresponded to 0-minute (positive and 12-hour (negative dry time. Rinsing in the experimental media, the teeth were treated with dispase and collagenase for one hour. Cell viability was determined by using trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s HSD post-hoc.Results: Within one hour, there was no significant difference between the two propolis groups, however these two groups had significantly more viable PDL cells compared to the other experimental media (p<0.05. The results of the three-hour group showed that propolis 10% was significantly better than egg white, whereas both propolis 10% and 50% were significantly better than milk (p<0.05.Conclusion: Based on PDL cell viability, propolis could be recommended as a suitable biological storage media for avulsed teeth.

Leila Ahangari

2013-01-01

135

Remoción del ligamento periodontal por medio de fricción con gasa embebida en solución de hipoclorito de sodio a 1% / Periodontal ligament remotion using friction of sodium hypochloride 1% solution absorbed gauze  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Sabe-se que o hipoclorito de sódio pode remover o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado em dentes avulsionados. Adequações em seu uso se mostram necessárias para se obter um reparo mais satisfatório em dentes reimplantados. Portanto, estudou-se neste trabalho a capacidade de remoção do ligamento perio [...] dontal, por meio de fricção da superfície radicular de dentes de rato, com uma gaze embebida em solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Foram utilizados 40 dentes divididos em 4 grupos de 10, os quais após a extração, foram mantidos em meio seco por 60 minutos. No grupo controle, os dentes foram mantidos em 25ml de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% por 5 minutos. No grupo II, a superfície radicular foi friccionada com gaze embebida em 25ml de solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% por um período de 1 minuto e na seqüência lavados em soro fisiológico por 4 minutos. No grupo III, a fricção foi de 2 minutos, e o período de lavagem foi de 3 minutos. No grupo IV, a fricção foi de 4 minutos e o período de lavagem foi de 1 minuto. Após o processamento laboratorial, os cortes foram corados pelo Tricrômico de Masson e pela hematoxilina e eosina para análise histomorfométrica. Os resultados demonstraram que no grupo controle, 100% da superfície radicular estava coberta por ligamento periodontal. Mediante o teste de proporção, observou-se que a fricção por 1 minuto foi menos eficaz, sendo estatisticamente significante (p Abstract in spanish Estudios han demostrado la capacidad del hipoclorito de sodio en la remoción del ligamento periodontal sin vitalidad en dientes avulsionados. Sin embargo el uso de esta sustancia puede ocasionar un efecto irritante en el tejido conjuntivo. Siendo así adecuaciones en su utilización se muestran necesa [...] rias para que se obtenga un reparo más satisfactorio cuando utilizados en dientes reimplantados. Por lo tanto es propuesta de ese estudio evaluar la capacidad de remoción del ligamento periodontal, por medio de fricción de la superficie radicular de dientes de ratones, con una gasa humedecida en solución de hipoclorito de sodio al 1%. Fueron utilizados 40 dientes divididos en 4 grupos de 10, los cuales después de la extracción, fueron mantenidos en medio seco por 60 minutos. En el grupo control, los dientes fueron mantenidos en 25ml de hipoclorito de sodio a 1% por 5 minutos. En el grupo II, la superficie radicular fue friccionada con gasa humedecida en 25ml de solución de hipoclorito de sodio a 1% por un periodo de 1 minuto y en la secuencia lavados en suero fisiológico por 4 minutos. En el grupo III, la fricción fue de 2 minutos, y el periodo del lavado 2 minuto. En el grupo IV, la fricción con 4 minutos y el periodo del lavado 1 minuto. Después del procesamiento laboratorial, los cortes obtenidos fueron coloreados por el Tricromio de Masson y Hematoxilina y eosina para análisis en microscopia de luz. Los resultados demostraron que en el grupo control 100% de la superficie radicular estaba cubierto por ligamento periodontal. A través del test de proporción, se observó que la fricción por 1 minuto fue menos eficaz, con diferencia estadísticamente significante (p Abstract in english Studies have demonstrated the capacity of the sodium hypochloride in removing the non-vital periodontal ligament in avulsed tooth. Adequacies in its use are necessary to get a repair more satisfactory when teeth are replanted. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluated the capacity of rem [...] oval the periodontal ligament in root surface of rats, using friction of sodium hypochloride 1% solution absorbed gauze. Forty teeth were divided in 4 groups with 10 teeth, which after the extration, had been kept in dry way per 60 minutes. In control group, the teeth had been kept in 25ml of sodium hypochloride 1% for 5 minutes. In group II, the root surface was rubbed with in 25ml of sodium hypochloride 1% solution absorbed gauze for 1 minute and rinsed for 4 minutes in saline. In group

Celso, Koogi Sonoda; Wilson, Roberto Poi; Sônia, Regina Panzarini; Maria Lúcia, Marçal Mazza Sundfeld; Fernando, Esgaib Kayatt; Tetuo, Okamoto.

136

Effects of the. cap alpha. -adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine, and Idazoxan on sympathetic blood flow control in the periodontal ligament of the cat  

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Blood flow changes in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured indirectly by monitoring the local clearance of /sup 125/I/sup -/ during electric sympathetic nerve stimulation or close intra-arterial infusions of either noradrenaline (NA) or adrenaline (ADR) before and after administration of phentolamine (PA), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) or Idazoxan (RX). At the doses used in the present study, PA was the only antagonist that significantly reduced the blood flow decrease seen on activation of sympathetic fibers, although PBZ also reduced this response. Idazoxan, however, did not induce the consistent effect on blood flow decreases seen on sympathetic activation. All three ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor antagonists almost abolished the effects of exogenously administered NA and ADR. The results suggest the presence of functional post-junctional adrenoceptors of both the ..cap alpha.. 1 and ..cap alpha.. 2 subtypes in the sympathetic regulation of the blood flow in the PDL of the cat. A component of the response elicited by electrical sympathetic stimulation appeared to be resistant to ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor blockade. Administration of guanethidine (which inhibits further release of NA and neuropeptide Y) after PA abolished this residual sympathetic response. 32 refs.

Edwall, B.; Gazelius, B.

1988-01-01

137

Comparison of long noncoding RNA and mRNA expression profiles in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human periodontal ligament and bone marrow.  

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in different anatomic locations possess diverse biological activities. Maintaining the pluripotent state and differentiation depend on the expression and regulation of thousands of genes, but it remains unclear which molecular mechanisms underlie MSC diversity. Thus, potential MSC applications are restricted. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the complex molecular circuitry of cellular processes. We investigated differences in lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) with lncRNA microarray assays and bioinformatics analysis. In PDLSCs, numerous lncRNAs were significantly upregulated (n = 457) or downregulated (n = 513) compared to BMSCs. Furthermore, 1,578 mRNAs were differentially expressed. These genes implicated cellular pathways that may be associated with MSC characteristics, including apoptosis, MAPK, cell cycle, and Wnt signaling pathway. Signal-net analysis indicated that phospholipase C beta 4, filamin B beta, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma, and the ionotropic glutamate receptor, AMPA 1, had the highest betweenness centrality among significant genes in the differential gene profile network. A comparison between the coding-noncoding gene coexpression networks of PDLSCs and BMSCs identified chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 as a core regulatory factor in MSC biology. These results provided insight into the mechanisms underlying MSC biology. PMID:24790996

Dong, Rui; Du, Juan; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jinsong; Ding, Gang; Wang, Songlin; Fan, Zhipeng

2014-01-01

138

Effects of the ?-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine, and Idazoxan on sympathetic blood flow control in the periodontal ligament of the cat  

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Blood flow changes in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured indirectly by monitoring the local clearance of 125I- during electric sympathetic nerve stimulation or close intra-arterial infusions of either noradrenaline (NA) or adrenaline (ADR) before and after administration of phentolamine (PA), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) or Idazoxan (RX). At the doses used in the present study, PA was the only antagonist that significantly reduced the blood flow decrease seen on activation of sympathetic fibers, although PBZ also reduced this response. Idazoxan, however, did not induce the consistent effect on blood flow decreases seen on sympathetic activation. All three ?-adrenoceptor antagonists almost abolished the effects of exogenously administered NA and ADR. The results suggest the presence of functional post-junctional adrenoceptors of both the ? 1 and ? 2 subtypes in the sympathetic regulation of the blood flow in the PDL of the cat. A component of the response elicited by electrical sympathetic stimulation appeared to be resistant to ?-adrenoceptor blockade. Administration of guanethidine (which inhibits further release of NA and neuropeptide Y) after PA abolished this residual sympathetic response

1988-01-01

139

Age-related and regional differences in the stress-strain and stress-relaxation behaviours of the rat incisor periodontal ligament.  

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Groups of rats were killed at 2, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. From dissected left and right mandibles in each rat, three pairs of transverse sections were cut at the incisal, middle, and basal regions of the incisor. One section in each pair was loaded until failure and a stress-strain curve for the periodontal ligament (PDL) was obtained. The other section was loaded to up to 50% of the maximum shear stress as determined from the contralateral section and then kept at a constant strain for 10 min, to obtain the stress-relaxation curve at the same region of the PDL. The maximum shear stress and toughness increased with age at the incisal region and the maximum shear strain increased with age at the incisal and middle regions. The tangent modulus decreased with advancing age at the middle region. The stress-relaxation during 10 min decreased with advancing age at the incisal and basal regions, but not at the middle region. The relaxation process was well described by a sum of three exponential decay functions, reflecting the short-, medium-, and long-term relaxation components. The age-related decrease in the relaxation was mainly attributable to increases in the ratio and relaxation time of the long-term relaxation component. These results suggest that with advancing age the mechanical strength and toughness of the PDL are enhanced mostly at the incisal region and that the viscous fraction is relatively decreased at the incisal and basal regions along the long axis of the rat incisor. PMID:15165880

Komatsu, K; Shibata, T; Shimada, A; Viidik, A; Chiba, M

2004-07-01

140

Expression of P2X7 ATP receptor mediating the IL8 and CCL20 release in human periodontal ligament stem cells.  

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ATP is released by human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and has been shown to regulate PDL regeneration and responses to mechanical stress through activation of P2Y receptors. This nucleotide, however, has also been reported to trigger the pro-inflammatory cascade by inducing the maturation and/or release of chemokines/cytokines from various cell types mainly via P2X7 receptors. Much less is known on the possible role of ATP in stem cells deriving from PDL (hPDLSCs) which are considered to be a promising tool for cell-based therapy to restore lesions. Given the role played by P2X7 in pathophysiological conditions, in this study we investigated the expression of P2X7 ATP receptors in hPDLSCs. The results obtained showed that hPDLSCs express P2X7 receptors evaluated by means of cytofluorimetric, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-PCR, and Western blot analyses. P2X7 ligation by 2',3'-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP), a specific receptor agonist, was followed by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and in the uptake of ethidium bromide. These effects were dramatically reduced by oxidized ATP (oATP), the P2X7 irreversible inhibitor, suggesting that the P2X7 is the functional receptor involved. At 24 h treatment of hPDLSCs with BzATP it enhanced the release of the pro-inflammatory agents IL8 and CCL20, without influencing cell viability. These effects were counteracted by pre-treating the cells with oATP or with A-740003, a selective and potent P2X7 competitive antagonist. Collectively, these results indicated that extracellular ATP mediate a pro-inflammatory response via P2X7 receptors in hPDLSCs opening a further approach to control hPDLSCs behavior in their possible application as therapeutic tool. PMID:24851271

Trubiani, Oriana; Horenstein, Alberto L; Caciagli, Francesco; Caputi, Sergio; Malavasi, Fabio; Ballerini, Patrizia

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Biomechanical adaptation of the bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joint as a consequence of disease.  

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In this study, an in vivo ligature-induced periodontitis rat model was used to investigate temporal changes to the solid and fluid phases of the joint by correlating shifts in joint biomechanics to adaptive changes in soft and hard tissue morphology and functional space. After 6 and 12 weeks of ligation, coronal regions showed a significant decrease in alveolar crest height, increased expression of TNF-?, and degradation of attachment fibers as indicated by decreased collagen birefringence. Cyclical compression to peak loads of 5-15N at speeds of 0.2-2.0mm/min followed by load relaxation tests showed decreased stiffness and reactionary load rate values, load relaxation, and load recoverability, of ligated joints. Shifts in joint stiffness and reactionary load rate increased with time while shifts in joint relaxation and recoverability decreased between control and ligated groups, complementing measurements of increased tooth displacement as evaluated through digital image correlation. Shifts in functional space between control and ligated joints were significantly increased at the interradicular (?10-25?m) and distal coronal (?20-45?m) regions. Histology revealed time-dependent increases in nuclei elongation within PDL cells and collagen fiber alignment, uncrimping, and directionality, in 12-week ligated joints compared to random orientation in 6-week ligated joints and to controls. We propose that altered strains from tooth hypermobility could cause varying degrees of solid-to-fluid compaction, alter dampening characteristics of the joint, and potentiate increased adaptation at the risk of joint failure. PMID:24332618

Lin, Jeremy D; Lee, Jihyun; Ozcoban, Hüseyin; Schneider, Gerold A; Ho, Sunita P

2014-06-27

142

An investigation of dentinal fluid flow in dental pulp during food mastication: simulation of fluid-structure interaction.  

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This study uses fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation to investigate the relationship between the dentinal fluid flow in the dental pulp of a tooth and the elastic modulus of masticated food particles and to investigate the effects of chewing rate on fluid flow in the dental pulp. Three-dimensional simulation models of a premolar tooth (enamel, dentine, pulp, periodontal ligament, cortical bone, and cancellous bone) and food particle were created. Food particles with elastic modulus of 2,000 and 10,000 MPa were used, respectively. The external displacement loading (5 ?m) was gradually directed to the food particle surface for 1 and 0.1 s, respectively, to simulate the chewing of food particles. The displacement and stress on tooth structure and fluid flow in the dental pulp were selected as evaluation indices. The results show that masticating food with a high elastic modulus results in high stress and deformation in the tooth structure, causing faster dentinal fluid flow in the pulp in comparison with that obtained with soft food. In addition, fast chewing of hard food particles can induce faster fluid flow in the pulp, which may result in dental pain. FSI analysis is shown to be a useful tool for investigating dental biomechanics during food mastication. FSI simulation can be used to predict intrapulpal fluid flow in dental pulp; this information may provide the clinician with important concept in dental biomechanics during food mastication. PMID:23913183

Su, Kuo-Chih; Chuang, Shu-Fen; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Chang, Chih-Han

2014-06-01

143

Periapical healing after direct pulp capping with calcium-enriched mixture cement: a case report.  

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This article describes a successful direct pulp capping of a mature symptomatic mandibular second molar in a 14-year-old girl. The patient was referred with sensitivity to cold beverages and pain on chewing on the second left mandibular molar. Clinical examinations revealed extensive coronal caries and sensitivity to percussion. Radiographically, the tooth was mature and had a widened apical periodontal ligament (PDL) and a narrow periapical lesion. The concluding diagnosis was symptomatic irreversible pulpitis with symptomatic apical periodontitis. Treatment included caries removal under rubber dam isolation, capping of exposure sites with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and permanent coronal restoration. At three-, 10-, and 15-month follow-up, the tooth was functional, had normal response to cold test, and did not have sensitivity to percussion. The PDL space regained its normal width, and the periapical lesion healed. PMID:22616929

Asgary, S; Nosrat, A; Homayounfar, N

2012-01-01

144

Root maturation and dentin-pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth.  

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The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin-pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(®) gel) compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs' teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino-pulpal complex regeneration. PMID:24551447

Darwish, Sherif S; Abd El Meguid, Shadia H; Wahba, Nadia A; Mohamed, Ahmed A-R; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Abou Neel, Ensanya A

2014-01-01

145

Root maturation and dentin-pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin–pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain® gel) compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs’ teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino–pulpal complex regeneration.

Darwish, Sherif S; Abd El Meguid, Shadia H; Wahba, Nadia A; Mohamed, Ahmed A-R; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

2014-01-01

146

Critical analysis of biomarkers in the current periodontal practice  

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Periodontal disease is a chronic microbial infection that triggers inflammation-mediated loss of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone that supports the teeth. Because of the increasing prevalence and associated comorbidities, there is a need for the development of new diagnostic tests that can detect the presence of active disease, predict future disease progression, and evaluate the response to periodontal therapy, thereby improving the clinical management of periodontal patients. The ...

Khiste, Sujeet V.; Ranganath, V.; Nichani, Ashish S.; Rajani, V.

2011-01-01

147

Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca(2+)Ca(2+)(o) has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca(2+)(o) signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca(2+)(o) increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca(2+) increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca(2+) channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca(2+), suggesting that the Ca(2+) influx from Ca(2+) channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr(2+) and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca(2+)(o) to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca(2+)(o) among cations. PMID:20346918

Tada, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Eiji; Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

2010-04-16

148

Age-dependent decline in dental pulp regeneration after pulpectomy in dogs.  

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The age-associated decline in the regenerative abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be due to age-related changes in reduction in number, intrinsic properties of MSCs and extrinsic factors of the extracellular environment (the stem cell niche). The effect of age on the efficacy of MSC transplantation on regeneration, however, has not been clearly demonstrated due to variable methods of isolation of MSCs and variations in stem cell populations. In this study, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) subsets were isolated from young and aged dog teeth based on their migratory response to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (MDPSCs). In order to study the age-associated changes, their biological properties and stability were compared and the regenerative potential was examined in a pulpectomized tooth model in aged dogs. MDPSCs from aged dogs were efficiently enriched in stem cells, expressing trophic factors with high proliferation, migration and anti-apoptotic effects as in MDPSCs from young dogs. However, pulp regeneration was retarded 120 days after autologous transplantation of aged MDPSCs. We further demonstrated that isolated periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from aged dogs, representative of migrating stem cells from outside of the tooth compartment to regenerate pulp tissue, had lower proliferation, migration and anti-apoptotic abilities. These results therefore provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the age-dependent decline in pulp regeneration, which are attributed to a decrease in the regenerative potential of resident stem cells. PMID:24468330

Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Misako

2014-04-01

149

TGF-?-Operated Growth Inhibition and Translineage Commitment into Smooth Muscle Cells of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells through Smad- and p38 MAPK-Dependent Signals  

Science.gov (United States)

The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a fibrous connective tissue that attaches the tooth to the alveolar bone. We previously demonstrated the ability of PDL fibroblast-like cells to construct an endothelial cell (EC) marker-positive blood vessel-like structure, indicating the potential of fibroblastic lineage cells in PDL tissue as precursors of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to facilitate the construction of a vascular system around damaged PDL tissue. A vascular regeneration around PDL tissue needs proliferation of vascular progenitor cells and the subsequent differentiation of the cells. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is known as an inducer of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), however, it remains to be clarified what kinds of TGF-? signals affect growth and mesenchymal differentiation of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Here, we demonstrated that TGF-?1 not only suppressed the proliferation of the PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells, but also induced smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers expression in the cells. On the other hand, TGF-?1 stimulation suppressed EC marker expression. Intriguingly, overexpression of Smad7, an inhibitor for TGF-?-induced Smad-dependent signaling, suppressed the TGF-?1-induced growth inhibition and SMC markers expression, but did not the TGF-?1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In contrast, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB 203580 suppressed the TGF-?1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In addition, the TGF-?1-induced SMC markers expression of the PDL-derived cells was reversed upon stimulation with fibroblast growth factor (FGF), suggesting that the TGF-?1 might not induce terminal SMC differentiation of the EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Thus, TGF-?1 not only negatively controls the growth of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells via a Smad-dependent manner but also positively controls the SMC-differentiation of the cells possibly at the early stage of the translineage commitment via Smad- and p38 MAPK-dependent manners.

Yoshida, Mariko; Okubo, Naoto; Chosa, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Tomokazu; Ibi, Miho; Kamo, Masaharu; Kyakumoto, Seiko; Ishisaki, Akira

2012-01-01

150

TGF-?-operated growth inhibition and translineage commitment into smooth muscle cells of periodontal ligament-derived endothelial progenitor cells through Smad- and p38 MAPK-dependent signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a fibrous connective tissue that attaches the tooth to the alveolar bone. We previously demonstrated the ability of PDL fibroblast-like cells to construct an endothelial cell (EC) marker-positive blood vessel-like structure, indicating the potential of fibroblastic lineage cells in PDL tissue as precursors of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to facilitate the construction of a vascular system around damaged PDL tissue. A vascular regeneration around PDL tissue needs proliferation of vascular progenitor cells and the subsequent differentiation of the cells. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is known as an inducer of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), however, it remains to be clarified what kinds of TGF-? signals affect growth and mesenchymal differentiation of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Here, we demonstrated that TGF-?1 not only suppressed the proliferation of the PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells, but also induced smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers expression in the cells. On the other hand, TGF-?1 stimulation suppressed EC marker expression. Intriguingly, overexpression of Smad7, an inhibitor for TGF-?-induced Smad-dependent signaling, suppressed the TGF-?1-induced growth inhibition and SMC markers expression, but did not the TGF-?1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In contrast, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB 203580 suppressed the TGF-?1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In addition, the TGF-?1-induced SMC markers expression of the PDL-derived cells was reversed upon stimulation with fibroblast growth factor (FGF), suggesting that the TGF-?1 might not induce terminal SMC differentiation of the EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Thus, TGF-?1 not only negatively controls the growth of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells via a Smad-dependent manner but also positively controls the SMC-differentiation of the cells possibly at the early stage of the translineage commitment via Smad- and p38 MAPK-dependent manners. PMID:22949889

Yoshida, Mariko; Okubo, Naoto; Chosa, Naoyuki; Hasegawa, Tomokazu; Ibi, Miho; Kamo, Masaharu; Kyakumoto, Seiko; Ishisaki, Akira

2012-01-01

151

An endodontic-periodontal lesion with primary periodontal disease: a case report on its bacterial profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microflora in the periodontal pockets can affect the dental pulp and cause endodontic-periodontal lesions or retrograde pulpitis. Here we report an endodontic-periodontal lesion together with its bacterial profile. The lesion occurred in the maxillary right first molar of a 40-year-old woman who presented at our hospital complaining of a violent toothache since the previous night. Clinically, the tooth was caries-free and an electric pulp test showed it to be vital. The tooth showed signs of advanced periodontitis and the periodontal pocket was deep, reaching the apex of the palatal root. The clinical diagnosis was an endodontic-periodontal lesion with primary periodontal disease. Subsequent endodontic treatment comprised pulp extirpation and root canal filling, followed by periodontal treatment consisting of scaling and root planing. The tooth was finally restored with a full metal crown. No further signs of periodontal disease or periapical lesions have been observed to date. Bacteria were sampled from the root canal and periodontal pocket for a microbiological assessment using 16S rRNA gene-based PCR. Microbiologically, the profile of the bacterial species from the palatal root canal was similar to that from the periodontal pocket of the palatal root. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Eikenella corrodens were detected in both samples. The occurrence of bacteria common to both sites in this patient further supports the proposition that periodontal disease is the definitive source of root canal infections. The present results suggest that a bacterial examination would be helpful in confirming and supporting the clinical diagnosis in such lesions. PMID:24717928

Fujii, Rie; Muramatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Asai, Tomohiro; Aida, Natsuko; Suehara, Masataka; Morinaga, Kazuki; Furusawa, Masahiro

2014-01-01

152

Enamel matrix protein derivatives: role in periodontal regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vandana J RathvaDepartment of Periodontics, KM Shah Dental College and Hospital, Sumandeep University, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: The role of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of lost periodontal structures, ie, new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The outcome of basic research has pointed to the important role of enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD in periodontal wound healing. Histologic results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of this paper is to review the existing literature on EMD.Keywords: enamel matrix protein derivative, Emdogain®, periodontal regeneration

Rathva VJ

2011-12-01

153

TGF-?-Operated Growth Inhibition and Translineage Commitment into Smooth Muscle Cells of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells through Smad- and p38 MAPK-Dependent Signals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The periodontal ligament (PDL is a fibrous connective tissue that attaches the tooth to the alveolar bone. We previously demonstrated the ability of PDL fibroblast-like cells to construct an endothelial cell (EC marker-positive blood vessel-like structure, indicating the potential of fibroblastic lineage cells in PDL tissue as precursors of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs to facilitate the construction of a vascular system around damaged PDL tissue. A vascular regeneration around PDL tissue needs proliferation of vascular progenitor cells and the subsequent differentiation of the cells. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-? is known as an inducer of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT, however, it remains to be clarified what kinds of TGF-? signals affect growth and mesenchymal differentiation of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Here, we demonstrated that TGF-?1 not only suppressed the proliferation of the PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells, but also induced smooth muscle cell (SMC markers expression in the cells. On the other hand, TGF-?1 stimulation suppressed EC marker expression. Intriguingly, overexpression of Smad7, an inhibitor for TGF-?-induced Smad-dependent signaling, suppressed the TGF-?1-induced growth inhibition and SMC markers expression, but did not the TGF-?1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In contrast, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor SB 203580 suppressed the TGF-?1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In addition, the TGF-?1-induced SMC markers expression of the PDL-derived cells was reversed upon stimulation with fibroblast growth factor (FGF, suggesting that the TGF-?1 might not induce terminal SMC differentiation of the EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Thus, TGF-?1 not only negatively controls the growth of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells via a Smad-dependent manner but also positively controls the SMC-differentiation of the cells possibly at the early stage of the translineage commitment via Smad- and p38 MAPK-dependent manners.

Mariko Yoshida, Naoto Okubo, Naoyuki Chosa, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Miho Ibi, Masaharu Kamo, Seiko Kyakumoto, Akira Ishisaki

2012-01-01

154

Possible involvement of advanced glycation end products in periodontal diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal diseases are considered as multifactorial conditions initiated by infection with pathogenic bacteria, promoted by inflammation and immune response against bacteria and modified by different environmental and genetic factors. Recently, interest in periodontal diseases has been increasing due to the awareness that the hyperinflammatory status associated with this disorder could impose a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) relevant to numerous systemic diseases driven by a pro-oxidant profile. A highly complex interplay occurs between oxidative stress and AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products), a group of heterogeneous compounds that form constantly under physiologic conditions, although their rate of formation is markedly increased in hyperglycemia and oxidizing conditions. Starting from the most relevant hypotheses on the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, the present review outlines its relationship with oxidative stress and inflammation response in order to make a critical evaluation of the potential role of AGEs in periodontal deterioration. Although direct evidence for the presence of AGEs in the periodontal ligament is still lacking, valuable approaches based on the use of periodontal cells along with genetic and biochemical studies in animal models and chronic periodontal patients support a potential role for protein glycation in the aetiology and severity of this disease. Following a review of the current literature, the present study highlights the need for further investigation on the presence of AGEs in the periodontal ligament as a means for the comprehension of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying periodontal diseases in order to develop prevention and treatment modalities for this dysfunction. PMID:20943037

Pietropaoli, D; Tatone, C; D'Alessandro, A M; Monaco, A

2010-01-01

155

[Pulp treatment of young permanent teeth after traumatic dental injury].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental trauma could be largely classified into three groups: Hard tissue injuries, pulp injuries and periodontal tissue injuries. Since pulp injuries are reported in tooth fracture, displacement and avulsion, it is commonly thought that pulp injuries were involved in almost every type of dental injuries. The sequelae of pulp tissue after dental injuries include pulp survival, pulp calcification and pulp necrosis. Dental trauma mostly occurs in 7-15 year-old children. The treatment and prognosis of dental trauma in children are more complicated than those in adults because of the developmental nature of the young permanent teeth. The evaluation of pulp damage and treatment after dental injuries in growing young permanent teeth are discussed in this paper. PMID:19637466

Qin, Man

2009-06-01

156

Periodontal Plastic Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... their usefulness; it is not a cure for periodontal disease. Basically, periodontal surgery removes tissue that has been ... the teeth and to recreate a normal appearance. Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease is diagnosed when gingival or gum ...

157

Analysis of the dentin-pulp complex in teeth submitted to orthodontic movement in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to microscopically analyze the pulpal effects of orthodontic movement, 49 maxillary first molars of rats were submitted to orthodontic appliance composed of a closed coil spring anchored to the maxillary incisors, placed for the achievement of mesial movement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten anim [...] als were used as the control group and were not submitted to orthodontic force; the other animals were divided into groups according to the study period of tooth movement, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The investigation of pulp and periodontal changes included hyalinization, fibrosis, reactive dentin and vascular congestion. Statistical evaluation was performed between control and experimental groups and between periods of observation using non-parametric chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference concerning pulpal changes between control and experimental groups nor between periods of observation. The control group, at 3 and 5 days, revealed greater hyalinization of the periodontal ligament (p

Massaro, Camila da Siveira; Consolaro, Renata Bianco; Santamaria Junior, Milton; Consolaro, Maria Fernanda Martins-Ortiz; Consolaro, Alberto.

158

Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up  

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This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT) of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complai...

Ticiane Cestari Fagundes; Terezinha Jesus Esteves Barata; Anuradha Prakki; Eduardo Bresciani; José Carlos Pereira

2009-01-01

159

Regeneração periodontal em cães Periodontal regeneration in dogs  

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Full Text Available A doença periodontal pode ser definida como a condição inflamatória dos tecidos de suporte do dente em resposta ao acúmulo do biofilme. A consequencia é a formação de graves defeitos ósseos, devido à perda dos tecidos periodontais, levando, em última instância, à perda dos dentes, predisposição a fraturas de mandíbula e formação de comunicações oronasais. O principal tratamento é a prevenção, incluindo a escovação dentária diária e a profilaxia periodontal, procedimento realizado pelo médico veterinário para remoção do biofilme e cálculo dentário acumulados. A recuperação dos tecidos perdidos, ou seja, a regeneração periodontal, é um processo mais complexo, pois envolve a formação de três tecidos intimamente ligados: osso alveolar, ligamento periodontal e cemento. Assim, diversos materiais e técnicas foram e são constantemente desenvolvidos, incluindo membranas para regeneração tecidual guiada e a aplicação de enxertos e biomateriais, amplamente estudados na odontologia humana e já disponíveis para aplicação na rotina clínica veterinária. Adicionalmente, novas possibilidades surgem com a associação dessas técnicas a fatores de crescimento e células-tronco e o desenvolvimento das membranas multifuncionais.Periodontal disease can be defined as the inflammatory condition of the tooth-supportive tissues as a response to biofilm accumulation. The consequence is the formation of severe bone defects due to the loss of periodontal tissues that ultimately lead to tooth loss, predispose to mandible fractures and formation of oronasal communications. The main treatment is prevention, including daily tooth brushing and periodontal prophylaxis, a procedure done by veterinaries to remove retained biofilm and calculus. Recovering lost tissues, i.e. periodontal regeneration, is a more complex process involving the formation of three tissues highly connected: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. Therefore, several materials and techniques were and are constantly developed, including membranes for guided tissue regeneration and the application of bone grafts and biomaterials, widely studied in human dentistry and already available for veterinary practice. Additionally, new possibilities rise with the association of these techniques to growth factors and stem cells and the development of multifunctional membranes.

Emily Correna Carlo Reis

2011-12-01

160

Regeneração periodontal em cães / Periodontal regeneration in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A doença periodontal pode ser definida como a condição inflamatória dos tecidos de suporte do dente em resposta ao acúmulo do biofilme. A consequencia é a formação de graves defeitos ósseos, devido à perda dos tecidos periodontais, levando, em última instância, à perda dos dentes, predisposição a fr [...] aturas de mandíbula e formação de comunicações oronasais. O principal tratamento é a prevenção, incluindo a escovação dentária diária e a profilaxia periodontal, procedimento realizado pelo médico veterinário para remoção do biofilme e cálculo dentário acumulados. A recuperação dos tecidos perdidos, ou seja, a regeneração periodontal, é um processo mais complexo, pois envolve a formação de três tecidos intimamente ligados: osso alveolar, ligamento periodontal e cemento. Assim, diversos materiais e técnicas foram e são constantemente desenvolvidos, incluindo membranas para regeneração tecidual guiada e a aplicação de enxertos e biomateriais, amplamente estudados na odontologia humana e já disponíveis para aplicação na rotina clínica veterinária. Adicionalmente, novas possibilidades surgem com a associação dessas técnicas a fatores de crescimento e células-tronco e o desenvolvimento das membranas multifuncionais. Abstract in english Periodontal disease can be defined as the inflammatory condition of the tooth-supportive tissues as a response to biofilm accumulation. The consequence is the formation of severe bone defects due to the loss of periodontal tissues that ultimately lead to tooth loss, predispose to mandible fractures [...] and formation of oronasal communications. The main treatment is prevention, including daily tooth brushing and periodontal prophylaxis, a procedure done by veterinaries to remove retained biofilm and calculus. Recovering lost tissues, i.e. periodontal regeneration, is a more complex process involving the formation of three tissues highly connected: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. Therefore, several materials and techniques were and are constantly developed, including membranes for guided tissue regeneration and the application of bone grafts and biomaterials, widely studied in human dentistry and already available for veterinary practice. Additionally, new possibilities rise with the association of these techniques to growth factors and stem cells and the development of multifunctional membranes.

Reis, Emily Correna Carlo; Borges, Andréa Pacheco Batista; Del Carlo, Ricardo Junqueira.

 
 
 
 
161

Ultrasonic device for measuring periodontal attachment levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal disease is manifested clinically by a degradation of the ligament that attaches the tooth to the bone. The most widely used diagnostic tool for assessment of periodontal diseases, measurement of periodontal attachment loss with a manual probe, may overestimate attachment loss by as much as 2 mm in untreated sites, while underestimating attachment loss by an even greater margin following treatment. Manual probing is also invasive, which causes patient discomfort. This work describes the development and testing of an ultrasonographic periodontal probe designed to replace manual probing. It uses a thin stream of water to project an ultrasonic beam into the periodontal pocket, and then measures echoes off features within the pocket. To do so, the ultrasonic beam must be narrowed from 2 (the diameter of the transducer) to 0.5 mm (the approximate width of the periodontal pocket at the gingival margin). The proper choice of transducer frequency, the proper method for controlling water flow from the probe, and a model for interpreting these echoes are also addressed. Initial results indicate that the device measures echoes from the hard tissue of the tooth surface, and that the periodontal attachment level can be inferred from these echoes.

Lynch, J. E.; Hinders, M. K.

2002-07-01

162

A review on periodontitis versus endodontics  

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Full Text Available Periodontitis (pair-e-o-don-TI-tis may be a serious gum infection that destroys the soft tissue and bone that support your teeth and endodontics is focused on the detection and treatment of pulp diseases as well. Disease will cause tooth loss or worse, associate with nursing inflated risk of heart failure or stroke and different serious health issues. Endodontics or periodontitis is however common for the most parts preventable. Disease is sometimes the result of poor oral hygiene. Daily brushing and flossing and regular skilled dental cleanings will greatly cut back your probability of developing disease. The purpose of the current review is to explore the important role for periodontitis/endodontics prevention in oral hygiene and health as well. In this review periodontitis/endodontics will be discussed in details in all aspects.

Mohammad Salarpour

2013-11-01

163

Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells  

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Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

Tada, Hiroyuki [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@umin.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

2010-04-16

164

Combined Knee Ligament Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... Injuries Collateral Ligament Injuries Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Knee Exercise Conditioning Program Download this PDF Viewing Options ... Knee Replacement Rehabilitation News News Multimedia Resources Combined Knee Ligament Injuries Introduction | Anatomy | Description | Treatment | Outcome Print ...

165

The behavior of ligament cells cultured on elastin and collagen scaffolds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) does not heal spontaneously. Therefore, the development of new healing techniques employing tissue engineering is vital. One of the aspects related to tissue-engineered artificial ligaments is the type of cell to be used for the artificial ligament. In this study, ligament cells from the ACL and periodontal ligament (PDL) were evaluated. In addition, we prepared highly oriented extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber scaffolds that mimicked the structure of the ligament and examined the cellular responses to these scaffolds. Elastin-A and collagen were used as the ECM proteins. Although the cells from the PDL (PDL fibroblasts [PDLFs]) showed approximately 2.1-fold higher expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP; marker of osteogenic differentiation) than the ACL cells, the expression of ligament-related genes (for type I collagen, type III collagen, and tenomodulin) did not differ between PDLFs and ACL cells. Furthermore, the cellular responses (expression pattern of ligament-related genes and ALP activity) to the ECM were similar between ACL cells and PDLFs. In particular, elastin-A upregulated ALP and downregulated tenomodulin (TeM; a ligament marker) in ligament cells. In contrast, collagen maintained TeM expression in ligament cells. These results suggest that elastin-A promotes the osteogenic differentiation of ligament cells and that collagen maintains the phenotype of ligament cells. PMID:24141748

Mizutani, Naoki; Kageyama, Satoshi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Horiuchi, Takashi

2014-03-01

166

Diagnostic Applications of Cone-Beam CT for Periodontal Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. This paper aims to review the diagnostic application of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the field of periodontology. Data. Original articles that reported on the use of CBCT for periodontal disease diagnosis were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1990 to January 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “CBCT,” “volumetric CT,” “periodontal disease ,” and “periodontitis.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. Bony defects, caters, and furcation involvements seem to be better depicted on CBCT, whereas bone quality and periodontal ligament space scored better on conventional intraoral radiography. CBCT does not offer a significant advantage over conventional radiography for assessing the periodontal bone levels.

AlJehani, Yousef A.

2014-01-01

167

Periodontal Probe Improves Exams, Alleviates Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension measurements (Spinoff 2005). This ultrasound measurement system was adapted to the Periodontal Structures Mapping System, invented at Langley by John A. Companion, under the supervision of Dr. Joseph S. Heyman. Support of the research and development that led to this invention was provided by NASA s Technology Applications Engineering Program and by the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, in Great Lakes, Illinois.

2008-01-01

168

Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

Stewart, Chris

2009-01-01

169

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... W, Okeke N, Ferretti M, Fu FH. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: 1. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the adult. ...

170

Insertional Inactivation of pac and rmlB Genes Reduces the Release of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-8 Induced by Streptococcus mutans in Monocytic, Dental Pulp, and Periodontal Ligament Cells  

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Streptococcus mutans possesses different cell wall molecules, such as protein of the I/II family, the serotype f polysaccharide rhamnose glucose polymer (RGP), and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which act as adhesins and modulins, allowing S. mutans to colonize teeth and cause dental caries and pulpitis. We tested several isogenic mutants of S. mutans defective in protein I/II and/or RGP, as well as purified modulins such as protein I/II, RGP, and LTA, for their binding and activation abilities on ...

Engels-deutsch, Marc; Pini, Annelise; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Shibata, Yukie; Haikel, Youssef; Scho?ller-guinard, Marie; Klein, Jean-paul

2003-01-01

171

Periodontal Disease and Systemic Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... Procedures Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures Find a Periodontist Periodontal Disease and Systemic Health Research has shown that periodontal disease is associated with several other diseases. For a ...

172

Development of the oxytalan fiber system in the periodontal space of rat incisors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study clarifies developmental organization of the oxytalan fiber system in the periodontal space of both the enamel (labial) and cementum (lingual) sides of rat incisors. The number of oxytalan fibers per unit area (?m(2)) was counted in rat incisors at stages of embryonic day 20 (E20) to postnatal day 35 (P35). Oxytalan fibers in the periodontal space of the enamel side were apt to decrease in number during the postnatal period, whereas their number remained almost unchanged on the cementum side during the developmental period. When the incisor emerged through the gum at P11, thinner oxytalan fibers distributed in the apical growing periodontium of the cementum side seemed to be fused with one another to become thicker fibers as has been reported for rat molars (Inoue et al., 2012). Thus, the oxytalan fiber system in the periodontal space represented significant differences in its distributional density between the enamel and cementum sides after E23. At the stage of P35, oxytalan fibers presented significantly denser distribution in all territories of the periodontal ligament of the cementum side versus the enamel side. The present findings claim that the oxytalan fiber system might bind the tooth to the periodontal ligament and provide equilibrium of vascular system and control of blood flow in the periodontal ligament of the cementum side, while it might exclusively regulate the high level of physiologically adapted vasculature in the periodontal space of the enamel side. PMID:23742981

Inoue, Kouji; Hara, Yaiko; Kuroda, Noriyuki; Sato, Tetsuji

2013-10-01

173

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL  

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Full Text Available The anterior cruciate ligament or ACL (ligamentum cruciatum anterius is often injured, either alone or within complex ligament injuries of the knee. Therefore, the knowledge of detailed anatomic (macro- and micro-morphological characteristics of this ligament is of key importance in therapy. The anatomy, structure, insertions, vascularization and innervations of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee are described from the aspect of modern treatment and rehabilitation methods.

Slavkovi? Nemanja

2005-01-01

174

Comparative evaluation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels in periodontal diseases  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic multi-factorial infectious disease characterized by irreversible destruction of collagen fibers and other matrix constituents of the gingival tissues and periodontal ligament, and resorption of alveolar bone around the teeth with periodontal pocket formation. Host response to periodontal disease includes production of different enzymes that are released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells associated with cell injury and cell death, including aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. The aim of this study was to compare aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase salivary levels in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic mild-to-moderate periodontitis and healthy subjects with normal periodontium. Materials and methods: In this experimental study, unstimulated saliva of 25 patients with mild-to-moderate periodontitis, 15 patients with aggressive periodontitis, and 25 subjects with healthy gingiva were collected. The mean aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase salivary levels were measured by RA-ST autoanalyzer system. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test.Results: The mean levels and standard deviations of lactate dehydrogenase salivary enzyme in generalized aggressive periodontitis, chronic mild-to-moderate periodontitis and control groups were 1713±88.4, 1492±65.4, 1108±34.5, respectively, with significant differences between the groups (p value < 0.05 The mean levels and standard deviations of aspartate aminotransferase salivary enzyme in generalized aggressive periodontitis, chronic mild-to-moderate periodontitis and control groups were 55.46±5.6, 47.04±3.3 and 32.04±2.3, respectively, with significant differences (p value < 0.05.Conclusion: Mean levels of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase salivary enzymes in periodontal patients were higher than those in healthy subjects and these enzymes can be good markers for determining amount of destruction of periodontal tissues. Key words: Aspartate aminotransferase, Lactate dehydrogenase, Periodontal disease, Saliva.

Arash Azizi

2011-01-01

175

Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?  

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The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

Lubell, Adele

1987-01-01

176

Fighting for territories: time-lapse analysis of dental pulp and dental follicle stem cells in co-culture reveals specific migratory capabilities  

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Full Text Available Stem cell migration is a critical step during the repair of damaged tissues. In order to achieve appropriate cell-based therapies for tooth and periodontal ligament repair it is necessary first to understand the dynamics of tissue-specific stem cell populations such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and dental follicle stem cells (DFSC. Using time-lapse imaging, we analysed migratory and proliferative capabilities of these two human stem cell lines in vitro. When cultured alone, both DPSC and DFSC exhibited low and irregular migration profiles. In co-cultures, DFSC, but not DPSC, spectacularly increased their migration activity and velocity. DFSC rapidly surrounded the DPSC, thus resembling the in vivo developmental process, where follicle cells encircle both dental epithelium and pulp. Cell morphology was dependent on the culture conditions (mono-culture or co-culture and changed over time. Regulatory genes involved in dental cell migration and differentiation such as TWIST1, MSX1, RUNX2, SFRP1 and ADAM28, were also evaluated in co-cultures. MSX1 up-regulation indicates that DPSC and DFSC retain their odontogenic potential. However, DPSC lose their capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts in the presence of DFSC, as suggested by RUNX2 up-regulation and TWIST1 down-regulation. In contrast, the unchanged levels of SFRP1 expression suggest that DFSC retain their potential to form periodontal tissues even in the presence of DPSC. These findings demonstrate that stem cells behave differently according to their environment, retain their genetic memory, and compete with each other to acquire the appropriate territory. Understanding the mechanisms involved in stem cell migration may lead to new therapeutic approaches for tooth repair.

C Schiraldi

2012-11-01

177

Influence of periodontitis and nonsurgical periodontal intervention on atherosclerosis diseases  

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Full Text Available Objective: Periodontitis and atherosclerosis diseases are chronic inflammatory disorders which are highly prevalent in populations. Nonsurgical periodontal intervention belongs to the initial therapy strategy to periodontal diseases. Periodontal pathogen can enter into blood stream through the ulceration epithelial resulting in bacteraemia when periodontitis is severe. The objective is to investigate the relationship between periodontitis and atherosclerosis diseases, and the influence of nonsurgical periodontal intervention on atheroma and atherosclerosis diseases. Methods: This study reviewed and analyzed the papers which published in the world associated with periodontitis or periodontal intervention on atherosclerosis diseases. Results: Periodontitis and periodontal infectious are important risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases. Much evidence has proved the durative severe periodontitis can result in bacteraemia and systemic inflammation, elevated C-response protein in serum, gingival microcirculation changed, periodontal microorganism reproduced, and endothelial dys-function and endocarditis. Nonsurgical periodontal intervention can remove the pathogenesis bacteria and calculus to recover periodontal health. Effective periodontal therapy can reduce bacteraemia and stop the hurt to vessels. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy may interfere periodontal bacteria, inhibit inflammation response and C-response protein, improving gingival microcirculation and vessel epithelial function to prevent atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Nonsurgical periodontal intervention can improve or decrease the rate of atherosclerotic disease by interfere the severe periodontitis. The detailed mechanism of periodontal intervention on atheroma and atherosclerotic disease is still need to be explored.

Tielou Chen

2012-08-01

178

Ankle ligament injuries  

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Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL). For this reason, th...

Renstro?m, Per A. F. H.; Lynch, Scott A.

1998-01-01

179

REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA PULP  

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Full Text Available Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. orientalis pulp. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp were increased when the beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis pulp increased.

Sabina Rawshan

2009-08-01

180

Dental follicle cells combined with beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramic: a novel available therapeutic strategy to restore periodontal defects.  

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Tissue-engineering strategies to restore the periodontal defects are being developed. It will result in the periodontal formation and growing new function tissue rather than new replacement of periodontium. Although a number of procedures have been investigated in an attempt to regenerate lost periodontal tissue, none has yet led to new cementum formation, remodeling of the periodontal ligament, and new bone formation in clinic. Dental follicle cells (DFCs), as a progenitor cell of periodontal ligament cell and stem cell, have more potential abilities than PDL-cell in formation of periodontal tissue. More researches focus on the inductive environments, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), dexamethasone, and transfer growth factor, and scaffold. We hypotheses that DFCs from Beagle's dog are isolated, induced by BMP-2, basic-fibroblast growth factor and dexamethasone, and seeded by beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramic (beta-TCP), then the complex was auto-implanted into the periodontal defects in the same Beagle's dog to observe the regeneration of periodontal tissue in vivo. The study will explore the feasibility and application of restore of periodontal defects by DFCs-beta-TCP complex. We believe it is especially helpful to future clinical study and application. PMID:20800363

Zuolin, Jin; Hong, Qian; Jiali, Tan

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Diabetes and periodontitis  

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Full Text Available The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the "certain" articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1 Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2 Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3 What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4 What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene.

Deshpande Kalyani

2010-01-01

182

Biomaterials for periodontal regeneration: a review of ceramics and polymers.  

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Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect. PMID:23507891

Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas

2012-01-01

183

THE IMPORTANCE OF AGGREGATIBACTER ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS IN ETIOLOGY OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE - MINI REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a chronic, degenerative disease of parodontium which is made of gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone. The main etiological factor for development of periodontal disease is dental plaque or oral biofilm in association with anaerobic bacteria. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is one of the most powerful periodonthopathogens. This microorganism produces many virulent factors: leucotoxin as the most important, then bacteriocin, chemotaxis inhibiting factor, cytotoxic factors, Fc binding proteins, immunosuppressive factors, lipopolysaccharide collagenase, fibroblast inhibiting factor, antibiotic resistance determinants, adhesives, invasives and function inhibiting factor of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The ability of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharides to stimulate macrophages to release interleukins IL-1, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF is of main importance. These cytokines are able to stimulate the bone resorption. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis represent exogenous microorganisms, based on its minor presence in healthy individuals. It has been recommended that periodontal diseases associated with periodontal pathogens represent "true infections".

Ljiljana Kesi?

2009-10-01

184

An investigation on clinical, radiological and biochemical methods for assessing periodontitis activity  

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In order to recognize in which stage rapidly progressing destruction of periodontal ligament fibers occurs, a number of diagnostic methods are studied in this thesis. It turns out that the actual much utilized clinical methods can not be improved while radiological and biochemical diagnositic methods are much more promising. 106 refs.; 20 figs.; 36 tabs

1987-01-01

185

Refining of Polysulfide Pulps  

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This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester) cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.). Polysulfide (PS) pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

Copur, Yalcin

186

Ozone therapy in periodontics.  

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Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics. PMID:22574088

Gupta, G; Mansi, B

2012-02-22

187

Minimally invasive periodontal therapy  

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Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly...

Dannan, Aous

2011-01-01

188

Diabetes and periodontitis  

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The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mec...

Deshpande Kalyani; Jain Ashish; Sharma RaviKant; Prashar Savita; Jain Rajni

2010-01-01

189

Rupture of the meniscofibular ligament  

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Abstract The meniscofibular ligament is an anatomically defined ligament of the knee in humans. However, there are no data regarding the prognosis following injury to this ligament. Our case was a 42-year-old man who presented at our clinic with pain of the lateral side of his left knee. MRI of his left knee revealed the rupture of the meniscofibular ligament. The mechanism of injury was consistent with anatomical and mechanical studies of the meniscofibular ligament. The patient wa...

Unay Koray; Ozkan Korhan; Esenkaya Irfan; Poyanli Oguz; Akan Kaya

2010-01-01

190

SMOKING AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE  

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Full Text Available Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of present review is to consider the association between smoking and periodontal diseases.

Grover Harpreet Singh

2013-04-01

191

Periodontal disease and diabetes.  

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Diabetes is considered to be a genetically and environmentally based chronic metabolic and vascular syndrome caused by a partial or total insulin deficiency with alteration in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins culminating with different manifestations in different organisms. In humans hyperglycemia is the main consequence of defects in the secretion and/or action of insulin, and its deregulation can produce secondary lesions in various organs, especially kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels and immune systems. Periodontal disease is an entity of localized infection that involves tooth-supporting tissues. The first clinical manifestation of periodontal disease is the appearance of periodontal pockets, which offer a favorable niche for bacterial colonization. The etiology of periodontal disease is multifactorial, being caused by interactions between multiple micro-organisms (necessary but not sufficient primary etiologic factors), a host with some degree of susceptibility and environmental factors. According to current scientific evidence, there is a symbiotic relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, such that diabetes is associated with an increased incidence and progression of periodontitis, and periodontal infection is associated with poor glycaemic control in diabetes due to poor immune systems. Hence, for a good periodontal control it is necessary to treat both periodontal disease and glycaemic control. PMID:23393673

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Criado-Cámara, Elena; Bascones-Ilundáin, Jaime; Bascones-Ilundáin, Cristina

2012-01-01

192

Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1  

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The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

1998-01-01

193

The application of bone morphogenetic proteins to periodontal and peri-implant tissue regeneration: A literature review  

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Progress in understanding the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in craniofacial and tooth development and the demonstration of stem cells in periodontal ligament have set the stage for periodontal regenerative therapy and tissue engineering. Furthermore, recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration of recombinant human BMPs for accelerating bone fusion in slow-healing fractures indicates that this protein family may prove useful in designing regenerative treatments in periodon...

2012-01-01

194

Refining of Polysulfide Pulps  

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This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester) cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refi...

2007-01-01

195

Periodontal Management of Non Healing Endodontic Lesion  

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Full Text Available The fact that the periodontium is anatomically interrelated with the dental pulp by virtue of apical foramina and lateral canals creates pathways for exchange of noxious agents between the two tissue compartments when either or both of the tissues are diseased. Proper diagnosis of the various disorders affecting the periodontium and the pulp is important to exclude unnecessary and even detrimental treatment. This is a clinical case report of an enododontic-periodontic lesion in relation to lower left central incisor. Root canal treatment has been done with the respected tooth six months ago, but the lesion showed no sign of healing resulting in draining sinus and increasing pocket depth. Radiographic examination revealed overobturation of gutta-percha with peri-radicular pathology. Periodontal flap surgery was performed and the defect was filled with bone graft mixed with Platelet rich plasma (PRP and covered by platelet rich fibrin (PRF. Patient reviewed for six months which showed uneventful healing and no recurrence of the lesion.

Nitin H. Dani

2011-04-01

196

Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from post natal human dental pulp, (Dental pulp stem cells-DPSCs which is from permanent teeth and SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth,the Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC and Stem cells from root Apical papilla(SCAPhave the potential to differentiate into cells of a variety of tissues including heart, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, salivary glands, teeth etc(1,2,3,4.This multipotential ability of DPSCs is being researched for clinical application for treating a variety of diseases like myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, neuro-degenerative disorders, cartilage replacement, tooth regeneration and for repair of bone defects to mention a few. Moreover, the isolation of stem cells from teeth is minimally invasive, readily accessible and the non immunogenic characteristic of dental stem cells has paved the way for efforts to store the exfoliated deciduous teeth or milk teeth which is usually discarded, for use in the future. In this study we have isolated and expanded in vitro, the cells obtained from human dental pulp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining written informed consent, 24 teeth that were extracted for therapeutic or cosmetic reasons from 16 patients were used in this study. The specimens were transported from the clinic to NCRM lab taking 6 to 48 Hrs. For removal of the pulp tissue, the teeth were split obliquely at the Cementoenamel junction and the pulp tissue was isolated using brooches. The extracted pulp tissues were subjected to digestion using Collagenase type-I and type II at 37?C for 15- 30 minutes. The digested cells were filtered with 70µm filter and centrifuged at 1800 rpm for 10 minutes. The pellet was then suspended in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM/Ham’s F12 supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum , 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 µg/ml streptomycin,2 m M L -glutamine, and 2 m M nonessential amino acids (5 .Cell counting was done by Trypan Blue dye exclusion method and the cells were seeded in 6 well culture plates. The plates with cells were incubated at 37?C with 5% CO2 for varying periods from 14 days-28 days. The cells were observed daily and media change was done every three days. RESULTS: Viable Dental Pulp tissue-cells were obtained after transportation of up to 48 hrs and the in vitro growth of cells was initially slow but colonies were identified from the 10th day onwards. The cells were harvested at different intervals of 14-28 days for each sample based on their growth and subjected to H & E staining .The H & E staining of the cultured cells of all the samples showed positive resultsCONCLUSION: We are able to transport extracted teeth and derive viable dental pulp tissue cells after enzymatic digestion and multiply them in culture after a maximum of 48 hrs after transportation. The cells could be grown in culture with a morphology resembling dental pulp stem cells while in culture expansion and in H&E studies. Further characterization of the cells is necessary to confirm their Stemness. References1.Gronthos S, Mankani M, Brahim J, Robey PG, Shi S. Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 20002.Nosrat IV, Widenfalk J, Olson L, Nosrat CA. Dental pulp cells produce neurotrophic factors, interact with trigeminal neurons in vitro, and rescue motoneurons after spinal cord injury. Dev Biol. 2001 Oct 3.Iohara K, Zheng L, Ito M, Tomokiyo A, Matsushita K, Nakashima M. Side population cells isolated from porcine dental pulp tissue with self-renewal and multipotency for dentinogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, and neurogenesis. Stem Cells. 2006 Nov4.Gandia C, Armiñan A, García-Verdugo JM, Lledó E, Ruiz A, Miñana MD, Sanchez-Torrijos J, Payá R, Mirabet V, Carbonell-Uberos F, Llop M, Montero JA, Sepúlveda P. Human dental pulp stem cells improve left ventricular function, induce angiogenesis, and reduce infarct size in rats with acute myocardial infarction. Stem Cells. 2008 Mar5.Kerkis I, Kerkis A

Preethy SP

2010-01-01

197

Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.  

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For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive forms of periodontal disease. PMID:24738586

Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

2014-06-01

198

Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG Registered-Sign ) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

Inukai, Takeharu, E-mail: t-inukai@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Katagiri, Wataru, E-mail: w-kat@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Yoshimi, Ryoko, E-mail: lianzi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Osugi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kawai, Takamasa, E-mail: takamasa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hibi, Hideharu, E-mail: hibihi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ueda, Minoru, E-mail: mueda@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

2013-01-11

199

Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. ? Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). ? MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. ? MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. ? Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-?1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG®) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

2013-01-11

200

Determinantes del diagnóstico periodontal Determinants of periodontal diagnosis  

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Full Text Available Un correcto diagnóstico periodontal es necesario para la realización de una terapia periodontal exitosa en nuestro paciente. Entendiendo que la enfermedad periodontal es un proceso infeccioso-inflamatorio, diferentes variables se deben analizar clínicamente para determinar el diagnóstico. El diagnóstico entonces es un análisis concienzudo de la expresión clínica de la enfermedad, desde gingivitis hasta periodontitis. Este artículo analiza los determinantes más importantes del diagnóstico periodontal utilizados en la práctica clínica diaria.The correct diagnosis of periodontal disease is a pre-requisite for an appropriate periodontal treatment. Periodontal disease is an infectious-inflammatory process that affects different clinical variables that must be analyzed before reaching the diagnosis. The diagnosis should be a carefully performed analysis of the clinical expression of the disease, from gingivitis to periodontitis. This article reviews the most important determinants of periodontal diagnosis.

JE Botero

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Periodontal disease in smokers  

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Full Text Available Tobacco contains about 4000 different toxic substances from which almost 40 are proven to be cancerogenic. Nicotine, toxic alkaloid, is the most active substance in tobacco causing major number of harmful consequences for human organism as a whole, and for periodontal tissues as well. The aim of the paper was to show harmful effects of smoking on periodontal disease development, and to point out the problems caused by smoking during and after the periodontal treatment. Periodontal disease occurs in smokers more frequently as opposed to non-smokers. Typically, smokers have lower level of gingival inflammation, more excessive and accelerated loss of alveolar bone and epithelial insertion, deeper periodontal pockets and numerous gingival recessions. Along with that, smokers are carrying a decreased immune response that is expressed through various defense mechanisms. Smoking has negative impact on the outcome of conservative and surgical periodontal therapy. Effects of smoking on periodontal therapy success rate are requiring administration of antiseptic solutions and antibiotics throughout the treatment course. Every periodontologist must influence patients to stop smoking and thus act preventively on occurrence and progress of periodontal disease.

Cerovi? Olivera

2005-01-01

202

Expression of RANKL and OPG mRNA in periodontal disease: possible involvement in bone destruction.  

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Periodontitis is a complex, multifactorial process affected by bacterial plaque-components and host defense mechanisms. Inflammation of the periodontitium may lead the destruction of the underlying ligament and alveolar bone. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), a novel TNF receptor-related protein is an important factor for osteoclast differentiation and activation. Given osteolysis by osteoclast has been demonstrated in periodontitis, we hypothesized that RANKL expression may be associated with bone destruction in periodontitis. We used semi-quantitative RT-PCR to compare the gene expression of RANKL and osteoprogerin (OPG), a decoy receptor of RANKL, between moderate and advanced periodontitis, and healthy subjects. The level of RANKL mRNA was highest in advanced periodontitis. In contrast, the level of OPG mRNA in both advanced and moderate periodontitis was lower than that in the healthy group. It appears that the ratio of RANKL to OPG mRNA in periodontitis has increased. To determine the localization of RANKL gene transcripts in gingival tissue at the cellular level, in situ hybridization was performed using digoxigenin-labeled specific riboprobes. RANKL mRNA was expressed in inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocyte and macrophages. In addition, proliferating epithelium in the vicinity of inflammatory cells expressed high levels of RANKL mRNA. In short, our data suggest that up regulation of RANKL mRNA in both inflammatory cells and epithelium may be associated with the activation of osteoclastic bone destruction in periodontitis. PMID:12469211

Liu, D; Xu, J K; Figliomeni, L; Huang, L; Pavlos, N J; Rogers, M; Tan, A; Price, P; Zheng, M H

2003-01-01

203

Secreted osteoclastogenic factor of activated T cells (SOFAT), a novel osteoclast activator, in chronic periodontitis.  

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A novel activated human T cell-secreted cytokine, referred as secreted osteoclastogenic factor of activated T cells (SOFAT), that induce osteoclastogenesis in a RANKL-independent manner was recently described. This study evaluated the role of SOFAT in periodontal tissues and periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were harvested from systemically healthy non-periodontitis (n=15) and chronic periodontitis patients (n=15). The mRNA and protein levels of SOFAT were measured by qPCR and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Moreover, RAW 264.7 cells were cultured with SOFAT or Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Also, mice received a palatal injection between the first and second upper molar of SOFAT (100 ng/ml) or saline solution (0.9%). The upper jaw was removed, histologically processed and stained with hematoxilin and eosin to observe the presence of osteoclast-like cells. The mRNA and protein levels of SOFAT were significantly higher in the gingival tissue of the periodontitis group when compared to non-periodontitis one (p<0.05). In addition, SOFAT potently induced TRAP-positive multinucleated cell formation by RAW 264.7 cells as well as induced the formation of osteoclast-like cells in the periodontal ligament in mice. The present study demonstrated that SOFAT may play an important role in periodontitis. PMID:23619471

Jarry, Christian Rado; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Freitas, Fabiana Furtado; de Macedo, Cristina Gomes; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; Saba-Chujfi, Eduardo; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique

2013-07-01

204

Nicotine and periodontal tissues  

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Full Text Available Tobacco use has been recognized to be a significant risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Its use is associated with increased pocket depths, loss of periodontal attachment, alveolar bone and a higher rate of tooth loss. Nicotine, a major component and most pharmacologically active agent in tobacco is likely to be a significant contributing factor for the exacerbation of periodontal diseases. Available literature suggests that nicotine affects gingival blood flow, cytokine production, neutrophil and other immune cell function; connective tissue turnover, which can be the possible mechanisms responsible for overall effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues. Inclusion of tobacco cessation as a part of periodontal therapy encourages dental professionals to become more active in tobacco cessation counseling. This will have far reaching positive effects on our patients? oral and general health.

Malhotra Ranjan

2010-01-01

205

An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe  

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Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

2010-02-01

206

Tabaquismo y enfermedad periodontal  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal en 96 fumadores que acudieron al examen médico y control de salud en el Hospital Militar "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero" de Santa Clara, en el período comprendido de enero a junio del 2001. Para el examen de los fumadores se utilizó el índice de necesidad de tratamiento periodontal en la comunidad; los objetivos de este fueron determinar la prevalencia y gravedad de la enfermedad periodontal según la edad del paciente y los años que lleva fumando, así como las necesidades de tratamiento periodontal en los pacientes estudiados. Se pudo observar que el grupo de edad más afectado por la enfermedad fue el de 45 a 54 años, y las personas que llevan más de 40 años fumando padecen de periodontitis más severas. Los fumadores que consumen más de 10 cigarrillos o 3 tabacos diarios son los que necesitan tratamiento periodontal complejo.An epidemiological cross-sectional study was performed on 96 smokers who went to undergo medical examination and health control tests in "Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Military Hospital in Santa Clara from January to June, 2001. For the examination of smokers, the periodontal treatment need index in the community was used. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and seriousness of periodontal diseases according to the age of patients and years of smoking as well as the needs of periodontal treatment of the studied patients. It was observed that the most affected age group was 45-54 years and people who have been smoking for over 40 years suffered from the most severe type of periodontitis. The smokers who daily smoke more than 10 cigarettes or 3 cigars need complex periodontal treatment.

Bárbara Toledo Pimental

2002-06-01

207

Tabaquismo y enfermedad periodontal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal en 96 fumadores que acudieron al examen médico y control de salud en el Hospital Militar "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero" de Santa Clara, en el período comprendido de enero a junio del 2001. Para el examen de los fumadores se utilizó el índice de ne [...] cesidad de tratamiento periodontal en la comunidad; los objetivos de este fueron determinar la prevalencia y gravedad de la enfermedad periodontal según la edad del paciente y los años que lleva fumando, así como las necesidades de tratamiento periodontal en los pacientes estudiados. Se pudo observar que el grupo de edad más afectado por la enfermedad fue el de 45 a 54 años, y las personas que llevan más de 40 años fumando padecen de periodontitis más severas. Los fumadores que consumen más de 10 cigarrillos o 3 tabacos diarios son los que necesitan tratamiento periodontal complejo. Abstract in english An epidemiological cross-sectional study was performed on 96 smokers who went to undergo medical examination and health control tests in "Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Military Hospital in Santa Clara from January to June, 2001. For the examination of smokers, the periodontal treatment need index in the co [...] mmunity was used. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and seriousness of periodontal diseases according to the age of patients and years of smoking as well as the needs of periodontal treatment of the studied patients. It was observed that the most affected age group was 45-54 years and people who have been smoking for over 40 years suffered from the most severe type of periodontitis. The smokers who daily smoke more than 10 cigarettes or 3 cigars need complex periodontal treatment.

Bárbara, Toledo Pimental; María Elena, González Díaz; María Susana, Alfonso Tarraú; Aleida, Pérez Carrillo; María Lucía, Rodríguez Linares.

208

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury  

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Cruciate ligament injury - posterior; PCL injury; Knee injury - posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); Hyperextended knee ... a physical examination to check for signs of PCL injury. This includes moving the knee joint in ...

209

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries  

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... Does Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Injuries Treatment Coping With an MCL Injury About Knee Injuries Knee injuries often occur among active teens, especially athletes, and a torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) — a ligament that helps give the knee ...

210

Ankle ligament injuries  

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Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability that is refractory to conservative measures and bracing as outlined above, surgical treatment must address the subtalar joint as well. Subtalar ligament injury and instability are probably more common than appreciated. Definition and diagnosis of this entity are difficult, however. Fortunately, it appears that in the majority of the acute injuries healing occurs with the same functional rehabilitation program as that for lateral ankle ligament sprains. For chronic subtalar instability an intial attempt at functional rehabilitation with ankle proprioceptive training and bracing should be attempted. If this program fails primary repair or reconstruction can be beneficial. Reconstructive procedures must address the subtalar joint. Subtalar instability often occurs in conjunction with talocrural instability, so careful diagnosis is critical in anyone with chronic ankle instability. If either is not addressed, the patient will continue to have problems. Deltoid ligament injuries most often occur in association with ankle fractures. They are rare as isolated injuries. If no fracture is evident on radiographs, particular attention must be paid to the syndesmosis to ensure there is not an associated syndesmosis disruption. True isolated deltoid injuries seem to do well with non-operative functional treatment as for lateral ankle ligament injuries. Deltoid ruptures associated with ankle fractures appear to heal well by addressing the other injuries and allowing the deltoid to heal on its own. It is vital to correct any syndesmosis injury and to obtain correct bony alignment. Syndesmosis injuries can be debilitating if not treated properly. Careful physical exam and interpretation of radiographs is necessary to obtain a correct diagnosis. Partial injuries appear to do well with functional rehabilitation. However, complete tears, if widening is not corrected, can lead to chronic ankle pain and early degenerative changes. Widening of the syndesmosis with a tear of the inferior tibiofibular ligaments is an indication for surgery to place a syndesmosis screw for reduction o

Per A.F.H. Renström

1998-06-01

211

Ankle ligament injuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the [...] ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL). For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL), posterotalofibular (PTFL) and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability that is refractory to conservative measures and bracing as outlined above, surgical treatment must address the subtalar joint as well. Subtalar ligament injury and instability are probably more common than appreciated. Definition and diagnosis of this entity are difficult, however. Fortunately, it appears that in the majority of the acute injuries healing occurs with the same functional rehabilitation program as that for lateral ankle ligament sprains. For chronic subtalar instability an intial attempt at functional rehabilitation with ankle proprioceptive training and bracing should be attempted. If this program fails primary repair or reconstruction can be beneficial. Reconstructive procedures must address the subtalar joint. Subtalar instability often occurs in conjunction with talocrural instability, so careful diagnosis is critical in anyone with chronic ankle instability. If either is not addressed, the patient will continue to have problems. Deltoid ligament injuries most often occur in association with ankle fractures. They are rare as isolated injuries. If no fracture is evident on radiographs, particular attention must be paid to the syndesmosis to ensure there is not an associated syndesmosis disruption. True isolated deltoid injuries seem to do well with non-operative functional treatment as for lateral ankle ligament injuries. Deltoid ruptures associated with ankle fractures appear to heal well by addressing the other injuries and allowing the deltoid to heal on its own. It is vital to correct any syndesmosis injury and to obtain correct bony alignment. Syndesmosis injuries can be debilitating if not treated properly. Careful physical exam and interpretation of radiographs is necessary to obtain a correct diagnosis. Partial injuries appear to do well with functional rehabilitation. However, complete tears, if widening is not corrected, can lead to chronic ankle pain and early degenerative changes. Widening of the syndesmosis with a tear of the inferior tibiofibular ligaments is an ind

Per A.F.H., Renström; Scott A., Lynch.

212

Synchrotron radiation analysis of possible correlations between metal status in human cementum and periodontal disease  

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Periodontitis is a serious disease that affects up to 50% of an adult population. It is a chronic condition involving inflammation of the periodontal ligament and associated tissues leading to eventual tooth loss. Some evidence suggests that trace metals, especially zinc and copper, may be involved in the onset and severity of periodontitis. Thus we have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging on cross sections of diseased and healthy teeth using a microbeam to explore the distribution of trace metals in cementum and adhering plaque. The comparison between diseased and healthy teeth indicates that there are elevated levels of zinc, copper and nickel in diseased teeth as opposed to healthy teeth. This preliminary correlation between elevated levels of trace metals in the cementum and plaque of diseased teeth suggests that metals may play a role in the progress of periodontitis.

Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Edwards, M.; Mithoowani, H.; Stakiw, J. (UWO); (Saskatchewan)

2010-03-16

213

Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up.  

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This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT) of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found. PMID:19148410

Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari; Barata, Terezinha Jesus Esteves; Prakki, Anuradha; Bresciani, Eduardo; Pereira, José Carlos

2009-01-01

214

Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up  

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Full Text Available This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found.

Ticiane Cestari Fagundes

2009-02-01

215

Nonsurgical periodontal treatment.  

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The primary goal of nonsurgical periodontal therapy is to control microbial periodontal infection by removing bacterial biofilm, calculus, and toxins from periodontally involved root surfaces. A review of the scientific literature indicates that mechanical nonsurgical periodontal treatment predictably reduces the levels of inflammation and probing pocket depths, increases the clinical attachment level and results in an apical shift of the gingival margin. Another parameter to be considered, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence, is the reduction in the degree of tooth mobility, as clinically experienced. It is important to point out that nonsurgical periodontal treatment presents limitations such as the long-term maintainability of deep periodontal pockets, the risk of disease recurrence, and the skill of the operator. A high number of posttreatment residual pockets exhibiting bleeding on probing and > 5 mm deep are related to lower clinical stability. The successful treatment of plaque-induced periodontitis will restore periodontal health, but with reduced periodontium. In such cases, anatomical damage from previous periodontal disease will persist and inverse architecture of soft tissue may impair home plaque removal. The clinician can select one of the following therapeutic options according to the individual patient's needs: - Quadrant/sextant wise instrumentation (conventional staged debridement, CSD). - Instrumentation of all pockets within a 24-hour period with (full mouth disinfection [FMD]) or without (full mouth scaling and root planing [FMSRP]) local antiseptics. Both procedures can be associated with systemic antimicrobials. -CSD or FMD in combination with laser or photodynamic therapy. Patients with aggressive periodontitis constitute a challenge to the clinician. To date there are no established protocols for controlling the disease. However, data from the literature on the application of the FMD protocol combined with amoxicillin-metronidazole systemic administration are promising. A new classification in supra- and subcrestal nonsurgical periodontal therapy will be proposed. The supracrestal therapy includes the treatment of gingivitis, nonsurgical coverage of recession-type defects, treatment of suprabony defects and papilla reconstruction techniques. Within subcrestal periodontal therapy, it is of paramount importance to preserve both marginal tissues and connective fibers inserted in the root cementum at the apical part of the bony defects. PMID:24765632

Aimetti, Mario

2014-01-01

216

Non surgical Periodontal Therapy  

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Full Text Available Periodontal disease is the number one chronic infectious disease in the world. It is the leading cause of tooth loss, and begins as painless infection in the gums that is caused by buildup of bacterial plaque. The treatment modalities that exist for the treatment of gingivitis and Periodontitis depends on the extent and severity, but the primary objective is to restore the gingival health by removing the local factors viz plaque, calculus etc. that provoke inflammation. Non- surgical periodontal therapy or NSPT is one of the management of gingival infection with scaling, root planning, antibiotics and other non surgical means.

Harinath Reddy S

2009-12-01

217

Periodontal bone lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

1985-01-01

218

Effect of Cytokines on Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption during Mechanical Force Loading of the Periodontal Membrane  

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Mechanical force loading exerts important effects on the skeleton by controlling bone mass and strength. Several in vivo experimental models evaluating the effects of mechanical loading on bone metabolism have been reported. Orthodontic tooth movement is a useful model for understanding the mechanism of bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading. In a mouse model of orthodontic tooth movement, TNF-? was expressed and osteoclasts appeared on the compressed side of the periodontal ligament. In TNF-receptor-deficient mice, there was less tooth movement and osteoclast numbers were lower than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that osteoclast formation and bone resorption caused by loading forces on the periodontal ligament depend on TNF-?. Several cytokines are expressed in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement. Studies have found that inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-? strongly inhibit osteoclast formation and tooth movement. Blocking macrophage colony-stimulating factor by using anti-c-Fms antibody also inhibited osteoclast formation and tooth movement. In this review we describe and discuss the effect of cytokines in the periodontal ligament on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during mechanical force loading.

Kimura, Keisuke; Ishida, Masahiko; Sugisawa, Haruki; Kohara, Haruka; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

2014-01-01

219

Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research pertains to identifying antibacterial and antiinflammatory agents, used individually or in combination, which are appropriate for preventing the exacerbation of acute periodontal disease under field conditions. During the second year of the ...

S. F. Hoff

1986-01-01

220

Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Concomitant use of FGF-2 and ?-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. ? FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via ?-TCP at the defects. ? In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. ? Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. ? This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and ?-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus ?-TCP or ?-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with ?-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and ?-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal regeneration following severe destruction by progressive periodontitis.

2010-12-17

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal regeneration following severe destruction by progressive periodontitis.

Anzai, Jun, E-mail: anzai_jun@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro, E-mail: kitamura@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nozaki, Takenori, E-mail: tnozaki@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Toshie, E-mail: nagayasu_toshie@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Terashima, Akio, E-mail: terashima_akio@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Asano, Taiji, E-mail: asano_taiji@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Murakami, Shinya, E-mail: ipshinya@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-12-17

222

Ozone therapy in periodontics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of oz...

2012-01-01

223

Stress increases periodontal inflammation  

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This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of peri...

Rivera, Ce?sar; Monsalve, Francisco; Suazo, Iva?n; Becerra, Javiera

2012-01-01

224

Changes in periodontal pulsation in relation to increasing loads on rat molars and to blood pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulsation originating from the vascular system of the periodontal ligament (PDL) is apparently synchronized with the heartbeat. As periodontal pulsation causes pulsatile tooth vibration, it might be possible to evaluate it indirectly by measuring tooth vibration. Periodontal pulsation has been found to be dependent on blood flow and blood pressure in the PDL. Heavy orthodontic force is known to reduce blood flow and decrease the amplitude of the pulsation. The purpose now was to examine (1). the magnitude of the experimental orthodontic force that will impair PDL blood flow; and (2). the differences in the amplitude of pulsation between normal and hypertensive animals. The experiments were performed on 10 Wistar, 10 Dahl S and 10 Dahl R rats. Hypertension was induced in Dahl S rats. The head and maxilla of anaesthetized animals were immobilized. Mesial tipping forces of different loads (0.098-0.882 N) were applied to a molar and periodontal pulsation was measured with a highly sensitive laser displacement meter. The periodontal pulsation at each load resembled a blood-volume pulse wave. Its amplitude began to decrease at a load of 0.588 N in Wistar and Dahl R rats, and at 0.784 N in Dahl S rats. The group with induced hypertension had a significantly larger amplitude than the other two groups when 0.588 N was applied. These results suggest that: (1). periodontal pulsation can indicate a PDL overload; and (2). that systemic blood pressure affects the amplitude of periodontal pulsation during loading. PMID:12221017

Imamura, Nobuyoshi; Nakata, Shunsuke; Nakasima, Akihiko

2002-08-01

225

Obesity and periodontal disease  

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Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis and related inflammatory diseases. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review adipose-tissue - derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis.

Jagannathachary Sunitha

2010-01-01

226

Effect of the interaction between periodontitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia.  

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Abstract Objective. This study examined the effect of the interaction between periodontitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia in animal models. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into normal, periodontitis, diabetic and diabetic with periodontitis groups. After injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes, periodontitis was induced by ligation of both lower-side first molars for 30 days. Alveolar bone loss and trabecular bone volume fraction (BVF) of the mandibular condyle and tibia were estimated via hematoxylin and eosin staining and micro-computed tomography, respectively. Osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells isolated from tibia and femur was assayed using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Results. The cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar bone crest distance and ratio of periodontal ligament area in the diabetic with periodontitis group were significantly increased compared to those of the periodontitis group. Mandibular condyle BVF did not differ among groups. The BVF of tibia in the diabetic and diabetic with periodontitis groups was lower than that of the normal and periodontitis groups. Osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells in the diabetic groups was higher than that in the non-diabetic groups. However, the BVF of tibia and osteoclastogenesis in the diabetic with periodontitis group were not significantly different than those in the diabetic group. Conclusions. Type 1 diabetes mellitus aggravates alveolar bone loss induced by periodontitis, but periodontitis does not alter the mandibular condyle and tibia bone loss induced by diabetes. Alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia may have different responses to bone loss stimuli in the diabetic environment. PMID:23931568

Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Dong-Eun; Gunawardhana, K S Niluka Darshani; Choi, Seong-Ho; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Bak, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Yun-Jung

2014-05-01

227

PULP dead or alive  

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Full Text Available A pain response to hot, cold or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply; the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. Although the sensitivity of these tests is high, when false-positive and falsenegative results occur, they may affect the treatment of the tooth. A tooth falsely diagnosed as nonvital with an electric pulp tester may undergo an unnecessary root canal, whereas one falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissues (resorption. The vascular supply is more important to the determination of the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Pulp death is caused by cessation of blood flow and may result in a necrotic pulp, even though the pulpal sensory supply may still be viable. The pulp can be healed only if the circulating blood flow is healthy. Although still under investigation, diagnostic devices that examine pulpal blood flow, such as the pulse oximeter and laser Doppler flowmetry, show promising results for the assessment of pulp vitality.

Pankaj Agarwal

2011-12-01

228

The progress of the periodontal syndrome in the rice rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several morphometric and cellular parameters were studied in the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris). When fed a soft, high carbohydrate diet, a severe periodontal disease occurred, with significant alterations in the morphometric and cellular endpoints observed. Weaned animals were placed on a high carbohydrate diet for periods of 6, 12 or 18 weeks. There was a linear rapid loss of bone by 18 weeks, approaching a 75% loss of original bone. Vascular spaces decreased as the remaining connective tissue became fibrotic in character. The percentage of the interdental test site which was destroyed by periodontal disease increased dramatically over the time of the experiment. The numbers of fibroblasts per mm of bone surface increased slightly at the 18 week period; osteoblasts were unchanged at any period. The numbers of osteoclast nuclei rose dramatically by 12 weeks, and these cell nuclei remained at increased levels at 18 weeks. Also, the numbers of inflammatory cells residing at the bone surface increased greatly by 18 weeks time. Finally, the numbers of "3H-TdR labeled periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts increased significantly at both 12 and 18 weeks time. These cellular changes and their relation to the bone loss due to periodontal disease are discussed. (author)

1981-01-01

229

Cementoblast Delivery for Periodontal Tissue Engineering  

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Background Predictable periodontal regeneration following periodontal disease is a major goal of therapy. The objective of this proof of concept investigation was to evaluate the ability of cementoblasts and dental follicle cells to promote periodontal regeneration in a rodent periodontal fenestration model. Methods The buccal aspect of the distal root of the first mandibular molar was denuded of its periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and superficial dentin through a bony window created bilaterally in 12 athymic rats. Treated defects were divided into three groups: 1) carrier alone (PLGA polymer sponges), 2) carrier + follicle cells, and 3) carrier + cementoblasts. Cultured murine primary follicle cells and immortalized cementoblasts were delivered to the defects via biodegradable PLGA polymer sponges, and mandibulae were retrieved 3 weeks and 6 weeks post-surgery for histological evaluation. In situ hybridization, for gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), and histomorphometric analysis were further done on 3-week specimens. Results Three weeks after surgery, histology of defects treated with carrier alone indicated PLGA particles, fibrous tissue, and newly formed bone scattered within the defect area. Defects treated with carrier + follicle cells had a similar appearance, but with less formation of bone. In contrast, in defects treated with carrier + cementoblasts, mineralized tissues were noted at the healing site with extension toward the root surface, PDL region, and laterally beyond the buccal plate envelope of bone. No PDL-bone fibrous attachment was observed in any of the groups at this point. In situ hybridization showed that the mineralized tissue formed by cementoblasts gave strong signals for both BSP and OCN genes, confirming its nature as cementum or bone. The changes noted at 3 weeks were also observed at 6 weeks. Cementoblast-treated and carrier alone-treated defects exhibited complete bone bridging and PDL formation, whereas follicle cell-treated defects showed minimal evidence of osteogenesis. No new cementum was formed along the root surface in the above two groups. Cementoblast-treated defects were filled with trabeculated mineralized tissue similar to, but more mature, than that seen at 3 weeks. Furthermore, the PDL region was maintained with well-organized collagen fibers connecting the adjacent bone to a thin layer of cementum-like tissue observed on the root surface. Neoplastic changes were observed at the superficial portions of the implants in two of the 6-week cementoblast-treated specimens, possibly due in part to the SV40-transformed nature of the implanted cell line. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates that cementoblasts have a marked ability to induce mineralization in periodontal wounds when delivered via polymer sponges, while implanted dental follicle cells seem to inhibit periodontal healing. These results confirm the selective behaviors of different cell types in vivo and support the role of cementoblasts as a tool to better understand periodontal regeneration and cementogenesis.

Zhao, Ming; Jin, Qiming; Berry, Janice E.; Nociti, Francisco H.; Giannobile, William V.; Somerman, Martha J.

2008-01-01

230

JAMA Patient Page: Periodontal Disease  

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... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Periodontal Disease P eriodontal disease (unhealthy gums and teeth) often ... JAMA includes an article about an association between periodontal disease and smoking marijuana. CAUSES FOR MORE INFORMATION • American ...

231

Acute periodontal lesions.  

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This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute disease is under control, definitive treatment should be provided, including appropriate therapy for the pre-existing gingivitis or periodontitis. Among other acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, but not caused by the microorganisms present in oral biofilms, infectious diseases, mucocutaneous diseases and traumatic or allergic lesions can be listed. In most cases, the gingival involvement is not severe; however, these conditions are common and may prompt an emergency dental visit. These conditions may have the appearance of an erythematous lesion, which is sometimes erosive. Erosive lesions may be the direct result of trauma or a consequence of the breaking of vesicles and bullae. A proper differential diagnosis is important for adequate management of the case. PMID:24738591

Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

2014-06-01

232

Antibacterial effect of root canal preparation and calcium hydroxide paste (Calen) intracanal dressing in primary teeth with apical periodontitis Efeito antibacteriano do preparo biomecânico e do curativo de demora com pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio (Calen) em dentes decíduos com lesão periapical  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial action of root canal mechanical preparation using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite as the irrigating solution and a calcium hydroxide paste as the antibacterial intracanal dressing in human primary teeth root canals with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis by means of microbial culture. A total of 26 root canals of human primary teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis were used. Samples were collected before, 72h after biomechanical...

Gisele Faria; Paulo Nelson-Filho; Aldevina Campos de Freitas; Sada Assed; Izabel Yoko Ito

2005-01-01

233

Formas agudas de periodontitis Acute conditions of periodontal disease  

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Full Text Available La clasificación de las Enfermedades Periodontales ha cambiado en las últimas décadas. En la clasificación la AAP de 1989 la periodontitis necrotizante ocupaba el cuarto lugar. En el Workshop Europeo de 1993 la periodontitis necrotizante aparece en el grupo de los descriptores primarios. Según el Internacional Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions 1999 en el que se revisó y se modificó la clasificación de las patologías periodontales, las enfermedades periodontales necrotizantes ocupan el punto cinco, diferenciándose entre Gingivitis Necrotizante y Periodontitis Necrotizante. Y se añade en la clasificación el grupo de abscesos periodontales. En este artículo de revisión vamos a profundizar acerca de las formas agudas de periodontitis.The Periodontal Diseases classification had changed in the last decades. In AAP classification of 1989 the necrotize was in the 4th position. In the European Workshop was in the group of primary descriptors. According to the International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions 1999, review and modificated the classification of periodontal pathologies, the periodontal necrotize diseases are in the 5th position, distinguishing between Necrotize Gingivitis and Necrotize Periodontitis. And Peridontal Abscesses was add to the classification. In this paper we are going to review about the acute forms of Periodontal Diseases.

L. Pérez-Salcedo

2008-04-01

234

Aterosclerosis en sujetos con periodontitis Association between atherosclerosis and periodontitis  

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Full Text Available Background: Chronic infl ammation and infections are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Aim: To evaluate the association between periodontitis and early atherosclerosis. Material and Methods: Fifty-three subjects who received periodontal treatment and regular maintenance for at least 10 years, and 55 subjects with periodontitis but without a history of periodontal treatment were studied. Carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (CIMT was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. A blood sample was obtained to measure high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipoprotein cholesterol, leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Covariates included age, gender, smoking, level of education, body mass index and physical activity. The benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA test was used to determine the number of periodontal sites with periodontal pathogens. Results: CIMT value was significantly higher in subjects with periodontitis than those without it (0.775 ± 0.268 and 0.683 ± 0.131 mm respectively, p = 0.027. C-reactive protein, leukocyte count and percentage of sites with periodontal pathogens were also significantly higher in subjects with periodontitis. Regression analysis identified age, periodontitis, and smoking as independent predictors of CIMT. Conclusions: These results suggest that untreated periodontitis is associated with early atherosclerotic carotid lesions and higher levels of infl ammatory markers.

Néstor J López

2011-06-01

235

Lasers in periodontics  

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Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20th century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.

Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

2012-01-01

236

Periodontal disease and systemic complications  

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Full Text Available Periodontal diseases comprise a number of infectious and inflammatory conditions brought about by the interaction between supragingival and subgingival biofilms and the host inflammatory response. Periodontal diseases should be considered systemic conditions. This means that they are both modulated by the body's systems and play a role as a risk factor for systemic derangements. The current evidence supports some of these interactions, such as smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, as both influenced by and influencing inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissue. Other potential associations are still being researched, such as obesity, hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease, and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. These, and others, still require further investigation before the repercussions of periodontal disease can be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, at the present time, the treatment of periodontal diseases-and, most importantly, their prevention-enables adequate intervention as a means of ensuring periodontal health.

Rui Vicente Oppermann

2012-01-01

237

Periodontal disease and systemic complications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Periodontal diseases comprise a number of infectious and inflammatory conditions brought about by the interaction between supragingival and subgingival biofilms and the host inflammatory response. Periodontal diseases should be considered systemic conditions. This means that they are both modulated [...] by the body's systems and play a role as a risk factor for systemic derangements. The current evidence supports some of these interactions, such as smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, as both influenced by and influencing inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissue. Other potential associations are still being researched, such as obesity, hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease, and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. These, and others, still require further investigation before the repercussions of periodontal disease can be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, at the present time, the treatment of periodontal diseases-and, most importantly, their prevention-enables adequate intervention as a means of ensuring periodontal health.

Rui Vicente, Oppermann; Patricia, Weidlich; Marta Liliana, Musskopf.

238

Pulping of Sesbania Aculeata.  

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This investigation is directed towards exploring the potentiality of Sesbania aculeata, a fast growing species commonly cultivated for green manure, fodder and temporary shades, for pulp and paper making and its subsequent commercial exploitation. From Se...

N. R. M. Rao R. M. Mathur D. G. Suryavanshi A. G. Kulkarni K. S. Moorthy

1981-01-01

239

Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

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Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

Sculley, D V

2014-06-01

240

DERESINATION OPTIONS IN SULPHITE PULPING  

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Full Text Available Three methods for improved deresination of sulphite pulps were evaluated, namely, alkaline washing, enzyme treatment, and pulp fractionation. Alkaline washing appears to come at a high cost, because caustic is expensive and affects cellulose chain length, as indicated by lower viscosity of the pulps. Thus this is not a viable option for pulps that are sensitive to changes in viscosity. Enzyme treatment did not completely degrade the glycerides under the mill conditions used. Fibre fractionation studies showed that the fines fractions contained 8 to 13 times more residual lipophilic extractives than the whole pulps. Removing this fraction, which represents only a small percentage of the whole pulp, could reduce by about a half the amount of lipophilic extractives in the remaining pulp. Thus pulp fractionation appears to be a viable option to achieve further deresination of sulphite pulps.

Bruce Sitholé

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Laser Application in Periodontics  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of lasers for treatment has become a common phenomenon in the medical field. Currently, numerous laser systems are available for dental use. The use of lasers for periodontal treatment becomes more complicated because the periodontium consists of both hard and soft tissues.METHODS: Related articles were gathered and selected carefully and reviewed. Among the many lasers available, high power lasers such as Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2,Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG and diode lasers can be used in periodontics. The use of these lasers is limited to gingivectomy, frenectomy and similar soft tissue procedures including the removal of melanin pigmentation of gingiva. Recently, Erbium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet(Er:YAG and Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG lasers are used for scaling, root debridement, cutting, shaving, contouring and resection of oral osseous tissues.RESULTS: In addition to their surgical applications, low-level lasers such as Er:YAG laser irradiation promotes osteoblast proliferation showing higher and favorable bone tissue regeneration. These findings suggest faster bone tissue healing following periodontal and peri-implant low level laser therapy.CONCLUSION: Advantages of laser treatment in periodontics are effective and efficient soft and hard tissue ablation with a greater hemostasis, bactericidal effect, minimal wound contraction, faster bone tissue healing, minimal collateral damages along with reduced use of local analgesia.

Farnaz Falaki

2012-03-01

242

Periodontal Bioengineering: A Discourse in Surface Topographies, Progenitor Cells and Molecular Profiles  

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Stem/progenitor cells are a population of cells capable of providing replacement cells for a given differentiated cell type. We have applied progenitor cell-based technologies to generate novel tissue-engineered implants that use biomimetic strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Mesenchymal periodontal tissues such as cementum, alveolar bone (AB), and periodontal ligament (PDL) are neural crest-derived entities that emerge from the dental follicle (DF) at the onset of tooth root formation. Using a systems biology approach we have identified key differences between these periodontal progenitors on the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, in addition to differences in cellular morphologies. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Secondly, we have tested the influence of natural extracellular hydroxyapatite matrices on periodontal progenitor differentiation. Dimension and structure of extracellular matrix surfaces have powerful influences on cell shape, adhesion, and gene expression. Here we show that natural tooth root topographies induce integrin-mediated extracellular matrix signaling cascades in tandem with cell elongation and polarization to generate physiological periodontium-like tissues. In this study we replanted surface topography instructed periodontal ligament progenitors (PDLPs) into rat alveolar bone sockets for 8 and 16 weeks, resulting in complete attachment of tooth roots to the surrounding alveolar bone with a periodontal ligament fiber apparatus closely matching physiological controls along the entire root surface. Displacement studies and biochemical analyses confirmed that progenitor-based engineered periodontal tissues were similar to control teeth and uniquely derived from pre-implantation green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled progenitors. Together, these studies illustrate the capacity of natural extracellular surface topographies to instruct PDLPs to fully regenerate complex cellular and structural morphologies of tissues once lost to disease. We suggest that our strategy could be used for the replantation of teeth lost due to trauma or as a novel approach for tooth replacement using tooth-shaped replicas.

Dangaria, Smit J.

243

Rupture of the meniscofibular ligament  

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Full Text Available Abstract The meniscofibular ligament is an anatomically defined ligament of the knee in humans. However, there are no data regarding the prognosis following injury to this ligament. Our case was a 42-year-old man who presented at our clinic with pain of the lateral side of his left knee. MRI of his left knee revealed the rupture of the meniscofibular ligament. The mechanism of injury was consistent with anatomical and mechanical studies of the meniscofibular ligament. The patient was treated conservatively for 1 year, but his pain did not resolve completely. A case series of patients with the same injury is required to establish an effective treatment for this rare injury.

Poyanli Oguz

2010-05-01

244

CT of the pulmonary ligament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest show the inferior pulmonary ligament and an associated septum in the lower lobe, although CT descriptions of these structures have not been reported. Conventional radiography of the ligament has relied on indirect signs: the position of the lower lobe in the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, soft-tissue peaks along the upper surface of the diaphragm, and the rare traumatic paramediastinal pneumatocele (attributed to air in the ligament). CT clarifies the anatomic relations of the ligament and alterations caused by pleural effusion and pneumothorax. The ligament is probably responsible for some long linear shadows at the lung bases, and CT helps to distinguish these from scars, walls of bullae, and normal structures such as the phrenic nerve and the interlobar fissures

1983-01-01

245

Dental pulp stem cells: Potential significance in regenerative medicine  

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Full Text Available To date, three types of dental stem cells have been isolated: Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC, Stem Cells From Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHED and Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (IDPC. These dental stem cells are considered as mesenchymal stem cells. They reside within the perivascular niche of dental pulp. They are highly proliferative, clonogenic, multipotent and are similar to mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells (BMSC. Also, they have high plasticity and can be easy isolated. The expressions of the alkaline phosphatase gene, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentinsialophosphoprotein are verified in these cells. Analyses of gene expression patterns indicated several genes which encode extracellular matrix components, cell adhesion molecules, growth factors and transcription regulators, cell signaling, cell communication or cell metabolism. In both conditions, in vivo and in vitro, these cells have the ability to differentiate into odontoblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, neurons, melanocytes, smooth and skeletal muscles and endothelial cells. In vivo, after implantation, they have shown potential to differentiate into dentin but also into tissues like bone, adipose or neural tissue. In general, DPSCs are considered to have antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory abilities. After being grafted into allogenic tissues these cells are ableto induce immunological tolerance. Immunosuppressive effect is shown through the ability to inhibit proliferation of T lymphocytes. Dental pulp stem cells open new perspectives in therapeutic use not only in dentin regeneration, periodontal tissues and skeletoarticular, tissues of craniofacial region but also in treatment of neurotrauma, autoimmune diseases, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy and connective tissue damages.

Todorovi? Vera

2008-01-01

246

Lateral Periodontal Cyst: a Case Report and Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Background: The lateral periodontal cyst is considered a developmental odontogenic cyst with unusual occurrence. In most cases it is preliminary diagnosed as a radiographic finding, presenting as well circumscribed or as a round or teardrop-shaped radiolucent area. Due to its location it can easily be misdiagnosed as a lesion of endodontic origin. Final diagnosis should be based on histopatological examination. The purpose of this paper is to report a classic case of lateral periodontal cyst located in the anterior region of mandible and to review the relevant literature which describes the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of lateral periodontal cysts.Methods: A 50 years female patient complained of an asymptomatic gingival swelling in the region between the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. Radiographic examination revealed a well circumscribed radiolucency with approximately 0.5 cm diameter with a radiopaque margin between the roots of the left mandibular lateral incisor and canine. The adjacent teeth had vital pulp.Results: A total enucleation of the lesion was performed, and intraoperative examination showed a single lesion with no communication between the cyst's cavity and the oral environment. Histological examination revealed that the lesion was “lateral periodontal cyst of developmental origin”. There was no recurrence or complications for 24 months follow-up.Conclusions: The lateral periodontal cyst can be considered in the differential diagnosis when a radioloucent lesion appears adjacent to the roots of vital teeth. The treatment of choice is surgical removal and subsequent histological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis. Relapses are infrequent.

Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva de Carvalho

2010-10-01

247

Tobacco smoking and vertical periodontal bone loss  

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Cigarette smoking is associated with increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal disease in terms of periodontal pocketing, periodontal bone loss, and tooth loss. The smoking destructive effect on periodontal bone may be of even "horizontal" or vertical "angular" pattern. The vertical bone loss or the "vertical defect" is a sign of progressive periodontal breakdown that involves the periodontal bone. Water pipe smoking has a sharp rise by in popularity in th...

Baljoon, Mostafa

2005-01-01

248

Development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of novel injectable smart gels of azithromycin for chronic periodontitis.  

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Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition affecting teeth resulting in progressive destruction of periodontal ligaments, resorption of alveolar bone and loss of teeth. Treatment of periodontitis includes surgical and non surgical management. Systemic antibiotics are also used for the treatment of periodontitis. The aim of this research was to formulate smart gel system of azithromycin (AZT) and to evaluate in vitro and in vivo for non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. Azithromycin dihydrate, used systemically in the treatment of periodontitis, was formulated into smart gels using biodegradable, thermosensitive polymer Pluronic® F-127 (PF-127) and Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose (HEC) as copolymer. The prepared smart gels were evaluated for sterility, content uniformity, gelation temperature and time, syringeability, rheological behavior, in vitro diffusion and in vivo efficacy in human patients. The prepared smart gels were clear and transparent, sterile, thermoresponsive and injectable. Viscosity of gels increased with increase in concentration of polymer/co-polymer and also with temperature. They gelled in short response time below the body temperature. In vitro release studies showed controlled drug release which was influenced significantly by the properties and concentration of PF-127 and HEC. In vivo efficacy studies showed a significant improvement (p <0.001) in clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding index and plaque index. The developed azithromycin smart gel system is a novel approach for the treatment of chronic periodontitis since it reduces the dose and side effects, bypasses the usual surgical procedures and improves patient compliance. PMID:23003342

Venkatesh, M P; Kumar, T M Pramod; Avinash, B S; Kumar, G Sheela

2013-04-01

249

Scapholunate Ligament Reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Background?Scapholunate reconstruction poses a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Materials and Methods?Prospective cohort. Description of Technique?Our technique for scapholunate (SL) reconstruction involves ligament reconstruction utilizing a portion of the flexor carpi radialis tendon rerouted via transosseous tunnels across the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum (scapholunotriquetral tenodesis). The tendon graft is secured with interference screw fixation into the triquetrum. The philosophy of this new technique is to reduce subluxation and maintain the relationship between scaphoid and lunate by placing a graft through the center of the SL articulation. This graft is then tensioned by passing it centrally through the lunate and triquetrum and secured using an interference screw in the triquetrum. Secondary stabilizers, including the dorsal intercarpal ligament, are then augmented by passing the graft back to the scaphoid, crossing from the triquetrum over the proximal capitate. This further reinforces the translational relationship between the scaphoid and the triquetrum and, therefore, augments stability of the SL articulation. Results?We have utilized this technique successfully in over 40 patients since 2009. We report on a prospective consecutive series of 11 patients with over 12 months follow-up (range 12 to 24 months) demonstrating good early radiological and clinical outcomes. Conclusions?In developing this technique, we aimed to take the best features of previously described techniques and address the perceived shortcomings of each. We believe there are several benefits of our technique. Moreover, few other techniques address as many of the aspects of chronic SL instability as our technique does.

Ross, Mark; Loveridge, Jeremy; Cutbush, Kenneth; Couzens, Greg

2013-01-01

250

Agrupaciones familiares en periodontitis crónica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fundamento: la periodontitis crónica es una enfermedad infecciosa asociada a microorganismos Gram-negativos anaerobios. Estos microorganismos inician una serie de eventos que conducen a la pérdida de inserción periodontal y alveolar alrededor del diente. Objetivo: presentar algunos patrones clínicos, radiográficos y microbiológicos comunes a cinco hermanos, dos esposos, y padre e hijo, con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica avanzada generalizada. Método: se realizó un estudio desc...

2011-01-01

251

Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Periodontitis  

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We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in ...

Laine, Marja L.; Loos, Bruno G.; Crielaard, W.

2010-01-01

252

EFICACIA DEL MOXIFLOXACINO EN PERIODONTITIS Efficacy of Moxifloxacin on periodontitis  

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Full Text Available Un grupo de bacterias predominantemente Gram.-negativas anaerobias están asociadas con el inicio y progreso de la enfermedad periodontal. Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans y Tannerella forsythensis son los microorganismos fuertemente implicados como agentes etiológicos de la periodontitis. El propósito principal del tratamiento periodontal es reducir la infección, resolver la inflamación y prevenir un deterioro posterior. La terapia antibiótica adjunta puede usarse para mejorar los resultados del tratamiento en pacientes con periodontitis crónica avanzada y periodontitis agresiva. Es muy extenso el rango de antibióticos empleados para tratar las infecciones periodontales: tetraciclinas, metronidazol solo o combinado con amoxicilina, azitromicina, clindamicina etcétera. La presencia de resistencias bacterianas sugiere alternativas como el moxifloxacino, el cual ha mostrado efectividad contra Gram.-positivos, anaerobios, microor-ganismos plantónicos, y bacterias localizadas en biopelículas e intracelularmente.A group of predominantly gram-negative , anaerobic bacterias are associated with initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Microorganism strongly implicated as etiologic agents of periodontitis include Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythensis. The primary aim of periodontal treatment is to reduce the infection, resolve inflammation and prevent any further destruction. Antibiotics adjunctive can be used to improve treatment outcomes in patients with severe chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. The range of antibiotics used to treat periodontal infections is quite extensive including the tetracyclines, metronidazole and the combination with amoxicillin, azythromicin, clindamycin etc. Problems of bacterial resistance suggest alternatives as moxifloxacin that showed activity against gram-positives, anaerobes, planktonic microorganism as well as bacteria located within a biofilm or intracellularly.

Carlos Martín Ardila Medina

2009-09-01

253

EFICACIA DEL MOXIFLOXACINO EN PERIODONTITIS / Efficacy of Moxifloxacin on periodontitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un grupo de bacterias predominantemente Gram.-negativas anaerobias están asociadas con el inicio y progreso de la enfermedad periodontal. Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans y Tannerella forsythensis son los microorganismos fuertemente implicados como agentes etiológicos [...] de la periodontitis. El propósito principal del tratamiento periodontal es reducir la infección, resolver la inflamación y prevenir un deterioro posterior. La terapia antibiótica adjunta puede usarse para mejorar los resultados del tratamiento en pacientes con periodontitis crónica avanzada y periodontitis agresiva. Es muy extenso el rango de antibióticos empleados para tratar las infecciones periodontales: tetraciclinas, metronidazol solo o combinado con amoxicilina, azitromicina, clindamicina etcétera. La presencia de resistencias bacterianas sugiere alternativas como el moxifloxacino, el cual ha mostrado efectividad contra Gram.-positivos, anaerobios, microor-ganismos plantónicos, y bacterias localizadas en biopelículas e intracelularmente. Abstract in english A group of predominantly gram-negative , anaerobic bacterias are associated with initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Microorganism strongly implicated as etiologic agents of periodontitis include Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythens [...] is. The primary aim of periodontal treatment is to reduce the infection, resolve inflammation and prevent any further destruction. Antibiotics adjunctive can be used to improve treatment outcomes in patients with severe chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. The range of antibiotics used to treat periodontal infections is quite extensive including the tetracyclines, metronidazole and the combination with amoxicillin, azythromicin, clindamycin etc. Problems of bacterial resistance suggest alternatives as moxifloxacin that showed activity against gram-positives, anaerobes, planktonic microorganism as well as bacteria located within a biofilm or intracellularly.

Ardila Medina, Carlos Martín; Guzmán Zuluaga, Isabel Cristina; Arbeláez Montoya, María Patricia.

254

Laser Application in Periodontics  

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Please cite this article as follows:

Seyyedi SA, Khashabi E , Falaki F. Laser application in periodontics : J Lasers Med Sci 2012; 3(1):26-32

*Corresponding Author: Seyyed Amir Seyyedi, DDS.MSc.; Dept. of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Tel: +98-9143408762; Fax: +98-4413470517; Email: seyyediamir@yahoo.com

Introduction: The use of lasers for treatm...

2012-01-01

255

Lasers in periodontics  

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Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20th century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging impl...

Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

2012-01-01

256

ALTERNATIVE PULPING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP FROM JUTE  

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Full Text Available Dissolving pulps are the raw materials of cellulose derivatives and of many other cellulosic products. Jute is a very good source of cellulose and worthy of consideration for the production of dissolving pulp. In this investigation jute fiber, jute cuttings, and jute caddis were used as raw materials to prepare dissolving pulp by a formic acid process. A very high bleached pulp yield (49 to 59% was obtained in this process. The ?-cellulose content was 93 to 98%, with a high pulp viscosity. Also a good brightness (81 to 87% was achieved in totally chlorine free bleaching. Jute fiber showed the best and jute caddis showed lowest performance in producing dissolving pulp via the formic acid process. R18-R10 values were much lower than for conventional dissolving pulp.

M. Sarwar Jahan

2008-11-01

257

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper determines the efficacy of MR imaging in evaluation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) following reconstructive surgery. Forty-three MR examinations were performed in 33 patients who had undergone previous arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar bone-tendon- bone autografts (postoperative period, 1-24 months; mean, 5.2 months). Of the 40 studies performed in clinically stable knees (30 patients), MR demonstrated a well-defined, signal void ACL graft in 36. Of the three studies performed in three patients with clinical ACL laxity or suspected tear, the neoligament was of intermediate definition in one and nondiscernible in the other two. As in the native knee, buckling of the PCL was suggestive of ACL insufficiency. Bone tunnel placement, patellar tendon changes, and joint effusions were also evaluated

1990-11-25

258

Intermittent parathyroid hormone administration improves periodontal healing in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) promotes new bone formation in patients with osteoporosis and bone fractures. It was shown previously that PTH also reduces periodontitis-related bone loss. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of treatment with PTH on periodontal healing in rats. Methods: Fenestration defects were created at the buccal surface of the distal root of the mandibular first molars, and both periodontal ligament (PDL) and cementum were removed. Animals were then assigned to two groups (eight animals per group): group 1: control, placebo administration; and group 2: test, human PTH (hPTH) 1-34 administration at a concentration of 40 ?g/kg. For both groups, the animals were injected every 2 days, and the animals were sacrificed at 14 and 21 days after surgery. Specimens were harvested and processed for routine decalcified histologic sections. The following parameters were assessed: 1) remaining bone defect extension (RBDE); 2) newly formed bone density (NFBD); 3) total callus area (TCA); 4) osteoclast number (ON) in the callus region; and 5) newly formed dental cementum-like tissue (NFC). Birefringence of root PDL reattachment was also evaluated. Results: Birefringence analysis showed root PDL reattachment for both groups 21 days after treatment. Intermittent hPTH 1-34 administration decreased RBDE (P <0.01) and increased NFBD (P <0.01), TCA (P <0.01), area of NFC (P <0.01), and ON in the callus region (P <0.01). Conclusion: Within the limits of the present study, intermittent administration of hPTH 1-34 led to an enhanced periodontal healing process compared with non-treated animals. PMID:23895251

Vasconcelos, Daniel Fernando Pereira; Marques, Marcelo Rocha; Benatti, Bruno Braga; Barros, Silvana Pereira; Nociti Júnior, Francisco Humberto; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

2014-05-01

259

Periodontal diseases and awareness among patients.  

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Awareness of periodontal problems and how they interpret this and their timely intervention affects periodontal health. Many people neither recognize the symptoms of periodontal disease nor do they associate existing symptoms with the disease. Hence one should ensure that the routes of science transfer are open so that the appropriate knowledge regarding the prevention and control of periodontal diseases are available to the public.

Thomas Betsy; Bhat M; Nair S

2005-01-01

260

Periodontal disease: a genetic perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease that causes tooth loss. The complex pathogenesis of periodontitis implies the involvement of a susceptible host and a bacterial challenge. Many studies have provided a valuable contribution to understanding the genetic basis of periodontal disease, but the specific candidate genes of susceptibility are still unknown. In fact, genome-wide studies and screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms have yielded new genetic information without a definitive solution for the management of periodontal disease. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the most relevant literature, presenting the main concepts and insights of the strategies that have been emerging to better diagnose and treat periodontal disease based on biomarker analysis and host modulation.

Mario Taba Jr

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Periodontal disease: a genetic perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease that causes tooth loss. The complex pathogenesis of periodontitis implies the involvement of a susceptible host and a bacterial challenge. Many studies have provided a valuable contribution to understanding the genetic basis of periodontal disease, but the s [...] pecific candidate genes of susceptibility are still unknown. In fact, genome-wide studies and screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms have yielded new genetic information without a definitive solution for the management of periodontal disease. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the most relevant literature, presenting the main concepts and insights of the strategies that have been emerging to better diagnose and treat periodontal disease based on biomarker analysis and host modulation.

Mario, Taba Jr; Sergio Luis Scombatti de, Souza; Viviane Casagrande, Mariguela.

262

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE (PD AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD.  

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Full Text Available

The recent focus on the potential link between periodontal and cardiovascular disease (PD and CVD  is part of the larger renewed interest on the role of infection and inflammation in the etiology of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations.  Periodontal Disease is an inflammatory process affecting the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth . The process usually starts with an inflammatory process of the gum (gingivitis but it may progress with an extensive involvement of the gum, as well as the periodontal ligament and the bone surrounding the teeth resulting in substantial bone loss. Periodontal disease is a common oral pathological condition in the adult age and represents the leading cause of tooth loss. PD prevalence increases with age and there are estimates that up to 49,000,000 Americans may suffer from some form of gum disease. The gingival plaque associated with PD is colonized by a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to affect the initiation and development of PD and have been associated with the potential etiological role of PD in CVD and other chronic conditions. A potential etiological link between PD and CVD may have important public health implications as both the exposure (PD and the outcomes (CVD are highly prevalent in industrialized societies. In situations in which both the exposure and the outcome are highly prevalent even modest associations, like those observed in the studies reporting on the link between PD and CVD outcomes, may have relevance. There are  not  definite data on the effect of periodontal treatment on CVD clinical outcomes (either in primary or secondary prevention however it should be pointed out that the limited (both in terms of numbers and study design experimental evidence in humans suggests a possible beneficial effect of periodontal treatment of indices of functional and structural vascular health.

Maurizio Trevisan

2010-08-01

263

Regeneración periodontal: ¿sí o no? / Periodontal regeneration: yes or no?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 45 años de edad con antecedentes de periodontitis aguda (localizada en el diente 21), bolsas periodontales de 3-8 mm, movilidad dentaria de grado IV y encía alterada con índice gingival de 2,5, que fue remitido a la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Doce [...] nte "Mártires del Moncada" en Santiago de Cuba. Se realizó tratamiento pulporradicular y ferulización de la pieza afectada, la técnica de colgajo periodontal. Transcurridos 6 meses se obtuvo una considerable disminución del índice gingival a 0,1, profundidad de 3 mm al sondeo y movilidad dentaria de grado I, con osteointegración positiva y regeneración periodontal demostrada radiográficamente. Abstract in english The case report of a 45-year-old patient with a history of acute periodontitis (located in tooth 21), 3-8 mm periodontal pockets, IV grade dental mobility and gingival swelling with a gingival rate of 2,5 was described, who was referred to "Mártires del Moncada" Provincial Teaching School of Dentist [...] ry in Santiago de Cuba. Pulpar radicular treatment and splinting of the affected tooth, technique of periodontal flap were performed. After 6 months a significant reduction of gingival rate to 0,1, deep to 3 mm at probing and dental mobility of grade I were obtained, with positive osteointegration and periodontal regeneration radiographically viewed.

Rafael Alberto, Clavería Clark; Clara, Ortiz Moncada; Xiomara, Perdomo Marsilly.

264

Regeneración periodontal: ¿sí o no? Periodontal regeneration: yes or no?  

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Full Text Available Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 45 años de edad con antecedentes de periodontitis aguda (localizada en el diente 21, bolsas periodontales de 3-8 mm, movilidad dentaria de grado IV y encía alterada con índice gingival de 2,5, que fue remitido a la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente "Mártires del Moncada" en Santiago de Cuba. Se realizó tratamiento pulporradicular y ferulización de la pieza afectada, la técnica de colgajo periodontal. Transcurridos 6 meses se obtuvo una considerable disminución del índice gingival a 0,1, profundidad de 3 mm al sondeo y movilidad dentaria de grado I, con osteointegración positiva y regeneración periodontal demostrada radiográficamente.The case report of a 45-year-old patient with a history of acute periodontitis (located in tooth 21, 3-8 mm periodontal pockets, IV grade dental mobility and gingival swelling with a gingival rate of 2,5 was described, who was referred to "Mártires del Moncada" Provincial Teaching School of Dentistry in Santiago de Cuba. Pulpar radicular treatment and splinting of the affected tooth, technique of periodontal flap were performed. After 6 months a significant reduction of gingival rate to 0,1, deep to 3 mm at probing and dental mobility of grade I were obtained, with positive osteointegration and periodontal regeneration radiographically viewed.

Rafael Alberto Clavería Clark

2011-02-01

265

Occurrence of periodontal pathogens among patients with chronic periodontitis  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the periodontal pathogens that form the red complex (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis. The sample consisted of 29 patients with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of chronic periodontitis based on the criteria of the American Academy of Periodontology (3. Samples for microbiological analysis were collected from the four sites of greatest probing depth in each patient, totaling 116 samples. These samples were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction, which achieved the following positive results: 46.6% for P. gingivalis, 41.4% for T. forsythia, 33.6% for T. denticola and 27.6% for A. actinomycetemcomitans. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were more prevalent (p < 0.05 in periodontal pockets ? 8 mm. The combinations T. forsythia + P. gingivalis (23.2% and T. forsythia + P. gingivalis + T. denticola (20.0% were more frequent in sites with a probing depth ? 8 mm. Associations with the simultaneous presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans + P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans + T. forsythia, P. gingivalis + T. forsythia and T. forsythia + T. denticola were statistically significant (p < 0.05. It was concluded that the red complex pathogens are related to chronic periodontitis, presenting a higher occurrence in deep periodontal pockets. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of these bacteria in deep sites suggests a symbiotic relationship between these virulent species, favoring, in this way, a further progression of periodontal disease.

B.C. Farias

2012-09-01

266

Contesting conventional periodontal wisdom : implications for periodontal classifications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines the common approach used to classify periodontal diseases and how this obstructs our understanding of the disease process. We address the implications of including etiological and pathogenesis-related considerations in the classifications of complex diseases like periodontitis and argue that the number of periodontal entities in a classification system ought to be determined by well-documented differences in the management of each entity. We finally discuss how an ecosocial theory of disease distribution can be helpful to understand the determinants of the distribution of disease in the population.

Lopez, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2012-01-01

267

Prosthetic anterior cruciate ligament.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. All synthetic anterior cruciate ligaments can be divided into three broad categories--permanent, stent, and ingrowth. 2. Theoretical advantages (e.g., potential increased strength, decreased harvest morbidity, time to return to sport, ease of insertion, ease of revision) warrant further attempts to develop synthetic ACLs. 3. Permanent ACLs require 5-year follow-up. Gore-Tex I had 85% to 90% good to excellent results at 2 years. 4. Acceptable failure rates for permanent prosthesis (5 years? 10 years?) should be discussed. 5. Gore-Tex II will represent a significant improvement to Gore-Tex I (increased abrasion resistance). 6. Prosthetic debris and effusions should continue to be analyzed carefully. Dr. Freddie Fu's protocol for retrieval and analysis should be accepted and standardized. 7. LAD. Careful analysis of the control group in U.S. Series II should enable us to determine the "true" contribution of this augmentation device. 8. Leeds-Keio. If biomechanically significant intra-articular tissue is stimulated, this is a potentially attractive prosthetic concept. U.S. clinical studies will start in 1990. 9. Stryker-Dacron. This device appears to have a failure rate similar to that of Gore-Tex I. 10. Six new prosthetic devices are currently under evaluation by the FDA and are in phases I through V. PMID:1831071

Friedman, M J

1991-07-01

268

Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment. PMID:23477405

Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

2014-11-01

269

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... GS Feagin JA et al. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopedics. 200;23:573-578. Hewett TE, Lindenfeld ... neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program in preventing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Two year follow up. American ...

270

Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This review highlights the relations between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease, as well as the pathogenic mechanisms which are still the subject of investigations. The possible pathogenic mechanisms important for developing periodontal disease in the diabetics are: vascular gingival changes, the disorders in the metabolism of the collagen, disorders in the function of the polimorphonuclear leukocytes and specific microbial flora in the parodontal pockets. Conclusion. It is clear that adequate early recognition and good treatment are very important and significant for treatment of diabetic periodontal disease.

Kesi? Ljiljana

2009-01-01

271

Ligament Injury, Reconstruction and Osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent literature on the factors that initiate and accelerate the progression of osteoarthritis following ligament injuries and their treatment is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: The ligament-injured joint is at high risk for osteoarthritis. Current conservative (e.g. rehabilitation) and surgical (e.g. reconstruction) treatment options appear not to reduce osteoarthritis following ligament injury. The extent of osteoarthritis does not appear dependent on which joint is affected, or the presence of damage to other tissues within the joint. Mechanical instability is the likely initiator of osteoarthritis in the ligament-injured patient. SUMMARY: The mechanism osteoarthritis begins with the injury rendering the joint unstable. The instability increases the sliding between the joint surfaces and reduces the efficiency of the muscles, factors that alter joint contact mechanics. The load distribution in the cartilage and underlying bone is disrupted, causing wear and increasing shear, which eventually leads to the osteochondral degeneration. The catalyst to the mechanical process is the inflammation response induced by the injury and sustained during healing. In contrast, the inflammation could be responsible for onset, while the mechanical factors accelerate progression. The mechanisms leading to osteoarthritis following ligament injury have not been fully established. A better understanding of these mechanisms should lead to alternative surgical, drug, and tissue-engineering treatment options, which could eliminate osteoarthritis in these patients. Progress is being made on all fronts. Considering that osteoarthritis is likely to occur despite current treatment options, the best solution may be prevention. PMID:17710194

Fleming, Braden C; Hulstyn, Michael J; Oksendahl, Heidi L; Fadale, Paul D

2005-10-01

272

Role of Msx2 as a promoting factor for Runx2 at the periodontal tension sides elicited by mechanical stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early changes of Runx2 and Msx2 expressions were examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse periodontal ligament exposed to mechanical stress. 8-week-old ddY mouse was used as experimental animal. To provide a continuous mechanical stress on periodontal ligament, rubber dam sheet was placed between upper molars of the mouse. At 20 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, 9 hours and 24 hours after insertion of the sheet, relevant parts of the mouse tissues were excised and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde/0.05M phosphate buffered fixative solution. Then serial paraffin sections were prepared and histopathological evaluation as well as examination of Runx2, Msx2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expressions by immunohistochemistry were performed. Control animals were not subjected to mechanical stress. In the experimental group, strong expressions of Runx2 and Msx2 were seen in periodontal fibroblasts of the tension side at 20 minutes after mechanical stress. Expressions of Runx2 and Msx2 became stronger in parallel with time, and at 24 hours after mechanical stress, the periodontal fibroblasts, cementoblasts as well as osteoblasts showed strong expression. Moreover, ALP has also demonstrated similar strong expression. On the other hand, in the control group, although expressions of Runx2, Msx2 and ALP were detected at all the experiment times, the expressions were weak. All these results strongly suggested that Runx2 promoted differentiation of osteoblasts at early stage and Msx2 worked as an activator of Runx2 function. PMID:18948234

Watanabe, T; Nakano, N; Muraoka, R; Shimizu, T; Okafuji, N; Kurihara, S; Yamada, K; Kawakami, Toshiyuki

2008-09-22

273

Kraft Pulping of Coppice Grown Eucalypts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulping and bleaching investigations were carried out on coppice grown Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus grandis. It was observed that bleachable grade pulps could be obtained from coppice grown eucalypts. These pulps could be bleached to 76-78% ISO ...

R. Pant A. K. Rai R. M. Mathur Y. V. Sood

1980-01-01

274

Doença periodontal e diabete melito tipo 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introdução: a doença periodontal é considerada a sexta complicação clássica do diabete melito. Estudos recentes relatam que o diabete melito e a doença periodontal apresentam uma associação bidirecional, na qual o diabete favorece o desenvolvimento da doença periodontal e esta, quando não tratada, dificulta o controle metabólico do diabete. As periodontites relacionadas a doenças sistêmicas são causadas pela placa bacteriana e também exacerbadas pela condição oral. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão de literatura em relação à influência da doença periodontal no fator sistêmico do paciente diabético, e por sua vez, a influência do diabete no desenvolvimento e progressão da doença periodontal. Conclusão: o diabete melito é um fator de importância na incidência e prevalência da doença periodontal, assim como a doença periodontal pode ter influência sobre o controle metabólico do diabete. O tratamento periodontal parece contribuir para a melhoria do controle glicêmico de indivíduos diabéticos e com doença periodontal.

Georgia Verardi

2009-01-01

275

Method for Evaluating Periodontal Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence and activity of periodontal diseases can be detected by quantitating the presence of microbial antigens from Eikenella corrodens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Campylobacter rectus in subgingival plaque. The efficacy of p...

A. M. Milius L. G. Simonson

1994-01-01

276

Novel inflammatory pathways in periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

New insights into the biological mechanisms involved in modulating periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss are paving the way for novel therapeutic strategies for periodontitis. The neutrophil adhesion cascade for transmigration in response to infection or inflammation is a key paradigm in immunity. Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is one of several newly identified endogenous inhibitors of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Del-1 competes with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells for binding to the LFA-1 integrin on neutrophils, thereby regulating neutrophil recruitment and local inflammation. In animal periodontitis models, Del-1 deficiency resulted in severe inflammation and alveolar bone loss, but local treatment with recombinant Del-1 prevented neutrophil infiltration and bone loss. The expression of Del-1 is inhibited by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17. Nucleic-acid-receptor-mediated inflammatory responses may be important in periodontal disease pathogenesis. Bacterial nucleic acids released during inflammation are detected by host microbial DNA sensors, e.g., Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9), leading to the activation of pro- and/or anti-inflammatory signaling pathways. DNA from periodontitis-associated bacteria induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human macrophage-like cells through the TLR-9 and NF-?B signaling pathways, but had less effect on human osteoblasts. Inhibition of TLR-9 signaling in human macrophages reduced cytokine production in response to P. gingivalis DNA. Differential expression of a polymorphic site in the TLR-9 gene promoter region and increased TLR-9 gene and protein expression were reported in chronic periodontitis. Further research to confirm that periodontal bacterial DNA contributes to destructive inflammation in vivo could provide alternative therapeutic targets to control periodontitis. PMID:24736701

Hajishengallis, G; Sahingur, S E

2014-05-01

277

Isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patient was a 19-year-old male cadet at a military academy who was evaluated by a physical therapist in a direct-access capacity for a chief complaint of right knee pain and giving way after falling onto his right knee while snow sledding at a high rate of speed 2 weeks earlier. Knee radiographs were ordered by the physical therapist, which demonstrated a large suprapatellar joint effusion. Due to concern for a posterior cruciate ligament injury and to assess for concomitant injury, magnetic resonance imaging was ordered, which revealed disruption of the posterior cruciate ligament without injury to surrounding tissues. PMID:24256175

Glenesk, Kathleen; Fogarty, Brian T; Westrick, Richard B

2013-10-01

278

N-Phenacylthiazolium Bromide Inhibits the Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)-AGE Receptor Axis to Modulate Experimental Periodontitis in Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in the inflammatory process and are considered to be etiologic factors of diabetic periodontitis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the capability of N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB), a glycated cross-link breaker, in the modulation of periodontitis in various disease phases. Methods: Mitogenesis and cytotoxicity of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) undergoing PTB treatment were evaluated in vitro. In vivo biomodulation was investigated by systemically administering PTB in the induction, progression, and recovery phases of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats, with the results evaluated by microcomputed tomography, histology, immunohistochemistry of the AGE and AGE receptor (RAGE), and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), RAGE, periostin, fibronectin, and type I collagen. Results: Significantly promoted mitogenesis and reduced cytotoxicity of hPDLCs were noted with 0.05 to 0.1 mM PTB treatment at 24 hours. Systemic PTB administration significantly reduced periodontal bone loss, AGE deposition, and expressions of TNF-? and RAGE but elevated the periostin level in all three phases of periodontitis. Conclusion: PTB inhibits the induction and progression of periodontitis and facilitates its recovery via improving cellular viability and inhibiting the AGE-RAGE axis. PMID:24988129

Chang, Po-Chun; Tsai, Sheng-Chueh; Chong, Li Yen; Kao, Man-Jung

2014-07-01

279

A Periodontitis Severity Index.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Periodontitis Severity Index (PSI) was developed and then tested in a population of 154 patients attending the University of Mississippi School of Dentistry screening clinic. Patients were grouped by age decade. The premises of the PSI follow: (1) Periodontitis is diagnosed on the concurrence of clinically apparent marginal inflammation and vertical loss of supporting periodontium (the severity of the associated clinical inflammation does not seem to be related to the severity of the tissue loss) and (2) a Schei ruler is used to determine from the radiograph the percentage of bone loss for a tooth surface. For each patient, a 0 to 1 Clinical Inflammation Score (CIS) was determined at the mesial and distal of every tooth. A CIS of 0 reflected no demonstrable clinical inflammation, whereas a CIS of 1 meant that clinical inflammation could be detected. A modified Schei ruler was used to determine the percentage of bone loss at each interproximal site. A Bone Loss Score (BLS) was calculated on a 0 to 10 whole number continuum. A BLS of 0 meant no bone loss, 1 = up to 10%, etc., up to BLS 10 = 90 to 100% loss. The PSI was then calculated for each mesial and distal surface. PSI = BLS X CIS. The PSI could be 0 if either no bone loss could be determined or the gingiva was healthy. In the presence of marginal inflammation, the PSI value was directly proportional to the percentage of bone loss. Mean PSI values were calculated for each age group. The PSI tended to increase with age. The PSI offers several advantages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3457141

Adams, R A; Nystrom, G P

1986-03-01

280

[Alloplastic replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament. Comparative studies of ruptured Dacron, Trevira and Ligapro ligaments].  

Science.gov (United States)

Histological investigations were performed on 24 polyethylene terephthalate ligaments (eight Dacron, eleven Trevira and five Ligapro) which had served as substitute for the human anterior cruciate ligament. Because of rupture or loosening they had been explanted six to 48 months after operation. Only in one Trevira ligament a longitudinal direction of collagenous lamellae could be seen, all other ligaments had only few collagenous fibers, mainly orientated in circular direction. In the fibrous tissue of all three kinds of ligaments there were signs of inflammation. Foreign body giant cells have immigrated--they mainly enclose the graft fibres in Dacron and Ligapro ligaments. In Trevira and Ligapro ligaments the foreign body giant cells phagocyte particles of graft fibers after increasing implantation times. The inflammatory reaction to graft fibers and their particles may also damage host tissue. Regarding these results we conclude that the Polyethylene terephthalate ligaments are not qualified as substitutes for the anterior cruciate ligament. PMID:1837390

Sowa, G; Sowa, D; Koebke, J

1991-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

CT-arthrography of the cruciate ligaments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of the cruciate ligaments using CT in 218 patients shall be presented. An intraarticular administration of air must be performed. Special positionings are required in order to bring the axis of the cruciate ligaments into the cross-sectional plane of the CT. The normal appearance of the cruciate ligaments in CT-arthrography is described. A classification of the anterior cruciate ligament lesions with 4 different types is proposed. The four types of the anterior cruciate ligament lesions and the posterior cruciate ligament lesions are met with different frequency. For CT-arthrography a sensitivity of 93% and a specifity of 95% was found. In patients with previous reconstructive surgery of the cruciate ligaments the results can be objectively documented. Thus CT-arthrography can contribute in the diagnosis of postoperative complaints. (orig.)

1981-01-01

282

CT-arthrography of the cruciate ligaments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evaluation of the cruciate ligaments using CT in 218 patients shall be presented. An intraarticular administration of air must be performed. Special positionings are required in order to bring the axis of the cruciate ligaments into the cross-sectional plane of the CT. The normal appearance of the cruciate ligaments in CT-arthrography is described. A classification of the anterior cruciate ligament lesions with 4 different types is proposed. The four types of the anterior cruciate ligament lesions and the posterior cruciate ligament lesions are met with different frequency. For CT-arthrography a sensitivity of 93% and a specifity of 95% was found. In patients with previous reconstructive surgery of the cruciate ligaments the results can be objectively documented. Thus CT-arthrography can contribute in the diagnosis of postoperative complaints.

Reiser, M.; Rupp, N.; Feuerbach, S.; Anacker, H.; Karpf, P.M.

1981-09-01

283

DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION FROM BAMBOO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commercial bamboo chips were evaluated as raw material for dissolving pulp production. The chips were auto-hydrolyzed (AH and subsequently cooked by the NaOH/AQ process and bleached to full brightness with the O-CCE-D-(EP-D-P sequence. The term CCE designates a cold caustic extraction stage. The bamboo chip chemistry (22.4% lignin, 19.5% xylans, 49.3% cellulose, 16.8% total extractives, and 1.5% ash was apparently unfavorable; however high quality dissolving pulp was produced using the aforementioned technologies, even when compared to results obtained with traditional eucalypt commercial wood chips. The pulp showed high brightness (92.4 % ISO and ?-cellulose content (94.9%. Its contents of hemicelluloses, extractives and ash were within acceptable levels for a dissolving pulp aimed at viscose rayon production. Thus, the bamboo chip furnish investigated can be regarded as a viable raw material for dissolving pulp production.

Larisse Aparecida Ribas Batalha,

2011-12-01

284

ROUND LIGAMENT VARICOSITY IN PREGNANCY  

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Full Text Available Groin swelling in pregnancy can give rise to various diagnostic dilemmas. Inguinal hernia not uncommonly may present for the first time in pregnancy because of increase in intraabdominal pressure. It is 10 times less frequent in women than in men. The reported incidence is 1 in 3000. The other differential diagnosis including femoral hernia, enlarged lymph nodes, vascular aneurysm and subcutaneous lipoma. Congestion of the pelvic and iliac veins may give rise to round ligament varicosities mimicking inguinal hernia. The distinction between the two is difficulty clinically as symptoms and signs are similar. Ultrasound has proved to be a useful tool for differentiating round ligament varicosities from an inguinal hernia. The characteristic ultrasound picture includes a prominent venous plexus with dilated draining veins and typical bag of worms appearance. Round ligament varices require close monitoring during pregnancy as it can lead to rupture of varices or acute variceal thrombosis in peripartum period. This case highlights the potential difficulty in diagnosing inguinal swelling clinically in pregnancy. Ultrasonography can however clinch the diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery and its associated morbidity. Bilateral inguinal masses during pregnancy: A clinical dilemma Bilateral inguinal swelling is gravid state is not a common occurrence is obstetric practice. Bilateral round ligament varicosities may be mistaken for inguinal hernias in gravid patients because these conditions have similar presentations. It is very critical to differentiate between varicosities and hernias to avoid performing unnecessary surgery.

Shuchi Jain

2013-01-01

285

Emdogain: Últimos avances en regeneración periodontal / Emdogain: An update in periodontal regeneration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Emdogain es un compuesto de proteínas derivadas de la matriz del esmalte, capaz de inducir la regeneración verdadera del aparato de inserción. Como principal indicación destaca el tratamiento de defectos infraóseos, ganancia de hueso y reducción de la profundidad de sondaje con mínima recesión gingi [...] val. Es un procedimiento técnicamente simple, con poco riesgo y menos invasivo que las técnicas de regeneración convencionales. La cuidada selección del paciente, el empleo de una técnica adecuada así como el riguroso control postoperatorio son factores importantes para el éxito del tratamiento. Abstract in english Emdogain is a compound of proteins derived from the enamel matrix which are a crucial factor in initiating the formation of acellular root cementum and stimulate the development of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The main indication for the application of EMD is the intrabony defects tre [...] atment with significant clinical attachment level gains, probing depht reductions and minimal gingival recession. The application of EMD is a simple procedure with less risk than other techniques and less invasive than conventional guided tissue regeneration. The carefully selection of the patient, the use of an adecuate technique and the strict postoperatory control are very important factors on the treatment success.

X., Pousa; C., Rodríguez; F., Pastor; D., Rodrigo.

286

Emdogain: Últimos avances en regeneración periodontal Emdogain: An update in periodontal regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emdogain es un compuesto de proteínas derivadas de la matriz del esmalte, capaz de inducir la regeneración verdadera del aparato de inserción. Como principal indicación destaca el tratamiento de defectos infraóseos, ganancia de hueso y reducción de la profundidad de sondaje con mínima recesión gingival. Es un procedimiento técnicamente simple, con poco riesgo y menos invasivo que las técnicas de regeneración convencionales. La cuidada selección del paciente, el empleo de una técnica adecuada así como el riguroso control postoperatorio son factores importantes para el éxito del tratamiento.Emdogain is a compound of proteins derived from the enamel matrix which are a crucial factor in initiating the formation of acellular root cementum and stimulate the development of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The main indication for the application of EMD is the intrabony defects treatment with significant clinical attachment level gains, probing depht reductions and minimal gingival recession. The application of EMD is a simple procedure with less risk than other techniques and less invasive than conventional guided tissue regeneration. The carefully selection of the patient, the use of an adecuate technique and the strict postoperatory control are very important factors on the treatment success.

X. Pousa

2005-04-01

287

Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT) of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close t [...] o the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found.

Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari; Barata, Terezinha Jesus Esteves; Prakki, Anuradha; Bresciani, Eduardo; Pereira, José Carlos.

288

Ozone and its use in periodontal treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of ozone in periodontal treatment in dental practice. Methods: An evaluation of the current state of knowledge regarding the application of ozone in periodontal treatment revealed limite...

Dimitrios Iliadis; Millar, Brian J.

2013-01-01

289

NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

2011-05-01

290

Tratamiento periodontal quirúrgico: Revisión. Conceptos. Consideraciones. Procedimientos. Técnicas Periodontal surgical therapy: Review. Concepts. Considerations. Procedures. Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El tratamiento global de pacientes con enfermedad periodontal se divide en tres fases diferentes que, con frecuencia, se superponen: fase de terapia causal o fase inicial y la fase correctiva o fase de soporte periodontal o de mantenimiento. Como la mayoría de las formas de enfermedad periodontal son trastornos relacionados con la placa bacteriana, el tratamiento periodontal quirúrgico está considerado como un auxiliar del tratamiento periodontal causal inicial. Así mismo, la decisión re...

2011-01-01

291

Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN)...

Vandana K; Sesha Reddy M

2007-01-01

292

Effect of khat chewing on periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm from chronic periodontitis patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: Existing in vitro and in vivo data suggest that khat may have a favorable effect on periodontal microbiota. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of khat chewing on major periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque samples from subjects with chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods: 40 subgingival plaque samples were obtained from periodontitis and healthy sites of 10 khat chewers (40 y median age) and 10 khat non-chewers (37.5 y median age) with chronic periodontiti...

Al-hebshi, Nezar Noor; Al-sharabi, Ali Kaid; Shuga-aldin, Hussein Mohammed; Al-haroni, Mohammed; Ghandour, Ibrahim

2010-01-01

293

Enzymes in Bleaching of Kraft Pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose pulp produced by the kraft pulping process is the predominant raw material for production of paper. Although most of the wood lignin is removed during kraft pulping the residual brown-colored lignin must be removed and the brightness of the pulp...

A. Kantelinen

1992-01-01

294

Genetic polymorphisms in periodontal diseases: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Periodontitis is a multi-factorial disease; several risk and susceptibility factors are proposed in its natural history. Genetics is considered a susceptibility factor in relation to periodontitis. This article is a nonsystematic review of literature and focuses on the role of genetic polymorphisms in periodontal diseases.

Vijayalakshmi R

2010-01-01

295

Initial periodontal screening and radiographic findings - A comparison of two methods to evaluate the periodontal situation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodontal screening index (PSI is an element of the initial dental examination. The PSI provides information on the periodontal situation and allows a first estimation of the treatment required. The dental panoramic tomography (DPT indicates the proximal bone loss, thus also allowing conclusions on the periodontal situation. In this study, the results of both methods in determining the periodontal situation are compared. Methods The clinical examination covered DMF-T, QHI, and PSI scores at four proximal sites per tooth; the examining dentist was unaware of the radiographic finding. Based on the PSI scores, the findings were diagnosed as follows: score 0 - 2 "no periodontitis", score 3 and 4 "periodontitis". Independent of the locality and time of the clinical evaluation, two dentists examined the DPTs of the subjects. The results were classified as follows: no bone loss = "no periodontitis", and bone loss = "periodontitis". Results 112 male subjects (age 18 to 58, Ø 37.7 ± 8 years were examined. Regarding the PSI, 17 subjects were diagnosed "no periodontitis" and 95 subjects "periodontitis". According to the evaluation of the DPTs, 70 subjects were diagnosed "no periodontitis" and 42 "periodontitis". A comparison of both methods revealed that the diagnosis "no periodontitis" corresponded in 17 cases and "periodontitis" in 42 cases (53%. In 47% (53 cases the results were not congruent. The difference between both methods was statistically significant (p Conclusion The present study shows that the initial assessment of the periodontal situation significantly depends on the method of evaluation.

Hornecker Else

2011-01-01

296

Enfermedad periodontal y climaterio / Periodontal disease and climaterium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 282 pacientes que se encontraban en la etapa del climaterio, que acudieron a la consulta de Endocrinología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturnino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el 20 [...] 12, con vistas a caracterizar el estado de la enfermedad periodontal en este grupo según variables de interés clínico, periodontal y epidemiológico. Se obtuvo que la severidad de la enfermedad gingival y periodontal estuvo directamente relacionada con los grados de higiene bucal regular y malo, con predominio de la gingivitis (90,4 %), de la gingivitis severa (81,7 %), así como de la periodontitis establecida con higiene bucal regular (79,1 %) y de la periodontitis terminal con higiene bucal mala (76,0%); asimismo, la gingivitis resultó ser la afección más común en ambas etapas del período climatérico (67,9 y 35,3 % en las premenopáusicas y posmenopáusicas, respectivamente). Se demostró que a medida que pasan los años sin efecto estrogénico, la riesgo de la afección se incrementa, sin existir relación entre esta y la edad en que ocurrió la menopausia o la gravedad del síndrome climatérico. Se recomienda continuar las investigaciones para conocer el estado de la enfermedad periodontal en pacientes climatéricas a escala nacional y elaborar programas destinados a la prevención. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 282 patients who were in the climacteric stage and were assisted in the Endocrinology Department of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Clinical Surgical Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out during the 2012, w [...] ith the aim of characterizing the periodontal disease in this group according to variables of clinical, periodontal and epidemiological interest. It was obtained that the severity of the gingival and periodontal disease was directly related to the degrees of mean and poor oral hygiene, with prevalence of the gingivitis (90.4%), of the severe gingivitis (81.7%), as well as of the established periodontitis with mean oral hygiene (79.1%) and of the terminal periodontitis with poor oral hygiene (76.0%); also, gingivitis turned out to be the most common disorder in both stages of the climacteric period (67.9 and 35.3% in the premenopausic and posmenopausic women, respectively). It was demonstrated that, as the years pass without estrogenic effect, the risk for the disease increases, without existing relationship between it and the age in which menopause or the severity of the climacteric syndrome took place. It is recommended to continue the investigations to know the periodontal disease in climacteric patients at a national scale and to implement programs aimed at its prevention.

Aguilar Vallejo, María Isabel; Peña Sisto, Maritza; Chacón Rodríguez, Jacqueline; Fernández Villasante, Frederick; Gutierrez Torres, Dixan.

297

Different effects of 25-kDa amelogenin on the proliferation, attachment and migration of various periodontal cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have assumed that amelogenin is responsible for the therapeutic effect of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in periodontal tissue healing and regeneration. However, it is difficult to confirm this hypothesis because both the EMD and the amelogenins are complex mixtures of multiple proteins. Further adding to the difficulties is the fact that periodontal tissue regeneration involves various types of cells and a sequence of associated cellular events including the attachment, migration and proliferation of various cells. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of a 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin (rPAm) on primarily cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF), gingival fibroblasts (GF) and gingival epithelial cells (GEC). The cells were treated with 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/mL. We found that rPAm significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of PDLF, but not their adhesion. Similarly, the proliferation and adhesion of GF were significantly enhanced by treatment with rPAm, while migration was greatly inhibited. Interestingly, this recombinant protein inhibited the growth rate, cell adhesion and migration of GEC. These data suggest that rPAm may play an essential role in periodontal regeneration through the activation of periodontal fibroblasts and inhibition of the cellular behaviors of gingival epithelial cells.

Li, Xiting [Department of Periodontology, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, No. 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Shu, Rong, E-mail: shurong123@hotmail.com [Department of Periodontology, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, No. 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Dali; Jiang, Shaoyun [Department of Periodontology, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, No. 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China)

2010-04-09

298

Different effects of 25-kDa amelogenin on the proliferation, attachment and migration of various periodontal cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have assumed that amelogenin is responsible for the therapeutic effect of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in periodontal tissue healing and regeneration. However, it is difficult to confirm this hypothesis because both the EMD and the amelogenins are complex mixtures of multiple proteins. Further adding to the difficulties is the fact that periodontal tissue regeneration involves various types of cells and a sequence of associated cellular events including the attachment, migration and proliferation of various cells. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of a 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin (rPAm) on primarily cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF), gingival fibroblasts (GF) and gingival epithelial cells (GEC). The cells were treated with 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin at a concentration of 10 ?g/mL. We found that rPAm significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of PDLF, but not their adhesion. Similarly, the proliferation and adhesion of GF were significantly enhanced by treatment with rPAm, while migration was greatly inhibited. Interestingly, this recombinant protein inhibited the growth rate, cell adhesion and migration of GEC. These data suggest that rPAm may play an essential role in periodontal regeneration through the activation of periodontal fibroblasts and inhibition of the cellular behaviors of gingival epithelial cells.

2010-04-09

299

A scanning electron-microscopic, stereo-pair study of methacrylate corrosion casts of the mouse palatal and molar periodontal microvasculature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microvascular beds of the palate, gingiva and periodontal ligament had interconnected but distinct, regional patterns. The palatal vasculature reflected mucosal-crest morphology: crestal capillary vessels of the rugae anastomosed with sagitally-orientated rows of 8 microns capillary loops, and, in the inter-rugal troughs, these formed a flat plexus overlying collecting veins more than 100 microns in diameter. Maxillary and mandibular molar ligaments had similar microvascular patterns. The molar gingiva had a circular, outer capillary and inner venous system linked by radial anastomoses. The outer (7 microns) capillaries enclosed the three molars in a continuous horizontal loop coursing beneath the crestal epithelium; the inner (10-15 microns) venous vessels encircled each molar just below the epithelial attachment. Glomerulus-like vascular formations, with an arterial and venous stalk, were associated with the inner circular system and extended toward the crevicular epithelium. Axially aligned, post-capillary, periodontal-ligament vessels (21 microns) anastomosed with the inner circular system, forming different patterns in the occlusal, middle and apical thirds. The apical pattern comprised an enveloping plexus of anastomosing venous vessels supplied by arterio-venous shunts; similar shunts were present throughout the ligament. The microvascular bed of the mandibular inter-radicular ligament was characterized by the presence of a large venous ampulla measuring 60 by 200 microns. Some regions of the ligament microvasculature drained via the medullary vessels into 50 microns-diameter venules located interdentally deep to the molar apices. Volumetrically, the ligament microvascular bed was predominantly of post-capillary venules, and morphologically, a paired arterial and venous system was not demonstrated. PMID:3479097

Wong, R S; Sims, M R

1987-01-01

300

The Microbial Challenge to Pulp Regeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pulp regeneration is considered in cases where the dental pulp has been destroyed because of microbial irritation. Diverse oral and food-borne micro-organisms are able to invade the pulp space, form biofilm on canal walls, and infiltrate dentinal tubules. Prior to pulp regeneration procedures, the pulp space and dentinal walls need to be sufficiently disinfected to allow for and promote regeneration. The necessary level of disinfection is likely higher than that accepted for traditional endod...

Fouad, A. F.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

POZONE technology to bleach pulp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, there has been a move in the pulp and paper industry to reduce or eliminate chlorine-based bleaching due to environmental concerns. The POZONE process, a chemical means of ozone production, has been used to bleach wood pulp. The brightness, Kappa number, and viscosity of wood pulp subjected to POZONE treatment have been determined. Brightness increases of up to 44 points and Kappa number decreases of as much as 22 points have been achieved. Promise for effective industrial application has been demonstrated.

Wang, H.; Shi, Y.; Le, L.; Wang, S.M.; Wei, J.; Chang, S.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Div.

1997-09-01

302

Host Modulation Therapy - Restriction of Periodontal Destruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory periodontal disease is caused by host immune responses to periodontal microorganisms. The past decade has produced remarkable advances in our understanding of host immune responses. New strategies for periodontal disease management have been emerging as more is learned about the role of the host response. Our increasing understanding of inflammation and its resolution has opened the door to the study of new periodontal treatment strategies. The emerging awareness of inflammation and its control in periodontal disease management underscores the importance of exploring inflammatory pathways and mediators, thus setting the stage for the development of new prevention and treatment strategies of a widespread disease.

Harinath Reddy S

2011-10-01

303

Antibiotic gels for periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal disease is a major cause of tooth loss. The underlying pathology is inflammation caused by bacterial plaque affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. Conventional treatment involves mechanical debridement of calcified plaque (calculus) by the dentist combined with meticulous oral hygiene by the patient. A more recent approach is to apply antimicrobial drugs locally to the diseased gingival tissue after debridement. Two antibiotic preparations, minocycline 2% gel (Dentomycin-Lederle) and metronidazole 25% gel (Elyzol-Dumex), are now licensed for the treatment of patients with periodontal disease. Are these treatments an advance on conventional therapy? PMID:7635031

1994-06-16

304

Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e.g. periodontal pocket depth or loss of attachment). All tools reviewed in this paper were developed based on the state of the science of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease at the time of their design and the need to provide valid and reliable measurements of the presence and severity of periodontal diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index, have been used extensively to report periodontal status. Laboratory tests for detecting putative microorganisms or inflammatory agents present in periodontal diseases have been used at the clinical level, and at least one has been tested at the population level. Other approaches, such as self-report measures, are currently under validation. In this paper, we do not review indices designed to measure plaque or residual accumulation around the tooth, indices focussed only on gingival inflammation or radiographic approaches with limited applicability in surveillance systems. Finally, we review current case-definitions proposed for surveillance of periodontal disease severity.

Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I

2012-01-01

305

Periodontitis and redox status: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal diseases are common inflammatory conditions of the supporting apparatus of the teeth which lead to early tooth loss. This review discusses the evidence for a role of reactive oxygen species in inducing periodontal tissue damage and focuses on recent evidence showing increased local and systemic alterations in the redox balance of periodontitis. An appraisal of the methods for analysis of oxidative stress in periodontal disease research is provided, showing an increase in oxidative stress measures and oxidative damage fingerprints detected in studies investigating periodontitis cases compared to healthy controls. Hypotheses on the relationships between oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and on the role of redox status in periodontal medicine are discussed. Finally, the review provides an overview of possible intervention pathways for the use of antioxidants as adjuncts to mechanical biofilm removal for the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:23092320

Nibali, Luigi; Donos, Nikos

2013-01-01

306

Unilateral aplasia of both cruciate ligaments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Aplasia of both cruciate ligaments is a rare congenital disorder. A 28-year-old male presented with pain and the feeling of instability of his right knee after trauma. The provided MRI and previous arthroscopy reports did not indicate any abnormalities except cruciate ligament tears. He was referred to us for reconstruction of both cruciate ligaments. The patient again underwent arthroscopy which revealed a hypoplasia of the medial trochlea and an extremely narrow intercond...

2010-01-01

307

Imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is an important structure in maintaining the normal biomechanics of the knee and is the most commonly injured knee ligament. However, the oblique course of the ACL within the intercondylar fossa limits the visualization and assessment of the pathology of the ligament. This pictorial essay provides a comprehensive and illustrative review of the anatomy and biomechanics as well as updated information on different modalities of radiological investigation of ACL, particularly magnetic resonance imaging.

Wing Hung Alex Ng

2011-01-01

308

Kraft Pulp Mill Inspection Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual presents technical data on kraft pulp mill processes and control equipment design and application. The manual also includes inspection checklists for use by agency personnel in evaluating process parameters and control equipment operating cond...

R. Hawks G. Saunders

1983-01-01

309

Histometric analysis of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats: a comparison of histological section planes  

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the histometry of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats at different histological section depths. Sixteen male adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: ligature and control. In the ligature group, rats received a sterile 4/0 silk ligature around the maxillary right 2nd molar. Thirty serial sections containing the 1st and 2nd molars, in which the coronal and root pulp, cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in the mesial side of the 2nd molar, int...

Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove Semenoff; Alex Semenoff-Segundo; Álvaro Francisco Bosco; Maria José Hitomi Nagata; Valdir Gouveia Garcia; Eder Ricardo Biasoli

2008-01-01

310

Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. PMID:24738583

Albandar, Jasim M

2014-06-01

311

Periodontal therapy of the future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biomedical research in dentistry generates an important extent of scientific evidence that improves the present schemes of treatment of oral diseases in man. This review tries to introduce the reader to understand the new concepts of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and present the advances in the process of diagnosis and their repercussions in the conventional treatment of this disease.

Arce Roger Mauricio

2004-09-01

312

Periodontal diseases in adult Kenyans.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study comprised 1131 persons who constitute a stratified random sample of the entire population aged 15-65 years in Machakos District, Kenya. Each person was examined for tooth mobility, plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding, loss of attachment and pocket depth on the mesial, buccal, distal and lingual surface of each tooth. The oral hygiene was poor with plaque on 75-95% and calculus on 10-85% of the surfaces depending on age. Irrespective of age, pockets greater than or equal to 4 mm was seen on less than 20% of the surfaces, whereas 10-85% of the surfaces had loss of attachment greater than or equal to 1 mm. The proportion of surfaces per individual with loss of attachment greater than or equal to 4 mm or greater than or equal to 7 mm, and pocket depths greater than or equal to 4 mm or greater than or equal to 7 mm, respectively, showed a pronounced skewed distribution, indicating that in each age group, a subfraction of individuals is responsible for a substantial proportion of the total periodontal breakdown. The individual teeth within the dentition also showed a marked variation in the severity of periodontal breakdown. Our findings provide additional evidence that destructive periodontal disease should not be perceived as an inevitable consequence of gingivitis which ultimately leads to considerable tooth loss. A more specific characterization of the features of periodontal breakdown in those individuals who seem particularly susceptible is therefore warranted. PMID:3263399

Baelum, V; Fejerskov, O; Manji, F

1988-08-01

313

29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Mechanical pulp process â(1) Pulp grinders. (i) Water wheels directly connected to pulp grinders shall be provided...Personal protection. Persons exposed to falling material shall wear...Stock preparation â(1) Pulp shredders. (i)...

2010-07-01

314

Strength loss in kraft pulping  

Science.gov (United States)

Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast, chemically damaged short, slender fibers were not optically active. Strong chemical attack during superoxide treatment appeared to affect all fibers, but the effect of fiber cutting was partially offset by a preferential dissolution of short fibers and fines. A simple model of weak point formation by combinations of mechanical stress and localized chemical attack was sufficient to explain all the experimental results.

Iribarne, Jose

315

Periodontal disease epidemiology - learned and unlearned?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The notion of periodontal disease being the major cause of tooth loss among adults was rooted in the focal infection paradigm that dominated the first half of the 20th century. This paradigm was established largely by personal opinions, and it was not until the development of periodontal indices in the mid-1950s that periodontal epidemiology gained momentum. Unfortunately, the indices used suffered from a number of flaws, whereby the interpretation of the research results took the form of circular reasoning. It was under this paradigm that therapeutic and preventive intervention for periodontal diseases became entirely devoted to oral hygiene, as poor oral hygiene and older age were understood to explain nearly all the variation in disease occurrence. In the early 1980s, studies appeared that contradicted the concepts of poor oral hygiene as the inevitable trigger of periodontitis and of linear and ubiquitous periodontitis progression, whereby periodontal epidemiology was led into a relatively short-lived high-risk era. At this time, it became evident that old scourges continue to haunt periodontology: the inability to agree in operational clinical criteria for a periodontitis diagnosis and the inability to devise both a meaningful and a useful classification of periodontal diseases based on nominalist principles. The meager outcome of the high-risk era led researchers to resurrect the focal infection paradigm, which is now dressed up as periodontal medicine. Unfortunately, these developments have left the core of periodontology somewhat disheveled and deserted.

Bælum, Vibeke; López, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

316

Variations in meniscofemoral ligaments at anatomical study and MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose To demonstrate variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments (ligaments of Wrisberg and Humphrey) at anatomical study and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Design Twenty-eight cadaveric knees were partially dissected for the examination of the meniscofemoral ligaments. One hundred knee MR examinations were reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Proximal variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments at MR imaging were classified into three types according to the attachment site: type I, medial femoral condyle; type II, proximal half of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); type III, distal half of the PCL. Distal variations were classified into vertical or oblique types according to the orientation of the intermediate signal at the interface of the ligament and lateral meniscus. Results At anatomical study, six cases showed variations in the proximal insertion site of the meniscofemoral ligaments. At MR imaging 93 cases had one or more meniscofemoral ligaments, giving a total of 107 ligaments: 90 ligaments of Wrisberg and 17 ligaments of Humphrey. Forty-one ligaments of Wrisberg were type I, 28 type II, 19 type III, and with two indeterminate type, while 6 ligaments of Humphrey were type I and the remaining 11 were indeterminate. Seven cases showed no meniscofemoral ligament. Of the 107 meniscofemoral ligaments, the distal insertion orientation was of vertical type in 10 ligaments, oblique type in 70 and unidentified in 27. Conclusion An understanding of the high incidence of meniscofemoral ligament variations may help in the interpretation of knee MR studies. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

Cho, J.M.; Suh, J.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyungsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.; Yoo, W.K. [Department of Rehabilitation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.Y.; Chung, I.H. [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

317

Variations in meniscofemoral ligaments at anatomical study and MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose To demonstrate variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments (ligaments of Wrisberg and Humphrey) at anatomical study and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Design Twenty-eight cadaveric knees were partially dissected for the examination of the meniscofemoral ligaments. One hundred knee MR examinations were reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Proximal variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments at MR imaging were classified into three types according to the attachment site: type I, medial femoral condyle; type II, proximal half of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); type III, distal half of the PCL. Distal variations were classified into vertical or oblique types according to the orientation of the intermediate signal at the interface of the ligament and lateral meniscus. Results At anatomical study, six cases showed variations in the proximal insertion site of the meniscofemoral ligaments. At MR imaging 93 cases had one or more meniscofemoral ligaments, giving a total of 107 ligaments: 90 ligaments of Wrisberg and 17 ligaments of Humphrey. Forty-one ligaments of Wrisberg were type I, 28 type II, 19 type III, and with two indeterminate type, while 6 ligaments of Humphrey were type I and the remaining 11 were indeterminate. Seven cases showed no meniscofemoral ligament. Of the 107 meniscofemoral ligaments, the distal insertion orientation was of vertical type in 10 ligaments, oblique type in 70 and unidentified in 27. Conclusion An understanding of the high incidence of meniscofemoral ligament variations may help in the interpretation of knee MR studies. (orig.)

1999-04-01

318

Lateral periodontal cyst with extremely rare clinical-radiographic presentation / Cisto periodontal lateral com apresentação clínico-radiográfica extremamente rara  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O presente artigo descreve os aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e histopatológicos de um caso extremamente raro de cisto periodontal lateral, bem como o tratamento e acompanhamento pós-cirúrgico. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Um paciente masculino de 43 anos de idade, mulato, procurou a Clínica de Esto [...] matologia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Caruaru (Brasil) queixando-se de grande aumento de volume no lado direito de seu rosto de aproximadamente cinco anos. Tal aumento de volume era assintomático e a assimetria facial foi o principal motivo pelo qual procurou o tratamento. Com base nos exames clínicos e radiográficos, bem como a falta de vitalidade pulpar no elemento 13, a hipótese diagnóstica foi de cisto radicular inflamatório e o plano cirúrgico envolveu a competa enucleação cística. A biópsia excisional foi realizada e enviada para análise histopatológica, a qual revelou múltiplas cavidades com hialinização do tecido conjuntivo abaixo do epitélio e presença de células não-epiteliais. CONCLUSÃO: O caso relatado revelou que a extremamente rara variação botrióide do cisto periodontal lateral possui aparência multilocular e crescimento excessivo. A biópsia excisional foi o tratamento para esse caso e nenhum sinal de recorrência foi observado durante o acompanhamento de nove meses. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The present article describes the clinical, radiographic and histological features of an extremely rare case of lateral periodontal cyst as well as the treatment and postoperative follow-up. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old male patient, mulatto, sought the Stomatology Clinic of the Caruaru [...] Dental School (Brazil) with a complaint of increased volume on the right side of his face for approximately five years. The increase in volume was asymptomatic and facial asymmetry was the main reason he sought treatment. Based on the clinical and imaging exams as well as the lack of pulp vitality in tooth 13, the presumed clinical diagnosis was inflammatory radicular cyst and the surgical plan was total cystic enucleation. Excisional biopsy was performed and sent for pathologic microscopic analysis, which revealed multiple cavities with hyalinization of the connective tissue below the epithelium and the presence of clear non-epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: The case reported reveals that the extremely rare botryoid variant of lateral periodontal cyst exhibits multilocular presentation and excessive growth. Excisional biopsy was the treatment for this case and no sign of recurrence was observed over the nine-month follow-up period.

Marconi Eduardo S, Maciel-Santos; Vinícius de Farias, Pereira; Pettely Thaíse de S Santos, Palmeira; Diego Moura, Soares; Danielle Lago Bruno de, Faria; Uoston Holder da, Silva.

319

Ghrelin levels in chronic periodontitis patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has modulatory effects on the immune system. This study was designed to evaluate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and to investigate if a relationship exists between ghrelin and periodontal parameters, serum cytokines, and bone turnover markers. Thirty-five chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and periodontal healthy individuals (C) were included in this study. Periodontal parameters were recorded. Blood samples were obtained to determine the levels of total and acylated ghrelin, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), the soluble receptor activator nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OSC). Plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin were significantly elevated in the CP group compared with the C group (p gingival tissue, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva) are needed in order to confirm the role of ghrelin in periodontal disease. PMID:23292319

Y?lmaz, Gülin; K?rz?o?lu, Fatma Ye?im; Do?uç, Duygu Kumbul; Koçak, Havva; Orhan, Hikmet

2014-01-01

320

Genetic variants in periodontal health and disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Periodontitis is a complex, multifactorial disease and its susceptibility is genetically determined. The present book systematically reviews the evidence of the association between the genetic variants and periodontitis progression and/or treatment outcomes. Genetic syndromes known to be associated with periodontal disease, the candidate gene polymorphisms investigated in relation to periodontitis, the heritability of chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as common guidelines for association studies are described. This growing understanding of the role of genetic variation in inflammation and periodontal chronic disease presents opportunities to identify healthy persons who are at increased risk of disease and to potentially modify the trajectory of disease to prolong healthy aging. The book represents a new concept in periodontology with its pronounced focus on understanding through knowledge rather than presenting the presently valid answers. Connections between genetics and periodontology are systematically reviewed and covered in detail. (orig.)

Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L. [Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Dentistry; Kobayashi, Junya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Genome Repair Dynamics

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

ENFERMEDAD PERIODONTAL Y EMBARAZO: (REVISION BIBLIOGRAFICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la enfermedad periodontal en el embarazo, con el objetivo de corroborar los criterios actuales sobre el tema, teniendo en cuenta que las hormonas sexuales femeninas son un factor condicionante en la enfermedad periodontal; su aumento en el embarazo provoca alteraciones vasculares, celulares, microbiológicas e inmunológicas, que condicionan una respuesta clínica diferente al resto de las pacientes. La enfermedad periodontal supone un depósito permanente de microorganismos y productos bacterianos que pueden ocasionar un riesgo sistémico. La infección periodontal provoca un aumento de la concentración intramniótica de PGE-2 y TNF alfa, mediadores fisiológicos del parto, de modo que pudiera precipitarse el trabajo del parto. Se necesitan estudios longitudinales en humanos para establecer la asociación entre infección periodontal y embarazo de riesgo, si dicha hipótesis pudiera ser confirmada habría que considerar la enfermedad periodontal un factor de riesgo de bajo peso y parto prematuro.

José Alberto Méndez González

2008-03-01

322

Effect of an oily calcium hydroxide suspension (Osteoinductal) on human periodontal fibroblasts. An in vitro study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of an oily calcium hydroxide suspension (Osteoinductal) as an adjunct to periodontal regenerative therapy has been demonstrated in recent clinical and histological studies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms in vitro, particularly, about the effect of oily calcium hydroxide paste on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Therefore the aim of the present study was to analyze the mitogenic response of cultured PDL cells to Osteoinductal in comparison to calcium hydroxide and enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in vitro. Human periodontal ligament cells were derived from a third molar extracted for orthodontic reasons and incubated in the presence of Osteoinductal, calcium hydroxide, EMD, phosphate-buffered saline plus 10% glycerol (PBS) or standard culture medium for 15 and 60 minutes. The mitogenic response of the PDL cells was determined by Western Blot with antibodies specific for extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 as well as the activated, tyrosine-phosphorylated form of ERK1/2 (p-ERK). Relative phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was normalized to total ERK1/2 levels by densitometry. Cell proliferation was measured after 1, 3 and 8 days using a Neubauer haemocytometer to determine the total cell number. Results demonstrated that the mitogenic response to Osteoinductal, calcium hydroxide and enamel matrix derivative was associated with the activation of ERK1/2 and was more pronounced as compared to PBS and standard culture medium treated cells. Although Osteoinductal and calcium hydroxide activated mitosis and caused phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in PDL cells, its effects were less pronounced as compared to EMD. Furthermore EMD exhibited the highest proliferative response in comparison to Osteoinductal, calcium hydroxide and the negative control after one, three and eight days. In conclusion, our data indicate that Osteoinductal enhances the mitogenic response of human PDL cells by activation of ERK1/2 and increases cell proliferation, however, it is inferior in comparison to EMD. PMID:17666317

Kasaj, A; Willershausen, B; Jewszyk, N; Schmidt, M

2007-06-27

323

Regeneración de los defectos periodontales intraóseos: combinación de membranas barrera y material de relleno: evidencia preclínica y clínica / Regenerative procedure for intra-bony periodontal defects: Combination of barrier membrane and filling material, clinical and preclinical evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La terapia periodontal regenerativa tiene como objetivo lo de restaurar los tejidos de soporte periodontal y debería resultar en la formación de nueva inserción conectiva y (nuevo cemento con nuevas fibras del ligamento periodontal insertada) y nuevo hueso. Evidencia histológica en modelos preclínic [...] os ha demostrado regeneración después de tratamiento con membranas barreras, distintos tipos de material de relleno y una combinación de los dos. De todas formas, todavía no queda claro en qué extensión la combinación de membranas barreras y material de relleno puede promover de manera adicional el proceso de regeneración en comparación con tratamientos únicos. Abstract in english Regenerative periodontal therapy aims to predictably restore the tooth's supporting periodontal tissues and should result in formation of a new connective tissue attachment (i.e. new cementum with inserting periodontal ligament fibres) and new alveolar bone. Histologic evidence from preclinical mode [...] ls has demonstrated periodontal regeneration following treatment with barrier membranes, various types of grafting materials or a combination thereof. However, it is still not clear to what extenta combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials may additionally enhance the regeneration process compared with barrier membranes alone, grafting materials alone or open flap debridement.

Discepoli, N.; Costa Berenguer, X.; Bascones-Martínez, A..

324

Cold Soda Pulping of Eucalyptus Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out in the laboratores to determine the suitability of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus globulus for production of cold soda pulps. Based on yield, strength of handsheets and brightness of pulps it was...

T. C. Mantri V. Raghunath Y. K. Sharma Y. V. Sood K. S. Moorthy

1981-01-01

325

Evaluation of association between hyperlipidemia and periodontitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Statement of Problem: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In recent years some evidence has been presented regarding the association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of association between hyperlipidemia and periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, levels of plasma lipids in 40 subjects with periodontitis (CPITN score III or IV) were measured and compared with 40 age and se...

Moein Taghavi A.; Haerian Ardakani A.; Talebi Ardakani MR.; Tabatabai I

2005-01-01

326

Doença periodontal e diabete melito tipo 2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introdução: a doença periodontal é considerada a sexta complicação clássica do diabete melito. Estudos recentes relatam que o diabete melito e a doença periodontal apresentam uma associação bidirecional, na qual o diabete favorece o desenvolvimento da doença periodontal e esta, quando não tratada, dificulta o controle metabólico do diabete. As periodontites relacionadas a doenças sistêmicas são causadas pela placa bacteriana e também exacerbadas pela condição oral. Objetivo...

2009-01-01

327

THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF PERIODONTITIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by groups of specific microorganisms. Aggressive forms of periodontitis can be localized or generalized. The concept that localized problem sites may be treated by local drug delivery appears attractive as the antimicrobial agent is delivered within periodontal pockets and the therapy is targeted on specific pathogenic microorganisms. This review highlights the use of mucoadhesive polymers in buccal drug de...

2012-01-01

328

FAM5C Contributes to Aggressive Periodontitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine subjects from 55 pedigrees were studied. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted. Twenty-...

Carvalho, Flavia M.; Tinoco, Eduardo M. B.; Deeley, Kathleen; Duarte, Poliana M.; Faveri, Marcelo; Marques, Marcelo R.; Mendonc?a, Adriana C.; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen; Menezes, Renato; Garlet, Gustavo P.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

2010-01-01

329

Recent advances in periodontal drug delivery systems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Periodontitis, a disease involving supportive structures of the teeth prevails in all groups, ethnicities, races and both genders. The relationship between bacterial plaque and the development of periodontal disease and caries is well established. Antibacterial agents have been used effectively in the management of periodontal infection. The effectiveness of mechanical debridement of plaque and repeated topical and systemic administration of a...

Pragati S; Ashok S; Kuldeep S

2011-01-01

330

Severe periodontitis associated with chronic kidney disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The data on Indian population with regard to severity/prevalence of chronic periodontitis in association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is scarce. We are describing an interesting case of severe periodontitis associated with CKD. The patient had unusual inflammatory gingival overgrowth which persisted even after treatment. By describing this case we want to highlight our current lack of understanding with regard to etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease in CKD patients and need for furthe...

Jain, Anurag; Kabi, Debipada

2013-01-01

331

Gene therapy and its implications in Periodontics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gene therapy is a field of Biomedicine. With the advent of gene therapy in dentistry, significant progress has been made in the control of periodontal diseases and reconstruction of dento-alveolar apparatus. Implementation in periodontics include: -As a mode of tissue engineering with three approaches: cell, protein-based and gene delivery approach. -Genetic approach to Biofilm Antibiotic Resistance. Future strategies of gene therapy in preventing periodontal diseases: -Enhances host defense...

Mahale Swapna; Dani Nitin; Ansari Shumaila; Kale Triveni

2009-01-01

332

ASSOCIATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN CONCENTRATION AND PERIODONTITIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a complex, multi-factorial, chronic inflammatory disease that involves degradation of periodontal structures, including alveolar bone. Many systemic diseases and disorders have been implicated as risk indicators or risk factors in periodontal disease. Clinical and basic science research over the past several decades have led to an improved understanding and appreciation for the complexity and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. It has been indicated that there might be an inverse relationship between periodontal disease and serum albumin concentration in elderly subjects. The present study adopted serum albumin concentration as a criterion which indicates the general health condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of periodontal disease condition on serum albumin concentration in the adult population. Our study showed a significant inverse association between the loss of attachment and the serum albumin concentration and this association was more pronounced in periodontitis group. The level of serum albumin was comparatively less in periodontitis patients when compared to the healthy controls which were of no much statistical significance. As the loss of attachment increased the serum albumin concentration decreased in the test group. But the cause to effect relationship of periodontal disease and serum albumin concentration is still unknown. This relationship might be explained by two conceivable possibilities, namely the influence of nutritional aspect or chronic disease aspect.

Ramesh Amitha

2012-11-01

333

Evaluation of telomerase expression in chronic periodontitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Human telomerase is a multi subunit ribonucleoprotein enzyme concerned with telomeric lengthening and homeostasis in man. This enzyme has been found to be elevated in inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and silica injury lung. Since chronic periodontitis is also an inflammatory condition where immune cells and cytokines mediate tissue destruction, we set out to evaluate telomerase in gingival tissue samples from healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Materials and Methods : Gingival biopsies were obtained from eight healthy subjects and eight chronic periodontitis patients. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR was carried out to evaluate telomerase gene expression in the samples. Results : None of the healthy gingival tissue samples expressed the telomerase gene while all the chronic periodontitis samples expressed it. The severe chronic periodontitis samples expressed the gene more intensely than the moderate chronic periodontitis samples. Conclusion : Various mechanisms have been explained to account for telomerase elevation in chronic periodontitis .This study helps us understand the role of telomerase in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. It could be concluded that telomerase could be used as a marker to assess the severity of inflammation in chronic periodontitis.

Balaji T

2010-01-01

334

Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1999-06-01

335

A REVIEW ON EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF AN ENAMEL MATRIX DERIVATIVE (EMDOGAIN® FOR PERIODONTAL SURGERY IN THE PRESENCE OF BLOOD  

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Full Text Available Reconstructive periodontal surgery aims at predictably restoring tooth’s supporting structure lost due to perio? dontal disease or trauma. One such modality, which has been demonstrate to promote periodontal regeneration, is an enamel matrix derivative (EMD, consisting of a formu? lation of amelogenin proteins from developing porcine enamel. This review article provides a brief update on the effects of blood interaction, occurring during periodontal surgery, on the effectiveness of EMD adsorption on the root surfaces and its implications for periodontal recon? structive surgery.The clinical use of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD has been successfully proved in periodontal surgery, as promoting regeneration of periodontal tissues including new cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL and alveolar bone [1]. Despite its widespread use, only recently has the effect of blood, occurring during periodontal surgery, been evaluated for contamination of the effectiveness of EMD adsorption onto root surfaces. The aim of this review arti? cle is to provide the clinician a summary of findings from in vitro experiments testing the effects of EMD adsorption onto root surfaces in the presence and absence of blood and its effect on PDL cell behavior [2]. Until recently, the extent to which bleeding occurring during periodontal sur? gery affects the adsorption of EMD onto root surfaces could not be established.In summary, the teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were subject to ex vivo scaling and root planing and expo? sed to 6 clinically relevant scenarios, as illustrated in figure 1. EMD application is usually performed following root surface conditioning with 24% EDTA. Findings from high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM demons? trated that the proteins found in blood (mainly albumin were able to compete with those found in EMD (Figure 2, reducing the effectiveness of EMD thereafter. No apparent effect of conditioning the surface with 24% EDTA was observed.Clinically ,theeffectofEDT Arootconditioning on the healing of intrabone defects treated with an enamel matrix protein derivative has been tested, however no sta? tistical clinical differences were observed between open flat debridement (OFD, followed by root surface conditioning with EDTA, and application of EMD versus that of OFD + EMD alone [3,4].

Oana M. CALUSERU

2013-06-01

336

Metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease  

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Full Text Available It is important for a dentist to be well informed and updated on the latest research on the association of oral and systemic health. Of late, the metabolic syndrome has gained importance in dental literature, and metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease have been linked. Metabolic syndrome (MeS is a group of three or more (up to five interrelated metabolic abnormalities, which increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Also, both MeS and periodontal disease may be linked through a common pathophysiological pathway. Some studies have been conducted to show such an association and additional studies are required to establish this association. A dental surgeon can play a major role in evaluating patients with MeS and thus prevent the development of overt cardiovascular disease.

Bharti Vipin

2009-01-01

337

Compliance improvement in periodontal maintenance  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the infuence of efforts applied to modify the patients' behavior towards periodontal maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were classifed into three groups: Complete Compliance (participation in all visits, Irregular Compliance (irregular participation, one or more missing appointments, and Noncompliance (abandoned or never returned to the program. Complete compliers received usual procedures of the maintenance visit. The irregular compliers and non-compliers received usual procedures and strategies such as reminding next visit, informing patients on both periodontal disease and importance of maintenance, motivating the patient who showed an improvement in compliance. Thus, 137 patients were observed for 12 months. RESULTS: The degree of compliance has increased signifcantly during this period (p=0.001. No association was detected between age or gender and compliance degree. CONCLUSIONS: The results have shown that the intervention applied had a favorable infuence on the patients' compliance.

Verônica Franco de Carvalho

2010-06-01

338

Pulp Stones and Dental Pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case is reported of a 42 year-old female who presented with the painful upper left first molar. Comprehensive clinical examination did not reveal the cause of the pain which got progressively worse. The tooth was extracted on the insistence of the patient. Microscopic examination of multiple sections of the decalcified tooth showed a large freestone which occupied most of the pulp chamber and was closely related to a nerve bundle. The finding tended to support the view that pulp stones in an apparently healthy tooth may cause toothache. (author)

1989-01-01

339

REINFORCEMENT POTENTIAL OF BLEACHED SAWDUST KRAFT PULP IN DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PULP FURNISHES  

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Full Text Available Bleached unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulps were added to bleached Norway spruce thermomechanical (TMP and pressurised groundwood (PWG pulps in different proportions. Handsheets were prepared and tested for physical properties. In addition, economic calculations were done to estimate the production costs of different bleached pulps in Finland. It was found that the addition of unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulp improved drainability of the mechanical pulps. Tear strength of PGW furnishes was increased when either unrefined or refined sawdust pulp was added. Tear strength of TMP furnishes was not influenced when different sawdust kraft pulps were added. Up to 30 % of unrefined sawdust kraft pulp could be added and no significant negative effect was observed in TMP and PGW furnishes. On the other hand, when refined sawdust kraft pulp was added into the mechanical pulp furnishes, a clear improvement in the tensile strength was observed. According to the economic calculation the production cost of bleached sawdust kraft pulp is almost as low as the production cost of bleached mechanical pulp. We suggest that economically viable sawdust kraft pulp can be used as a substituent for expensive long fibre reinforcement kraft pulp in the production of mechanical pulp based papers.

Risto I. Korpinen

2009-11-01

340

Agrupaciones familiares en periodontitis crónica  

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Full Text Available Fundamento: la periodontitis crónica es una enfermedad infecciosa asociada a microorganismos Gram-negativos anaerobios. Estos microorganismos inician una serie de eventos que conducen a la pérdida de inserción periodontal y alveolar alrededor del diente. Objetivo: presentar algunos patrones clínicos, radiográficos y microbiológicos comunes a cinco hermanos, dos esposos, y padre e hijo, con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica avanzada generalizada. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, donde se evaluaron cinco hermanos (grupo familiar 1, dos parejas (grupo familiar 2, y padre e hijo (grupo familiar 3. Los pacientes evaluados asistieron a las clínicas odontológicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín Colombia, en busca de atención periodontal. A cada paciente se le realizó una historia clínica completa, además de un examen clínico, radiográfico y microbiológico. Resultados: todos los pacientes presentaron altos porcentajes de placa bacteriana y sangrado al sondaje, además de un gran número de bolsas periodontales con profundidades >;= 5mm y pérdida de niveles de inserción >;= a 2mm. A partir de las radigrafías, se observó pérdida ósea horizontal en la mayoría de pacientes y defectos óseos angulados en algunos de ellos. Los exámenes microbiológicos del grupo familiar 1 presentaron una mayor prevalencia de Fusobacterium nucleatum, seguido por Porphyromona gingivalis, mientras que los grupos dos y tres mostraron una frecuencia elevada de P. gingivalis. Conclusiones: las agrupaciones familiares observadas y los hallazgos de varios estudios, sugieren que la transmisión intrafamiliar de periodontopatógenos es un factor importante a tener en cuenta en la organización de las bacterias en la biopelícula.

Carlos Martu00EDn Ardila Medina

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Diagnóstico educativo y capacitación periodontal  

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Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación en individuos de ambos sexos, mayores de 14 años de edad y pertenecientes al área de salud que atiende la Facultad de Estomatología del ISCM-H, con el objetivo de evaluar un método de diagnóstico y capacitación en salud periodontal. La muestra fue seleccionada al azar y se dividió en 2 grupos (estudio y control. A cada uno de los individuos escogidos se les realizó una encuesta inicial para determinar conocimientos relativos a la enfermedad periodontal (diagnóstico educativo, y se determinó que eran semejantes, pues no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambas. El grupo de estudio se sometió al método educativo propuesto y los resultados de conocimientos obtenidos después de este mostraron diferencias significativas en relación con el diagnóstico educativo. Ambos grupos, que a su inicio eran semejantes, volvieron a encuestarse al año, y se observó que el grupo de estudio seguía manteniendo mejores resultados.A research was made in individuals over 14 of both sexes from the health area receiving attention at the Dental Faculty of the Higher Institute of Medical Sciences of Havana City aimed at evaluating a method of diagnosis and upgrading in periodontal health. The sample was selected at random and it was divided into 2 groups (study and control. An inititial survey was done to every selected individual to determine his knowledge of periodontal disease (diagnostic-educative and it was found that they were similar, since no statistically significant differences were observed between them. The study group was applied the proposed educative method and the results obtained showed marked differences in relation to the educative diagnosis. Both groups that were similar at the beginning were surveyed again a year later and the study group still had better results.

Odalys V Campaña Proenza

2002-12-01

342

Compliance improvement in periodontal maintenance  

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OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the infuence of efforts applied to modify the patients' behavior towards periodontal maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were classifed into three groups: Complete Compliance (participation in all visits), Irregular Compliance (irregular participation, one or more missing appointments), and Noncompliance (abandoned or never returned to the program). Complete compliers received usual procedures of the maintenance visit. The irregular comp...

2010-01-01

343

Determination of periodontal disease activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The determination of disease activity has a direct impact on therapeutic measures in periodontics. Evaluations that may indicate disease activity have been reviewed under the topics of traditional evaluations, gingival crevicular fluid contents, tissue changes, circulating factors, and sulcular microbiota. The traditional methods, such as probing, radiographs, and clinical indices, were static evaluations that had limited validity in determining disease activity. When used in longitudinal tests, these methods may be used retrospectively to detect disease activity. Evaluation of the contents of gingival crevicular fluid has promise as a noninvasive method of determining tissue changes in the periodontium. To date, none of the crevicular fluid constituents has been a reliable indicator of disease activity. Tissue changes in the periodontium are important in understanding the disease processes but have had limited value as indicators of disease activity. The ability to determine disease activity through identification of substances or changes in the systemic circulation would prove quite useful to the clinician. Although some reports found lymphocyte transformation indicative of active disease, others had conflicting results. Finally, examinations of sulcular microbiota provided evidence suggesting that active periodontal disease was associated with specific groups of pathogens and with elevated counts of motile organisms. The evaluation of such pathogens and motile organisms currently shows the most promise for determining periodontal disease activity. However, long-term assessments and further clinical trials are necessary before this type of evaluation can be widely accepted. It is hoped that such studies will enable the clinician to predict the natural history of active and inactive periodontal disease. PMID:7026755

Hancock, E B

1981-09-01

344

Health Literacy in Periodontal Patients  

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Full Text Available Introduction: health literacy is a fundamental part of the healing promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate periodontal health literacy among patients. Materials and methods: 296 patients attending periodontal clinic who were above 16 years old participated in this study. Gathering data was based on screening questions on a 5-point Likert scale. After completion questionnaire, data was analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Based on the scores of questions, patients were classified as weak, medium and good health literacy. Result: This study showed significant difference in health literacy between age and education groups (P value = 0.015, P value = 0.003, while there was no significant difference between male and female (P value = 0.54. It was also revealed that patients who had been exposed to oral health education had higher health literacy levels ( P value < 0.0001, P value = 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed patients less than 20 years and over 50 years old had poorer heath literacy in relation of periodontal heath, also, patients with higher educational level have higher health literacy.

Ahmad Haerian

2013-04-01

345

MR imaging of posttraumatic spinal ligament injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accuracy of MR imaging in the detection of ligamentous injury was evaluated in 29 patients (24 male, five female) with spinal injury resulting in fractures (n=27), evidence of instability (n=11), or neurologic deficit (n=2). MR examinations were performed acutely (average, 7.5 days posttrauma) with T1- and T2-weighted imaging and were blindly evaluated. Subsequently, plain films (n=27), tomograms (n=10), and CT scans (n=22) were evaluated. Eighteen patients underwent surgery. Fourteen patients had torn ligaments as indicated by clinical and surgical findings. MR imaging demonstrated ligament damage in 13. One case imaged 40 days following trauma was not detected. No patients with intact ligaments had evidence of ligamentous damage on MR images. MR imaging demonstrated retropulsed fractures in six patients in whom the posterior longitudinal ligament was intact but displaced from the vertebra. MR imaging was more reliable than radiography and CT for detection of ligamentous injury, and T2- weighted sequences are essential in such cases

1988-12-02

346

Chronic injuries of the cruciate ligaments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high incidence of cruciate ligament injuries as a result of acute knee trauma with hemartrosis and abuse of diagnostic arthroscopies call for a suitable radiological imaging of the central pivot. Computed Arthrotomography (CAT) was used to examine the knee joint in 20 cases of clinically suspected chronic cruciate ligament injury. The images were correlated with arthroscopic and/or arthrotomic findings. Thirteen lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (65%) were found, plus 1 lesion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (5%), 2 associated lesions of ACL + PCL (10%), and 4 normal cases. Confirmation of pathology was available in all cases but one by arthroscopy and/or surgery. The central pivot diseases were classified as follows: absence, detachement, partial or complete tear. CAT findings of cruciate ligament injuries are emphasized and the role of the technique as compared to arthroscopy is discussed. CAT is useful in 3-D evaluation of central pivot and detection of different cruciate ligament injuries, with high sensitivity-specifity for ACL and high specifity-moderate sensitivity for PCL. In the evaluation of the chronic unstable knee, CAT is highly accurate and gives the surgeon useful information towards the planning of therapeutic procedures. CAT is almost non-invasive, well tolerated and easy to perform in out-patients, which make it a first-choice procedure in the screening of chronic ligament injuries

1988-01-01

347

Unilateral aplasia of both cruciate ligaments  

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Full Text Available Abstract Aplasia of both cruciate ligaments is a rare congenital disorder. A 28-year-old male presented with pain and the feeling of instability of his right knee after trauma. The provided MRI and previous arthroscopy reports did not indicate any abnormalities except cruciate ligament tears. He was referred to us for reconstruction of both cruciate ligaments. The patient again underwent arthroscopy which revealed a hypoplasia of the medial trochlea and an extremely narrow intercondylar notch. The tibia revealed a missing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL footprint and a single bump with a complete coverage with articular cartilage. There was no room for an ACL graft. A posterior cruciate ligament could not be identified. The procedure was ended since a ligament reconstruction did not appear reasonable. A significant notch plasty if not a partial resection of the condyles would have been necessary to implant a ligament graft. It is most likely that this would not lead to good knee stability. If the surgeon would have retrieved the contralateral hamstrings at the beginning of the planned ligament reconstruction a significant damage would have occurred to the patient. Even in seemingly clear diagnostic findings the arthroscopic surgeon should take this rare abdnormality into consideration and be familiar with the respective radiological findings. We refer the abnormal finding of only one tibial spine to as the "dromedar-sign" as opposed to the two (medial and a lateral tibial spines in a normal knee. This may be used as a hint for aplasia of the cruciate ligaments.

Liem Dennis

2010-02-01

348

Functional tissue engineering of ligament healing  

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Full Text Available Abstract Ligaments and tendons are dense connective tissues that are important in transmitting forces and facilitate joint articulation in the musculoskeletal system. Their injury frequency is high especially for those that are functional important, like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and medial collateral ligament (MCL of the knee as well as the glenohumeral ligaments and the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder. Because the healing responses are different in these ligaments and tendons after injury, the consequences and treatments are tissue- and site-specific. In this review, we will elaborate on the injuries of the knee ligaments as well as using functional tissue engineering (FTE approaches to improve their healing. Specifically, the ACL of knee has limited capability to heal, and results of non-surgical management of its midsubstance rupture have been poor. Consequently, surgical reconstruction of the ACL is regularly performed to gain knee stability. However, the long-term results are not satisfactory besides the numerous complications accompanied with the surgeries. With the rapid development of FTE, there is a renewed interest in revisiting ACL healing. Approaches such as using growth factors, stem cells and scaffolds have been widely investigated. In this article, the biology of normal and healing ligaments is first reviewed, followed by a discussion on the issues related to the treatment of ACL injuries. Afterwards, current promising FTE methods are presented for the treatment of ligament injuries, including the use of growth factors, gene delivery, and cell therapy with a particular emphasis on the use of ECM bioscaffolds. The challenging areas are listed in the future direction that suggests where collection of energy could be placed in order to restore the injured ligaments and tendons structurally and functionally.

Hsu Shan-Ling

2010-05-01

349

Diabetes y su impacto en el territorio periodontal Diabetes and its impact in periodontal tissues  

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Full Text Available Diabetes y enfermedad periodontal corresponden probablemente al mejor ejemplo de cómo una enfermedad sistémica puede tener un efecto en el territorio periodontal. Si bien esta asociación ha sido extensamente estudiada, muchas de las asociaciones propuestas presentan contradicciones. En la presente revisión de la literatura se analizan los siguientes tópicos relevantes para la práctica clínica en periodoncia e implantología: i Identificación de enfermedad periodontal severa y su capacidad para diagnosticar casos de diabetes; ii Efectos de la diabetes sobre la enfermedad periodontal; iii Efectos de la diabetes sobre la reparación periodontal y periimplantaria; iv Efecto del tratamiento periodontal sobre el control metabólico de la diabetes.Diabetes and periodontal disease correspond to conditions that probably exemplify how a systemic disease may have a strong impact in the periodontium. Although this association has been studied for several years, many of these studies still show contradictory results. The present review analyses the following questions relevant for the clinician in the fields of periodontology: i Value of the diagnosis of severe periodontitis and its capacity to identify previously un-diagnosed cases of diabetes; ii Effects of diabetes on periodontal disease; iii Effects of diabetes on periodontal and peri-implant tissue repair and regeneration and; iv Effect of periodontal therapy on the metabolic control of diabetes.

P Smith

2012-08-01

350

Diabetes y su impacto en el territorio periodontal / Diabetes and its impact in periodontal tissues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Diabetes y enfermedad periodontal corresponden probablemente al mejor ejemplo de cómo una enfermedad sistémica puede tener un efecto en el territorio periodontal. Si bien esta asociación ha sido extensamente estudiada, muchas de las asociaciones propuestas presentan contradicciones. En la presente r [...] evisión de la literatura se analizan los siguientes tópicos relevantes para la práctica clínica en periodoncia e implantología: i) Identificación de enfermedad periodontal severa y su capacidad para diagnosticar casos de diabetes; ii) Efectos de la diabetes sobre la enfermedad periodontal; iii) Efectos de la diabetes sobre la reparación periodontal y periimplantaria; iv) Efecto del tratamiento periodontal sobre el control metabólico de la diabetes. Abstract in english Diabetes and periodontal disease correspond to conditions that probably exemplify how a systemic disease may have a strong impact in the periodontium. Although this association has been studied for several years, many of these studies still show contradictory results. The present review analyses the [...] following questions relevant for the clinician in the fields of periodontology: i) Value of the diagnosis of severe periodontitis and its capacity to identify previously un-diagnosed cases of diabetes; ii) Effects of diabetes on periodontal disease; iii) Effects of diabetes on periodontal and peri-implant tissue repair and regeneration and; iv) Effect of periodontal therapy on the metabolic control of diabetes.

P, Smith; I, Retamal; M, Cáceres; A, Romero; D, Silva; R, Arancibia; C, Martínez.

351

Filifactor alocis - involvement in periodontal biofilms  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Bacteria in periodontal pockets develop complex sessile communities that attach to the tooth surface. These highly dynamic microfloral environments challenge both clinicians and researchers alike. The exploration of structural organisation and bacterial interactions within these biofilms is critically important for a thorough understanding of periodontal disease. In recent years, Filifactor alocis, a fastidious, Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic rod was repeatedly identified in periodontal lesions using DNA-based methods. It has been suggested to be a marker for periodontal deterioration. The present study investigated the epidemiology of F. alocis in periodontal pockets and analysed the spatial arrangement and architectural role of the organism in in vivo grown subgingival biofilms. Results A species-specific oligonucleotide probe, FIAL, was designed and evaluated. A total of 490 subgingival plaque samples were submitted to PCR and subsequent dot blot hybridization to compare the prevalence of F. alocis in patients suffering from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), chronic periodontitis (CP), and control subjects resistant to periodontitis. Moreover, a specially designed carrier system was used to collect in vivo grown subgingival biofilms from GAP patients. Subsequent topographic analysis was performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. While the majority of patients suffering from GAP or CP harboured F. alocis, it was rarely detected in the control group. In the examined carrier-borne biofilms the organism predominantly colonized apical parts of the pocket in close proximity to the soft tissues and was involved in numerous structures that constitute characteristic architectural features of subgingival periodontal biofilms. Conclusions F. alocis is likely to make a relevant contribution to the pathogenetic structure of biofilms accounting for periodontal inflammation and can be considered an excellent marker organism for periodontal disease.

2010-01-01

352

Filifactor alocis - involvement in periodontal biofilms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in periodontal pockets develop complex sessile communities that attach to the tooth surface. These highly dynamic microfloral environments challenge both clinicians and researchers alike. The exploration of structural organisation and bacterial interactions within these biofilms is critically important for a thorough understanding of periodontal disease. In recent years, Filifactor alocis, a fastidious, Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic rod was repeatedly identified in periodontal lesions using DNA-based methods. It has been suggested to be a marker for periodontal deterioration. The present study investigated the epidemiology of F. alocis in periodontal pockets and analysed the spatial arrangement and architectural role of the organism in in vivo grown subgingival biofilms. Results A species-specific oligonucleotide probe, FIAL, was designed and evaluated. A total of 490 subgingival plaque samples were submitted to PCR and subsequent dot blot hybridization to compare the prevalence of F. alocis in patients suffering from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, chronic periodontitis (CP, and control subjects resistant to periodontitis. Moreover, a specially designed carrier system was used to collect in vivo grown subgingival biofilms from GAP patients. Subsequent topographic analysis was performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. While the majority of patients suffering from GAP or CP harboured F. alocis, it was rarely detected in the control group. In the examined carrier-borne biofilms the organism predominantly colonized apical parts of the pocket in close proximity to the soft tissues and was involved in numerous structures that constitute characteristic architectural features of subgingival periodontal biofilms. Conclusions F. alocis is likely to make a relevant contribution to the pathogenetic structure of biofilms accounting for periodontal inflammation and can be considered an excellent marker organism for periodontal disease.

Göbel Ulf B

2010-03-01

353

Four-strand hamstring tendon autograft versus LARS artificial ligament for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

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This retrospective study compared the results after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a four-strand hamstring tendon graft (4SHG) versus Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) artificial ligament in 60 patients between January 2003 and July 2004 with a minimum four-year follow-up. The KT-1000 examination, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring systems and Lysholm knee scoring scale were used to evaluate the clinical results. The mean side-to-s...

Liu, Zhong-tang; Zhang, Xian-long; Jiang, Yao; Zeng, Bing-fang

2010-01-01

354

Lateral thrust of anterior cruciate ligament-insufficient knees and posterior cruciate ligament-insufficient knees  

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Leaving anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) insufficiency untreated frequently leads to osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamically the lateral thrust of ACL-insufficient knees and PCL-insufficient knees, and from the findings investigate the relationship between cruciate ligament insufficiency and OA occurrence. An acceleration sensor was attached to the affected and control anterior tibial tubercles, acting in m...

Yoshimura, Ichiro; Naito, Masatoshi; Zhang, Jingfan

2002-01-01

355

Concordancia entre nivel de inserción clínico y examen radiográfico para diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica / Concordance between Clinical Attachment Level and Radiographic Examination for Diagnosis of Chronic Periodontitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la concordancia y relación entre el nivel de inserción clínico periodontal y el examen radiográfico en pacientes con periodontitis crónica. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal en 135 participantes mayores de 16 años, seleccionados de forma aleatoria, con diagnóstico de periodo [...] ntitis crónica. De los cuales se obtuvieron 352 radiografías periapicales en 1292 sitios interproximales. Se midieron las alturas de las crestas alveolares con una regla milimetrada. Además se examinaron el tipo de defecto, la continuidad de la lámina dura y el ensanchamiento del espacio del ligamento periodontal. Los datos fueron analizados a través de medidas de tendencia central y dispersión. Para cuantificar la concordancia se utilizó la prueba Kappa y para las relaciones se utilizaron las razones de odds con intervalos de confianza del 95%, además para establecer significancia se utilizó la prueba ?² asumiendo un límite de decisión de 0,05. Resultados: Se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre los niveles de inserción 4, 5 y 6 mm y la pérdida ósea radiográfica. Para las demás relaciones no hubo significancia estadística. Con respecto al tipo de defecto, el horizontal fue el más común con un 23% de los sitios examinados. Conclusión: Para el diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica no es suficiente con la valoración del examen radiográfico, porque en niveles de inserción 1, 2 y 3 mm no se presenta pérdida ósea visible. Es evidente que al utilizar solamente este método diagnóstico se aumentaría los falsos negativos, subregistrándose la enfermedad. Abstract in english Objective: Determine the concordance and relationship between periodontal clinical attachment level and radiographic examination in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 135 participants over 16 years, randomly selected, diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Of which [...] 352 were obtained in 1292 periapical interproximal sites. It was measured the height of the ridge with a millimeter ruler. Furthermore, were examined the type of defect, the continuity of the lamina dura and widening of the periodontal ligament space. The data were analyzed using measures of central tendency and dispersion. To quantify the correlation test was used for Kappa and relationships were used odds ratios with confidence intervals of 95%, and was used to establish significance Chi-square test assuming a decision limit of 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant relationship between attachment levels 4, 5 and 6 mm and radiographic bone loss. For the other relationships were not statistically significant. Regarding the type of defect, the horizontal pattern loss was the most common with 23% of the sites examined. Conclusion: For the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis is not enough with the assessment of radiographic examination, because attachment levels 1, 2 and 3 mm bone loss occurs not visible. It is clear that using only this method of diagnosis would increase the false negative underreported disease.

A.J., Díaz Caballero; F.D., González Martínez; L.L., Arévalo Tovar.

356

Anti-Nanobacterial Therapy for Prevention and Control of Periodontal Diseases  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria have been implicated in the formation of pathogenic calcifications e.g. kidney stones, arterial plaque, calcified cardiac valves, dental pulp stone, etc. It has been hypothesized that nanobacteria may be present in dental calculus which has a similar mineralization formation process and that nanobacteria may play an efficient role in the calcification of dental calculus. Recently nanobacteria were found in gingival crevicular fluid samples from two subjects with chronic periodontitis.The hypothesis: An anti-nanobacterial mouthwash or tooth paste containing bisphosphonates specifically etidronate and clodronate (1 mg/ml, gallium nitrate 14% (3.4% w/w gallium at 99.995% purity and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1% with neutral pH (7.0 will may be effective for prevention of calculus formation and consequently prevention of periodontal diseases. Despite of excellent anti-nanobacterial activity of tetracycline, it is removed from the formulation. It has a wide spectrum of anti-bactericidal activity and may affect normal oral flora and cause supra-infection. Evaluation of the hypothesis: We should consider a balance between negative effect of nanobacteria regarding formation of calculus and periodontal diseases and positive role of nanobacteria in enamel repair and prevention of dental caries and its positive role in enamel repair and prevention of dental caries.

Jafar Kolahi

2010-03-01

357

Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament mistaken for ligamentous tears  

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Objective. To describe the MR features of mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in a series of patients with MRI findings that were mistaken for tears in the majority of cases but who were found to have an intact ligament at arthroscopy. We will suggest a pathologic entity corresponding to this finding and describe some characteristic features that can be used to identify this entity on MRI.Design. A retrospective analysis of 10 MRI examinations of the knee was performed after arthroscopic evaluation. Prearthrosco